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1

The Apollo Missions and the Chemistry of the Moon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the principle chemical features of the moon obtained by analyzing lunar samples gathered on the Apollo missions. Outlines the general physical features of the moon and presents theories on its origin. (GS)

Pacer, Richard A.; Ehmann, William D.

1975-01-01

2

The Moon: What Have the Apollo Missions Taught Us? Part II: The View from Apollo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes scientific findings resulting from the Apollo missions, including lunar rocks and soil, age determination, and the moon's interior, evolution, and origin. Indicates experiments for future lunar research. (SK)

McKeever, S. W. S.

1980-01-01

3

APOLLO 15 Mission Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A detailed discussion is presented of the Apollo 15 mission, which conducted exploration of the moon over longer periods, greater ranges, and with more instruments of scientific data acquisition than previous missions. The topics include trajectory, lunar...

1971-01-01

4

Apollo Manned Missions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, produced by the Kennedy Space Center, presents the complete history of the Apollo Program, a series of missions which ultimately resulted in manned landings on the Moon. It features sections on mission goals, spacecraft, and summaries of both manned and unmanned missions. Mission summaries describe each flight crew, the conduct of each flight and landing, and accounts of experiments that were conducted and samples taken.

5

Apollo: Expeditions to the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an electronic version of an historical NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) publication, written by members of the Apollo program, containing information about the history and accomplishments of NASA's Apollo space program. Beginning with pre-space years and the first man in flight from the USSR, this publication looks into the beginnings of the Apollo space program and the space race between the United States and USSR in the 1950s and 60s. The generation and goals of the Apollo program are covered, as well as the programs that made Apollo possible (Gemini, Mercury, the Saturn V Booster). Details about the development of the spacecraft cover the Lunar Module concept, the beginnings of mission control, selecting astronauts for the Apollo program, problems that occurred, and the historic landing of Apollo 11. Also covered is the Apollo 13 crisis, the contributions Apollo discoveries made to our understanding of the Moon and Solar System, and the legacy of the Apollo program. There is a timeline of key events for Apollo as well as a mission profile highlighting the objectives and goals for the missions.

1975-07-30

6

Apollo 8 Mission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This webpage, from the Lunar and Planetary Institute, describes the Apollo 8 mission, including the mission plan, an overview, and mission photography. It was during Apollo 8 that the famous "Earthrise" image was captured. Links are provided for further information.

2008-07-29

7

NASA-Apollo Missions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website describes all the Apollo missions, including the goals, the spacecraft equipment, the events of the mission, and the outcomes. This website also includes links to information about unmanned Apollo test missions and other information.

Dunbar, Brian

2013-08-23

8

Apollo to the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Apollo to the Moon is a display at the National Air & Space Museum of the Smithsonian, dedicated to telling the history of human exploration of the moon by the United States. The Web site places the history of space travel within the context of the political environment, including the Cold War. The Space Race with Russia and the beginning of NASA are also discussed in detail, along with the rationale behind Kennedy's decision to pursue human space exploration. Finally, the Web site discusses the information learned from expeditions to the moon and the changing goals for space exploration.

9

How Apollo Flew to the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eos readers who were even young children in the summer of 1969 probably will remember the first Moon landing vividly. If, like myself, they went on to develop a lifelong interest in manned spaceflight, they will have read many accounts in the intervening years, as diverse as Norman Mailer's, Andrew Chaikin's, and the first-person reminiscences of NASA astronaut Michael Collins. The prospect of another book about the Moon landing at first may seem uninspiring, and I confess this was my original reaction to the prospect of reading this book. Additionally, in the intervening 40 years since Apollo 11, there have been some superb films including For All Mankind (1989) and In the Shadow of the Moon (2006). The Internet has brought new possibilities for space documentation. The best known Web site on the Apollo missions is the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal, which now is hosted by NASA at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/. The Web site includes commentary from all of the surviving Moon walkers. Scottish space enthusiast W. David Woods created the companion Apollo Flight Journal, found at http://history.nasa.gov/afj//, which focuses on how the missions actually got to the Moon and back. Now Woods has distilled the information into the book How Apollo Flew to the Moon.

Watkins, Nick

2009-10-01

10

Correction to “Apollo 11 Mission Commemorated”  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the 28 July 2009 issue of Eos (90(30), 258), a date was incorrect in the news item entitled “Apollo 11 Mission Commemorated.” NASA astronaut Eugene Cernan was referring to the 1970s, not the 1960s, in talking about his expectation of when humans would be back on the Moon. Eos regrets this error.

Showstack, Randy

2009-08-01

11

Where No Man Has Gone Before: A History of Apollo Lunar Exploration Missions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an electronic version of an historical NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) publication about the United States Apollo lunar missions. This report discusses the beginning of the Apollo program from the organization of space exploration, the decision to begin Apollo, the progress and planning of the missions, Moon landing site selections, crew selections, the accomplishments of each mission (Apollo 1-17) and issues that arose during the Apollo missions.

Compton, William

1989-01-01

12

On the Moon with Apollo 15, A Guidebook to Hadley Rille and the Apennine Mountains.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet, published before the Apollo 15 mission, gives a timeline for the mission; describes and illustrates the physiography of the landing site; and describes and illustrates each lunar surface scientific experiment. Separate timelines are included for all traverses (the traverses are the Moon walks and, for Apollo 15, the Moon rides in the…

Simmons, Gene

13

Working on the moon: The Apollo experience  

SciTech Connect

The successful completion of any scientific or engineering project on the Moon will depend, in part, on human ability to do useful work under lunar conditions. In making informed decisions about such things as the use of humans rather than robots for specific tasks, the scheduling of valuable human time, and the design and selection of equipment and tools, good use can be made of the existing experience base. During the six completed landing missions, Apollo lunar surface crews conducted 160 astronaut-hours of extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) and also spent a similar sum of waking hours working in the cramped confines of the Lunar Module. The first three missions were primarily proof-tests of flight hardware and procedures. The ability to land equipment and consumables was very modest but, despite stay times of no more than 32 hours, the crews of Apollos 11, 12, and 14 were able to test their mobility and their capability of doing useful work outside the spacecraft. For the last three missions, thanks to LM modifications which enabled landings with significant amounts of cargo, stay times more than doubled to three days. The crews were able to use Lunar Rovers to conduct extensive local exploration and to travel up to 10 kilometers away from their immediate landing sites. During these final missions, the astronauts spent enough time doing work of sufficient complexity that their experience should be of use in the formulation early-stage lunar base operating plans. 2 refs.

Jones, E.M.

1989-01-01

14

Bonus: Apollo's Amazing Mission and Spin-Offs from Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two posters examine the 1969 Apollo moon mission. The first tracks the stages and path of the mission, suggesting that students create their own diagrams or models. The second presents a puzzle that helps student understand how many items developed for the mission are useful to today's everyday life. (SM)

Learning, 1994

1994-01-01

15

Apollo Soyuz, Mission Evaluation Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Apollo Soyuz mission was the first manned space flight to be conducted jointly by two nations - the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The primary purpose of the mission was to test systems for rendezvous and docking of manned ...

1975-01-01

16

Apollo Program Flight Summary Report: Apollo Missions as-201 Through APOLLO 16, Revision 11.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary of the Apollo flights from AS-201 through Apollo 16 is presented. The following subjects are discussed for each flight: (1) mission primary objectives, (2) principle objectives of the launch vehicle and spacecraft, (3) secondary objectives of th...

J. K. Holcomb

1972-01-01

17

The Moon 35 years after Apollo: What's left to learn?  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the cancellation of the Apollo program after Apollo 17 returned from the Moon in 1972, the focus of NASA switched to other areas of the Solar System. Study of the Moon did continue through analysis of the returned samples and remotely sensed data sets (both orbital and surface), as well as through Earth-based telescopic studies. In the 1990s, new

Clive R. Neal

2009-01-01

18

The voyages of Apollo: The exploration of the moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scientific background of the exploration of the moon conducted in connection with the Apollo project is examined, giving attention to models of the moon and the general significance of lunar investigations for the study of the solar system. Space programs preceding the Apollo project and helping to prepare the technological and navigational basis for it are examined, taking into

R. S. Lewis

1974-01-01

19

USGS studies Apollo 15 moon rocks and samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laboratories of the U.S. Geological Survey are now studying moon rock and soil samples from Apollo 15 in what is described as the most thorough and exhaustible analysis of the samples to be undertaken by the federal government. The studies are part of a large program conducted by the USGS on behalf of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations Apollo

Anonymous

1971-01-01

20

MoonNEXT: A European Mission to the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MoonNEXT is a mission currently being studied, under the direction of the European Space Agency, whose launch is foreseen between 2015 and 2018. MoonNEXT is intended to prepare the way for future exploration activities on the Moon, while addressing key science questions. Exploration Objectives The primary goal for the MoonNEXT mission is to demonstrate autonomous soft precision landing with hazard avoidance; a key capability for future exploration missions. The nominal landing site is at the South Pole of the Moon, at the edge of the Aitken basin and in the region of Shackleton crater, which has been identified as an optimal location for a future human outpost by the NASA lunar architecture team [1]. This landing site selection ensures a valuable contribution by MoonNEXT to the Global Exploration Strategy [2]. MoonNEXT will also prepare for future lunar exploration activities by characterising the environment at the lunar surface. The potentially hazardous radiation environment will me monitored while a dedicated instrument package will investigate the levitation and mobility of lunar dust. Experience on Apollo demonstrated the potentially hazardous effects of dust for surface operations and human activities and so an understanding of these processes is important for the future. Life sciences investigations will be carried out into the effects of the lunar environment (including radiation, gravity and illumination conditions) on a man made ecosystem analogous to future life support systems. In doing so MoonNEXT will demonstrate the first extraterrestrial man made ecosystem and develop valuable expertise for future missions. Geological and geochemical investigations will explore the possibilities for In Situ Resource Utilisation (ISRU), which will be essential for long term human habitation on the Moon and is of particular importance at the proposed landing site, given its potential as a future habitat location. Science Objectives In addition to providing extensive preparation and technology demonstration for future exploration activities MoonNEXT will advance our understanding of the origin, structure and evolution of the Moon. These advances in understanding will come about through a range of geophysical and geochemical investigations. MoonNEXT will also assess the value of the lunar surface as a future site for performing science from the Moon, using radio astronomy as an example. The scientific objectives are: • To study the geophysics of the Moon, in particular the origin, differentiation, internal structure and early geological evolution of the Moon. • To obtain in-situ geochemical data from, within the Aitken Basin, where material from the lower crust and possibly the upper mantle may be found. • To investigate the nature of volatiles implanted into the lunar regolith at the South Pole and identify their species. • To study the environment at the lunar South pole, in particular to measure the radiation environment, the dust flux due to impact ejecta and micrometeoroids, and a possibly the magnetic field. • To study the effect of the lunar environment on biological systems. • To further our understanding of the ULF/VLF background radiation of the universe. • Investigate the electromagnetic environment of the moon at radio wavelengths with the potential to perform astronomical radio observations. Various mission scenarios are currently under study, incorporating options for a lander-only configuration or a lander with the possible addition of a rover. The working experimental payload includes cameras, broad band and short period seismometers, a radiation monitor, instruments to measure dust transport and micrometeoroid fluxes, instruments to provide elemental and mineralogical analyses of surface rocks, a mole for subsurface heat flow and regolith properties measurements, a radio antenna and a package containing a self sustaining biological system to observe the effects of the lunar environment. The addition of a rover, if shown to be feasible, would provide mobility for geochemical measurements, which

Carpenter, J. D.; Koschny, D.; Crawford, I.; Falcke, H.; Kempf, S.; Lognonne, P.; Ricci, C.; Houdou, B.; Pradier, A.

2008-09-01

21

NASA's Lunar Polar Ice Prospector, RESOLVE: Mission Rehearsal in Apollo Valley.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

After the completion of the Apollo Program, space agencies didn't visit the moon for many years. But then in the 90's, the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions returned and showed evidence of water ice at the poles. Then in 2009 the Lunar Crater Obser...

A. Colaprete G. B. Sanders J. Quinn M. Picard R. C. Elphic W. E. Larson

2012-01-01

22

Moon Exploration from "apollo" Magnetic and Gravity Field Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently, the great value is given to various researches of the Moon, as nearest nature satellite of the Earth, because there is preparation for forthcoming starts on the Moon of the American, European, Russian, Chinese, Indian new Orbiters and Landers. Designing of International Lu-nar bases is planned also. Therefore, in the near future the series of the questions connected with placing of International Lunar bases which coordinates substantially should to be connected with heterogeneity of the internal structure of the Moon can become especially interesting. If in the Moon it will be possible to find large congestions of water ice and those chemical elements which stocks in the Earth are limited this area of the Moon can become perspective for Inter-national Lunar bases. To solve a question of research of the deep structure of the Moon in the locations of International Lunar bases, competently, without excessive expenses for start new various under the form of the Lunar orbit of automatic space vehicles (polar, equatorial, inclined to the rotation axis) and their altitude of flight, which also not always were connected with investigation programs of measured fields (video observation, radio-frequency sounding, mag-netic, gravity), is possible if already from the available information of space vehicles APOLLO, SMART1, KAGUYA, LCROSS, LRO, CHANDRAYAAN-1, CHANG'E-1 it will be possible to analyse simultaneously some various fields, at different altitudes of measuring over the surface (20-300 km) of the Moon. The experimental data of the radial component magnetic field and gravity field the Moon measured at different altitudes, in its equatorial part have been analysed for the research of the deep structure of the Moon. This data has been received as a result of start of space vehicles -APOLLO-15 and APOLLO-16 (USA), and also the Russian space vehicles "LUNOHOD". Authors had been used the data of a magnetic field of the Moon at flight altitude 160, 100, 75, 30, 0 km. All orbits of APOLLO-15 space vehicle at flight altitude from 160 to 75 km have been executed near to Moon equator, in the latitude direction round the Moon, in a strip in width about 250 km, in the range from 15 degrees of the northern latitude to 15 degrees of the southern latitude. For calculations of deep parameters according to the Moon magnetic field as much as possible high flight altitude (h=160 km), average flight altitude (h=100 km), the minimum flight altitude (h=75 km) APOLLO-15 space vehicle have been used. The data about the Moon magnetic field at 30 km flight altitude has been pre-sented by one pass APOLLO-16. The depths of several magnetic and density borders into the Moon which allow to make some assumptions of possible structure of rocks of the Moon were defined. The activity is executed at support of Russian Foundation of Basic Researh, grant 10-05-00343-a.

Kharitonov, Andrey

23

Optical, properties of Apollo 11 moon samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lunar powder samples returned by Apollo 11 are remarkably similar in their optical properties to those measured for an area of several square kilometers surrounding Tran- quillity base, suggesting a ubiquitous covering of the same material in the region. However, there are minor exceptions to the close match: the powder sample shows large polarizations and a larger opposition effect than

B. O'Leary; Frank Briggs

1970-01-01

24

Pristine moon rocks - Apollo 17 anorthosites  

Microsoft Academic Search

New chemical analyses and petrographic descriptions for 10 previously unanalyzed Apollo 17 rock samples are provided. Attention is focused on several that appear to be pristine. All samples were analyzed in INAA using a procedure based on that of Kallemeyn et al. (1989). One sample was found to be unambiguously pristine, and is the first pristine ferroan-anorthositic suite (FAS) sample

P. H. Warren; E. A. Jerde; G. W. Kallemeyn

1991-01-01

25

After Apollo: Fission Origin of the Moon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents current ideas about the fission process of the Moon, including loss of mass. Saturnian rings, center of the Moon, binary stars, and uniformitarianism. Indicates that planetary formation may be best explained as a destructive, rather than a constructive process. (CC)|

O'Keefe, John A.

1973-01-01

26

Exploring the Moon Teacher's Guide: Learning from Apollo (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This set of activities seeks to recapture the excitement of discovery, a legacy of the Apollo program. The highlight of this unit is the Lunar Sample Disk, a set of samples of lunar material that is the focus of one of the activities. Other activities focus on the moon's rocks, surface features, and the geologic processes that formed them. Students are then given the opportunity to plan their own lunar missions in the "Lunar Landing Sites" and "Lunar Roving Vehicle" activities. In the final activity of the unit, students present hypotheses that attempt to resolve four anomalies of the Moon.

27

How Apollo Flew to the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eos readers who were even young children in the summer of 1969 probably will remember the first Moon landing vividly. If, like myself, they went on to develop a lifelong interest in manned spaceflight, they will have read many accounts in the intervening years, as diverse as Norman Mailer's, Andrew Chaikin's, and the first-person reminiscences of NASA astronaut Michael Collins.

Nick Watkins

2009-01-01

28

Review of measurements of dust movements on the Moon during Apollo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the first review of 3 Apollo experiments, which made the only direct measurements of dust on the lunar surface: (i) minimalist matchbox-sized 270 g Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) of Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15, produced 30 million Lunar Day measurements 21 July 1969-30 September, 1977; (ii) Thermal Degradation Samples (TDS) of Apollo 14, sprinkled with dust, photographed, taken back to Earth into quarantine and lost; and (iii) the 7.5 kg Lunar Ejecta and Meteoroids (LEAM) experiment of Apollo 17, whose original tapes and plots are lost. LEAM, designed to measure rare impacts of cosmic dust, registered scores of events each lunation most frequently around sunrise and sunset. LEAM data are accepted as caused by heavily-charged particles of lunar dust at speeds of <100 m/s, stimulating theoretical models of transporting lunar dust and adding significant motivation for returning to the Moon. New analyses here show some raw data are sporadic bursts of 1, 2, 3 or more events within time bubbles smaller than 0.6 s, not predicted by theoretical dust models but consistent with noise bits caused by electromagnetic interference (EMI) from switching of large currents in the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP), as occurred in pre-flight LEAM-acceptance tests. On the Moon switching is most common around sunrise and sunset in a dozen heavy-duty heaters essential for operational survival during 350 h of lunar night temperatures of minus 170 °C. Another four otherwise unexplained features of LEAM data are consistent with the "noise bits" hypothesis. Discoveries with DDE and TDS reported in 1970 and 1971, though overlooked, and extensive DDE discoveries in 2009 revealed strengths of adhesive and cohesive forces of lunar dust. Rocket exhaust gases during Lunar Module (LM) ascent caused dust and debris to (i) contaminate instruments 17 m distant (Apollo 11) as expected, and (ii) unexpectedly cleanse Apollo hardware 130 m (Apollo 12) and 180 m (Apollo 14) from LM. TDS photos uniquely document in situ cohesion of dust particles and their adhesion to 12 different test surfaces. This review finds the entire TDS experiment was contaminated, being inside the aura of outgassing from astronaut Alan Shepard's spacesuit, and applies an unprecedented caveat to all TDS discoveries. Published and further analyses of Apollo DDE, TDS and LEAM measurements can provide evidence-based guidance to theoretical analyses and to management and mitigation of major problems from sticky dust, and thus help optimise future lunar and asteroid missions, manned and robotic.

O'Brien, Brian J.

2011-11-01

29

Lower Crustal Materials Exposed in the Apollo Basin Revealed Using Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Moon Mineralogy Mapper data show the interior of the Apollo Basin to contain distinct anorthositic and noritic materials, which might represent unique exposures of lower crustal material that were not excavated by the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA).

N. E. Petro; J. Sunshine; C. Pieters; R. Klima; J. Boardman; S. Besse; J. Head; P. Isaacson; L. Taylor; S. Tompkins

2010-01-01

30

Lunar interior as seen by seismology: from Apollo to future missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

About 40 years ago, the Apollo missions deployed a network of 4 passive seismometers on the Moon, at landing sites 12, 14, 15 and 16. A seismometer was also deployed on Apollo 11 and a gravimeter on Apollo 17 landing sites. Although this network stopped its operation in 1977, the analysis of the data is surprisingly still ongoing and has led to the determination of major radial features in the lunar interior, including the recent discovery of core phases in 2011 by Weber et al and Garcia et all, 2011. We review in this presentation the general results of these seismic analyses, from the subsurface near the landing sites to the core. Special focus is given to the crustal structure, both in term of thickness and lateral variation and to the core structure, in term of radius, core state, temperature and composition. We also discuss the existence of possible discontinuities in the mantle, proposed by some early seismic models but challenged by others and interpreted as the possible limit of an early magma ocean. We finally present the perspectives of future missions, first with the SELENE2 mission, which is expected to deploy a new generation of very broad band seismometer followed by other projects proposed either in Europe or the USA. By using the expected sensitivity of the seismometers considered for these mission, we conclude by presenting the potential challenges, science objectives and discoveries of this future step in the seismic exploration of our satellite.

Lognonne, Philippe; Kobayashi, Naoki; Garcia, Raphael; Weber, Renee; Johnson, Catherine; Gagnepain-Beyneix, Jeannine

2012-07-01

31

Apollo 11 30th Anniversary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On July 20, 1969, humans took their first steps on the moon. The Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum is honoring the 30th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing through this Website. The site is divided into three main sections: Anniversary Events, Exhibitions, and Apollo Online. The latter is a great source for information on the history and significance of the mission. Also through the Apollo Online link, users may send questions to Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin or take an online tour of the landing at Dateline Moon: The Media and the Space Race Website.

32

An ESA precursor mission to human exploration of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coming decades will once again see humans on the surface of the Moon. Unlike the Apollo missions of the 1960s this new lunar exploration will be an international effort, with long duration missions and a goal to pave the way for further human expansion into the solar system. Ensuring the success and sustainability of this exploration poses significant challenges for all involved. ESA is currently preparing its first contribution to this international lunar exploration effort; a lunar lander mission, which will be a precursor to a future, Ariane V launched, ESA cargo and logistics capability to the Moon. The precursor mission will demonstrate soft precision landing with hazard avoidance capabilities, which will be required by a future cargo lander. In addition the mission can be applied as a preparation for future human exploration activities and help to ensure the sustainability of future exploration efforts. Activities have included Phase A and B1 mission design studies and technology development activities (both reported in another paper) and the definition of mission objectives and a model payload. The mission objectives have been derived by the Lunar Exploration Definition Team, a group derived of European specialists in various areas of exploration related science and technology, supported by ESA. Major inputs to the definition process were the 195 responses received to a request for information for potential payload contributions to the mission. The group was tasked with establishing how such a mission could best prepare for future human exploration. It was determined that the mission's goal should be to enable sustainable exploration and objectives were identified within a number of themes: health, habitation, resources, mobility and scientific preparations for future human activities. Investigations seek to characterise the lunar environment (e.g. radiation, dust etc.) and its effects and the properties of a landing site (potential resources, geological context) as relevant to these areas and ensure the maturation of key technologies. In this paper we discuss the objectives for the lunar lander mission and describe the model payload and the approach to selection and implementation of a final payload for the mission.

Carpenter, James; Fisackerly, Richard; Houdou, Berengere; Pradier, Alain; de Rossa, Diego; Vanoutryve, Benjamin; Jojaghaian, Aliac; Espinasse, Sylvie; Gardini, Bruno

2010-05-01

33

An ESA precursor mission to human exploration of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The coming decades will once again see humans on the surface of the Moon. Unlike the Apollo missions of the 1960s this new lunar exploration will be an international effort, with long duration missions and a goal to pave the way for further human expansion into the solar system. Ensuring the success and sustainability of this exploration poses significant challenges for all involved. ESA is currently preparing its first contribution to this international lunar exploration effort; a lunar lander mission, which will be a precursor to a future, Ariane V launched, ESA cargo and logistics capability to the Moon. The precursor mission will demonstrate soft precision landing with hazard avoidance capabilities, which will be required by a future cargo lander. In addition the mission can be applied as a preparation for future human exploration activities and help to ensure the sustainability of future exploration efforts. Activities have included Phase A and B1 mission design studies and technology development activities (both reported in another paper) and the definition of mission objectives and a model payload. The mission objectives have been derived by the Lunar Exploration Definition Team, a group derived of European specialists in various areas of exploration related science and technology, supported by ESA. Major inputs to the definition process were the 195 responses received to a request for information for potential payload contributions to the mission. The group was tasked with establishing how such a mission could best prepare for future human exploration. It was determined that the mission's goal should be to enable sustainable exploration and objectives were identified within a number of themes: health, habitation, resources, mobility and scientific preparations for future human activities. Investigations seek to characterise the lunar environment (e.g. radiation, dust etc.) and its effects and the properties of a landing site (potential resources, geological context) as relevant to these areas and ensure the maturation of key technologies. In this paper we discuss the objectives for the lunar lander mission and describe the model payload and the approach to selection and implementation of a final payload for the mission.

Carpenter, James; Fisackerly, Richard; Houdou, Berengere; Pradier, Alain; de Rossa, Diego; Vanoutryve, Benjamine; Jojaghaian, Aliac; Espinasse, Sylvie; Gardini, Bruno

34

Log of Apollo 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The major events of the first manned moon landing mission, Apollo 11, are presented in chronological order from launch time until arrival of the astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The log is descriptive, non-technical, and includes numerous color photographs of the astronauts on the moon. (PR)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

35

Apollo 15 Lunar Impact Glasses: Geochemistry, Age, and the Earth-Moon Bombardment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar impact glasses from the Apollo 15 landing site provide information about the rate of impacts in the Earth-Moon system. Geochemical and age data, in the context of the landing site and in concert with other lunar data, will be presented.

Zellner, N. E. B.; Norman, M. D.

2012-09-01

36

MoonRise: A US Robotic Sample-Return Mission to Address Solar System Wide Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MoonRise lunar sample-return mission is currently funded to perform a Phase A Concept Study as part of NASA's New Frontiers Program. Exploration of the great (d = 2500 km) South Pole-Aitken basin has been assigned high priority in several NRC reports. MoonRise would be the first US robotic sample-return mission from another planetary surface. Key strengths of the MoonRise mission include: 1. Most importantly, MoonRise will sample the SPA basin's interior on the Moon's southern far side, instead of the same small region near the center of the near side as all previous (Apollo and Luna) sampling missions. Science objectives for the SPA sample-return mission fall into three main categories: (1) testing the impact cataclysm hypothesis, with its profound implications for the evolution of the Solar System and for life on the Earth at 3.9 Ga; (2) constraining basin-scale impact processes; and (3) constraining how the Moon's interior varies laterally on a global scale, and with depth on a scale of many tens of kilometers; and thus how the lunar crust formed and evolved. 2. MoonRise will greatly enhance scientific return by using a sieving mechanism to concentrate small rock fragments. As an example, for rocks ? mm in size (minimum dimension) and a target regolith of approximately average grain-size distribution, the acquisition yield will be improved by a factor of 50. 3. MoonRise will obtain a total of at least one kilogram of lunar material, including 100 g of bulk, unsieved soil for comparison with remote sensing data. 4. MoonRise will exploit data from LRO, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1, and other recent remote-sensing missions, in particular LRO's Narrow Angle Camera (NAC), to ensure a safe landing by avoidance of areas with abundant boulders, potentially hazardous craters, and/or high slopes mapped from high resolution stereo images.

Jolliff, Bradley; Warren, P. H.; Shearer, C. K.; Alkalai, L.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Huertas, A.; MoonRise Team

2010-10-01

37

Preliminary Assessment of the Moon-Next Lunar Lander mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moon NEXT mission studied by ESA through contracts to industry includes a Lunar Lander that deploys several optional payloads close to the Moon's South Pole. These payloads may comprise a Rover and other various experiments directly on the Lander or deposited by the Lander on the lunar surface. Moon-NEXT is an exploration precursor mission. Its payload addresses not only

J. Poncy; F. Cogo; A. Gily; V. Martinot; L. Simonini

2009-01-01

38

Chandrayaan-1 mission to the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chandrayaan-1 is the first Indian planetary exploration mission that will perform remote sensing observation of the Moon to further our understanding about its origin and evolution. Hyper-spectral studies in the 0.4- 3?m region using three different imaging spectrometers, coupled with a low energy X-ray spectrometer, a sub-keV atom analyzer, a 3D terrain mapping camera and a laser ranging instrument will provide data on mineralogical and chemical composition and topography of the lunar surface at high spatial resolution. A low energy gamma ray spectrometer and a miniature imaging radar will investigate volatile transport on lunar surface and possible presence of water ice in the polar region. A radiation dose monitor will provide an estimation of energetic particle flux en route to the Moon as well as in lunar orbit. An impact probe carrying a mass spectrometer will also be a part of the spacecraft. The 1 ton class spacecraft will be launched by using a variant of flight proven indigenous Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-XL). The spacecraft will be finally placed in a 100 km circular polar orbit around the Moon with a planned mission life of two years.

Goswami, Jitendra Nath; Annadurai, Mylswamy

39

Direct active measurements of movements of lunar dust: Rocket exhausts and natural effects contaminating and cleansing Apollo hardware on the Moon in 1969  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust is the Number 1 environmental hazard on the Moon, yet its movements and adhesive properties are little understood. Matchbox-sized, 270-gram Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) measured contrasting effects triggered by rocket exhausts of Lunar Modules (LM) after deployment 17 m and 130 m from Apollo 11 and 12 LMs. Apollo 11 Lunar Seismometer was contaminated, overheated and terminated after 21 days operation. Apollo 12 hardware was splashed with collateral lunar dust during deployment. DDE horizontal solar cell was cleansed of nominally 0.3 mg cm-2 dust by 80% promptly at LM ascent and totally within 7 minutes. A vertical cell facing East was half-cleaned promptly then totally over hundreds of hours. Each cell cooled slightly. For the first time lunar electrostatic adhesive forces on smooth silicon were directly measured by comparison with lunar gravity. Analyses imply this adhesive force weakens as solar angle of incidence decreases. If valid, future lunar astronauts may have greater problems with dust adhesion in the middle half of the day than faced by Apollo missions in early morning. A sunproof shed may provide dust-free working environments on the Moon. Low-cost laboratory tests with DDEs and simulated lunar dust can use DDE benchmark lunar data quickly, optimising theoretical modelling and planning of future lunar expeditions, human and robotic.

O'Brien, Brian

2009-05-01

40

In Situ Biological Contamination Studies of the Moon: Implications for Planetary Protection and Life Detection Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA and ESA have outlined visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic precursor missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moon, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations, including possibly asteroids. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of life. The search for life on objects such as Mars will require careful operations, and that all systems be sufficiently cleaned and sterilized prior to launch to ensure that the scientific integrity of extraterrestrial samples is not jeopardized by terrestrial organic contamination. Under the Committee on Space Research's (COSPAR's) current planetary protection policy for the Moon, no sterilization procedures are required for outbound lunar spacecraft, nor is there a different planetary protection category for human missions, although preliminary COSPAR policy guidelines for human missions to Mars have been developed. Future in situ investigations of a variety of locations on the Moon by highly sensitive instruments designed to search for biologically derived organic compounds would help assess the contamination of the Moon by lunar spacecraft. These studies could also provide valuable "ground truth" data for Mars sample return missions and help define planetary protection requirements for future Mars bound spacecraft carrying life detection experiments. In addition, studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts could provide valuable data to help refine future Mars surface exploration plans for a human mission to Mars.

Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Lupisella, Mark; Williams, David R.; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.

2010-12-01

41

On Eagle's Wings: The Parkes Observatory's Support of the Apollo 11 Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At 12:56 p.m., on Monday 21 July 1969 (AEST), six hundred million people witnessed Neil Armstrong's historic first steps on the Moon through television pictures transmitted to Earth from the lunar module, Eagle. Three tracking stations were receiving the signals simultaneously. They were the CSIRO's Parkes Radio Telescope, the Honeysuckle Creek tracking station near Canberra, and NASA's Goldstone station in California. During the first nine minutes of the broadcast, NASA alternated between the signals being received by the three stations. When they switched to the Parkes pictures, they were of such superior quality that NASA remained with them for the rest of the 2½-hour moonwalk. The television pictures from Parkes were received under extremely trying and dangerous conditions. A violent squall struck the telescope on the day of the historic moonwalk. The telescope was buffeted by strong winds that swayed the support tower and threatened the integrity of the telescope structure. Fortunately, cool heads prevailed and as Aldrin activated the TV camera, the Moon rose into the field-of-view of the Parkes telescope. This report endeavours to explain the circumstances of the Parkes Observatory's support of the Apollo 11 mission, and how it came to be involved in the historic enterprise.

Sarkissian, John M.

42

ESA lunar study: precursor astronomy missions to the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We give a summary of the areas identified by the ESA Lunar Study Steering Group for Scientific Exploration of the Moon in the ESA report ``Mission to the Moon''. We discuss the possible phased approach for different scientific areas and some potential Precursor Astronomy Missions. We give a short status of current related ESA studies.

Foing, B. H.

43

The Japanese Air Pollusion Observation Missions, GMAP-Asia and APOLLO.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are two mission concepts in Japan for air quality observation, GMAP-Asia (Geostationary mission for Meteorology and Air Pollution) from geostationary orbit and APOLLO (Atmospheric pollution observation) from Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of International Space Station (ISS). The mission's purpose is to identify human versus natural sources of ozone and its precursors, aerosols, and intercontinental air pollution transport, and understand the dynamics of coastal ecosystems. The scientific targets are: 1. Understanding of global air quality status. 2. Air pollution and human health. 3. Impact of air pollution on climate change. GMAP-Asia passed the Mission Definition Review in Japanese space agency in December 2009, and continue the investigation of the instrument. Science working groups are developing and prioritizing the requirements for atmospheric composition, and aerosols for for APOLLO mission. In this talk we will summarize the current status of GMAP-Asia and APOLLO mission study activities.

Kasai, Y.; Kita, K.; Kanaya, Y.; Gmap-Asia; Apollo Mission Team

2011-12-01

44

The President's Page: Apollo Belvedere [Guest Editorial  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is five years since the first human beings landed on another planet and then returned to earth. It is almost two years since the last Apollo mission returned to earth from the moon. The excitement of Apollo 11 which reached a large proportion of the population of planet earth is now a quiet, majestic fact in history. The excitement

G. J. Wasserburg

1974-01-01

45

Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an electronic version of an historical NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) publication containing information about the history of manned lunar spacecraft up to the Apollo 11 mission which successfully landed on the Moon. This book goes through the beginning of our National Space Policy including issues such as funding, challenges, and planning of the Apollo missions. There are details about contracting for building spacecraft including the command module and lunar module, astronavigation, proposals, adjustments to dates and machinery, problems with certain aspects of the program, and progress throughout the Apollo missions. There is a summary of each mission up through Apollo 11 with the mission launch date, goals, and accomplishments.

Brooks, Courtney; Grimwood, James; Swenson Jr., Loyd

1979-01-01

46

Lunette: A Dual Lander Mission to the Moon to Explore Early Planetary Differentiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon is critical for understanding fundamental aspects of how terrestrial planets formed and evolved. The Moon’s size means that a record of early planetary differentiation has been preserved. However, data from previous, current and planned missions are (will) not (be) of sufficient fidelity to provide definitive conclusions about its internal state, structure, and composition. Lunette rectifies this situation. Lunette is a solar-powered, 2 identical lander geophysical network mission that operates for at least 4 years on the surface of the Moon. Each Lunette lander carries an identical, powerful geophysical payload consisting of four instruments: 1) An extremely sensitive instrument combining a 3-axis triad of Short Period sensors and a 3-axis set of Long Period sensors, to be placed with its environmental shield on the surface; 2) A pair of self-penetrating “Moles,” each carrying thermal and physical sensors at least 3 m below the surface to measure the heat flow from the lunar interior; 3) Lunar Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector: A high-precision, high-performance corner cube reflector for laser ranging between the Earth and the Moon; and 4) ElectroMagnetic Sounder: A set of directional magnetometers and electrometers that together probe the electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of the interior. The 2 landers are deployed to distinct lunar terranes: the Feldspathic Highlands Terrane (FHT) and the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) on the lunar nearside. They are launched together on a single vehicle, then separate shortly after trans-lunar injection, making their way individually to an LL2 staging point. Each lander descends to the lunar surface at the beginning of consecutive lunar days; the operations team can concentrate on completing lander checkout and instrument deployments well before lunar night descends. Lunette has one primary goal: Understand the early stages of terrestrial planet differentiation. Lunette uses Apollo knowledge of deep moonquake nests and Earth-based nearside impact flash monitoring (IFM) to enable a 2-station mission to address this goal. IFM provides known seismic sources, allowing detailed seismic study of the lunar interior from a 2-station network, representing a major advance since Apollo. The instruments and support systems are designed to operate for much longer than four years and therefore could be integrated into any future international lunar geophysical network. Modeling undertaken demonstrates the feasibility of this approach for seismic data. Using the Apollo seismic record, the sensitivity and broadband nature of the seismometer is shown to be able to address the challenges of seismic scattering, low frequency seismology, detection of core phases (e.g. PKP, ScS), and meteoroid impact characterization to achieve the primary mission goal.

Neal, C. R.; Banerdt, B.; Jones, M.; Elliott, J.; Alkalai, L.; Turyshev, S.; Lognonné, P.; Kobayashi, N.; Grimm, R. E.; Spohn, T.; Weber, R. C.; Lunette Science; Instrument Support Team

2010-12-01

47

Robotics and telepresence for moon missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrated moon program has often been proposed as a logical next step for today's space efforts. In the context of preparing for the possibility of launching a moon program, the European Space Agency is currently conducting an internal study effort which is focusing on the assessment of key technologies. Current thinking has this moon program organized into four phases.

Christian Sallaberger

1994-01-01

48

The origin of the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The opportunity to study the Moon directly with the Apollo space missions has enabled scientists to eliminate several of the various theories of lunar history. Here the author looks at the remaining contenders and their current popularity.

R. L. S. Taylor

1990-01-01

49

NASA's GRAIL Mission Solves Mystery of Moon's Surface Gravity  

NASA Website

NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has uncovered the origin of massive invisible regions that make the moon's gravity uneven, a phenomenon that affects the operations of lunar-orbiting spacecraft.

50

ESA study for the first lander\\/rover mission: A precursor mission to the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ESA initiative for an international Moon Programme proposes a four phase approach to the end goal of establishing a man-tended scientific outpost on the Moon. The first phase of the programme calls for the detailed exploration of the moon to establish its chemical inventory and environment, to pave the way for future phases. The first mission of phase 1

R. J. Laurance

1996-01-01

51

ESA study for the first lander\\/rover mission: a precursor mission to the moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ESA initiative for an international Moon Programme proposes a four phased approach to the end goal of establishing a man-tended scientific outpost on the Moon. The first phase of the programme calls for the detailed exploration of the moon to establish its chemical inventory and environment, to pave the way for future phases. The first mission of phase 1

R. J. Laurance

1996-01-01

52

Robotics and Telepresence for Moon Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

An integrated moon program has often been proposed as a logical next step for today's space efforts. In the context of preparing for the possibility of launching a moon program, the European Space Agency is currently conducting an internal study effort wh...

C. Sallaberger

1994-01-01

53

Exploration of Moon and Mars: Approved and Proposed Indian Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The upcoming Indo-Soviet mission to Moon, an orbiter-lander-rover configuration, will explore in detail the lunar exosphere, lunar surface and lunar sub-surface, using a host of instruments. An Indian mission to Mars is also under active consideration.

Goswami, J. N.

2012-09-01

54

Objectives of a prospective Ukrainian orbiter mission to the moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to lunar orbit. A future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and future missions like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided

Yu. G. Shkuratov; L. M. Lytvynenko; V. M. Shulga; Ya. S. Yatskiv; A. P. Vidmachenko; V. S. Kislyulk

2003-01-01

55

Radiation Effects and Protection for Moon and Mars Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Manned and robotic missions to the Earth's moon and Mars are exposed to a continuous flux of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) and occasional, but intense, fluxes of Solar Energetic Particles (SEP). These natural radiations impose hazards to manned exploration, but also present some constraints to the design of robotic missions. The hazards to interplanetary flight crews and their uncertainties have

Thomas A. Parnell; Tony W. Armstrong

56

APOLLO 12 Mission Report Descent, Propulsion System Final Flight Evaluation (Supplement 5).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The results are presented of the postflight analysis of the Descent propulsion system (DPS) performance during the Apollo 12 Mission. The primary objective of the analysis was to determine the steady-state performance of the DPS during the descent phase o...

R. K. Seto R. L. Barrows

1972-01-01

57

APOLLO 15 Mission Report. Supplement 3 Ascent Propulsion System Final Flight Evaluation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Results from the postflight analysis of the ascent propulsion system (APS) performance during the Apollo 15 mission are presented. The duty cycle for the LM-10 APS consisted of two firings, and ascent stage liftoff from the lunar surface and the terminal ...

W. G. Griffin W. G. Griffin

1972-01-01

58

Apollo 11: The Goddard connection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The history of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's involvement in the Apollo 11 Mission to the Moon is recounted. Goddard maintained the Manned Space Flight Network, composed of ground tracking stations, and tracking stations aboard ships and airplanes, which maintained communications between the orbiter and Earth.

1989-07-01

59

Parting Moon Shots from NASA's GRAIL mission  

NASA Video Gallery

Three days prior to its planned impact on a lunar mountain, mission controllers activated the camera aboard one of NASA’s GRAIL twins to take some final photos from lunar orbit. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech     › GRAIL's mission site

Anthony Greicius

2013-01-10

60

An update on the MoonLite Lunar mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December 2008 the UK BNSC/STFC announced that it would undertake a phase-A study of the proposed 4 penetrator lunar mission, MoonLITE. A status report will be given which includes: a brief science overview; technological assessment (including some results of the first impact trials) and identification of critical areas; organisation and plans for the phase A; longer term plans given a successful phase A; and role of international collaborations. Background: The MoonLITE mission involves implanting 4 penetrators globally spaced at impact speeds of ~300m/s and is aimed for launch in 2014 and operate for 1 year. Each penetrator is designed to come to rest a few metres under the lunar surface to provide a solid emplacement for an effective seismic network and for geochemical and heat flow investigations. Polar emplacement will also allow an exciting ability to characterize the presence of water-ice currently indirectly inferred in the permanently shaded craters. They will also allow investigation of the presence of other volatiles, possibly including organics of astrobiologic interest. MoonLITE can also provide strong support for future human lunar missions including seismic detection of large quakes of surface regions which may dangerous to the construction of lunar habitation or observation facilities; and the possible presence and concentration of water which is important to support future human missions. Potential International Collaboration: The timing of this mission may allow arrangement of coincident impacts of other spacecraft which are at the end of their natural mission lifetime, to provide strong artificial seismic signals to allow probing the deep interior of the Moon. Perhaps no better way to end an otherwise very successful mission ? In addition, the presence of multiple Lunar orbiting spacecraft may allow the possibility of inter-communication between different missions to enhance telemetry rates from the lunar surface and provide mission fault tolerance.

Gowen, R.

2009-04-01

61

Radiation exposure and protection for moon and Mars missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A deep space radiation environment of galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles from solar flares imposes stringent requirements for radiation shielding for both personnel and electronic equipment at a moon base or on a Mars expedition. Current Los Alamos capabilities for calculating the effect of such shielding are described, and extensions and validation needed before actual manned deep space missions

R. E. MacFarlane; R. E. Prael; D. D. Strottman; G. F. Strniste; W. C. Feldman

1991-01-01

62

Robotic technology assessment in support of European moon mission studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated moon programs are frequently being discussed today. In the context of preparing for the possibility of such a program, the European Space Agency is currently conducting an internal study effort which is focusing on the assessment of key technology areas. As any near to mid term European programme will undoubtedly be restrictedto unmanned missions, the area of lunar robotics

C. Sallaberger; D. Kassing

1996-01-01

63

Chandrayaan-1: India's First Mission to the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

India's first lunar mission Chandrayaan-1 was launched on Oct. 22, 2008, using Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-XL), and was inserted into lunar polar orbit on Nov. 8, 2008. The spacecraft was placed in the designated 100 km lunar polar orbit on Nov. 12, 2008, and the Moon Impact Probe (MIP) was released on Nov. 14, to land at a

Anil Bhardwaj

2010-01-01

64

Apollo Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the scientific activities of the Apollo program, including findings from analyses of the returned lunar sample. Descriptions are made concerning the possible origin of the moon and the formation of the lunar surface. (CC)

Biggar, G. M.

