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1

Apollo 11 Mission Commemorated  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On 24 July 1969, 4 days after Apollo 11 Mission Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Eagle Pilot Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin had become the first people to walk on the Moon, they and Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins peered through a window of the Mobile Quarantine Facility on board the U.S.S. Hornet following splashdown of the command module in the central Pacific as U.S. President Richard Nixon told them, “This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the creation.” Forty years later, the Apollo 11 crew and other Apollo-era astronauts gathered at several events in Washington, D. C., to commemorate and reflect on the Apollo program, that mission, and the future of manned spaceflight. “I don’t know what the greatest week in history is,” Aldrin told Eos. “But it was certainly a pioneering opening the door. With the door open when we touched down on the Moon, that was what enabled humans to put many more footprints on the surface of the Moon.”

Showstack, Randy

2009-07-01

2

Apollo Expeditions to the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo program is described from the planning stages through Apollo 17. The organization of the program is discussed along with the development of the spacecraft and related technology. The objectives and accomplishments of each mission are emphasized along with personal accounts of the major figures involved. Other topics discussed include: ground support systems and astronaut selection.

Cortright, E. M. (editor)

1975-01-01

3

View of Mission Control Center during Apollo 16 flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overall view of activity in the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center on the first day of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission. This picture was taken during television coverage transmitted from the Apollo 16 spacecraft on its way to the Moon. The TV monitor in the background shows how the Apollo 16 astronauts viewed the Earth from 7,500 nautical miles away.

1972-01-01

4

Apollo Lunar Sample Integration into Google Moon: A New Approach to Digitization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project is part of a larger, LASER-funded 4-year lunar rock photo restoration project by NASA s Acquisition and Curation Office [1]. The objective of this project is to enhance the Apollo mission data already available on Google Moon with information about the lunar samples collected during the Apollo missions. To this end, we have combined rock sample data from various sources, including Curation databases, mission documentation and lunar sample catalogs, with newly available digital photography of rock samples to create a user-friendly, interactive tool for learning about the Apollo Moon samples

Dawson, Melissa D.; Todd, nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary E.

2011-01-01

5

Apollo experience report: Mission planning for Apollo entry  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The problems encountered and the experience gained in the entry mission plans, flight software, trajectory-monitoring procedures, and backup trajectory-control techniques of the Apollo Program should provide a foundation upon which future spacecraft programs can be developed. Descriptions of these entry activities are presented. Also, to provide additional background information needed for discussion of the Apollo entry experience, descriptions of the entry targeting for the Apollo 11 mission and the postflight analysis of the Apollo 10 mission are presented.

Graves, C. A.; Harpold, J. C.

1972-01-01

6

Apollo Rock Reveals Moon Had Molten Core | Universe Additional Resources  

E-print Network

Apollo Rock Reveals Moon Had Molten Core | Universe Today Subscribe Podcast Home Additional Apollo Rock Reveals Moon Had Molten Core Written by Nancy Atkinson If you're new here, you may want to subscribe to my RSS feed. Thanks for visiting! Apollo Rock Reveals Moon Had Molten Core | Universe Today

Weiss, Benjamin P.

7

Apollo scientific exploration of the moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental dichotomy of space exploration, unmanned versus manned projects, is discussed from an historical perspective. The integration of science into Apollo operations is examined with attention given to landing sites, extending the missions, and crew selection. A Science Working Group composed of scientists and Manned Spacecraft Center flight planners was formed in an attempt to produce the most scientific information possible within those operational limits that were considered absolutely inviolable.

Compton, W. D.

1987-01-01

8

Apollo 13 Facts [Post Mission Honorary Ceremony  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 13 astronauts, James Lovell, Jr., John Swigert, Jr., and Fred Haise, Jr., are seen during this post mission honorary ceremony, led by President Richard Nixon. Lovell is shown during an interview, answering questions about the mission.

2001-01-01

9

Apollo Soyuz Mission: 5-Day Report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo Soyuz Test Project mission objectives and technical investigations are summarized. Topics discussed include: spacecraft and crew systems performance; joint flight activities; scientific and applications experiments; in-flight demonstrations; biomedical considerations; and mission support performance.

1975-01-01

10

Where No Man Has Gone Before: A History of Apollo Lunar Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This book is a narrative account of the development of the science program for the Apollo lunar landing missions. It focuses on the interaction between scientific interests and operational considerations in such matters as landing site selection and training of crews, quarantine and back contamination control, and presentation of results from scientific investigations. Scientific exploration of the moon on later flights, Apollo 12 through Apollo 17 is emphasized.

Compton, William David

1988-01-01

11

MoonNEXT: A European Mission to the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MoonNEXT is a mission currently being studied, under the direction of the European Space Agency, whose launch is foreseen between 2015 and 2018. MoonNEXT is intended to prepare the way for future exploration activities on the Moon, while addressing key science questions. Exploration Objectives The primary goal for the MoonNEXT mission is to demonstrate autonomous soft precision landing with hazard avoidance; a key capability for future exploration missions. The nominal landing site is at the South Pole of the Moon, at the edge of the Aitken basin and in the region of Shackleton crater, which has been identified as an optimal location for a future human outpost by the NASA lunar architecture team [1]. This landing site selection ensures a valuable contribution by MoonNEXT to the Global Exploration Strategy [2]. MoonNEXT will also prepare for future lunar exploration activities by characterising the environment at the lunar surface. The potentially hazardous radiation environment will me monitored while a dedicated instrument package will investigate the levitation and mobility of lunar dust. Experience on Apollo demonstrated the potentially hazardous effects of dust for surface operations and human activities and so an understanding of these processes is important for the future. Life sciences investigations will be carried out into the effects of the lunar environment (including radiation, gravity and illumination conditions) on a man made ecosystem analogous to future life support systems. In doing so MoonNEXT will demonstrate the first extraterrestrial man made ecosystem and develop valuable expertise for future missions. Geological and geochemical investigations will explore the possibilities for In Situ Resource Utilisation (ISRU), which will be essential for long term human habitation on the Moon and is of particular importance at the proposed landing site, given its potential as a future habitat location. Science Objectives In addition to providing extensive preparation and technology demonstration for future exploration activities MoonNEXT will advance our understanding of the origin, structure and evolution of the Moon. These advances in understanding will come about through a range of geophysical and geochemical investigations. MoonNEXT will also assess the value of the lunar surface as a future site for performing science from the Moon, using radio astronomy as an example. The scientific objectives are: • To study the geophysics of the Moon, in particular the origin, differentiation, internal structure and early geological evolution of the Moon. • To obtain in-situ geochemical data from, within the Aitken Basin, where material from the lower crust and possibly the upper mantle may be found. • To investigate the nature of volatiles implanted into the lunar regolith at the South Pole and identify their species. • To study the environment at the lunar South pole, in particular to measure the radiation environment, the dust flux due to impact ejecta and micrometeoroids, and a possibly the magnetic field. • To study the effect of the lunar environment on biological systems. • To further our understanding of the ULF/VLF background radiation of the universe. • Investigate the electromagnetic environment of the moon at radio wavelengths with the potential to perform astronomical radio observations. Various mission scenarios are currently under study, incorporating options for a lander-only configuration or a lander with the possible addition of a rover. The working experimental payload includes cameras, broad band and short period seismometers, a radiation monitor, instruments to measure dust transport and micrometeoroid fluxes, instruments to provide elemental and mineralogical analyses of surface rocks, a mole for subsurface heat flow and regolith properties measurements, a radio antenna and a package containing a self sustaining biological system to observe the effects of the lunar environment. The addition of a rover, if shown to be feasible, would provide mobility for geochemical measurements, which

Carpenter, J. D.; Koschny, D.; Crawford, I.; Falcke, H.; Kempf, S.; Lognonne, P.; Ricci, C.; Houdou, B.; Pradier, A.

2008-09-01

12

Apollo experience report: Guidance and control systems. Mission control programmer for unmanned missions AS-202, Apollo 4, and Apollo 6  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An unmanned test flight program required to evaluate the command module heat shield and the structural integrity of the command and service module/Saturn launch vehicle is described. The mission control programer was developed to provide the unmanned interface between the guidance and navigation computer and the other spacecraft systems for mission event sequencing and real-time ground control during missions AS-202, Apollo 4, and Apollo 6. The development of this unmanned programer is traced from the initial concept through the flight test phase. Detailed discussions of hardware development problems are given with the resulting solutions. The mission control programer functioned correctly without any flight anomalies for all missions. The Apollo 4 mission control programer was reused for the Apollo 6 flight, thus being one of the first subsystems to be reflown on an Apollo space flight.

Holloway, G. F.

1975-01-01

13

Apollo program flight summary report: Apollo missions AS-201 through Apollo 16, revision 11  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of the Apollo flights from AS-201 through Apollo 16 is presented. The following subjects are discussed for each flight: (1) mission primary objectives, (2) principle objectives of the launch vehicle and spacecraft, (3) secondary objectives of the launch vehicle and spacecraft, (4) unusual features of the mission, (5) general information on the spacecraft and launch vehicle, (6) space vehicle and pre-launch data, and (7) recovery data.

Holcomb, J. K.

1972-01-01

14

After Apollo - Fission origin of the moon. [from planets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present work maintains that the Apollo moon data substantiate the fission theory of the origin of the moon. It has been objected to this theory that prior to fission, the total mass and angular momentum of the earth-moon system would have to be greater than the present total of the earth and the moon, which would imply that angular momentum must have been lost since the fission. The present work states that this loss of momentum can be accounted for by the subsequent boiling off of a large amount of the original lunar mass. This would also mean that the moon ought to be greatly impoverished in volatiles, which it, indeed, is according to Apollo data. It is suggested that at one time the solar system was a binary star, namely, the sun and Jupiter. Successive fissions of Jupiter would have created other planets, which themselves could undergo fission, producing satellites.

Okeefe, J. A.

1973-01-01

15

Emblem of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the Official emblem of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission which will be flown by Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E. Evans and Harrison H. Schmitt. The insignia is dominated by the image of Apollo, the Greek sun god. Suspended in space behind the head of Apollo is an American eagle of contemporary design, the red bars of the eagle's wing represent the bars in the U.S. flag; the three white stars symbolize the three astronaut crewmen. The background is deep blue space and within it are the Moon, the planet Saturn and a spiral galaxy or nebula. The Moon is partially overlaid by the eagle's wing suggesting that this is a celestial body that man has visited and in that sense conquered. The thrust of the eagle and the gaze of Apollo to the right and toward Saturn and the galaxy is meant to imply that man's goals in space will someday include the planets and perhaps the stars. The colors of the emblem are red, white and blue, the colors of our flag; with the addition of gold, to

1972-01-01

16

View of activity in Mission Control Center during Apollo 15 lunar landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An overall, wide-angle lens view of activity in the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center during the landing of the Apollo 15 Lunar Module (LM) on the Moon. The LM 'Falcon' touched down on the lunar surface at ground elapsed time of 104 hours 42 minutes 29 seconds.

1971-01-01

17

After Apollo: Fission Origin of the Moon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents current ideas about the fission process of the Moon, including loss of mass. Saturnian rings, center of the Moon, binary stars, and uniformitarianism. Indicates that planetary formation may be best explained as a destructive, rather than a constructive process. (CC)

O'Keefe, John A.

1973-01-01

18

Space Mission: Ice Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new 21st Century Science curriculum in the UK seeks to develop all students' broad understanding of the main scientific explanations that can act as a framework for making sense of the world around us. The curricular emphases in science are transforming from content-heavy knowledge acquisition and fact recall to process-based inquiry putting more emphasis on making meaning. Space Mission:

Hans Daanen; Lyndsay Grant

2007-01-01

19

Towards a Selenographic Information System: Apollo 15 Mission Digitization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Apollo missions represent some of the most technically complex and extensively documented explorations ever endeavored by mankind. The surface experiments performed and the lunar samples collected in-situ have helped form our understanding of the Moon's geologic history and the history of our Solar System. Unfortunately, a complication exists in the analysis and accessibility of these large volumes of lunar data and historical Apollo Era documents due to their multiple formats and disconnected web and print locations. Described here is a project to modernize, spatially reference, and link the lunar data into a comprehensive SELENOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM, starting with the Apollo 15 mission. Like its terrestrial counter-parts, Geographic Information System (GIS) programs, such as ArcGIS, allow for easy integration, access, analysis, and display of large amounts of spatially-related data. Documentation in this new database includes surface photographs, panoramas, samples and their laboratory studies (major element and rare earth element weight percents), planned and actual vehicle traverses, and field notes. Using high-resolution (<0.25 m/pixel) images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) the rover (LRV) tracks and astronaut surface activities, along with field sketches from the Apollo 15 Preliminary Science Report (Swann, 1972), were digitized and mapped in ArcMap. Point features were created for each documented sample within the Lunar Sample Compendium (Meyer, 2010) and hyperlinked to the appropriate Compendium file (.PDF) at the stable archive site: http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/compendium.cfm. Historical Apollo Era photographs and assembled panoramas were included as point features at each station that have been hyperlinked to the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal (ALSJ) online image library. The database has been set up to allow for the easy display of spatial variation of select attributes between samples. Attributes of interest that have data from the Compendium added directly into the database include age (Ga), mass, texture, major oxide elements (weight %), and Th and U (ppm). This project will produce an easily accessible and linked database that can offer technical and scientific information in its spatial context. While it is not possible given the enormous amounts of data, and the small allotment of time, to enter and/or link every detail to its map layer, the links that have been made here direct the user to rich, stable archive websites and web-based databases that are easy to navigate. While this project only created a product for the Apollo 15 mission, it is the model for spatially-referencing the other Apollo missions. Such a comprehensive lunar surface-activities database, a Selenographic Information System, will likely prove invaluable for future lunar studies. References: Meyer, C. (2010), The lunar sample compendium, June 2012 to August 2012, http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/compendium.cfm, Astromaterials Res. & Exploration Sci., NASA L. B. Johnson Space Cent., Houston, TX. Swann, G. A. (1972), Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 15 landing site, in Apollo 15 Preliminary Science Report, [NASA SP-289], pp. 5-1 - 5-112, NASA Manned Spacecraft Cent., Washington, D.C.

Votava, J. E.; Petro, N. E.

2012-12-01

20

Endocrine Laboratory Results Apollo Missions 14 and 15  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Endocrine/metabolic responses to space flight have been measured on the crewmen of Apollo missions 14 and 15. There were significant biochemical changes in the crewmen of both missions immediately postflight. However, the Apollo 15 mission results differed from Apollo 14 and preflight shown by a normal to increased urine volume with slight increases in antidiuretic hormone. Although Apollo 15 was the first mission in which the exchangeable potassium measurement was made (a decrease), results from other missions were indicative of similar conclusions.

Leach, C. S.

1972-01-01

21

View of the Passive Seismic Experiment deployed on Moon by Apollo 14  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A close-up view of the Passive Seismic Experiment, a component of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) which was deployed on the Moon by the Apollo 14 astronauts during their first extravehicular activity (EVA-1).

1971-01-01

22

Apollo renaissance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty years ago, the Apollo missions brought unprecedented knowledge of the Moon. After a lengthy period of hibernation, the material recovered in the late 1960s and early 1970s is back in the limelight.

2011-02-01

23

Review of measurements of dust movements on the Moon during Apollo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This is the first review of 3 Apollo experiments, which made the only direct measurements of dust on the lunar surface: (i) minimalist matchbox-sized 270 g Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) of Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15, produced 30 million Lunar Day measurements 21 July 1969-30 September, 1977; (ii) Thermal Degradation Samples (TDS) of Apollo 14, sprinkled with dust, photographed, taken back to Earth into quarantine and lost; and (iii) the 7.5 kg Lunar Ejecta and Meteoroids (LEAM) experiment of Apollo 17, whose original tapes and plots are lost. LEAM, designed to measure rare impacts of cosmic dust, registered scores of events each lunation most frequently around sunrise and sunset. LEAM data are accepted as caused by heavily-charged particles of lunar dust at speeds of <100 m/s, stimulating theoretical models of transporting lunar dust and adding significant motivation for returning to the Moon. New analyses here show some raw data are sporadic bursts of 1, 2, 3 or more events within time bubbles smaller than 0.6 s, not predicted by theoretical dust models but consistent with noise bits caused by electromagnetic interference (EMI) from switching of large currents in the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP), as occurred in pre-flight LEAM-acceptance tests. On the Moon switching is most common around sunrise and sunset in a dozen heavy-duty heaters essential for operational survival during 350 h of lunar night temperatures of minus 170 °C. Another four otherwise unexplained features of LEAM data are consistent with the "noise bits" hypothesis. Discoveries with DDE and TDS reported in 1970 and 1971, though overlooked, and extensive DDE discoveries in 2009 revealed strengths of adhesive and cohesive forces of lunar dust. Rocket exhaust gases during Lunar Module (LM) ascent caused dust and debris to (i) contaminate instruments 17 m distant (Apollo 11) as expected, and (ii) unexpectedly cleanse Apollo hardware 130 m (Apollo 12) and 180 m (Apollo 14) from LM. TDS photos uniquely document in situ cohesion of dust particles and their adhesion to 12 different test surfaces. This review finds the entire TDS experiment was contaminated, being inside the aura of outgassing from astronaut Alan Shepard's spacesuit, and applies an unprecedented caveat to all TDS discoveries. Published and further analyses of Apollo DDE, TDS and LEAM measurements can provide evidence-based guidance to theoretical analyses and to management and mitigation of major problems from sticky dust, and thus help optimise future lunar and asteroid missions, manned and robotic.

O'Brien, Brian J.

2011-11-01

24

Apollo window meteoroid experiment. [including Apollo 17 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo command module heat shield windows were examined for meteoroid impacts to obtain information about (1) the flux of meteoroids with masses of 10 to the -7th g and less, (2) dynamic and physical properties of meteoroids, and (3) correlations with lunar-rock-crater studies. The results of examining Apollo 17, and nine prior Apollo windows are tabulated. The window exposure time, number of impacts, crater diameter, flux, energy, and mass are shown.

Cour-Palais, B. G.

1973-01-01

25

Apollo and the geology of the moon /Twenty-eighth William Smith Lecture/  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar geology evidence is examined for clues to the origin and evolution of the moon and earth. Seven evolutionary episodes, the last covering three billion years to the present day, are constructed for the moon. Parallel episodes in the earth's evolution are masked by the dynamic continuing evolution of the earth over a 4.5 billion year span, in contrast to the moon's quiescence and inability to retain fluids. Comparisons are drawn between the geochemistry and tectonics of the lunar basaltic maria and the earth's ocean basins. Lunar maria rocks differ strikingly in chemical composition from meteoritic matter and solar material. Inundation of frontside lunar maria basins by vast oceans of dark basalt mark the last of the major internally generated evolutionary episodes, and is attributed to consequences of meltdown of the lunar mantle and crust by radioisotope decay from below. Data are drawn primarily from Apollo missions 11-17, supplemented by other sources.

Schmitt, H. H.

1975-01-01

26

Apollo experience report: The application of a computerized visualization capability to lunar missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development of a computerized capability to depict views from the Apollo spacecraft during a lunar mission was undertaken before the Apollo 8 mission. Such views were considered valuable because of the difficulties in visualizing the complex geometry of the Earth, Moon, Sun, and spacecraft. Such visualization capability originally was desired for spacecraft attitude verification and contingency situations. Improvements were added for later Apollo flights, and results were adopted for several real time and preflight applications. Some specific applications have included crewmember and ground control personnel familiarization, nominal and contingency mission planning, definition of secondary attitude checks for all major thrust maneuvers, and preflight star selection for navigation and for platform alinement. The use of this computerized visualization capability should prove valuable for any future space program as an aid to understanding the geometrical relationships between the spacecraft and the celestial surroundings.

Hyle, C. T.; Lunde, A. N.

1972-01-01

27

Apollo 12 Mission Summary and Splashdown  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) video release presents footage of the November 14, 1969 Apollo-12 space mission begun from launch complex pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. Charles Conrad, Jr., Richard F. Gordon, Jr., and Alan L. Bean make up the three-man spacecrew. The video includes the astronaut's pre-launch breakfast, President Nixon, his wife, and daughter arriving at Cape Kennedy in time to see the launch, as well as countdown and liftoff. After the launch, President Nixon gives a brief congratulatory speech to the members of launch control at KSC. The video also presents views of the astronauts and spacecraft in space as well as splashdown of the command module on November 24, 1969. The video ends with the recovery, by helicopter and additional personnel, of the spacecrew from the command module floating in the waters of the Atlantic.

1999-01-01

28

View of Mission Control Center during Apollo 13 splashdown  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Overall view of Mission Operations Control Room in Mission Control Center at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) during the ceremonies aboard the U.S.S. Iwo Jima, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 13 mission. Dr. Donald K. Slayton (in black shirt, left of center), Director of Flight Crew Operations at MSC, and Chester M. Lee of the Apollo Program Directorate, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters, shake hands, while Dr. Rocco A. Petrone, Apollo Program Director, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters (standing, near Lee), watches the large screen showing Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., Apollo 13 commander, during the on-board ceremonies. In the foreground, Glynn S. Lunney (extreme left) and Eugene F. Kranz (smoking a cigar), two Apollo 13 Flight Directors, view the activity from their consoles.