1973-01-01

65

The Origin of the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most planetary scientists expected that lunar samples brought to back to Earth by the six Apollo missions would confirm one of three leading hypotheses of the Moon's origin. Instead, the samples left all three explanations unconfirmed, requiring the development of a new hypothesis for how the Moon formed. This video segment shows Apollo 15 astronauts collecting a type of rock (anorthosite) that is thought to represent the original crust of the Moon. This evidence helps explain the origins and relationship between Earth and Moon. The segment is three minutes fifty-seven seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

66

Field Trip to the Moon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article focuses on the geology of a single area of the Moon, the Imbrium Basin, and shows how geologists have combined basic geologic principles with evidence collected by the Apollo missions to learn more about the history of the Moon as a whole. In this article, the author discusses lunar geology teaching tips and mapping the Imbrium Basin…

Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

2004-01-01

67

Field Trip to the Moon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article focuses on the geology of a single area of the Moon, the Imbrium Basin, and shows how geologists have combined basic geologic principles with evidence collected by the Apollo missions to learn more about the history of the Moon as a whole. In this article, the author discusses lunar geology teaching tips and mapping the Imbrium Basin…

Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

2004-01-01

68

THE ORIGIN OF THE MOON  

Microsoft Academic Search

Before the Apollo mission, a theory was constructed for the origin of the moon based on the chemical analysis of tektites as follows: The earth initially rotated in a period of about two hours. It became unstable and divided into two portions, the earth and the proto-moon, one about ten times as massive as the other. The two portions rotated

JOHN A. O'KEEFE

1925-01-01

69

Code-Name: Spider, Flight of Apollo 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Apollo 9, an earth orbiting mission during which the Lunar Module was first tested in space flight in preparation for the eventual moon landing missions, is the subject of this pamphlet. Many color photographs and diagrams of the Lunar Module and flight activities are included with a brief description of the mission. (PR)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

70

Teaching Chemistry Using From the Earth to the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The space program and media based on it have provided fascinating examples that can be used to expore chemical principles. The HBO series From the Earth to the Moon and a documentary Moonshot provide examples for teaching chemical principles from the Apollo missions. A docking problem between two spacecrafts occurred during the Apollo 14 mission. This situation can be used

James G. Goll; Stacie L. Mundinger

2003-01-01

71

The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to improve crew health and performance for future exploration missions and lunar surface operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: Medical requirements for the future crew exploration vehicle (CEV), lunar surface access module (LSAM), advanced extravehicular activity (EVA) suits, and Lunar habitat are currently being developed within the exploration architecture. While much is known about the vehicle and lunar surface activities during Apollo, relatively little is known about whether the hardware, systems, or environment impacted crew health or performance during these missions. Also, inherent to the proposed aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations impacting crew health and/or performance during a lunar mission. The goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with various working groups participating in the exploration effort. Methods: A review of medical operations during Apollo missions 7-17 was conducted. Ten categories of hardware, systems, or crew factors were identified during preliminary data review generating 655 data records which were captured in an Access® database. The preliminary review resulted in 285 questions. The questions were posed to surviving Apollo crewmembers using mail, face-to-face meetings, phone communications, or online interactions. Results: Fourteen of 22 surviving Apollo astronauts (64%) participated in the project. This effort yielded 107 recommendations for future vehicles, habitats, EVA suits, and lunar surface operations. Conclusions: To date, the Apollo Medical Operations recommendations are being incorporated into the exploration mission architecture at various levels and a centralized database has been developed. The Apollo crewmember's input has proved to be an invaluable resource. We will continue soliciting input from this group as we continue to evolve and refine requirements for the future exploration missions.

Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Novak, Joseph D.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Josef; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

72

Video Analysis of an Anomalous Image Filmed during Apollo 16  

Microsoft Academic Search

Video data of NASA Film CL-862 showing a saucer-shaped object moving in an unusual trajectory above the moon is examined. It is alleged by Donald B. Ratsch that footage was taken by John W. Young, who was spacecraft commander during the Apollo 16 mission, as the spacecraft ap- proached the moon. Image analysis is performed to determine if the object

HIROSHI NAKAMURA

73

An update on the MoonLite Lunar mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

In December 2008 the UK BNSC\\/STFC announced that it would undertake a phase-A study of the proposed 4 penetrator lunar mission, MoonLITE. A status report will be given which includes: a brief science overview; technological assessment (including some results of the first impact trials) and identification of critical areas; organisation and plans for the phase A; longer term plans given

R. Gowen

2009-01-01

74

A First Crustal Thickness Map of the Moon with Apollo Seismic Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Former studies of the Apollo seismic data gave a 1D view of the lunar crust: 1 mean thickness value for the Apollo 12 14 area. We show here that seismology (+topography) can assess lateral variations of crustal thickness, and propose a first map.

H. Chenet; P. Lognonné; M. Wieczorek; H. Mizutani

2004-01-01

75

A Simulated Geochemical Rover Mission to the Taurus-Littrow Valley of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We test the effectiveness of using an alpha backscatter, alpha-proton, X ray spectrometer on a remotely operated rover to analyze soils and provide geologically useful information about the Moon during a simulated mission to a hypothetical site resembling the Apollo 17 landing site. On the mission, 100 soil samples are "analyzed" for major elements at moderate analytical precision (e.g., typical relative sample standard deviation from counting statistics: Si[11%], Al[18%], Fe[6%], Mg[20%], Ca[5%]). Simulated compositions of soils are generated by combining compositions of components representing the major lithologies occurring at the site in known proportions. Simulated analyses are generated by degrading the simulated compositions according to the expected analytical precision of the analyzer. Compositions obtained from the simulated analyses are modeled by least squares mass balance as mixtures of the components, and the relative proportions of those components as predicted by the model are compared with the actual proportions used to generate the simulated composition. Boundary conditions of the modeling exercise are that all important lithologic components of the regolith are known and are represented by model components, and that the compositions of these components are well known. The effect of having the capability of determining one incompatible element at moderate precision (25%) is compared with the effect of the lack of this capability. We discuss likely limitations and ambiguities that would be encountered, but conclude that much of our knowledge about the Apollo 17 site (based on the return samples) regarding the distribution and relative abundances of lithologies in the regolith could be obtained. This success requires, however, that at least one incompatible element be determined.

Korotev, Randy L.; Haskin, Larry A.; Jolliff, Bradley L.

1995-07-01

76

NASA: Apollo 11 - 35 Years Later  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, NASA commemorates the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 11 crew's landing on the moon. Using Macromedia Flash Player, the site recreates the mission's journey from the launch on July 16, 1969 to its splashdown on July 24th. Users can view fantastic videos of Neil Armstrong's first step, a tribute to the mission, and NASA's Vision for Space Exploration. Visitors can find links to the mission's audio recordings, news articles, and additional photo and video galleries.

77

Moons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth features websites about the moons of the planets in our solar system. First, NASA presents its proposed mission to orbit Jupiter's three planet-sized moons: Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa (1). Users can view animations of the proposed orbiter and images of the three moons. The site offers an abundance of information on the technology, mission, fast facts, and news. Next, Cornell University provides the Athena scientist, Thomas J. Wdowiak's kid's column _Tommy Test Tubes_ (2). At this website, he educates children about the two moons of Mars by offering entertaining facts and remarkable images. The third site, provided by the educator Hiram Bertoch, offers introductory materials about the moons of Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto (3). Visitors can also find educational materials about asteroids, comets, and planets. Next, the Fourmilab supplies numerous views of the Earth's Moon's lunar formations (4). The website allows users to pan, zoom in and out, and select images based on coordinates, time, and size. The fifth site presents an article by the Discovery Channel about the latest analyses of the geologic landscapes of Saturn's moon, Titan (5). Users can learn about the differences and similarities between Titan's and Earth's atmosphere, environment, and geologic activity. Next, the NinePlanets.org website furnishes information on the distance, radius, mass, and discoverer of Uranus's numerous moons (6). Through an abundance of images and movies, users can learn many interesting facts about Uranus. The seventh site, developed by EOA Scientific Systems, supplies fascinating facts and images of Neptune and its moons (7). Students can learn how and when each of the eight moons was discovered. Lastly, NASA offers a wonderful tutorial on Pluto and its moon, Charon, for elementary school children (8). Students can discover why Pluto is sometimes called a double planet and where its moon may have originated.

78

Field Trip to the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The main features of lunar geology are now fairly well known, perhaps better known than some aspects of terrestrial geology. This is not surprising--the Moon's main internal activity stopped billions of years ago, unlike the Earth's. This article focuses on the geology of a single area of the Moon, the Imbrium Basin, and shows how geologists have combined basic geologic principles with evidence collected by the Apollo missions to learn more about the history of the Moon as a whole.

Jr., Paul D.

2004-04-01

79

Apollo 8's Christmas Eve 1968 Message  

NASA Video Gallery

Apollo 8, the first manned mission to the moon, entered lunar orbit on Christmas Eve, Dec. 24, 1968. That evening, the astronauts--Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot Jim Lovell, and Lunar Module Pilot William Anders--held a live broadcast from lunar orbit, in which they showed pictures of the Earth and moon as seen from their spacecraft. They ended the broadcast with the crew taking turns reading from the book of Genesis.

Jim Wilson

2010-12-21

80

Moon geophysics and Lunar environemental monitoring: Apollo data reprocessing and perspectives with the MoonTwin project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The formation of the Moon is probably results from a large impact between a Mars-sized planet and the Earth. The size of the Moon's core, the thickness of the crust and the structure of the lunar mantle are among the few parameters able to constrain this impact, along with the depth and vigor of the magma ocean that appeared on

P. Lognonné; P. Regnier

2007-01-01

81

Lithological Discrimination of Apollo 17 Landing Site Using Chandrayaan1 Moon Mineralogical Mapper Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apollo 17 landing site lithology discriminated using Chandrayaan M^3 data standard band ratio, spectral profiles, and FeO/ TiO_2 estimation. The results were compared with the previously published data.

Arivazhagan, S.; Anbazhagan, S.

2012-03-01

82

The Apollo Program: Apollo 15  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Smithsonian website hosts a number of webpages on the Apollo missions, whose objective was to map and investigate the lunar surface. There is a webpage for five Earth and lunar orbiter missions and a webpage for each lunar landing mission. Each page has numerous links to images and further information. This website is one of a series from the National Air and Space Museum on NASA's Apollo program.

2012-08-01

83

Explore the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Moon is probably not humankind's final frontier. However, more than 30 years after the completion of the last lunar mission, the Apollo landings still stand out as six of the most ambitious and heroic voyages in exploration history. This interactive feature provides panoramic views of each of the six Apollo landing sites and offers a hint of what astronauts faced on the surface of the Moon. The VR images can be panned horizontally and vertically, and still images are also provided. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

84

Impact landing ends SMART-1 mission to the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SMART-1 scientists, engineers and space operations experts witnessed the final moments of the spacecraft’s life in the night between Saturday 2 and Sunday 3 September at ESA’s European Space Operations Centre (ESOC), in Darmstadt, Germany. The confirmation of the impact reached ESOC at 07:42:22 CEST (05:42:22 UT) when ESA’s New Norcia ground station in Australia suddenly lost radio contact with the spacecraft. SMART-1 ended its journey in the Lake of Excellence, in the point situated at 34.4º South latitude and 46.2º West longitude. The SMART-1 impact took place on the near side of the Moon, in a dark area just near the terminator (the line separating the day side from the night side), at a “grazing” angle of about one degree and a speed of about 2 kilometres per second. The impact time and location was planned to favour observations of the impact event from telescopes on Earth, and was achieved by a series of orbit manoeuvres and corrections performed during the course of summer 2006, the last of which was on 1 September. Professional and amateur ground observers all around the world - from South Africa to the Canary Islands, South America, the continental United States, Hawaii, and many other locations - were watching before and during the small SMART-1 impact, hoping to spot the faint impact flash and to obtain information about the impact dynamics and about the lunar surface excavated by the spacecraft. The quality of the data and images gathered from the ground observatories - a tribute to the end of the SMART-1 mission and a possible additional contribution to lunar science - will be assessed in the days to come. For the last 16 months and until its final orbits, SMART-1 has been studying the Moon, gathering data about the morphology and mineralogical composition of the surface in visible, infrared and X-ray light. “The legacy left by the huge wealth of SMART-1 data, to be analysed in the months and years to come, is a precious contribution to lunar science at a time when the exploration of the Moon is once again getting the world’s interest” said Bernard Foing, ESA SMART-1 Project Scientist. “The measurements by SMART-1 call into question the theories concerning the Moon’s violent origin and evolution,” he added. The Moon may have formed from the impact of a Mars-size asteroid with the Earth 4500 million years ago. “SMART-1 has mapped large and small impact craters, studied the volcanic and tectonic processes that shaped the Moon, unveiled the mysterious poles, and investigated sites for future exploration,” Foing concluded. “ESA’s decision to extend the SMART-1 scientific mission by a further year ( it was initially planned to last only six months around the Moon) allowed the instrument scientists to extensively use a number of innovative observing modes at the Moon,” added Gerhard Schwehm, ESA’s SMART-1 Mission Manager. In addition to plain nadir observations (looking down on the ‘vertical’ line for lunar surveys), they included targeted observations, moon-spot pointing and ‘push-broom’ observations (a technique SMART-1 used to obtain colour images). “This was tough work for the mission planners, but the lunar data archive we are now building is truly impressive.” “SMART-1 has been an enormous success also from a technological point of view,” said Giuseppe Racca, ESA SMART-1 Project Manager. The major goal of the mission was to test an ion engine (solar electric propulsion) in space for the first time for interplanetary travel, and capture a spacecraft into orbit around another celestial body, in combination with gravity assist manoeuvres. SMART-1 also tested future deep-space communication techniques for spacecraft, techniques to achieve autonomous spacecraft navigation, and miniaturised scientific instruments, used for the first time around the Moon. “It is a great satisfaction to see how well the mission achieved its technological objectives, and did great lunar science at the same time,” Racca concluded. “Operating SMART-1 has been an extremely comple

2006-09-01

85

Radiation exposure and protection for moon and Mars missions  

SciTech Connect

A deep space radiation environment of galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles from solar flares imposes stringent requirements for radiation shielding for both personnel and electronic equipment at a moon base or on a Mars expedition. Current Los Alamos capabilities for calculating the effect of such shielding are described, and extensions and validation needed before actual manned deep space missions are launched are outlined. The biological effects of exposure to cosmic-ray ions and to low doses of radiation at low dose rates are poorly understood. Recent Los Alamos work on mutation effects in cells, DNA repair processes, and the analysis of chromosomal aberrations promises to increase our understanding of the basic processes, to provide methods to screen for radiation sensitivity, and to provide advanced dosimetry equipment for space missions.

MacFarlane, R.E.; Prael, R.E.; Strottman, D.D.; Strniste, G.F.; Feldman, W.C.

1991-04-01

86

Exploring the Moon Teacher's Guide: Pre-Apollo Activities (title provided or enhanced by cataloger)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit contains three activities that provide a basic introduction to the Moon: how it looks from Earth, how far away it is, and how big it is. The activities allow students to make comparisons between the Moon and Earth and to make predictions about the Moon rocks. In the first activity students will use simple sports balls as scale models of Earth and the Moon. Given the astronomical distance between Earth and the Moon, students will determine the scale of the model system and the distance that must separate the two models. The purpose of the second activity is to calculate the diameter of the Moon using proportions. The third activity involves making predictions about the origin of lunar rocks by first collecting, describing, and classifying neighborhood rocks.

87

Small satellite survey mission to the second Earth moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an innovative space mission devoted to the survey of the small Earth companion asteroid by means of nano platforms. Also known as the second Earth moon, Cruithne, is the target identified for the mission. Both the trajectory to reach the target and a preliminary spacecraft budget are here detailed. The idea is to exploit high efficient ion thrusters to reduce the propellant mass fraction in such a high total impulse mission (of the order of 1e6 Ns). This approach allows for a 100 kg class spacecraft with a very small Earth escape energy (5 km2/s2) to reach the destination in about 320 days. The 31% propellant mass fraction allows for a payload mass fraction of the order of 8% and this is sufficient to embark on such a small spacecraft a couple of nano-satellites deployed once at the target to carry out a complete survey of the asteroid. Two 2U Cubesats are here considered as representative payload, but also other scientific payloads or different platforms might be considered according with the specific mission needs. The small spacecraft used to transfer these to the target guarantees the manoeuvre capabilities during the interplanetary journey, the protection against radiations along the path and the telecommunication relay functions for the data transmission with Earth stations. The approach outlined in the paper offers reliable solutions to the main issues associated with a deep space nano-satellite mission thus allowing the exploitation of distant targets by means of these tiny spacecraft. The study presents an innovative general strategy for the NEO observation and Cruithne is chosen as test bench. This target, however, mainly for its relevant inclination, requires a relatively large propellant mass fraction that can be reduced if low inclination asteroids are of interest. This might increase the payload mass fraction (e.g. additional Cubesats and/or additional scientific payloads on the main bus) for the same 100 kg class mission.

Pergola, P.

2013-11-01

88

LAPIS - LAnder Package Impacting a Seismometer - A Proposal for a Semi-Hard Lander Mission to the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an increased interest on the moon within the last years, at least with several missions in orbit or under development (SELENE/Japan, Chang'e/China, Chandrayaan/India and others), there is a strong demand within the German science community to participate in this initiative, building-up a national competence regarding lunar exploration. For this purpose, a Phase-0 analysis for a small lunar semi-hard landing scenario has been performed at DLR to foster future lunar exploration missions. This study's scope was to work out a more detailed insight into the design drivers and challenges and their impact on mass and cost budgets for such a mission. LAPIS has been dedicated to the investigation of the seismic activities of the moon, additionally to some other geophysical in-situ measurements at the lunar surface. In fact, the current status of the knowledge and understanding of lunar seismic activities leads to a range of open questions which have not been answered so far by the various Apollo missions in the past and could now possibly be answered by the studied LAPIS mission. Among these are the properties of the lunar core, the origin of deep and shallow moonquakes and the occurrence of micro-meteoroids. Therefore, as proposed first for LAPIS on the LEO mission, a payload of a short period micro-seismometer, based on European and American predevelopments, has been suggested. A staged mission scenario will be described, using a 2-module spacecraft with a propulsion part and a landing part, the so called LAPIS-PROP and LAPIS-LAND. In this scenario, the LAPIS-PROP module will do the cruise, until the spacecraft reaches an altitude of 100 m above the moon, after which the landing module will separate and continue to the actual semi-hard landing, which is based on deformable structures. Further technical details, e.g. considering the subsystem technologies, have been addressed within the performed study. These especially critical and uniquely challenging issues, such as the structural damping of the landing impact, the communication subsystem and the thermal subsystem have been investigated to some extent and will be described further. The described study will analyze in a unique way the technology, which is necessary to realize such a rather unconventional mission scenario, which will furthermore to a great extent contribute to the current knowledge on seismic activities on the moon.

Lange, C.

2009-04-01

89

MoonRise: A US Robotic Sample-Return Mission to Address Solar System Wide Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MoonRise lunar sample-return mission is currently funded to perform a Phase A Concept Study as part of NASA's New Frontiers Program. Exploration of the great (d = 2500 km) South Pole-Aitken basin has been assigned high priority in several NRC reports. MoonRise would be the first US robotic sample-return mission from another planetary surface. Key strengths of the MoonRise

Bradley Jolliff; P. H. Warren; C. K. Shearer; L. Alkalai; D. A. Papanastassiou; A. Huertas

2010-01-01

90

Global Elemental Maps of the Moon Using Gamma Rays Measured by the Kaguya (SELENE) Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kaguya spacecraft was in a circular polar lunar orbit from 17 October 2007 until 10 June 2009 as part of JAXA's SELENE lunar exploration program. Among the 13 instruments, an advanced gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) studied the distributions of many elements. The gamma rays were from the decay of the naturally-radioactive elements K, Th, and U and from cosmic-ray interactions with H, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and other elements. They are emitted from the top few tens of centimeters of the lunar surface. The main detector of the GRS was high-purity germanium, which was surrounded by bismuth germanate and plastic scintillators to reduce backgrounds. Gamma-ray spectra were sent to the Earth every 17 seconds (1 degree of the lunar surface) with energies from 0-12 MeV. These spectra were adjusted to a standard gain and then summed over many lunar regions. Background spectra were also determined. Over 200 gamma rays have been observed, with most being backgrounds but many being from the lunar surface, an order more gamma rays than from any previous lunar GRS missions. Elemental results have been determined for K, Th, and U. Results for K and Th are consistent with those from the GRS on Apollo and Lunar Prospector. The first lunar global maps for U have been determined. These 3 elements show strong correlations among themselves, which implies that the Moon is homogeneous in these elements over the entire Moon. Their elemental ratios agree well with those measured in lunar samples and meteorites. Preliminary maps for Fe are consistent with earlier maps. Other elements, including O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, are being mapped, and their distributions vary over the lunar surface and appear consistent with previous lunar elemental results. This work was supported by JAXA, NASA, and CNRS, France.

Reedy, Robert C.; Hasebe, N.; Yamashita, N.; Karouji, Y.; Kobayashi, S.; Hareyama, M.; Hayatsu, K.; Okudaira, O.; Kobayashi, M.; d'Uston, C.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Diez, B.; Kim, K.

2009-09-01

91

Objectives of a prospective Ukrainian orbiter mission to the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to lunar orbit. A future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and future missions like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided by radar studies of the Moon with supporting optical photopolarimetric observations from lunar polar orbit. These experiments allow one to better understand global structure of the lunar surface at a wide range of scales, from microns to kilometers. We propose three instruments for the prospective lunar orbiter. They are a synthetic aperture imaging radar, ground-penetrating radar, and imaging UV-spectropolarimeter. The main purpose of the synthetic aperture imaging radar experiment is to study with high-resolution (50 m) permanently shadowed sites in the lunar polar regions. These sites are cold traps for volatiles, and have a potential for resource utilization. Possible presence of water ice in the regolith in the sites makes them interesting for long-term manned bases on the Moon. Radar and optical imaging and mapping of other interesting regions could be also planned. Multi-frequency, multi-polarization sounding of the lunar surface with ground-penetrating radar can provide data about internal structure of the lunar surface from meters to several hundred meters deep. The ground-penetrating radar can be used for measuring megaregolith properties, detection of cryptomaria, and studies of internal structure of the largest craters. Modest spatial resolution (50 m) of the imaging UV-spectropolarimeter should provide total coverage (or coverage of a large portion) of the lunar surface in oblique viewing at large phase angles. Polarization degree at large (>90°) phase angles bears information about characteristic size of the regolith particles. Additional experiments could use the synthetic aperture imaging radar system, e.g., bistatic radar sounding with the on-board transmitter and Earth-based receiver, and interferometry with the on-board transmitter and two Earth-based receiving antennas that allows reconstruction of the surface topography with high resolution.

Shkuratov, Yu. G.; Lytvynenko, L. M.; Shulga, V. M.; Yatskiv, Ya. S.; Vidmachenko, A. P.; Kislyulk, V. S.

2003-06-01

92

Launch strategy for Indian lunar mission and precision injection to the Moon using genetic algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Indian lunar mission Chandrayaan-1 will have a mass of 523 kg in a 100 km circular polar orbit around the Moon. The main\\u000a factors that dictate the design of the Indian Moon mission are to use the present capability of launch vehicles and to achieve\\u000a the scientific objectives in the minimum development time and cost. The detailed mission planning

V. Adimurthy; R. V. Ramanan; S. R. Tandon; C. Ravikumar

2005-01-01

93

Pressurized Rover for Moon and Mars Surface Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work described in this paper was done under ESA and Thales Alenia Space contract in the frame of the Analysis of Surface Architecture for European Space Exploration -Element Design. Future manned space missions to the Moon or to Mars will require a vehicle for transporting astronauts in a controlled and protected environment and in relative comfort during surface traverses of these planetary bodies. The vehicle that will be needed is a pressurized rover which serves the astronauts as a habitat, a refuge and a research laboratory/workshop. A number of basic issues influencing the design of such a rover, e.g. habitability, human-machine interfaces, safety, dust mitigation, interplanetary contamination and radiation protection, have been analysed in detail. The results of these analyses were subsequently used in an investigation of various designs for a rover suitable for surface exploration, from which a single concept was developed that satisfied scientific requirements as well as environmental requirements encoun-tered during surface exploration of the Moon and Mars. This concept was named in memory of the late Sir Arthur C. Clark RAMA (Rover for Advanced Mission Applications, Rover for Advanced Moon Applications, Rover for Advanced Mars Applications) The concept design of the pressurized rover meets the scientific and operational requirements defined during the course of the Surface Architecture Study. It is designed for surface missions with a crew of two or three lasting up to approximately 40 days, its source of energy, a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen fuel cell, allowing it to be driven and operated during the day as well as the night. Guidance, navigation and obstacle avoidance systems are foreseen as standard equipment to allow it to travel safely over rough terrain at all times of the day. The rover allows extra-vehicular activity and a remote manipulator is provided to recover surface samples, to deploy surface instruments and equipment and, in general, to assist the astronauts' field activities wherever and whenever needed. The vehicle has also been designed to have a very high degree of manoeuvrability. In addition, RAMA may be operated and replenished from a fixed site base or co-operate with other rovers of the same type to provide a mobile base. The rover in all cases will be refuelled using the products supplied by an in-situ resources facility. Transportation and surface exploration requirements defined the size and mass of the rover. RAMA has a launch mass of approximately 7000 kg, a dry mass of about 6200 kg and surface mission masses of between 7800 and 8300 kg. The rover can be launched by a future heavy lift launcher similar to the American ARES V concept. The factor most affecting the mass of the rover, other than the quantities of fuel cell reactants and crew consumables, is the amount of radiation shielding integrated in the design of the rover's pressurized shell. The factor most influencing the rover's external and internal configuration is the launcher's payload envelope and the need for the rover's centre-of-mass to be aligned with or close to the launcher's longitudinal axis. Technologies needed to support the design of the rover and its subsystems were investigated to identify the issues concerned with a possible implementation.

Imhof, Barbara; Ransom, Stephen; et al.

94

The Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Journal  

SciTech Connect

The material included in the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Journal has been assembled so that an uninitiated reader can understand, in some detail, what happened during Apollo 17 and why and what was learned, particularly about living and working on the Moon. At its heart, the Journal consists a corrected mission transcript which is interwoven with commentary by the crew and by Journal Editor -- commentary which, we hope, will make the rich detail of Apollo 17 accessible to a wide audience. To make the Journal even more accessible, this CD-ROM publication contains virtually all of the Apollo 17 audio, a significant fraction of the photographs and a selection of drawings, maps, video clips, and background documents.

Jones, E.M.

1995-08-01

95

Moon-Mars Analogue Mission (EuroMoonMars 1 at the Mars Desert Research Station)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) is situated in an analogue habitat-based Martian environment, designed for missions to determine the knowledge and equipment necessary for successful future planetary exploration. For this purpose, a crew of six people worked and lived together in a closed-system environment. They performed habitability experiments within the dwelling and conducted Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) for two weeks (20 Feb to 6 Mar 2010) and were guided externally by mission support, called "Earth" within the simulation. Crew 91, an international, mixed-gender, and multidisciplinary group, has completed several studies during the first mission of the EuroMoonMars campaign. The crew is composed of an Italian designer and human factors specialist, a Dutch geologist, an American physicist, and three French aerospace engineering students from Ecole de l'Air, all with ages between 21 and 31. Each crewmember worked on personal research and fulfilled a unique role within the group: commander, executive officer, engineer, health and safety officer, scientist, and journalist. The expedition focused on human factors, performance, communication, health and safety pro-tocols, and EVA procedures. The engineers' projects aimed to improve rover manoeuvrability, far-field communication, and data exchanges between the base and the rover or astronaut. The crew physicist evaluated dust control methods inside and outside the habitat. The geologist tested planetary geological sampling procedures. The crew designer investigated performance and overall habitability in the context of the Mars Habitability Experiment from the Extreme-Design group. During the mission the crew also participated in the Food Study and in the Ethospace study, managed by external groups. The poster will present crew dynamics, scientific results and daily schedule from a Human Factors perspective. Main co-sponsors and collaborators: ILEWG, ESA ESTEC, NASA Ames, Ecole de l'Air, SKOR, Extreme-Design, Universit` di Torino, MMS TU-Berlin, Space Florida, DAAD, Uni-a versity of Utrecht, The Mars Society.

Lia Schlacht, Irene; Voute, Sara; Irwin, Stacy; Foing, Bernard H.; Stoker, Carol R.; Westenberg, Artemis

96

Human Spaceflight - The Moon and Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this site will learn about NASA's manned and unmanned explorations of the Moon and Mars. Topics include the history of the Apollo program, robotic missions to Mars, and future visions for space exploration. The document "Vision for Space Eploration," which describes a timeline and major realignment of NASA's resources and efforts for manned and unmanned missions to the Moon and elsewhere, is available at this site.

97

Mission and technology assessment of human exploration to the Moon and Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive study has been undertaken by Spar Aerospace of a mission for human exploration to the moon and beyond based on the current U.S. Space Exploration Initiative. It offers a generalized scenario suitable for a range of missions and provides a basis for technology requirements and technology drivers assessment. A set of ten generalized mission phases with sub-level definition

Moses Wong

1990-01-01

98

JUpiter ICy Moons Explorer (JUICE): The ESA L1 Mission to the Jupiter System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission has recently been selected by ESA as the first large mission within the Cosmic Visions 2015-2025 plan. We will introduce the mission that is being developed to thoroughly explore the Jupiter system with focus on the largest satellite, Ganymede.

Dougherty, M. K.; Grasset, O.; Erd, C.; Titov, D.; Bunce, E.; Coustenis, A.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A.; Drossart, P.; Fletcher, L.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; Van Hoolst, T.

2012-10-01

99

Proposal for revisions of the United Nations Moon Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

During this new 2010-decade, it will be imperative to reconsider the effectiveness of the current United Nations (U.N.) Moon Treaty (c.1979). Amendments are necessary to underline the mandatory human stewardship of this fragile planetary body of our Solar System, indispensible to life on Earth. After the very successful Apollo and Luna missions to the Moon (ending in 1976), which brought

Vera Fernandes; Neyda Abreu; J. Fritz; Martin Knapmeyer; Lisa Smeenk; Inge Ten Kate; Monica Trüninger

2010-01-01

100

The Moon Agreement in the 21st century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty years after the Promethean achievement of Apollo 11, the major space-faring nations are showing a renewed interest in missions to the Moon. While in the 1960s, in the context of the Cold War, the decision to land humans on the Moon was perceived as a strategic political instrument between the two blocs, now in the 21st century, a considerably

Antonella Bini

2010-01-01

101

Geology of Earth's Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First, researchers at the University of California, San Diego discuss the importance of studying earthquakes on the moon, also known as moonquakes, and the Apollo Lunar Seismic Experiment (1). Users can discover the problems scientists must deal with when collecting the moon's seismic data. The students at Case Western Reserve University created the second website to address three missions the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) has planned between now and 2010, including a mission to the moon (2). Visitors can learn about the Lunar-A probe that will be used to photograph the surface of the moon, "monitor moonquakes, measure temperature, and study the internal structure." Next, the Planetary Data Service (PDS) at the USGS offers users four datasets that they can use to create an image of a chosen area of the moon (3). Each dataset can be viewed as a basic clickable map; a clickable map where users can specify size, resolution, and projection; or an advanced version where visitors can select areas by center latitude and longitude. The fourth site, produced by Robert Wickman at the University of North Dakota, presents a map of the volcanoes on the moon and compares their characteristics with those on earth (4). Students can learn how the gravitational forces on the Moon affect the lava flows. Next, Professor Jeff Ryan at the University of South Florida at Tampa supplies fantastic images and descriptive text of the lunar rocks obtained by the Apollo missions (5). Visitors can find links to images of meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and Apollo landings as well. At the Science Channel website, students and educators can find a video clip discussing the geologic studies on the moon along with videos about planets (6). Users can learn about how studying moon rocks help scientists better understand the formation of the earth. Next, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum presents its research of "lunar topography, cratering and impacts basins, tectonics, lava flows, and regolith properties" (7). Visitors can find summaries of the characteristics of the moon and the main findings since the 1950s. Lastly, the USGS Astrogeology Research Program provides archived lunar images and data collected between 1965 and 1992 by Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Galileo, and Zond 8 missions (8). While the data is a little old, students and educators can still find valuable materials about the moon's topography, chemical composition, and geology.

102

Overview of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Mission, Environments, and Materials Challenges.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Congress authorized NASA's Prometheus Project in February 2003, with the first Prometheus mission slated to explore the icy moons of Jupiter with the following main objectives: (1) Develop a nuclear reactor that would provide unprecedented levels of power...

D. Edwards

2012-01-01

103

New findings expand Apollo observations of lunar atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December 1972 the astronauts of Apollo 17—the last manned mission to the moon—deployed the Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment (LACE), a spectrometer designed to measure and characterize the thin lunar atmosphere. Forty years later, Stern et al built upon those initial measurements, providing the first remotely sensed measurement of the Moon's gaseous environment from lunar orbit. Using the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project's (LAMP) far ultraviolet spectrograph aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the authors determined the atmospheric concentration of helium.

Schultz, Colin

2012-08-01

104

Mission to the Moon: Europe's priorities for the scientific exploration and utilisation of the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study to determine Europe's potential role in the future exploration and utilization of the Moon is presented. To establish the scientific justifications the Lunar Study Steering Group (LSSG) was established reflecting all scientific disciplines benefitting from a lunar base (Moon studies, astronomy, fusion, life sciences, etc.). Scientific issues were divided into three main areas: science of the Moon, including

Bruce Battrick; C. Barron

1992-01-01

105

The moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The principal scientific results from the Apollo Program are reviewed. Data on the nature of the moon, including the surface, interior, and composition, are discussed. Attention is also given to problems of lunar age determination, and to certain unanswered questions concerning the moon (e.g., the chemical composition of the whole moon and the moon's asymmetry). A number of illustrative photographs are presented.

French, B. M.

106

Exploring the Moon at the Microscale: Analysis of Apollo Samples with the Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI), similar to a geologist’s handlens, creates multispectral, microscale reflectance images of geological samples, in which each image pixel is comprised of a VNIR spectrum. This enables the discrimination of a wide variety of rock-forming minerals, especially Fe- and Mg-bearing phases, within a microtextural framework. The MMI composite images provide crucial geologic and contextual information: 1) for the in-situ analysis of rocks and soils to support hypothesis-driven, field-based exploration; 2) to guide sub-sampling of geologic materials for return to laboratories on Earth; and 3) in support of astronaut investigations during EVAs, or in a lunar base laboratory. To assess the value of the MMI as a tool for lunar exploration, we used a field-portable, tripod-mounted version of the MMI to image 18 lunar rocks and four soils, from a reference suite spanning the full compositional range found in the Apollo collection, housed in the Lunar Experiment Laboratory at NASA’s Johnson Space Center. The MMI composite images faithfully resolved the microtextural features of samples, while the application of ENVI-based spectral end-member mapping faithfully revealed the distribution of Fe-bearing mineral phases (olivine, pyroxene and magnetite), along with plagioclase feldspars within samples, over a broad range of lithologies and grain sizes (figure 1). The MMI composite images also revealed secondary mineral phases, glasses, and effects of space weathering in samples, where present. Our MMI-based petrogenetic interpretations compared favorably with thin section-based descriptions published in the literature, revealing the value of MMI images for astronaut and rover-mediated lunar exploration. We present our latest results from these analyses and their application to future lunar exploration. Figure 1. Multispectral images of Apollo sample 14321,88. Left: R = 635 nm; G = 525 nm; B = 470 nm. Right: R = 1450 nm; G = 975 nm; B = 525 nm. Field of view: 40 mm x 32 mm (62.5 ?m/pixel). Images are 2% histogram stretched. The addition of near-infrared bands enabled the distinction of different rock-forming minerals on the basis of spectral differences.

Nunez, J. I.; Farmer, J. D.; Sellar, R. G.; Allen, C.

2009-12-01

107

NASA Probes Prepare for Mission-Ending Moon Impact  

NASA Website

Twin lunar-orbiting NASA spacecraft that have allowed scientists to learn more about the internal structure and composition of the moon are being prepared for their controlled descent and impact on a mountain near the moon's north pole at about ...

108

LIRAS mission for lunar exploration by microwave interferometric radiometer: Moon's subsurface characterization, emission model and numerical simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "Lunar Interferometric Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis" (LIRAS) mission is promoted by the Italian Space Agency and is currently in feasibility phase. LIRAS' satellite will orbit around the Moon at a height of 100 km, with a revisiting time period lower than 1 lunar month and will be equipped with: a synthetic aperture radiometer for subsurface sounding purposes, working at 1 and 3 GHz, and a real aperture radiometer for near-surface probing, working at 12 and 24 GHz. The L-band payload, representing a novel concept for lunar exploration, is designed as a Y-shaped thinned array with three arms less than 2.5 m long. The main LIRAS objectives are high-resolution mapping and vertical sounding of the Moon subsurface by applying the advantages of the antenna aperture synthesis technique to a multi-frequency microwave passive payload. The mission is specifically designed to achieve spatial resolutions less than 10 km at surface and to retrieve thermo-morphological properties of the Moon subsurface within 5 m of depth. Among LIRAS products are: lunar near-surface brightness temperature, subsurface brightness temperature gross profile, subsurface regolith thickness, density and average thermal conductivity, detection index of possible subsurface discontinuities (e.g. ice presence). The following study involves the preliminary design of the LIRAS payload and the electromagnetic and thermal characterization of the lunar subsoil through the implementation of a simulator for reproducing the LIRAS measurements in response to observations of the Moon surface and subsurface layers. Lunar physical data, collected after the Apollo missions, and LIRAS instrument parameters are taken as input for the abovementioned simulator, called "LIRAS End-to-end Performance Simulator" (LEPS) and obtained by adapting the SMOS End-to-end Performance Simulator to the different instrumental, orbital, and geophysical LIRAS characteristics. LEPS completely simulates the behavior of the satellite when it becomes operational providing the extrapolation of lunar brightness temperature maps in both Antenna frame (the cosine domain) and on the Moon surface and allowing an accurate analysis of the instrument performance. The Moon stratigraphy is reproduced in LEPS environment through three scenarios: a macro-layer of regolith; two subsequent macro-layers of regolith and rock; three subsequent macro-layers of regolith, ice and rock, respectively. These scenarios are studied using an incoherent approach, taking into account the interaction between the upwelling and downwelling radiation contributions from each layer to model the resulting brightness temperature at the surface level. It has been considered that the radiative behavior of the Moon varies over time, depending on solar illumination conditions, and it is also function of the material properties, layer thickness and specific position on the lunar crust; moreover it has been examined its variation with frequency, observation angle, and polarization. Using the proposed emission model it has been possible to derive a digital thermal model in the microwave frequency of the Moon, allowing in-depth analysis of the lunar soil consistency; this collected information could be related with a lunar digital elevation model in order to achieve global coverage information on topological aspects. The main results of the study will be presented at the conference.

Pompili, Sara; Silvio Marzano, Frank; Di Carlofelice, Alessandro; Montopoli, Mario; Talone, Marco; Crapolicchio, Raffaele; L'Abbate, Michelangelo; Varchetta, Silvio; Tognolatti, Piero

2013-04-01

109

LUNETTE - A Discovery Class Mission to the Moon to Establish a Geophysical Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lunette is a Discovery mission concept that is designed to deliver three landed geophysical packages (``nodes'') to widely spaced (3000-5000 km) locations on the lunar surface. This mission will provide detailed information on the interior of the Moon through seismic, thermal, electromagnetic, and precision laser ranging measurements, and will substantially address the lunar interior science objectives set out in ``The

C. R. Neal; W. B. Banerdt; L. Alkalai

2009-01-01

110

The HADES mission concept - astrobiological survey of Jupiter's icy moon Europa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HADES Europa mission concept aims to provide a framework for an astrobiological in-depth investigation of the Jupiter moon Europa, relying on existing technologies and feasibility. This mission study proposes a system consisting of an orbiter, lander and cryobot as a platform for detailed exploration of Europa. While the orbiter will investigate the presence of a liquid ocean and characterize

Thomas Böttcher; Liliane Huber; Lucille Le Corre; Johannes Leitner; David McCarthy; Ricky Nilsson; Carlos Teixeira; Sergi Vaquer Araujo; Rebecca C. Wilson; Fatah Adjali; Martin Altenburg; Giacomo Briani; Peter Buchas; Aurélie Le Postollec; Teresa Meier

2009-01-01

111

Planetary Protection for future missions to Europa and other icy moons: the more things change  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA maintains a planetary protection policy regarding contamination of extraterrestrial bodies by terrestrial microorganisms and organic compounds, and sets limits intended to minimize or prevent contamination resulting from spaceflight missions. Europa continues to be a high priority target for astrobiological investigations, and other icy moons of the outer planets are becoming increasingly interesting as data are returned from current missions.

C. A. Conley; M. Race

2007-01-01

112

Trace Element Concentrations of Ilmenite in Samples Selected from the Six Apollo Landed Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the trace-element concentrations of ilmenite contained in 12 selected samples from the 6 Apollo landing sites using a Laser-Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS).

Morisset, C.-E.; Jackson, S.; Williamson, M.-C.; Hipkin, H. J.

2012-03-01

113

A potpourri of pristine moon rocks, including a VHK mare basalt and a unique, augite-rich Apollo 17 anorthosite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of previously unstudied Apollo lithic fragments continues to yield surprising results. Among this year's samples is a small anorthosite fragment, 76504,18, the first pristine anorthosite found from Apollo 17. This unique lithology strongly resembles the main type of Apollo anorthosites ferroan anorthosites), but 76504,18 has a far higher ratio (about 9) of high-Ca pyroxene to low-Ca pyroxene, higher Na

Paul H. Warren; David N. Shirley; Gregory W. Kallemeyn

1986-01-01

114

Deciphering basaltic magmatism on the Moon from the compositional variations in the Apollo 15 very low-Ti picritic magmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Picritic glass beads of volcanic origin have been interpreted as representing extremely primitive lunar magmas that approach primary magma compositions. Based on this, they have been used for developing models for lunar magmatism, estimating the mineralogical and chemical characteristics of their mantle sources, constraining the dynamics and structure of the lunar mantle, developing models for lunar core formation, reconstructing the bulk composition of the Moon, and evaluating the genetic relationships between the Earth and the Moon. Yet, we still do not truly understand many aspects of the compositional diversity among individual glass types or even within a single glass type. Using high precision ion microprobe techniques, we have analyzed a total of forty very low-Ti glass beads from the Apollo 15 (A15) site and twenty additional picritic glass beads from other sampling sites for a suite of highly compatible (Ni, Co), weakly compatible to weakly incompatible (Mn, Cr, V), and highly incompatible (Ce, Ti, Zr, Nb) elements. Within the A15 very low-Ti glass population, Ni and Co concentrations are positively correlated, exhibit limited fractionation (of Ni/Co), and are distinctive for individual glass groups as defined by major elements. Manganese is also colinear with both Ni and Co. The highly incompatible elements also appear to be generally colinear with Ni, Co, and Mn, although there are distinguishable compositional "offsets" in the glass populations. The Ni/Co ratio does not differ dramatically among the very low-Ti glasses from other sampling sites, although incompatible element concentrations may differ significantly. These trace element data eliminate fractional crystallization and partial melting of a homogeneous source (under extremely low fOstaggered2 conditions) as possible models for the origin of the compositional variations observed in the A15 very low-Ti glass population. These data are consistent with the generation of these magmas through partial melting of a spatially restricted, heterogeneous, lunar magma ocean (LMO) cumulate sequence. The compositional variation in these magmas can be produced by at least two different melting processes: (1) Partial melting of a cumulate sequence consisting of relatively early cumulates with a higher proportion of an "intercumulus melt component" (Green glass A, D, E) and later cumulates with lower proportions of an "intercumulus melt component" (Green glass C). (2) Different degrees of partial melting of a cumulate sequence. Small degrees of partial melting (less than 5%) of a more primitive cumulate mantle source will generate one group of magmas (Green A, D, E), whereas a group of other picritic magmas (Green C) were produced by larger degrees of partial melting (10 to 20%) of a mineralogically similar, but a more evolved cumulate mantle source. In both models, the Green B glass group is formed by either cumulate commingling or magma mixing processes. These magmas cannot be rapidly transported from the source region to the lunar surface in a single eruptive event without extensive fractional crystallization. Yet, the colinear relationship among Ni, Co, and Mn is not compatible with extensive and variable fractional crystallization. Therefore, a polybaric melting model as suggested by Longhi (1992b) appears to be the only alternative to producing relatively unfractionated, Apollo 15 very low-Ti picritic magmas with high-pressure signatures. The trace element data provides additional constrains for this type of model.

Shearer, C. K.; Papike, J. J.; Layne, G. D.

1996-02-01

115

Chandrayaan-1: India's First Planetary Science Mission to the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The first Indian planetary exploration mission, Chandrayaan-1, was launched on 22 October, 2008. We will present a brief summary of the science objectives, various payloads, mission details and observational plans.

J. N. Goswami; M. Annadurai

2009-01-01

116

Mission to the Moon: Europe's Priorities for the Scientific Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study to determine Europe's potential role in the future exploration and utilization of the Moon is presented. To establish the scientific justifications the Lunar Study Steering Group (LSSG) was established reflecting all scientific disciplines benefit...