1970-01-01

29

A solar electric propulsion mission to the moon and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The technological development of solar electric propulsion has advanced significantly over the last several years. Mission planners are now seriously examining which missions would benefit most from solar electric propulsion. NASA's Solar System Exploration Division is cofunding with the Advanced Concepts and Technology Division both ground and space qualification tests of components for electric propulsion systems. In response to the impending release of NASA's Announcement of Opportunity for Discovery class planetary missions we have undertaken a prephase A study of a Solar Electric Propulsion mission to the Moon. In this paper we review some of our findings about missions using solar electric propulsion and outline a possible scenario for a lunar mission. Solar electric propulsion can shorten mission flight times, enable launches on smaller rockets, and provide greater flexibility including longer launch windows. Such a mission launched now would enable us to complete the geophysical and geochemical mapping of the Moon left undone by both the Apollo and Clementine missions and to demonstrate a technology of significant importance to both future planetary exploration and the growing commercial space market.

Russell, C. T.; Abshire, J.; A'Hearn, M.; Arnold, J.; Elphic, R. C.; Head, J.; Pieters, C.; Hickman, M.; Palac, D.; Kluever, C.; Konopliv, A.; Metzger, A.; Sercel, J.; McCord, T.; Phillips, R. J.; Purdy, W.; Rosenthal, R.; Sykes, M.

30

View of Mission Control Center during the Apollo 13 liftoff  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sigurd A. Sjoberg, Director of Flight Operations at Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), views the Apollo 13 liftoff from a console in the MSC Mission Control Center, bldg 30. Apollo 13 lifted off at 1:13 p.m., April 11, 1970 (34627); Astronaut Thomas F. Mattingly II, who was scheduled as a prime crewman for the Apollo 13 mission but was replaced in the final hours when it was discovered he had been exposed to measles, watches the liftoff phase of the mission. He is seated at a console in the Mission Control Center's Mission Operations Control Room. Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, a spacecraft communicator for the mission, looks on at right (34628).

1970-01-01

31

Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities for Mauna Kea 2012  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rover-based 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) scientific investigations were recently completed at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Scientific investigations, scientific input, and science operations constraints were tested in the context of an existing project and protocols for the field activities designed to help NASA achieve the Vision for Space Exploration. Initial science operations were planned based on a model similar to the operations control of the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER). However, evolution of the operations process occurred as the analog mission progressed. We report here on the preliminary sensor data results, an applicable methodology for developing an optimum science input based on productive engineering and science trades discussions and the science operations approach for an investigation into the valley on the upper slopes of Mauna Kea identified as "Apollo Valley".

Graham, Lee D.; Morris, Richard V.; Graff, Trevor G.; Yingst, R. Aileen; tenKate, I. L.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Hedlund, Magnus; Malespin, Charles A.; Mumm, Erik

2012-01-01

32

View of Mission Control Center during Apollo 13 splashdown  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Thomas O. Paine (center), NASA Administrator, and other NASA Officials joined others in applauding the successful splashdown of the Apollo 13 crewmen. Others among the large crowd in the Mission Operations Control Room of the Mission Control Center, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) at the time of recovery were U.S. Air Force Lt. Gen. Samuel C. Phillips (extreme left), who formerly served as Apollo program Director, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters; Dr. Charles A. Berry (third from left), Director, Medical Research and Operations Directorate, MSC; and Dr. George M. Low, Associate NASA Administrator.

1970-01-01

33

Apollo 15 impact melts, the age of Imbrium, and the Earth-Moon impact cataclysm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The early impact history of the lunar surface is of critical importance in understanding the evolution of both the primitive Moon and the Earth, as well as the corresponding populations of planetesimals in Earth-crossing orbits. Two endmember hypotheses call for greatly dissimilar impact dynamics. One is a heavy continuous (declining) bombardment from about 4.5 Ga to 3.85 Ga. The other is that an intense but brief bombardment at about 3.85 +/- Ga was responsible for producing the visible lunar landforms and for the common 3.8-3.9 Ga ages of highland rocks. The Apennine Front, the main topographic ring of the Imbrium Basin, was sampled on the Apollo 15 mission. The Apollo 15 impact melts show a diversity of chemical compositions, indicating their origin in at least several different impact events. The few attempts at dating them have generally not produced convincing ages, despite their importance. Thus, we chose to investigate the ages of melt rock samples from the Apennine Front, because of their stratigraphic importance yet lack of previous age definition.

Ryder, Graham; Dalrymple, G. Brent

1992-01-01

34

NASA's Lunar Polar Ice Prospector, RESOLVE: Mission Rehearsal in Apollo Valley  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

After the completion of the Apollo Program, space agencies didn't visit the moon for many years. But then in the 90's, the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions returned and showed evidence of water ice at the poles. Then in 2009 the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite indisputably showed that the Cabeus crater contained water ice and other useful volatiles. Furthermore, instruments aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) show evidence that the water ice may also be present in areas that receive several days of continuous sunlight each month. However, before we can factor this resource into our mission designs, we must understand the distribution and quantity of ice or other volatiles at the poles and whether it can be reasonably harvested for use as propellant or mission consumables. NASA, in partnership with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), has been developing a payload to answer these questions. The payload is named RESOLVE. RESOLVE is on a development path that will deliver a tested flight design by the end of 2014. The team has developed a Design Reference Mission using LRO data that has RESOLVE landing near Cabeus Crater in May of2016. One of the toughest obstacles for RESOLVE's solar powered mission is its tight timeline. RESOLVE must be able to complete its objectives in the 5-7 days of available sunlight. The RESOLVE team must be able to work around obstacles to the mission timeline in real time. They can't afford to take a day off to replan as other planetary missions have done. To insure that this mission can be executed as planned, a prototype version of RESOLVE was developed this year and tested at a lunar analog site on Hawaii, known as Apollo Valley, which was once used to train the Apollo astronauts. The RESOLVE team planned the mission with the same type of orbital imagery that would be available from LRO. The simulation team prepositioned a Lander in Apollo Valley with RESOLVE on top mounted on its CSA rover. Then the mission simulation began as the operations team's consoles came alive with data and images. They executed the mission just like the real mission with lunar communications delays and limited bandwidth and a realistic remote mission control room. This paper will describe the RESOLVE payload in detail and describe the results of the mission simulation in Hawaii.

Larson, William E.; Picard, Martin; Quinn, Jacqueline; Sanders, Gerald B.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.

2012-01-01

35

View of Mission Control Center celebrating conclusion of Apollo 11 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Overall view of the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center, bldg 30, Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), at the conclusion of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. The television monitor shows President Richard M. Nixon greeting the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet in the Pacific recovery area (40301); NASA and MSC Officials join the flight controllers in celebrating the conclusion of the Apollo 11 mission. From left foreground Dr. Maxime A. Faget, MSC Director of Engineering and Development; George S. Trimble, MSC Deputy Director; Dr. Christopher C. Kraft Jr., MSC Director fo Flight Operations; Julian Scheer (in back), Assistant Adminstrator, Offic of Public Affairs, NASA HQ.; George M. Low, Manager, Apollo Spacecraft Program, MSC; Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC Director; and Charles W. Mathews, Deputy Associate Administrator, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA HQ (40302).

1969-01-01

36

Gold replica of olive branch left on moons surface by Apollo 11  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A gold replica of an olive branch, the traditional symbol of peace, which was left on the Moon's surface by the Apollo 11 crew members. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, was in charge of placing the replica (less than half a foot in length) on the Moon. The gesture represents a fresh wish for peace for all mankind. astronauts will be released from quarantine on August 11, 1969. Donald K. Slayton (right), MSC Director of Flight Crew Operations; and Lloyd Reeder, training coordinator.

1969-01-01

37

Chandrayaan-1 mission to the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chandrayaan-1 is the first Indian planetary exploration mission that will perform remote sensing observation of the Moon to further our understanding about its origin and evolution. Hyper-spectral studies in the 0.4–3?m region using three different imaging spectrometers, coupled with a low energy X-ray spectrometer, a sub-keV atom analyzer, a 3D terrain mapping camera and a laser ranging instrument will provide

Jitendra Nath Goswami; Mylswamy Annadurai

2008-01-01

38

Apollo 11 30th Anniversary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On July 20, 1969, humans took their first steps on the moon. The Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum is honoring the 30th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing through this Website. The site is divided into three main sections: Anniversary Events, Exhibitions, and Apollo Online. The latter is a great source for information on the history and significance of the mission. Also through the Apollo Online link, users may send questions to Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin or take an online tour of the landing at Dateline Moon: The Media and the Space Race Website.

39

MSFC Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount experiment systems mission evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed evaluation is presented of the Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount experiments performance throughout the eight and one-half month Skylab Mission. Descriptions and the objectives of each instrument are included. The anomalies experienced, the causes, and corrective actions taken are discussed. Conclusions, based on evaluation of the performance of each instrument, are presented. Examples of the scientific data obtained, as well as a discussion of the quality and quantity of the data, are presented.

White, A. F., Jr.

1974-01-01

40

Moon manned missions radiation safety analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is performed on the radiation environment found on the surface of the Moon, and applied to different possible lunar base mission scenarios. An optimization technique has been used to obtain mission scenarios minimizing the astronaut radiation exposure and at the same time controlling the effect of shielding, in terms of mass addition and material choice, as a mission cost driver. The optimization process has been realized through minimization of mass along all phases of a mission scenario, in terms of time frame (dates, transfer time length and trajectory, radiation environment), equipment (vehicles, in terms of shape, volume, onboard material choice, size and structure), location (if in space, on the surface, inside or outside a certain habitats), crew characteristics (number, gender, age, tasks) and performance required (spacecraft and habitat volumes), radiation exposure annual and career limit constraint (from NCRP 132), and implementation of the ALARA principle (shelter from the occurrence of Solar Particle Events). On the lunar surface the most important contribution to radiation exposure is given by background Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) particles, mostly protons, alpha particles, and some heavy ions, and by locally induced particles, mostly neutrons, created by the interaction between GCR and surface material and emerging from below the surface due to backscattering processes. In this environment manned habitats are to host future crews involved in the construction and/or in the utilization of moon based infrastructure. Three different kinds of lunar missions are considered in the analysis, Moon Base Construction Phase, during which astronauts are on the surface just to build an outpost for future resident crews, Moon Base Outpost Phase, during which astronaut crews are resident but continuing exploration and installation activities, and Moon Base Routine Phase, with long-term shifting resident crews. In each scenario various kinds of habitats, from very simple shelters to more complex bases, are considered in full detail (e.g., shape, thickness, materials, etc) with considerations of various shielding strategies. In this first analysis all the shape considered are cylindrical or composed of combination of cylinders. Moreover, a radiation safety analysis of more future possible habitats like lava tubes has been also performed.

Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; de Anlelis, G.; Badavi, F. F.

41

MSFC Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount summary mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) performance during the 8.5-month Skylab mission is presented. A brief description of each ATM system, system performance summaries, discussion of all significant ATM anomalies which occurred during the Skylab mission, and, in an appendix, a summary of the Skylab ATM Calibration Rocket Project (CALROC) are provided. The text is supplemented and amplified by photographs, drawings, curves, and tables. The report shows that the ATM not only met, but exceeded premission performance criteria, and that participation of man in space for this scientific investigation greatly enhanced the quality and quantity of the data attained.

Morse, A. R.

1974-01-01

42

Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

2011-01-01

43

View of Medical Support Room in Mission Control Center during Apollo 16  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. J.F. Zieglschmid, M.D., Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) White Team Surgeon, is seated in the Medical Support Room in the Mission Control Center as he monitors crew biomedical data being received from the Apollo 16 spacecraft on the third day of the Apollo 16 lunar landing mission.

1972-01-01

44

Trace elements in Apollo 15 samples - Implications for meteorite influx and volatile depletion on the moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Five Apollo 15 soils and four rocks were examined by neutron activation analysis for 18 volatile and siderophile elements. The results obtained are initially interpreted in terms of local geologic problems at the Apollo 15 site. Implications bearing on the meteorite influx and volatile element depletion on the moon are then examined. Elbow Crater soil 15081, collected 65 m from the rim, contains a meteoritic component equivalent to 1.72% Cl material, similar to that at other lunar sites. Other soils are lower owing to dilution by fresh bedrock or talus from the Apennine Front. The moon-earth difference in volatile elements is discussed from the viewpoint of a difference in the efficiency of accretion from the solar nebula.

Morgan, J. W.; Kraehenbuehl, U.; Ganapathy, R.; Anders, E.

1972-01-01

45

Artists concept of Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong on the moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation artist's concept depicting mankind's first walk on another celestianl body. Here, Astronaut Neil Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, is making his first step onto the surface of the moon. In the background is the Earth, some 240,000 miles away. Armstrong. They are continuing their postflight debriefings. The three astronauts will be released from quarantine on August 11, 1969. Donald K. Slayton (right), MSC Director of Flight Crew Operations; and Lloyd Reeder, training coordinator.

1969-01-01

46

Geologic-magnetic correlations on the moon - Apollo subsatellite results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Comparison of the magnetic-field measurements of the Apollo subsatellite magnetometers with USGS geologic maps suggests that the ancient lunar field may have been greater during the Imbrian Period than the earlier Pre-Nectarian and Nectarian periods. Further, the field seems to have varied in direction. These data are consistent with a model in which the ancient lunar magnetizing field arises from a core dynamo which does not form until the Imbrian Period. Impacts during this period then result in magnetized crater melt and ejecta blankets. It is emphasized, however, that the area sampled by the subsatellite magnetometers is but a small fraction of the lunar surface. These results must be confirmed with studies of independent regions of the lunar surface before they can be considered conclusive.

Russell, C. T.; Weiss, H.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Soderblom, L. A.; Stuart-Alexander, D. E.; Wilhelms, D. E.

1977-01-01

47

Former Apollo astronauts speak at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Former Apollo astronauts Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin (left) and Gene Cernan share stories about their missions for an audience attending an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo program team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Other guests at the banquet were astronauts Wally Schirra, Gene Cernan and Walt Cunningham. Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon; Gene Cernan was the last.

1999-01-01

48

Official emblam of Apollo 11, the first scheduled lunar landing mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Official emblam of Apollo 11, the first scheduled lunar landing mission. It depicts and eagle descending toward the lunar surface with an olive branch, symbolizing America's peaceful mission in space.

1969-01-01

49

Direct active measurements of movements of lunar dust: Rocket exhausts and natural effects contaminating and cleansing Apollo hardware on the Moon in 1969  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust is the Number 1 environmental hazard on the Moon, yet its movements and adhesive properties are little understood. Matchbox-sized, 270-gram Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) measured contrasting effects triggered by rocket exhausts of Lunar Modules (LM) after deployment 17 m and 130 m from Apollo 11 and 12 LMs. Apollo 11 Lunar Seismometer was contaminated, overheated and terminated after 21 days operation. Apollo 12 hardware was splashed with collateral lunar dust during deployment. DDE horizontal solar cell was cleansed of nominally 0.3 mg cm-2 dust by 80% promptly at LM ascent and totally within 7 minutes. A vertical cell facing East was half-cleaned promptly then totally over hundreds of hours. Each cell cooled slightly. For the first time lunar electrostatic adhesive forces on smooth silicon were directly measured by comparison with lunar gravity. Analyses imply this adhesive force weakens as solar angle of incidence decreases. If valid, future lunar astronauts may have greater problems with dust adhesion in the middle half of the day than faced by Apollo missions in early morning. A sunproof shed may provide dust-free working environments on the Moon. Low-cost laboratory tests with DDEs and simulated lunar dust can use DDE benchmark lunar data quickly, optimising theoretical modelling and planning of future lunar expeditions, human and robotic.

O'Brien, Brian

2009-05-01

50

Estimates of the moon's geometry using lunar orbiter imagery and Apollo laser altimeter data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selenographic coordinates for about 6000 lunar points identified on the Lunar Orbiter photographs are tabulated and have been combined with those lunar radii derived from the Apollo 15 laser altimeter data. These coordinates were used to derive that triaxial ellipsoid which best fits the moon's irregular surface. Fits were obtaind for different constraints on both the axial orientations and the displacement of the center of the ellipsoid. The semiaxes for the unconstrained ellipsoid were a = 1737.6 km, b = 1735.6 km, and c = 1735.0 km which correspond to a mean radius of about 1736.1 km. These axes were found to be nearly parallel to the moon's principal axes of inertia, and the origin was displaced about 2.0 km from the moon's center of gravity in a direction away from the earth and to the south of the lunar equator.

Jones, R. L.

1973-01-01

51

Petrologic constraints on the origin of the Moon: Evidence from Apollo 14  

SciTech Connect

The Fra Mauro breccias at Apollo 14 contain distinctive suites of mare basalts and highland crustal rocks that contrast significantly with equivalent rocks from other Apollo sites. These contrasts imply lateral heterogeneity of the lunar crust and mantle on a regional scale. This heterogeneity may date back to the earliest stages of lunar accretion and differentiation. Current theories requiring a Moon-wide crust of Ferroan Anorthosite are based largely on samples from Apollo 16, where all but a few samples represent the FAN suite. However, at the nearside sites, FAN is either scarce (A-15) or virtually absent (A-12, A-14, A-17). It is suggested that the compositional variations could be accounted for by the acceleration of a large mass of material (e.g., 0.1 to 0.2 moon masses) late in the crystallization history of the magma ocean. Besides adding fresh, primordial material, this would remelt a large pocket of crust and mantle, thereby allowing a second distillation to occur in the resulting magma sea.

Shervais, J.W.; Taylor, L.A.

1984-01-01

52

Surface electrical properties experiment. [for Taurus-Littrow region of the moon on Apollo 17  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Surface Electrical Properties Experiment (SEP) was flown to the moon in December 1972 on Apollo 17 and used to explore a portion of the Taurus-Littrow region. SEP used a relatively new technique, termed radio frequency interferometry (RFI). Electromagnetic waves were radiated from two orthogonal, horizontal electric dipole antennas on the surface of the moon at frequencies of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 Mhz. The field strength of the EM waves was measured as a function of distance with a receiver mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle and using three orthogonal, electrically small, loops. The interference pattern produced by the waves that travelled above the moon's surface and those that travelled below the surface was recorded on magnetic tape. The tape was returned to earth for analysis and interpretation. Several reprints, preprints, and an initial draft of the first publication of the SEP results are included. These documents provide a rather complete account of the details of the theory of the RFI technique, of the terrestrial tests of the technique, and of the present state of our interpretation of the Apollo 17 data.

Simmons, G.

1974-01-01

53

Mare glasses from Apollo 17 - Constraints on the moon's bulk composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two previously unreported varieties of mare volcanic glass have been discovered in Apollo 17 samples. Twenty-three chemical types of volcanic glass have now been analyzed from the six Apollo landing sites. These volcanic glasses, which may be samples of primary magmas derived from the differentiated lunar mantle, define two linear arrays that seem to reflect regional, if not global, regularities among the source regions of these melts. Additional systematics among these glasses have been used to estimate the bulk composition of the moon. The results suggest that the refractory lithophile elements are present at abundances of 1.7 x chondrites. The silicate portion of the moon appears to have a major-element composition similar to a volatile (Si, Na, K)-depleted, earth's upper mantle. The theory involving an earth-fission origin of the moon can be tested further through trace element analyses on the volcanic glasses, and through determination of the N/Ar-36 ratio and noble gas isotopes from primordial lunar gas trapped within vesicles associated with mare volcanic glass.

Delano, J. W.; Lindsley, D. H.

1983-11-01

54

Forward Contamination of the Moon and Mars: Implications for Future Life Detection Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and ESA have outlined new visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moon, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of life. The search for life on objects such as Mars will require that all spacecraft and instrumentation be sufficiently cleaned and sterilized prior to launch to ensure that the scientific integrity of extraterrestrial samples is not jeopardized by terrestrial organic contamination. Under COSPAR's current planetary protection policy for the Moon, no sterilization procedures are required for outbound lunar spacecraft. Nonetheless, future in situ investigations of a variety of locations on the Moon by highly sensitive instruments designed to search for biologically derived organic compounds would help assess the contamination of the Moon by lunar spacecraft. These studies could also provide valuable "ground truth" data for Mars sample return missions and help define planetary protection requirements for future Mars bound spacecraft carrying life detection experiments. In addition, studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts could provide valuable data to help refine future Mars surface exploration plans for a human mission to Mars.

Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Lupisella, Mark; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.

2004-01-01

55

Apollo experience report: Mission planning for lunar module descent and ascent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The premission planning, the real-time situation, and the postflight analysis for the Apollo 11 lunar descent and ascent are described. A comparison between premission planning and actual results is included. A navigation correction capability, developed from Apollo 11 postflight analysis was used successfully on Apollo 12 to provide the first pinpoint landing. An experience summary, which illustrates typical problems encountered by the mission planners, is also included.

Bennett, F. V.