B. Battrick C. Barron

1992-01-01

117

A proposed space mission around the Moon to measure the Moon Radio-Quiet Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a series of papers published since 2000 mainly in Acta Astronautica the senior author Maccone dealt with the advantages of the Farside of the Moon for future utilization Clearly the Moon Farside is free from RFI Radio Frequency Interference produced in larger and larger amounts by the increasing human exploitation of radio technologies That author suggested that crater Daedalus located at the center of the Farside was the best possible location to build up in the future one or more radiotelescopes or phased arrays to achieve the maximum sensitivity in radioastronomical and SETI searches Also a radio-quiet region of space above the Farside of the Moon exists and is called the Quiet Cone The Quiet Cone actual size however is largely unknown since it depends on the orbits of radio-emitting satellites around the Earth that are themselves largely unknown due to the military involvements In addition diffraction of electromagnetic waves grazing the surface of the Moon causes further changes in the geometrical shape of the Quiet Cone This riddle can be solved only by direct measurements of the radio attenuation above the Farside of the Moon performed by satellites orbiting the Moon itself In this paper we propose to let one or more low cost radiometers be put into orbit around the Moon to measure the RFI attenuation at different frequencies and altitudes above the Moon The opportunity of adding more payload s such as an ion detector and or a temperature sensor is evaluated also In this regard we present in this paper the experience gained by

Antonietti, N.; Pagana, G.; Pluchino, S.; Maccone, C.

118

Discoveries from Revisiting Apollo Direct Active Measurements of Lunar Dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New missions to the moon being developed by China, Japan, India, USA, Russia and Europe and possibilities of human missions about 2020 face the reality that 6 Apollo expeditions did not totally manage or mitigate effects of easily-mobilised and very "sticky" lunar dust on humans and hardware. Laboratory and theoretical modelling cannot reliably simulate the complex lunar environments that affect dynamical movements of lunar dust. The only direct active measurements of lunar dust during Apollo were made by matchbox-sized minimalist Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) deployed to transmit some 30 million digital measurements from Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15. These were misplaced or relatively ignored until 2009, when a self-funded suite of discoveries (O'Brien Geophys. Research Letters FIX 6 May 2099) revealed unexpected properties of lunar dust, such as the adhesive force being stronger as illumination increased. We give the first reports of contrasting effects, contamination or cleansing, from rocket exhausts of Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 Lunar Modules leaving the moon. We further strengthen the importance of collateral dust inadvertently splashed on Apollo hardware by human activities. Dust management designs and mission plans require optimum use of such in situ measurements, extended by laboratory simulations and theoretical modelling.

O'Brien, Brian

2010-05-01

119

The Clementine Mission to the Moon: Scientific Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of 71 days in lunar orbit, from 19 February to 3 May 1994, the Clementine spacecraft acquired just under two million digital images of the moon at visible and infrared wavelengths. These data are enabling the global mapping of the rock types of the lunar crust and the first detailed investigation of the geology of the lunar

Stewart Nozette; I. T. Lewis; C. L. Lichtenberg; D. M. Horan; E. Malaret; E. M. Shoemaker; J. H. Resnick; C. J. Rollins; D. N. Baker; J. E. Blamont; B. J. Buratti; C. M. Pieters; M. E. Davies; M. S. Robinson; E. M. Eliason; B. M. Jakosky; T. C. Sorenson; R. W. Vorder Bruegge; P. G. Lucey; M. A. Massie; H. S. Park; A. S. McEwen; R. E. Priest; R. A. Reisse; R. A. Simpson; D. E. Smith; R. W. Vorder Breugge; M. T. Zuber

1994-01-01

120

Generating of an electric potential on the Moon by Cosmic rays and Solar Wind?  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate the possibility that the Moon develops an electric potential originating from the impinging particles on the Moon from cosmic rays and solar wind. The investigation includes all experimental data of the flux of charged particle for energies higher than 865 eV available from Apollo missions, satellites and balloon experiments in publications or from the Internet in 2008. A

M. J. Simon; J. Ulbricht

2010-01-01

121

Digitization and Reanalysis of Apollo Surface Traverses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apollo surface activities are the best documented events in history. The astronauts' work and the samples and measurements they collected have shaped our understanding of the Moon. We are digitizing and georeferencing data from all Apollo traverses.

Petro, N. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Gaddis, L. R.; Garry, W. B.; Mest, S. C.; Abercromby, A. F.; Gernhardt, M. L.

2011-03-01

122

Exploration of the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar geology is discussed, with an emphasis of knowledge gained from the analysis of samples from the Apollo missions. The history of the Apollo program is reviewed, and the increasing amounts and diversity of samples collected are characterized. Pre-Apollo theories of lunar morphology are compared with present knowledge. The basaltic formations of the maria and the anorthositic rocks of the highlands are considered in detail, and mechanisms for their (high-temperature) formation and alteration by cratering impacts (with a 'terminal cataclysm' 3.9-4.0 Gyr ago) are outlined. The questions raised by the discoveries of lateral heterogeneities in the moon's chemical composition and density are explored in connection with tehories of lunar origin, and the need for further in situ investigations is indicated.

Wood, J. A.

123

The clementine mission to the moon: scientific overview.  

PubMed

In the course of 71 days in lunar orbit, from 19 February to 3 May 1994, the Clementine spacecraft acquired just under two million digital images of the moon at visible and infrared wavelengths. These data are enabling the global mapping of the rock types of the lunar crust and the first detailed investigation of the geology of the lunar polar regions and the lunar far side. In addition, laser-ranging measurements provided the first view of the global topographic figure of the moon. The topography of many ancient impact basins has been measured, and a global map of the thickness of the lunar crust has been derived from the topography and gravity. PMID:17737076

Nozette, S; Rustan, P; Pleasance, L P; Kordas, J F; Lewis, I T; Park, H S; Priest, R E; Horan, D M; Regeon, P; Lichtenberg, C L; Shoemaker, E M; Eliason, E M; McEwen, A S; Robinson, M S; Spudis, P D; Acton, C H; Buratti, B J; Duxbury, T C; Baker, D N; Jakosky, B M; Blamont, J E; Corson, M P; Resnick, J H; Rollins, C J; Davies, M E; Lucey, P G; Malaret, E; Massie, M A; Pieters, C M; Reisse, R A; Simpson, R A; Smith, D E; Sorenson, T C; Breugge, R W; Zuber, M T

1994-12-16

124

Data relay for Earth, Moon and Mars missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

ESA is setting up the future sustainable European Data Relay mission in geostationary orbit. An outline of the driving user needs, the key system trade off and associated technological challenges as well as the overall partnership strategy with the commercial stakeholders is being described. In frame of the European activities for human exploration a mission concept for an early data

Manfred Wittig

2009-01-01

125

Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Vehicle Design Options for Future NASA Missions to the Moon and MARS.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners/designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio...

E. G. Beke M. L. Mcguire R. R. Corban S. K. Borowski

1995-01-01

126

The first precise global gravity and topography of the Moon by KAGUYA (SELENE) mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japanese lunar mission KAGUYA (SELENE) was launched on September 14th, 2007 and continued its operation by June 11th, 2009. KAGUYA had two subsatellites (OKINA and OUNA) for gravity measurements. The gravity field, which is obtained by radio tracking of spacecraft, is a fundamental quantity for the study of the internal structure and the evolution of the Moon. However, the

Sho Sasaki; Noriyuki Namiki; Hideo Hanada; Hiroshi Araki; Takahiro Iwata; Hirotomo Noda; Koji Matsumoto; Nobuyuki Kawano; Fuyuhiko Kikuchi; Quinhui Liu; Sander Goossens; Yoshi-Aki Ishihara; Yuji Harada; Seiitsu Tsuruta; Seiichi Tazawa; Kazuyoshi Asari; Toshiaki Ishikawa; Juergen Oberst; Frank Lemoine; C. K. Shum

2010-01-01

127

Space Radiation Hazards on Human Missions to the Moon and Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the most significant health risks for humans exploring Earth's moon and Mars is exposure to the harsh space radiation environment. Crews on these exploration missions will be exposed to a complex mixture of very energetic particles. Chronic exposures to the ever-present background galactic cosmic ray (GCR) spectrum consisting of various fluxes of all naturally - occurring chemical elements

L. Townsend

2004-01-01

128

Lunar Lander Project: A Study on Future Manned Missions to the Moon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This project is based on designing a small lunar probe which will conduct research relating to future manned missions to the moon. The basic design calls for two experiments to be run. The first of these experiments is an enclosed environment section whic...

1966-01-01

129

Mission Techniques for Exploring Saturn's icy moons Titan and Enceladus  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The future exploration of Titan is of high priority for the solar system exploration community as recommended by the 2003 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey [1] and ESA's Cosmic Vision Program themes. Cassini-Huygens discoveries continue to emphasize that Titan is a complex world with very many Earth-like features. Titan has a dense, nitrogen atmosphere, an active climate and meteorological cycles where conditions are such that the working fluid, methane, plays the role that water does on Earth. Titan's surface, with lakes and seas, broad river valleys, sand dunes and mountains was formed by processes like those that have shaped the Earth. Supporting this panoply of Earth-like processes is an ice crust that floats atop what might be a liquid water ocean. Furthermore, Titan is rich in very many different organic compounds—more so than any place in the solar system, except Earth. The Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) concept that followed the 2007 TandEM ESA CV proposal [2] and the 2007 Titan Explorer NASA Flagship study [3], was examined [4,5] and prioritized by NASA and ESA in February 2009 as a mission to follow the Europa Jupiter System Mission. The TSSM study, like others before it, again concluded that an orbiter, a montgolfi?re hot-air balloon and a surface package (e.g. lake lander, Geosaucer (instrumented heat shield), …) are very high priority elements for any future mission to Titan. Such missions could be conceived as Flagship/Cosmic Vision L-Class or as individual smaller missions that could possibly fit within NASA's New Frontiers or ESA's Cosmic Vision M-Class budgets. As a result of a multitude of Titan mission studies, several mission concepts have been developed that potentially fit within various cost classes. Also, a clear blueprint has been laid out for early efforts critical toward reducing the risks inherent in such missions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of potential Titan (and Enceladus) mission techniques and to describe risk reduction efforts and recent advances toward enabling such future missions. References [1] NRC Space Studies Board (2003), New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy (first Decadal Survey Report), National Academic Press, Washington, DC. [2] Coustenis et al. (2008). Experimental Astronomy, DOI: 10.1007/s10686-008-9103-z. [3] J. Leary, R. Strain, R. Lorenz, J. H. Waite, 2008. Titan Explorer Flagship Mission Study, http://www.lpi.usra.edu/opag/Titan_Explorer_Public_Report.pdf. [4] TSSM Final Report, 3 November 2008, NASA Task Order NMO710851 [5] TSSM NASA/ESA Joint Summary Report, 15 November 2008, NASA Task Order NMO710851

Reh, Kim; Coustenis, Athena; Lunine, Jonathan; Matson, Dennis; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Vargas, Andre; Beauchamp, Pat; Spilker, Tom; Strange, Nathan; Elliott, John

2010-05-01

130

On the Fundamental Importance of the Social Psychology of Research as a Basic Paradigm for the Philosophy of Science a Philosophical Case Study of the Psychology of the APOLLO Moon Scientists.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A combined philosophical and social psychological study of over 40 of the Apollo moon Scientists reveals that the Orthodox or Received View of Scientific Theories is found wanting in several respects: (1) observations are not theory-free; (2) scientific o...

I. I. Mitroff

1972-01-01

131

Farside explorer: unique science from a mission to the farside of the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Farside Explorer is a proposed Cosmic Vision medium-size mission to the farside of the Moon consisting of two landers and an instrumented relay satellite. The farside of the Moon is a unique scientific platform in that it is shielded from terrestrial radio-frequency interference, it recorded the primary differentiation and evolution of the Moon, it can be continuously monitored from the Earth-Moon L2 Lagrange point, and there is a complete lack of reflected solar illumination from the Earth. Farside Explorer will exploit these properties and make the first radio-astronomy measurements from the most radio-quiet region of near-Earth space, determine the internal structure and thermal evolution of the Moon, from crust to core, and quantify impact hazards in near-Earth space by the measurement of flashes generated by impact events. The Farside Explorer flight system includes two identical solar-powered landers and a science/telecommunications relay satellite to be placed in a halo orbit about the Earth-Moon L2 Lagrange point. One lander would explore the largest and oldest recognized impact basin in the Solar System— the South Pole-Aitken basin—and the other would investigate the primordial highlands crust. Radio astronomy, geophysical, and geochemical instruments would be deployed on the surface, and the relay satellite would continuously monitor the surface for impact events.

Mimoun, David; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Alkalai, Leon; Banerdt, W. Bruce; Baratoux, David; Bougeret, Jean-Louis; Bouley, Sylvain; Cecconi, Baptiste; Falcke, Heino; Flohrer, Joachim; Garcia, Raphael F.; Grimm, Robert; Grott, Matthias; Gurvits, Leonid; Jaumann, Ralf; Johnson, Catherine L.; Knapmeyer, Martin; Kobayashi, Naoki; Konovalenko, Alexander; Lawrence, David; Feuvre, Mathieu Le; Lognonné, Philippe; Neal, Clive; Oberst, Jürgen; Olsen, Nils; Röttgering, Huub; Spohn, Tilman; Vennerstrom, Susanne; Woan, Graham; Zarka, Philippe

2012-04-01

132

On Eagle's Wings: The Parkes Observatory's Support of the Apollo 11 Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

At 12:56 p.m., on Monday 21 July 1969 (AEST), six hundred million people witnessed Neil Armstrong's historic first steps on the Moon through television pictures transmitted to Earth from the lunar module, Eagle. Three tracking stations were receiving the signals simultaneously. They were the CSIRO's Parkes Radio Telescope, the Honeysuckle Creek tracking station near Canberra, and NASA's Goldstone station in

John M. Sarkissian

133

Of time and the moon.  

PubMed

Considerable information concerning lunar chronology has been obtained by the study of rocks and soil returned by the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 missions. It has been shown that at the time the moon, earth, and solar system were formed, approximately 4.6 approximately 10(9) years ago, a severe chemical fractionation took place, resulting in depletion of relatively volatile elements such as Rb and Pb from the sources of the lunar rocks studied. It is very likely that much of this material was lost to interplanetary space, although some of the loss may be associated with internal chemical differentiation of the moon. It has also been shown that igneous processes have enriched some regions of the moon in lithophile elements such as Rb, U, and Ba, very early in lunar history, within 100 million years of its formation. Subsequent igneous and metamorphic activity occurred over a long period of time; mare volcanism of the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 sites occurred at distinctly different times, 3.6 approximately 10(9) and 3.3 approximately 10(9) years ago, respectively. Consequently, lunar magmatism and remanent magnetism cannot be explained in terms of a unique event, such as a close approach to the earth at a time of lunar capture. It is likely that these phenomena will require explanation in terms of internal lunar processes, operative to a considerable depth in the moon, over a long period of time. These data, together with the low present internal temperatures of the moon, inferred from measurements of lunar electrical conductivity, impose severe constraints on acceptable thermal histories of the moon. Progress is being made toward understanding lunar surface properties by use of the effects of particle bombardment of the lunar surface (solar wind, solar flare particles, galactic cosmic rays). It has been shown that the rate of micrometeorite erosion is very low (angstroms per year) and that lunar rocks and soil have been within approximately a meter of the lunar surface for hundreds of millions of years. Future work will require sampling distinctly different regions of the moon in order to provide data concerning other important lunar events, such as the time of formation of the highland regions and of the mare basins, and of the extent to which lunar volcanism has persisted subsequent to the first third of lunar history. This work will require a sufficient number of Apollo landings, and any further cancellation of Apollo missions will jeopardize this unique opportunity to study the development of a planetary body from its beginning. Such a study is fundamental to our understanding of the earth and other planets. PMID:17770436

Wetherill, G W

1971-07-30

134

GNC SOLUTIONS FOR NEXT-MOON LUNAR LANDER MISSION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper presents some design details of a GNC sys tem for a lunar landing mission requiring soft precision landing and safe place landing. Soft prec ision landing means landing in a specific location with a precision better than 200m (3? value) (radius of the landing circle) and a veloci ty compatible with a soft landing system: -2.5 m\\/s vertical

Sara MELLONI; Marco MAMMARELLA; Jesús GIL-FERNÁNDEZ; Pablo COLMENAREJO

135

Rb-Sr-analyses of Apollo 16 melt rocks and a new age estimate for the Imbrium basin - Lunar basin chronology and the early heavy bombardment of the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Rb and Sr content of seven impact glass bombs and two crystalline impact-melt rocks collected on the Apollo 16 mission is measured experimentally by chemical separation and mass spectrometry. The results are presented in extensive diagrams, graphs, and tables and characterized in detail. An age of 3.77 + or - 0.02 Gyr (or possibly as young as 3.75 Gyr) is determined for the Imbrium basin and the related Fra Mauro and Cayley formations, implying ages of 3.92 + or - 0.03 Gyr for the Nectaris basin, 3.87 + or - 0.03 Gyr for the Serenitaties basin, and 3.84 + or - 0.04 Gyr for the Crisium basin. Hence the present data do not support the hypothesis of a 'late terminal cataclysm' about 3.8 Gyr ago; instead, they are consistent with an early heavy bombardment (from the moon's accretion until about 3.75 Gyr ago) with a steep monotonic decrease in the impactor flux.

Deutsch, A.; Stoffler, D.

1987-07-01

136

Explore the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

See what it is like to walk on the Moon by viewing this collection of QuickTime images from NOVA Online. Stunning 360-degree panoramas from each of the six successful Apollo Moon landings are featured.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

137

Lunar seismology - The internal structure of the moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is pointed out that seismology has provided the most detailed information concerning the structure and state of the earth's interior. Beginning in 1969, seismometers were landed on the moon by the Apollo missions, providing the first opportunity to attempt similar studies on another planetary body. In September 1977 the operation of these instruments was terminated. A description is presented

N. R. Goins; A. M. Dainty; M. N. Toksoz

1981-01-01

138

Characteristic analysis and design of near moon abort trajectory for manned lunar landing mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The safety of astronauts would be severely threatened if the lunar-landing spacecraft were under an emergency during the near\\u000a moon phase of flight, which was far from the Earth. For the problem of mission abort caused by the main engine (service propulsion\\u000a system, SPS) failure during lunar orbit insertion, firstly, the family of trajectories resulted from SPS premature shutdown\\u000a and

WenDe Huang; XiaoNing Xi; Wei Wang

2010-01-01

139

First observations of the solar wind - Moon interaction onboard Chandrayan-1 mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SARA instrument (Sub - keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer) onboard the Indian Moon mission Chandrayan-1 comprises a low energy neutral atom sensor for the energy range 10 eV - 3.3 keV and an ion mass spectrometer (10 eV - 15 keV). It is the first ever experiment to study the solar wind - surface interaction via measurements of the sputtered

S. Barabash; A. Bhardwaj; M. Wieser; Y. Futaana; S. Varier; D. Dhanya; P. Wurz; K. Asamura

2009-01-01

140

Nuclear Thermal Rocket\\/vehicle design options for future NASA missions to the Moon and Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners\\/designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a 'dual mode' system capable of generating electrical power for spacecraft environmental systems, communications, and

Stanley K. Borowski; Robert R. Corban; Melissa L. McGuire; Erik G. Beke

1995-01-01

141

A potpourri of pristine moon rocks, including a VHK mare basalt and a unique, augite-rich Apollo 17 anorthosite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The anorthosite fragment, 76504,18, the first of the Apollo 17's pristine anorthosites, was found to have: (1) a higher ratio of high-Ca pyroxine to low-Ca pyroxene, (2) higher Na in its plagioclase, (3) higher contents of incompatible elements, and (4) a higher Eu\\/Al ratio in comparison to ferroan anorthosites. With a parent melt having a negative Eu anomaly, 76504,18 closely

P. H. Warren; D. N. Shirley; G. W. Kallemeyn

1986-01-01

142

Detection of a Nonuniform Distribution of Polonium210 on the Moon with the Apollo 16 Alpha Particle Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The polonium-210 activity of the lunar surface is significantly larger than the activity of its progenitor radon-222. This result establishes unequivocally that radon emanation from the present-day moon varies considerably within the 21-year half-life of lead-210, the parent nuclide of polonium-210. There are large variations and well-localized enhancements in polonium-210 activity over much of the moon's surface.

Paul Bjorkholm; Leon Golub; Paul Gorenstein

1973-01-01

143

Tracking Lunar Dust - Analysis of Apollo Footage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using video clips from the Apollo mission, 2-D trajectories of the dust trails thrown by the wheel of the Lunar Roving Vehicle are reconstructed. Applying the ballistic flight equations, we obtain rough estimates of the dust relative velocity as well as the gravitational acceleration of the moon. This exercise serves as an interesting educational and public outreach material. Future improvements of this method may help to derive the dust velocity distribution and provide information of the lunar surface environment. A similar educational experiment focusing on the dust charging measurement is presented by A. Dove - Lunar Grand Prix: A Goldmine for Teaching Mechanics and Electrostatics.

Hsu, H.; Horanyi, M.

2011-12-01

144

Interpretation Of The Apollo Lunar Surface Data Using The Unified And The Two Scale Full Wave Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. ABSTRACT Bistatic radar experiments carried out by Tyler and Howard during the Apollo 16 mission provide a very useful data set with which to compare theoretical models and experimental data. These bistatic radar experiments provide data on the quasi-specular scattering cross sections of the Moon's surface for angles of incidence between 12' and 87.5'. Recently Vesecky et al., (1988)

E. Bahar; M. Haugland

1989-01-01

145

A 660 D&O Gravitational Field of the Moon from the GRAIL Primary Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has completed its primary three-month tour that resulted in a gravitational field of 660 degree-and-order or equivalent surface resolution of 8 km. The primary measurement for the gravity field is the inter-spacecraft K-Band Range Rate (KBRR) measurement derived from dual spacecraft one-way range. Direct Doppler tracking at X-band from the Deep Space Network for Ebb and Flow supplemented The KBRR. Advanced system calibrations and measurement timing have resulted in unprecedented data quality of better than 0.1 microns/sec. The gravity field solution shows an error spectrum with several orders of magnitude improvement for all wavelengths when compared to previous missions. Nearly uniform correlations with topography exist through higher harmonic degrees and are a good measure of field integrity. The results of the mission satisfy the scientific objectives of determining the structure of the lunar interior from crust to core and advancing the understanding of the thermal evolution of the Moon. They also directly address the mission's investigations that include mapping the structure of the crust and lithosphere, understanding the Moon's asymmetric thermal evolution, determining the subsurface structure of impact basins and the origin of mascons, ascertaining the temporal evolution of the crustal brecciation and magmatism, constrain deep interior structure from tides, and place limits on the size of a possible solid inner core.

Yuan, Dah-Ning; Konopliv, Alex; Asmar, Sami; Park, Ryan; Williams, James; Watkins, Michael; Fahnestock, Eugene; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Paik, Meegyeong; Strekalov, Dmitry; Harvey, Nate; Zuber, Maria; Smith, David

2013-04-01

146

Galileo on the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Galileo used thought experiments to test many assumptions, including the notion that heavy objects fall more quickly than lighter objects when they are dropped. Lacking access to either a vacuum chamber or a planetary body that has no atmosphere, he nevertheless correctly predicted that all falling objects would accelerate at the same rate in the absence of air resistance. In this video segment astronaut David Scott re-creates the famous experiment, which supported Galileo's prediction, on the Apollo 15 mission to the Moon. The segment is forty-seven seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

147

The D-cixs X-ray Spectrometer On Esa's Smart-1 Mission To The Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The D-CIXS Compact X-ray Spectrometer will fly on ESA's SMART-1 mission to the Moon. It consists of a high throughput spectrometer, which will perform spatially localised X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, and a solar monitor to provide the cali- bration necessary to determine absolute elemental abundances of the lunar surface. It will produce global maps of Mg, Al and Si, three of the key rock forming elements on the Moon. In addition to the obvious advantages of a global elemental distribution map, specific targets of interest have been identified, including the South Pole-Aitken basin, the lunar maria, large impact craters and impact basins. D-CIXS will demon- strate two new technologies, micro-structure collimators and swept-charge devices. These developments will allow D-CIXS to achieve ground breaking science within a resource envelope far smaller than previously thought possible for this type of in- strument. D-CIXS represents an excellent choice of instrument for future planetary missions, including the BepiColombo mission to the planet Mercury.

Grande, M.; Dunkin, S. K.; Browning, R.; D-Cixs Team

148

Lunar science: The Apollo Legacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general review of lunar science is presented, utilizing two themes: a summary of fundamental problems relating to the composition, structure, and history of the moon and a discussion of some surprising, unanticipated results obtained from Apollo lunar science. (1) The moon has a crust of approximately 60-km thickness, probably composed of feldspar-rich rocks. Such rocks are exposed at the

D. S. Burnett

1975-01-01

149

Venus, Mars, and the Ices on Mercury and the Moon: Astrobiological Implications and Proposed Mission Designs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Venus and Mars likely had liquid water bodies on their surface early in the Solar System history. The surfaces of Venus and Mars are presently not a suitable habitat for life, but reservoirs of liquid water remain in the atmosphere of Venus and the subsurface of Mars, and with it also the possibility of microbial life. Microbial organisms may have adapted to live in these ecological niches by the evolutionary force of directional selection. Missions to our neighboring planets should therefore be planned to explore these potentially life-containing refuges and return samples for analysis. Sample return missions should also include ice samples from Mercury and the Moon, which may contain information about the biogenic material that catalyzed the early evolution of life on Earth (or elsewhere). To obtain such information, science-driven exploration is necessary through varying degrees of mission operation autonomy. A hierarchical mission design is envisioned that includes spaceborne (orbital), atmosphere (airborne), surface (mobile such as rover and stationary such as lander or sensor), and subsurface (e.g., ground-penetrating radar, drilling, etc.) agents working in concert to allow for sufficient mission safety and redundancy, to perform extensive and challenging reconnaissance, and to lead to a thorough search for evidence of life and habitability.

Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Dohm, James M.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Baker, Victor R.; Fink, Wolfgang; Strom, Robert G.

2005-12-01

150

Venus, Mars, and the ices on Mercury and the moon: astrobiological implications and proposed mission designs.  

PubMed

Venus and Mars likely had liquid water bodies on their surface early in the Solar System history. The surfaces of Venus and Mars are presently not a suitable habitat for life, but reservoirs of liquid water remain in the atmosphere of Venus and the subsurface of Mars, and with it also the possibility of microbial life. Microbial organisms may have adapted to live in these ecological niches by the evolutionary force of directional selection. Missions to our neighboring planets should therefore be planned to explore these potentially life-containing refuges and return samples for analysis. Sample return missions should also include ice samples from Mercury and the Moon, which may contain information about the biogenic material that catalyzed the early evolution of life on Earth (or elsewhere). To obtain such information, science-driven exploration is necessary through varying degrees of mission operation autonomy. A hierarchical mission design is envisioned that includes spaceborne (orbital), atmosphere (airborne), surface (mobile such as rover and stationary such as lander or sensor), and subsurface (e.g., ground-penetrating radar, drilling, etc.) agents working in concert to allow for sufficient mission safety and redundancy, to perform extensive and challenging reconnaissance, and to lead to a thorough search for evidence of life and habitability. PMID:16379531

Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Dohm, James M; Fairén, Alberto G; Baker, Victor R; Fink, Wolfgang; Strom, Robert G

2005-12-01

151

Project APEX: Advanced Phobos Exploration. Manned mission to the Martian moon Phobos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manned exploration of Mars is a massive undertaking which requires careful consideration. A mission to the moon of Mars called Phobos as a prelude to manned landings on the Martian surface offers some advantages. One is that the energy requirements, in terms of delta 5, is only slightly higher than going to the Moon's surface. Another is that Phobos is a potential source of water and carbon which could be extracted and processed for life support and cryogenic propellants for use in future missions; thus, Phobos might serve as a base for extended Mars exploration or for exploration of the outer planets. The design of a vehicle for such a mission is the subject of our Aerospace System Design course this year. The materials and equipment needed for the processing plant would be delivered to Phobos in a prior unmanned mission. This study focuses on what it would take to send a crew to Phobos, set up the processing plant for extraction and storage of water and hydrocarbons, conduct scientific experiments, and return safely to Earth. The size, configuration, and subsystems of the vehicle are described in some detail. The spacecraft carries a crew of five and is launched from low Earth orbit in the year 2010. The outbound trajectory to Mars uses a gravitational assisted swing by of Venus and takes eight months to complete. The stay at Phobos is 60 days at which time the crew will be engaged in setting up the processing facility. The crew will then return to Earth orbit after a total mission duration of 656 days. Both stellar and solar observations will be conducted on both legs of the mission. The design of the spacecraft addresses human factors and life science; mission analysis and control; propulsion; power generation and distribution; thermal control; structural analysis; and planetary, solar, and stellar science. A 0.5 g artificial gravity is generated during transit by spinning about the lateral body axis. Nuclear thermal rockets using hydrogen as fuel are selected to reduce total launch mass and to shorten the duration of the mission. The nuclear systems also provide the primary electrical power via dual mode operation. The overall spacecraft length is 110 meters and the total mass departing from low Earth orbit is 900 metric tons.

1992-04-01

152

Human Missions to Mars: Enabling Technologies for Exploring the Red Planet  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In January 2004, President George W. Bush announced the new ``Vision for Space Exploration,'' which has refocused U.S. human spaceflight policy away from low- Earth orbit and toward the exploration of the Moon and Mars. While the technological requirements to return people to the Moon are well understood (after all, the Apollo program had people on the Moon almost 40 years ago), the proposed missions to Mars will be much more challenging.

Crawford, Ian

2008-09-01

153

A cost and risk analysis of human exploration missions to Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) initiated a renewal of America's space exploration efforts which had come to an end following the Apollo 17 mission in 1972. SEI was a massive proposed program which was to culminate in a permanent human settlement on the Moon and a base for humans on Mars. Russian space agencies have also proposed human exploration missions,

Steven Carl Merrihew

1997-01-01

154

Apollo lunar sounder experiment  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The scientific objectives of the Apollo lunar sounder experiment (ALSE) are (1) mapping of subsurface electrical conductivity structure to infer geological structure, (2) surface profiling to determine lunar topographic variations, (3) surface imaging, and (4) measuring galactic electromagnetic radiation in the lunar environment. The ALSE was a three-frequency, wide-band, coherent radar system operated from lunar orbit during the Apollo 17 mission.

Phillips, R. J.; Adams, G. F.; Brown, W. E., Jr.; Eggleton, R. E.; Jackson, P.; Jordan, R.; Linlor, W. I.; Peeples, W. J.; Porcello, L. J.; Ryu, J.; Schaber, G.; Sill, W. R.; Thompson, T. W.; Ward, S. H.; Zelenka, J. S.

1973-01-01

155

Field Trip to the Moon DVD - LRO/LCROSS Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This special edition DVD--introducing NASA's LRO/LCROSS mission--captures the experience in a feature video created using NASA engineering models and scientific data. Viewers will experience what is like to travel through space to land on the Moon. Along the way, they'll discover some of the differences between the Earth and the Moon and what makes our planet unique and habitable. The DVD includes support media including segments on the LRO/LCROSS Mission, the Moon's formation, Apollo landing sites, future lunar landing animation, and Moon trivia questions. Educator Guide, Informal Educator Guide, Live Presenter Script, and other downloads are available at http://www.amnh.org/education/ftm. Length: 20:42 . The program is also offered at the American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium as a full-dome experience with a live presenter during the school year for school groups and visitors to take a virtual field trip to the Moon.

2009-03-10

156

Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present state and evolution of the physical features which are visible on the Moon's surface are emphasized herein. Lunar craters, their distribution and stratigraphy, and the cratering processes are addressed. Homologous material is presented for lunar basins. Terra breccias, maria, and mare basalts are discussed. Lunar geologic history is also considered.

Wilhelms, D. E.

1984-06-01

157

Human Exploration Mission Capabilities to the Moon, Mars, and Near Earth Asteroids Using ''Bimodal'' NTR Propulsion  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is one of the leading propulsion options for future human exploration missions because of its high specific impulse (Isp {approx} 850 to 1000 s) and attractive engine thrust-to-weight ratio ({approx} 3 to 10). Because only a minuscule amount of enriched {sup 235}U fuel is consumed in an NRT during the primary propulsion maneuvers of a typical Mars mission, engines configured both for propulsive thrust and modest power generation (referred to as 'bimodal' operation) provide the basis for a robust, power-rich stage with efficient propulsive capture capability at the moon and near-earth asteroids (NEAs), where aerobraking cannot be utilized. A family of modular bimodal NTR (BNTR) space transfer vehicles utilize a common core stage powered by three {approx}15-klb{sub f} engines that produce 50 kW(electric) of total electrical power for crew life support, high data rate communications with Earth, and an active refrigeration system for long-term, zero-boiloff liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) storage. This paper describes details of BNTR engines and designs of vehicles using them for various missions.

Stanley K. Borowski; Leonard A. Dudzinski; Melissa L. McGuire

2000-06-04

158

Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the apollo program.  

PubMed

On 21 July 1969, during the first manned lunar mission, Apollo 11, the first retroreflector array was placed on the moon, enabling highly accurate measurements of the Earthmoon separation by means of laser ranging. Lunar laser ranging (LLR) turns the Earthmoon system into a laboratory for a broad range of investigations, including astronomy, lunar science, gravitational physics, geodesy, and geodynamics. Contributions from LLR include the three-orders-of-magnitude improvement in accuracy in the lunar ephemeris, a several-orders-of-magnitude improvement in the measurement of the variations in the moon's rotation, and the verification of the principle of equivalence for massive bodies with unprecedented accuracy. Lunar laser ranging analysis has provided measurements of the Earth's precession, the moon's tidal acceleration, and lunar rotational dissipation. These scientific results, current technological developments, and prospects for the future are discussed here. PMID:17781305

Dickey, J O; Bender, P L; Faller, J E; Newhall, X X; Ricklefs, R L; Ries, J G; Shelus, P J; Veillet, C; Whipple, A L; Wiant, J R; Williams, J G; Yoder, C F

1994-07-22

159

The Inside of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fundamental questions remain regarding the lunar interior, e.g.: Why did the Moon apparently cool so early? Why does the Moon have an asymmetric structure (nearside/farside)? What is the thickness of the lunar crust? How much of crustal variability is due to variable melting vs. impact redistribution? How big are impact basins and how deep did they excavate and thermally perturb the mantle? What was the temporal evolution of magmatism and brecciation? Did the mantle overturn subsequent to magma ocean solidification? How laterally heterogeneous is the lunar mantle? Does the Moon have a seismic discontinuity in the mantle? Does the Moon have a core? Does the Moon have a liquid outer core? Did the Moon have a core dynamo? Some of these questions will be at least partially answered in the next several years through new spacecraft investigations such as the GRAIL mission, which will map the lunar gravity field to unprecedented spatial resolution and accuracy. Furthermore, a long-lived, multi-station seismic network is also essential for understanding interior structure. Recent analyses of Apollo seismic data call into question the existence of the mantle discontinuity at 500-km depth, and the thickness of the lunar crust beneath the Apollo 12 and 14 landing sites now has multiple estimates. However, there is still a great deal that can be learned from existing lunar data sets. One productive approach would construct a set of self-consistent models that describe the coupled petrological-thermal evolution of the Moon. Such an investigation involves the high-level marriage of detailed petrological information from samples of the lunar crust and possibly mantle; of models that can predict accurately lunar solidi, liquidi, and equilibrium compositions; and of sophisticated thermal models that accurately incorporate the physics of melting and melt migration.

Phillips, Roger J.

2008-09-01

160

Compositional Variation in Apollo 16 Impact-Melt Breccias and Inferences for the Geology and Bombardment History of the Central Highlands of the Moon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

High-precision data for the concentrations of a number of lithophile and siderophile elements were obtained on multiple subsamples from 109 impact-melt rocks and breccias (mostly crystalline) from the Apollo 16 site. Compositions of nearly all Apollo 16 m...

R. L. Korotev

1994-01-01

161

Apollo 11 -- 30th Anniversary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

July 20, 1999 marks the 30th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing and the historic first steps by humans on the surface of another planet. In celebration, the National Air and Space Museum, Newseum, NASA, National Space Society and Artrain hosted a variety of activities in Washington, D.C. and on the internet. The site features a set of exhibitions: "Milestones of Flight," "Lunar Exploration Vehicles," "Apollo to the Moon," and the "Space Race." Additionally links to different collections, resources and activities, and past anniversary events are provided.

2009-04-02

162

Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Stage Technology Options for NASA's Future Human Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners and designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (Isp ~ 850-1000 seconds) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (~ 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a ``dual mode'' system capable of generating stage electrical power. At present, NASA is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, ``single burn'' trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's ``First Lunar Outpost'' (FLO) mission to all propulsive, ``multi-burn,'' spacecraft supporting a ``split cargo/piloted sprint'' Mars mission architecture. Two ``proven'' solid core NTR concepts are examined -one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application)-derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide ``twisted ribbon'' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Integrated systems and mission study results are used in designing ``aerobraked'' and ``all propulsive'' Mars vehicle concepts which are mass-, and volume-compatible with both a reference 240 metric tonne (t) heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) and a smaller 120 t HLLV option. For the ``aerobraked'' scenario, the 2010 piloted mission determines the size of the expendable trans-Mars injection (TMI) stage which is a growth version of the FLO TLI stage. An ``all-propulsive'' Moon/Mars mission architecture is also described which uses common ``modular'' engine and stage hardware consisting of: (1) clustered 15 thousand pounds force (klbf) NDR or CIS engines; (2) two ``standardized'' liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank sizes; and (3) ``dual mode'' NTR and refrigeration system technologies for long duration missions. The ``modular'' NTR approach can form the basis for a ``faster, safer, and cheaper'' space transportation system for tomorrow's piloted missions to the Moon and Mars.

Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.

1994-07-01

163

APOLLO Experience Report Consumables Budgeting.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The procedures and techniques used in predicting the consumables usage for the Apollo mission are discussed. Because of the many interfaces and influences on the consumables system, it is impractical to document all facets of consumables budgeting; theref...

D. A. Nelson

1973-01-01

164

Gene Cernan on Apollo 17  

NASA Video Gallery

Apollo 17 Commander Gene Cernan recalls fixing a lunar rover problem with duct tape during his December 1972 mission. Cernan's interview was part of the commemoration of NASA's 50th anniversary in 2008.

Jim Wilson

2010-06-30

165

Apollo-Soyuz Test Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Experiments proposed for the Apollo-Soyuz space mission are discussed. Data focus of space processing and manufacturing, earth surveys, and life sciences. Special efforts were made to test the compatibility of the rendezvous and docking systems for manned...

1975-01-01

166

MCNPX benchmark for cosmic ray interactions with the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MCNPX radiation transport code is used to simulate cosmic ray interactions within the Moon. Accurate source, geometric, and physics models are developed to successfully benchmark neutron density results with Apollo 17 measurements. The peak of the MCNPX lunar neutron density profile is shown to be within a few percent of the measured value, using a galactic cosmic rays modulation parameter that is consistent with the timeframe of the Apollo 17 mission. Sensitivity of the density profile to various input parameters and physics options is considered. Details of the simulation input are provided, along with neutron production and flux results, to facilitate additional benchmark efforts in the future.

McKinney, G. W.; Lawrence, D. J.; Prettyman, T. H.; Elphic, R. C.; Feldman, W. C.; Hagerty, J. J.

2006-06-01

167

The Moon's Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How did the Moon form? The most favored theory - a cataclysmic impact on our planet - that has dominated scientific thinking for over a quarter of a century has always had its critics. But the final piece of the puzzle may just be in place. This radio broadcast considers new research that could offer the complete picture into the events that led to the creation of our moon. Analysis of moon rocks following the Apollo missions added weight to a newly emerging theory that a Mars-sized body in the early days of the solar system crashed into the young Earth, melting its crust and that from the resulting shattered remains, the Moon emerged. This broadcast examines new computer simulations of events and reveals startling new evidence from a researcher who believes that this Mars-sized body hid in a seemingly impossible, but increasingly likely location a mere 150 million kilometers from the orbit of Earth for millions of years, until it was set on an inevitable collision course with the Earth. If the theory is correct, it could provide far reaching proof that the universe is full of hidden areas where life might flourish. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

168

Apollo 17 Age Determinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE Apollo 17 mission landed in a valley in the highland region forming part of the south-eastern rim of the Sea of Serenity (20° 09' 50'' N, 30° 44' 58'' E). An early allocation of a limited number of samples has been made to provide preliminary information on this site and we report here the results of age determinations we

G. Turner; P. H. Cadogan; C. J. Yonge

1973-01-01

169

Lunar seismology - The internal structure of the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is pointed out that seismology has provided the most detailed information concerning the structure and state of the earth's interior. Beginning in 1969, seismometers were landed on the moon by the Apollo missions, providing the first opportunity to attempt similar studies on another planetary body. In September 1977 the operation of these instruments was terminated. A description is presented of the internal structure of the moon, as determined from the obtained lunar seismic data. The analysis of the lunar data is approached in a systematic fashion, using appropriate techniques to minimize the number of necessary assumptions, extract the maximum amount of structural information, and determine its reliability. The completed lunar seismic network consists of four stations located at the landing sites of Apollo missions 12, 14, 15, and 16. Attention is given to crustal structure, the structure of the lunar mantle, the attenuating region, and the core.

Goins, N. R.; Dainty, A. M.; Toksoz, M. N.

1981-06-01

170

Stationkeeping of the First Earth-Moon Libration Orbiters: The ARTEMIS Mission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Libration point orbits near collinear locations are inherently unstable and must be controlled. For Acceleration Reconnection and Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) Earth-Moon Lissajous orbit operations, statio...

D. Cosgrove D. Folta M. Woodard

2011-01-01

171

SUDA: A Dust Mass Spectrometer for Surface Mapping for the JUICE Mission to the Galilean Moons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a mass spectrometer to measure the composition of the dust exospheres of the Galilean moons. Since the grains are samples from the moons' surfaces, unique information is obtained about the geological activities on and below the crust.

Kempf, S.; Briois, C.; Cottin, H.; Engrand, C.; Grün, E.; Hand, K.; Henkel, H.; Horanyi, M.; Lankton, M.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Postberg, F.; Schmidt, J.; Srama, R.; Sternovsky, Z.; Thissen, R.; Tobie, G.; Szopa, C.; Zolotov, M.

2012-10-01

172

Apollo 15 Proves Galileo Correct  

NASA Video Gallery

At the end of the last Apollo 15 moon walk, Commander David Scott held out a geologic hammer and a feather and dropped them at the same time. Because they were essentially in a vacuum, there was no air resistance and the feather fell at the same rate as the hammer, as Galileo had concluded hundreds of years before.

Jim Wilson

2010-08-12

173

Scientific rationale for the D-CIXS X-ray spectrometer on board ESA's SMART-1 mission to the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The D-CIXS X-ray spectrometer on ESA's SMART-1 mission will provide the first global coverage of the lunar surface in X-rays, providing absolute measurements of elemental abundances. The instrument will be able to detect elemental Fe, Mg, Al and Si under normal solar conditions and several other elements during solar flare events. These data will allow for advances in several areas of lunar science, including an improved estimate of the bulk composition of the Moon, detailed observations of the lateral and vertical nature of the crust, chemical observations of the maria, investigations into the lunar regolith, and mapping of potential lunar resources. In combination with information to be obtained by the other instruments on SMART-1 and the data already provided by the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions, this information will allow for a more detailed look at some of the fundamental questions that remain regarding the origin and evolution of the Moon.

Dunkin, S. K.; Grande, M.; Casanova, I.; Fernandes, V.; Heather, D. J.; Kellett, B.; Muinonen, K.; Russell, S. S.; Browning, R.; Waltham, N.; Parker, D.; Kent, B.; Perry, C. H.; Swinyard, B.; Perry, A.; Feraday, J.; Howe, C.; Phillips, K.; McBride, G.; Huovelin, J.; Muhli, P.; Hakala, P. J.; Vilhu, O.; Thomas, N.; Hughes, D.; Alleyne, H.; Grady, M.; Lundin, R.; Barabash, S.; Baker, D.; Clark, P. E.; Murray, C. D.; Guest, J.; d'Uston, L. C.; Maurice, S.; Foing, B.; Christou, A.; Owen, C.; Charles, P.; Laukkanen, J.; Koskinen, H.; Kato, M.; Sipila, K.; Nenonen, S.; Holmstrom, M.; Bhandari, N.; Elphic, R.; Lawrence, D.

2003-05-01

174

The Mitigation of Radiation Hazards on Missions to Deep Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the advent of human space flight in the late 1950s, more than 200 people have flown in space, from sub-orbital flights and the Apollo missions to the Moon, to space stations Skylab, Soyuz, and the International Space Station. Even tourists are beginning to travel to space. As technology advances, human interplanetary missions are seen as the next steps for space exploration, with Mars as the first target.

Kumar, Mohi

2005-12-01

175

LAPIS - LAnder Package Impacting a Seismometer - A Proposal for a Semi-Hard Lander Mission to the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

With an increased interest on the moon within the last years, at least with several missions in orbit or under development (SELENE\\/Japan, Chang'e\\/China, Chandrayaan\\/India and others), there is a strong demand within the German science community to participate in this initiative, building-up a national competence regarding lunar exploration. For this purpose, a Phase-0 analysis for a small lunar semi-hard landing

C. Lange

2009-01-01

176

Nuclear Thermal Rocket\\/Stage Technology Options for NASA's Future Human Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners and designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (Isp ? 850–1000 seconds) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (? 3–10), the NTR can also be configured as a “dual mode” system capable of generating stage electrical power. At present,

Stanley K. Borowski; Robert R. Corban; Melissa L. McGuire; Erik G. Beke

1994-01-01

177

Nuclear Thermal Rocket\\/Stage Technology Options for NASA's Future Human Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners and designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (Isp ~ 850-1000 seconds) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (~ 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a ``dual mode'' system capable of generating stage electrical power. At present,

Stanley K. Borowski; Robert R. Corban; Melissa L. McGuire; Erik G. Beke

1994-01-01

178

First-order feasibility analysis of a space suit radiator concept based on estimation of water mass sublimation using Apollo mission data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal control of a space suit during extravehicular activity (EVA) is typically accomplished by sublimating water to provide system cooling. Spacecraft, on the other hand, primarily rely on radiators to dissipate heat. Integrating a radiator into a space suit has been proposed as an alternative design that does not require mass consumption for heat transfer. While providing cooling without water loss offers potential benefits for EVA application, it is not currently practical to rely on a directional, fixed-emissivity radiator to maintain thermal equilibrium of a spacesuit where the radiator orientation, environmental temperature, and crew member metabolic heat load fluctuate unpredictably. One approach that might make this feasible, however, is the use of electrochromic devices that are capable of infrared emissivity modulation and can be actively controlled across the entire suit surface to regulate net heat flux for the system. Integrating these devices onto the irregular, compliant space suit material requires that they be fabricated on a flexible substrate, such as Kapton film. An initial assessment of whether or not this candidate technology presents a feasible design option was conducted by first characterizing the mass of water loss from sublimation that could theoretically be saved if an electrochromic suit radiator was employed for thermal control. This is particularly important for lunar surface exploration, where the expense of transporting water from Earth is excessive, but the technology is potentially beneficial for other space missions as well. In order to define a baseline for this analysis by comparison to actual data, historical documents from the Apollo missions were mined for comprehensive, detailed metabolic data from each lunar surface outing, and related data from NASA's more recent "Advanced Lunar Walkback" tests were also analyzed. This metabolic database was then used to validate estimates for sublimator water consumption during surface EVAs, and solar elevation angles were added to predict the performance of an electrochromic space suit radiator under Apollo conditions. Then, using these actual data sets, the hypothetical water mass savings that would be expected had this technology been employed were calculated. The results indicate that electrochromic suit radiators would have reduced sublimator water consumption by 69.0% across the entire Apollo program, for a total mass savings of 68.5 kg to the lunar surface. Further analysis is needed to determine the net impact as a function of the complete system, taking into account both suit components and consumable mass, but the water mass reduction found in this study suggests a favorable system trade is likely.

Metts, Jonathan G.; Klaus, David M.

2012-01-01

179

Tektite glass in apollo 12 sample.  

PubMed

The glassy portion of lunar sample 12013 from Apollo 12 is chemically more like some tektites from Java than like any terrestrial igneous rock. It satisfies all the chemical criteria for a tektite. Tektites are relatively recent and acid rocks, whereas the moon is chiefly ancient and basaltic; hence, tektites are probably ejected volcanically, rather than by impact, from the moon. PMID:17843588

O'keefe, J A

1970-06-01

180

Mission Requirements Second Skylab Mission, Sl-3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Mission Requirements Document for the second Skylab Mission (SL-3) is presented. The following areas are defined: mission objectives, mission requirements, test objectives, medical experiments, Apollo telescope mount experiments, earth resources exper...

1972-01-01

181

JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (juice): AN ESA L-Class Mission Candidate to the Jupiter System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. Humankind wonders whether the origin of life is unique to the Earth or if it occurs elsewhere in our Solar System or beyond. To answer this question, even though the mechanisms by which life originated on Earth are not yet clearly understood, one can assume that the necessary conditions involve the simultaneous presence of organic compounds, trace elements, water, energy sources and a relative stability of the environment over time. JUICE will address the question: Are there current habitats elsewhere in the Solar System with the necessary conditions (water, biological essential elements, energy and stability) to sustain life? The spatial extent and evolution of habitable zones within the Solar System are critical elements in the development and sustainment of life, as well as in addressing the question of whether life developed on Earth alone or whether it was developed in other Solar System environments and was then imported to Earth. The focus of JUICE is to characterise the conditions that may have led to the emergence of habitable environments among the Jovian icy satellites, with special emphasis on the three ocean-bearing worlds, Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto. Ganymede is identified for detailed investigation since it provides a natural laboratory for analysis of the nature, evolution and potential habitability of icy worlds in general, but also because of the role it plays within the system of Galilean satellites, and its unique magnetic and plasma interactions with the surrounding Jovian environment. For Europa, where two targeted flybys are planned, the focus will be on the chemistry essential to life, including organic molecules, and on understanding the formation of surface features and the composition of the non water-ice material, leading to the identification and characterisation of candidate sites for future in situ exploration. Furthermore, JUICE will provide the first subsurface observations of this icy moon, including the first determination of the minimal thickness of the icy crust over the most recently active regions. JUICE will determine the characteristics of liquid-water oceans below the icy surfaces of the moons. This will lead to an understanding of the possible sources and cycling of chemical and thermal energy, allow investigation of the evolution and chemical composition of the surfaces and of the subsurface oceans, and enable an evaluation of the processes that have affected the satellites and their environments through time. The study of the diversity of the satellite system will be enhanced with additional information gathered remotely on Io and smaller moons. The mis-sion will also focus on characterising the diversity of processes in the Jupiter system which may be required in order to provide a stable environment at Ganymede, Europa and Callisto on geologic time scales, including gravitational coupling between the Galilean satellites and their long term tidal influence on the system as a whole. Focused stud-ies of Jupiter's atmosphere, and magnetosphere and their interaction with the Galilean satellites will further enhance our understanding of the evolution and dynamics of the Jovian system. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of Jupiter will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. These observations will be attained over a sufficiently long temporal baseline with broad latitudinal coverage to investigate evolving weather systems and the mechanisms of transporting energy, momentum and material between the different layers. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions and their response to the solar wind will be elucidated.

Dougherty, M. K.; Grasset, O.; Erd, C.; Titov, D.; Bunce, E. J.; Coustenis, A.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A. J.; Drossart, P.; Fletcher, L.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; Van Hoolst, T.

2012-04-01

182

Apollo 13 creativity: in-the-box innovation.  

PubMed

A study of the Apollo 13 mission, based on the themes showcased in the acclaimed 1995 film, reveals the grace under pressure that is the condition of optimal creativity. "Apollo 13 Creativity" is a cultural and creative problem-solving appreciation of the thinking style that made the Apollo mission succeed: creativity under severe limitations. Although creativity is often considered a "luxury good," of concern mainly for personal enrichment, the arts, and performance improvement, in life-or-death situations it is the critical pathway not only to success but to survival. In this case. the original plan for a moon landing had to be transformed within a matter of hours into a return to earth. By precluding failure as an option at the outset, both space and ground crews were forced to adopt a new perspective on their resources and options to solve for a successful landing. This now-classic problem provides a range of principles for creative practice and motivation applicable in any situation. The extreme situation makes these points dramatically. PMID:11541760

King, M J

1997-01-01

183

Inventory of Multiring Basins on the Moon After the Clementine Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-ring basins (impact craters greater than 300 km in diameter, regardless of presently expressed morphology; [1, 2]) are of primary importance in the excavation and redistribution of crustal materials and serve as the loci for the accumulation of extruded lavas on the Moon. Understanding their distribution and configuration is important in order to reconstruct the basin-forming impact [2]. The Clementine mission has made the first global maps of the Moon, including altimetry from a laser ranging experiment [3, 4]. This map permits the characterization of long-wavelength topographic features of the lunar crust, including the most prominent and important features, multi-ring basins. We have now surveyed the entire Moon with laser altimetry data from Clementine and have inventoried the global basin population. Many of the most obscure and degraded basins are strikingly expressed in the topographic data. Basins such as Mendel-Rydberg, a nearly obliterated ancient basin (600 km diameter, 5 km deep) south of Orientale, displays nearly as much relief as the "pristine" Orientale basin (900 km diameter; 7 km depth) [5]. The Fecunditatis basin, an obscure quasi-circular feature south of Mare Crisium [3], displays considerable topographic prominence, including an average relief of about 5 km. However, not all of the ancient basins are so deep: the Mutus-Vlacq basin [3], south of Nectaris, is clearly visible in the altimetry [5], but is only 1 to 1.5 km deep. Other basins that appear very ill-defined in the altimetry, yet clearly are present as regional depressions include the Australe, Tranquillitatis, and Margims basins [3]. That both relatively deep and shallow basins exist on the Moon is not surprising; what is remarkable is that there is no correlation between basin depth and geologic age. Apparently, basin morphology is more dependent on local conditions (e.g., crustal thickness, lithospheric conditions at the time of impact) than age. Another unusual expression of topography for a basin is that of the degraded Lomonosov-Fleming basin [3,6]. This feature appears as a quasi-circular, smooth plateau of nearly constant elevation about 500 km across. Such an expression is likely caused by infilling of the basin with ancient mare basalts, covered by highland plains and reexposed as the ejecta of dark halo impact craters [7,8]. This interpretation is supported by the mafic signature of the plains in this region in the Clementine global color image [9] and the presense of elevated amounts of iron in the highland crust here [10]. The altimetry data also show many depressions that are likely to be previously unrecognized basins. For example, depressions near the crater Darwin (20 degrees S, 70 degrees W; basin about 300 km diameter), eastern Mare Frigoris (55 degrees N, 30 degrees W; basin about 700 km across), and east of Mare Humboldtianum (60 degrees N, 130 degrees E; basin about 400 km diameter) are probably degraded impact basins. To date, over 45 basins and their rings have been mapped on the Moon and the relief and volumes of the basins have been measured. Work continues on the analysis of this numerical data, which should give insight into the processes of basin formation and planetary evolution. References: [1] Wilhelms D. E. (1987) USGS Prof. Pap. 1348, 302 pp. [2] Spudis P. D. (1993) Geology of Multi-Ring Impact Basins, Cambridge Univ., 263 pp. [3] Nozette S. et al. (1994) Science, 266, 1835. [4] Zuber M. T. et al. (1994) Science, 266, 1839. [5] Spudis P. D. et al. (1994) Science, 266, 1848. [6] Wilhelms D. and El-Baz F. (1977) USGS Map I-948. [7] Schultz P. H. and Spudis P. D. (1979) Proc. LPSC 10th, 2899. [8] Schultz P. H. and Spudis P. D. (1982) Nature, 302, 233. [9] Lucey P. G. et al. (1994) Science, 266, 1855. [10] Lucey P. G. et al. (1995) Science, 268, 1150.

Spudis, P. D.

1995-09-01

184

Does the Surface of the Moon Really Charge to Extreme Positive Potentials in the Magnetotail Lobes? A Re-analysis of Apollo\\/CPLEE observations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electron measurements made from the lunar surface by the Apollo 14 Charged Particle and Lunar Environment Experiment (CPLEE) have been used to infer dayside surface potentials of >200 V positive when in the tail lobes. Based on typical plasma conditions in the tail lobes at lunar orbit, and studies of the photoemission of electrons from lunar regolith samples, the surface

T. J. Stubbs; W. M. Farrell; M. R. Collier; R. R. Vondrak

2010-01-01

185

Curatorial statistics on apollo regolith fragments applicable to sample collection by raking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technological and science risk for robotic sample return missions to the Moon is lowered because of lessons learned from the effectiveness of Apollo sampling devices in recovering the specimens desired. Apollo lunar sample curatorial statistics of the specimens collected by the astronauts, and the sub-samples allocated for scientific research, have useful information applicable to future lunar robotic sample return missions. Because regolith processes are global, the best broad-based predictors of numbers of fragments to be expected from sieving lunar regolith are the results of sieving 144 Apollo soil samples from 4 sites comprising 46 kg of material.Weight percents are: 1-2 mm (4%), 2-4 mm (3%), 4-10 mm (3%). We assume that future sample return missions will focus on recovery of igneous crystalline material or crystalline melt sheet material, untainted by regolith processing. Therefore we assigned 474 rocks, 665 rake samples and 3376 fragments (4-10 mm) as either "crystalline" or "regolith-derived", based on existing lithologic characterizations developed by the Preliminary Examination Teams. For rocks statistically gathered with 1-cm -spaced tines (the rake samples), an increase in relative abundance of regolith-derived specimens occurs among lower weight rocks.The weight at which the number of regolith-derived samples exceed crystalline samples occurs at 18g for Apollo 16, 10 g for Apollo 17 and 6 g for Apollo 15. When the crystalline fraction for rocks, rakes and 4-10 rum fragments is compared for each sampling station, the relative abundance of crystalline material is consistent in all sizes, but differences between sampling stations within a landing site are distinct.

Allton, J. H.; Bevill, T. J.

2003-06-01

186

What Neil & Buzz Left on the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the one Apollo experiment still functioning--the corner mirrors that Apollo astronauts placed on the moon to reflect laser pulses from Earth back to Earth. Monitoring these pulses makes the precise measurement of the distance to the Moon possible.

2008-08-05

187

Full-Mission Selenolocation Progress for the Moon Mineralogy Mapper on Chandrayaan-1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

M3, a NASA imaging spectrometer, acquired near-global coverage of the Moon on ISRO's Chandrayaan-1. We discuss challenges to the selenolocation of the data, describe our current models and results, and provide suggestions for improved processing.

Boardman, J. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Green, R.; Lundeen, S. R.; Varanasi, P.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Isaacson, P.; Besse, S.; Taylor, L. A.

2011-03-01

188

Full-Mission Selenolocation Progress for the Moon Mineralogy Mapper on Chandrayaan-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

M3, a NASA imaging spectrometer, acquired near-global coverage of the Moon on ISRO's Chandrayaan-1. We discuss challenges to the selenolocation of the data, describe our current models and results, and provide suggestions for improved processing.

J. W. Boardman; C. M. Pieters; R. Green; S. R. Lundeen; P. Varanasi; J. Nettles; N. Petro; P. Isaacson; S. Besse; L. A. Taylor

2011-01-01

189

UV Imaging of the Moon from the Hubble Space Telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hubble Space Telescope UV observations of three targets on the Moon have been successfully acquired (Apollo 15, Apollo 17, Aristarchus). These UV and Visible wavelength images demonstrate that lunar compositional mapping can be achieved via the HST's ACS instrument.

Garvin, J. B.; Robinson, M. S.; Hapke, B.; Bell, J. F., III; Skillman, D.; Ulmer, M.; Pieters, C.

2006-03-01

190

General human health issues for Moon and Mars missions: Results from the HUMEX study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general health issues considered in two scenarios of human long-term exploratory missions, which include a mission to a lunar base and a mission to Mars, have been analysed. Based on statistical data from occupational and normal population groups of Western countries, the following safety objectives have been chosen: individual risk of death by illness (=natural death) during the mission

Gerda Horneck; Bernard Comet

2006-01-01

191

Interpretation of the Apollo 14 Thermal Degradation Sample experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thermal Degradation Sample (TDS) experiment was one of the many investigations performed on the lunar surface during Apollo 14. Remarkably, the results of this 40 year old experiment were never fully interpreted, perhaps in part because the hardware vanished after its return. Mission records, high resolution photographs returned from the mission, and recent laboratory investigations have been used to glean important results from this experiment. It is most likely that the dust adhesion to the TDS was less than anticipated because of atomic-level contamination of its surfaces. These contaminants were probably removed from most equipment surfaces on the Moon by sputter cleaning by the solar wind, but the TDS experiments were not exposed to the solar wind long enough to affect the cleaning.

Gaier, James R.

2012-09-01

192

Probing gravity with the proposed MAGIA and ILN lunar missions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MAGIA (Missione Altimetrica Gravimetrica GeochImica Lunare) is a mission approved by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) for Phase A study. Using a single large-diameter laser retroreflector, a large laser retroreflector array and an atomic clock onboard MAGIA, we propose to perform several fundamental physics and absolute positioning metrology experiments: VESPUCCI, an improved test of the gravitational redshift in the Earth-Moon system predicted by General Relativity; MoonLIGHT-P, a precursor test of a second generation Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) payload for precision gravity Network (ILN). Future ILN geodetic nodes equipped with MoonLIGHT and the Apollo/Lunokhod retroreflectors will become the first realization of the International Moon Reference Frame (IMRF), the lunar analog of the ITRF (International Terrestrial Reference Frame).

Garattini, M.; Lops, C.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Boni, A.; Berardi, S.; Cantone, C.; Delle Monache, G. O.; Intaglietta, N.; Maiello, M.; Martini, M.; Patrizi, G.; Porcelli, L.; Tibuzzi, M.; Currie, D. G.; Vittori, R.; Bianco, G.; Murphy, T.; Coradini, A.; Dionisio, C.; March, R.; Bellettini, G.; Tauraso, R.

193

Targeting for the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Instrument on the Chandrayaan-1 Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

M3 will measure the spectral reflectance of the Moon in two modes, a coarse resolution mode for global coverage and a higher resolution mode for defined areas of science interest. We describe the prioritization of areas for high-resolution coverage.

N. E. Petro; C. M. Pieters; J. Boardman; R. O. Green; J. W. Head; P. J. Isaacson; J. W. Nettles; E. Malaret; M. Staid; J. Sunshine; S. Tompkins

2008-01-01

194

ESA's SMART-1 Mission at the Moon: First Results, Status and Next Steps  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESA's SMART-1 is at the Moon! Launched by Ariane-5 in Sept. 2003, it used primary solar electric propulsion to reach lunar capture on 17 November 2004, and to spiral down to lunar science orbit. First data and results from the cruise approach and lunar commissioning will be presented.

Foing, B. H.; Racca, G. D.; Grande, M.; Huovelin, J.; Josset, J. L.; Keller, H. U.; Nathues, A.; Malkki, A.; Heather, D.; Koschny, D.; Almeida, M.; Frew, D.; Lumb, R.; Volp, J.; Zender, J.

2005-03-01

195

APOLLO Experience Report Flight Instrumentation Calibration.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Three types of instrumentation-calibration data were used in the Apollo Program to provide the correct engineering data for tests and mission support. The command and service module instrumentation-component procurement specifications required individual-...

J. F. Demoss

1973-01-01

196

Apollo Soil Mechanics Experiment S-200.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The physical and mechanical properties of the unconsolidated lunar surface material samples that were obtained during the Apollo missions were studied. Sources of data useful for deduction of soil information, and methods used to obtained the data are ind...

J. K. Mitchell N. C. Costes W. D. Carrier W. N. Houston

1974-01-01

197

Flight Operations Reunion for the APOLLO 11 20TH Anniversary of the First Manned Lunar Landing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The following major areas are presented: (1) the Apollo years; (2) official flight control manning list for Apollo 11; (3) original mission control emblem; (4) foundations of flight control; (5) Apollo-11 20th anniversary program and events; (6) Apollo 11...

1989-01-01

198

Apollo 16 Experiments - Fluorescence Spectrometer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, from the Lunar and Planetary Institute, describes how the composition of portions of the lunar surface was determined by observing the fluorescence produced by solar x-rays. Images are provided with results from the experiments and links are offered to other LPI pages with information on the Apollo missions. This page is written at the level of introductory physics.

2009-07-29

199

Plasma thyroxine changes of the Apollo Crewman.  

PubMed

Blood drawn from Apollo crew member; to the mission, at recovery, and postmission was used to examine the effect Apollo mission activities have on tyroid hormone levels. At recovery, statistically significant increases in thyroxine and the free thyroxine index were found. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased. No change of statistical significance was found in the T3 binding percentage, total serum proteins, and albumin. We conclude that apollo activities and environment caused the postmission increase in serum cholesterol may be one result of the increased thyroxine activity. PMID:1115696

Sheinfeld, M; Leach, C S; Johnson, P C

1975-01-01

200

Analysis of extraterrestrial matter returned by spacecrafts : Apollo, Luna, Genesis and Stardust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of ET matter returned by space missions started with the Apollo and Luna missions and allowed exceptional insight into planetary formation processes as well as composition of the solar system including the Sun. Having ET samples in the lab permits elemental and isotopic analysis at a precision that is, and will be, impossible to attain by direct spacecraft measurements. This is the case for instance of rock dating, a key measurement to understand the early history of the solar system. The Apollo missions returned 380 Kg of rocks and soil from the Moon. Since then, only two missions have returned ET samples from space, Genesis (NASA discovery program) which sampled solar wind ions during 27 months, and Stardust (also NASA discovery program) which returned cometary grains sampled in the tail of comet Wild2/P. The amount of sample recovered by these missions is of the order of the microgram or less, 12 orders of magnitude less than the Apollo missions. This difference is likely to be a constant of the next sample return missions and scientists have to develop instruments able to analyse such extremely limited samples, like laser ablation coupled with mass spectrometry, electron and ion probes, synchrotron radiation etc. The science community has also to work in the framework of consortia where the aim of each group is integrated in a suite of analytical protocols that respect as far as possible the integrity of the samples. These sample return missions are nevertheless essential to explore the composition of the solar system, its heterogeneity, and processes having shaped it 4.5 Ga ago. They also allow the science community to develop a know-how that will be essential for the analysis of samples returned from Mars in, we hope, the not so far future.

Marty, B.; Zimmermann, L.; Burnard, P.

2008-09-01

201

Aerospace plane applications for heavy lift missions to the moon and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The possibility of achieving heavy-lift and interplanetary transportation by aerospace plane-like launch vehicles and Mars transfer vehicles is discussed. It is concluded that reusable airbreathing heavy-lift launch vehicles based on aerospace plane technologies may eventually be feasible for boosting all elements of Mars expeditions into earth orbit for journeys embarked upon about every two years. The same vehicles could be used for heavy lift commerce between the earth and moon and for space tourism.

Froning, H. D., Jr.; Leingang, J. L.; Carreiro, L. R.

1992-12-01

202

The case for planetary sample return missions - Origin and evolution of the moon and its environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The most important questions concerning the origin and evolution of the moon and its environment are reviewed, and the ways that studying lunar samples could help answer them, are discussed. Recommendations are made about methods for obtaining samples and the best lunar sites for obtaining them using simple, unmanned sample returners. Lunar geologic field sites that require intensive field work with human interaction are also considered.

Ryder, Graham; Spudis, Paul D.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey

1989-11-01

203

The case for planetary sample return missions - Origin and evolution of the moon and its environment  

SciTech Connect

The most important questions concerning the origin and evolution of the moon and its environment are reviewed, and the ways that studying lunar samples could help answer them, are discussed. Recommendations are made about methods for obtaining samples and the best lunar sites for obtaining them using simple, unmanned sample returners. Lunar geologic field sites that require intensive field work with human interaction are also considered. 16 refs.

Ryder, G.; Spudis, P.D.; Taylor, G.J. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX (USA) USGS, Flagstaff, AZ (USA) New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque (USA))

1989-11-01

204

NSSDC Photo Gallery Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA photo archive contains images of the moon from different spacecraft missions, including Clementine, Galileo, and the Hubble. The page also links to information about each craft and the moon.

2010-04-16

205

Nickel for your thoughts: urey and the origin of the moon.  

PubMed

The theories of Harold C. Urey (1893-1981) on the origin of the moon are discussed in relation to earlier ideas, especially George Howard Darwin's fission hypothesis. Urey's espousal of the idea that the moon had been captured by the earth and has preserved information about the earliest history of the solar system led him to advocate a manned lunar landing. Results from the Apollo missions, in particular the deficiency of siderophile elements in the lunar crust, led him to abandon the capture selenogony and tentatively adopt the fission hypothesis. PMID:17747939

Brush, S G

1982-09-01

206

Comparison of the chemistry of moon and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical composition of the moon, derived from the study of lunar samples from various Apollo missions, is compared to that of Mars, derived from data of the Viking X-ray fluorescence experiments and from the compositions of SNC meteorites, which are now assumed to have originated from Mars's mantle. Results show that the chemical composition of Mars differs considerably from that of earth and moon. Compared with earth, the moon is depleted in volatile and moderately volatile elements, but, relative to C1-abundances, the lunar mantle shows the same depletion of Cr and Mn as does the earth's mantle. On the other hand, these elements are not depleted in the Martian mantle and the silicate phase of eucrite parent body.

Dreibus, G.; Wanke, H.

207

A Baylor University Payload Contribution to the Universitaet Stuttgart Moon Orbiter LUNAR MISSION BW1  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The LUNAR MISSION BW1 is an academic small lunar orbiting satellite of the Universitaet Stuttgart, Germany. As part of a collaborative agreement between Baylor University and the Universitaet Stuttgart, an instrument contribution is under consideration.

Laufer, R.; Hyde, T. W.; Matthews, L.; Lachenmann, M.; Herdrich, G.; Srama, R.; Roeser, H.-P.

2010-03-01

208

Earliest high-Ti volcanism on the Moon: 40Ar-39Ar, Sm-Nd, and Rb-Sr isotopic studies of Group D basalts from the Apollo 11 landing site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-Ti basalts from the Apollo collections span a range in age from 3.87 Ga to 3.55 Ga. The oldest of these are the common Apollo 11 Group B2 basalts which yield evidence of some of the earliest melting of the lunar mantle beneath Mare Tranquillitatis. Rare Group D high-Ti basalts from Mare Tranquillitatis have been studied in an attempt to confirm a postulated link with Group B2 basalts (Jerde et al., 1994). The initial Sr isotopic ratio of a known Group D basalt (0.69916 ± 3 at 3.85 Ga) lies at the lower end of the tight range for Group B2 basalts (87Sr/86Sr = 0.69920 to 0.69921). One known Group D basalt and a second postulated Group D basalt yield indistinguishable initial ?Nd (1.2 ± 0.6 and 1.2 ± 0.3) and again lie at the lower end of the range for the Group B2 basalts from Apollo 11 (+2.0 ± 0.4 to +3.9 ± 0.6, at 3.85 Ga). A third sample has isotopic (87Sr/86Sr = 0.69932 ± 2; ?Nd = 2.5 ± 0.4; at 3.59 Ga; as per Snyder et al., 1994b) and elemental characteristics similar to the Group A high-Ti basalts returned from the Apollo 11 landing site. Ages of 40Ar-39Ar have been determined for one known Group D basalt and a second postulated Group D basalt using step-heating with a continuous-wave laser. Suspected Group D basalt, 10002, 1006, yielded disturbed age spectra on two separate runs, which was probably due to 39Ar recoil effects. Using the "reduced plateau age" method of Turner et al. (1978), the ages derived from this sample were 3898 ± 19 and 3894 ± 19 Ma. Three separate runs of known Group D basalt 10002, 116 yielded 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages of 3798 ± 9 Ma, 3781 ± 8 Ma, and 3805 ± 7 Ma (all errors 2?). Furthermore, this sample has apparently suffered significant 40Ar loss either due to solar heating or due to meteorite impact. The loss of a significant proportion of 40Ar at such a time means that the plateau ages underestimate the "true" crystallization age of the sample. Modelling of this Ar loss yields older, "true" ages of 3837 ± 18, 3826 ± 16, and 3836 ± 14 Ma. These ages overlap the ages of Group B2 high-Ti basalts (weighted average age = 3850 ± 20 Ma; range in ages = 3.80 to 3.90 Ga). The combined evidence indicates that the Group D and B2 high-Ti basalts could be coeval and may be genetically related, possibly through increasing degrees of melting of a similar source region in the upper mantle of the Moon that formed >4.2 Ga ago. The Group D basalts were melted from the source first and contained 3-5×more trapped KREEP-like liquid than the later (by possibly only a few million years) Group B2 basalts. Furthermore, the relatively LREE- and Rb-enriched nature of these early magmas may lend credence to the idea that the decay of heat-producing elements enriched in the KREEP-like trapped liquid of upper mantle cumulates, such as K, U, and Th, could have initiated widespread lunar volcanism.

Snyder, Gregory A.; Hall, Chris M.; Halliday, Alex N.; Lee, Der-Chuen; Taylor, Lawrence A.

1996-05-01

209

Stratigraphy of the APOLLO 15 Drill Core.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The crew of Apollo 15 collected at 242-centimeter-long core of the regolith of the moon developed on the surface of Palus Putredinis 3 deg 39 min 20 sec E, 26 deg 26 min 00 sec N. The 2.04-centimeter-diameter core, which has a mass of 1333.2 grams, consis...

G. Heiken M. Duke R. Fryxell J. S. Nagle R. Scott

1972-01-01

210

Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this work is to provide researchers, students, and space enthusiasts with a comprehensive reference for facts about Project Apollo, America's effort to put humans in the Moon. Research for this work started in 1988, when the author discover...

R. Orloff

2000-01-01

211

Systems Interoperability Approach APOLLO/Soyuz Test Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The aproach used to design and develop the hardware and to insure the compatibility of existing systems used for the Apollo/Soyuz test project mission, are described. This mission used slightly modified Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft, a new jointly designed ...

D. C. Wade

1989-01-01

212

Exploring the Moon: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Earth and Space Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This educational guide concerns exploring the moon. Activities are divided into three units: Pre-Apollo, Learning from Apollo, and The Future. These correspond, at least roughly, to exercises that can be done before the Lunar Sample Disk (available from NASA) arrives to the school (Pre-Apollo), while it is there (Learning from Apollo), and after…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

213

Initial results for the north pole of the Moon from Mini-SAR, Chandrayaan-1 mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present new polarimetric radar data for the surface of the north pole of the Moon acquired with the Mini-SAR experiment onboard India's Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft. Between mid-February and mid-April, 2009, Mini-SAR mapped more than 95% of the areas polewards of 80° latitude at a resolution of 150 meters. The north polar region displays backscatter properties typical for the Moon, with circular polarization ratio (CPR) values in the range of 0.1-0.3, increasing to over 1.0 for young primary impact craters. These higher CPR values likely reflect surface roughness associated with these fresh features. In contrast, some craters in this region show elevated CPR in their interiors, but not exterior to their rims. Almost all of these features are in permanent sun shadow and correlate with proposed locations of polar ice modeled on the basis of Lunar Prospector neutron data. These relations are consistent with deposits of water ice in these craters.

Spudis, P. D.; Bussey, D. B. J.; Baloga, S. M.; Butler, B. J.; Carl, D.; Carter, L. M.; Chakraborty, M.; Elphic, R. C.; Gillis-Davis, J. J.; Goswami, J. N.; Heggy, E.; Hillyard, M.; Jensen, R.; Kirk, R. L.; LaVallee, D.; McKerracher, P.; Neish, C. D.; Nozette, S.; Nylund, S.; Palsetia, M.; Patterson, W.; Robinson, M. S.; Raney, R. K.; Schulze, R. C.; Sequeira, H.; Skura, J.; Thompson, T. W.; Thomson, B. J.; Ustinov, E. A.; Winters, H. L.

2010-03-01

214

APOLLO II  

SciTech Connect

APOLLO II is a new, multigroup transport code under development at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. The code has a modular structure and uses sophisticated software for data structuralization, dynamic memory management, data storage, and user macrolanguage. This paper gives an overview of the main methods used in the code for (a) multidimensional collision probability calculations, (b) leakage calculations, and (c) homogenization procedures. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the potential of the modular structure of the code and the novel multilevel flat-flux representation used in the calculation of the collision probabilities.

Sanchez, R.; Mondot, J.; Stankovski, Z.; Cossic, A.; Zmijarevic, I.

1988-11-01

215

Gravity field of the Moon from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission.  

PubMed

Spacecraft-to-spacecraft tracking observations from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) have been used to construct a gravitational field of the Moon to spherical harmonic degree and order 420. The GRAIL field reveals features not previously resolved, including tectonic structures, volcanic landforms, basin rings, crater central peaks, and numerous simple craters. From degrees 80 through 300, over 98% of the gravitational signature is associated with topography, a result that reflects the preservation of crater relief in highly fractured crust. The remaining 2% represents fine details of subsurface structure not previously resolved. GRAIL elucidates the role of impact bombardment in homogenizing the distribution of shallow density anomalies on terrestrial planetary bodies. PMID:23223395

Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E; Watkins, Michael M; Asmar, Sami W; Konopliv, Alexander S; Lemoine, Frank G; Melosh, H Jay; Neumann, Gregory A; Phillips, Roger J; Solomon, Sean C; Wieczorek, Mark A; Williams, James G; Goossens, Sander J; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Mazarico, Erwan; Park, Ryan S; Yuan, Dah-Ning

2012-12-05

216

Abort Options for Human Missions to Earth-Moon Halo Orbits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Abort trajectories are optimized for human halo orbit missions about the translunar libration point (L2), with an emphasis on the use of free return trajectories. Optimal transfers from outbound free returns to L2 halo orbits are numerically optimized in ...

M. C. Jesick

2013-01-01

217

JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (juice): AN ESA L-Class Mission Candidate to the Jupiter System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JUICE mission is being studied by ESA in the framework of its Cosmic Vision programme, addressing the topical questions ``What are the conditions for planet formation and emergence of life?'' and ``How does the Solar System work?''. Jupiter can be seen as a paradigm of planetary systems forming a mini-solar system on its own. By investigating its diverse satellites, the understanding of the formation and evolution such of systems would be advanced. The question of whether possible habitats of life are provided underneath the surfaces of the icy satellites Callisto, Ganymede and Europa would be addressed by remote sensing and in situ observations of their surfaces, their compositions and their interiors, including the characterizations of subsurface liquid water oceans, and including targeting of recently active regions on Europa for inferring the minimal thickness of the icy crust. JUICE would furthermore provide observations of Jupiter's atmosphere addressing open questions on the circulation at mid-latitudes, and also including coverage of the polar region from a distance of about 29~R_{J} (see also L.~Fletcher et al. in session C3.1 "Planetary Atmospheres"). JUICE would study the properties of the magnetosphere and would provide extensive monitoring of Jupiter's plasma environment at distances ranging from more than 100 to 8.5~R_{J}, which is the distance of Europa. The unique magnetic and plasma interactions between the Jupiter environment and Ganymede would be target to focused investigations, from orbit around Ganymede (see also A. Coates et al in session C3.2 ``Planetary Upper Atmospheres, Ionospheres and Magnetospheres''). The magnetic field and its potential habitability of Ganymede makes it a unique target for specific investigation. The presentation will summarize the science objectives of the JUICE mission, will describe the baseline mission profile and the capabilities of the envisaged spacecraft. The mission would be launched in 2022 and would arrive at Jupiter about 7.5~years later. During its 3.5~years operations at Jupiter, it would perform frequent flybys of Callisto and Ganymede, two Europa flybys, and would finally be placed in an orbit around Ganymede. At the time of writing the JUCE mission is still in competition with two other missions (ATHENA, NGO) for the L1 launch slot in ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme. The decision on which mission to be carried forward to Definition Phase is expected to be taken in April 2012, and will be reported at the meeting. The current status of the development and next steps will be summarized too.

Erd, Christian

2012-07-01

218

Elemental mapping of the moon using gamma rays : past, present, and future /  

SciTech Connect

The energies and intensities of gamma rays From a planetary surface can be used to infer the elemental composition of an object with no or a thin atmosphere. The Apollo gamma-ray spectrometers in 1972 and 1973 produced many of the results for the distribution of elements in the Moon that are now generally well accepted. Lunar Prospector in 1998 and 1999 globally mapped the Moon with gamma rays and neutrons. Both missions used spectrometers with poor energy resolution ({approx}8-10%). The Japanese plan to send a high-resolution germanium gamma-ray spectrometer to the Moon in about 2004 on their SELENE mission. However, little has been done since the 1970s on the models used to unfold planetary gamma-ray spectra. More work needs to be done on understanding what to expect in future gamma-ray spectra and how to unfold such data.

Reedy, R. C. (Robert C.)

2001-01-01

219

Next stop: the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a By July of 1969, NASA had done about as much as they could to prepare for the Moon landing. On the flight of Apollo 10 two\\u000a months earlier, Tom Stafford and Eugene Cernan had taken their LM Snoopy into the descent orbit but had gone no further before returning to John Young in the CSM Charlie Brown.

W. David Woods

220

Celebrated Moon Rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Need for Lunar Samples and Simulants: Where Engineering and Science Meet sums up one of the sessions attracting attention at the annual meeting of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG), held November 16-19, 2009 in Houston, Texas. Speakers addressed the question of how the Apollo lunar samples can be used to facilitate NASA's return to the Moon while preserving

L. M. V. Martel

2009-01-01

221

Exploring the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide provides background information about the moon, its geological history, and progress in lunar science from before, during, and after the Apollo program. A set of activities is provided to demonstrate such concepts as scale models, proportional relationships, rock and mineral identification, and lunar geography.

222

Where No Flag Has Gone Before: Political and Technical Aspects of Placing a Flag on the Moon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The flag on the Moon represents an important event in vexillological history. The political and technical aspects of placing a flag on the Moon, focusing on the first Moon landing, is examined. During their historic extravehicular activity, the Apollo 11 ...

A. M. Platoff

1993-01-01

223

Human Exploration Mission Capabilities to the Moon, Mars, and Near Earth Asteroids Using ''Bimodal'' NTR Propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is one of the leading propulsion options for future human exploration missions because of its high specific impulse (Isp â 850 to 1000 s) and attractive engine thrust-to-weight ratio (â 3 to 10). Because only a minuscule amount of enriched ²³⁵U fuel is consumed in an NRT during the primary propulsion maneuvers of a typical

Stanley K. Borowski; Leonard A. Dudzinski; Melissa L. McGuire

2000-01-01

224

From Mercury to Apollo: astronaut Alan Shepard reflects on life support and other space issues [interview by Winston Huff].  

PubMed

Alan Shepard was one of the original Mercury astronauts. He became the first American in space on May 5, 1961, in the Freedom 7 capsule, during a 15 minute suborbital trip reaching 115 miles altitude and 302 miles down the Atlantic tracking range. Grounded by an inner ear problem, he served as Chief of the Astronaut Office for several years. After an operation to correct the problem, he commanded the Apollo 14 moon mission in 1971. He retired as a Rear Admiral in 1974. Here, Alan Shepard offers his views on life support comedies and tragedies, going back to the moon, future drivers of the manned space flight program, the benefits of the space program, joint NASA and Russia missions, how his NASA experience affected his personal life, and the profitability of working with NASA. PMID:11538588

Shepard, A

1995-01-01

225

SMART-1 mission to the Moon: Status, first results and goals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the first results from SMART-1's science and technology payload. SMART-1 is Europe's first lunar mission and will provide some significant advances to many issues currently active in lunar science, such as our understanding of lunar origin and evolution. The mission also contributes a step in developing an international program of lunar exploration. The spacecraft was launched on 27 September 2003 on an Ariane 5, as an auxiliary passenger to Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO), performed a 14-month long cruise using the tiny thrust of electric propulsion alone, reached lunar capture in November 2004, and lunar science orbit in March 2005. SMART-1 carries seven hardware experiments (performing 10 investigations, including three remote sensing instruments, used during the cruise, the mission's nominal six months and one year extension in lunar science orbit). The remote sensing instruments will contribute to key planetary scientific questions related to theories of lunar origin and evolution, the global and local crustal composition, the search for cold traps at the lunar poles and the mapping of potential lunar resources.

Foing, B. H.; Racca, G. D.; Marini, A.; Evrard, E.; Stagnaro, L.; Almeida, M.; Koschny, D.; Frew, D.; Zender, J.; Heather, J.; Grande, M.; Huovelin, J.; Keller, H. U.; Nathues, A.; Josset, J. L.; Malkki, A.; Schmidt, W.; Noci, G.; Birkl, R.; Iess, L.; Sodnik, Z.; McManamon, P.

226

The Moon as a Test Body for General Relativity and New Gravitational Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1969 Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to the Apollo Cube Corner Reflector (CCR) arrays has supplied several significant tests of General Relativity (GR): it has evaluated the Geodetic Precession, probed the weak and strong equivalence principle, determined the PPN parameter , addressed the time change of G and 1/r2 deviations. We show that the Moon equipped with retroreflectors can be used effectively to test new gravitational theories beyond GR, like spacetime torsion (developed by some of the authors) and the unified braneworld theory by G. Dvali et al. LLR has also provided important information on the composition and origin of the Moon through measurement of its rotations and tides. Future robotic lunar missions, like the proposed International Lunar Network (ILN) will greatly expand this broad scientific program.Initially, the Apollo arrays contributed a negligible portion of the LLR error budget. Nowadays, the ranging accuracy of ground stations has improved by more than two orders of magnitude: the new APOLLO station at Apache Point, USA, is capable of mm-level range measurements; MRLO, at the ASI Space Geodesy Center in Matera, Italy, has re-started LR operations. Now, because of lunar librations, the Apollo arrays dominate the LLR error budget, which is a few cm. The University of Maryland, Principal Investigator for the Apollo arrays, and INFN-LNF are proposing an innovative CCR array design that will reduce the error contribution of LLR payloads by more than two orders of magnitude, down to tens of microns. This is the goal of the MoonLIGHT technological experiment of INFN (Moon Laser Instrumentation for General relativity High-Accuracy Tests) and of the SCF, the CCR space test facility at LNF. We have also proposed the precursor test of the MoonLIGHT payload on the ASI lunar orbiter mission MAGIA (A. Coradini PI), which concluded its Phase A Study in 2009. In our new array design the main challenges are: 1) address the thermal and optical effects of the absorption of solar radiation within the CCR; reduce the heat transfer from the hot housing and from the rapid temperature changes of the regolith to the CCR; 2) define a method of emplacing the CCR package on the surface such that it is stable over the lunar day/ night cycle; 3) adapt the design to the type of robotic mission (lander only or lander plus rover) and site. In the framework of robotic mission to the lunar surface we are also studying synergies of our payload with drilling, seismometers, local imaging and transponders (which can measure lunar librations and tides independently of LLR).

Martini, Manuele; March, Riccardo; Bellettini, Giovanni; Dell'Agnello, S.; Delle Monache, G. O.; Currie, D. G.; Martini, M.; Lops, C.; Garattini, M.; March, R.; Bellettini, G.; Tauraso, R.; Battat, J. B.; Bianco, G.; Murphy, T. W., Jr.; Coradini, A.; Boni, A.; Cantone, C.; Maiello, M.; Porcelli, L.; Berardi, S.; Intaglietta, N.

227

Lunar Soil Erosion Physics for Landing Rockets on the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To develop a lunar outpost, we must understand the blowing of soil during launch and landing of the new Altair Lander. For example, the Apollo 12 Lunar Module landed approximately 165 meters from the deactivated Surveyor III spacecraft, scouring its surfaces and creating numerous tiny pits. Based on simulations and video analysis from the Apollo missions, blowing lunar soil particles have velocities up to 2000 m/s at low ejection angles relative to the horizon, reach an apogee higher than the orbiting Command and Service Module, and travel nearly the circumference of the Moon. The low ejection angle and high velocity are concerns for the lunar outpost. As a first step in investigating this concern, we have performed a series of low-velocity impact experiments in a modified sandblasting hood using lunar soil simulant impacted upon various materials that are commonly used in spaceflight hardware. It was seen that considerable damage is inevitable and protective barriers need to be designed.

Clegg, Ryan; Metzger, Philip; Roberson, Luke; Stephen, Huff

2010-03-01

228

APOLLO Mission 11 Photography Indexes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The lunar photography indexes include: (1) targets of opportunity - 70 mm (color), (2) targets of opportunity - 70 mm (black and white), and (3) sequence photography - 16 mm (color). The photography is identified as having been taken from the lunar module...