1972-01-01

56

Lunette: A Dual Lander Mission to the Moon to Explore Early Planetary Differentiation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon is critical for understanding fundamental aspects of how terrestrial planets formed and evolved. The Moon’s size means that a record of early planetary differentiation has been preserved. However, data from previous, current and planned missions are (will) not (be) of sufficient fidelity to provide definitive conclusions about its internal state, structure, and composition. Lunette rectifies this situation. Lunette is a solar-powered, 2 identical lander geophysical network mission that operates for at least 4 years on the surface of the Moon. Each Lunette lander carries an identical, powerful geophysical payload consisting of four instruments: 1) An extremely sensitive instrument combining a 3-axis triad of Short Period sensors and a 3-axis set of Long Period sensors, to be placed with its environmental shield on the surface; 2) A pair of self-penetrating “Moles,” each carrying thermal and physical sensors at least 3 m below the surface to measure the heat flow from the lunar interior; 3) Lunar Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector: A high-precision, high-performance corner cube reflector for laser ranging between the Earth and the Moon; and 4) ElectroMagnetic Sounder: A set of directional magnetometers and electrometers that together probe the electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of the interior. The 2 landers are deployed to distinct lunar terranes: the Feldspathic Highlands Terrane (FHT) and the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) on the lunar nearside. They are launched together on a single vehicle, then separate shortly after trans-lunar injection, making their way individually to an LL2 staging point. Each lander descends to the lunar surface at the beginning of consecutive lunar days; the operations team can concentrate on completing lander checkout and instrument deployments well before lunar night descends. Lunette has one primary goal: Understand the early stages of terrestrial planet differentiation. Lunette uses Apollo knowledge of deep moonquake nests and Earth-based nearside impact flash monitoring (IFM) to enable a 2-station mission to address this goal. IFM provides known seismic sources, allowing detailed seismic study of the lunar interior from a 2-station network, representing a major advance since Apollo. The instruments and support systems are designed to operate for much longer than four years and therefore could be integrated into any future international lunar geophysical network. Modeling undertaken demonstrates the feasibility of this approach for seismic data. Using the Apollo seismic record, the sensitivity and broadband nature of the seismometer is shown to be able to address the challenges of seismic scattering, low frequency seismology, detection of core phases (e.g. PKP, ScS), and meteoroid impact characterization to achieve the primary mission goal.

Neal, C. R.; Banerdt, B.; Jones, M.; Elliott, J.; Alkalai, L.; Turyshev, S.; Lognonné, P.; Kobayashi, N.; Grimm, R. E.; Spohn, T.; Weber, R. C.; Lunette Science; Instrument Support Team

2010-12-01

57

Former Apollo astronaut Al Worden speaks at anniversary banquet.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Former Apollo 15 astronaut Alfred M. Worden relates his experiences in the Apollo Program during a banquet honoring the people who made it all possible. Held on the anniversary of the Apollo 11 mission, which was launched July 16, 1969, and landed on the moon July 20, 1969, the banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center. Worden served as command module pilot on the Apollo 15 mission. Other guests at the banquet were astronauts Neil Armstrong, Wally Schirra, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin and Walt Cunningham. Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon; Gene Cernan was the last.

1999-01-01

58

On Eagle's Wings: The Parkes Observatory's Support of the Apollo 11 Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At 12:56 p.m., on Monday 21 July 1969 (AEST), six hundred million people witnessed Neil Armstrong's historic first steps on the Moon through television pictures transmitted to Earth from the lunar module, Eagle. Three tracking stations were receiving the signals simultaneously. They were the CSIRO's Parkes Radio Telescope, the Honeysuckle Creek tracking station near Canberra, and NASA's Goldstone station in California. During the first nine minutes of the broadcast, NASA alternated between the signals being received by the three stations. When they switched to the Parkes pictures, they were of such superior quality that NASA remained with them for the rest of the 2½-hour moonwalk. The television pictures from Parkes were received under extremely trying and dangerous conditions. A violent squall struck the telescope on the day of the historic moonwalk. The telescope was buffeted by strong winds that swayed the support tower and threatened the integrity of the telescope structure. Fortunately, cool heads prevailed and as Aldrin activated the TV camera, the Moon rose into the field-of-view of the Parkes telescope. This report endeavours to explain the circumstances of the Parkes Observatory's support of the Apollo 11 mission, and how it came to be involved in the historic enterprise.

Sarkissian, John M.

59

Sedimentology of clastic rocks returned from the moon by Apollo 15.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A petrographic study of eleven samples of clastic rock returned from the moon by Apollo 15 suggests that two lithologies are present. The distinction between the two lithologies is based on the glass content of the rock matrices and the morphology of the detrital particles. Group I rocks have abundant, glass-rich, porous matrices and glass particles with morphologies comparable to those of glass particles in the lunar soil. The group I rocks were probably formed by welding or sintering of surficial soil deposits by impact-generated base surges of limited extent. Group II rocks have an essentially mineralic matrix and have an abundance of rounded mineral grains. Sample 15455 is the only Apollo 15 sample assigned to this group. In its general textural features, sample 15455 is comparable with the group II rocks from the Fra Mauro Formation at the Apollo 14 site. Textural features such as shock modification and rounding of mineral grains suggest that this sample is the product of a large-scale impact-generated base surge which possibly resulted from the Imbrian event.

Lindsay, J. F.

1972-01-01

60

Portrait of Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander of Apollo 11 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portrait of Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 Lunar Landing mission in his space suit, with his helmet on the table in front of him. Behind him is a large photograph of the lunar surface.

1969-01-01

61

View of Mission Control Center during the Apollo 13 oxygen cell failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several persons important to the Apollo 13 mission, at consoles in the Mission Operations Control Room of the Mission Control Center (MCC). Seated at consoles, from left to right, are Astronaut Donald K. Slayton, Director of Flight Crew Operations; Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Shift 3 spacecraft communicator; and Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 13 back-up crew. Standing, left to right, are Astronaut Tom K. Mattingly, who was replaced as Apollo 13 command module pilot after it was learned he may come down with measles, and Astronaut Vance D. Brand, Shift 2 spacecraft communicator. Several hours earlier crew members of the Apollo 13 mission reported to MCC that trouble had developed with an oxygen cell in their spacecraft.

1970-01-01

62

Merguerian, Charles, 1989b, Apollo 15: in F. N. Magill, editor, Magill's Survey of Science, Space Exploration Series, Salem Press, Inc., Pasadena, California, p. 104-109.  

E-print Network

evolution of the Moon and set the stage, as an exploration prototype, for the Apollo 16 and 17 missions in the Fra Mauro area of the Moon, the Apollo 15 mission was designed to continue the United States' lunar engaged to land on the Moon and provide a seismic signal. The booster made lunar impact at 2058 GMT

Merguerian, Charles

63

Future lunar missions and investigation of dusty plasma processes on the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

From the Apollo era of exploration, it was discovered that sunlight was scattered at the terminators giving rise to ``horizon glow'' and ``streamers'' above the lunar surface. Subsequent investigations have shown that the sunlight was most likely scattered by electrostatically charged dust grains originating from the surface. A renaissance is being observed currently in investigations of the Moon. The Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource missions (the latter jointly with India) are being prepared in Russia. Some of these missions will include investigations of lunar dust. Here we discuss the future experimental investigations of lunar dust within the missions of Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource. We consider the dusty plasma system over the lunar surface and determine the maximum height of dust rise. We describe mechanisms of formation of the dusty plasma system over the Moon and its main properties, determine distributions of electrons and dust over the lunar surface, and show a possibility of rising dust particles over the surface of the illuminated part of the Moon in the entire range of lunar latitudes. Finally, we discuss the effect of condensation of micrometeoriod substance during the expansion of the impact plume and show that this effect is important from the viewpoint of explanation of dust particle rise to high altitudes in addition to the dusty plasma effects.

Popel, Sergey I.; Zelenyi, Lev M.

2013-08-01

64

Robotics and telepresence for moon missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An integrated moon program has often been proposed as a logical next step for today's space efforts. In the context of preparing for the possibility of launching a moon program, the European Space Agency is currently conducting an internal study effort which is focusing on the assessment of key technologies. Current thinking has this moon program organized into four phases. Phase 1 will deal with lunar resource exploration. The goal would be to produce a complete chemical inventory of the moon, including oxygen, water, other volatiles, carbon, silicon, and other resources. Phase 2 will establish a permanent robotic presence on the moon via a number of landers and surface rovers. Phase 3 will extend the second phase and concentrate on the use and exploitation of local lunar resources. Phase 4 will be the establishment of a first human outpost. Some preliminary work such as the building of the outpost and the installation of scientific equipment will be done by unmanned systems before a human crew is sent to the moon.

Sallaberger, Christian

1994-01-01

65

Return to the Moon: Lunar robotic science missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are two important aspects of the Moon and its materials which must be addressed in preparation for a manned return to the Moon and establishment of a lunar base. These involve its geologic science and resource utilization. Knowledge of the Moon forms the basis for interpretations of the planetary science of the terrestrial planets and their satellites; and there are numerous exciting explorations into the geologic science of the Moon to be conducted using orbiter and lander missions. In addition, the rocks and minerals and soils of the Moon will be the basic raw materials for a lunar outpost; and the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) of lunar materials must be considered in detail before any manned return to the Moon. Both of these fields -- planetary science and resource assessment -- will necessitate the collection of considerable amounts of new data, only obtainable from lunar-orbit remote sensing and robotic landers. For over fifteen years, there have been a considerable number of workshops, meetings, etc. with their subsequent 'white papers' which have detailed plans for a return to the Moon. The Lunar Observer mission, although grandiose, seems to have been too expensive for the austere budgets of the last several years. However, the tens of thousands of man-hours that have gone into 'brainstorming' and production of plans and reports have provided the precursor material for today's missions. It has been only since last year (1991) that realistic optimism for lunar orbiters and soft landers has come forth. Plans are for 1995 and 1996 'Early Robotic Missions' to the Moon, with the collection of data necessary for answering several of the major problems in lunar science, as well as for resource and site evaluation, in preparation for soft landers and a manned-presence on the Moon.

Taylor, Lawrence A.

1992-01-01

66

Development of the Apollo Control Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of activities associated with photogrammetric reduction of photography and support data gathered by Apollo spacecraft in lunar orbit. The aim of these activities is to combine all data from Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions for the purpose of forming a unified control system on the moon called the Apollo Control Network. The status of efforts at reduction of data from each of these missions is summarized along with a proposed scheme for combining the three missions in a simultaneous reduction. Plans to expand the network by use of Apollo oblique mapping photography are also discussed, and the results of an oblique triangulation test are evaluated.

Hassell, J. R.; Ross, C. M.

1974-01-01

67

NASA's J-2X Engine Builds on the Apollo Program for Lunar Return Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January 2006, NASA streamlined its U.S. Vision for Space Exploration hardware development approach for replacing the Space Shuttle after it is retired in 2010. The revised CLV upper stage will use the J-2X engine, a derivative of NASA s Apollo Program Saturn V s S-II and S-IVB main propulsion, which will also serve as the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) engine. This paper gives details of how the J- 2X engine effort mitigates risk by building on the Apollo Program and other lessons learned to deliver a human-rated engine that is on an aggressive development schedule, with first demonstration flight in 2010 and human test flights in 2012. It is well documented that propulsion is historically a high-risk area. NASA s risk reduction strategy for the J-2X engine design, development, test, and evaluation is to build upon heritage hardware and apply valuable experience gained from past development efforts. In addition, NASA and its industry partner, Rocketdyne, which originally built the J-2, have tapped into their extensive databases and are applying lessons conveyed firsthand by Apollo-era veterans of America s first round of Moon missions in the 1960s and 1970s. NASA s development approach for the J-2X engine includes early requirements definition and management; designing-in lessons learned from the 5-2 heritage programs; initiating long-lead procurement items before Preliminary Desi& Review; incorporating design features for anticipated EDS requirements; identifying facilities for sea-level and altitude testing; and starting ground support equipment and logistics planning at an early stage. Other risk reduction strategies include utilizing a proven gas generator cycle with recent development experience; utilizing existing turbomachinery ; applying current and recent main combustion chamber (Integrated Powerhead Demonstrator) and channel wall nozzle (COBRA) advances; and performing rigorous development, qualification, and certification testing of the engine system, with a philosophy of "test what you fly, and fly what you test". These and other active risk management strategies are in place to deliver the J-2X engine for LEO and lunar return missions as outlined in the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration.

Snoddy, Jimmy R.

2006-01-01

68

Project Apollo Image Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image gallery features photos taken throughout the history of NASA's Apollo program, the initiative to put humans on the moon. The collection is organized chronologically by mission and includes both on-board photos, training, spacecraft rollout, control room, launch, and many other images. It is also searchable by keyword.

69

THE MOST REDUCED ROCK FROM THE MOON APOLLO 14 BASALT 14053: EXTREME REDUCTION ENTIRELY FROM A RE-HEATING EVENT.  

E-print Network

THE MOST REDUCED ROCK FROM THE MOON ­ APOLLO 14 BASALT 14053: EXTREME REDUCTION ENTIRELY FROM A RE of the rocks were breccias. Only four rocks were believed to be basaltic: a) 14310, and its smaller-sized pair rocks that is addressed herein. Basalt 14053 is a fine-grained, holocrystalline, equigranular hi-Al mare

Taylor, Lawrence A.

70

In Brief: NASA mission to measure Moon's gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA has selected a new mission to measure the Moon's gravity field in unprecedented detail, according to the agency's associate administrator for science, Alan Stern. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), which is part of NASA's Discovery Program series of scientist-led, solar system exploration missions, is scheduled to launch in 2011 following the agency's 2008 launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Scientists plan to use gravity field information from GRAIL's two spacecraft to X ray the Moon from crust to core to reveal subsurface structures and, indirectly, the Moon's thermal history. A camera aboard each spacecraft will allow the public to see observations from the satellites. GRAIL ``offers to bring innovative Earth studies techniques to the Moon as a precursor to their possible later use at Mars and other planets,'' Stern said. For more information, visit the Web site: http://discovery.nasa.gov/.

Showstack, Randy

2007-12-01

71

Apollo 11: 20th Anniversary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 Mission which culminated in the first manned lunar landing on July 20, 1969 is recounted. Historical footage of preparation, takeoff, stage separation, the Eagle Lunar Lander, and the moon walk accompany astronauts Michael Collins, Buzz Aldrin, and Neil Armstrong giving their recollections of the mission.

1989-01-01

72

A Stowaway Mission to the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several months from now, the empty upper stage of an Atlas V rocket will slam into a shadowy crater near the north pole of the moon, tossing a plume of debris up into the sunlight. By then, the Atlas V will have delivered its main payload, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO), and a smaller stowaway. That stowaway satellite will watch

Joshua Romero

2009-01-01

73

Apollo 14 mission report. Supplement 7: Inflight demonstrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments performed on board the Apollo 14 are reviewed. These include a liquid transfer demonstration during the transearth coast, electrophoresis separation, a composite casting demonstration, and a heat flow and convection demonstration.

1972-01-01

74

Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an electronic version of an historical NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) publication containing information about the history of manned lunar spacecraft up to the Apollo 11 mission which successfully landed on the Moon. This book goes through the beginning of our National Space Policy including issues such as funding, challenges, and planning of the Apollo missions. There are details about contracting for building spacecraft including the command module and lunar module, astronavigation, proposals, adjustments to dates and machinery, problems with certain aspects of the program, and progress throughout the Apollo missions. There is a summary of each mission up through Apollo 11 with the mission launch date, goals, and accomplishments.

Courtney Brooks

1979-01-01

75

Magnetism and the interior of the moon. [measured at Apollo landing sites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the time period 1961-1972 eleven magnetometers were sent to the moon. The results of lunar magnetometer data analysis are reviewed, with emphasis on the lunar interior. Magnetic fields have been measured on the lunar surface at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 landing sites. The remanent field values at these sites are given. Satellite and surface measurements show strong evidence that the lunar crust is magnetized over much of the lunar globe. The origin of the lunar remanent field is not yet satisfactorily understood; several source models are presented. Simultaneous data from the Apollo 12 lunar surface magnetometer and the Explorer 35 Ames magnetometer are used to construct a wholemoon hysteresis curve, from which the global lunar permeability is determined. Total iron abundance is calculated for two assumed compositional models of the lunar interior. Other lunar models with a small iron core and with a shallow iron-rich layer are also discussed in light of the measured global permeability.

Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

1974-01-01

76

Preliminary Assessment of the Moon-Next Lunar Lander mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon NEXT mission studied by ESA through contracts to industry includes a Lunar Lander that deploys several optional payloads close to the Moon's South Pole. These payloads may comprise a Rover and other various experiments directly on the Lander or deposited by the Lander on the lunar surface. Moon-NEXT is an exploration precursor mission. Its payload addresses not only technological enhancement in view of future lunar establishment but also valuable science objectives. It sometimes combines both, as for instance when considering growing bacteria or operating a precursor to lunar radio-astronomy. The Moon's South Pole area, with its long-illumination crater rims, presents specificities that make this location a good candidate for a future human outpost. Moon NEXT is therefore a key mission for the exploration of the South Pole, the understanding of its environment, the comprehension of the structure of the soil and the mastery of its particularities. Thales Alenia Space is the leader of one of the consortia that have been awarded a study contract for Moon NEXT. Thales Alenia Space and its partners have assessed the feasibility of the mission. The assessment has covered the mission aspects, the operability of the Lander and the Rover and the sizing of all their subsystems, from structure, thermal control, propulsion to communications, power, data handling and of course guidance Navigation and Control. This paper summarizes the achievements obtained so far in this assessment phase. After recalling the challenges of the mission, it addresses how a suitable architecture has been selected for the lander, and how the design driving requirements have been addressed. The payload accommodation is discussed, as well as all the constraints and sizing character of payload requirements, whether for a fix payload or for a Rover. The budgets have been consolidated and the required technologies reviewed, paving the way for the following assessment and definition phases.

Poncy, J.; Cogo, F.; Gily, A.; Martinot, V.; Simonini, L.

2009-04-01

77

Space Mission to the Moon with a Low Cost Moon Probe Nanosatellite: University Project Feasibility Analysis and Design Concepts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper discusses the possibility of launching a 10 kg nanosatellite moon probe with a joint university effort along with industrial partners for a low cost mission to the moon. It will allow for vital experiments to take place.

Guven, U. G.; Velidi, G. V.; Datta, L. D.

2014-10-01

78

View of activity in Mission Control Center during Apollo 15 EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A view of activity in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) in the Mission Control Center during the Apollo 15 extravehicular activity (EVA). Astronauts David R. Scott and James B. Irwin can be seen on the large screen at the front of the MOCR as they participate in sample-gathering on the lunar surface.

1971-01-01

79

Dr. Gilruth and Dr. Kraft in Mission Control Center during Apollo 5 launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Rober R. Gilruth (right), Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Director, sits with Dr. Christopher C. Kraft Jr., MSC Director of Flight Operations, at his flight operations director console in the Mission Control Center, bldg 30, during the Apollo 5 (LM-1/Saturn 204) unmanned space mission launch.

1968-01-01

80

Benefits and technology readiness for using cryogenic instead of storable propellants for return mission from Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenic requirements are examined for new missions to the moon. A comparison is made with previous moon landings and a technology assessment investigates the new requirements for such missions. All of the material is presented in viewgraph format.

Plachta, David W.

1992-01-01

81

President Richard Nixon visits MSC to award Apollo 13 Mission Operations team  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

President Richard M. Nixon introduces Sigurd A. Sjoberg (far right), Director of Flight Operations at Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), and the four Apollo 13 Flight Directors during the Presidnet's post-mission visit to MSC. The Flight Directors are (l.-r.) Glynn S. Lunney, Eugene A. Kranz, Gerald D. Griffin and Milton L. Windler. Dr. Thomas O. Paine, NASA Administrator, is seated at left. President Nixon was on the site to present the Presidential Medal of Freedom -- the nation's highest civilian honor -- to the Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team (35600); A wide-angle, overall view of the large crowd that was on hand to see President Richard M. Nixon present the Presidnetial Medal of Freedom to the Apollo 13 Mission Operations Team. A temporary speaker's platform was erected beside bldg 1 for the occasion (35601).

1970-01-01

82

High Leverage Space Transportation System Technologies for Human Exploration Missions to the Moon and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of returning humans to the Moon by 2004, the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing, is examined assuming the use of existing launch vehicles (the Space Shuttle and Titan 4B), a near term, advanced technology space transportation system, and extraterrestrial propellant--specifically 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen or LUNOX. The lunar transportation system (LTS) elements consist of an expendable, nuclear thermal rocket (NTR)-powered translunar injection (TLI) stage and a combination lunar lander/Earth return vehicle (LERV) using cryogenic liquid oxygen and hydrogen (LOX/LH2) chemical propulsion. The 'wet' LERV, carrying a crew of 2, is configured to fit within the Shuttle orbiter cargo bay and requires only modest assembly in low Earth orbit. After Earth orbit rendezvous and docking of the LERV with the Titan 4B-launched NTR TLI stage, the initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) is approx. 40 t. To maximize mission performance at minimum mass, the LERV carries no return LOX but uses approx. 7 t of LUNOX to 'reoxidize' itself for a 'direct return' flight to Earth followed by an 'Apollo-style' capsule recovery. Without LUNOX, mission capability is constrained and the total LTS mass approaches the combined Shuttle-Titan 4B IMLEO limit of approx. 45 t even with enhanced NTR and chemical engine performance. Key technologies are discussed, lunar mission scenarios described, and LTS vehicle designs and characteristics are presented. Mission versatility provided by using a small 'all LH2' NTR engine or a 'LOX-augmented' derivative, either individually or in clusters, for outer planet robotic orbiter, small Mars cargo, lunar 'commuter', and human Mars exploration class missions is also briefly discussed.

Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

1996-01-01

83

Apollo experience report: Evolution of the rendezvous-maneuver plan for the lunar-landing missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of the nominal rendezvous-maneuver plan for the lunar landing missions is presented along with a summary of the significant development for the lunar module abort and rescue plan. A general discussion of the rendezvous dispersion analysis that was conducted in support of both the nominal and contingency rendezvous planning is included. Emphasis is placed on the technical developments from the early 1960's through the Apollo 15 mission (July to August 1971), but pertinent organizational factors also are discussed briefly. Recommendations for rendezvous planning for future programs relative to Apollo experience also are included.

Alexander, J. D.; Becker, R. W.

1973-01-01

84

Apollo: A Retrospective Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program to land an American on the Moon and return safely to Earth in the 1960s has been called by some observers a defining event of the twentieth century. Pulitzer Prize-winning historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., even suggested that when Americans two centuries hence study the twentieth century, they will view the Apollo lunar landing as the critical event of the century. While that conclusion might be premature, there can be little doubt but that the flight of Apollo 11 in particular and the overall Apollo program in general was a high point in humanity s quest to explore the universe beyond Earth. Since the completion of Project Apollo more than twenty years ago there have been a plethora of books, studies, reports, and articles about its origin, execution, and meaning. At the time of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the first landing, it is appropriate to reflect on the effort and its place in U.S. and NASA history. This monograph has been written as a means to this end. It presents a short narrative account of Apollo from its origin through its assessment. That is followed by a mission by mission summary of the Apollo flights and concluded by a series of key documents relative to the program reproduced in facsimile. The intent of this monograph is to provide a basic history along with primary documents that may be useful to NASA personnel and others desiring information about Apollo.

Launius, Roger D.

2004-01-01

85

Moons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Topic in Depth features websites about the moons of the planets in our solar system. First, NASA presents its proposed mission to orbit Jupiter's three planet-sized moons: Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa (1). Users can view animations of the proposed orbiter and images of the three moons. The site offers an abundance of information on the technology, mission, fast facts, and news. Next, Cornell University provides the Athena scientist, Thomas J. Wdowiak's kid's column _Tommy Test Tubes_ (2). At this website, he educates children about the two moons of Mars by offering entertaining facts and remarkable images. The third site, provided by the educator Hiram Bertoch, offers introductory materials about the moons of Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto (3). Visitors can also find educational materials about asteroids, comets, and planets. Next, the Fourmilab supplies numerous views of the Earth's Moon's lunar formations (4). The website allows users to pan, zoom in and out, and select images based on coordinates, time, and size. The fifth site presents an article by the Discovery Channel about the latest analyses of the geologic landscapes of Saturn's moon, Titan (5). Users can learn about the differences and similarities between Titan's and Earth's atmosphere, environment, and geologic activity. Next, the NinePlanets.org website furnishes information on the distance, radius, mass, and discoverer of Uranus's numerous moons (6). Through an abundance of images and movies, users can learn many interesting facts about Uranus. The seventh site, developed by EOA Scientific Systems, supplies fascinating facts and images of Neptune and its moons (7). Students can learn how and when each of the eight moons was discovered. Lastly, NASA offers a wonderful tutorial on Pluto and its moon, Charon, for elementary school children (8). Students can discover why Pluto is sometimes called a double planet and where its moon may have originated.

86

Review of measurements of dust movements on the Moon during Apollo  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first review of 3 Apollo experiments, which made the only direct measurements of dust on the lunar surface: (i) minimalist matchbox-sized 270 g Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) of Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15, produced 30 million Lunar Day measurements 21 July 1969-30 September, 1977; (ii) Thermal Degradation Samples (TDS) of Apollo 14, sprinkled with dust, photographed,

Brian J. O'Brien

2011-01-01

87

Portrait of Astronaut Edwin Aldrin, Lunar Module pilot of Apollo 11 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Portrait of Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot of the Apollo 11 Lunar Landing mission in his space suit, with his helmet on the table in front of him. Behind him is a large photograph of the lunar surface.

1969-01-01

88

Radish plant exposed to lunar material collected on the Apollo 12 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The leaves of this radish plant were rubbed with lunar material colleted on the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission in experiments conducted in the Manned Spacecraft Center's Lunar Receiving Laboratory. The plant was exposed to the material 30 days before this photograph was made. Evidently no ill effects resulted from contact with the lunar soil.

1970-01-01

89

Apollo experience report: Guidance and control systems: Automated control system for unmanned mission AS-201  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo command module heat shield and Apollo command and service module/Saturn launch vehicle structural integrity were evaluated in an unmanned test flight. An automated control system was developed to provide the mission event sequencing, the real-time ground control interface, and the backup attitude reference system for the unmanned flight. The required mission events, the design logic, the redundancy concept, and the ground-support-equipment concept are described and some development problem areas are discussed. The mission event time line and the real-time ground command list are included to provide an outline of the control system capabilities and requirements. The mission was accomplished with the automated control system, which functioned without flight anomalies.

Holloway, G. F.

1975-01-01

90

Science Operations For Esa's Smart-1 Mission To The Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of the European Space Agency's SMART-1 mission to the Moon is to test and validate a new electric propulsion engine for potential use on other larger ESA Cornerstone missions. However, the SMART-1 spacecraft will also carry a number of scientific instruments and experiments for use en-route to and in orbit about the Moon. SMART-1's major operational constraint is that it will be only contacted twice per week. As a result, there will be a stronger emphasis on mid-term planning, and the spacecraft will be operated using a large list of telecommands sent during the communication windows. This approach leads to a higher probability of there being resource and/or instruments conflicts. To eliminate these, two software tools were developed: the Experiment Planning System (EPS), and the Project Test Bed (PTB). These tools will also allow us to predict the lunar coverage of the scien- tific instruments, and to simulate target selections.

Almeida, M.; Foing, B.; Heather, D.; Marini, A.; Lumb, R.; Racca, G.

91

The Origin of the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most planetary scientists expected that lunar samples brought to back to Earth by the six Apollo missions would confirm one of three leading hypotheses of the Moon's origin. Instead, the samples left all three explanations unconfirmed, requiring the development of a new hypothesis for how the Moon formed. This video segment shows Apollo 15 astronauts collecting a type of rock (anorthosite) that is thought to represent the original crust of the Moon. This evidence helps explain the origins and relationship between Earth and Moon. The segment is three minutes fifty-seven seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

92

The Origin of the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most planetary scientists expected that lunar samples brought to back to Earth by the six Apollo missions would confirm one of three leading hypotheses of the Moon's origin. Instead, the samples left all three explanations unconfirmed, requiring the development of a new hypothesis for how the Moon formed. This video segment shows Apollo 15 astronauts collecting a type of rock (anorthosite) that is thought to represent the original crust of the Moon. This evidence helps explain the origins and relationship between Earth and Moon. The segment is three minutes fifty-seven seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

2011-01-07

93

Apollo Soyuz test project, USA-USSR. [mission plan of spacecraft docking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission plan of the docking of a United States Apollo and a Soviet Union Soyuz spacecraft in Earth orbit to test compatible rendezvous and docking equipment and procedures is presented. Space experiments conducted jointly by the astronauts and cosmonauts during the joint phase of the mission as well as experiments performed solely by the U.S. astronauts and spread over the nine day span of the flight are included. Biographies of the astronauts and cosmonauts are given.

1975-01-01

94

Saturn 5 launch vehicle flight evaluation report-AS-511 Apollo 16 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A postflight analysis of the Apollo 16 mission is presented. The basic objective of the flight evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight problems are identified, their causes are deet determined, and recommendations are made for corrective actions. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. Significant events for all phases of the flight are provide in tabular form.

1972-01-01

95

Apollo 15-Lunar Module Falcon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a photo of the Apollo 15 Lunar Module, Falcon, on the lunar surface. Apollo 15 launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on July 26, 1971 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. Aboard was a crew of three astronauts including David R. Scott, Mission Commander; James B. Irwin, Lunar Module Pilot; and Alfred M. Worden, Command Module Pilot. The first mission designed to explore the Moon over longer periods, greater ranges and with more instruments for the collection of scientific data than on previous missions, the mission included the introduction of a $40,000,000 lunar roving vehicle (LRV) that reached a top speed of 16 kph (10 mph) across the Moon's surface. The successful Apollo 15 lunar landing mission was the first in a series of three advanced missions planned for the Apollo program. The primary scientific objectives were to observe the lunar surface, survey and sample material and surface features in a preselected area of the Hadley-Apennine region, setup and activation of surface experiments and conduct in-flight experiments and photographic tasks from lunar orbit. Apollo 15 televised the first lunar liftoff and recorded a walk in deep space by Alfred Worden. Both the Saturn V rocket and the LRV were developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

1971-01-01

96

Decompression sickness in simulated Apollo-Soyuz space missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo-Soyuz docking module atmospheres were evaluated for incidence of decompression sickness in men simulating passage from the Russian spacecraft atmosphere, to the U.S. spacecraft atmosphere, and then to the American space suit pressure. Following 8 hr of 'shirtsleeve' exposure to 31:69::O2:N2 gas breathing mixture, at 10 psia, subjects were 'denitrogenated' for either 30 or 60 min with 100% O2 prior to decompression directly to 3.7 psia suit equivalent while performing exercise at fixed intervals. Five of 21 subjects experienced symptoms of decompression sickness after 60 min of denitrogenation compared to 6 among 20 subjects after 30 min of denitrogenation. A condition of Grade I bends was reported after 60 min of denitrogenation, and 3 of these 5 subjects noted the disappearance of all symptoms of bends at 3.7 psia. After 30 min of denitrogenation, 2 out of 6 subjects developed Grade II bends at 3.7 psia.

Cooke, J. P.; Robertson, W. G.

1974-01-01

97

Moon Express: Lander Capabilities and Initial Payload and Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moon Express Inc. is developing a common lander design to support the commercial delivery of a wide variety of possible payloads to the lunar surface. Significant recent progress has been made on lander design and configuration and a straw man mission concept has been designed to return significant new scientific and resource utilization data from the first mission. The Moon Express lander is derived from designs tested at NASA Ames Research Center over the past decade. The MX-1 version is designed to deliver 26 kg of payload to the lunar surface, with no global restrictions on landing site. The MX-2 lander can carry a payload of 400 kg and can deliver an upper stage (designed for missions that require Earth-return, such as sample retrieval) or a robotic rover. The Moon Express lander is powered by a specially designed engine capable of being operated in either monoprop or biprop mode. The concept for the first mission is a visit to a regional pyroclastic deposit on the lunar near side. We have focused on the Rima Bode dark mantle deposits (east of crater Copernicus, around 13 N, 4 W). These deposits are mature, having been exposed to solar wind for at least 3 Ga, and have high Ti content, suggesting high concentrations of implanted hydrogen. Smooth areas near the vent suggest that the ash beds are several tens of meters thick. The projected payload includes an imaging system to document the geological setting of the landing area, an APX instrument to provide major element composition of the regolith and a neutron spectrometer to measure the bulk hydrogen composition of the regolith at the landing site. Additionally, inclusion of a next generation laser retroreflector would markedly improve measurements of lunar librations and thus, constrain the dimensions of both the liquid and solid inner cores of the Moon, as well as provide tests of General Relativity. Conops are simple, with measurements of the surface composition commencing immediately upon landing. APX chemical analysis and neutron measurements would be completed within an hour or so. If any propellant remains after landing and a 'hop' to another site was undertaken, we can repeat these analyses at the second site, adding confidence that we have obtained representative measurements. Thus, the scientific goals of the first Moon Express mission are satisfied early and easily in the mission profile. This mission scenario provides significant scientific accomplishment for very little investment in payload and operations. Although minimally configured, the payload has been chosen to provide the most critical ground truth parameters for mapping hydrogen concentrations across the entire lunar surface. As hydrogen is a key element to the development of the Moon, understanding its occurrences in both non-polar and polar environments is critical. This mission achieves significant new scientific accomplishment as well as taking the first steps towards lunar presence and permanence.

Spudis, P.; Richards, R.; Burns, J. O.

2013-12-01

98

Review of measurements of dust movements on the Moon during Apollo  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first review of 3 Apollo experiments, which made the only direct measurements of dust on the lunar surface: (i) minimalist matchbox-sized 270g Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) of Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15, produced 30 million Lunar Day measurements 21 July 1969–30 September, 1977; (ii) Thermal Degradation Samples (TDS) of Apollo 14, sprinkled with dust, photographed, taken

Brian J. O'Brien

2011-01-01

99

A mission to Mercury and a mission to the moons of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two Advanced Design Projects were completed this academic year at Penn State - a mission to the planet Mercury and a mission to the moons of Mars (Phobos and Deimos). At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into six groups and given their choice of missions. Once a mission was chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These designs were then evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into two separate mission scenarios. To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form two mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission team so that communication and exchange of information would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Lewis Research Center Advanced Projects Office. Robotic planetary missions throughout the solar system can be considered valuable precursors to human visits and test beds for innovative technology. For example, by studying the composition of the Martian moons, scientists may be able to determine if their resources may be used or synthesized for consumption during a first human visit.

1993-01-01

100

Protolife on the Moon--A Neglected Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fumaroles contain the ingredients for protolife on the earth and on the moon. Early Precambrian lunar fumaroles in shadow probably produced H_2O, HCHO, CO_2, CO, C_2N_2, HC_3N, NH3, COS, CH_4, HCN, S-bearing fluids and other compounds. Fumarolic water could have been more abundant in the early Precambrian on the moon based in part on fugacity data for the Apollo fire fountain beads. Formaldehyde formed "in the spark" on the moon in shadow would not be decomposed. Volcanism by flow charging and/or freezing by charge separation of some fumarolic fluids can readily provide the "spark". Only nanocurrents need be invoked. In shadow on the moon, most fumarolic fluids could be preserved as ices for up to billions of years at 40 Kelvin. Realistically, these ices would be discontinuously interlaminated or admixed with ejecta. Early formed amphiphilic compounds (lipids) probably formed double membraned vesicles. Miller-type reactions could possibly provide hydroxy amino acids, sugars, purines and pyrimidines. Cooling of ammonium cyanide compounds with formaldehyde in lunar shadow is presumed to have created hydrogen cyanide and adenine. Fischer-Tropsch reactions in fumaroles could result in aromatic and basic amino acids and on clay produce ribose. Ribose and adenine react to form adenosine which in turn could combine with soluble polyphosphates found in fumaroles to yield adenosine triphosphate. RNA evolving through intermediate compounds can polymerize even in an ice matrix (Monnard, 2002) as would be expected in lunar shadow. In the laboratory, RNA attached to montmorillonite template particles can be encapsulated within enlarged lipid vesicles or protocells (Hanczyc et al, 2003). Clay associated with RNA enhances the enzymatic activity of RNA (Marco, 1999). On earth, the evolution of the Archaea was dependent on tungsto-enzymes; fumaroles on earth are enriched in tungsten. Fumaroles within a distance of meters, exhibit a wide range of temperatures, pH, Eh, periods of desiccation, condensing agents, clay types, and hydrolytic reactivity. In addition, thermodynamically viable reactions involving hydrogen sulfide and troilite can produce biofilms. If methyl thiols are involved, resulting products include the prebiotic agents of formic and acetic acids. All of these parameters would be enhanced by lunar conditions of (1) lower lunar gravity and (2) surface vacuum. Lower lunar gravity would result in a deeper nucleation of bubbles in a fumarolic system with a slower bubble rise rate enhancing probabilities of reactivities of metabolites. Surface vacuum would result in lower boiling points of prebiotic agents such as formic acid producing temperatures more favorable for the formation of protolife. Assuming volcanism, targets for the search for protolife are discussed.

Green, J.

101

A Simulated Geochemical Rover Mission to the Taurus-Littrow Valley of the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We test the effectiveness of using an alpha backscatter, alpha-proton, X ray spectrometer on a remotely operated rover to analyze soils and provide geologically useful information about the Moon during a simulated mission to a hypothetical site resembling the Apollo 17 landing site. On the mission, 100 soil samples are "analyzed" for major elements at moderate analytical precision (e.g., typical relative sample standard deviation from counting statistics: Si[11%], Al[18%], Fe[6%], Mg[20%], Ca[5%]). Simulated compositions of soils are generated by combining compositions of components representing the major lithologies occurring at the site in known proportions. Simulated analyses are generated by degrading the simulated compositions according to the expected analytical precision of the analyzer. Compositions obtained from the simulated analyses are modeled by least squares mass balance as mixtures of the components, and the relative proportions of those components as predicted by the model are compared with the actual proportions used to generate the simulated composition. Boundary conditions of the modeling exercise are that all important lithologic components of the regolith are known and are represented by model components, and that the compositions of these components are well known. The effect of having the capability of determining one incompatible element at moderate precision (25%) is compared with the effect of the lack of this capability. We discuss likely limitations and ambiguities that would be encountered, but conclude that much of our knowledge about the Apollo 17 site (based on the return samples) regarding the distribution and relative abundances of lithologies in the regolith could be obtained. This success requires, however, that at least one incompatible element be determined.

Korotev, Randy L.; Haskin, Larry A.; Jolliff, Bradley L.

1995-01-01

102

Moon Search Algorithms for NASA's Dawn Mission to Asteroid Vesta  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A moon or natural satellite is a celestial body that orbits a planetary body such as a planet, dwarf planet, or an asteroid. Scientists seek understanding the origin and evolution of our solar system by studying moons of these bodies. Additionally, searches for satellites of planetary bodies can be important to protect the safety of a spacecraft as it approaches or orbits a planetary body. If a satellite of a celestial body is found, the mass of that body can also be calculated once its orbit is determined. Ensuring the Dawn spacecraft's safety on its mission to the asteroid Vesta primarily motivated the work of Dawn's Satellite Working Group (SWG) in summer of 2011. Dawn mission scientists and engineers utilized various computational tools and techniques for Vesta's satellite search. The objectives of this paper are to 1) introduce the natural satellite search problem, 2) present the computational challenges, approaches, and tools used when addressing this problem, and 3) describe applications of various image processing and computational algorithms for performing satellite searches to the electronic imaging and computer science community. Furthermore, we hope that this communication would enable Dawn mission scientists to improve their satellite search algorithms and tools and be better prepared for performing the same investigation in 2015, when the spacecraft is scheduled to approach and orbit the dwarf planet Ceres.

Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Mcfadden, Lucy A.; Skillman, David R.; McLean, Brian; Mutchler, Max; Carsenty, Uri; Palmer, Eric E.

2012-01-01

103

Apollo 15 mission report: Apollo 15 guidance, navigation, and control system performance analysis report (supplement 1)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report contains the results of additional studies which were conducted to confirm the conclusions of the MSC Mission Report and contains analyses which were not completed in time to meet the mission report deadline. The LM IMU data were examined during the lunar descent and ascent phases. Most of the PGNCS descent absolute velocity error was caused by platform misalignments. PGNCS radial velocity divergence from AGS during the early part of descent was partially caused by PGNCS gravity computation differences from AGS. The remainder of the differences between PGNCS and AGS velocity were easily attributable to attitude reference alignment differences and tolerable instrument errors. For ascent the PGNCS radial velocity error at insertion was examined. The total error of 10.8 ft/sec was well within mission constraints but larger than expected. Of the total error, 2.30 ft/sec was PIPA bias error, which was suspected to exist pre-lunar liftoff. The remaining 8.5 ft/sec is most probably satisified with a large pre-liftoff planform misalignment.

1972-01-01

104

Lost moon, saved lives: using the movie Apollo 13 as a video primer in behavioral skills for simulation trainees and instructors.  