1969-01-01

229

Planetary Protection for the JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) Mission Candidate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The JUICE mission is being studied by ESA in the framework of its Cosmic Vision programme, addressing the topical questions ``What are the conditions for planet formation and emergence of life?'' and ``How does the Solar System work?''. Jupiter can be seen as a paradigm of planetary systems forming a mini-solar system on its own. By investigating its diverse satellites, the understanding of the formation and evolution such of systems would be advanced. The question of whether possible habitats of life are provided underneath the surfaces of the icy satellites Callisto, Ganymede and Europa would be addressed by remote sensing and in situ observations of their surfaces, their compositions and their interiors, including the characterizations of subsurface liquid water oceans, including targeting of recently active regions on Europa for inferring the minimal thickness of the icy crust. JUICE would furthermore provide observations of Jupiter's atmosphere addressing open questions on the circulation at mid-latitudes, and also including coverage of the polar region from a distance of about 29~R_J (see also L. Fletcher et al. in meeting C3.1 "Planetary Atmospheres"). JUICE would study the properties of the magnetosphere and would provide extensive monitoring of Jupiter's plasma environment at distances ranging from more than 100 to 8.5~R_J, which is the distance of Europa. The unique magnetic and plasma interactions between the Jupiter environment and Ganymede would be target to focused investigations, from orbit around Ganymede (see also A. Coates et al in session C3.2 ``Planetary Upper Atmospheres, Ionospheres and Magnetospheres''). The magnetic field and its potential habitability of Ganymede makes it a unique target for specific investigation. The presentation will briefly describe the science objectives of the JUICE mission (see also C.~Erd et al. in session B0.3 ``Active Natural Satellites in the Solar System''), and will then discuss the baseline mission profile, which includes two Europa flybys, causing the mission to be in Planetary Protection Category III, requiring the probability of deposition of a viable organism to be <10^{-4}. The intended approach for complying with the planetary protection requirements is to avoid active sterilization measures by ensuring that the spacecraft's probability for critical failure is sufficiently low. The duration of critical contamination of Europa is limited by the fact that that the spacecraft's trajectory needs to be actively modified towards Europa for the flybys, and afterwards the spacecraft will be on a trajectory with higher pericenter, significantly reducing any accidental collision. The presentation will specifically discuss plans on mitigating the risk of contamination of Europa. It is intended as early information for planetary protection group and to seek comments and feed-back on the approach. At the time of writing the JUCE mission is still in competition with two other missions (ATHENA, NGO) for the L1 launch slot in ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme. The decision on which mission to be carried forward to Definition Phase is expected to be taken in April 2012, and will be reported at the meeting. The current status of the development and next steps will be summarized too.

Erd, Christian

2012-07-01

230

What happened to the moon? A lunar history mission using neutrons  

SciTech Connect

The ages of lunar rocks can be determined using the {sup 40}Ar -{sup 39}Ar technique that can be used in-situ on the moon if a neutron source, a noble gas mass spectrometer and a gas extraction and purification system are brought to the lunar surface. A possible instrument for such a task is ISAGE, which combines a strong {sup 252}Cf neutron source and a compact spectrometer for in-situ dating of e.g. the South Pole Aitken impact basin or the potentially very young basalts south of the Aristachus Plateau. In this paper, the design of the neutron source will be discussed. The source is assumed to be a hollow sphere surrounded by a reflector, a geometry that provides a very homogeneous flux at the irradiation position inside the sphere. The optimal source geometry depending on the experimental conditions, the costs of transportation for the reflector and the costs of the source itself are calculated. A minimum {sup 252}Cf mass of 1.5 mg is determined. (authors)

Breitkreutz, H.; Li, X. [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, FRM II, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Burfeindt, J.; Bernhardt, H. G.; Hoffmann, P. [Kayser-Threde GmbH, Wolfratshauser Str. 48, D-81379 Muenchen (Germany); Trieloff, M.; Schwarz, W. H.; Hopp, J. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Jessberger, E. K.; Hiesinger, H. [Institut fuer Planetologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

2011-07-01

231

Apollo 12 ropy glasses revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyzed ropy glasses from Apollo 12 soils 12032 and 12033 by a variety of techniques including SEM/EDX, electron microprobe analysis, INAA, and Ar-39-Ar-40 age dating. The ropy glasses have potassium rare earth elements phosphorous (KREEP)-like compositions different from those of local Apollo 12 mare soils; it is likely that the ropy glasses are of exotic origin. Mixing calculations indicate that the ropy glasses formed from a liquid enriched in KREEP and that the ropy glass liquid also contained a significant amount of mare material. The presence of solar Ar and a trace of regolith-derived glass within the ropy glasses are evidence that the ropy glasses contain a small regolith component. Anorthosite and crystalline breccia (KREEP) clasts occur in some ropy glasses. We also found within these glasses clasts of felsite (fine-grained granitic fragments) very similar in texture and composition to the larger Apollo 12 felsites, which have a Ar-39-Ar-40 degassing age of 800 +/- 15 Ma. Measurements of 39-Ar-40-Ar in 12032 ropy glass indicate that it was degassed at the same time as the large felsite although the ropy glass was not completely degassed. The ropy glasses and felsites, therefore, probably came from the same source. Most early investigators suggested that the Apollo 12 ropy glasses were part of the ejecta deposited at the Apollo 12 site from the Copernicus impact. Our new data reinforce this model. If these ropy glasses are from Copernicus, they provide new clues to the nature of the target material at the Copernicus site, a part of the Moon that has not been sampled directly.

Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Basu, A.; Martinez, R. R.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.

1994-05-01

232

Investigating at the Moon With new Eyes: The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Camera (LROC)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Camera (LROC) H. Hiesinger (1,2), M.S. Robinson (3), A.S. McEwen (4), E.P. Turtle (4), E.M. Eliason (4), B.L. Jolliff (5), M.C. Malin (6), and P.C. Thomas (7) (1) Brown Univ., Dept. of Geological Sciences, Providence RI 02912, Harald_Hiesinger@brown.edu, (2) Westfaelische Wilhelms-University, (3) Northwestern Univ., (4) LPL, Univ. of Arizona, (5) Washington Univ., (6) Malin Space

H. Hiesinger; M. S. Robinson; A. S. McEwen; E. P. Turtle; E. M. Eliason; B. L. Jolliff; M. C. Malin; P. C. Thomas

2006-01-01

233

Back to the moon, on to an asteroid - The Clementine mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Clementine mission scheduled for launch in 1994 to space-qualify a set of lightweight electronic cameras for the Department of Defense to use in detecting and tracking ballistic missiles is described. Clementine will carry instruments that are sensitive in several portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. These instruments will include an UV/visible CCD camera, NIR and long-wavelength infrared cameras, and a combined high-resolution CCD camera and laser ranging system (LIDAR). The Clementine spacecraft weighs about 220 kg and will be launched on a refurbished Titan IIG missile.

Nozette, Stewart; Shoemaker, Eugene M.

1993-10-01

234

Planetary science: Water on the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Analysis of the first Apollo samples suggested that Earth's only satellite was bone dry. Spacecraft data and improved analysis techniques now indicate that the Moon is more volatile-rich and complex than previously thought.

Lawrence, David J.

2011-09-01

235

Dunes on Saturn's moon Titan as revealed by the Cassini Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dunes on Titan, a dominant landform comprising at least 15% of the surface, represent the end product of many physical processes acting in alien conditions. Winds in a nitrogen-rich atmosphere with Earth-like pressure transport sand that is likely to have been derived from complex organics produced in the atmosphere. These sands then accumulate into large, planet-encircling sand seas concentrated near the equator. Dunes on Titan are predominantly linear and similar in size and form to the large linear dunes of the Namib, Arabian and Saharan sand seas. They likely formed from wide bimodal winds and appear to undergo average sand transport to the east. Their singular form across the satellite indicates Titan's dunes may be highly mature, and may reside in a condition of stability that permitted their growth and evolution over long time scales. The dunes are among the youngest surface features, as even river channels do not cut through them. However, reorganization time scales of large linear dunes on Titan are likely tens of thousands of years. Thus, Titan's dune forms may be long-lived and yet be actively undergoing sand transport. This work is a summary of research on dunes on Titan after the Cassini Prime and Equinox Missions (2004-2010) and now during the Solstice Mission (to end in 2017). It discusses results of Cassini data analysis and modeling of conditions on Titan and it draws comparisons with observations and models of linear dune formation and evolution on Earth.

Radebaugh, Jani

236

A WebGIS for Apollo Analyst's Notebook  

Microsoft Academic Search

A WebGIS is developed at NASA's Planetary Data System's Geosciences Node to facilitate the Apollo Analyst's Notebook to replay the Apollo missions. This system is created based on ESRI ArcGIS server 9.3.1 using JavaScript API. This WebGIS visually presents Apollo data to the general public through the Internet. It also provides data search capability and mapping functions to support the

J. Wang; T. C. Stein; T. Heet; D. M. Scholes; R. E. Arvidson; V. Heil-Chapdelaine

2010-01-01

237

The use of deep moonquakes for constraining the internal structure of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The installation of seismometers on the Moon’s surface during the Apollo era provided a wealth of information that transformed our understanding of lunar formation and evolution. Seismic events detected by the nearside network were used to constrain the structure of the Moon’s crust and mantle down to a depth of about 1000 km. The presence of an attenuating region in the deepest interior has been inferred from the paucity of farside events, as well as other indirect geophysical measurements. Recent re-analyses of the Apollo data have tentatively identified this region as a lunar core, although its properties are not yet constrained. Here we present new modeling in support of seismic missions that plan to build upon the knowledge of the Moon’s interior gathered by Apollo. Of the many types of Apollo events, deep moonquakes were the most numerous. They were found to originate in distinct nearside clusters, at depths between approximately 700 and 1200 km. Each cluster produced its own unique waveform, occurring with both monthly and 6-year periodicity as dictated by the lunar orbit. We predict that these clusters are still active today. By taking advantage of this periodicity we are therefore able to project the times of their occurrence into the future. Thus planned missions can rely on these events as known seismic sources. For most seismic methods used to determine structure, recorded events must be located. Traditional event-location techniques require a minimum of four stations. Due to cost constraints, new missions may not be able to deploy that many. Fortunately, future landers will be able to operate in a virtual network with the Apollo instruments, as deep moonquake source locations are already constrained. We have devised a method in which individual events can be linked to a known cluster using the observed S-P arrival time differences and azimuth to only two stations. Events can be further identified using each cluster’s unique occurrence time signature. As we expect future seismometers to be able to identify deep moonquakes, we can determine the ideal landing sites to detect the Moon’s core. Although current works have made progress in the recognition of core-reflected phases in the Apollo data, such phases typically arrive in the coda of the main P and S arrivals, hampering their identification on individual seismograms. We thus focus on the detection of PKP, a seismic compression wave that travels through the Moon’s core. Our method takes into account the predicted ray density, arrival amplitudes, and level of seismicity from the known distribution of deep moonquakes. At large epicentral distances, PKP is predicted as a first arrival, and hence should be easily identifiable on future seismograms. This method can be adapted to any core-interacting phase.

Weber, R. C.; Garcia, R.; Johnson, C. L.; Knapmeyer, M.; Lognonne, P.; Nakamura, Y.; Schmerr, N. C.

2010-12-01

238

A half-century of terrestrial analog studies: From craters on the Moon to searching for life on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial analogs to the Moon and Mars have been used to advance knowledge in planetary science for over a half-century. They are useful in studies of comparative geology of the terrestrial planets and rocky moons, in astronaut training and testing of exploration technologies, and in developing hypotheses and exploration strategies in astrobiology. In fact, the use of terrestrial analogs can be traced back to the origins of comparative geology and astrobiology, and to the early phases of the Apollo astronaut program. Terrestrial analog studies feature prominently throughout the history of both NASA and the USGS' Astrogeology Research Program. In light of current international plans for a return missions to the Moon, and eventually to send sample return and manned missions to Mars, as well as the recent creation of various analog research and development programs, this historical perspective is timely.

Léveillé, Richard

2010-03-01

239

The Apollo 17 mare basalts: Serenely sampling Taurus-Littrow  

Microsoft Academic Search

As we are all aware, the Apollo 17 mission marked the final manned lunar landing of the Apollo program. The lunar module (LM) landed approximately 0.7 km due east of Camelot Crater in the Taurus-Littrow region on the southwestern edge of Mare Serenitatis. Three extravehicular activities (EVA's) were performed, the first concentrating around the LM and including station 1 approximately

Clive R. Neal; Lawrence A. Taylor

1992-01-01

240

LRO Diviner Radiometer and the Apollo 15 Heat Flow Experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

A synergistic relationship has grown out of incoming data from the Diviner infrared radiometer aboard LRO, and measurements from the Apollo 15 and 17 heat flow experiments. Here we look at the 3.5 year surface and subsurface temperatures from the Apollo 15 mission as both a calibration point for Diviner and as a guide for extending surface thermal properties models

M. A. Siegler; S. J. Keihm; D. A. Paige; A. R. Vasavada; R. R. Ghent; J. L. Bandfield; K. Snook

2009-01-01

241

Fungal growth on synthetic cloth from Apollo spacesuits  

Microsoft Academic Search

The United States Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum preserves the world's largest collection of spacesuits and their components relating to the American space program. Included in this collection are historically significant suits from the Apollo lunar missions which took place between 1968 and 1972. The Apollo suits are composed of multiple layers, many of which have begun to

M. BREUKER; C. MCNAMARA; L. YOUNG; T. PERRY; A. YOUNG; R. MITCHELL

242

Data User's Note: Apollo seismological investigations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismological objectives and equipment used in the passive seismic, active seismic, lunar seismic profiling, and the lunar gravimeter experiments conducted during Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 missions are described. The various formats in which the data form these investigations can be obtained are listed an an index showing the NSSDC identification number is provided. Tables show manned lunar landing missions, lunar seismic network statistics, lunar impact coordinate statistics, detonation masses and times of EP's, the ALSEP (Apollo 14) operational history; compressed scale play-out tape availability, LSPE coverage for one lunation, and experimenter interpreted events types.

Vostreys, R. W.

1980-10-01

243

Rb-Sr-analyses of apollo 16 melt rocks and a new age estimate for the imbrium basin: lunar basin chronology and the early heavy bombardment of the moon  

SciTech Connect

Rb-Sr-model ages on 7 impact glass-bombs and internal Rb-Sr isochrons for two crystalline impact melt rocks from the Apollo 16 collection have been determined. The post-Cayley glass-bombs with model ages between 4.75 +- 0.45 AE and 3.97 +- 0.08 AE can be classified according to their calculated single stage (/sup 87/Rb/sup 86/Sr)/sub I/-ratios: 67728, 67946, and 67627.8 point to a KREEP-free precursor terrain - the Descartes highlands; whereas 63566, 67567, 67627.10 and 67629 are derived from the more heterogeneous Cayley plains. The very feldspar-rich impact melt rock 65795, which is compositionally similar to the group of feldspathic microporphyritic melt breccias (FM-suite), yields a crystallization age of 3.81 +- 0.04 AE (2sigma; lambda/sup 87/Rb = 1.42/sup -11/ yr/sup -1/) and I/sub Sr/ of .69929 +- 3. The authors suggest that the Imbrium basin and the related Fra Mauro and Cayley formations were formed 3.77 +- 0.02 AE ago and could be even as young as 3.75 AE. As a consequence, they adopt 3.92 +- 0.03 AE, 3.87 +- 0.03 AE, and 3.84 +- 0.04 AE as ages for the Nectaris, Serenitatis, and Crisium basins, respectively, in agreement with the relative crater densities measured on the ejecta blankets of these basins. The proposed age sequence leads to an average formation interval for the observed 12-13 Nectarian basins of 7 to 14 m.y. leaving approx. 30 pre-Nectarian basins of unknown age. These facts suggest that there is no late terminal lunar cataclysm in the sense of a culmination of the lunar impact rate at approx. 3.8 AE ago. Rather, the observations are compatible with a steeply and steadily decreasing flux of impactors in the sense of an early heavy bombardment which started at the time of the moon's accretion and terminated around 3.75 AE ago.

Deutsch, A.; Stoeffler, D.

1987-07-01

244

Lunar Science for Future Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) will return humans to the Moon and will include robotic precursor missions in its early phases, including the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, now in development. Many opportunities for scientific investigations will arise from this program of exploration. Such opportunities will span across disciplines of planetary science, astrophysics, heliophysics, and Earth science via remote observation and monitoring. This abstract focuses on some of the key lunar science objectives that can be addressed with robotic and human missions. Even after 35+ years of study of Apollo samples and data, and global remote sensing missions of the 1990's, key lunar science questions remain. Apollo provided ground truth for the central nearside, but ground truth is lacking for the lunar farside and poles. Lunar meteorites provide knowledge about areas potentially far distant from the central nearside, but ground truth in key areas such as the farside South Pole-Aitken Basin, which provides access to the lower crust and possibly the upper mantle, will enable more direct correlations between the lunar meteorites and global remotely sensed data. Extending and improving knowledge of surface compositions, including partially buried basalt deposits, globally, is needed to better understand the composition of the Moon's crust as a function of depth and of the mantle, and to provide new tests of the Moon's origin and early surface and internal evolution. These issues can be addressed in part with robotic measurements on the surface; however, samples cached for return to Earth are needed for detailed chemical, lithologic, and geochronologic investigations. Apollo experience has shown that regolith samples and/or rock fragments sieved from regolith provide a wealth of information that can be interpreted within the context of regional geology. Targeted sampling by humans and human/robotic teams can optimize sampling strategies. Detailed knowledge of specific sites on local to regional geologic scales is needed to assess regolith resources as well as science activities that can be accomplished from a lunar outpost. Critical resources will include O, H, other solar-wind-implanted gases, and construction materials; understanding their distribution and concentration within the local geologic setting is required. Assessment of ilmenite-rich regolith developed on high-Ti basalt surfaces is a key resource development activity. Early missions can contribute importantly to network science such as seismic and heat-flow experiments. Consideration must be given to synergistic activities with a view to long-term results and/or international collaboration, for example, through use of communication satellites to better determine far-side gravity and to test models of crust/mantle structure, impact-basin formation and compensation, and thermal history.

Jolliff, B. L.

2006-12-01

245

The Dynamical Evolution of the Earth-Moon Progenitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The giant impact hypothesis was introduced in the mid-1970s after consideration of results from the Apollo missions. This hypothesis best explains the similarity in elemental proportions in lunar and terrestrial rocks, the depletion of lunar volatiles, the lack of lunar Fe, and the large angular momentum in the Earth-Moon system. Comparison between the radiometric ages of inclusions in the most primitive meteorites and in the oldest lunar rocks and the differentiation age of Earth suggests that the Earth-Moon system formed about100 m.y. after the oldest meteorites. In addition, the age of the famous martian meteorite ALH 84001 and an early Martian solidification time obtained by Lee and Halliday suggest that the inner solar system was fairly clear of large bodies about 10 m.y. after the oldest meteorites formed. Thus, the "standard model" suggests that for several tens of millions of years, the terrestrial planet region had few, if any, lunar-sized bodies, and there were five terrestrial planets: Mercury, Venus, the two progenitors of the Earth-Moon system, and Mars. To simulate the dynamics of the solar system before the hypothesized Moon-forming impact, we are integrating the solar system with the Earth-Moon system replaced by two bodies in heliocentric orbits between Venus and Mars. The total (orbital) angular momentum of the Earth-Moon progenitors is that of the present Earth-Moon system, and their total mass is that of the Earth-Moon System. We are looking at ranges in mass ratio and initial values for eccentricity, inclination, and semimajor axis. We are using the SYMBA integrator to integrate these systems until a collision occurs or a time of 200 m.y. elapses. Results are presented in a companion abstract, (also presented at this meeting).

Lissauer, J. J.; Rivera, E.; Duncan, M. J.; Levison, H. F.

1998-01-01

246

Precisely measuring the distance to the moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuing improvements in the lasers and the detection electronics over the years which have led to accurate measurements of the distance from the earth to the moon are discussed. The first reflector of laser light pulses, deployed on the moon surface twenty years ago by the Apollo 11 astronauts, consisted of 100 fused silica corner cubes, and reflected a beam

J. E. Faller; J. O. Dickey

1990-01-01

247

Petrology of Apollo 14 regolith breccias and ion microprobe studies of glass beads  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mineral chemistries, glass chemistries, and bulk compositions of Apollo 14 regolith beccias are used to study the regolith evolution at the Apollo 14 site and on the moon in general. Major changes in the regolith since the formation of the breccias include an increase in maturity, an increase in glasses with the Fra Mauro basalt composition, and decreases in feldspathic

S. B. Simon; J. J. Papike; C. K. Shearer; S. S. Hughes; R. A. Schmitt

1989-01-01

248

Apollo 12 Lunar Samples: Trace Element Analysis of a Core and the Uniformity of the Regolith  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four core and soil samples from Apollo 12 are enriched in a number of trace elements of meteoritic origin to virtually the same degree as Apollo 11 soil. An average meteoritic influx rate of about 4 × 10-9 gram per square centimeter per year thus seems to be valid for the entire moon. A sample from a light gray, coarse-grained

R. Ganapathy; Reid R. Keays; Edward Anders

1970-01-01

249

Field Exploration Science for a Return to the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apollo field exploration science, and subsequent analysis, and interpretation of its findings and collected samples, underpin our current understanding of the origin and history of the Moon. That understanding, in turn, continues to provide new and important insights into the early histories of the Earth and other bodies in the solar system, particularly during the period that life formed and began to evolve on Earth and possibly on Mars. Those early explorations also have disclosed significant and potentially commercially viable lunar resources that might help satisfy future demand for both terrestrial energy alternatives and space consumables. Lunar sortie missions as part of the Vision for Space Exploration provide an opportunity to continue and expand the human geological, geochemical and geophysical exploration of the Moon. Specific objectives of future field exploration science include: (1) Testing of the consensus "giant impact" hypothesis for the origin of the Moon by further investigation of materials that may augment understanding of the chondritic geochemistry of the lower lunar mantle; (2) Testing of the consensus impact "cataclysm" hypothesis by obtaining absolute ages on large lunar basins of relative ages older than the 3.8-3.9 Ga mascon basins dated by Apollo 15 and 17; (3) Calibration of the end of large impacts in the inner solar system; (4) Global delineation of the internal structure of the Moon; (5) Global sampling and field investigations that extend the data necessary to remotely correlate major lunar geological and geochemical units; (6) Definition of the depositional history of polar volatiles - cometary, solar wind, or otherwise; (7) Determine the recoverable in situ concentrations and distribution of potential volatile resources; and (8) Acquisition of information and samples related to relatively less site-specific aspects of lunar geological processes. Planning for renewed field exploration of the Moon depends largely on the selection, training and use of sortie crews; the selection of landing sites; and the adopted operational approach to sortie extravehicular activity (EVA). The equipment necessary for successful exploration consists of that required for sampling, sample documentation, communications, mobility, and position knowledge. Other types of active geophysical. geochemical and petrographic equipment, if available, could clearly enhance the scientific and operational return of extended exploration over that possible during Apollo missions. Equipment to increase the efficiency of exploration should include the following, helmet-mounted, systems: (1) voice activated or automatic, electronic, stereo photo-documentation camera that is photometrically and geometrically fully calibrated; (2) automatic position and elevation determination system; and (3) laser-ranging device, aligned with the stereo camera axis. Heads-up displays and controls on the helmet, activated and selected by voice, should be available for control and use of this equipment.

Schmitt, H. H.; Helper, M. A.; Muehlbberger, W.; Snoke, A. W.

2006-12-01

250

Spectrogoniometric Measurements and Modeling of Apollo 16 Soil 68810  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory visible/near-infrared multispectral goniometer observations of Apollo 16 mature highland soil 68810,2 were acquired using the Bloomsburg University Goniometer (BUG) [1]. These data provided constraints on Hapke radiative transfer models for comparison to model results from similar BUG data acquired of Apollo 11 soil 10084 [2]. Such data are relevant to analyses of lunar surface observations acquired by orbital cameras and spectrometers flown on past and present lunar missions. Standard BUG measurements were acquired (incidence 0-60°, emission 0-80°, and phase 3-140°) comprising 680 measurements per wavelength. We acquired multispectral measurements of the 68810 sample at 450, 550 ,700, 750, 850, and 950 nm. We also supplemented this geometric coverage by constructing an elongated sample holder for measurements in and perpendicular to the principal plane. These measurements were acquired at 450, 550, 750, and 950 nm, and allowed expanded geometric coverage to incidence angles of 0-75° and phase angles of 3-155°, comprising 765 measurements per wavelength. Hapke radiative transfer models were run using 1-term and 2-term Henyey-Greenstein (HG) phase functions to determine photometric properties such as single scattering albedo and backscattering behavior. The results show little difference in the photometric parameters between model runs using the standard and expanded data sets. Models of the 68810 highland sample exhibit higher single scattering albedo (by ~66%) than the 10084 mare sample models, consistent with modeling of Clementine and other remote sensing observations [e.g., 3]. The 68810 soil is also slightly more broadly backscattering (in both 1-term and 2-term HG models), with properties similar to results from laboratory analyses of agglutinates and rough, clear spheres. Both Apollo soils are more backscattering than any lunar analog soil yet measured [2]. The opposition effect width h (compaction parameter) is slightly smaller for the 68810 highland soil (h=0.031), suggesting a less uniform average grain size and/or more porous soil than the 10084 mare soil (h=0.040). This is consistent with the comparison of highland and mare regions from [4]. [1] Foote, E., et al., this volume; [2] Johnson, J.R., et al., Spectrogoniometric Measurements and Modeling of Apollo 11 Soil 10084, Lunar Plan. Sci. Conf. XL, # 1427, 2009; [3] Hillier, J. et al., Multispectral photometry of the Moon and absolute calibration of the Clementine UV/Vis camera, Icarus, 141, 205-225, 1999; [4] Helfenstein, P., and Veverka, J., Photometric properties of lunar terrains derived from Hapke’s equation, Icarus, 72, 342-357, 1987.

Johnson, J. R.; Shepard, M. K.; Paige, D. A.; Foote, E. J.; Grundy, W. M.

2010-12-01

251

System integration issues in Apollo 11  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed.” Two obscure errors almost prevented these words from being spoken. The errors were not made by the crew of Apollo 11 or by the controllers in Houston, nor were they made during the mission. Rather, they were made by engineers and managers, years before the flight. How they happened, and how they

H. Blair-Smith

2010-01-01

252

Teaching Chemistry Using the Movie "Apollo 13."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Offers suggestions for incorporating topics that relate to the Apollo 13 space mission into a chemistry course. Discusses connections between the study of chemistry and space exploration, including fuels and oxidants used, reasons for an oxygen tank rupture, and lithium hydroxide-containing carbon dioxide filters. Contains 11 references. (WRM)|

Goll, James G.; Woods, B. J.

1999-01-01

253

L+25: a quarter century after the Apollo landing  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the Apollo 11 rose into space, it was guided to the Moon by a mainly pre-IC, onboard computer with only 36 kilobytes of memory. Even the rendezvous of the lander with the command\\/service module employed a technique practised only once before in lunar orbit. Twenty-five years on, the author presents an historical overview of the Moon landings, examines the

D. Dooling

1994-01-01

254

Geochemical Exploration of the Moon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides information based on explorations of the Apollo program about the geochemistry of the moon and its importance in developing an understanding of formation/evolution of the solar system. Includes description and some results of orbital remote sensing, lunar x-ray experiments, gamma-ray experiments, alpha-particle experiments, and the…

Adler, Isidore

1984-01-01

255

The Moon and Its Origin  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the origin of the Moon on the basis of the Apollo expeditions as an accumulated gas sphere at its very beginning and, later, a satellite captured by the Earth. Indicates that the model would be substantially believable if further observations should be proved to exist as estimated. (CC)

Urey, Harold C.

1973-01-01

256

Radon emanation from the moon, spatial and temporal variability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Observations of the lunar surface with the orbiting Apollo Alpha Particle Spectrometer during the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 missions have shown spatial and temporal variations in radon emission. There are a number of well localized features in the spatial distribution of lunar222Rn and her daughter210Po which apparently correlate with sites of reported transient visual events. There are sources at

Paul Gorenstein; Leon Golub; Paul Bjorkholm

1974-01-01

257

Impact origin of the Moon  

SciTech Connect

A few years after the Apollo flights to the Moon, it became clear that all of the existing theories on the origin of the Moon would not satisfy the growing body of constraints which appeared with the data gathered by the Apollo flights. About the same time, researchers began to realize that the inner (terrestrial) planets were not born quietly -- all had evidences of impacts on their surfaces. This fact reinforced the idea that the planets had formed by the accumulation of planetesimals. Since the Earth`s moon is unique among the terrestrial planets, a few researchers realized that perhaps the Moon originated in a singular event; an event that was quite probable, but not so probable that one would expect all the terrestrial planets to have a large moon. And thus was born the idea that a giant impact formed the Moon. Impacts would be common in the early solar system; perhaps a really large impact of two almost fully formed planets of disparate sizes would lead to material orbiting the proto-earth, a proto-moon. This idea remained to be tested. Using a relatively new, but robust, method of doing the hydrodynamics of the collision (Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics), the author and his colleagues (W. Benz, Univ. of Arizona, and A.G.W. Cameron, Harvard College Obs.) did a large number of collision simulations on a supercomputer. The author found two major scenarios which would result in the formation of the Moon. The first was direct formation; a moon-sized object is boosted into orbit by gravitational torques. The second is when the orbiting material forms a disk, which, with subsequent evolution can form the Moon. In either case the physical and chemical properties of the newly formed Moon would very neatly satisfy the physical and chemical constraints of the current Moon. Also, in both scenarios the surface of the Earth would be quite hot after the collision. This aspect remains to be explored.

Slattery, W.L.

1998-12-31

258

ARTEMIS Orbits Magnetic Moon  

NASA Video Gallery

NASA's THEMIS spacecraft have completed their mission and are still working perfectly, so NASA is re-directing the outermost two spacecraft to special orbits around the Moon. Now called ARTEMIS, they will study the solar wind and the tail of Earth's magnetosphere as well as their combined effect on the moon and its weak magnetic field.

gsfcvideo

2010-10-22

259

An Asian Moon race?  

Microsoft Academic Search

After a gap of 40 years, the Moon is again the focus of several countries’ space ambitions. Japan, China and India have already launched their first Moon missions and are expected to send humans moonwards within the next 10–15 years. This revival of lunar programmes in the post-cold war era goes beyond symbolism and is also about the race to

Ajey Lele

2010-01-01

260

APOLLO: Testing General Relativity with Lunar Laser Ranging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth and Moon, used as test particles in orbit around the Sun, enable high precision tests of gravitational physics. By monitoring the Earth-Moon separation to 1 millimeter (a measurement of a few parts in a trillion), the Apache Point Observatory Lunar-laser Ranging Operation (APOLLO) project will provide the most precise experimental constraints on the equivalence principle, gravitomagnetism, the time rate of change of the gravitational constant (G) and geodetic precession. Here, I describe the current status of the APOLLO project and describe how our data can be used to test the strong equivalence principle.Readers are referred to our website: http://physics.ucsd.edu/ tmurphy/apollo for up-to-date information and related publications.

Battat, James B.; Murphy, T.; Stubbs, C.; Adelberger, E.; Michelsen, E.; Orin, A.; Hoyle, C. D.

2006-06-01

261

Public Attitudes toward the Apollo Space Program, 1965-1975.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Analyzes the decline in public support for the Apollo Space Program from 1965 to 1975 in spite of generally positive media coverage. Using data from 31 telephone surveys during the period, concludes that the Moon landing polarized both opponents and proponents and increased opposition because "there was nothing more to be done." (JMF)

Krugman, Herbert E.

1977-01-01

262

Lunar Laser Reflector Experiment Performed during the Apollo II Moonwalk.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report summarizes an experiment to detect a retroreflector array placed on the moon by the Apollo 11 astronauts (by measuring the magnitude of the return of a reflected ruby-laser beam directed at the reflector array) before the astronauts left the mo...

J. D. Erickson P. D. McCormick

1971-01-01

263

Scanning Apollo Flight Films and Reconstructing CSM Trajectories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over thirty years ago, the astronauts of the Apollo program made the journey from the Earth to the Moon and back. To record their historic voyages and collect scientific observations many thousands of photographs were acquired with handheld and automated cameras. After returning to Earth, these films were developed and stored at the film archive at Johnson Space Center (JSC),

E. Speyerer; M. S. Robinson; J. M. Grunsfeld; S. D. Locke; M. White

2006-01-01

264

Apollo 11 Solar Wind Composition Experiment: First Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The helium-4 solar wind flux during the Apollo 11 lunar surface excursion was (6.3 ± 1.2) × 106 atoms per square centimeter per second. The solar wind direction and energy are essentially not perturbed by the moon. Evidence for a lunar solar wind albedo was found.

F. Buehler; P. Eberhardt; J. Geiss; J. Meister; P. Signer

1969-01-01

265

Diagram of the Apollo 15 & 16 Gamma-ray Detector  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a diagram of the Apollo 15 & 16 Gamma-ray Detector from the NASA website. Primarily intended to study the Moon's radioactivity, it made measurements of the cosmic gamma-ray background during its trip. It shows measurements in millimeters.

2010-05-05

266

The New Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

After an extended drought, new data about the Moon are finally made available to a hungry planetary science community. SMART-1 [ESA] led the way with an innovative technology demonstration mission to the Moon. An international armada of more complex missions with advanced sensors followed in rapid succession: SELENE1Kaguya [JAXA], ChangE [CNSA], Chandrayaan-1 [ISRO], and LRO1LCROSS [NASA]. The data from these

Carle Pieters

2010-01-01

267

The electrostatic environments of Mars and the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical activity present in the environment near the surfaces of Mars and the moon has very different origins and presents a challenge to manned and robotic planetary exploration missions. Mars is covered with a layer of dust that has been redistributed throughout the entire planet by global dust storms. Dust, levitated by these storms as well as by the frequent dust devils, is expected to be electrostatically charged due to the multiple grain collisions in the dust-laden atmosphere. Dust covering the surface of the moon is expected to be electrostatically charged due to the solar wind, cosmic rays, and the solar radiation itself through the photoelectric effect. Electrostatically charged dust has a large tendency to adhere to surfaces. NASA's Mars exploration rovers have shown that atmospheric dust falling on solar panels can decrease their efficiency to the point of rendering the rover unusable. And as the Apollo missions to the moon showed, lunar dust adhesion can hinder manned and unmanned lunar exploration activities. Taking advantage of the electrical activity on both planetary system bodies, dust removal technologies are now being developed that use electrostatic and dielectrophoretic forces to produce controlled dust motion. This paper presents a short review of the theoretical and semiempirical models that have been developed for the lunar and Martian electrical environments.

Calle, C. I.

2011-06-01

268

Moon Rise, Moon Set.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out the potential of the moon as a rich teaching resource for subject areas like astronomy, physics, and biology. Presents historical, scientific, technological, and interesting facts about the moon. Includes suggestions for maximizing student interest and learning about the moon. (YDS)

Redman, Christine

2001-01-01

269

Magnesian anorthosites and a deep crustal rock from the farside crust of the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among over thirty lunar meteorites recovered from the hot deserts and Antarctica, Dhofar 489 is the most depleted in thorium (0.05 ppm), FeO, and rare earth elements (REE). Dhofar 489 is a crystalline matrix anorthositic breccia and includes clasts of magnesian anorthosites and a spinel troctolite. The Mg / (Mg + Fe) mol% (Mg numbers = 75 85) of olivine and pyroxene grains in this meteorite are higher than those of the Apollo ferroan anorthosites. Such materials were not recovered by the Apollo and Luna missions. However, remote sensing data suggest that the estimated concentrations of Th and FeO are consistent with the presence of such samples on the farside of the Moon. The differentiation trend deduced from the mineralogy of the anorthositic clasts define a magnesian extension of the ferroan anorthosite (FAN) trend constructed from the Apollo samples. The presence of magnesian anorthositic clasts in Dhofar 489 still offers a possibility that the farside trend with magnesian compositions is more primitive than the FAN trend, and may require a revision of this classical differentiation trend. The Ar Ar age of Dhofar 489 is 4.23 ± 0.034 Gyr, which is older than most Ar ages reported for highland rocks returned by Apollo. The old Ar Ar age of impact formation of this breccia and the presence of a fragment of spinel troctolite of deep crustal origin suggest that a basin forming event on the farside excavated the deep crust and magnesian anorthosites before formation of Imbrium.

Takeda, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, A.; Bogard, D. D.; Karouji, Y.; Ebihara, M.; Ohtake, M.; Saiki, K.; Arai, T.

2006-07-01

270

Revolution in Field Science: Apollo Approach to Inaccessible Surface Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The extraordinary challenge mission designers, scientists, and engineers, faced in planning the first human expeditions to the surface of another solar system body led to the development of a distinctive and even revolutionary approach to field work. Not only were those involved required to deal effectively with the extreme limitation in resources available for and access to a target as remote as the lunar surface; they were required to developed a rigorous approach to science activities ranging from geological field work to deploying field instruments. Principal aspects and keys to the success of the field work are discussed here, including the highly integrated, intensive, and lengthy science planning, simulation, and astronaut training; the development of a systematic scheme for description and documentation of geological sites and samples; and a flexible yet disciplined methodology for site documentation and sample collection. The capability for constant communication with a ‘backroom’ of geological experts who make requests and weigh in on surface operations was innovative and very useful in encouraging rapid dissemination of information to the greater community in general. An extensive archive of the Apollo era science activity related documents provides evidence of the principal aspects and keys to the success of the field work. The Apollo Surface Journal allows analysis of the astronaut’s performance in terms of capability for traveling on foot, documentation and sampling of field stations, and manual operation of tools and instruments, all as a function of time. The application of these analysis as ‘lessons learned’ for planning the next generation of human or robotic field science activities on the Moon and elsewhere are considered here as well.

Clark, P. E.

2010-07-01

271

Exploration of Moon and Mars: ISRO Plans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Subsequent to the announcement of the first Moon mission `Chandrayaan-1', the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) has chalked out a road map for planetary exploration through the year 2020. This includes a follow up mission to Moon, `Chandrayaan-2', an orbiter to Mars, a mission to an asteroid and a technology demonstration mission, in preparation to the exploration of outer solar

V. S. Murty Sripada

2008-01-01

272

Apollo 12 Lunar Module exhaust plume impingement on Lunar Surveyor III  

Microsoft Academic Search

Understanding plume impingement by retrorockets on the surface of the Moon is paramount for safe lunar outpost design in NASA’s planned return to the Moon for the Constellation Program. Visual inspection, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and surface scanned topology have been used to investigate the damage to the Lunar Surveyor III spacecraft that was caused by the Apollo 12 Lunar Module’s

Christopher Immer; Philip Metzger; Paul E. Hintze; Andrew Nick; Ryan Horan

2011-01-01

273

Moon 101: Introducing Students to Lunar Science and Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moon 101 is designed with the purpose of familiarizing students with lunar geology and exploration. Armed with guiding questions, students read articles covering various lunar science topics and browse images from past and current lunar missions to familiarize themselves with available lunar data sets. Moon 101 was originally created for high school students preparing to conduct open-inquiry, lunar research. Most high school students' knowledge of lunar science is limited to lunar phases and tides, and their knowledge of lunar exploration is close to non-existent. Moon 101 provides a summary of the state of knowledge of the Moon's formation and evolution, and the exploration that has helped inform the lunar science community. Though designed for high school students, Moon 101 is highly appropriate for the undergraduate classroom, especially at the introductory level where resources for teaching lunar science are scarce. Moon 101 is comprised of two sections covering lunar science (formation and geologic evolution of the Moon) and one section covering lunar exploration. Students read information on the formation and geologic evolution of the Moon from sources such as the Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) website and the USGS professional paper A Geologic History of the Moon by Wilhelms. While these resources are not peer-reviewed journals, the information is presented at a level more advanced than articles from newspapers and popular science magazines. This ensures that the language is accessible to students who do not have a strong lunar/planetary science background, or a strong science background in general. Formation readings include information on older and current formation hypotheses, including the Giant Impact Hypothesis, the Magma Ocean hypothesis, and the age of the lunar crust. Lunar evolution articles describe ideas such as the Late Heavy Bombardment and geologic processes such as volcanism and impact cratering. After reading the articles, students are asked a series of questions which help reinforce the lunar science concepts they should take away from the readings. Students then use their new knowledge of the Moon in the final section of Moon 101 where they are asked to characterize the geology of the region surrounding the Apollo 11 landing site. To do this, they conduct a survey of available lunar data, examining imagery from lunar missions as recent as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and as old as the Ranger missions of the 1960s. This allows students to explore the available datasets and identify the advantages and disadvantages of each. Pre/post test questions have also been developed to assess changes in student understanding of the formation and evolution of the Moon, and lunar exploration. Moon 101 is a framework for introducing students to lunar science, and can be followed up with student-driven research. Moon 101 can be easily modified to suit the needs of the students and the instructor. Because lunar science is an evolving field of study, the use of resources such as the PSRD allows Moon 101 to be flexible and to change as the lunar community re-discovers our celestial neighbor.

Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

2011-12-01

274

Apollo-Soyuz Pamphlet No. 8: Zero-G Technology. Apollo-Soyuz Experiments in Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This pamphlet is the eighth in a series of nine discussing the Apollo-Soyuz mission and experiments. This set is designed as a curriculum supplement for high school and college teachers, supervisors, curriculum specialists, textbook writers, and the general public. These booklets provide sources of ideas, examples of the scientific method,…

Page, Lou Williams; Page, Thornton

275

Apollo-Soyuz Pamphlet No. 3: Sun, Stars, In Between. Apollo-Soyuz Experiments in Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet is the third in a series of nine that discuss the Apollo-Soyuz mission and experiments. This set is designed as a curriculum supplement for secondary and college teachers, supervisors, curriculum specialists, textbook writers, and the general public. These booklets provide sources of ideas, examples of the scientific method,…

Page, Lou Williams; Page, Thornton

276

Apollo-Soyuz Pamphlet No. 4: Gravitational Field. Apollo-Soyuz Experiments in Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet is the fourth in a series of nine that describe the Apollo-Soyuz mission and experiments. This set is designed as a curriculum supplement for teachers, supervisors, curriculum specialists, textbook writers, and the general public. These booklets provide sources of ideas, examples of the scientific method, references to standard…

Page, Lou Williams; Page, Thornton

277

Return to the Moon: A New Strategic Evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper reviews the value of a new lunar program, initially robotic and eventually manned, in the light of developments since the 1991 Synthes Group study of the Space Exploration Initiative. The objective is to evaluate a return to the Moon in comparison to proposed Mars programs as a focus for American space exploration with humans in the next century. The Moon is demonstrably accessible, hospitable, useful, and interesting. Lunar programs are inherently faster and less risky from a programmatic viewpoint than comparable Mars programs such as Mars Direct. The dominant reason for a resumption of manned lunar missions, focused on a single site such as Grimaldi, is to rebuild the infrastructure for missions beyond Earth orbit, the last of which was in 1972. A transitional program, corresponding to the 10 Gemini missions that bridged the gap between Mercury and Apollo, was considered absolutely essential by the Synthesis Group. Further justification for a return to the Moon is the demonstrated feasibility of a robotic lunar observatory, concentrating on optical and infrared interferometry. Many unsolved scientific questions about the Moon itself remain, and could be investigated using telerobotic lunar rovers even before the return of humans. Mars is unquestionably more interesting scientifically and far more hospitable for long-term colonization. A new lunar program would be the most effective possible preparation for the human exploration, settlement and eventually the terraforming of Mars. Lunar and Mars programs are complementary, not competitive. Both can be justified in the most fundamental terms as beginning the dispersal of the human species against uncontrollable natural disasters, cometary or asteroidal impacts in particular, to which mankind is vulnerable while confined to a single planet. Three specific programs are recommended for the 2001-2010 period: Ice Prospectors, to evaluate polar ice or hydrogen deposits; a robotic lunar observatory; and a manned lunar base and observatory.

Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

1999-01-01

278

Heavy cosmic-ray exposure of Apollo astronauts.  

PubMed

A comprehensive study of the heavy-particle cosmic-ray exposure received by the individual astronauts during the nine lunar Apollo missions reveals a significant variation in the exposure as a function of shielding and the phase of the solar cycle. The data are useful in planning for future long-range missions and in estimating the expected biological damage. PMID:1111101

Benton, E V; Henke, R P; Bailey, J V

1975-01-24

279

The Moon: Its structure, origin, and development  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apollo program findings are summarized. The Moon is a differentiated body whose bulk major oxide composition is very similar to that of the terrestrial mantle, indicating a close genetic tie between the Earth and the Moon. The initial lunar differentiation produced a massive feldspathic crust which then underwent considerable tectonic, impact, chemical, and petrological modification, an olivine-rich mantle, and possibly a small Fe-FeS core. While the Moon is a simpler body than the Earth, the Moon has a very complex history and is petrologically and structurally complicated.

Binder, A. B.