PubMed

Behavioral skills such as effective communication, teamwork, and leadership are critically important to successful outcomes in patient care, especially in resuscitation situations where correct decisions must be made rapidly. However, historically, these important skills have rarely been specifically addressed in learning programs directed at healthcare professionals. Not only have most healthcare professionals had little or no formal education and training in applying behavioral skills to their patient care activities but also many of those serving as instructors and content experts for training programs have few resources available that clearly illustrate what these skills are and how they may be used in the context of real clinical situations. This represents a serious shortcoming in the education and training of healthcare professionals and stands in distinct contrast to other industries.Aerospace, similar to other high-consequence industries, has a long history of the use of simulation to improve human performance and reduce risk: astronauts and the engineers in Mission Control spend hundreds of hours in simulated flight in preparation for every mission. The value of time spent in the simulator was clearly illustrated during the flight of Apollo 13, the third mission to land men on the moon. The Apollo 13 crew had to overcome a number of life-threatening technical and medical problems, and it was their simulation-based training that allowed them to display the teamwork, ingenuity, and determination needed to return to earth safely.The movie Apollo 13 depicts in a highly realistic manner the events that occurred during the flight, including the actions of the crew in space and those in Mission Control in Houston. Three scenes from this movie are described in this article; each serves as a useful example for healthcare professionals of the importance of simulation-based learning and the application of behavioral skills to successful resolution of crises. This article is meant to serve as a guide as to how this movie and other similar media may be used for facilitated group or independent learning, providing appropriate context and clear examples of key points to be discussed. PMID:21330813

Halamek, Louis P

2010-10-01

105

Impact landing ends SMART-1 mission to the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SMART-1 scientists, engineers and space operations experts witnessed the final moments of the spacecraft’s life in the night between Saturday 2 and Sunday 3 September at ESA’s European Space Operations Centre (ESOC), in Darmstadt, Germany. The confirmation of the impact reached ESOC at 07:42:22 CEST (05:42:22 UT) when ESA’s New Norcia ground station in Australia suddenly lost radio contact with the spacecraft. SMART-1 ended its journey in the Lake of Excellence, in the point situated at 34.4º South latitude and 46.2º West longitude. The SMART-1 impact took place on the near side of the Moon, in a dark area just near the terminator (the line separating the day side from the night side), at a “grazing” angle of about one degree and a speed of about 2 kilometres per second. The impact time and location was planned to favour observations of the impact event from telescopes on Earth, and was achieved by a series of orbit manoeuvres and corrections performed during the course of summer 2006, the last of which was on 1 September. Professional and amateur ground observers all around the world - from South Africa to the Canary Islands, South America, the continental United States, Hawaii, and many other locations - were watching before and during the small SMART-1 impact, hoping to spot the faint impact flash and to obtain information about the impact dynamics and about the lunar surface excavated by the spacecraft. The quality of the data and images gathered from the ground observatories - a tribute to the end of the SMART-1 mission and a possible additional contribution to lunar science - will be assessed in the days to come. For the last 16 months and until its final orbits, SMART-1 has been studying the Moon, gathering data about the morphology and mineralogical composition of the surface in visible, infrared and X-ray light. “The legacy left by the huge wealth of SMART-1 data, to be analysed in the months and years to come, is a precious contribution to lunar science at a time when the exploration of the Moon is once again getting the world’s interest” said Bernard Foing, ESA SMART-1 Project Scientist. “The measurements by SMART-1 call into question the theories concerning the Moon’s violent origin and evolution,” he added. The Moon may have formed from the impact of a Mars-size asteroid with the Earth 4500 million years ago. “SMART-1 has mapped large and small impact craters, studied the volcanic and tectonic processes that shaped the Moon, unveiled the mysterious poles, and investigated sites for future exploration,” Foing concluded. “ESA’s decision to extend the SMART-1 scientific mission by a further year ( it was initially planned to last only six months around the Moon) allowed the instrument scientists to extensively use a number of innovative observing modes at the Moon,” added Gerhard Schwehm, ESA’s SMART-1 Mission Manager. In addition to plain nadir observations (looking down on the ‘vertical’ line for lunar surveys), they included targeted observations, moon-spot pointing and ‘push-broom’ observations (a technique SMART-1 used to obtain colour images). “This was tough work for the mission planners, but the lunar data archive we are now building is truly impressive.” “SMART-1 has been an enormous success also from a technological point of view,” said Giuseppe Racca, ESA SMART-1 Project Manager. The major goal of the mission was to test an ion engine (solar electric propulsion) in space for the first time for interplanetary travel, and capture a spacecraft into orbit around another celestial body, in combination with gravity assist manoeuvres. SMART-1 also tested future deep-space communication techniques for spacecraft, techniques to achieve autonomous spacecraft navigation, and miniaturised scientific instruments, used for the first time around the Moon. “It is a great satisfaction to see how well the mission achieved its technological objectives, and did great lunar science at the same time,” Racca concluded. “Operating SMART-1 has been an extremely comple

2006-09-01

106

Chandrayaan-2: India's First Soft-landing Mission to Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first Indian planetary mission to moon, Chandrayaan-1, launched on 22nd October, 2008 with a suite of Indian and International payloads on board, collected very significant data over its mission duration of close to one year. Important new findings from this mission include, discovery of hydroxyl and water molecule in sunlit lunar surface region around the poles, exposure of large anorthositic blocks confirming the global lunar magma hypothesis, signature of sub surface ice layers in permanently shadowed regions near the lunar north pole, evidence for a new refractory rock type, mapping of reflected lunar neutral atoms and identification of mini-magnetosphere, possible signature of water molecule in lunar exosphere, preserved lava tube that may provide site for future human habitation and radiation dose en-route and around the moon. Chandrayaan-2:, The success of Chandrayaan-1 orbiter mission provided impetus to implement the second approved Indian mission to moon, Chandrayaan-2, with an Orbiter-Lander-Rover configuration. The enhanced capabilities will enable addressing some of the questions raised by the results obtained from the Chandrayaan-1 and other recent lunar missions and also to enhance our understanding of origin and evolution of the moon. The orbiter that will carry payloads to further probe the morphological, mineralogical and chemical properties of the lunar surface material through remote sensing observations in X-ray, visible, infra-red and microwave regions. The Lander-Rover system will enable in-depth studies of a specific lunar location and probe various physical properties of the moon. The Chandrayaan-2 mission will be collaboration between Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and the Federal Space Agency of Russia. ISRO will be responsible for the Launch Vehicle, the Orbiter and the Rover while the Lander will be provided by Russia. Initial work to realize the different elements of the mission is currently in progress in both countries. Mission Elements:, On board segment of Chandrayaan-2 mission consists of a lunar Orbiter and a lunar Lander-Rover. The orbiter for Chandrayaan-2 mission is similar to that of Chandrayaan-1 from structural and propulsion aspects. Based on a study of various mission management and trajectory options, such as, separation of the Lander-Rover module in Earth Parking Orbit (EPO) or in lunar transfer trajectory (LTT) or in lunar polar orbit (LPO), the option of separating of this module at LTT, after required midcourse corrections, was selected as this offers an optimum mass and overall mission management advantage. The orbiter propulsion system will be used to transfer Orbiter-Lander-Rover composite from EPO to LTT. On reaching LTT, the Lander-Rover module will be separated from the orbiter module. The Lander-Rover and Orbiter modules are configured with individual propulsion and housekeeping systems. The indigenously developed Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle GSLV (Mk-II) will be used for this mission. The most critical aspect of its feasibility was an accurate evaluation of the scope for taking a 3200kg lift off mass into EPO. A Lander-Rover mass of 1270kg (including the propellant for soft landing) will provide sufficient margin for such a lift off within the capability of flight proven GSLV (Mk-II) for the EPO. Mission Scenario: ,GSLV (Mk-II) will launch the Lunar Orbiter coupled to the Lunar Lander-Rover into EPO (170 x 16980 km) following which the Orbiter will boost the orbit from EPO to LTT where the two modules will be separated. Both of them will make their independent journey towards moon and reach lunar polar orbit independently. The orbiter module will be initially placed in a circular polar orbit (200km) and the Lander-Rover module descends towards the lunar surface. After landing, a motorized rover with robotic arm and scientific instruments would be released on to the lunar surface. Although the exact landing location is yet to be finalized, a high latitude location is preferred from scientific interest. Multiple communication links involving

Mylswamy, Annadurai; Krishnan, A.; Alex, T. K.; Rama Murali, G. K.

2012-07-01

107

Apollo 15 mission report. Supplement 2: Service propulsion system final flight evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The command and service module 112 service propulsion system performance for the Apollo 15 mission was evaluated and found to be satisfactory. The following items were considered: (1) the steady-state performance as determined from analysis of the third and eight burns; (2) techniques, problems, and assumptions; (3) flight analysis results as compared to the preflight predicted performance; (4) the propellant utilization and gaging system operation; (5) the pressurization system performance; (6) transient data; and (7) revision of estimated propellant consumption.

Smith, R. J.; Wood, S. C.

1972-01-01

108

Saturn 5 Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report-AS-512 Apollo 17 Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of the launch vehicle and lunar roving vehicle performance for the Apollo 17 flight is presented. The objective of the evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight problems are identified, their causes are determined, and recommendations are made for corrective action. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. The significant events for all phases of the flight are analyzed.

1973-01-01

109

Saturn 5 launch vehicle flight evaluation report-AS-509 Apollo 14 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A postflight analysis of the Apollo 14 flight is presented. The basic objective of the flight evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight failures are identified, their causes are determined and corrective actions are recommended. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. The significant events for all phases of the flight are analyzed.

1971-01-01

110

Apollo 15 mission report. Supplement 3: Ascent propulsion system final flight evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results are presented of the postflight analysis of the ascent propulsion system (APS) performance during the Apollo 15 Mission. The information presented includes: (1) calculated performance values for the APS lunar liftoff burn; (2) disucssion of analysis techniques, problems and assumptions; (3) comparison of postflight analysis and preflight prediction; (4) reaction control system (RCS) duty cycle included in the APS performance analysis; (5) transient performance analysis; and (6) the APS propellant consumption values.

Griffin, W. G.

1972-01-01

111

APOLLO 8: Birth of a Machine (Pt 2/2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part 2 of the clip 'Birth of a machine'. This clip reveals the origins of the major components of the mission. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 8:'Debrief': part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) APOLLO 8: First manned Saturn V flight with Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr., and william A. Anders. First manned lunar orbit mission; provided a close-up look at the moon during 10 lunar orbits. Mission Duration 147hrs 0m 42s

1974-01-01

112

Apollo 17: At Taurus Littrow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summation, with color illustrations, is presented on the Apollo 17 mission. The height, weight, and thrust specifications are given on the launch vehicle. Presentations are given on: the night launch; earth to moon ascent; separation and descent; EVA, the sixth lunar surface expedition; ascent from Taurus-Littrow; the America to Challenger rendezvous; return, reentry, and recovery; the scientific results of the mission; background information on the astronauts; and the future projects.

Anderton, D. A.

1973-01-01

113

Apollo 8's Christmas Eve 1968 Message - Duration: 2:02.  

NASA Video Gallery

Apollo 8, the first manned mission to the moon, entered lunar orbit on Christmas Eve, Dec. 24, 1968. That evening, the astronauts--Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot Jim Lovell, and Lunar...

114

The Mission Transcript Collection: U.S. Human Spaceflight Missions from Mercury Redstone 3 to Apollo 17  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Aboard every U.S. piloted spacecraft, from Mercury through Apollo, NASA installed tape recorders that captured nearly every word spoken by the astronauts during their history-making flights into space. For the first time ever, NASA has digitally scanned all of the transcripts made from both the onboard tapes and those tape recordings made on the ground from the air-to-ground transmissions and placed them on this two CD-ROM set. Gathered in this special collection are 80 transcripts totaling nearly 45,000 pages of text that cover every US human spaceflight from the first human Mercury mission through the last lunar landing flight of Apollo 17. Users of this CD will note that the quantity and type of transcripts made for each mission vary. For example, the Mercury flights each had one transcript whereas the Gemini missions produced several. Starting with the Gemini flights, NASA produced a Public Affairs Office (PAO) commentary version, as well as at least one "technical" air-to-ground transcript version, per mission. Most of the Apollo missions produced four transcripts per flight. These included the onboard voice data recorder transcripts made from the Data Storage Equipment (DSE) on the Command Module (CM), and the Data Storage Electronics Assembly (DSEA) onboard the Lunar Module (LM), in addition to the PAO commentary and air-to-ground technical transcripts. The CD set includes an index listing each transcript file by name. Some of the transcripts include a detailed explanation of their contents and how they were made. Also included in this collection is a listing of all the original air-to-ground audiotapes housed in NASA's archives from which many of these transcripts were made. We hope you find this collection of transcripts interesting and useful.

2000-01-01

115

Overview of a Preliminary Destination Mission Concept for a Human Orbital Mission to the Martial Moons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has been developing a preliminary Destination Mission Concept (DMC) to assess how a human orbital mission to one or both of the Martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, might be conducted as a follow-on to a human mission to a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) and as a possible preliminary step prior to a human landing on Mars. The HAT Mars-Phobos-Deimos (MPD) mission also permits the teleoperation of robotic systems by the crew while in the Mars system. The DMC development activity provides an initial effort to identify the science and exploration objectives and investigate the capabilities and operations concepts required for a human orbital mission to the Mars system. In addition, the MPD Team identified potential synergistic opportunities via prior exploration of other destinations currently under consideration.

Mazanek, D. D.; Abell, P. A.; Antol, J.; Barbee, B. W.; Beaty, D. W.; Bass, D. S.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Coan, D. A.; Colaprete, A.; Daugherty, K. J.; Drake, B. G.; Earle, K. D.; Graham, L. D.; Hembree, R. M.; Hoffman, S. J.; Jefferies, S. A.; Lupisella, M. L.; Reeves, David M.

2012-01-01

116

Report of the Terrestrial Bodies Science Working Group. Volume 4: The moon. [lunar polar orbiter mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rationale for furture exploration of the moon is given. Topics discussed include the objectives of the lunar polar orbiter mission, the mission profile, and general characteristics of the spacraft to be used.

Haskin, L. A.; Duke, M. B.; Hubbard, N.; Johnson, T. V.; Malin, M. C.; Minear, J.

1977-01-01

117

Constraints on the formation age and evolution of the Moon from 142Nd-143Nd systematics of Apollo 12 basalts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon likely formed as a result of a giant impact between proto-Earth and another large body. The timing of this event and the subsequent lunar differentiation timescales are actively debated. New high-precision Nd isotope data of Apollo mare basalts are used to evaluate the Low-Ti, High-Ti and KREEP mantle source reservoirs within the context of lunar formation and evolution. The resulting models are assessed using both reported 146Sm half-lives (68 and 103 Myr). The linear relationship defined by 142Nd-143Nd systematics does not represent multi-component mixing and is interpreted as an isochron recording a mantle closure age for the Sm-Nd system in the Moon. Using a chondritic source model with present day ?142Nd of -7.3, the mare basalt mantle source reservoirs closed at 4.45-09+10 Ga (t Sm146=68 Myr) or 4.39-14+16 Ga (t Sm146=103 Myr). In a superchondritic, 2-stage evolution model with present day ?Nd142 of 0, mantle source closure ages are constrained to 4.41-08+10 (t Sm146=68 Myr) or 4.34-14+15 Ga (t Sm146=103 Myr). The lunar mantle source reservoir closure ages <4.5 Ga may be reconciled by 3 potential scenarios. First, the Moon formed later than currently favored models indicate, such that the lunar mantle closure age is near or at the time of lunar formation. Second, the Moon formed ca. 4.55 to 4.47 Ga and small amounts of residual melts were sustained within a crystallizing lunar magma ocean (LMO) for up to ca. 200 Myr from tidal heating or asymmetric LMO evolution. Third, the LMO crystallized rapidly after early Moon formation. Thus the Sm-Nd mantle closure age represents a later resetting of isotope systematics. This may have resulted from a global wide remelting event. While current Earth-Moon formation constraints cannot exclusively advocate or dismiss any of these models, the fact that U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes for Jack Hills zircons from Australia are best explained by an Earth that re-equilibrated at 4.4 Ga or earlier following the Moon-forming impact, does not favor a later forming Moon. If magma oceans crystallize in a few million years as currently advocated, then a global resetting, possibly by a large impact at 4.40 to 4.34 Ga, such as that which formed the South Pole Aitken Basin, best explains the late mantle closure age for the coupled Sm-Nd isotope systematics presented here.

McLeod, Claire L.; Brandon, Alan D.; Armytage, Rosalind M. G.

2014-06-01

118

JUICE: a European mission to Jupiter and its icy moons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) is the first L-class mission selected for the ESA's Cosmic Vision programme 2015-2025 which has just entered the definition phase. JUICE will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system in all their inter-relations and complexity with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. Investigations of Europa and Callisto will complete a comparative picture of the Galilean moons. By performing detailed investigations of Jupiter's system, JUICE will address in depth two key questions of the ESA's Cosmic Vision programme: (1) What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? and (2) How does the Solar System work? The overarching theme for JUICE has been formulated as: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a comprehensive multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants including exoplanets. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions and their response to the solar wind will be elucidated. Within Jupiter's satellite system, JUICE will study the moons' interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE will be a three-axis stabilised spacecraft with dry mass of about 1800 kg at launch, chemical propulsion system and 60-75 m2 solar arrays. The high-gain antenna of about 3 m in diameter will provide a downlink capability of not less than 1.4 Gb/day. Special measures will be used to protect the spacecraft and payload from the harsh radiation environment at Jupiter. The spacecraft will carry a highly capable state-of-the-art scientific payload consisting of remote sensing instruments, geophysical sounders and plasma experiments. The foreseen launch of the JUICE spacecraft is June 2022. After the Jupiter orbit insertion in January 2030 the spacecraft will perform a 2.5 year tour in the Jovian system focusing on observations of the atmosphere and magnetosphere of the giant. During the tour, gravity assists at Callisto will shape the trajectory to perform two targeted Europa flybys and raise the orbit inclination up to 30 degrees. 13 Callisto flybys will enable unique remote observations of the moon and in situ measurements in its vicinity. The mission will culminate in a dedicated 8 months orbital tour around Ganymede. The tour will include phases with high (5000 km), medium (500 km), and low (200 km) circular orbits that will have different observation conditions optimized for particular science investigations. The presentation will give an overview of the JUICE mission, its science scenario and observation strategy, and the newly selected payload.

Titov, D.; Erd, C.; Duvet, L.; Wielders, A.; Torralba-Elipe, I.; Altobelli, N.

2013-09-01

119

REMARKS BY NASA ADMINISTRATOR CHARLES BOLDEN Gala Dinner for the `Race to the Moon: a Celebration with Space Legends'  

E-print Network

did in Mercury and Gemini, Apollo was possible. And Apollo was among the greatest achievements in stepping stone fashion, as you did with Mercury, Gemini and Apollo. Through these missions, weREMARKS BY NASA ADMINISTRATOR CHARLES BOLDEN Gala Dinner for the `Race to the Moon: a Celebration

Waliser, Duane E.

120

APOLLO 8: Birth of a Machine (pt 1/2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This clip shows the launch of APOLLO 8: The 'Birth of a Machine' and begins to reveal the origin of its components. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 8:'Debrief'': part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) First manned Saturn V flight with Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr.,and william A. Anders. First manned lunar orbit mission; provided a close-up look at the moon during 10 lunar orbits. Mission Duration 147hrs. 0 min. 42s.

1974-01-01

121

Global Elemental Maps of the Moon Using Gamma Rays Measured by the Kaguya (SELENE) Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kaguya spacecraft was in a circular polar lunar orbit from 17 October 2007 until 10 June 2009 as part of JAXA's SELENE lunar exploration program. Among the 13 instruments, an advanced gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) studied the distributions of many elements. The gamma rays were from the decay of the naturally-radioactive elements K, Th, and U and from cosmic-ray interactions with H, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and other elements. They are emitted from the top few tens of centimeters of the lunar surface. The main detector of the GRS was high-purity germanium, which was surrounded by bismuth germanate and plastic scintillators to reduce backgrounds. Gamma-ray spectra were sent to the Earth every 17 seconds (1 degree of the lunar surface) with energies from 0-12 MeV. These spectra were adjusted to a standard gain and then summed over many lunar regions. Background spectra were also determined. Over 200 gamma rays have been observed, with most being backgrounds but many being from the lunar surface, an order more gamma rays than from any previous lunar GRS missions. Elemental results have been determined for K, Th, and U. Results for K and Th are consistent with those from the GRS on Apollo and Lunar Prospector. The first lunar global maps for U have been determined. These 3 elements show strong correlations among themselves, which implies that the Moon is homogeneous in these elements over the entire Moon. Their elemental ratios agree well with those measured in lunar samples and meteorites. Preliminary maps for Fe are consistent with earlier maps. Other elements, including O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, are being mapped, and their distributions vary over the lunar surface and appear consistent with previous lunar elemental results. This work was supported by JAXA, NASA, and CNRS, France.

Reedy, Robert C.; Hasebe, N.; Yamashita, N.; Karouji, Y.; Kobayashi, S.; Hareyama, M.; Hayatsu, K.; Okudaira, O.; Kobayashi, M.; d'Uston, C.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Diez, B.; Kim, K.

2009-09-01

122

NASA: Apollo 11 - 35 Years Later  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

At this website, NASA commemorates the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 11 crew's landing on the moon. Using Macromedia Flash Player, the site recreates the mission's journey from the launch on July 16, 1969 to its splashdown on July 24th. Users can view fantastic videos of Neil Armstrong's first step, a tribute to the mission, and NASA's Vision for Space Exploration. Visitors can find links to the mission's audio recordings, news articles, and additional photo and video galleries.

123

On the moon with Apollo 15: A guidebook to Hadley Rille and the Apennine Mountains  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is given in simple terms of the Apollo 15 lunar exploration and scientific equipment, to be used in conjunction with other material shown over commercial TV. The EVAs of the astronauts on the surface are divided into experiments and traverses. The landing site and experimental equipment are described, and life sketches are given of the crew.

Simmons, G.

1971-01-01

124

Regolith erosion and regolith mixing at the Apollo 15 site on the moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Regolith samples from the Apollo 15 landing site were used to trace soil mixing. Mixing model calculations were performed on the chemical compositions of soils from different stations. The model was constructed using modal abundance data on crystalline fragments and green glass spherules.

Basu, A.

1985-01-01

125

Saturn 5 launch vehicle flight evaluation report, AS-510, Apollo 15 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A postflight analysis of the Apollo 15 flight is presented. The performance of the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and lunar roving vehicle are discussed. The objective of the evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight problems are identified, their causes are determined, and recommendations are made for corrective actions. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. Significant events for all phases of the flight are tabulated.

1971-01-01

126

Postflight analysis of the EVCS-LM communications link for the Apollo 15 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the Apollo 15 mission were used to compare the actual performance of the EVCS to LM communications link with the preflight performance predictions. Based on the results of the analysis, the following conclusions were made: (1) The radio transmission loss data show good correlation with predictions during periods when the radio line of sight was obscured. (2) The technique of predicting shadow losses due to obstacles in the radio line of sight provides a good estimate of the actual shadowing loss. (3) When the transmitter was on an upslope, the radio transmission loss approached the free space loss values as the line of sight to the LM was regained.

Royston, C. L., Jr.; Eggers, D. S.

1972-01-01

127

Integrated Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Mission Operations Design Implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in support of human crews. The challenges of human Mars missions, including roundtrip communications time delays of 6 to 40 minutes, interplanetary transit times of many months, and the need to manage lifecycle costs, will require the evolution of a new mission operations paradigm far less dependent on real-time monitoring and response by an Earthbound operations team. Robotic systems and automation will augment human capability, increase human safety by providing means to perform many tasks without requiring immediate human presence, and enable the transfer of traditional mission control tasks from the ground to crews. Developing and validating the new paradigm and its associated infrastructure may place requirements on operations design for nearer-term lunar missions. The authors, representing both the human and robotic mission operations communities, assess human lunar and Mars mission challenges, and consider how human-robot operations may be integrated to enable efficient joint operations, with the eventual emergence of a unified exploration operations culture.

Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young; Korth, David; LeBlanc, Troy

2007-01-01

128

Integrated Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Mission Operations Design Implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in support of human crews. The challenges of human Mars missions, including roundtrip communications time delays of 6 to 40 minutes, interplanetary transit times of many months, and the need to manage lifecycle costs, will require the evolution of a new mission operations paradigm far less dependent on real-time monitoring and response by an Earthbound operations team. Robotic systems and automation will augment human capability, increase human safety by providing means to perform many tasks without requiring immediate human presence, and enable the transfer of traditional mission control tasks from the ground to crews. Developing and validating the new paradigm and its associated infrastructure may place requirements on operations design for nearer-term lunar missions. The authors, representing both the human and robotic mission operations communities, assess human lunar and Mars mission challenges, and consider how human-robot operations may be integrated to enable efficient joint operations, with the eventual emergence of a unified exploration operations culture.

Korth, David; LeBlanc, Troy; Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young

2006-01-01

129

Pressurized Rover for Moon and Mars Surface Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work described in this paper was done under ESA and Thales Alenia Space contract in the frame of the Analysis of Surface Architecture for European Space Exploration -Element Design. Future manned space missions to the Moon or to Mars will require a vehicle for transporting astronauts in a controlled and protected environment and in relative comfort during surface traverses of these planetary bodies. The vehicle that will be needed is a pressurized rover which serves the astronauts as a habitat, a refuge and a research laboratory/workshop. A number of basic issues influencing the design of such a rover, e.g. habitability, human-machine interfaces, safety, dust mitigation, interplanetary contamination and radiation protection, have been analysed in detail. The results of these analyses were subsequently used in an investigation of various designs for a rover suitable for surface exploration, from which a single concept was developed that satisfied scientific requirements as well as environmental requirements encoun-tered during surface exploration of the Moon and Mars. This concept was named in memory of the late Sir Arthur C. Clark RAMA (Rover for Advanced Mission Applications, Rover for Advanced Moon Applications, Rover for Advanced Mars Applications) The concept design of the pressurized rover meets the scientific and operational requirements defined during the course of the Surface Architecture Study. It is designed for surface missions with a crew of two or three lasting up to approximately 40 days, its source of energy, a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen fuel cell, allowing it to be driven and operated during the day as well as the night. Guidance, navigation and obstacle avoidance systems are foreseen as standard equipment to allow it to travel safely over rough terrain at all times of the day. The rover allows extra-vehicular activity and a remote manipulator is provided to recover surface samples, to deploy surface instruments and equipment and, in general, to assist the astronauts' field activities wherever and whenever needed. The vehicle has also been designed to have a very high degree of manoeuvrability. In addition, RAMA may be operated and replenished from a fixed site base or co-operate with other rovers of the same type to provide a mobile base. The rover in all cases will be refuelled using the products supplied by an in-situ resources facility. Transportation and surface exploration requirements defined the size and mass of the rover. RAMA has a launch mass of approximately 7000 kg, a dry mass of about 6200 kg and surface mission masses of between 7800 and 8300 kg. The rover can be launched by a future heavy lift launcher similar to the American ARES V concept. The factor most affecting the mass of the rover, other than the quantities of fuel cell reactants and crew consumables, is the amount of radiation shielding integrated in the design of the rover's pressurized shell. The factor most influencing the rover's external and internal configuration is the launcher's payload envelope and the need for the rover's centre-of-mass to be aligned with or close to the launcher's longitudinal axis. Technologies needed to support the design of the rover and its subsystems were investigated to identify the issues concerned with a possible implementation.

Imhof, Barbara; Ransom, Stephen; et al.

130

Moon-Mars Analogue Mission (EuroMoonMars 1 at the Mars Desert Research Station)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) is situated in an analogue habitat-based Martian environment, designed for missions to determine the knowledge and equipment necessary for successful future planetary exploration. For this purpose, a crew of six people worked and lived together in a closed-system environment. They performed habitability experiments within the dwelling and conducted Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) for two weeks (20 Feb to 6 Mar 2010) and were guided externally by mission support, called "Earth" within the simulation. Crew 91, an international, mixed-gender, and multidisciplinary group, has completed several studies during the first mission of the EuroMoonMars campaign. The crew is composed of an Italian designer and human factors specialist, a Dutch geologist, an American physicist, and three French aerospace engineering students from Ecole de l'Air, all with ages between 21 and 31. Each crewmember worked on personal research and fulfilled a unique role within the group: commander, executive officer, engineer, health and safety officer, scientist, and journalist. The expedition focused on human factors, performance, communication, health and safety pro-tocols, and EVA procedures. The engineers' projects aimed to improve rover manoeuvrability, far-field communication, and data exchanges between the base and the rover or astronaut. The crew physicist evaluated dust control methods inside and outside the habitat. The geologist tested planetary geological sampling procedures. The crew designer investigated performance and overall habitability in the context of the Mars Habitability Experiment from the Extreme-Design group. During the mission the crew also participated in the Food Study and in the Ethospace study, managed by external groups. The poster will present crew dynamics, scientific results and daily schedule from a Human Factors perspective. Main co-sponsors and collaborators: ILEWG, ESA ESTEC, NASA Ames, Ecole de l'Air, SKOR, Extreme-Design, Universit` di Torino, MMS TU-Berlin, Space Florida, DAAD, Uni-a versity of Utrecht, The Mars Society.

Lia Schlacht, Irene; Voute, Sara; Irwin, Stacy; Foing, Bernard H.; Stoker, Carol R.; Westenberg, Artemis

131

Regolith maturation on the earth and the moon with an example from Apollo 15  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Petrographic data on twelve Apollo 15 surface samples and on twelve samples from the double drive tube 15010/011 are presented in the form of triangular AML (agglutinate-monomineralic fragments-lithic fragments) plots. The triangular AML plots for different grain sizes show smoothly varying contour lines only for the solids derived mainly from mare basalts. These contour lines are interpreted as lines of isomaturity. The AML plots with isomature contours are somewhat similar to QFR (quartz-feldspar-rock fragments) triangular plots used for terrestrial clastic sediments. Both kinds of plots are sensitive to maturity and both may be used to predict evolution paths. Soils from predominantly highland areas and from other mixed terrains at Apollo 15 sites do not make smooth contours on AML diagrams. By analogy with QFR diagrams, the lack of smooth contours may be due to mixed source rock families, or to recent mixing, or both.

Basu, A.; Griffiths, S. A.; Mckay, D. S.; Nace, G.

1982-01-01

132

Integrating Geophysics with Remotely Sensed Data and the Apollo Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our understanding of the gravity and topography field of the Moon has improved dramatically with data collected from the recent Clementine mission. Near-global spectroscopic observations of the surface from this mission have also given us a vast dataset that is only beginning to be fully explored. Additionally, even though the expansive Apollo sample collection has been analyzed for more than

Mark A. Wieczorek; R. J. Phillips

1998-01-01

133

Apollo 11 Lunar Message For Mankind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Millions of people on Earth watched via television as a message for all mankind was delivered to the Mare Tranquilitatis (Sea of Tranquility) region of the Moon during the historic Apollo 11 mission, where it still remains today. A technician holds the commemorative plaque that was later attached to the leg of the Lunar Module (LM), Eagle, engraved with the following words: 'Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon July, 1969 A.D. We came in peace for all of mankind.' It bears the signatures of the Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot along with the signature of the U.S. President Richard M. Nixon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

134

Apollo 11 Lunar Message For Mankind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Millions of people on Earth watched via television as a message for all mankind was delivered to the Mare Tranquilitatis (Sea of Tranquility) region of the Moon during the historic Apollo 11 mission, where it still remains today. This commemorative plaque, attached to the leg of the Lunar Module (LM), Eagle, is engraved with the following words: 'Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon July, 1969 A.D. We came in peace for all of mankind.' It bears the signatures of the Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot along with the signature of the U.S. President Richard M. Nixon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1959-01-01

135

PDS Lunar Data Node Restoration of Apollo In-Situ Surface Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo missions between 1969 and 1972 deployed scientific instruments on the Moon's surface which made in-situ measurements of the lunar environment. Apollo II had the short-term Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP) and Apollos 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 each set up an Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). Each ALSEP package contained a different suite of instruments which took measurements and radioed the results back to Earth over periods from 5 to 7 years until they were turned off on 30 September 1977. To this day the ALSEP data remain the only long-term in-situ information on the Moon's surface environment. The Lunar Data Node (LDN) has been formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node to put relevant, scientifically important Apollo data into accessible digital form for use by researchers and mission planners. We will report on progress made since last year and plans for future data restorations.

Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Guinness, Edward A.; Lowman, Paul D.; Taylor, Patrick T.

2010-01-01

136

Mini-SAR: An Imaging Radar for the Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The debate on the presence of ice at the poles of the Moon continues. We will fly a small imaging radar on the Indian Chandrayaan mission to the Moon, to be launched in September, 2007. Mini-SAR will map the scattering properties of the lunar poles, determining the presence and extent of polar ice.

Spudis, Paul D.; Bussey, Ben; Lichtenberg, Chris; Marinelli, Bill; Nozette, Stewart

2005-01-01

137

Mineralogy of Apollo 15415 ?genesis rock' - Source of anorthosite on moon.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results of electron microprobe analyses of plagioclase points and pyroxene grains of Apollo 15415 ?genesis rock.' It is pointed out that no evidence of cumulate textures has yet appeared to support suggestions of extensive crystal-liquid differentiation producing an anorthositic crust or a lunar crust composed of a mixture of plagioclase-rich rock, basalts and minor ultramafic material, which require that plagioclase crystals float in a basaltic liquid. The plagioclase in 15415 does not show cumulate texture either. It is noted that it remains to be seen whether rock 15415 is correctly named the ?genesis rock.'

Steele, I. M.; Smith, J. V.

1971-01-01

138

Moon Lunar Orbiter - Lunar Orbiter III  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The hidden or dark side of the Moon was taken by Lunar Orbiter III During its mission to photograph potential lunar-landing sites for Apollo missions. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 94), by James Schultz.

1967-01-01

139

The Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Stage (NTPS): A Key Space Asset for Human Exploration and Commercial Missions to the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) has frequently been discussed as a key space asset that can bridge the gap between a sustained human presence on the Moon and the eventual human exploration of Mars. Recently, a human mission to a near Earth asteroid (NEA) has also been included as a "deep space precursor" to an orbital mission of Mars before a landing is attempted. In his "post-Apollo" Integrated Space Program Plan (1970 to 1990), Wernher von Braun, proposed a reusable Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Stage (NTPS) to deliver cargo and crew to the Moon to establish a lunar base initially before sending human missions to Mars. The NTR was selected because it was a proven technology capable of generating both high thrust and high specific impulse (Isp approx. 900 s)-twice that of today's best chemical rockets. During the Rover and NERVA programs, 20 rocket reactors were designed, built and successfully ground tested. These tests demonstrated the (1) thrust levels; (2) high fuel temperatures; (3) sustained operation; (4) accumulated lifetime; and (5) restart capability needed for an affordable in-space transportation system. In NASA's Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the "Copernicus" crewed NTR Mars transfer vehicle used three 25 klbf "Pewee" engines-the smallest and highest performing engine tested in the Rover program. Smaller lunar transfer vehicles-consisting of a NTPS with three approx. 16.7 klbf "SNRE-class" engines, an in-line propellant tank, plus the payload-can be delivered to LEO using a 70 t to LEO upgraded SLS, and can support reusable cargo delivery and crewed lunar landing missions. The NTPS can play an important role in returning humans to the Moon to stay by providing an affordable in-space transportation system that can allow initial lunar outposts to evolve into settlements capable of supporting commercial activities. Over the next decade collaborative efforts between NASA and private industry could open up new exploration and commercial opportunities for both organizations. With efficient NTP, commercial habitation and crew delivery systems, a "mobile cislunar research station" can transport crews to small NEAs delivered to the E-ML2 point. Also possible are week-long "lunar tourism" missions that can carry passengers into lunar orbit for sightseeing (and plenty of picture taking), then return them to Earth orbit where they would re-enter and land using a small reusable lifting body based on NASA's HL-20 design. Mission descriptions, key vehicle features and operational characteristics are described and presented.

Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Burke, Laura M.

2014-01-01

140

Some things we can infer about the Moon from the Composition of the Apollo 16 Regolith  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Characteristics of the regolith of Cayley plains as sampled at the Apollo 16 lunar landing site are reviewed and new compositional data are presented for samples of less than 1 mm fines ('soils') and 1-2 mm regolith particles. As a means of determining which of the many primary (igneous) and secondary (crystalline breccias) lithologic components that have been identified in the soil are volumetrically important and providing an estimate of their relative abundances, more than 3 x 10(exp 6) combinations of components representing nearly every lithology that has been observed in the Apollo 16 regolith were systematically tested to determine which combinations best account for the composition of the soils. Conclusions drawn from the modeling include the following. At the site, mature soil from the Cayley plains consists of 64.5% +/- 2.7% components representing 'prebasin' materials: anorthosites, feldspathic breccias, and a small amount (2.6% +/- 1.5% of total soil) of nonmare, mafic plutonic rocks, mostly gabbronorites. On average, these components are highly feldspathic, with average concentrations of 3l-32% Al2O3 and 2-3% FeO and a molar Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratio of O.68. The remaining 36% of the regolith is syn- and postbasin material: 28.8% +/- 2.4% mafic impact-melt breccias (MIMBS, i.e., 'LKFM' and 'VHA basalts') created at the time of basin formation, 6.0% +/- 1.4% mare-derived material (impact and volcanic glass, crystalline basalt) with an average TiO2 concentration of 2.4%, and 1% postbasin meteoritic material. The MIMBs are the principal (80-90%) carrier of incompatible trace elements (rare earths, Th, etc.) and the carrier of about one-half of the siderophile elements and elements associated with mafic mineral phases (Fe, Mg, Mn, Cr, Sc). Most (71 %) of the Fe in the present regolith derives from syn- and postbasin sources (MIMBS, mare-derived material, and meteorites). Thus, although the bulk composition of the Apollo 16 regolith is nominally that of noritic anorthosite, the noritic part (the MIMBs) and anorthositic parts (the prebasin components) are largely unrelated.

Korotev, Randy L.

1997-01-01

141

Stationkeeping of the First Earth-Moon Libration Orbiters: The ARTEMIS Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Libration point orbits near collinear locations are inherently unstable and must be controlled. For Acceleration Reconnection and Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) Earth-Moon Lissajous orbit operations, stationkeeping is challenging because of short time scales, large orbital eccentricity of the secondary, and solar gravitational and radiation pressure perturbations. ARTEMIS is the first NASA mission continuously controlled at both Earth-Moon L1 and L2 locations and uses a balance of optimization, spacecraft implementation and constraints, and multi-body dynamics. Stationkeeping results are compared to pre-mission research including mode directions.

Folta, David; Woodard, Mark; Cosgrove, D.

2011-01-01

142

Mission requirements CSM-111/DM-2 Apollo/Soyuz test project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test systems are developed for rendezvous and docking of manned spacecraft and stations that are suitable for use as a standard international system. This includes the rendezvous and docking of Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft, and crew transfer. The conduct of the mission will include: (1) testing of compatible rendezvous systems in orbit; (2) testing of universal docking assemblies; (3) verifying the techniques for transfer of cosmonauts and astronauts; (4) performing certain activities by U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. crews in joint flight; and (5) gaining of experience in conducting joint flights by U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. spacecraft, including, in case of necessity, rendering aid in emergency situations.

Blackmer, S. M.

1974-01-01

143

Measurements of heavy solar wind and higher energy solar particles during the Apollo 17 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lunar surface cosmic ray experiment, consisting of sets of mica, glass, plastic, and metal foil detectors, was successfully deployed on the Apollo 17 mission. One set of detectors was exposed directly to sunlight and another set was placed in shade. Preliminary scanning of the mica detectors shows the expected registration of heavy solar wind ions in the sample exposed directly to the sun. The initial results indicate a depletion of very-heavy solar wind ions. The effect is probably not real but is caused by scanning inefficiencies. Despite the lack of any pronounced solar activity, energetic heavy particles with energies extending to 1 MeV/nucleon were observed. Equal track densities of approximately 6000 tracks/cm sq 0.5 microns in length were measured in mica samples exposed in both sunlight and shade.

Walker, R. M.; Zinner, E.; Maurette, M.

1973-01-01

144

Apollo 1 Fire  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Officially designated Apollo/Saturn 204, but more commonly known as Apollo 1, this close-up view of the interior of the Command Module shows the effects of the intense heat of the flash fire which killed the prime crew during a routine training exercise. While strapped into their seats inside the Command Module atop the giant Saturn V Moon rocket, a faulty electrical switch created a spark which ignited the pure oxygen environment. The speed and intensity of the fire quickly exhausted the oxygen supply inside the crew cabin. Unable to deploy the hatch due to its cumbersome design and lack of breathable oxygen, the crew lost consciousness and perished. They were: astronauts Virgil I. 'Gus' Grissom, (the second American to fly into space) Edward H. White II, (the first American to 'walk' in space) and Roger B. Chaffee, (a 'rookie' on his first space mission).

1968-01-01

145

NASA honors Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise Jr.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Administrator Charles Bolden (left) presents the Ambassador of Exploration Award (an encased moon rock) to Biloxi native and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise Jr. (right) for his contributions to space exploration. During a Dec. 2 ceremony at Gorenflo elementary School in Biloxi, Miss., Bolden praised Haise for his overall space career and his performance on the Apollo 13 mission that was crippled two days after launch. Haise and fellow crewmembers nursed the spacecraft on a perilous trip back to Earth. 'The historic Apollo 13 mission was as dramatic as any Hollywood production,' Bolden said. 'When an explosion crippled his command module, Fred and his crewmates, Jim Lovell and Jack Swigert, guided their spacecraft around the moon and back to a successful splashdown in the Pacific Ocean - all while the world held its breath. While Fred didn't have the chance to walk on the moon, the cool courage and concentration in the face of crisis is among NASA's most enduring legacies.'

2009-01-01

146

A proposed space mission around the Moon to measure the Moon RadioQuiet Zone  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a series of papers published since 2000 mainly in Acta Astronautica the senior author Maccone dealt with the advantages of the Farside of the Moon for future utilization Clearly the Moon Farside is free from RFI Radio Frequency Interference produced in larger and larger amounts by the increasing human exploitation of radio technologies That author suggested that crater Daedalus

N. Antonietti; G. Pagana; S. Pluchino; C. Maccone

2006-01-01

147

Lunar surface radioactivity - Preliminary results of the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 gamma-ray spectrometer experiments.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray spectrometers on the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 missions have been used to map the moon's radioactivity over 20 percent of its surface. The highest levels of natural radioactivity are found in Mare Imbrium and Oceanus Procellarum with contrastingly lower enhancements in the eastern maria. The ratio of potassium to uranium is higher on the far side than on the near side, although it is everywhere lower than commonly found on the earth.