1981-11-01

280

Study of complex dielectric properties of lunar simulants and comparison with Apollo samples at microwave frequencies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory characterization of dielectric properties of terrestrial analogues of lunar soil (JSC-1A) and comparison with lunar samples returned from various Apollo missions is made at different as well as normalized bulk density. Here measurements of dielectric constants and losses were made at four microwave frequencies such as 1.7 GHz, 2.5 GHz, 6.6 GHz and 31.6 GHz. Complex permittivity of lunar simulant was measured at temperature ranging from -190 °C to + 200 °C using Wave-Guide cell method. Comparison of permittivity of JSC-1A with Apollo sample also has been done at similar microwave frequencies. The investigations reveal that dielectric constant and loss factor of terrestrial analogues of lunar soil are temperature dependent. As temperature is gradually increased both these parameter (storage factor and loss factor) also gradually increases. These temperatures were chosen because the Moon undergoes at that extremes level of temperature. It is scorching heat at 110 °C during the day and freezing cold at -180 °C during night. The measured value of ? can be useful for designing passive as well as active sensors.

Calla, Om Prakash Narayan; Rathore, Inder Singh

2012-12-01

281

The surface-bounded atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-bounded exospheres have been detected at the Moon, Mercury, and Europa and almost certainly exist about other objects. Historically, the first of these systems to be observed was the lunar exosphere, where He and Ar were detected by the Apollo spacecraft. The Hermean exosphere is archetypical of these systems in that it is part of a coupled system including the surface and magnetosphere interacting dynamically with the solar wind and fields. Studies of the Hermean exosphere heretofore have neglected or only superficially considered these interactions. We will review the current state of knowledge of the exospheres of Mercury and the Moon and discuss areas in which our knowledge is most incomplete. We will focus on the exosphere as part of a coupled system including the surface at its base and the particle, field, and interplanetary environment as both a source and sink for neutrals. Apollo era instruments made unambiguous detections of 36Ar, 40Ar, and He and placed stringent upper limits on other species [Hodges, 1975; Hodges 1973]. Post-Apollo work began with the discovery of Na and K using ground-based techniques [Potter and Morgan, 1988]. There have also been attempts to use the International Ultraviolet Explorer and the Hubble Space Telescope to detect additional species. The Mariner 10 mission included two encounters with Mercury and one distant flyby in 1974-1975: (1) March 29, 1974 (nightside pass with closest approach at 723-km altitude), (2) September 21, 1974 (distant dayside pass), and (3) March 16, 1975 (nightside pass with closest approach at 327-km altitude). Since then there has been no other spacecraft mission to Mercury. In the 2 decades since the Mariner 10 mission, slow but steady progress has been made in understanding the Hermean system, but our knowledge of this innermost terrestrial planet is extremely limited. It is clear that many theories about the origin and evolution of Mercury that were proposed before Mariner 10 are inconsistent with what we now know about the system. Substantial progress will be made only by returning to the planet. This review aims to present a tool for mission planning as well as an introduction and overview of the exosphere.

Killen, Rosemary M.; Ip, Wing-H.

282

Gravity measured at the apollo 14 lading site.  

PubMed

The gravity at the Apollo 14 landing site has been determined from the accelerometer data that were telemetered from the lunar module. The values for the lunar gravity measured at the Apollo 11, 12, and 14 sites were reduced to a common elevation and were then compared between sites. A theoretical gravity, based on the assumption of a spherical moon, was computed for each landing site and compared with the observed value. The observed gravity was also used to compute the lunar radius at each landing site. PMID:17757030

Nance, R L

1971-12-01

283

Argon-40-argon-39 dating of apollo sample 15555.  

PubMed

An age of 3.33+/-0.05x10(9) years was obtained for Apollo 15 sample 15555 by argon40-argon-39 dating. The age of rock 15555, a basalt from the rim of Hadley Rille, establishes an upper limit to the age of the rille. The basalt flows filling the Hadley Rille section of the Imbrium basin postdate the formation of the basin-as measured by the Apollo 14 samples of the Fra Mauro formation-by at least 500x10(6) years. Therefore, the mare basalts cannot be simple impact melts but rather must result from some igneous activity on the moon. PMID:17731360

Alexander, E C; Davis, P K; Lewis, R S

1972-01-28

284

Electromagnetic Sounding of the Moon from ARTEMIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ARTEMIS is a twin-satellite, two-year lunar orbital mission, formed by retasking two of the THEMIS constellation (Angelopoulos, Space Sci. Rev.2010). The two spacecraft achieved lunar orbit in summer 2011. Although conceived for heliospheric science, investigations of the exosphere, crustal magnetic fields, and interior are enabled by the electromagnetic (EM) instruments of ARTEMIS (Sibeck et al., Space Sci. Rev, 2011). EM sounding of the interior will be improved over Apollo-era investigations due to the larger bandwidth, longer mission duration, and geographic coverage. Science objectives include (1) structure and heterogeneity of the outermost 500 km (crust and upper mantle), a region that may contain key information on the lunar magma ocean and the origin of the anomalous Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT); (2) tighter bounds on the conductivity of the lower mantle (500-1400 km depth), in order to constrain the temperature and nature of trace elements that control electrical conduction, particularly water; and (3) size of the metallic core, and whether a surrounding layer of molten silicate is present. EM sounding from ARTEMIS can be performed in at least two ways. In the transfer-function (TF) method derived during Apollo, the magnetic fields at a distant platform are compared to a (near) surface sensor to derive the source and sum of source and induced fields, respectively. From these data the internal conductivity structure giving rise to the induced field can be derived. However, source-field heterogeneity disturbs TF responses > 0.01 Hz. These high frequencies are necessary to resolve the crust and upper mantle. In contrast, the magnetotelluric (MT) method derives internal structure from the horizontal components of electric and magnetic fields at a single near-surface sensor, and therefore does not depend strongly on source-field geometry. MT has been used for more than a half-century in terrestrial exploration, but ARTEMIS marks its first planetary application. Both TF and MT are optimally applied when the Moon is in the lobes of the geomagnetic tail and the spacecraft are in daylight, where plasma effects are minimized. Periapsis passages at altitudes of a few hundred km or less with this geometry appear regularly in Nov and Dec. Periapses in the diamagnetic wake cavity are the next choice for EM sounding. The current layer that develops on the day side when the Moon is exposed to the solar wind screens EM sounding from orbit, but ARTEMIS will determine the thickness of this layer. ARTEMIS will advance our understanding of the lunar interior in ways that are complementary to the GRAIL gravity mission, and will provide a baseline for long-integration EM sounding from a surface geophysical network.

Grimm, R. E.; Delory, G. T.; Angelopoulos, V.; Artemis Team

2011-12-01

285

Oxygen isotopes and the moon-forming giant impact.  

PubMed

We have determined the abundances of 16O, 17O, and 18O in 31 lunar samples from Apollo missions 11, 12, 15, 16, and 17 using a high-precision laser fluorination technique. All oxygen isotope compositions plot within +/-0.016 per mil (2 standard deviations) on a single mass-dependent fractionation line that is identical to the terrestrial fractionation line within uncertainties. This observation is consistent with the Giant Impact model, provided that the proto-Earth and the smaller impactor planet (named Theia) formed from an identical mix of components. The similarity between the proto-Earth and Theia is consistent with formation at about the same heliocentric distance. The three oxygen isotopes (delta17O) provide no evidence that isotopic heterogeneity on the Moon was created by lunar impacts. PMID:11598294

Wiechert, U; Halliday, A N; Lee, D C; Snyder, G A; Taylor, L A; Rumble, D

2001-10-12

286

Project Columbiad: Mission to the Moon. Book 2, volume 3: Stage configuration designs; volume 4: Program plan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Earth Orbital Rendezvous (EOR) configuration for the piloted mission is composed of three propulsive elements in addition to the Crew Module (CM): Primary Trans-Lunar Injection (PTLI), Lunar Braking Module (LBM), and Earth Return Module (ERM). The precursor mission is also composed of three propulsive elements in addition to its surface payloads: PTLI, LBM and the Payload Landing Module (PLM). Refer to Volume 1, Section 5.1 and 5.2 for a break-up of the different stages into the four launches. A quick summary is as follows: PTLI is on Launch 1 and 3 while the LBM, PLM, and surface payloads are on Launch 2 and another LBM, ERM, and CM on Launch 4. The precursor mission is designed to be as modular as possible with the piloted mission for developmental cost considerations. The following topics are discussed: launch vehicle description; primary trans-lunar injection stage; lunar braking module; earth return module; crew module; payload landing module; and surface payload description.

287

In Brief: Moon landing anniversary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To commemorate the Apollo program and the fortieth anniversary of the first lunar landing, NASA has announced a nearly month-long series of activities at various locations around the United States during July. Events include a 16 July roundtable discussion about the Apollo program at NASA headquarters in Washington, D. C.; Moonfest 2009 at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, Calif., on 19 July; a First Footprint Celebration at the Space and Rocket Center in Huntsville, Ala., on 20 July; and an Apollo 11 Splashdown Celebration at Johnson Space Center on 24 July. NASA Television will broadcast some of the events live. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/40th/events.html.

Showstack, Randy

2009-07-01

288

Estimating the Speed of Light from Earth-Moon Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Moon landing of Apollo 16 on April 21, 1972, a spoken message from Earth is heard returning to Earth roughly 2.7 s later. The signal traveled from Earth to the Moon, from the earphone to the microphone of astronaut John Young's space helmet, and back to Earth. A recording of this ``space echo,'' available at Ref. 1, enables

David Keeports

2006-01-01

289

Meditations on the new space vision: the Moon as a stepping stone to Mars.  

PubMed

The Vision for Space Exploration invokes activities on the Moon in preparation for exploration of Mars and also directs International Space Station (ISS) research toward the same goal. Lunar missions will emphasize development of capability and concomitant reduction of risk for future exploration of Mars. Earlier papers identified three critical issues related to the so-called NASA Mars Design Reference Mission (MDRM) to be addressed in the lunar context: (a) safety, health, and performance of the human crew; (b) various modalities of mission operations ranging surface activities to logistics, planning, and navigation; and (c) reliability and maintainability of systems in the planetary environment. In simple terms, lunar expeditions build a résumé that demonstrates the ability to design, construct, and operate an enterprise such as the MDRM with an expectation of mission success. We can evolve from Apollo-like missions to ones that resemble the complexity and duration of the MDRM. Investment in lunar resource utilization technologies falls naturally into the Vision. NASA must construct an exit strategy from the Moon in the third decade. With a mandate for continuing exploration, it cannot assume responsibility for long-term operation of lunar assets. Therefore, NASA must enter into a partnership with some other entity--governmental, international, or commercial--that can responsibly carry on lunar development past the exploration phase. PMID:16010766

Mendell, W W

290

Moon Phases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When teaching Moon phases, the focus seems to be on the sequence of Moon phases and, in some grade levels, how Moon phases occur. Either focus can sometimes be a challenge, especially without the use of models and observations of the Moon. In this month's column, the author describes some of the lessons that he uses to teach the phases of the Moon…

Riddle, Bob

2010-01-01

291

Solar wind composition from the Moon;  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lunar regolith contains the best accessible record of the solar wind composition of the past few billion years. Interpreting this record crucially depends on our understanding of the implantation mechanisms, potential alternative sources other than the solar wind, storage and degradation processes, and transport- and loss-mechanisms of trapped particles in the regolith. We therefore suggest that a future mission to the Moon should contain the following objectives: (1) A thorough in-situ investigation of the contemporary solar wind composition by means of long-duration exposure experiments with various techniques as baseline for investigation of the historic and ancient solar wind. (2) A multidisciplinary program, involving an experimental investigation of implantation-, storage- and loss-processes of solar particles at the conditions of the lunar environment. This program is complementary to an elaborated systematic sampling of all layers of the lunar regolith, based on the experience from the Apollo- and the Luna-missions. Difficulties with the interpretation of the lunar record are illuminated in the case of surface correlated nitrogen. (3) A complementary goal for the extensive sampling of the lunar surface is the documentation of the lunar regolith for future generations, prior to extended human activites which could have detrimental effects to the lunar environment.

Bochsler, P.

1994-06-01

292

The Lunar Seismic Network (LuSeN) Mission: The Need for Compact, Robust, Long-Lived Power Supplies.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Apollo seismic experiment established a network of four seismometers on the lunar nearside at the Apollo 12, 14, 15 and 16 landing sites that was in operation for 8 years (1969-1977). During this time, four different types of moonquakes were recognized and although originally thought to be tectonically dead, the recorded activity showed that lunar seismicity was about equal to that of intraplate settings on Earth. However, the limited spatial coverage of this network has left many unanswered questions, such as: 1) What is the structure and thickness of the crust on the lunar near and far sides? Are crustal structure changes gradational or are distinct domains present? What is the nature of the hypothesized lunar core? What are the mineralogic transitions present in the lunar mantle? Is there a Moon-wide ~500 km discontinuity (magmasphere vs. magma ocean)? Are the core and mantle completely solid or do plastic zones still persist? Are nests producing periodic deep Moonquakes present on the far side? The Lunar Seismic Network (LuSeN) mission concept establishes a modest network of 8-10 seismometers deployed around the Moon with an orbiting communications satellite. Like the Apollo seismic experiment, these seismometers need to be continuously recording and be active for 5-7 years in order to record enough seismic events to establish where the most seismically active areas are in the Moon, as well as answer the scientific questions outlined above. Mass considerations preclude establishing a network of this size using conventional battery and solar power supplies: a compact, robust radionuclear power supply is needed for each seismometer. Given the new emphasis on the Moon, results from the LuSeN mission will be relevant for the establishing a Moon base in a seismically passive (safe) region and one that has a low probability of receiving a sizable meteoroid impact. In addition, the LuSeN mission will also use the Moon as a technology test bed for establishing seismometer arrays on other planets and moons as we go to the Moon, Mars, and beyond.

Neal, C. R.

2005-12-01

293

Radiation exposure in the moon environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a stay on the moon humans are exposed to elevated radiation levels due to the lack of substantial atmospheric and magnetic shielding compared to the Earth's surface. The absence of magnetic and atmospheric shielding allows cosmic rays of all energies to impinge on the lunar surface. Beside the continuous exposure to galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which increases the risk of cancer mortality, exposure through particles emitted in sudden nonpredictable solar particle events (SPE) may occur. SPEs show an enormous variability in particle flux and energy spectra and have the potential to expose space crew to life threatening doses. On Earth, the contribution to the annual terrestrial dose of natural ionizing radiation of 2.4 mSv by cosmic radiation is about 1/6, whereas the annual exposure caused by GCR on the lunar surface is roughly 380 mSv (solar minimum) and 110 mSv (solar maximum). The analysis of worst case scenarios has indicated that SPE may lead to an exposure of about 1 Sv. The only efficient measure to reduce radiation exposure is the provision of radiation shelters. Measurements on the lunar surface performed during the Apollo missions cover only a small energy band for thermal neutrons and are not sufficient to estimate the exposure. Very recently some data were added by the Radiation Dose Monitoring (RADOM) instrument operated during the Indian Chandrayaan Mission and the Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRaTER) instrument of the NASA LRO (Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter) mission. These measurements need to be complemented by surface measurements. Models and simulations that exist describe the approximate radiation exposure in space and on the lunar surface. The knowledge on the radiation exposure at the lunar surface is exclusively based on calculations applying radiation transport codes in combination with environmental models. Own calculations are presented using Monte-Carlo simulations to calculate the radiation environment on the moon and organ doses on the surface of the moon for an astronaut in an EVA suit and are compared with measurements. Since it is necessary to verify/validate such calculations with measurement on the lunar surface, a description is given of a radiation detector for future detailed surface measurements. This device is proposed for the ESA Lunar Lander Mission and is capable to characterize the radiation field concerning particle fluencies, dose rates and energy transfer spectra for ionizing particles and to measure the dose contribution of secondary neutrons.

Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Matthiae, Daniel

2012-12-01

294

Scientific rationale for the D-CIXS X-ray spectrometer on board ESA's SMART1 mission to the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The D-CIXS X-ray spectrometer on ESA's SMART-1 mission will provide the first global coverage of the lunar surface in X-rays, providing absolute measurements of elemental abundances. The instrument will be able to detect elemental Fe, Mg, Al and Si under normal solar conditions and several other elements during solar flare events. These data will allow for advances in several areas

S. K Dunkin; M. Grande; I. Casanova; V. Fernandes; D. J Heather; B. Kellett; K. Muinonen; S. S. Russell; R. Browning; N. Waltham; D. Parker; B. Kent; C. H Perry; B. Swinyard; A. Perry; J. Feraday; C. Howe; K. Phillips; G. McBride; J. Huovelin; P. Muhli; P. J Hakala; O. Vilhu; N. Thomas; D. Hughes; H. Alleyne; M. Grady; R. Lundin; S. Barabash; D. Baker; P. E Clark; C. D Murray; J. Guest; L. C d'Uston; S. Maurice; B. Foing; A. Christou; C. Owen; P. Charles; J. Laukkanen; H. Koskinen; M. Kato; K. Sipila; S. Nenonen; M. Holmstrom; N. Bhandari; R. Elphic; D. Lawrence

2003-01-01

295

Landing on the Moon, Venus, and Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The Soviets reached the zenith of their success at the Moon with robotic missions in 1970 and 1971. In September 1970 the\\u000a Luna 16 mission successfully returned a sample of the Moon to Earth; an impressive achievement still unmatched by the US.\\u000a In November the Luna 17 mission successfully deployed the first robotic rover on the Moon, Lunokhod 1; another

Wesley T. Huntress; Mikhail Ya. Marov

296

Extreme Temperatures on the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the airless Moon experiences no weather analogous to terrestrial weather, conditions there are nothing short of extreme. This video segment recounts some of the experiences Apollo 16 astronauts had as they explored the lunar surface, particularly extremes of heat and cold occurring in sunlit and shady areas. The segment is three minutes eleven seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

2011-05-05

297

Extreme Temperatures on the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the airless Moon experiences no weather analogous to terrestrial weather, conditions there are nothing short of extreme. This video segment recounts some of the experiences Apollo 16 astronauts had as they explored the lunar surface, particularly extremes of heat and cold occurring in sunlit and shady areas. The segment is three minutes eleven seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

298

The Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study guide discusses general features and facts about the moon, the highlands and maria, lunar impact topography, tides, the moon's topographic features, and also the geology, interior and origin of the moon.

O'Connell, Robert

2005-06-28

299

The Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study guide discusses general features and facts about the moon, the highlands and maria, lunar impact topography, tides, the moon's topographic features, as well as the geology, interior and origin of the moon.

O'Connell, Robert W.

2010-04-08

300

Apollo 11 voice transcript pertaining to the geology of the landing site  

USGS Publications Warehouse

On July 20, 1969, America's Eagle touched down in southwestern Mare Tranquillitatis beginning man's firsthand exploration of the moon. This document is an edited record of the conversations between astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, Jr., at Tranquility Base, and Bruce McCandless at Mission Control in Houston during the approximately 22 hours spent on the lunar surface. It includes additional commentary during their return to Earth. It is a condensation hopefully of all the verbal data having geological significance. All discussions and observations documenting the lunar landscape, its geologic characteristics, the rocks and soils collected, and the photographic record are retained along with supplementary remarks essential to the continuity of events during the mission. We have deleted the words of mechanical housekeeping and engineering data, attempting not to lose the personal and philosophical aspects of this intensely human experience. The sources of this verbal transcript are the complete audio tapes recorded during the mission and the Technical Air-to-Ground Voice Transcription published by NASA. The voice record is listed chronologically given in days, hours, minutes, and seconds. These are the Ground Elapsed Times (GET) after launch from Kennedy Space Center which was 9:32 a.m. EDT on July 16, 1969. Figure 1 shows the vicinity of the landing site that was described, sampled, and photographed by the Apollo 11 crewmen.

Bailey, N. G.; Ulrich, G. E.

1974-01-01

301

Effects of Spacecraft Landings on the Moon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rocket exhaust of spacecraft landing on the Moon causes a number of observable effects that need to be quantified, including: disturbance of the regolith and volatiles at the landing site; damage to surrounding hardware such as the historic Apollo sit...

J. E. Lane P. T. Metzger

2013-01-01

302

Morphologic studies of the Moon and planets  

SciTech Connect

The impact, volcanic, and tectonic history of the Moon and planets were investigated over an eight year period. Research on the following topics is discussed: lunar craters, lunar basins, lunar volcanoes, correlation of Apollo geochemical data, lunar geology, Mars desert landforms, and Mars impact basins.

El-Baz, F.; Maxwell, T.A.

1984-09-01

303

Internal Friction in Moon and Earth Rocks  

Microsoft Academic Search

RECENT measurements of the quality factor, Q, for mechanical vibrations generated by dropping parts of the Apollo lunar module and by moonquakes1 indicate that the Q of the Moon for these vibrations is of the order of 3,000, but seismological measurements of the Earth's rocks indicate Qs of 110 for the outer mantle2, with higher values for the inner mantle.

Warren P. Mason

1971-01-01

304

APOLLO: Testing Gravity with Millimeter-precision Lunar Laser Ranging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the discovery of the accelerating universe and dark energy, along with our inability to unite quantum mechanics and General Relativity, there is a clear need to probe deeper into gravitational physics. The Earth-Moon-Sun system is a natural, fertile laboratory for such tests. The Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO) bounces laser light off of man-made retro-reflectors on the lunar surface to measure the Earth-Moon separation with one millimeter precision. These measurements of the lunar orbit enable improved constraints of gravitational phenomena such as the Weak Equivalence Principle, the Strong Equivalence Principle, de Sitter precession and dG/dt by an order of magnitude or better. I will describe the APOLLO project and its current status, as well as prospects for constraining PPN parameters and the universality of free-fall.

Battat, James; Murphy, Thomas; Adelberger, Eric; Hoyle, C. D.; McMillan, Russet; Michelsen, Eric; Nordtvedt, Kenneth; Orin, Adam; Stubbs, Christopher; Swanson, H. Erik

2007-04-01

305

Interplanetary variability in particle fluxes recorded by the low energy charged particle detector SLED (about 30 keV to greater than 30 MeV) during the Cruise Phase of the PHOBOS Mission to Mars and its moons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two lightweight telescope detector systems, codenamed SLED-1 and SLED-2, with the capability to monitor electron and ion fluxes within an energy range spanning 34 keV to a few tens of MeV, were launched on the twin spacecraft of the Soviet Phobos Mission to Mars and its moons in July 1988. Solar-related particle enhancements recorded during the Cruise Phase, and also

S. M. P. McKenna-Lawlor; V. V. Afonin; K. I. Gringauz; E. Keppler; E. Kirsch; A. K. Richter; M. Witte; D. O'Sullivan; A. Thompson; K. Kecskemety

1991-01-01

306

Pristine moon rocks - A 'large' felsite and a metal-rich ferroan anorthosite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results of elemental analyses, performed either by instrumental neutron activation analysis (NAA) or radiochemical NAA, of 19 lunar rock samples obtained by the Apollo 15, 17, and 12 missions are presented. Two of the samples are most extraordinary: 'large' (1 g) felsite from Apollo 12 and a pristine ferroan anorthosite from Apollo 15. The felsite is mainly a graphic intergrowth

Paul H. Warren; Eric A. Jerde; Gregory W. Kallemeyn

1987-01-01

307

A history of modern selenogony - Theoretical origins of the moon, from capture to crash 1955-1984  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development of ideas about the origin of the Moon during the last three decades is reviewed. In the 1950s G. H. Darwin's fission theory was still occasionally mentioned but by the 1960s it had been displaced by the hypothesis of lunar capture. A few scientists favored formation of the Moon from particles in orbit around the growing Earth. Analysis of samples from the Apollo missions did not confirm any of the three theories of lunar origin. Eventually the giant impact theory, proposed by Hartmann and Davis (1974) and by Cameron annd Ward (1975), was adopted as the best working hypothesis. But the problem is not yet satisfactorily solved and work continues on other hypotheses such as co-accretion.

Brush, Stephen G.

308

Exploration planning in the context of human exploration and development of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is widely believed that the next step beyond low Earth orbit in attaining the United States' stated goal of 'Expanding human presence beyond the Earth' should be to reestablish a lunar capability, building on the Apollo program, and preparing the way for eventual human missions to Mars. The Moon offers important questions in planetary and Earth science, can provide a unique platform for making astronomical observations of high resolution and sensitivity, and can be in the development path for unlocking resources of the inner solar system to support space activities and return benefits to Earth. NASA's Office of Exploration has undertaken the planning of future lunar exploration missions with the assistance of the Solar System Exploration Division in matters dealing with the quality of scientific data and the manner in which it will be made available to the scientific community. The initial elements of the proposed program include the Lunar Scout missions, which consist of two small identical spacecraft in polar orbit around the Moon, which can accomplish most of the objectives associated with previous proposals for Lunar Polar Orbiters. These missions would be followed by 'Artemis' landers, capable of emplacing up to 200 kg payloads anywhere on the Moon. In addition, the exploration program must incorporate data obtained from other missions, including the Galileo lunar flybys, the Clementine high orbital observations, and Japanese penetrator missions. In the past year, a rather detailed plan for a 'First Lunar Outpost (FLO)' which would place 4 astronauts on the lunar surface for 45 days has been developed as a possible initial step of a renewed human exploration program. In the coming year, the FLO concept will be reviewed and evolved to become more highly integrated with planning for the initial human exploration of Mars, which could come perhaps 5 years after the reestablishment of lunar capability. Both programs could benefit from the common development of systems and subsystems, where that is sensible from a performance perspective.

Duke, Michael B.; Morrison, Donald A.

1993-03-01

309

Next-generation electromagnetic sounding of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electromagnetic (EM) sounding of the Moon, largely performed during the Apollo program, provided constraints on core size, mantle composition, and interior temperature. We present new analytical and numerical models that demonstrate the abilities of a next generation of EM sounding to (1) determine the electrical structure of the outermost 500 km and its lateral variability, specifically to understand the extent of upper-mantle discontinuities and the structure of the Procellarum KREEP Terrane; (2) determine the temperature and composition of the lower mantle; and (3) better constrain core size. New EM sounding need not rely on the Apollo methodology, which analyzed the magnetic transfer function between a surface station and a distantly orbiting satellite. Instead, a network of magnetometers (as few as two) can be used, or a complete sounding can be performed from a single station by measuring both electric and magnetic fields. Furthermore, in the magnetotail or lunar wake, sensors can operate from orbit, at altitudes up to the desired investigation depth. The twin-spacecraft ARTEMIS mission will test these methods and a lunar geophysical network will provide definitive results.

Grimm, Robert E.; Delory, Gregory T.

2012-12-01

310

Apollo Lightcraft Project, 1988.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This second year of the NASA/USRA-sponsored Advanced Aeronautical Design effort focused on systems integration and analysis of the Apollo Lightcraft. This beam-powered, single-stage-to-orbit vehicle is envisioned as the shuttlecraft of the 21st century. T...

L. N. Myrabo W. L. Smith C. Decusatis S. R. Frazier J. L. Garrison

1988-01-01

311

Apollo's geology lesson  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An historical account of the Apollo Project's lunar rock samples are presented. The discovery of the rocks and the methods and equipment used in analyzing them are discussed. The results of the analysis of the lunar samples are briefly summarized with respect to lunar geology, evolution, and origin.

Goodman, Billy

1994-06-01

312

Apollo: A Retrospective Analysis.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Since the completion of Project Apollo more than twenty years ago there have been a plethora of books, studies, reports, and articles about its origin, execution, and meaning. At the time of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the first landing, it is appropr...

R. D. Launius

1994-01-01

313

Apollo 13 Damage  

NASA Video Gallery

This video of the severely damaged Apollo 13 service module was taken by the crew after it was jettisoned. An entire panel on the service module was blown away by the explosion of oxygen tank number two. Astronauts Jim Lovell, Fred Haise and Jack Swigert used the lunar module as a lifeboat and returned safely to Earth.

Jim Wilson

2010-08-12

314

The Moon at its Core  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ever since Apollo astronauts picked up rock samples and started to collect geophysical data from the Moon, evidence has been growing for a small lunar core. The most recent news comes from the Lunar Prospector magnetometer team of Lon Hood (University of Arizona), David Mitchell and Robert Lin (University of California, Berkeley), Mario Acuna (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center), and Alan Binder (Lunar Research Institute). Using the spacecraft's on-board instruments, they measured Earth's magnetic field paying particular attention to the slight alterations caused by the Moon. The data were collected in April 1998 while the Moon swung through the north tail lobe of Earth's magnetosphere. The spacecraft magnetometer detected changes in Earth's magnetic field thus giving the researchers the information they needed to estimate the size of the Moon's core. That size came out to be very small. Hood and his collaborators report a lunar core radius of only 340 km +- 90 km. For an iron-rich composition, a core of this size represents merely 1 to 3% of the Moon's total mass. In contrast, Earth's core is about 33% of our planet's total mass. This new evidence for a small lunar core strengthens the popular giant impact hypothesis which says that the Moon formed from hot, rocky debris after a Mars-sized object smashed into the early Earth. Down to its very core, the Moon has a unique history in our Solar System.

Martel, L. M. V.

1999-09-01

315

Indigenous Carbon Embedded in Apollo 17 Volcanic Black Glass Surface Deposits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report for the first time the identification of arguably indigenous carbonaceous matter present within surface deposits of a black glass grain collected on the rim of Shorty Crater during the Apollo 17 mission.

Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Gonzalez, C.

2012-03-01

316

Lunar Science Stations of 35 Years Ago - The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Packages-ALSEPs/EASEP  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ALSEP systems deployed by the astronauts on each of the six Apollo lunar landing missions is described. Experiment complements and experiment objectives are summarized. The achieved systems level performances of the ALSEPs are included.

Lewis, L. R.; Hsi, H. K.; Wallace, R. B.; Tosh, W. M.

2008-07-01

317

Moon Phases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|When teaching Moon phases, the focus seems to be on the sequence of Moon phases and, in some grade levels, how Moon phases occur. Either focus can sometimes be a challenge, especially without the use of models and observations of the Moon. In this month's column, the author describes some of the lessons that he uses to teach the phases of the…

Riddle, Bob

2010-01-01

318

Moon Phases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts various views of the moon orbiting around the Earth. In the "top view" choice, the moon orbits the Earth, and the sun is shown at left. In the "Earth view," the moon's phases are shown as seen from Earth. A third option shows both views simultaneously. The viewer may stop the moon anywhere in its orbit and find the corresponding moon phase title from a list provided. A very brief description of waxing, waning, and solar eclipse are given.

319

Moon Phases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Standard 1 : Students will understand that the appearance of the moon changes in a predictable cycle as it orbits Earth and as Earth rotates on its axis. On your Moon calendar from class record the phases of the moon for today and for the remainder of the month using the interactive ability of the following website: Virtual Reality Moon Phase Pictures If you do not have a Moon Phase Calendar, print one off from the following link and use that one instead of ...

Moser, Mrs.

2009-02-25

320

Impact Melt Breccias at the APOLLO 17 Landing Site.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Impact melt breccias are by far the most common highland rock type collected on the Apollo 17 mission. They tend to be fine grained, with virtually no clast-free impact melt rocks having been identified. All the highland boulders sampled are impact melt b...

G. Ryder

1992-01-01

321

Full Moon Feeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon is, together with the Sun, the very first astronomical object that we experience in our life. As this is an exclusively visual experience, people with visual impairments need to follow a different path to experience it too. Here we will show the process of designing and testing a tactile 3D Moon sphere whose goal is to reproduce on a tactile support the experience of observing the Moon visually. We have used imaging data obtained by NASA's mission Clementine, along with free image processing and 3D rendering software. This method is also useful to produce other artifacts that can be employed in the communication of astronomy to all kinds of public. The tactile Moon project for the blind has been funded partially by the 2011 Europlanet Outreach Funding Scheme.

Ortiz-Gil, A.; Ballesteros Roselló, F.; Fernández-Soto, A.; Lanzara, M.; Moya, M. J.

2012-09-01

322

Neil Armstrong, Former NASA Astronaut and the First Person to Walk on the Moon, Dies at 82  

NASA Video Gallery

Neil Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon has died. He was 82. Armstrong, considered an American hero, commanded the the Apollo 11 spacecraft that landed on the moon in 1969. The phrase he uttered that day as he stepped onto the surface of the moon, “That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind,” became iconic.

Rebecca Goodman

2012-08-25

323

GCR-induced Photon Luminescence of the Moon: The Moon as a CR Detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the results of a preliminary study of the GCR-induced photon luminescence of the Moon using the Monte Carlo program FLUKA. The model of the lunar surface is taken to be the chemical composition of soils found at various landing sites during the Apollo and Luna programs, averaged over all such sites to define a generic regolith for

Thomas Wilson; Kerry Lee

2008-01-01

324

We Choose The Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

It's a few hours before the launch of Apollo 11, and there's quite a bit of work still to be done. The buzz of the crowds nearby waiting for take-off can be a bit distracting, and fortunately you have a crack team onboard, including Neal Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin, and Michael Collins. The excitement and promise of that famous mission can be relived via this extraordinary site created by AOL and the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library. Visitors can make their way through the eleven stages of the mission, complete with audio transmissions from the flight, image galleries, additional video clips, and some tremendous visualizations of the craft in flight. Using the "Mission Tracker" feature, visitors can move through the stages as they see fit, and they can also change the size of the display and toggle the sound on and off. In the lower-left hand corner, visitors can view information about the distance from earth, spacecraft weight, and the velocity of the spacecraft. Persons interested in space missions and Apollo 11 in particular will be entranced by this site, and even those who aren't will be impressed by this site's overall appearance and design.

325

Apollo-Soyuz Pamphlet No. 2: X-Rays, Gamma-Rays. Apollo-Soyuz Experiments in Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This booklet is the second in a series of nine that describe the Apollo-Soyuz mission and experiments. This set is designed as a curriculum supplement for high school and college teachers, supervisors, curriculum specialists, textbook writers, and the general public. These booklets provide sources of ideas, examples of the scientific method,…

Page, Lou Williams; Page, Thornton

326

Apollo-Soyuz Pamphlet No. 2: X-Rays, Gamma-Rays. Apollo-Soyuz Experiments in Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This booklet is the second in a series of nine that describe the Apollo-Soyuz mission and experiments. This set is designed as a curriculum supplement for high school and college teachers, supervisors, curriculum specialists, textbook writers, and the general public. These booklets provide sources of ideas, examples of the scientific method,…

Page, Lou Williams; Page, Thornton

327

Apollo 12 revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present compositional data for 358 lithic fragments (2–4-mm size range) and 15 soils (<1-mm fines) from regolith samples collected at the Apollo 12 site. The regolith is dominated by mare basalt, KREEP impact-melt breccias (crystalline and glassy), and regolith breccias. Minor components include alkali anorthosite, alkali norite, granite, quartz monzogabbro, and anorthositic rocks from the feldspathic highlands. The typical

Randy L. Korotev; Bradley L. Jolliff; Ryan A. Zeigler; Stephen M. Seddio; Larry A. Haskin

2011-01-01

328

Lunar Soil Erosion Physics for Landing Rockets on the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

To develop a lunar outpost, we must understand the blowing of soil during launch and landing of the new Altair Lander. For example, the Apollo 12 Lunar Module landed approximately 165 meters from the deactivated Surveyor III spacecraft, scouring its surfaces and creating numerous tiny pits. Based on simulations and video analysis from the Apollo missions, blowing lunar soil particles

Ryan Clegg; Philip Metzger; Luke Roberson; Huff Stephen

2010-01-01

329

The Apollo Lunar Module, a Retrospective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While much has already been written about the Apollo program, the passage of time has sharpened our view of some of the lessons learned. Apollo was the result of a political imperative. The responsibility for the program was given to an open, civilian agency, NASA. The Lunar Orbit Rendezvous mission mode was selected after bitter debate. The Grumman LM contract began a year after the effort on the Command/Service Module was started. An incentive fee contract was devised where the fee would be determined by the contractor's success in meeting vehicle performance, schedule, and cost targets. It became obvious these targets had different priorities; performance came first - LM had to work, schedule came second, and cost came third. Grumman earned very little fee until the actual missions began and then did very well - the LM performed successfully every mission! A major factor in this success was a novel approach to reliability. Several challenging "firsts" were faced. LM was the first fly-by-wire, rocket powered VTOL manned vehicle designed to be flown only in space. Some basic truths were revealed: the usually ignored paradox in any truly novel undertaking, the contractor/agency relationship, the prime contractor/subcontractor relationship, the program/company relationship, and the limitations of human effort. The importance of an unambiguous goal and commited leadership was clearly demonstrated.

Gavin, Joseph G., Jr.

2002-01-01

330

Imaging the Moon's core with seismology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Constraining the structure of the lunar core is necessary to improve our understanding of the present-day thermal structure of the interior and the history of a lunar dynamo, as well as the origin and thermal and compositional evolution of the Moon. We analyze Apollo deep moonquake seismograms using terrestrial array processing methods to search for the presence of reflected and converted energy from the lunar core. Although moonquake fault parameters are not constrained, we first explore a suite of theoretical focal spheres to verify that fault planes exist that can produce favorable core reflection amplitudes relative to direct up-going energy at the Apollo stations. Beginning with stacks of event seismograms from the known distribution of deep moonquake clusters, we apply a polarization filter to account for the effects of seismic scattering that (a) partitions energy away from expected components of ground motion, and (b) obscures all but the main P- and S-wave arrivals. The filtered traces are then shifted to the predicted arrival time of a core phase (e.g. PcP) and stacked to enhance subtle arrivals associated with the Moon's core. This combination of filtering and array processing is well suited for detecting deep lunar seismic reflections, since we do not expect scattered wave energy from near surface (or deeper) structure recorded at varying epicentral distances and stations from varying moonquakes at varying depths to stack coherently. Our results indicate the presence of a solid inner and fluid outer core, overlain by a partial-melt-containing boundary layer (Table 1). These layers are consistently observed among stacks from four classes of reflections: P-to-P, S-to-P, P-to-S, and S-to-S, and are consistent with current indirect geophysical estimates of core and deep mantle properties, including mass, moment of inertia, lunar laser ranging, and electromagnetic induction. Future refinements are expected following the successful launch of the GRAIL lunar orbiter and SELENE 2 lunar lander missions.

Weber, R. C.; Lin, P. P.; Garnero, E. J.; Williams, Q. C.; Lognonne, P.

2011-12-01

331

Remote sensing of the Moon sub-surface from a spaceborne microwawe radiometer aboard the European Student Moon Orbiter (ESMO)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given the rising and renewed interest towards the study of Moon the European space Agency (ESA) approved, in March 2006, the phase-A for the feasibility study of the European Student Moon Orbiter (ESMO) mission proposed by the Student Space Exploration & Technology Initiative (SSETI). The objective of the ESMO mission is to acquire images of the moon in stable orbit,

M. Montopoli; P. Tognolatti; F. S. Marzano; M. Pierdicca; G. Perrotta

2007-01-01

332

Mysteries Of The Farside Of The Moon: What Galileo Couldn't See  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When Galileo first turned his improved spyglass to view the Moon from Padua, he was astounded at what he saw: ``And it is like the face of the Earth itself … which is marked here and there with chains of mountains and depths of valleys'' (Galilei, 1610). His remarks about his new discoveries captured the joy which ultimately drives every planetary explorer: ``I render infinite thanks to God for being so kind as to make me alone the first observer of marvels kept hidden in obscurity for all previous centuries'' (Galilei, 1610). Four centuries later his intellectual heirs have expanded human understanding of our place in the universe with an elegant symmetry. The Apollo and Luna programs demonstrated that the origin and history of the Earth and the Moon are intimately linked. Two decades later the Galileo spacecraft swung by the Moon to obtain a gravity-assist from Earth in order to complete its exploration journey to Jupiter and the Galilean satellites. The Galileo spacecraft was the first to return to the Moon with modern sensors, and its brief passage provided dramatic evidence that the farside of the Moon held secrets unimagined from study of the nearside. Subsequent missions, Clementine and Lunar Prospector, provided the first global assessment of lunar topography and composition, and placed the farside in context. There are few of the extensive plains of basaltic lava on the farside of the Moon. This fact is clearly a product of the earliest history of the Moon (the first 500 My), the details of which are being investigated from clues that remain on the Moon today. The dominant feature on the lunar farside is the enormous South Pole-Aitken Basin, which extends from the south pole to the crater Aitken, just 15° south of the equator. This basin includes the deepest area on the Moon and appears as a slightly darker circular region encompassing the lower half of the lunar farside. The composition of the interior is uniquely enriched with iron-bearing minerals derived from deeper layers within the Moon (lower crust or possibly mantle). Planetary explorers normally use indirect geophysical methods to probe below the surface of a body, and South Pole-Aitken presents a rare window into the interior. The challenge is to decipher the many processes involved in an impact event of this magnitude and the subsequent history of smaller events. This challenge can certainly be achieved with current technology, but it will likely take the ingenuity of scientists and engineers and further exploration to accomplish.

Pieters, Carlé M.

333

Lunar surface photography - A study of Apollo 11  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Attention is drawn to the perplexing oversight of mission planners to ensure the taking of a photograph of Neil Armstrong by Buzz Aldrin, during the Apollo 11 lunar landing. The ramifications of this oversight for NASA public relations efforts are explored, together with the reasons for its occurrence that have been unearthed during subsequent investigations of both lunar walk planning and communications from earth controllers during the lunar walk activity. From Apollo 12 onwards, both lunar landing module crewmen wore Hasselblad cameras to ensure the appearance of both in numerous operational photographs.

Arnold, H. J. P.

1987-10-01

334

Ramadan Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The sighting of a new moon determines the beginning of the Islamic holy month of Ramadan. In this video from Religion & Ethics Newsweekly, follow the process of sighting a new moon for American Muslims.

Wnet

2008-08-21

335

Perceptions of Apollo: Myth, nostalgia, memory or all of the above?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This essay explores the place of the Apollo program in the popular recollection of Americans more than 30 years after the last Moon landings in 1972, partly through a discussion of films and popular music. The collective memory of this singular episode in the history of the USA has altered over time. It has taken on mythical qualities, as well

Roger D. Launius

2005-01-01

336

The F-1 Engine Powered Apollo Into History, Blazes Path for Space Launch System Advanced Propulsion  

NASA Website

The F-1 engine - the most powerful single-nozzle, liquid-fueled rocket engine ever developed - boosted the Saturn V rocket off the launch pad and on to the moon during NASA's Apollo program during the 1960s and 1970s.

337

Detection of Radon Emanation from the Crater Aristarchus by the Apollo 15 Alpha Particle Spectrometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alpha particle spectrometer aboard the Apollo 15 command\\/service module was designed to detect alpha particles from radon decay and to locate regions with unusual activity on the moon. A significant increase in radon-222 activity was detected from a region containing the crater Aristarchus. The result is interpreted as probably indicating internal activity at the site. By analogy with terrestrial

Paul Gorenstein; Paul Bjorkholm

1973-01-01

338

Jupiterâs Moons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, from Case Western Reserve University, is an applet that simulates the observation of Jupiter's Galilean moons. The visitor can step through the simulation and observe the moons' positions at different times. The applet automatically plots the distance of each moon from the planet as a function of time.

Mihos, Christopher

2007-12-20

339

Apollo: a sequence annotation editor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The well-established inaccuracy of purely computational methods for annotating genome sequences necessitates an interactive tool to allow biological experts to refine these approximations by viewing and independently evaluating the data supporting each annotation. Apollo was developed to meet this need, enabling curators to inspect genome annotations closely and edit them. FlyBase biologists successfully used Apollo to annotate the Drosophila melanogaster

SE Lewis; SMJ Searle; N Harris; M Gibson; V Iyer; J Richter; C Wiel; L Bayraktaroglu; E Birney; MA Crosby; JS Kaminker; BB Matthews; SE Prochnik; CD Smith; JL Tupy; GM Rubin; S Misra; CJ Mungall; ME Clamp

2002-01-01

340

A Lunar Far Side Radio Array As The First Astronomical Observatory On The Moon: Precursor Studies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Setting up an observatory on the Moon could not only give us new views of the uni- verse, but also inspire the billions of people who look at the Moon. The Moon as a site for astronomy has been proposed since at least the mid-1960s when humans began to have access to outer space. The most seriously investigated concept for a Moon-based observatory has always been a very-low-frequency array on the far side for several well-grounded reasons. First, the Lunar far side is recognized as the best site of all for radio astronomy because it is the one location permanently free from the significant artificial and natural interference from Earth. Second, such an observatory will give us a completely new look at the universe by opening up the new frequency window of 50kHz-30MHz, the only part of the electromagnetic spectrum through which the universe has yet to be explored. Third, a simple array of dipole antennas is probably the most technologically feasible observatory to be placed and operated on the Moon. To be able to see astronomy happening from the Moon before we all age another 10 years, we must answer several questions at our earliest opportunities. (1) How far into the far side does the observatory site need to be for the terrestrial interference to be at- tenuated below the background level? (2) How do the electrical properties of the Lunar surface influence the site selection and the antenna design? In particular, how might the subsurface structures reflect radio waves to affect the observation? (3) How much would the Lunar ionosphere affect the observation? To address these questions now, radio wave propagation around the Moon is simulated using Apollo data for dielectric permittivity and loss tangent of the Lunar surface. The results of the simulations are presented. To ultimately identify the best sites and to specify the observatory design, making the following measurements within the next several years is crucial. (1) The level of terrestrial noise at various far-side locations. (2) Electrical properties of the Lunar surface, including permittivity and conductivity; their variation with depth and radio wave frequency. (3) The electron density profile above the Lunar surface during the day, the night, and the transition in-between. (4) Magnetic fields at candidate sites. (5) Detailed topology at candidate sites. Some ideas are suggested for inexpensive precursor missions in the very near future with significant scientific returns of their own. To realize the dream of observing the universe from the Moon, it is time for an international team to begin seriously proposing these precursor missions.

Takahashi, Y.

341

MoonWorld: Implementation of Virtual Lunar Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MoonWorld is an immersive virtual learning experience using Second Life. MoonWorld is realistically based on actual lunar landscapes, NASA spacesuits, base, rover and life support concepts, and mission objectives consistent with field exploration.

Wood, C. A.; Reese, D. D.; Ruberg, L.; Harrison, A.; Lightfritz, C.; Avatrian, Llc

2010-03-01

342

Odyssey Moon - An Entrepreneurial Model for Sustainable Commercial Lunar Enterprise  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper outlines how a carefully planned private Moon mission could set in motion the technological, political, legal and regulatory precedents that will enable humanity to embrace the Moon into the world's economic sphere.

Richards, R. D.; Khadem, R.

2008-07-01

343

From Apollo to Cognac  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Shell Oil Company started oil and gas production from a new offshore platform called Cognac located in the Gulf of Mexico. It is the world's tallest oil platform, slightly taller than the Empire State Building. The highly complex job of installing Cognac's support "jacket" under water more than a thousand feet deep was directed from a barge-based control center. To enable crews to practice in advance difficult tasks never before accomplished, Honeywell, adapting NASA's Apollo technology, developed a system for simulating the various underwater operations. In training sessions, displays and controls reacted exactly as they would in real operation.

1980-01-01

344

Moon Phases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation described is an activity using a ball to represent the moon and a light bulb to represent the Earth to demonstrate how the moon phase changes as it revolves around the Earth. Small diagrams and text lead a student through the steps involved in reconstructing the activity and describe the moon phase shown at each time. Other elements of the resource not reviewed here include a series of unordered photographs of moon phases and an animated GIF image of the moon phases over a month's time.

345

Earthquakes - on the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information obtained with the Apollo lunar seismic stations is discussed. The four types of natural seismic sources that have been identified are described, viz., thermal moonquakes, deep moonquakes, meteoroid impacts, and shallow moonquakes. It is suggested that: (1) the thermal quakes represent the slow cracking and movement of surface rocks; (2) the deep quakes are induced by the tide-generating force of the earth's gravity; (3) the meteoroids responsible for most of the observed impacts are in the mass range from 1 to 100 kg and are clustered in groups near the earth's orbit; and (4) the shallow quakes are similar to intraplate earthquakes and indicate that the moon is as seismically active as the interior regions of the earth's tectonic plates. The structure of the lunar interior as inferred from seismic signals due to both the last three natural sources and 'artificial' impacts of used spacecraft is examined in detail.

Nakamura, Y.

346

Planet Exploration Mission  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners design a scientific exploration mission to a planet or moon of their choice. Learners must consider questions such as which planet or moon to explore, distance of mission space travel, manned or unmanned mission, atmosphere and possible lifeforms on the destination moon or planet, and technology needed to explore the destination planet. This activity can be coordinated with the Habitable Worlds and Extreme Lifestyles activities found in the same astrobiology guide. This activity can be found on pages 52-53 of the activity guide.

Terc

2007-01-01

347

Moon Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity students record data about moon phases over the course of one complete moon cycle. The data will be used later in the course when students are building a model to account for the phenomenon of moon phases. Each student will gather data for the date and time, the color of the moon, the weather, the location in the sky and the shape and features of the moon from each day of an entire cycle of moon phases, and record it on a worksheet. This worksheet is available at the link called student activities and can be modified to also include moonrise and moonset data if desired. Links also lead to detailed instructional notes for the teacher and to further information about the moon.

348

Apollo 16 Geochemical X-ray Fluorescence Experiment: Preliminary Report.  

PubMed

The lunar surface was mapped with respect to magnesium, aluminum, and silicon as aluminum/ silicon and magnesium/ silicon intensity ratios along the projected ground tracks swept out by the orbiting Apollo 16 spacecraft. The results confirm the observations made during the Apollo 15 flight and provide new data for a number of features not covered before. The data are consistent with the idea that the moon has a widespread differentiated crust (the highlands). The aluminum/ silicon and magnesium/ silicon concentration ratios correspond to those for anorthositic gabbros through gabbroic anorthosites or feldspathic basalts. The x-ray results suggest the occurrence of this premare crust or material similar to it at the Descartes landing site. PMID:17815621

Adler, I; Trombka, J; Gerard, J; Lowman, P; Schmadebeck, R; Blodget, H; Eller, E; Yin, L; Lamothe, R; Osswald, G; Gorenstein, P; Bjorkholm, P; Gursky, H; Harris, B

1972-07-21

349

NEP missions to Pluto  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) has the potential to deliver fast trips to the distant outer planets and to be enabling for orbiter missions to Pluto, the moons of the distant outer planets, and Kuiper belt objects. This paper summarizes results of a mission study for a Pluto Flyby and a Pluto Orbiter. It was concluded that the flyby mission trip

Ronald J. Lipinski

2002-01-01

350

Galileo photometry of Apollo landing sites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As of December 1992, the Galileo spacecraft performed its second and final flyby (EM2), of the Earth-Moon system, during which it acquired Solid State Imaging (SSI) camera images of the lunar surface suitable for photometric analysis using Hapke's, photometric model. These images, together with those from the first flyby (EM1) in December 1989, provide observations of all of the Apollo landing sites over a wide range of photometric geometries and at eight broadband filter wavelengths ranging from 0.41 micron to 0.99 micron. We have completed a preliminary photometric analysis of Apollo landing sites visible in EM1 images and developed a new strategy for a more complete analysis of the combined EM1 and EM2 data sets in conjunction with telescopic observations and spectrogoniometric measurements of returned lunar samples. No existing single data set, whether from spacecraft flyby, telescopic observation, or laboratory analysis of returned samples, describes completely the light scattering behavior of a particular location on the Moon at all angles of incidence (i), emission (e), and phase angles (a). Earthbased telescopic observations of particular lunar sites provide good coverage of incidence nad phase angles, but their range in emission angle is limited to only a few degrees because of the Moon's synchronous rotation. Spacecraft flyby observations from Galileo are now available for specific lunar features at many photometric geometries unobtainable from Earth; however, this data set lacks coverage at very small phase angles (a less than 13 deg) important for distinguishing the well-known 'opposition effect'. Spectrogoniometric measurements from returned lunar samples can provide photometric coverage at almost any geometry; however, mechanical properties of prepared particulate laboratory samples, such as particle compaction and macroscopic roughness, likely differ from those on the lunar surface. In this study, we have developed methods for the simultaneous analysis of all three types of data: we combine Galileo and telescopic observations to obtain the most complete coverage with photometric geometry, and use spectrogoniometric observations of lunar soils to help distinguish the photometric effects of macroscopic roughness from those caused by particle phase function behavior (i.e., the directional scattering properties of regolith particles).

Helfenstein, P.; Veverka, J.; Head, James W.; Pieters, C.; Pratt, S.; Mustard, J.; Klaasen, K.; Neukum, G.; Hoffmann, H.; Jaumann, R.

1993-03-01

351

The Apollo SWC Experiment: Results, Conclusions, Consequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Apollo Solar Wind Composition (SWC) experiment was designed to measure elemental and isotopic abundances of the light noble gases in the solar wind, and to investigate time variations in the solar-wind composition. The experiment was deployed on the first five Apollo lunar landing missions. The crews exposed a foil at each of the five landing sites, and solar wind particles were collected for time periods ranging from 77 minutes in July 1969 (Apollo 11) to 45:05 hours in April 1972 (Apollo 16). The foils were returned to Earth, where the collected noble gas particles were analysed in ultra-high vacuum mass spectrometer systems. We briefly describe here the flight hardware, and the technical tests and calibrations. The experimental results were published in various scientific journals, PhD theses and NASA science reports, some of them not readily accessible after three decades. In this paper, therefore, the results obtained by the five experiments on the fluxes of the isotopes of He, Ne and Ar are summarized and discussed, so that averages and variations in solar wind composition can be more easily compared with more recent data, particularly those to be obtained by the Genesis mission. The helium flux determined for the five exposure periods varied by a factor of four, with a time-weighted average of 1.2 × 107 cm-2 s-1. Although the composition varied much less than the He-flux, definite variations were found for the 4He/3He and He/Ne ratios. The weighted average solar wind abundance ratios obtained were 4He/3He = 2350 ± 120, 4He/20Ne = 570 ± 70, 20Ne/22Ne = 13.7 ± 0.3, 22Ne/21Ne = 30 ± 3, 20Ne/36Ar = 49 ± 7 and 36Ar/38Ar =5.4 ± 0.3 (errors correspond to the 2? level). We also measured the flow directions of individual isotopic species. We found that the lunar environment did not significantly affect the solar wind composition measured at the lunar surface, and we conclude that the SWC results are representative of the solar wind prevailing in interplanetary space at the time of the five foil exposures. Finally, we discuss, from today's perspective, some of the implications and conclusions that can be drawn from the SWC results, concerning the Sun and its history, the solar system, the galaxy and the universe.

Geiss, J.; Bühler, F.; Cerutti, H.; Eberhardt, P.; Filleux, Ch.; Meister, J.; Signer, P.

2004-01-01

352

First seismic receiver functions on the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We applied the S receiver function technique [Farra and Vinnik, 2000] to the recordings of deep moon-quakes at seismograph station Apollo 12 in order to detect phases converted (Sp) and reflected beneath the station. We detected Sp phases from the base of the surficial low-velocity zone and from the mantle-crust boundary. The average P velocity in the surficial layer 1

Lev Vinnik; Hugues Chenet; Jeannine Gagnepain-Beyneix; Philippe Lognonne

2001-01-01

353

Apollo 16 Landing Site: Geochemistry and Impact History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lunar impact glasses are droplets of melt produced by energetic cratering events that were quenched during ballistic flight and possess the unmodified refractory element ratios of the original fused target materials at the sites of impacts. These target materials are usually regolith. This study reports on the geochemistry of 866 impact glasses from 4 Apollo 16 regolith samples. A subset of these glasses has been dated by the 40Ar/39Ar method. Orbital geochemical data indicate that the Apollo 16 region is KREEP-poor and representative of typical highland basalt (HB), concordant with the observation that most of our impact glasses are KREEP-poor. Some of these glasses have a composition similar to that of the lunar meteorites and to that of the highland basalt glasses found in the Apollo 14 regolith, indicating that not all HB compositions are the same. Additionally, KREEP-rich and mare-derived glasses within our suite of glasses indicate that some of those exotic glasses have apparently been transported ˜250 km from the nearest exposure of mare materials. 40Ar/39Ar ages from 9 impact glasses show that the Moon experienced significant impacts at ˜800 Ma and at ˜3800 Ma, somewhere in the vicinity of the Apollo 16 landing site. We suggest that these glasses represent at least two distinct impact events at separate times on similar terrains, which must have included both mare and highlands compositions. Candidate craters include Theophilus and Cyrillus, both of which border the maria, ˜250 km east of the Apollo 16 landing site. Our analyses suggest that a combination of chemical composition and ages for impact glasses allows for a more substantive interpretation of the lunar impact history. Histograms alone are not sufficient.

Zellner, N.; Spudis, P.; Delano, J.; Whittet, D.; Swindle, T.

2003-04-01

354

Europe reaches the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A complex package of tests on new technologies was successfully performed during the cruise to the Moon, while the spacecraft was getting ready for the scientific investigations which will come next. These technologies pave the way for future planetary missions. SMART-1 reached its closest point to the lunar surface so far - its first ‘perilune’ - at an altitude of about 5000 kilometres at 18:48 Central European Time (CET) on 15 November. Just hours before that, at 06:24 CET, SMART-1’s solar-electric propulsion system (or ‘ion engine’) was started up and is now being fired for the delicate manoeuvre that will stabilise the spacecraft in lunar orbit. During this crucial phase, the engine will run almost continuously for the next four days, and then for a series of shorter burns, allowing SMART-1 to reach its final operational orbit by making ever-decreasing loops around the Moon. By about mid-January, SMART-1 will be orbiting the Moon at altitudes between 300 kilometres (over the lunar south pole) and 3000 kilometres (over the lunar north pole), beginning its scientific observations. The main purpose of the first part of the SMART-1 mission, concluding with the arrival at the Moon, was to demonstrate new spacecraft technologies. In particular, the solar-electric propulsion system was tested over a long spiralling trip to the Moon of more than 84 million kilometres. This is a distance comparable to an interplanetary cruise. For the first time ever, gravity-assist manoeuvres, which use the gravitational pull of the approaching Moon, were performed by an electrically-propelled spacecraft. The success of this test is important to the prospects for future interplanetary missions using ion engines. SMART-1 has demonstrated new techniques for eventually achieving autonomous spacecraft navigation. The OBAN experiment tested navigation software on ground computers to determine the exact position and velocity of the spacecraft using images of celestial objects taken by the AMIE camera on SMART-1 as references. Once used on board future spacecraft, the technique demonstrated by OBAN will allow spacecraft to know where they are in space and how fast they are moving, limiting the need for intervention by ground control teams. SMART-1 also carried out deep-space communication tests, with the KaTE and RSIS experiments, consisting of testing radio transmissions at very high frequencies compared to traditional radio frequencies. Such transmissions will allow the transfer of ever-increasing volumes of scientific data from future spacecraft. With the Laser Link experiment, SMART-1 tested the feasibility of pointing a laser beam from Earth at a spacecraft moving at deep-space distances for future communication purposes. During the cruise, to prepare for the lunar science phase, SMART-1 made preliminary tests on four miniaturised instruments, which are being used for the first time in space: the AMIE camera, which has already imaged Earth, the Moon and two total lunar eclipses from space, the D-CIXS and XSM X-ray instruments, and the SIR infrared spectrometer. In all, SMART-1 clocked up 332 orbits around Earth. It fired its engine 289 times during the cruise phase, operating for a total of about 3700 hours. Only 59 kilograms of xenon propellant were used (out of 82 kilograms). Overall, the engine performed extremely well, enabling the spacecraft to reach the Moon two months earlier than expected. The extra fuel available also allowed the mission designers to significantly reduce the altitude of the final orbit around the Moon. This closer approach to the surface will be even more favourable for the science observations that start in January. The extra fuel will also be used to boost the spacecraft back into a stable orbit, after six months of operations around the Moon, in June, if the scientific mission is extended.

2004-11-01

355

Graphite in an Apollo 17 impact melt breccia.  

PubMed

We report on the detection of discrete grains of crystalline graphite and graphite whiskers (GWs) in an Apollo 17 impact melt breccia. Multiple instances of graphite and GWs within a discrete area of the sample imply that these grains are not terrestrial contamination. Both graphite and GWs are indicative of high-temperature conditions and are probably the result of the impact processes responsible for breccia formation. This suggests that impact processes may be an additional formation mechanism for GWs in the solar system and indicates that the Moon contains a record of ancient carbonaceous material delivered at the time of the Late Heavy Bombardment. PMID:20595608

Steele, A; McCubbin, F M; Fries, M; Glamoclija, M; Kater, L; Nekvasil, H

2010-07-01

356

Apollo Scientific Experiments Data Handbook.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A brief description of each of the Apollo scientific experiments was described, together with its operational history, the data content and formats, and the availability of the data. The lunar surface experiments described are the passive seismic, active ...

W. F. Eichelman W. W. Lauderdale

1974-01-01

357

To a rocky moon - A geologist's history of lunar exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

A detailed historical account is given of lunar exploration by a scientist who had been involved in the field before and after, as well as during, the period of the Apollo moon landings. Attention is given to the ways in which the initial, robotic lunar-probe landings added crucially to the store of knowledge on which planning for the manned landings

Don E. Wilhelms

1993-01-01

358

Origin, evolution and present thermal state of the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relative absence of lunar volcanism in the last 3 × 109 y and the Apollo 15 heat flow measurement suggest that present-day temperatures in the Moon are approximately steady-state to depths of ~ 100 km. An exponential distribution of heat sources with depth may then be scaled by equating the surface heat flow to the integrated heat production of

Thomas C. Hanks; Don L. Anderson

1972-01-01

359

The surface-bounded atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface-bounded exospheres have been detected at the Moon, Mercury, and Europa and almost certainly exist about other objects. Historically, the first of these systems to be observed was the lunar exosphere, where He and Ar were detected by the Apollo spacecraft. The Hermean exosphere is archetypical of these systems in that it is part of a coupled system including the

Rosemary M. Killen; Wing-H. Ip

1999-01-01

360

Exospheres of Earth-like planets and moons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface-bounded exospheres have been detected at the Moon, Mercury and Europa and almost certainly exists about other objects. Historically, the first of these systems to be observed was the lunar exosphere, where He and Ar were detected by the Apollo spacecraft, but the most important discovery was the detection of sodium and potassium on 1988. The same discovery was made

G. Cremonese

2002-01-01

361

MoonLITE Programmatic and Technological Update  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MoonLITE is a proposed four penetrator lunar mission. Following a US/UK working group assessment, a science assessment and the first UK impact trials, a full mission-level phase A study has begun. A technological and programmatic update of the mission is given.

Smith, A.; Crawford, I. A.; Barber, S. J.; Brown, P.; Church, P.; Gao, Y.; Gowen, R. A.; Griffiths, A.; Hagermann, A.; Joy, K.; Pike, W. T.; Phipps, A.; Proud, W. G.; Sheridan, S.; Sims, M. R.; Talboys, D. L.; Wells, N.

2009-03-01

362

Impacts seismology: from Jupiter to Mars, the Moon and small bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural impacts are generating seismic waves and are important seismic sources, not only on planets of bodies without quakes (e.g. Jupiter or small asteroides) but also on telluric planets with weak or without atmosphere, e.g. Mars and the Moon. We first review with the Shoemaker Levy-9 impact on Jupiter and the impacts detected by the Apollo seismic networks observations and modeling of impacts, and present the main physical properties of the seismic source associated to an impact, both in term of magnitude or duration and for both impacts on solid surfaces or explosions in atmosphere. We especially show that the calibration of the seismic signals generated by impacts can be performed with the Lunar artificial impacts of the LEM or SIVB, and use such calibration to estimate the flux of impactor on the Moon, as well as the continuous micro-seismic noise generated by the continuous impacts of meteorites on our satellite. We then discuss the perspectives of future missions. On telluric planets, impacts are indeed important seismic sources for constraining the crustal and upper mantle structure, especially when their impact location and impacting time can be determined by other complementing experiments, such as Earth based flash detection for the Moon or differential orbital imaging of the surface for Mars. We focus our attention to the InSight seismic mission to Mars, considered by NASA for a launch in 2016. In order to have a robust estimation of the rates of seismic detection of impacts, we analyze and model the difference of seismic propagation properties between Mars and the Moon, and use this modeling to estimate the seismic response of impacts on Mars, as a function of both the impactor characteristics (mass and velocity) and epicentral distance. We then use statistical models of impactors, confirmed by both the Apollo seismic observations and the Mars Orbiter impacts observations, to estimate the present flux on Mars and to constrain the rate of seismic impact detection, as well as the expected probability to further locale these events by differential remote sensing. This analysis is performed by taking into account both the expected performances of the VBB seismometer of InSight and the expected environmental noise after its deployment on the Martian surface. We finally discuss on impacts on small bodies, and with a comparable approach than for Mars, show the expected impact activity which might be detected by any seismometer landing on asteroids.

Lognonne, Philippe; Kawamura, Taichi; Gudkova, Tamara

2012-07-01

363

The Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxygen isotopic data suggest that there is a genetic relationship between the constituent matter of the Moon and Earth (Wiechert et al., 2001). Yet lunar materials are obviously different from those of the Earth. The Moon has no hydrosphere, virtually no atmosphere, and compared to the Earth, lunar materials uniformly show strong depletions of even mildly volatile constituents such as

P. H. Warren

2003-01-01

364

Moon Walk  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the Earthâs only natural satellite, the Moon. They discuss the Moonâs surface features and human exploration. They also learn about how engineers develop technologies to study and explore the Moon, which also helps us learn more about the Earth.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

365

Moon Tricks  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The apparent daily motion of the Moon and other celestial objects through the sky is a major science concept. This story is designed to call attention to the changes in position and shape of the Moon over time. Its purpose is to motivate students to obser

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2008-04-01

366

Science Sampler: Teaching science using the movie Apollo 13  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

For over 40 years the space program has inspired students of science and engineering. The movie Apollo 13, about the third lunar mission, provides opportunities to teach students about several science concepts and the nature of scientific investigation. Use the ideas and suggestions found in this article to teach students about the phenomenon of inertia, the hypothesis-observation cycle, and illustrate the importance of solving problems creatively.

Schiebel, Amy; Goll, James G.; Ley, Jenifer L.

2006-07-01

367

Gearing Up to Explore the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

One European and two Japanese space missions will study the Moon's surface and interior. X-ray and gamma-ray spectrometers will identify elements on the Moon's surface while an alpha-particle spectrometer will analyze alpha particles emitted by radon gas and polonium. A stereoscopic camera will map the Moon's surface. Missile-shaped projectiles, including seismometers and temperature sensors, will impact the surface and reach

Alexander Hellmans

2002-01-01

368

Different ways of viewing the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

When the first astronauts landed on the Moon in 1969 they left a plaque which noted that the efforts of exploration were for all mankind That same spirit still guides NASA and is an important part of their education public outreach E PO programs In 2008 India will launch a mission to the Moon Chandrayaan-1 with a NASA funded instrument

C. Runyon; S. Shipp; K. Guimond; C. Atkinson; K. Balch; G. Tuthill

2006-01-01

369

Moon Mineralogy Mapper Imaging Spectrometer Science Measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) was selected as a NASA Discovery Mission of Opportunity in early February 2005 and entered phase B in May 2005. The primary science goal is to characterize and map the lunar surface composition m the context ol its geologic evolution.The primary exploration goal is to assess and map the Moon mineral resources at high spatial

R. O. Green; C. Pieters; P. Mouroulis; T. Koch

2008-01-01

370

Minimum fuel trajectories for a low-thrust power-limited mission to the moon and to Lagrange points L4 and L5  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimum fuel trajectories from a low earth parking orbit to Lagrange points L4 or L5 and to the moon are obtained for a low-thrust limited-power spacecraft, with thrust acceleration levels of the order of 0.001 G. The procedure to find a trajectory to the libration point starts from an analytical description of a slightly elliptical spiral, given by Breakwell and

John V. Breakwell; Oded M. Golan

1990-01-01

371

On-Orbit Science Measurement Performance of the NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Imaging Spectrometer On-Board the Chandrayaan-1 Mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) is an imaging spectrometer of the pushbroom type that measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm at 10 nm resolution with a nominal target mode spatial sampling of 70 m with 600 cross-track spatial elements. M3 has a signal-to-noise ratio requirement of 400 for equatorial illumination and 100 for polar illumination levels. In

Robert Green; C. Pieters

2009-01-01

372

External Resource: Constellation: Earth, Moon, Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA Constellation Mission interactive site allows students to select destinations of NASA's new program for space exploration to the International Space Station, Moon, and Mars. Topics: low Earth orbit, power generation, thermal control, avionics,

1900-01-01

373

The New Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After an extended drought, new data about the Moon are finally made available to a hungry planetary science community. SMART-1 [ESA] led the way with an innovative technology demonstration mission to the Moon. An international armada of more complex missions with advanced sensors followed in rapid succession: SELENE1Kaguya [JAXA], ChangE [CNSA], Chandrayaan-1 [ISRO], and LRO1LCROSS [NASA]. The data from these modern robotic mis-sions are being calibrated, validated, and distributed and new results and insights are appearing throughout the peer-reviewed scientific literature. With these new data, the Moon indeed con-tinues to surprise us. We now know hydrated materials exist far more abundantly in the interior than ever suspected, water and hydrated materials are currently widespread across the surface of the Moon, and some polar areas appear to be locations where hydrous materials are con-centrated. We recognize that the large basins provide windows into early crustal processes and we have identified direct compositional products of the Magma Ocean. We have uncovered secondary deep magmatic products of the lunar crust and characterized basin impact melt that was possibly derived from the mantle. Basaltic volcanism has been documented to have oc-curred over extended periods of time (perhaps in pulses) on both the nearside as ell as farside, and some of the youngest basalts are highly picritic (olivine rich) in nature. We are probing Earth's nearest neighbor to build an understanding of the earliest events of planet evolution. The harvesting of this wealth of data has just begun.

Pieters, Carle

374

LRO Diviner Radiometer and the Apollo 15 Heat Flow Experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A synergistic relationship has grown out of incoming data from the Diviner infrared radiometer aboard LRO, and measurements from the Apollo 15 and 17 heat flow experiments. Here we look at the 3.5 year surface and subsurface temperatures from the Apollo 15 mission as both a calibration point for Diviner and as a guide for extending surface thermal properties models into the subsurface. Whereas Diviner’s strength is in global surface properties, the Apollo 15 data (from NSSDC: PSPG-00752) recorded subsurface temperatures within the top 2 meters of the regolith. The goal is to use an Apollo-based conductivity and density model as a base for global lunar regolith conditions. A model confirmed both with surface and subsurface temperatures from Apollo 15 will be a reliable calibration point for Diviner. Thermal variations at other locations can be fixed to specific changes in the local subsurface regolith structure and associated thermal properties. Here we examine the current radiometric surface temperatures at the Apollo 15 landing site derived from Diviner data, then apply our thermal model to USGS topography data sets (10m and 50m resolution; Rosiek, 2009) to correlate measured temperatures with near surface thermal properties. This same model will be illuminated using ephemeris conditions appropriate to the 1971-74 Apollo 15 heat flow experiment. Beginning with previously published thermal property models (Vasavada et al 1999, Keihm and Langseth 1975, Langseth and Keihm 1976, Keihm 1984), we will model the regolith and thermal probe to recreate seasonal, diurnal and other transient thermal behavior measured by the Apollo heat flow experiment. This model should allow for more confidence in using surface temperatures measured by Diviner to infer regolith structure at depth. Ray tracing thermal models developed for Diviner can include effects of topography and orbital cycles that have led some to challenge the validity of conclusions drawn from the Apollo data sets (Saito et al 2007, 2008). Shallow Apollo data show clear signs of shunting of heat down the borestem of the thermal probe at the onset of the lunation cycle, requiring 2 or 3D models. The thermal probe also showed a long term drift postulated to be caused by either alteration of surface conditions by the Apollo astronauts (Langseth et al 1976) or the 18.6 year component of the lunar orbit (Saito 2008). An overarching explanation of these inconsistencies should bolster confidence in an Apollo based thermal model and heat flow results as well as provide a base for modeling diffusive movement of volatiles through the near surface regolith in polar environments. [1] Keihm S. and Langseth (1975) Icarus 24, 211. [2] Keihm (1984) Icarus 60, 568. [3] Langseth, M. G. et al. (1976) Proc. Lunar Sci. Conf., 7th, 3143. [4] Courtesy Rosiek M., USGS Astrogeology Science Center, http://astrogeology.usgs.gov [5] Saito, Y. (2007) Proc. 38th Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., 2197. [6] Saito, Y. (2008) Proc. 39th Lunar Planet. Sci. Conf., 1663. [7] Vasavada A. et al (1999) Icarus 141, 179.

Siegler, M. A.; Keihm, S. J.; Paige, D. A.; Vasavada, A. R.; Ghent, R. R.; Bandfield, J. L.; Snook, K.

2009-12-01

375

Moon's River  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Users can read about the discovery of ice on Earth's moon, which occurs in the form of ice crystals accumulated near the lunar poles. The discussion covers the use of the neutron spectrometer as a tool for detecting water by sensing the hydrogen it contains, some ideas on the origin of the ice, and the fact that water has been found elsewhere in the solar system (on Europa, Jupiter's fourth-largest moon). Other materials include an interview with Harrison Schmidt, the last astronaut to walk on the Moon, and a bibliography.

1998-03-26

376

Focus on the Moon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Described is the observation of the moon with binoculars. Descriptions of the thin crescent moon, three-day-old moon, five-day-old moon, first quarter moon, 10-day-old moon and the full moon are presented and characteristics of each phase are included. (DS)

Byrd, Deborah

1980-01-01

377

Long-term degradation of optical devices on the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty years ago, Apollo astronauts placed the first of several retroreflector arrays on the lunar surface. Their continued usefulness for laser ranging might suggest that the lunar environment does not damage optical devices. However, new laser ranging data reveal that the efficiency of the three Apollo reflector arrays is now diminished by a factor of 10 at all lunar phases and by an additional factor of 10 when the lunar phase is near full Moon. These deficits did not exist in the earliest years of lunar ranging, indicating that the lunar environment damages optical equipment on the timescale of decades. Dust or abrasion on the front faces of the corner-cube prisms may be responsible, reducing their reflectivity and degrading their thermal performance when exposed to face-on sunlight at full Moon. These mechanisms can be tested using laboratory simulations and must be understood before designing equipment destined for the Moon.

Murphy, T. W.; Adelberger, E. G.; Battat, J. B. R.; Hoyle, C. D.; McMillan, R. J.; Michelsen, E. L.; Samad, R. L.; Stubbs, C. W.; Swanson, H. E.

2010-07-01

378

The Moon and the Earth  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How does the moon affect the Earth? Read the information on the following websites to help you learn about the moon and the earth. Easy Moon/Earth info Easy Moon Info Moon Information Moon Photos Moon Phases ...

Benson, Carrie

2012-01-06

379

Moon Module  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This module consists of five lessons designed to educate students on lunar exploration, rocketry, impact craters, and other aspects of the Earth-Moon system. The lessons include hands-on activities, overheads, and links to additional resources.

380

Moon Zoo  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The goal of the Moon Zoo website is "to provide detailed crater counts for as much of the Moon's surface as possible." On the website, interested parties can help out with this effort by examining images of the moon's surface and providing feedback to be used by the team of researchers in charge of the Moon Zoo project. First-time visitors should click on the "How To Take Part" for a tutorial that will help determine which project they might be best suited for. Visitors who wish to take part in the project will need to register on the website, and that process only takes a few minutes. Moving on, the website has an online forum where users can trade information as well as a blog.

381

Birthday Moons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson plan is part of the Center for Educational Resources (CERES), a series of web-based astronomy lessons created by a team of master teachers, university faculty, and NASA researchers. This lesson familiarizes students with lunar phases by locating them and then graphing the Moon phase of their own birthdays. Students then discuss lunar myths and legends while creating their own Moon stories. This lesson contains expected outcomes for students, materials, background information, extension activities, and follow-up questions.

Tuthill, George; Obbink, Kim

382

Moon Calendar  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web application, developed mainly for elementary school students, shows the phases of the Moon for each day of a selected month from any given latitude and longitude. The calendar can be set from 3999 BC to 3999 AD. Each day can be looked at individually, or can be animated to go through the phases. Other information includes the distance to the Moon, time of Moonrise and Moonset, and the distance to the Sun with sunrise and sunset times.

Carlisle, Paul

383

Is the Moon Still Alive?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The current paradigm is that the Moon has been inactive for the last 3Ga, although crater statistics indicate that thin sequences of basalts were erupted over western Procellarum as recently as 1Ga. Nevertheless the general consensus is that the Moon is dead. New advances in mapping optical maturity and composition from Clementine data combined with morphologic indicators, however, point to several endogenic features that challenge the Dead Moon Paradigm. One of the most intriguing is the Ina structure first mapped in detail by Strain and El Baz in the `70's. The Ina structure (also known as D-caldera) is about 2.9km in diameter with a maximum depth of 30m. Within the depression are small mounds that are surrounded by reflective, low-lying rubbled plains. Although proposed as endogenic, the degree of preservation of Ina was not fully appreciated. Within the Ina structure, Apollo pan photos reveal that small craters are absent and features (scarps and contacts) are extremely well preserved down to meter scales. In contrast, craters on the dated maria as large as 50-100 m would have been destroyed. The state of morphologic preservation is better than North Ray crater at Apollo 16, which was dated to 50Ma. Plots of optical maturity and composition for regions surrounding the Ina structure confirm that bright materials within the Ina structure must be exceedingly young, comparable freshly exposed crater wall materials. Consequently, the spectral data are also consistent with the degradational state and absence of a superposed crater population. The Ina structure is one of four similar structures situated around the Imbrium basin. It is suggested that they may represent diatreme-like vents connected to the deep lunar interior through deep basin faults. Although it remains uncertain if volcanic materials were released, these sites were at least centers for escaping gases that redistributed local and buried materials. This discovery could have important implications future lunar explorations.

Schultz, P. H.; Staid, M. I.; Pieters, C. M.

2001-05-01

384

Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection  

Microsoft Academic Search

JSC curation is digitizing pictures of lunar samples taken during initial sample return and subsequent processing. These images will be available via a searchable database on the Curation website as they are produced; 69% are currently available.

G. E. Lofgren; N. S. Todd; S. K. Runco; W. L. Stefanov

2011-01-01

385

Mercury And The Moon: Mid-infrared Spectroscopic Measurements Of The Surface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic observations (7.5 - 13 ?m) of Mercury and the Moon obtained with MIRSI (Mid-Infrared Spectrometer and Imager) at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility (IRTF) are presented. The spectra were acquired at mercurian W. longitudes 172 - 282° covering north polar to south polar latitudes. Also acquired were lunar surface measurements of the Apollo 16 landing site and Grimaldi basin and highlands. Mercury measurements covered Caloris Basin, Basin S, and other regions on the side not imaged by Mariner 10. Lunar locations were chosen for their known surface compositions determined from near-infrared spectral telescopic observations and Apollo return samples. Spectra for both bodies were reduced with the same calibration star to minimize reduction differences. Spectral differences between the mercurian locations indicate a heterogeneous composition and differences between Mercury and lunar spectra indicate compositional differences between the two bodies. All collected spectra from Mercury and the Moon show distinct and recognizable features including the Christiansen emissivity maximum and one or more transmission minima. Other features have yet to be identified. True emission spectra of rock and mineral powders with varying grain sizes will be presented for comparison with the data. Acknowledgements: The authors of this paper were Visiting Astronomers at the Infrared Telescope Facility, which is operated by the University of Hawaii under Cooperative Agreement no. NCC 5-538 with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Science Mission Directorate, Planetary Astronomy Program. We are especially grateful to Alan Tokunaga and Eric Tollestrup for useful engineering time on the telescope and Don Hunten for helpful discussions. This work was supported by NSF grant AST-0406796.

Donaldson Hanna, Kerri L.; Sprague, A. L.; Kozlowski, R. W.; Boccafolo, K.; Helbert, J.; Maturilli, A.; Warell, J.

2006-09-01

386

Life sciences on the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite of the fact that the lunar environment lacks essential prerequisites for supporting life, lunar missions offer new and promising opportunities to the life sciences community. Among the disciplines of interest are exobiology, radiation biology, ecology and human physiology. In exobiology, the Moon offers an ideal platform for studies related to the understanding of the principles, leading to the origin,

G. Horneck

1996-01-01

387

Alan Shepard Hits A Golf Ball on the Moon  

NASA Video Gallery

Apollo 14 Commander and original Mercury astronaut Alan Shepard, the first American to fly in space, tees off on the lunar surface during his 1971 mission, with crewmate Edgar Mitchell watching and capcom Fred Haise commenting from Mission Control. Shepard said the ball went "miles and miles."

Jim Wilson

2010-08-12

388

Geology, geochemistry, and geophysics of the Moon: Status of current understanding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon is key to understanding both Earth and our Solar System in terms of planetary processes and has been a witness of the Solar System history for more than 4.5 Ga. Building on earlier telescopic observations, our knowledge about the Moon was transformed by the wealth of information provided by Apollo and other space missions. These demonstrated the value of the Moon for understanding the fundamental processes that drive planetary formation and evolution. The Moon was understood as an inert body with its geology mainly restricted to impact and volcanism with associated tectonics, and a relative simple composition. Unlike Earth, an absence of plate tectonics has preserved a well-defined accretion and geological evolution record. However recent missions to the Moon show that this traditional view of the lunar surface is certainly an over simplification. For example, although it has long been suspected that ice might be preserved in cold traps at the lunar poles, recent results also indicate the formation and retention of OH- and H2O outside of polar regions. These volatiles are likely to be formed as a result of hydration processes operating at the lunar surface including the production of H2O and OH by solar wind protons interacting with oxygen-rich rock surfaces produced during micrometeorite impact on lunar soil particles. Moreover, on the basis of Lunar Prospector gamma-ray data, the lunar crust and underlying mantle has been found to be divided into distinct terranes that possess unique geochemical, geophysical, and geological characteristics. The concentration of heat producing elements on the nearside hemisphere of the Moon in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane has apparently led to the nearside being more volcanically active than the farside. Recent dating of basalts has shown that lunar volcanism was active for almost 3 Ga, starting at about 3.9-4.0 Ga and ceasing at ˜1.2 Ga. A recent re-processing of the seismic data supports the presence of a partially molten layer at the base of the mantle and shows not only the presence of a 330 km liquid core, but also a small solid inner core. Today, the Moon does not have a dynamo-generated magnetic field like that of the Earth. However, remnant magnetization of the lunar crust and the paleomagnetic record of some lunar samples suggest that magnetization was acquired, possibly from an intrinsic magnetic field caused by an early lunar core dynamo. In summary, the Moon is a complex differentiated planetary object and much remains to be explored and discovered, especially regarding the origin of the Moon, the history of the Earth-Moon system, and processes that have operated in the inner Solar System over the last 4.5 Ga. Returning to the Moon is therefore the critical next stepping-stone to further exploration and understanding of our planetary neighborhood.

Jaumann, R.; Hiesinger, H.; Anand, M.; Crawford, I. A.; Wagner, R.; Sohl, F.; Jolliff, B. L.; Scholten, F.; Knapmeyer, M.; Hoffmann, H.; Hussmann, H.; Grott, M.; Hempel, S.; Köhler, U.; Krohn, K.; Schmitz, N.; Carpenter, J.; Wieczorek, M.; Spohn, T.; Robinson, M. S.; Oberst, J.

2012-12-01

389

Project Magellan: First Human Circumnavigation of the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report summarizes a single-semester team design effort for human circumnavigation of the moon. The initial design constraints included the goal of performing this mission within a single local day to take advantage of solar power. Details are presented on the rover system, which was designed to support three humans for a 35 day mission around the moon with a

Jhason Abuan; Jorge Aviles; Ryan Dickson; Oscar Hsu; Michael Kessler; M. Khoali; D. Maloney; K. Mitchell; N. Patregnani; P. Pawlowski; L. Policastri; J. Quigg; R. Reed; M. Simmons; D. Thies; P. Timko; K. Turner; J. van Eopoel; R. Zara; D. Akin; M. Bowden

2000-01-01

390

Normal point generation and first photon bias correction in APOLLO lunar laser ranging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The APOLLO Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) system studies gravity by tracing out the orbit of the moon to ~1 mm, over many years. LLR in general provides extensive tests of many aspects of gravity, including deviations from General Relativity (GR), and time rate-of-change of the gravitational constant, G. APOLLO's precision is approximately 10x better than previous LLR measurements, enabling about an order of magnitude improvement in tests of gravity over the coming years. APOLLO requires complex data reduction methods to extract the distance so precisely. There are currently three choices for determining the round-trip-time to the moon from the data: the correlation method, the Augmented Calculation method, and the PDF-fit method. The results here suggest the PDF-fit method as preferable, for minimum random uncertainty over the full operating range of conditions, and stable systematic error below ~1 mm. As a second topic, the APOLLO system includes a systematic error called "First Photon Bias," which causes time measurements to be skewed early. An algorithm is presented and simulated, showing that it is inherently capable of achieving < 1 mm systematic error under normal operating conditions. However, the final algorithm requires a correction table calibrated from a more accurate model of shot-to-shot intensity fluctuations. Such a table could be the subject of future investigations.

Michelsen, Eric Leonard

2010-11-01

391

Apollo 11 Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector: Initial Measurements from the McDonald Observatory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acquisition measurements of the round-trip travel time of light, from the McDonald Observatory to the Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector deployed on the moon by the Apollo 11 astronauts, were made on 20 August and on 3, 4, and 22 September 1969. The uncertainty in the round-trip travel time was ± 15 nanoseconds, with the pulsed ruby laser and timing system used

C. O. Alley; R. F. Chang; D. G. Currie; J. Mullendore; S. K. Poultney; J. D. Rayner; E. C. Silverberg; C. A. Steggerda; H. H. Plotkin; W. Williams; B. Warner; H. Richardson; B. Bopp

1970-01-01

392

Detection of radon emanation from the crater aristarchus by the apollo 15 alpha particle spectrometer.  

PubMed

The alpha particle spectrometer aboard the Apollo 15 command/service module was designed to detect alpha particles from radon decay and to locate regions with unusual activity on the moon. A significant increase in radon-222 activity was detected from a region containing the crater Aristarchus. The result is interpreted as probably indicating internal activity at the site. By analogy with terrestrial processes, increased radon emanation may be associated with the emission of other volatiles. PMID:17806295

Gorenstein, P; Bjorkholm, P

1973-02-23

393

The study of lunar rotation by Japanese lunar landing missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internal structure of the planet is one of the important clues to know its origin and evolution. So far, gravity, rotation, seismic wave, electro-magnetic wave, and heat flow observations have been carried out. In these methods, we plan to load rotation estimation instrument for next Japanese lunar exploration project SELENE-2 and SELENE-3. LLR: The Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) is the method to measure the distance between the Earth and the Moon using laser beam. For more than 30 years since the Apollo and the Lunokhod mission placed retrograde reflectors on the Moon, LLR produced data on the lunar rotation as well as the lunar orbital evolution. On the basis of LLR data, the state of lunar interior is discussed. Williams discussed the dissipation between the solid mantle and a fluid core from LLR data. LLR observation has also provided information of moment of inertia and tidal Love number of the Moon. We are proposing a new LLR on board SELENE-II. Instead of conventional corner cube reflector (CCR) array, we are planning to use a larger single reflector. This has an advantage over the conventional CCR array, because a single cube should have smaller distance variation within the reflector upon monthly libration of the lunar rotation. We are proposing that a new reflector should be somewhere in the southern hemisphere on the nearside Moon. Then in combination with a powerful A15 CCR, latitudinal component of lunar libration and its dissipation can be measured precisely. We also prepare the inverse-VLBI and ILOM (In situ Lunar Orientation Measurement) missions for post-SELENE-2 mission. ILOM: ILOM is a selenodetic mission to study lunar rotational dynamics by direct observations of the lunar physical libration and the free librations from the lunar surface with an accuracy of 1 millisecond of arc in the post-SELENE project. Year-long trajectories of the stars provide information on various components of the physicallibrations and we will also try to detect the lunar free librations in order to investigate the lunar mantle and the liquid core. The PZT on the moon is similar to that used for the international latitude observations of the Earth is applied. The measurement of the rotation of the Moon is one of the essential technique to obtain the information of the internal structure. As the result of thermal analysis of the ILOM system, it is difficult to attain such an accuracy on the lunar surface if we use an objectives with combination of conventional lenses. We are developing a new system with diffractive lense and adaptive optics which can be used on the lunar surface. iVLBI: In the inverse VLBI mission, two or more artificial radio sources are loaded on multiple landers. These transmit radio signals and the differences of the distance between landers and ground VLBI station are measured. This differential range measurement is sensitive to the rotation of the Moon. This new lunar rotation estimation method will contribute to investigate the internal structure of the Moon and can be used to confirm the conventional LLR results. In the presentation, the detail of the instruments, scientific target, and recent status are presented. We also introduce the latest results of the Japanese lunar exploration project Kaguya, especially new SELENE gravity model (SGM), k2 value, and moment of inertia in particular are shown.