Metzger, A. E.; Trombka, J. I.; Peterson, L. E.; Reedy, R. C.; Arnold, J. R.

1973-01-01

148

South Pole-Aitken Sample Return Mission: Collecting Mare Basalts from the Far Side of the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We consider the probability that a sample mission to a site within the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) would return basaltic material. A sample mission to the SPA would be the first opportunity to sample basalts from the far side of the Moon. The near side basalts are more abundant in terms of volume and area than their far-side counterparts (16:1), and the basalt deposits within SPA represent approx. 28% of the total basalt surface area on the far side. Sampling far-side basalts is of particular importance because as partial melts of the mantle, they could have derived from a mantle that is mineralogically and chemically different than determined for the nearside, as would be expected if the magma ocean solidified earlier on the far side. For example, evidence to support the existence of high-Th basalts like those that appear to be common on the nearside in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane has been found. Although SPA is the deepest basin on the Moon, it is not extensively filled with mare basalt, as might be expected if similar amounts of partial melting occurred in the mantle below SPA as for basins on the near side. These observations may mean that mantle beneath the far-side crust is lower in Th and other heat producing elements than the nearside. One proposed location for a sample-return landing site is 60 S, 160 W. This site was suggested to maximize the science return with respect to sampling crustal material and SPA impact melt, however, basaltic samples would undoubtedly occur there. On the basis of Apollo samples, we should expect that basaltic materials would be found in the vicinity of any landing site within SPA, even if located away from mare deposits. For example, the Apollo 16 mission landed in an ancient highlands region 250-300 km away from the nearest mare-highlands boundary yet it still contains a small component of basaltic samples (20 lithic fragments ranging is size from <1 to .01 cm). A soil sample from the floor of SPA will likely contain an assortment of basaltic fragments from surrounding regions. In terms both of selecting the best landing sites and understanding the geologic context for returned samples, it is important to understand the compositional distribution of basalts within SPA basin.

Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Lucey, P. G.

2003-01-01

149

LIRAS mission for lunar exploration by microwave interferometric radiometer: Moon's subsurface characterization, emission model and numerical simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "Lunar Interferometric Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis" (LIRAS) mission is promoted by the Italian Space Agency and is currently in feasibility phase. LIRAS' satellite will orbit around the Moon at a height of 100 km, with a revisiting time period lower than 1 lunar month and will be equipped with: a synthetic aperture radiometer for subsurface sounding purposes, working at 1 and 3 GHz, and a real aperture radiometer for near-surface probing, working at 12 and 24 GHz. The L-band payload, representing a novel concept for lunar exploration, is designed as a Y-shaped thinned array with three arms less than 2.5 m long. The main LIRAS objectives are high-resolution mapping and vertical sounding of the Moon subsurface by applying the advantages of the antenna aperture synthesis technique to a multi-frequency microwave passive payload. The mission is specifically designed to achieve spatial resolutions less than 10 km at surface and to retrieve thermo-morphological properties of the Moon subsurface within 5 m of depth. Among LIRAS products are: lunar near-surface brightness temperature, subsurface brightness temperature gross profile, subsurface regolith thickness, density and average thermal conductivity, detection index of possible subsurface discontinuities (e.g. ice presence). The following study involves the preliminary design of the LIRAS payload and the electromagnetic and thermal characterization of the lunar subsoil through the implementation of a simulator for reproducing the LIRAS measurements in response to observations of the Moon surface and subsurface layers. Lunar physical data, collected after the Apollo missions, and LIRAS instrument parameters are taken as input for the abovementioned simulator, called "LIRAS End-to-end Performance Simulator" (LEPS) and obtained by adapting the SMOS End-to-end Performance Simulator to the different instrumental, orbital, and geophysical LIRAS characteristics. LEPS completely simulates the behavior of the satellite when it becomes operational providing the extrapolation of lunar brightness temperature maps in both Antenna frame (the cosine domain) and on the Moon surface and allowing an accurate analysis of the instrument performance. The Moon stratigraphy is reproduced in LEPS environment through three scenarios: a macro-layer of regolith; two subsequent macro-layers of regolith and rock; three subsequent macro-layers of regolith, ice and rock, respectively. These scenarios are studied using an incoherent approach, taking into account the interaction between the upwelling and downwelling radiation contributions from each layer to model the resulting brightness temperature at the surface level. It has been considered that the radiative behavior of the Moon varies over time, depending on solar illumination conditions, and it is also function of the material properties, layer thickness and specific position on the lunar crust; moreover it has been examined its variation with frequency, observation angle, and polarization. Using the proposed emission model it has been possible to derive a digital thermal model in the microwave frequency of the Moon, allowing in-depth analysis of the lunar soil consistency; this collected information could be related with a lunar digital elevation model in order to achieve global coverage information on topological aspects. The main results of the study will be presented at the conference.

Pompili, Sara; Silvio Marzano, Frank; Di Carlofelice, Alessandro; Montopoli, Mario; Talone, Marco; Crapolicchio, Raffaele; L'Abbate, Michelangelo; Varchetta, Silvio; Tognolatti, Piero

2013-04-01

150

Apollo Seals: A Basis for the Crew Exploration Vehicle Seals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently designing the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) as a replacement for the Space Shuttle for manned missions to the International Space Station, as a command module for returning astronauts to the moon, and as an earth reentry vehicle for the final leg of manned missions to the moon and Mars. The CEV resembles a scaled-up version of the heritage Apollo vehicle; however, the CEV seal requirements are different than those from Apollo because of its different mission requirements. A review is presented of some of the seals used on the Apollo spacecraft for the gap between the heat shield and backshell and for penetrations through the heat shield, docking hatches, windows, and the capsule pressure hull.

Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Daniels, Christopher C.

2006-01-01

151

Apollo Seals: A Basis for the Crew Exploration Vehicle Seals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently designing the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) as a replacement for the Space Shuttle for manned missions to the International Space Station, as a command module for returning astronauts to the moon, and as an earth reentry vehicle for the final leg of manned missions to the moon and Mars. The CEV resembles a scaled-up version of the heritage Apollo vehicle; however, the CEV seal requirements are different than those from Apollo because of its different mission requirements. A review is presented of some of the seals used on the Apollo spacecraft for the gap between the heat shield and backshell and for penetrations through the heat shield, docking hatches, windows, and the capsule pressure hull.

Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Daniels, Christopher C.

2007-01-01

152

Active moon: evidences from Chandrayaan-1 and the proposed Indian missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chandrayaan-1, the polar Lunar orbiter mission of Indian Space Research Organization, successfully carried out study of Moon's environment and surface processes for a period of about nine months during 2008-2009. The results obtained by the mission established (i) A tenuous but active hydrosphere (ii) Volcanically active and geologically dynamic Moon and (iii) Global melting of Moon's surface regions and formation of magma ocean early in the history of Moon. Chandrayaan-1 was equipped with a dozen instruments, including an impact probe, which housed three additional instruments. The results obtained by four instruments viz. Chandra's Altitudinal Composition Explorer, Moon Mineral Mapper (M3), Solar Wind Monitor and Synthetic Aperture Radar gave an insight into an active hydrosphere, with several complex processes operating between lunar surface and its environment. These inferences are based on identification of H, OH, H2O, CO2, Ar etc. in the lunar atmosphere. There are indications that several young (~2 to100 Ma) volcanic regions are present on the Moon as shown by integrated studies using Terrain Mapping Camera and M3 of Chandrayaan-1 and data from other contemporary missions i.e. Kaguya and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. These data establish that Moon has a dynamic and probably still active interior, in contrast to the generally accepted concept of dormant and quiet Moon. Discovery of Mg spinel anorthosites and finding of kilometer sized crystalline anorthosite exposures by M3 support the formation of global magma ocean on Moon and differentiation early in its evolutionary history. Furthermore, X-ray Spectrometer data showed anorthositic terrain with composition, high in Al, poor in Ca and low in Mg, Fe and Ti in a nearside southern highland region. This mission provided excellent opportunity for multilateral international cooperation and collaboration in instrumentation and observation in which a dozen countries participated and contributed to the success of the mission. The Mars Orbiter Mission, for study of Martian atmosphere and ionosphere was launched on 5th November, 2013 and is already on its way to Mars. This will be followed by Chandrayaan-2, a well equipped Orbiter-Lander-Rover mission. This article summarises a few results obtained by Chandrayaan-1, which changed some of the concepts about Moon's evolutionary history.

Bhandari, Narendra; Srivastava, Neeraj

2014-12-01

153

Lunar capture orbits, a method of constructing earth moon trajectories and the lunar GAS mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method is described to construct trajectories from the earth to the moon which utilizes the existence of lunar capture orbits and the concept of 'stability boundary'. These orbits are ballistic and represent a new family of trajectories. They go into orbit about the moon from a suitable position about the earth with no required thrusting. This method is applied to a mission being studied at JPL called Lunar GAS (Get Away Special). Other applications are discussed.

Belbruno, E. A.

1987-05-01

154

Eclipses by the Earth and by the Moon as Constraints on the AXAF Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) is scheduled for launch on September 1, 1998, on a mission lasting ten years. During this time AXAF will be subject to eclipses by the Earth and the Moon. Eclipses by the Earth will occur during regular 'seasons' six months apart. AXAF requires that none last longer than 120 minutes, and this constrains the orbit orientation. Eclipses by the Moon occur infrequently, but may pose serious operational problems. The AXAF perigee altitude can be chosen, once the other initial conditions are known, so that objectionable Moon-eclipses can be avoided by targeting the final burn.

Evans, Steven W.

1998-01-01

155

Mission Activity Planning for Humans and Robots on the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of studies is conducted to develop a systematic approach to optimizing, both in terms of the distribution and scheduling of tasks, scenarios in which astronauts and robots accomplish a group of activities on the Moon, given an objective function (OF) and specific resources and constraints. An automated planning tool is developed as a key element of this optimization system.

Weisbin, C.; Shelton, K.; Lincoln, W.; Elfes, A.; Smith, J.H.; Mrozinski, J.; Hua, H.; Adumitroaie, V.; Silberg, R.

2008-01-01

156

The Clementine Mission to the Moon: Scientific Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of 71 days in lunar orbit, from 19 February to 3 May 1994, the Clementine spacecraft acquired just under two million digital images of the moon at visible and infrared wavelengths. These data are enabling the global mapping of the rock types of the lunar crust and the first detailed investigation of the geology of the lunar

Stewart Nozette; I. T. Lewis; C. L. Lichtenberg; D. M. Horan; E. Malaret; E. M. Shoemaker; J. H. Resnick; C. J. Rollins; D. N. Baker; J. E. Blamont; B. J. Buratti; C. M. Pieters; M. E. Davies; M. S. Robinson; E. M. Eliason; B. M. Jakosky; T. C. Sorenson; R. W. Vorder Bruegge; P. G. Lucey; M. A. Massie; H. S. Park; A. S. McEwen; R. E. Priest; R. A. Reisse; R. A. Simpson; D. E. Smith; R. W. Vorder Breugge; M. T. Zuber

1994-01-01

157

Moon  

Atmospheric Science Data Center

article title:  MISR Views the Moon     View Larger Image On ... instruments to look at deep space and the waxing gibbous Moon. The purpose of this acrobatic feat is to assist in the calibration of ...

2013-04-19

158

Apollo 11 Lunar Message For Mankind  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Millions of people on Earth watched via television as a message for all mankind was delivered to the Mare Tranquilitatis (Sea of Tranquility) region of the Moon during the historic Apollo 11 mission, where it still remains today. A commemorative plaque was attached to the leg of the Lunar Module (LM), Eagle, engraved with the following words: 'Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon July, 1969 A.D. We came in peace for all of mankind.' It bears the signatures of the Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot along with the signature of the U.S. President Richard M. Nixon. The plaque, as shown here, covered with protective steel for the launch and journey to the moon, was uncovered by crew members after landing. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

159

Apollo 11 Launched Via Saturn V Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle produced a holocaust of flames as it rose from its pad at Launch complex 39. The 363 foot tall, 6,400,000 pound rocket hurled the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit and then placed it on the trajectory to the moon for man's first lunar landing. The Saturn V was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard the spacecraft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

160

Apollo 11 Launched Via Saturn V Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle produced a holocaust of flames as it rose from its pad at Launch complex 39. The 363 foot tall, 6,400,000 pound rocket hurled the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit and then placed it on the trajectory to the moon for man's first lunar landing. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

161

Apollo 11 Launched Via Saturn V Rocket  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Saturn V vehicle produced a holocaust of flames as it rose from its pad at Launch complex 39. The 363 foot tall, 6,400,000 pound rocket hurled the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit and then placed it on the trajectory to the moon for man's first lunar landing. Aboard the spacecraft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

162

Assessing the Dangers of Moon Dust  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation reviews the sources, problems and some solutions to dust on the moon. While there appeared to be no long term effects from Lunar Dust in Apollo astronauts, the future lunar missions will be longer in duration, and therefore more problems may present themselves. Some of the se problems are reviewed, and plans to deal with them are reviewed.

Noble, Sarah

2007-01-01

163

Dignitaries Await Apollo 11 Lift Off  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the right, NASA administrator, Dr. Thomas O. Paine talks with U.S. Vice President Spiro T. Agnew while awaiting the launch of Saturn V (AS-506) that carried the Apollo 11 spacecraft to the Moon for man's historic first landing on the lunar surface. At center is astronaut William Anders, a member of the first crew to orbit the moon during the Apollo 8 mission. At left is Lee B. James, director of Program Management at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) where the Saturn V was developed. The craft lifted off from launch pad 39 at Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC) on July 16, 1969. The moon bound crew included astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (M) pilot. The mission finalized with splashdown in the Pacific Ocean on July 24, 1969. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

164

Return to the Moon: NASA's LCROSS AND LRO Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA s goals include objectives for robotic and human spaceflight: a) Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond; b) Extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon by the year 2020, in preparation for human exploration of Mars and other destinations; c) A lunar outpost is envisioned. Site Considerations: 1) General accessibility of landing site (orbital mechanics) 2) Landing site safety 3) Mobility 4) Mars analog 5) Power 6) Communications 7) Geologic diversity 8) ISRU considerations

Morales, Lester

2012-01-01

165

The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions and Lunar Surface Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Medical requirements for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits and Lunar habitat are currently being developed. Crews returning to the lunar surface will construct the lunar habitat and conduct scientific research. Inherent in aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. Physiological responses to and the operational environment of short forays during the Apollo lunar missions were studied and documented. Little is known about the operational environment in which crews will live and work and the hardware that will be used for long-duration lunar surface operations.Additional information is needed regarding productivity and the events that affect crew function such as a compressed timeline. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations that had impact to crew health and/or performance. The operationally oriented goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new exploration vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with the multiple entities at NASA and abroad participating in the exploration effort.

Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Joseph; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.; Novak, Joseph D.

2007-01-01

166

The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions and Lunar Surface Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Medical requirements for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits and Lunar habitat are currently being developed. Crews returning to the lunar surface will construct the lunar habitat and conduct scientific research. Inherent in aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. Physiological responses and the operational environment for short forays during the Apollo lunar missions were studied and documented. Little is known about the operational environment in which crews will live and work and the hardware will be used for long-duration lunar surface operations. Additional information is needed regarding productivity and the events that affect crew function such as a compressed timeline. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations that had impact to crew health and/or performance. The operationally oriented goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new exploration vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with the multiple entities at NASA and abroad participating in the exploration effort.

Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Novak, Joseph D.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Josef; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

2007-01-01

167

The Lunar Potential Determination Using Apollo-Era Data and Modern Measurements and Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. More recently, the Lunar Prospector (LP) Electron Reflectometer used electron distributions to infer negative lunar surface potentials, primarily in shadow. We will present initial results from a study to combine lunar surface potential measurements from both SIDE and the LP/Electron Reflectometer to calibrate an advanced model of lunar surface charging which includes effects from the plasma environment, photoemission, secondaries ejected by ion impact onto the lunar surface, and the lunar wake created downstream by the solar wind-lunar interaction.

Collier, Michael R.; Farrell, William M.; Espley, Jared; Webb, Phillip; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Webb, Phillip; Hills, H. Kent; Delory, Greg

2008-01-01

168

Moon's Radiation Environment and Expected Performance of Solar Cells during Future Lunar Missions  

E-print Network

Several lunar missions are planned ahead and there is an increasing demand for efficient photovoltaic power generation in the moon. The knowledge of solar cell operation in the lunar surface obtained during early seventies need to be updated considering current views on solar variability and emerging space solar cell technologies. In this paper some aspects of the solar cell performance expected under variable lunar radiation environment during future space missions to moon are addressed. We have calculated relative power expected from different types of solar cells under extreme solar proton irradiation conditions and high lunar daytime temperature. It is also estimated that 2-3 % of annual solar cell degradation is most probable during the future lunar missions. We have also discussed photovoltaic power generation in long term lunar bases emphasizing technological needs such as sunlight concentration, solar cell cooling and magnetic shielding of radiation for improving the efficiency of solar cells in the l...

Girish, T E

2010-01-01

169

Moon's Radiation Environment and Expected Performance of Solar Cells during Future Lunar Missions  

E-print Network

Several lunar missions are planned ahead and there is an increasing demand for efficient photovoltaic power generation in the moon. The knowledge of solar cell operation in the lunar surface obtained during early seventies need to be updated considering current views on solar variability and emerging space solar cell technologies. In this paper some aspects of the solar cell performance expected under variable lunar radiation environment during future space missions to moon are addressed. We have calculated relative power expected from different types of solar cells under extreme solar proton irradiation conditions and high lunar daytime temperature. It is also estimated that 2-3 % of annual solar cell degradation is most probable during the future lunar missions. We have also discussed photovoltaic power generation in long term lunar bases emphasizing technological needs such as sunlight concentration, solar cell cooling and magnetic shielding of radiation for improving the efficiency of solar cells in the lunar environment.

T. E Girish; S Aranya

2010-12-03

170

Apollo 11 Lunar Message For Mankind- Reproduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Millions of people on Earth watched via television as a message for all mankind was delivered to the Mare Tranquilitatis (Sea of Tranquility) region of the Moon during the historic Apollo 11 mission, where it still remains today. This photograph is a reproduction of the commemorative plaque that was attached to the leg of the Lunar Module (LM), Eagle, engraved with the following words: 'Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon July, 1969 A.D. We came in peace for all of mankind.' It bears the signatures of the Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot along with the signature of the U.S. President Richard M. Nixon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

171

An Overview of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Mission, Environments, and Materials Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Congress authorized NASA's Prometheus Project in February 2003, with the first Prometheus mission slated to explore the icy moons of Jupiter with the following main objectives: (1) Develop a nuclear reactor that would provide unprecedented levels of power and show that it could be processed safely and operated reliably in space for long-duration. (2) Explore the three icy moons of Jupiter -- Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa -- and return science data that would meet the scientific goals as set forth in the Decadal Survey Report of the National Academy of Sciences.

Edwards, Dave

2012-01-01

172

NASA honors Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise Jr.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 13 astronaut and Biloxi native Fred Haise Jr. smiles during a Dec. 2 ceremony at Gorenflo Elementary School in Biloxi honoring his space career. During the ceremony, Haise was presented with NASA's Ambassador of Exploration Award (an encased moon rock). He subsequently presented the moon rock to Gorenflo officials for display at the school. Haise is best known as one of three astronauts who nursed a crippled Apollo 13 spacecraft back to Earth during a perilous 1970 mission. Although he was unable to walk on the moon as planned for that mission, Haise ended his astronaut career having logged 142 hours and 54 minutes in space. During the ceremony, he praised all those who contributed to the space program.

2009-01-01

173

Apollo Soyuz  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission, background, and spacecraft of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are summarized. Scientific experiments onboard the spacecraft are reviewed, along with reentry procedures. A small biography of each of the five astronauts (U.S. and Russian) is also presented.

Froehlich, W.

1978-01-01

174

Comparison of the magnetic properties of glass from Luna 20 with similar properties of glass from the Apollo missions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made on four glass spherules and fragments from the Luna 20 fines; two at 300??K and two from 300??K to 4??K. From these data the magnetic susceptibility extrapolated to infinite field, the magnetization at low fields and also the saturation magnetization at high fields, the Curie constant, the Weiss temperature, and the temperature-independent susceptibility were determined. Using a model previously proposed for the Apollo specimens, the Curie constant of the antiferromagnetic inclusions and a zero field splitting parameter were calculated for the same specimens. The data show the relatively low concentration of iron in all forms in these specimens. In addition, the Weiss temperature is lower than that measured for the Apollo specimens, and can be attributed almost entirely to the ligand field distortion about the Fe2+ ions in the glassy phase. The data further suggest that the Luna 20 specimens cooled more slowly than those of the Apollo missions, and that some of the antiferromagnetic inclusions in the glass may have crystallized from the glass during cooling. ?? 1973.

Senftle, F.E.; Thorpe, A.N.; Alexander, C.C.; Briggs, C.L.