Kikuchi, Fuyuhiko; Hanada, Hideo; Noda, Hirotomo; Sasaki, Sho; Iwata, Takahiro

2010-05-01

394

The Unknown Moon Institute - An Opportunity to Engage Teachers with Lunar Science and Scientists, and Inspire the Next Generation of Explorers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Professional development of science educators is becoming increasingly important as the global rank of science literacy among U.S. students falls. An appropriate tool for generating excitement for space science is our own Moon, and lunar science is a subject that can be incorporated into any STEM curriculum, or even non-STEM curriculum. The Unknown Moon Institute, sponsored by the NASA Lunar Science Institute, is a lunar science education workshop for high school teachers, which emphasizes using real lunar data to give the teachers authentic research experiences. The goal is for them to share these research experiences with their students in the classroom to re-generate excitement for lunar and solar system exploration. Scientists and education specialists are closely involved with creating the experiences and making sure they are not only scientifically accurate, but easy to incorporate in the classroom. Additionally, we have found that the increased face-to-face interaction with scientists accounts for many of the positive responses in workshop evaluations. Excitement in the classroom can come from historical and cultural connections to the Apollo Missions; but it can also come from new technologies and spacecraft making amazing new discoveries about our Moon. Few know these new discoveries as well as current lunar scientists. The lunar scientists involved with the Unknown Moon Institute are excited about the Moon, and the Moon's relationship to the Earth. The incorporation of authentic research experiences with professional development programs is a highly valued goal, but authentic interactions with expert researchers should also be emphasized, including informal gatherings. Positive evaluation responses suggest that scientist participation is highly beneficial to the educators' experience and the outcomes of the workshop. A positive experience for the participating educator ensures that workshop activities and demonstrations will be shared in the classroom.

Matiella Novak, M.; Shupla, C.; Grigsby, B.

2011-12-01

395

Flight to the Moon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: What do we know about the moon; Automated devices in exploration; First automated interplanetary station; The lunar photorobot; Automation in lunar orbit; First rocket on the moon; Landing on the moon; 'Rough' landing on the moon; 'Soft' landing...

D. Andreescu

1968-01-01

396

Experience the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon is, together with the Sun, the very first astronomical object that we experience in our life. As this is an exclusively visual experience, people with visual impairments need a different mode to experience it too. This statement is especially true when events, such as more and more frequent public observations of sky, take place. This is the reason why we are preparing a special package for visual impaired people containing three brand new items: 1. a tactile 3D Moon sphere in Braille with its paper key in Braille. To produce it we used imaging data obtained by NASA's mission Clementine, along with free image processing and 3D rendering software. In order to build the 3D small scale model funding by Europlanet and the Italian Ministry for Research have been used. 2. a multilingual web site for visually impaired users of all ages, on basic astronomy together with an indepth box about the Moon; 3. a book in Braille with the same content of the Web site mentioned above. All the items will be developed with the collaboration of visually impaired people that will check each step of the project and support their comments and criticism to improve it. We are going to test this package during the next International Observe the Moon Night event. After a first testing phase we'll collect all the feedback data in order to give an effective form to the package. Finally the Moon package could be delivered to all those who will demand it for outreach or educational goals.

Ortiz-Gil, A.; Benacchio, L.; Boccato, C.

2011-10-01

397

The Bone-Dry Moon Might be Damp  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Detailed analysis of the first lunar samples collected by Apollo 11 astronauts in 1969 revealed no evidence that lunar magmas contained even a smidgeon of water. Analysis of samples returned by subsequent missions did not contradict this important observation. It became a tenant of lunar science that the Moon is bone dry. But is it really completely dry? Recent analyses of lunar volcanic glasses suggest that a smidgeon, maybe even a mega-smidgeon, of water is present. Alberto Saal and his colleagues at Brown University, the Carnegie Institution of Washington, and Case Western Reserve University have measured volatile elements in lunar volcanic glass beads, using ion microprobe capabilities not available until a few years ago. They measured OH- (hydroxyl) anions (which are fragments of the H2O) molecule). All the measurements (of OH-, sulfur, fluorine, and chlorine) had higher concentrations in the center of the 276-micrometer beads, and decreased progressively towards the surface. This is a classic diffusion profile, suggesting that these elements were present in the droplets of magma when erupted, but began to be lost to the surrounding volcanic gases. Saal and his colleagues calculated how much of these volatiles were present upon eruption. They concluded that the lunar magmas contained about 745 parts per million of water, similar to the amount in magmas produced at mid-ocean ridges on Earth. The results imply that the region of the lunar interior that melted to make the magmas contained about the same amount as in the Earth's depleted upper mantle, which is way more than a smidgeon. This may have implications for the origin of the Moon. It certainly will spark new research on lunar volatiles--and lots of arguments!

Taylor, G. J.

2008-09-01

398

W.W.W. MOON? The why, what and when of a permanent manned lunar colony.  

PubMed

Several reasons for going back to the Moon are listed: scientific study of our natural satellite, Earth and in general the Solar System; exploitation of the resources of Outer Space; geopolitical considerations that made Apollo possible and are still valid in the long term; advancement of manned spaceflight, as robot-based exploration is time-wise inefficient and politically negligible. Technological, organisational and legal challenges are then outlined. After a discussion of human physiology, building materials and transportation of people and goods, an underground polar location is proposed as settlement site, either within kilometre-size lava tubes or man-made caves. An analysis of spaceflight history is conducted to determine a target date for returning to the Moon to stay. In the absence of political or commercial competition, experience indicates the last decades of the XXI century. To shorten this timescale, it is recommended to focus on accomplishing the task of establishing a reliable lunar travel and settlement system, rather than developing new technologies: simplifying the goals of each single step forward (as was the case of the Clementine mission) and concentrating on production-ready (or almost-ready) equipment (compare the ill-fated X-33 to the dependable Soyuz capsules). PMID:15852541

Morabito, Maurizio

399

Insights into Lunar Farside Highlands Crustal Development from the Moscoviense Basin and the Moon Mineralogy Mapper onboard Chandrayaan-1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper, a reflectance spectrometer on India's Chandrayaan-1, has enabled the detailed mineralogical and geological mapping of the Moon. Much of the highlands terrain on the Moon's nearside has been drastically modified by the 3.8-4.09 Ga heavy bolide bombardment and subsequent volcanism. However, remote sensing observations, in combination with studies of Apollo and Luna samples, have provided invaluable

K. G. Thaisen; L. A. Taylor; J. W. Head; C. M. Pieters; G. Y. Kramer; T. B. McCord; M. Staid; N. E. Petro; P. Isaacson

2009-01-01

400

Benefit of Small Radioisotope Power Systems for NASA Exploration Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The increased use of smaller spacecraft over the last decade, in combination with studies of potential science applications, has suggested the need for Radioisotope Power Systems (RPSs) yielding much lower power levels than the 100 watt-scale devices used in the past. Small milliwatt to multiwatt-scale RPS units have the potential to extend the capability of small science payloads and instruments, and to enable many new mission applications. Such units could also find application in future human exploration missions involving use of monitoring stations and autonomous devices, similar to the ALSEP units deployed on the Moon during the Apollo program. Although flight-qualified RPS units in this size and power range do not presently exist, their potential to support a broad range of exploration tasks has led NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider the development of small-RPS units such that they might be available for missions by the early part of next decade. This paper summarizes the results of activities to date and provides possible options for future development.

Schmidt, George R.; Abelson, Robert D.; Wiley, Robert L.

2005-02-01

401

Phases of the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This tutorial explains: how the orbit of the moon creates the different moon phases seen from Earth; the five basic moon phases (new, crescent, quarter, gibbous, and full moons); the sequence these phases follow as the moon orbits Earth such as the waxing and waning sequences; blue moons; and solar and lunar eclipses.

1999-07-01

402

Cobalt and nickel concentrations in the 'komatiite component' of Apollo 16 polymict samples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some estimates for the concentrations of Co and Ni in the primitive mafic component of Apollo 16 breccias and soils are large, comparable to concentrations in terrestrial komatiites. These estimates may be erroneously high because the contribution from meteoritic contamination of the samples has been underestimated. However, even if the correction for meteoritic Co and Ni is valid and the calculated residual Ni is not of meteoritic origin, the Ni is presently carried by Fe-Ni metal while the Fe and Mg are carried by mafic silicates. If any large-scale separation of metal and silicate phases has occurred, the concentration ratio of Ni to Fe + Mg in the mafic silicates of the ancient crust in the vicinity of the Apollo 16 site has not been preserved by Apollo 16 rocks. Apollo 16 polymict breccias and soils contain much higher concentrations of siderophile elements and Fe-Ni metal than other nonmare samples from the Moon. Thus, it is likely that the Ni/(Mg + Fe) ratio estimated for the komatiite component from Apollo 16 samples is high compared to the actual ratio for the lunar crust.

Korotev, R. L.

1990-01-01

403

Lunar Nautics: Designing a Mission to Live and Work on the Moon. An Educator's Guide for Grades 6-8. EG-2008-09-129-MSFC  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Lunar Nautics is a hands-on curriculum targeted to youth in grades 6 to 8, that allows the students to design, test, analyze and manage a space mission from initial concept to project funding. Lunar Nautics provides opportunities for development of problem solving skills and critical thinking skills that are needed to design, organize and manage…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), 2007

2007-01-01

404

The low energy particle detector sled (~30 keV3.2 MeV) and its performance on the phobos mission to mars and its moons  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low energy particle detector system (SLED) is described which was designed to measure the flux densities of electrons and ions in the energy range from ~30 keV to a few MeV in (a) the varying solar aspect angles and temperatures pertaining during the Cruise Phase of the Phobos Mission and (b) in the low temperature environment (reaching -25° C)

S. McKenna-Lawlor; V. V. Afonin; K. I. Gringauz; E. Keppler; E. Kirsch; A. Richter; M. Witte; D. O'Sullivan; A. Thompson; A. J. Somogyi; L. Szabo; A. Varga

1990-01-01

405

Return to the Moon stay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A heavy lift launch vehicle is the linchpin of any plan for returning men to the Moon. Recent studies defining manned Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) lunar missions have focused on National Launch System and Saturn V derivatives as a basis for mission planning. The cancellation of the National Launch System (NLS) program in the fall of 1992 effectively eliminated that vehicle; or more specifically within the context of this article, using the first two Saturn V stages, S-IC and the S-II, to support a mission architecture based on the Earth Orbit Rendezvous (EOR) mode.

Frieling, Thomas J.

1993-12-01

406

The link between aerospace industry and NASA during the Apollo years  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Made in the frame of a French master on political history of USA in Paris IV La Sorbonne University, this subject is the third part of " The Economy of Apollo during the 60s". Nicolas Turcat is actually preparing his PhD in History of Innovation (DEA—Paris IV La Sorbonne). Our actual subject is " the link between aerospace industry and NASA during the Apollo years". This speech will highlight on some aspects of the link between NASA and aerospace industry. NASA could achieve the Apollo mission safely and under heavy financial pressure during the sixties due to a new type of organization for a civil agency; the contractor system. In fact, Military used it since the 1950s. And we will see how the development of this type of contract permitted a better interaction between the two parts. NASA would make another type of link with universities and technical institutes; a real brain trust was created, and between 1961 and 1967, 10,000 students worked and more than 200 universities on Apollo program. We will try to study briefly the procurement plan and process during the Apollo years. Without entering the " spin-offs debate", we will try to watch different aspects of the impacts and realities of the contractor and subcontractor system. We will see that would create a political debate inside USA when presidents Johnson and Nixon would decide to reduce Apollo program. Which states will benefit Apollo program? Or questions like how the debate at the end of the 1960s will become more and more political? Actually, almost 60% of the country's R&D was focused on Apollo, economical and moreover, political impacts would be great. We will try to study this under the light of different example: and particularly in California. The industrial and military complex was a part of the Apollo program. Apollo reoriented the aim of this complex for making it the first aerospace industry. Since this time, USA had not only acquired space ambition but real space capabilities. But more than " just" creating commercial spin-offs for the civil society, Apollo create one of the first political stake of our modern technology. The power delivered for reaching the goal is one of the best examples given these last 60 years. Space became an economical ambition after being led by a political will. The link created between this two main part of the program (NASA and aerospace industries) is one of the most valuable spin-offs for Apollo.

Turcat, Nicolas

2008-01-01

407

Phobos and Deimos Sample Collection and Prospecting Missions for Science and ISRU  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mars missions, both MSR and human exploration, would benefit greatly from the use of In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) using materials manufactured on Mars’ moons Phobos and Deimos. Robotic resource prospector missions to these moons are required.

Muscatello, A. C.; Mueller, R.; Sanders, G. B.; Larson, W. E.

2012-06-01

408

Mars mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To mark the 10th anniversary of the Apollo-Soyuz joint space mission, a recent conference examined the prospects for human exploration of Mars and for international cooperation in space. Most of the participants at the conference, which was jointly sponsored by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and The Planetary Society, seemed to agree that some sort of collaboration like that between the United States and Soviet Union a decade ago would be desirable, and probably necessary, if humans are ever to reach Mars. Sen. Spark Matsunaga (D-Hawaii) extended the idea by saying that to gain the support of Congress, plans for future space exploration should be tied to international cooperation.

Katzoff, Judith A.

409

Measuring thermal conductivity of the lunar regolith in-situ: Lessons learned from the Apollo heat flow experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With landed lunar missions like the International Lunar Network ILN on the agenda of major space agencies, new opportunities for the in-situ geophysical exploration of the Moon are arising. In preparation for these missions, it is due time to re-evaluate earlier measurements and to identify open science questions and lessons learned from the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package. Here we focus on the heat flow experiment conducted during the Apollo 15 and 17 missions, which provided the first extraterrestrial heat flow measurements in history. The lunar heat flow values measured at the two sites carry some uncertainty connected to am-biguities considering the in-situ determination of the thermal conductivity. Disparate thermal conductivity values were deduced using two different methods, (i) a modified line heat source (LHS) method and (ii) a transient method involving the analysis of transient thermal waves. This led to a downward correction of the estimated lunar heat flow by 30 to 50 % relative to first published results. It was concluded at that time that the discrepancy between the both methods must be attributed to regolith disruption close to the borestem and that transient methods would yield more reliable results. We have re-evaluated the influence of regolith disruption caused by probe emplacement on the measurements. We find that disturbed regolith probably extended across many cm from the drill stem into the surrounding soil. This finding poses significant challenges to future in-situ experiments, as the volume sampled by LHS methods is usually fairly restricted. On the other hand, as a direct method, the measurement accuracy of the LHS methods is much higher than that expected from transient methods. We therefore propose to use a combination of methods to gain confidence in the obtained results. Our results suggest that the influence of probe emplacement on the surroundings needs to be carefully analyzed and we will present a model for regolith disruption due to probe emplacement. Furthermore, we will show that the inversion of transients in terms of thermal conductivity would benefit from the simultaneous determination of the in-situ density by, e.g., measuring the electrical permittivity of the regolith at a working frequency around 1 MHz.

Grott, Matthias; Knollenberg, Joerg; Sohl, Frank; Krause, Christian

410

Launching to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This viewgraph presentation discusses NASA's mission and addresses the following questions: (1) What is NASA's mission; (2) Why do we explore; (3) What is out timeline; (4) why the Moon first; (5) What will the vehicles look like; (6) What progress have w...

C. H. Shivers

2008-01-01

411

A cost and risk analysis of human exploration missions to Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) initiated a renewal of America's space exploration efforts which had come to an end following the Apollo 17 mission in 1972. SEI was a massive proposed program which was to culminate in a permanent human settlement on the Moon and a base for humans on Mars. Russian space agencies have also proposed human exploration missions, culminating in the 1991 signing of a joint exploration agreement between the former Soviet Union and the United States. However, these mission proposals soon floundered as total cost estimates approached $400 billion, exceeding the financial resources of any one nation. The loss of the space shuttle Challenger in 1986 illustrated another significant hurdle for any proposed mission--a risk averse public and government. The objective of this research has been the development of techniques to estimate cost and risk of preliminary designs for the human exploration of Mars in order to address the fundamental questions, "How much does it cost?" and, "What is its chance of success?" A systems engineering approach to the quantitative analysis of mission cost and risk is presented here. We demonstrate that a quantitative determination of cost and risk for a mission design, including the identification of cost and risk drivers: (1) enables accurate comparisons to be made between alternative mission designs; (2) provides the necessary insight to improve baseline mission designs; and (3) assists in selecting a best design. Our analysis incorporates probabilistic methods in order to model accurately uncertainty in modeling input parameters and in available data. The risk analysis builds on the techniques of the nuclear power industry (fault trees and event trees), modifying and extending available tools where required in order to incorporate mission design information more effectively. Aerospace parametric cost models are similarly modified to enable probabilistic cost modeling. Comparisons with historical values of cost and risk for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs are made to build confidence in the results. The resulting values for mission cost and risk show that with appropriate modifications, human exploration missions to Mars can be designed to achieve reasonable levels of risk and cost.

Merrihew, Steven Carl

1997-11-01

412

Global Mineralogy of the Moon: A Cornerstone to Science and Exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) will fly on the Chandrayaan-1 mission to the Moon and will return unprecedented compositional information at high resolution, providing a foundation for decades of scientific exploration.

C. Pieters; J. Boardman; B. J. Buratti; R. N. Clark; R. Green; J. W. Head III; T. B. McCord; J. Mustard; C. Runyon; M. Staid; J. Sunshine; L. Taylor; S. Tompkins

2006-01-01

413

Moon Rise  

NASA Video Gallery

Aboard the International Space Station in May 2012, Expedition 31 astronaut Don Pettit opened the shutters covering the cupola observation windows in time to watch the moon rise. The time-lapse scene was photographed from the airlock of the Station's Russian segment.

Mark Garcia

2012-05-30

414

High-Z Particle Cosmic-Ray Exposure of Apollo 8-14 Astronauts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

On Apollo missions that individual astronauts' high Z particle exposure was measured by means of Lexan foils located in the passive dosimetry packs carried on the chest, thigh, and ankle of each astronaut. The report deals with measurements obtained on Ap...

E. V. Benton R. P. Henke

1972-01-01

415

Radioactivity Induced in Apollo 11 Lunar Surface Material by Solar Flare Protons  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparison of values of the specific radioactivities reported for lunar surface material from the Apollo 11 mission with analogous data for stone meteorites suggests that energetic particles from the solar flare of 12 April 1969 may have produced most of the cobalt-56 observed.

H. R. Heydegger; Anthony Turkevich

1970-01-01

416

Lunar Mission Profiles for Commercial Space Operations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three lunar mission profiles for manned commercial space operations utilizing existing hardware are analyzed: (1) direct insertion into a lunar transfer trajectory from a parking Earth orbit, similar to those used on Apollo missions; (2) insertion into a lunar transfer trajectory from a high elliptical parking orbit, similar to the elliptical phasing orbit profiles used on the Hughes satellite HGS-1

Andrew Meade; David Warden; Leroy Chiao

417

APOLLO: Multiplexed Lunar Laser Ranging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO) is a next- generation lunar laser ranging (LLR) campaign aimed at order-of-magnitude improvements in tests of gravitational physics via millimeter range precision. We will employ the 3.5 m telescope at the Apache Point Observatory (APO), located in southern New Mexico at an altitude of 2800 m. As a result of the large

T. W. Murphy; E. G. Adelberger; J. D. Strasburg; C. W. Stubbs

418

Strategic, technological and ethical aspects of establishing colonies on Moon and Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the vast experience gained by Aerospace Community in the last five decades, the natural future course of action will be to expand Space Exploration. Our understanding of Moon is relatively better with a number of unmanned satellite missions carried out by the leading Space Agencies and manned missions to Moon by USA. Also a number of unmanned satellite missions

G. Madhavan Nair; K. R. Sridhara Murthi; M. Y. S. Prasad

2008-01-01

419

The Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen isotopic data suggest that there is a genetic relationship between the constituent matter of the Moon and Earth (Wiechert et al., 2001). Yet lunar materials are obviously different from those of the Earth. The Moon has no hydrosphere, virtually no atmosphere, and compared to the Earth, lunar materials uniformly show strong depletions of even mildly volatile constituents such as potassium, in addition to N2, O2, and H2O (e.g., Wolf and Anders, 1980). Oxygen fugacity is uniformly very low ( BVSP, 1981) and even the earliest lunar magmas seem to have been virtually anhydrous. These features have direct and far-reaching implications for mineralogical and geochemical processes. Basically, they imply that mineralogical diversity and thus variety of geochemical processes are subdued; a factor that to some extent offsets the comparative dearth of available data for lunar geochemistry.The Moon's gross physical characteristics play an important role in the more limited range of selenochemical compared to terrestrial geochemical processes. Although exceptionally large (radius=1,738 km) in relation to its parent planet, the Moon is only 0.012 times as massive as Earth. By terrestrial standards, pressures inside the Moon are feeble: the upper mantle gradient is 0.005 GPa km -1 (versus 0.033 GPa km -1 in Earth) and the central pressure is slightly less than 5 GPa. However, lunar interior pressures are sufficient to profoundly influence igneous processes (e.g., Warren and Wasson, 1979b; Longhi, 1992, 2002), and in this sense the Moon more resembles a planet than an asteroid.Another direct consequence of the Moon's comparatively small size was early, rapid decay of its internal heat engine. But the Moon's thermal disadvantage has resulted in one great advantage for planetology. Lunar surface terrains, and many of the rock samples acquired from them, retain for the most part characteristics acquired during the first few hundred million years of solar system existence. The Moon can thus provide crucial insight into the early development of the Earth, where the direct record of early evolution was effectively destroyed by billions of years of geological activity. Lunar samples show that the vast majority of the craters that pervade the Moon's surface are at least 3.9 Gyr old (Dalrymple and Ryder, 1996). Impact cratering has been a key influence on the geochemical evolution of the Moon, and especially the shallow Moon.The uppermost few meters of the lunar crust, from which all lunar samples are derived, is a layer of loose, highly porous, fine impact-generated debris - regolith or lunar "soil." Processes peculiar to the surface of an atmosphereless body, i.e., effects of exposure to solar wind, cosmic rays, and micrometeorite bombardment, plus spheroidal glasses formed by in-flight quenching of pyroclastic or impact-generated melt splashes, all are evident in any reasonably large sample of lunar soil (Lindsay, 1992; Keller and McKay, 1997; Eugster et al., 2000). The lunar regolith is conventionally envisaged as having a well-defined lower boundary, typically 5-10 m below the surface ( McKay et al., 1991); below the regolith is either (basically) intact rock, or else a somewhat vaguely defined "megaregolith" of loose but not so finely ground material. Ancient highland terrains tend to have a regolith roughly 2-3 times than that of the maria ( Taylor, 1982). However, in much of the highlands the regolith/megaregolith "boundary" may be gradational. The growth of a regolith can approach a steady-state thickness by shielding its substrate against further impacts ( Quaide and Oberbeck, 1975), but there is no reason to believe that the size-frequency spectrum of impactors bombarding the Moon ( Melosh, 1989; Neukum et al., 2001) features a discontinuity at whatever size (of order 1-10 m) would be necessary to limit disintegration to ˜10 m.All lunar samples are from the regolith, so the detailed provenance of any individual lunar sample is rarely obvious; and for ancient highland samples, never obvious. The clos

Warren, P. H.

2003-12-01

420

Phases of the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity will teach you the phases of the moon and how the moon interacts with Earth. We will learn how the sun, moon and Earth all work together. Third Grade Science Core Standard 1 Objective 1/2 Begin by looking through this website Information about the moon Answer these questions: Name 3 new things you learned about the moon Why do you think the moon is important? Now, play around with this interactive activity about moon phases. Moon Phases Next answer the following questions: How do you think the sun affects what phase of the moon we see? Describe how you think ...

Heffernan, Laura

2010-06-21

421

The Moon FAQ  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

As you look in the sky over the course of a month, you should notice a change in the appearance of the moon. The different shapes the moon makes are known as the moon\\'s phases. The moon is an extremely hot & cold place, and it is very, very far away. Huh? Read on... 1. For billions of years the moon has orbited the Earth. Read about The Origin of the Moon and then answer these two questions: A. How old is the moon? B. Where did it come from? 2. The moon is far away. So far, in fact, you\\'re going to need ...

2007-09-26

422

Exploration of the Moon with Remote Sensing, Ground-Penetrating Radar, and the Regolith-Evolved Gas Analyzer (REGA)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are two important reasons to explore the Moon. First, we would like to know more about the Moon itself: its history, its geology, its chemistry, and its diversity. Second, we would like to apply this knowledge to a useful purpose. namely finding and using lunar resources. As a result of the recent Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions, we now have global data on the regional surface mineralogy of the Moon, and we have good reason to believe that water exists in the lunar polar regions. However, there is still very little information about the subsurface. If we wish to go to the lunar polar regions to extract water, or if we wish to go anywhere else on the Moon and extract (or learn) anything at all, we need information in three dimensions an understanding of what lies below the surface, both shallow and deep. The terrestrial mining industry provides an example of the logical steps that lead to an understanding of where resources are located and their economic significance. Surface maps are examined to determine likely locations for detailed study. Geochemical soil sample surveys, using broad or narrow grid patterns, are then used to gather additional data. Next, a detailed surface map is developed for a selected area, along with an interpretation of the subsurface structure that would give rise to the observed features. After that, further sampling and geophysical exploration are used to validate and refine the original interpretation, as well as to make further exploration/ mining decisions. Integrating remotely sensed, geophysical, and sample datasets gives the maximum likelihood of a correct interpretation of the subsurface geology and surface morphology. Apollo-era geophysical and automated sampling experiments sought to look beyond the upper few microns of the lunar surface. These experiments, including ground-penetrating radar and spectrometry, proved the usefulness of these methods for determining the best sites for lunar bases and lunar mining operations.

Cooper, B. L.; Hoffman, J. H.; Allen, Carlton C.; McKay, David S.

1998-01-01

423

Review of the results of photometric investigations of the reverse side of the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photometric studies of the reverse side of the moon are presented, and the results are analyzed. Particular attention is given to Zond and Apollo observations. It is suggested that spacecraft should be used in the near future to perform a global photographic survey of the moon in several spectral regions and over a broad range of phase angles, allowing for the special requirements of photographic photometry.

Psarev, V. A.

1981-07-01

424

SMART1 mission description and development status  

Microsoft Academic Search

SMART-1 is the first of the Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology of the ESA Horizons 2000 scientific programme. The SMART-1 mission is dedicated to testing of new technologies for future cornerstone missions, using Solar-Electric Primary Propulsion (SEPP) in Deep Space. The chosen mission planetary target is the Moon. The target orbit will be polar with the pericentre close

G. D Racca; A. Marini; L. Stagnaro; J van Dooren; L di Napoli; B. H Foing; R. Lumb; J. Volp; J. Brinkmann; R. Grünagel; D. Estublier; E. Tremolizzo; M. McKay; O. Camino; J. Schoemaekers; M. Hechler; M. Khan; P. Rathsman; G. Andersson; K. Anflo; S. Berge; P. Bodin; A. Edfors; A. Hussain; J. Kugelberg; N. Larsson; B. Ljung; L. Meijer; A. Mörtsell; T. Nordebäck; S. Persson; F. Sjöberg

2002-01-01

425

Crater dimensions from apollo data and supplemental sources  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A catalog of crater dimensions that were compiled mostly from the new Apollo-based Lunar Topographic Orthophotomaps is presented in its entirety. Values of crater diameter, depth, rim height, flank width, circularity, and floor diameter (where applicable) are tabulated for a sample of 484 craters on the Moon and 22 craters on Earth. Systematic techniques of mensuration are detailed. The lunar craters range in size from 400 m to 300 km across and include primary impact craters of the main sequence, secondary impact craters, craterlets atop domes and cones, and dark-halo craters. The terrestrial craters are between 10 m and 22.5 km in diameter and were formed by meteorite impact. ?? 1976 D. Reidel Publishing Company.

Pike, R. J.

1976-01-01

426

From the APOLLO legacy to Mars, what can the manned exploration programme bring to planetary science?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Manned space began with the promise of setting foot on the Moon in the first decade of the space age; this was done by the APOLLO project which combined unprecedented technological innovation with space and moon science. The scientific results of APPOLO will be briefly reviewed together with the lessons to be learnt from this unique experience. In the last 34 years, manned space was limited to low earth orbit and it can be reasonably argued that the science return from continuing will be to the maximum incremental, however, the full use of the present space station could still be considered for external instrument platforms as, for example, a planetary telescope. Independently of the science objectives, the Presidential Vision in the United States and the Lisbon declaration of the European Union have led to new manned exploration programmmes returning to the Moon, going to Mars and beyond. The current status of these ambitious projects and their return for planetary science will be reviewed.

Muller, C.

427

Highly silicic compositions on the Moon.  

PubMed

Using data from the Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment, we show that four regions of the Moon previously described as "red spots" exhibit mid-infrared spectra best explained by quartz, silica-rich glass, or alkali feldspar. These lithologies are consistent with evolved rocks similar to lunar granites in the Apollo samples. The spectral character of these spots is distinct from surrounding mare and highlands material and from regions composed of pure plagioclase feldspar. The variety of landforms associated with the silicic spectral character suggests that both extrusive and intrusive silicic magmatism occurred on the Moon. Basaltic underplating is the preferred mechanism for silicic magma generation, leading to the formation of extrusive landforms. This mechanism or silicate liquid immiscibility could lead to the formation of intrusive bodies. PMID:20847267

Glotch, Timothy D; Lucey, Paul G; Bandfield, Joshua L; Greenhagen, Benjamin T; Thomas, Ian R; Elphic, Richard C; Bowles, Neil; Wyatt, Michael B; Allen, Carlton C; Donaldson Hanna, Kerri; Paige, David A

2010-09-17

428

What about the Moon?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students--follow the links below to learn more about the characteristics of the moon. Here are the links you can follow to learn about the phases of the moon. 1. Phases MOON PHASES 2. Phases Again ...

Johnson, Miss

2009-10-09

429

Electromagnetic sounding of Moon's interior -a proposal for Luna-Globe project  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon including its deep interior was intensively studied in the time interval 1959-1976, when the data from first lunar missions were recorded, processed and interpreted and the first model of the Moon interior was created. Data of lunar seismology and gravity as well as lunar geography and geology yield clear understanding that lunar crust and mantle are substantially not uniform laterally. Having quite few seismometers and magnetometers at the Moon, only spherically symmetric 1D model of seismic velocities and electrical conductivity was obtained. Next stage of the Moon exploration foresees landing of several robotic missions and it will be then possible to carry out at the Moon's surface geophysical experiments aimed at more careful study of the Moon interior structure. We propose to include in the next planned mission of Russian space program -Luna-Globe -the electromagnetic (EM) sounding of the Moon's mantle in order to clarify more in details its structure. For EM sounding, the spatial-temporal changes of interplanetary magnetic field carried by solar wind (mean intensity 5nT) as well as those of magnetic field in the Earth's magnetosphere tail (˜ 9nT) during its crossing by the Moon may be used. These values define the maximal level of the primary external magnetic field Be. Solar wind magnetic field induces in the Moon mostly poloidal field Bi due to eddy currents driven by variations of Be. For spherically symmetric 1D model, the higher is conductivity of a concentric internal lunar layer, the stronger eddy currents flow in it and the larger is contribution of the layer in Bi, of course, if skin depth is sufficient for this. Poloidal field from deep interior arrives to surface with geometrical attenuation. For example, field produced at Moon surface by currents in conducting layer at the depth R/2 (R = metricconverterProductID1738 km1738 km is Moon radius) attenuates and at the best will be equal to ˜0.1Bi. Practically it means that reliable information from such depth may be obtained only when measurement error will be much lower than this quantity. Next factor is screening of internal fields by much higher conducting plasma surrounding Moon. During 3 weeks of lunar month the Moon is immersed in solar wind which, as it was believed, completely reflects internal fields, vanishing vertical component of magnetic field and enhancing horizontal ones in several times. For day time measurements interpretation calculations for spherically symmetric solar wind impact were made. Other situation is at the night side of the Moon where space may be considered as vacuum and internal magnetic field may penetrate without distortion. It is clear that real asymmetry of the Moon surrounding space has to be taken into account because it yields direct error in its internal conductivity determination. This may explain the obtained differences of the Moon conductivity estimations by day and night data. The practical aspects of the experiment realization have to consider the magnitude of expected signal Be+Bi -few nT -by this informative part of Bi will be much smaller. So, the planned sensitivity threshold of the newly developed magnetometer has to be at least 0.01 nT (against 0.2 nT resolution of Apollo magnetometer). The temporal resolution depends on available telemetry and may be up to ˜10 measurements per second, so we can study variations from ˜0.3 s to quasi-DC, the longest period expected is lunar month. Having in perspective the Luna-Globe project which foresees one orbiter and landing of one rover, the magnetometer on the rover will be moved, what will allow sounding in several points. The methodology of the experiment, as well as available information about expected magnetic field level at both orbiter and lander and peculiarities of the dedicated super-light but sensitive magnetometer design are discussed in the report. This work was partially supported by NSAU contract 1-05/08.

Korepanov, Valery; Rokityansky, Igor; Dudkin, Fedir; Belyayev, Serhiy; Tereshin, Artem

430

HST Observations of the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observed the Moon in August 2005, using the High Resolution Camera (HRC) of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) (proposal ID 10719, PI Garvin). Three sites were observed: the Apollo 15 and 17 landing sites, and Aristarchus crater. Four filters were used: the F658N in the red, the F502N in the visible, the F344N in the UV, and the F250W in the vacuum UV. HST affords spatial resolution of about 100m on the Moon, as well as access to the vacuum UV, which are impossible from ground based observations. Tracking was necessarily done under gyro control and so some image drift occurred between and during exposures. We present HST data that has been processed to remove instrumental distortion and drift during the exposures. We use the MISTRAL image restoration algorithm (Mugnier et al. 2004) and a trailed point spread function to minimize the effects of image motion. We will make mosaics of data in individual filters and where there is spatial overlap between the mosaics, present maps showing both the relative age of the surface material, as well as its overall composition. Mugnier et al. (2004): "MISTRAL: a myopic edge-preserving image restoration method, with application to astronomical adaptive-optics-corrected long-exposure images", JOSA A, vol 21 no. 10, pp. 1841-1854

Storrs, A. D.; Garner, C. J.; McIntosh, C. M.; Landis, R. R.; Schultz, A. B.

2005-12-01

431

The Apollo Spacecraft Electrical Power Distribution System  

Microsoft Academic Search

North American Aviation, Inc., is designing and building the Apollo Command and Service Modules at its Space and Information Systems Division, Downey, Calif., under contract to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Manned Spacecraft Center, Houston, Texas. The Apollo Spacecraft Command and Service Module obtains primary electrical energy from fuel cells for flight phases until earth re-entry, and from storage

T. C. Quebedeaux

1964-01-01

432

Intensity fluctuations in the Compensated Earth-Moon-Earth Laser Link (CEMERLL) experiment  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the CEMERLL experiment are to measure the signal enhancement obtained in a two way laser propagation link using laser guidestar adaptive optics from the Earth to the Moon using the Apollo retroreflector arrays, and to predict and verify the resulting signal strength and variability. A theory is presented for the probability density functions of the laser link

B. Martin Levine; Kamran Kiasaleh

1994-01-01

433

Lunar science: Using the Moon as a testbed  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon is an excellent test bed for innovative instruments and spacecraft. Excellent science can be done, the Moon has a convenient location, and previous measurements have calibrated many parts of it. I summarize these attributes and give some suggestions for the types of future measurements. The Lunar Scout missions planned by NASA's Office of Exploration will not make all the measurements needed. Thus, test missions to the Moon can also return significant scientific results, making them more than technology demonstrations. The Moon is close to Earth, so cruise time is insignificant, tracking is precise, and some operations can be controlled from Earth, but it is in the deep space environment, allowing full tests of instruments and spacecraft components. The existing database on the Moon allows tests of new instruments against known information. The most precise data come from lunar samples, where detailed analyses of samples from a few places on the Moon provide data on chemical and mineralogical composition and physical properties.

Taylor, G. J.

434

Lunar Ranging, Gravitomagnetism, and APOLLO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technique of lunar laser ranging (LLR) has for many decades contributed to cutting-edge tests of the fundamental nature of gravity. These include the best tests to date of the strong equivalence principle, the time-rate-of-change of the gravitational constant, gravitomagnetism, the inverse square law, and preferred frame effects. The phenomenologies of each are briefly discussed, followed by an extended discussion of gravitomagnetism. Finally, the new APOLLO project is summarized, which achieves range precision as low as one millimeter.

Murphy, T. W.

2009-12-01

435

Smart1: The First Time Of Europe To The Moon; Wandering in the Earth-Moon Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

After 40 years from the first lunar missions, Europe has started for the first time the development of a mission which has the Moon as a target. SMART-1 will be the first Western-European mission to the Earth's satellite. The primary objective of the mission is to flight test technology innovation for the future scientific deep-space missions. This paper describes the

Giuseppe D. Racca; Bernard H. Foing; Marcello Coradini

2001-01-01

436

Summary of measurements of high-LET particle radiation in U.S. manned space missions.  

PubMed

A summary of measurements of high-LET particle radiation inside U.S. manned spacecraft is given for ASTP (Apollo Soyuz Test Project), Skylab and Apollo missions. The results include particle fluxes, integral LET spectra, and stopping-density charge distributions derived from measurements made in plastic nuclear track detectors worn by astronauts and located at various positions inside spacecraft. The results presented for different missions cover a wide range of shielding depth and missions type. PMID:11958206

Benton, E V; Peterson, D D; Henke, R P

1977-01-01

437

On the possibility of lunar core phase detection using new seismometers for soft-landers in future lunar missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Information on the lunar central core; size, current state and composition; are key parameters to understand the origin and evolution of the Moon. Recent studies have indicated that possible seismic energies of core-reflected phases can be identified from past Apollo seismic data, and core sizes are determined, but we have still uncertainties to establish the lunar core parameters. We, therefore, plan to detect seismic phases that pass through the interior of the core and/or those reflected from the core-mantle boundary to ensure the parameters using new seismometers for future lunar soft-landing missions such as SELENE-2 and Farside Explorer projects. As the new seismometers, we can apply two types of sensors already developed; they are the Very Broad Band (VBB) seismometer and Short Period (SP) seismometer. We first demonstrate through waveform simulations that the new seismometers are able to record the lunar seismic events with S/N much better than Apollo seismometers. Then, expected detection numbers of core-phases on the entire lunar surface for the two types of seismometers are evaluated for two models of seismic moment distributions of deep moonquakes using the recent interior model (VPREMOON). The evaluation indicates that the VBB has performance to detect reflected S phases (ScS) from the core-mantle boundary mainly on the lunar near-side, and the P phases (PKP) passing through the interior of the core on some areas of the lunar far-side. Then, the SP can also detect PKP phases as first arrival seismic phase on limited regions on the lunar far-side. If appropriate positions of the seismic stations are selected, core-phases can be detected, allowing us to constrain the origin and evolution of the Moon with future lunar soft-landing missions.

Yamada, Ryuhei; Garcia, Raphael F.; Lognonné, Philippe; Kobayashi, Naoki; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Nébut, Tanguy; Shiraishi, Hiroaki; Calvet, Marie; Ganepain-Beyneix, J.

2013-06-01

438

Apollo 15 regolith breccias - Window to a KREEP regolith  

Microsoft Academic Search

The characteristics of 28 regolith breccias returned from the Apollo 15 site have been compared with those of Apollo 15 soils, Apollo 15 rock types, and Apollo 16 regolith breccias. The results suggest that KREEP basalts are not exotic to the site, and that the site is underlain by KREEP basalts which were converted to a KREEP-rich regolith full of

D. S. McKay; D. D. Bogard; R. V. Morris; R. L. Korotev; S. J. Wentworth; P. Johnson

1989-01-01

439

Aladdin: sample return from the moons of Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Aladdin spacecraft was proposed as a Discovery Mission in response to a NASA announcement of opportunity. This spacecraft will visit the enigmatic Martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, to obtain samples and return them to Earth. The returned samples, coupled with characterization of their geological contexts, will answer fundamental questions on the origin of these moons: Are they related to

O. S. Barnouin-Jha; A. F. Cheng; U. I. von Mehlem

1999-01-01

440

Carrier Vehicles and Scientific Instruments for the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Moon has recently become again a planetary body of major interest for the planetary community Many scientific questions that remained open after the first moon rush have been almost literally washed back to the surface The possible existence of water ice deposits at the lunar poles has important implications for future manned exploration missions The origin and process of

J. Romstedt; A. Schiele; R. Lindner

2006-01-01

441

Prospective Ukrainian lunar orbiter mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ukraine has launch vehicles that are able to deliver about 300 kg to the lunar orbit. Future Ukrainian lunar program may propose a polar orbiter. This orbiter should fill principal information gaps in our knowledge about the Moon after Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions and the future missions, like Smart-1, Lunar-A, and Selene. We consider that this can be provided

Y. Shkuratov; L. Litvinenko; V. Shulga; Y. Yatskiv; V. Kislyuk

2002-01-01

442

Pathways towards Habitable Moons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The search for life outside of the Solar System should not be restricted to exclusively planetary bodies; large moons of extrasolar planets may also be common habitable environments throughout the Galaxy. Extrasolar moons, or exomoons, may be detected through transit timing effects induced onto the host planet as a result of mutual gravitational interaction. In particular, transit timing variations (TTV) and transit duration variations (TDV) are predicted to produce a unique exomoon signature, which is not only easily distinguished from other gravitational perturbations, but also provides both the period and mass of an exomoon. Using these timing effects, photometry greater or equal to that of the Kepler Mission is readily able to detect habitable-zone exomoons down to 0.2 Mearth and could survey up to 25,000 stars for Earth-mass satellites. We discuss future possibilities for spectral retrieval of such bodies and show that transmission spectroscopy with JWST should be able to detect molecular species with ˜30 transit events, in the best cases.

Kipping, D. M.; Fossey, S. J.; Campanella, G.; Schneider, J.; Tinetti, G.

2010-10-01

443

Planets of rock and ice: From Mercury to the moons of Saturn  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently gained knowledge about the worlds from Mercury to Saturn's moons is discussed and its implications for the evolution of the solar system and the understanding of planet earth are considered. Features of the planets and moons such as cratering histories, atmospheric development, signs of interior development, and rock samples are analyzed and placed in systematic context. The roles of uniformitarianism and catastrophism in solar system events are examined. The Apollo moon findings, the discoveries of the Voyager expeditions to Jupiter and Saturn, and the results of expeditions to Venus, Mars, and Mercury are assessed. Finally, the earth in its planetary context, the Galileo project, and the future of planetary science are examined.

Chapman, C. R.

444

My Moon Colony  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students are introduced to the futuristic concept of the moon as a place people can inhabit. They brainstorm what people would need to live on the moon and then design a fantastic Moon colony and decide how to power it. Student use the engineering design process, which includes researching various types of energy sources and evaluating which would be best for their moon colonies.

Integrated Teaching And Learning Program

445

Origin of the Moon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of studying the early stages of evolution of the earth-moon system, including the formation of the moon, is considered. A theoretical model of the formation of the moon in the circumterrestrial swarm is discussed. Data on the moon, obtained by...

Y. L. Ruskol

1975-01-01

446

Re-examination of the formation ages of the Apollo 16 regolith breccias  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lunar regolith is exposed to irradiation from the solar wind and to bombardment by asteroids, comets and inter-planetary dust. Fragments of projectiles in the lunar regolith can potentially provide a direct measure of the sources of exogenous material being delivered to the Moon. Constraining the temporal flux of their delivery helps to address key questions about the bombardment history of the inner Solar System. Here, we use a revised antiquity calibration (after Eugster et al., 2001) that utilises the ratio of trapped 40Ar/ 36Ar ('parentless' 40Ar derived from radioactive decay of 40K, against solar wind derived 36Ar) to semi-quantitatively calculate the timing of the assembly of the Apollo 16 regolith breccias. We use the trapped 40Ar/ 36Ar ratios reported by McKay et al. (1986). Our model indicates that the Apollo 16 ancient regolith breccia population was formed between ˜3.8 and 3.4 Ga, consistent with regoliths developed and assembled after the Imbrium basin-forming event at ˜3.85 Ga, and during a time of declining basin-forming impacts. The material contained within the ancient samples potentially provides evidence of impactors delivered to the Moon in the Late-Imbrian epoch. We also find that a young regolith population was assembled, probably by local impacts in the Apollo 16 area, in the Eratosthenian period between ˜2.5 and 2.2 Ga, providing insights to the sources of post-basin bombardment. The 'soil-like' regolith breccia population, and the majority of local Apollo 16 soils, were likely closed in the last 2 Ga and, therefore, potentially provide an archive of projectile types in the Eratosthenian and Copernican periods.

Joy, Katherine H.; Kring, David A.; Bogard, Donald D.; McKay, David S.; Zolensky, Michael E.

2011-11-01

447

Make a Moon Flipbook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This OLogy activity provides insight into the phases of the Moon and why it looks a little different each night. The activity begins with an explanation about how the Moon itself doesn't really change, just our view of it. Then kids go to "See the Moon in Action," an interactive illustration of the Moon's orbit around the Earth, in which they can see what the Moon looks like from Earth at eight different positions in its orbit. The activity ends with a Moon Watch Log, a printable PDF file, that kids use to observe the Moon for 28 nights and then compile their illustrations into a flipbook.

448