1973-01-01

175

Science exploration opportunities for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, Phobos, and an asteroid  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientific exploration opportunities for human missions to the Moon, Phobos, Mars, and an asteroid are addressed. These planetary objects are of prime interest to scientists because they are the accessible, terresterial-like bodies most likely to be the next destinations for human missions beyond Earth orbit. Three categories of science opportunities are defined and discussed: target science, platform science, and cruise science. Target science is the study of the planetary object and its surroundings (including geological, biological, atmospheric, and fields and particle sciences) to determine the object's natural physical characteristics, planetological history, mode of origin, relation to possible extant or extinct like forms, surface environmental properties, resource potential, and suitability for human bases or outposts. Platform science takes advantage of the target body using it as a site for establishing laboratory facilities and observatories; and cruise science consists of studies conducted by the crew during the voyage to and from a target body. Generic and specific science opportunities for each target are summarized along with listings of strawman payloads, desired or required precursor information, priorities for initial scientific objectives, and candidate landing sites. An appendix details the potential use of the Moon for astronomical observatories and specialized observatories, and a bibliography compiles recent work on topics relating to human scientific exploration of the Moon, Phobos, Mars, and asteroids. It is concluded that there are a wide variety of scientific exploration opportunities that can be pursued during human missions to planetary targets but that more detailed studies and precursor unmanned missions should be carried out first.

Nash, Douglas B.; Plescia, Jeffrey; Cintala, Mark; Levine, Joel; Lowman, Paul; Mancinelli, Rocco; Mendell, Wendell; Stoker, Carol; Suess, Steven

1989-01-01

176

Penetrators as planetary probes and MoonLITE a proposed UK-led lunar mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

While high velocity penetrator technology has been highly developed in terrestrial applications, their value to planetary science and exploration has yet to be demonstrated. Three missions have built and tested penetrators: Mars 96 - failed to leave earth orbit, Deep Space 2 - failed at Mars; and Lunar A - cancelled. Nevertheless, we will argue that the case for penetrators as planetary probes is strong. Penetrators provide a potentially low-cost and effective way to sample the sub-surface environment of planets, moons and asteroids at multiple sites within a single mission. Therefore, penetrators can create global networks and/or address local issues (such as the presence and nature of frozen volatiles in the permanently shaded craters of the Moon). The state of the art of penetrator technology will be described and its application to a variety of solar systems objects discussed. MoonLITE is a proposed UK-led 4 penetrator lunar mission for launch in 2014. The status of this mission will be described together with the outcomes of full-scale impact trials held in the UK during May 2008.

Smith, A.; Crawford, I. A.; Gowen, R. A.; Pike, W. T.

2008-12-01

177

Reporters Interview Family of Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Newsmen talked with the wife and sons of Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong after the successful launch of Apollo 11 on its trajectory to the moon. The Apollo 11 mission, the first lunar landing mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

178

Future Lunar Sampling Missions: Big Returns on Small Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The next sampling missions to the Moon will result in the return of sample mass (100g to 1 kg) substantially smaller than those returned by the Apollo missions (380 kg). Lunar samples to be returned by these missions are vital for: (1) calibrating the late impact history of the inner solar system that can then be extended to other planetary

C. K. Shearer; L. Borg

2002-01-01

179

Investigating at the Moon With new Eyes: The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Camera (LROC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Camera (LROC) H. Hiesinger (1,2), M.S. Robinson (3), A.S. McEwen (4), E.P. Turtle (4), E.M. Eliason (4), B.L. Jolliff (5), M.C. Malin (6), and P.C. Thomas (7) (1) Brown Univ., Dept. of Geological Sciences, Providence RI 02912, Harald_Hiesinger@brown.edu, (2) Westfaelische Wilhelms-University, (3) Northwestern Univ., (4) LPL, Univ. of Arizona, (5) Washington Univ., (6) Malin Space Science Systems, (7) Cornell Univ. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission is scheduled for launch in October 2008 as a first step to return humans to the Moon by 2018. The main goals of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) are to: 1) assess meter and smaller- scale features for safety analyses for potential lunar landing sites near polar resources, and elsewhere on the Moon; and 2) acquire multi-temporal images of the poles to characterize the polar illumination environment (100 m scale), identifying regions of permanent shadow and permanent or near permanent illumination over a full lunar year. In addition, LROC will return six high-value datasets such as 1) meter-scale maps of regions of permanent or near permanent illumination of polar massifs; 2) high resolution topography through stereogrammetric and photometric stereo analyses for potential landing sites; 3) a global multispectral map in 7 wavelengths (300-680 nm) to characterize lunar resources, in particular ilmenite; 4) a global 100-m/pixel basemap with incidence angles (60-80 degree) favorable for morphologic interpretations; 5) images of a variety of geologic units at sub-meter resolution to investigate physical properties and regolith variability; and 6) meter-scale coverage overlapping with Apollo Panoramic images (1-2 m/pixel) to document the number of small impacts since 1971-1972, to estimate hazards for future surface operations. LROC consists of two narrow-angle cameras (NACs) which will provide 0.5-m scale panchromatic images over a 5-km swath, a wide-angle camera (WAC) to acquire images at about 100 m/pixel in seven color bands over a 100-km swath, and a common Sequence and Compressor System (SCS). Each NAC has a 700-mm-focal-length optic that images onto a 5000-pixel CCD line-array, providing a cross-track field-of-view (FOV) of 2.86 degree. The NAC readout noise is better than 100 e- , and the data are sampled at 12 bits. Its internal buffer holds 256 MB of uncompressed data, enough for a full-swath image 25-km long or a 2x2 binned image 100-km long. The WAC has two 6-mm- focal-length lenses imaging onto the same 1000 x 1000 pixel, electronically shuttered CCD area-array, one imaging in the visible/near IR, and the other in the UV. Each has a cross-track FOV of 90 degree. From the nominal 50-km orbit, the WAC will have a resolution of 100 m/pixel in the visible, and a swath width of ˜100 km. The seven-band color capability of the WAC is achieved by color filters mounted directly 1 over the detector, providing different sections of the CCD with different filters [1]. The readout noise is less than 40 e- , and, as with the NAC, pixel values are digitized to 12-bits and may be subsequently converted to 8-bit values. The total mass of the LROC system is about 12 kg; the total LROC power consumption averages at 22 W (30 W peak). Assuming a downlink with lossless compression, LRO will produce a total of 20 TeraBytes (TB) of raw data. Production of higher-level data products will result in a total of 70 TB for Planetary Data System (PDS) archiving, 100 times larger than any previous missions. [1] Malin et al., JGR, 106, 17651-17672, 2001. 2

Hiesinger, H.; Robinson, M. S.; McEwen, A. S.; Turtle, E. P.; Eliason, E. M.; Jolliff, B. L.; Malin, M. C.; Thomas, P. C.

180

Radiation protection for human missions to the Moon and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation protection assessments are performed for advanced Lunar and Mars manned missions. The Langley cosmic ray transport code and the nucleon transport code are used to quantify the transport and attenuation of galactic cosmic rays and solar proton flares through various shielding media. Galactic cosmic radiation at solar maximum and minimum, as well as various flare scenarios are considered. Propagation data for water, aluminum, liquid hydrogen, lithium hydride, lead, and lunar and Martian regolith (soil) are included. Shield thickness and shield mass estimates required to maintain incurred doses below 30 day and annual limits (as set for Space Station Freedom and used as a guide for space exploration) are determined for simple geometry transfer vehicles. On the surface of Mars, dose estimates are presented for crews with their only protection being the carbon dioxide atmosphere and for crews protected by shielding provided by Martian regolith for a candidate habitat.

Simonsen, Lisa C.; Nealy, John E.

1991-01-01

181

Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology for Moon and Mars Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the U.S. Space Exploration Policy, focused cryogenic fluid management technology efforts are underway within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Under the auspices of the Exploration Technology Development Program, cryogenic fluid management technology efforts are being conducted by the Cryogenic Fluid Management Project. Cryogenic Fluid Management Project objectives are to develop storage, transfer, and handling technologies for cryogens to support high performance demands of lunar, and ultimately, Mars missions in the application areas of propulsion, surface systems, and Earth-based ground operations. The targeted use of cryogens and cryogenic technologies for these application areas is anticipated to significantly reduce propellant launch mass and required on-orbit margins, to reduce and even eliminate storage tank boil-off losses for long term missions, to economize ground pad storage and transfer operations, and to expand operational and architectural operations at destination. This paper organizes Cryogenic Fluid Management Project technology efforts according to Exploration Architecture target areas, and discusses the scope of trade studies, analytical modeling, and test efforts presently underway, as well as future plans, to address those target areas. The target areas are: liquid methane/liquid oxygen for propelling the Altair Lander Ascent Stage, liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen for propelling the Altair Lander Descent Stage and Ares V Earth Departure Stage, liquefaction, zero boil-off, and propellant scavenging for Lunar Surface Systems, cold helium and zero boil-off technologies for Earth-Based Ground Operations, and architecture definition studies for long term storage and on-orbit transfer and pressurization of LH2, cryogenic Mars landing and ascent vehicles, and cryogenic production via in situ resource utilization on Mars.

Doherty, Michael P.; Gaby, Joseph D.; Salerno, Louis J.; Sutherlin, Steven G.

2010-01-01

182

uring my teens, I watched the Apollo missions live on black-  

E-print Network

, enthusiasm for a lunar astronomical observatory (using electromagnetic waves of many wavelengths walking on the Moon was no surprise to me -- I was, after all, a member of a post-war generation brought to the use of the Moon as a base for astronomical observations. There is no doubt about the scientific merits

Lockwood, Mike

183

Gravity fields of the Moon derived from GRAIL Primary and Extended Mission Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The twin Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft were launched in September 2011 on a Discovery-class NASA mission to study the gravitational field of the Moon. Extremely accurate range-rate observations between the two spacecraft at the Ka-band radio wavelength (KBRR) enable the determination of the gravity field of the Moon to very high degree since the data are acquired continuously, even when the spacecraft are not tracked from the Earth. The primary mapping mission for GRAIL commenced on March 1, 2012 and continued until May 29, 2012. During the primary mission, the altitude of the spacecraft was on average 55 km above lunar surface. This allowed the determination of a lunar gravity field model of degree and order 420 in spherical harmonics (equivalent to a spatial block-size resolution of 13 km) (Zuber et al., 2012). GRAIL's extended mission initiated on August 30, 2012, and was successfully completed on December 14, 2012. The average altitude during the extended mission was 23 km above lunar surface, half of the altitude during the primary mission, allowing gravity field models at even finer resolution. In this paper, we discuss the analysis of the primary and the extended mission data. With the primary mission data, we have developed solutions to 540x540 in spherical harmonics, and using the extended mission data through December 5, 2012, before the extremely low Orientale campaign, we have developed solutions to 720x720 in spherical harmonics. The solutions were developed using the supercomputers at NASA GSFC of the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS). The solution development methodology is described, including the precision force modeling, and inversion strategy. The solutions are evaluated using RMS of fit tests, calculation of the global and nearside vs. farside coherence with topography, and analysis of the derived Bouguer coefficients. In addition, we evaluate these new selenopotential models by applying them to Lunar Prospector and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter.

Lemoine, Frank G.; Goossens, Sander J.; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Loomis, Bryant D.; Caprette, Douglas; Chinn, Douglas S.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Zuber, Maria T.; Smith, David E.

2013-04-01

184

Nuclear Thermal Rocket\\/vehicle design options for future NASA missions to the Moon and Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners\\/designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a 'dual mode' system capable of generating electrical power for spacecraft environmental systems, communications, and

Stanley K. Borowski; Robert R. Corban; Melissa L. McGuire; Erik G. Beke

1995-01-01

185

Navigation Design and Analysis for the Orion Earth-Moon Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper details the design of the cislunar optical navigation system being proposed for the Orion Earth-Moon (EM) missions. In particular, it presents the mathematics of the navigation filter. The unmodeled accelerations and their characterization are detailed. It also presents the analysis that has been performed to understand the performance of the proposed system, with particular attention paid to entry flight path angle constraints and the delta-V performance.

DSouza, Christopher; Zanetti, Renato

2014-01-01

186

Diagnostic Imaging in the Medical Support of the Future Missions to the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This viewgraph presentation is a course that reviews the diagnostic imaging techniques available for medical support on the future moon missions. The educational objectives of the course are to: 1) Update the audience on the curreultrasound imaging in space flight; 2) Discuss the unique aspects of conducting ultrasound imaging on ISS, interplanetary transit, ultrasound imaging on ISS, interplanetary transit, and lunar surface operations; and 3) Review preliminary data obtained in simulations of medical imaging in lunar surface operations.

Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

2007-01-01

187

Discoveries from Revisiting Apollo Direct Active Measurements of Lunar Dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New missions to the moon being developed by China, Japan, India, USA, Russia and Europe and possibilities of human missions about 2020 face the reality that 6 Apollo expeditions did not totally manage or mitigate effects of easily-mobilised and very "sticky" lunar dust on humans and hardware. Laboratory and theoretical modelling cannot reliably simulate the complex lunar environments that affect dynamical movements of lunar dust. The only direct active measurements of lunar dust during Apollo were made by matchbox-sized minimalist Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) deployed to transmit some 30 million digital measurements from Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15. These were misplaced or relatively ignored until 2009, when a self-funded suite of discoveries (O'Brien Geophys. Research Letters FIX 6 May 2099) revealed unexpected properties of lunar dust, such as the adhesive force being stronger as illumination increased. We give the first reports of contrasting effects, contamination or cleansing, from rocket exhausts of Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 Lunar Modules leaving the moon. We further strengthen the importance of collateral dust inadvertently splashed on Apollo hardware by human activities. Dust management designs and mission plans require optimum use of such in situ measurements, extended by laboratory simulations and theoretical modelling.

O'Brien, Brian

2010-05-01

188

Of time and the moon.  

PubMed

Considerable information concerning lunar chronology has been obtained by the study of rocks and soil returned by the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 missions. It has been shown that at the time the moon, earth, and solar system were formed, approximately 4.6 approximately 10(9) years ago, a severe chemical fractionation took place, resulting in depletion of relatively volatile elements such as Rb and Pb from the sources of the lunar rocks studied. It is very likely that much of this material was lost to interplanetary space, although some of the loss may be associated with internal chemical differentiation of the moon. It has also been shown that igneous processes have enriched some regions of the moon in lithophile elements such as Rb, U, and Ba, very early in lunar history, within 100 million years of its formation. Subsequent igneous and metamorphic activity occurred over a long period of time; mare volcanism of the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 sites occurred at distinctly different times, 3.6 approximately 10(9) and 3.3 approximately 10(9) years ago, respectively. Consequently, lunar magmatism and remanent magnetism cannot be explained in terms of a unique event, such as a close approach to the earth at a time of lunar capture. It is likely that these phenomena will require explanation in terms of internal lunar processes, operative to a considerable depth in the moon, over a long period of time. These data, together with the low present internal temperatures of the moon, inferred from measurements of lunar electrical conductivity, impose severe constraints on acceptable thermal histories of the moon. Progress is being made toward understanding lunar surface properties by use of the effects of particle bombardment of the lunar surface (solar wind, solar flare particles, galactic cosmic rays). It has been shown that the rate of micrometeorite erosion is very low (angstroms per year) and that lunar rocks and soil have been within approximately a meter of the lunar surface for hundreds of millions of years. Future work will require sampling distinctly different regions of the moon in order to provide data concerning other important lunar events, such as the time of formation of the highland regions and of the mare basins, and of the extent to which lunar volcanism has persisted subsequent to the first third of lunar history. This work will require a sufficient number of Apollo landings, and any further cancellation of Apollo missions will jeopardize this unique opportunity to study the development of a planetary body from its beginning. Such a study is fundamental to our understanding of the earth and other planets. PMID:17770436

Wetherill, G W

1971-07-30

189

Thin section of rock brought back to earth by Apollo 12 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An idea of the mineralogy and texture of a lunar sample can be achieved by use of color microphotos. This thin section is Apollo 12 lunar sample number 12057.27, under polarized light. The lavender minerals are pyrexene; the black mineral is ilmenite; the white and brown, feldspar; and the remainder, olivine.

1970-01-01

190

Apollo 13: Houston, we've got a problem  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This video contains historical footage of the flight of Apollo-13, the fifth Lunar Mission and the third spacecraft that was to land on the Moon. Apollo-13's launch date was April 11, 1970. On the 13th of April, after docking with the Lunar Module, the astronauts, Jim Lovell, Fred Haise, and Jack Swiggert, discovered that their oxygen tanks had ruptured and ended up entering and returning to Earth in the Lunar Module instead of the Command Module. There is footage of inside module and Mission Control shots, personal commentary by the astronauts concerning the problems as they developed, national news footage and commentary, and a post-flight Presidential Address by President Richard Nixon. Film footage of the approach to the Moon and departing from Earth, and air-to-ground communication with Mission Control is included.

1991-04-01

191

Apollo 13: Houston, We've Got a Problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This video contains historical footage of the flight of Apollo-13, the fifth Lunar Mission and the third spacecraft that was to land on the Moon. Apollo-13's launch date was April 11, 1970. On the 13th of April, after docking with the Lunar Module, the astronauts, Jim Lovell, Fred Haise, and Jack Swiggert, discovered that their oxygen tanks had ruptured and ended up entering and returning to Earth in the Lunar Module instead of the Command Module. There is footage of inside module and Mission Control shots, personal commentary by the astronauts concerning the problems as they developed, national news footage and commentary, and a post-flight Presidential Address by President Richard Nixon. Film footage of the approach to the Moon and departing from Earth, and air-to-ground communication with Mission Control is included.

1991-01-01

192

Fast Calculation of Abort Return Trajectories for Manned Missions to the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to support the anytime abort requirements of a manned mission to the Moon, the vehicle abort capabilities for the translunar and circumlunar phases of the mission must be studied. Depending on the location of the abort maneuver, the maximum return time to Earth and the available propellant, two different kinds of return trajectories can be calculated: direct and fly-by. This paper presents a new method to compute these return trajectories in a deterministic and fast way without using numerical optimizers. Since no simplifications of the gravity model are required, the resulting trajectories are very accurate and can be used for both mission design and operations. This technique has been extensively used to evaluate the abort capabilities of the Orion/Altair vehicles in the Constellation program for the translunar phase of the mission.

Senent, Juan S.

2010-01-01

193

A potpourri of pristine moon rocks, including a VHK mare basalt and a unique, augite-rich Apollo 17 anorthosite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The anorthosite fragment, 76504,18, the first of the Apollo 17's pristine anorthosites, was found to have: (1) a higher ratio of high-Ca pyroxine to low-Ca pyroxene, (2) higher Na in its plagioclase, (3) higher contents of incompatible elements, and (4) a higher Eu/Al ratio in comparison to ferroan anorthosites. With a parent melt having a negative Eu anomaly, 76504,18 closely resembles a typical mare basalt. This anorthosite was among the latest to be formed by plagioclase flotation above a primordial magmasphere; typical mare basalt regions accumulated at about the same time or even earlier. Another fragment 14181c, a very high potassium basalt, was studied and found to be similar to typical Apollo 14 mare basalt though it has a K/La ratio of 1050. It is suggested that this lithology formed after a normal Apollo 14 mare basaltic melt partially assimilated granite. New data for siderphile elements in Apollo 12 mare basalts indicate that only the lowest of earlier data are trustworthy as being free of laboratory contamination.

Warren, P. H.; Shirley, D. N.; Kallemeyn, G. W.

1986-01-01

194

Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong Approaches Practice Helicopter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In preparation of the nation's first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, crew members underwent training to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph Neil Armstrong approaches the helicopter he flew to practice landing the Lunar Module (LM) on the Moon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished

1969-01-01

195

Dusty plasmas over the Moon: theory research in support of the upcoming lunar missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The future Russian lunar missions Luna 25 and Luna 27 are planned to be equipped with instruments for direct detection of nano- and microscale dust particles and determination of plasma properties over the surface of the Moon. Lunar dust over the Moon is usually considered as a part of a dusty plasma system. Here, we present the main our theory results concerning the lunar dusty plasmas. We start with the description of the observational data on dust particles on and over the surface of the Moon. We show that the size distribution of dust on the lunar surface is in a good agreement with the Kolmogorov distribution, which is the size distribution of particles in the case of multiple crushing. We discuss the role of adhesion which has been identified as a significant force in the dust particle launching process. We evaluate the adhesive force for lunar dust particles with taking into account the roughness and adsorbed molecular layers. We show that dust particle launching can be explained if the dust particles rise at a height of about dozens of nanometers owing to some processes. This is enough for the particles to acquire charges sufficient for the dominance of the electrostatic force over the gravitational and adhesive forces. The reasons for the separation of the dust particles from the surface of the Moon are, in particular, their heating by solar radiation and cooling. We consider migration of free protons in regolith from the viewpoint of the photoemission properties of the lunar soil. Finally, we develop a model of dusty plasma system over the Moon and show that it includes charged dust, photoelectrons, and electrons and ions of the solar wind. We determine the distributions of the photoelectrons and find the characteristics of the dust which rise over the lunar regolith. We show that there are no significant constraints on the Moon landing sites for future lunar missions that will study dusty plasmas in the surface layer of the Moon. We discuss also waves in dusty plasmas over the lunar surface. This work was supported by the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences (basic research program no. 22 “Fundamental Problems of Research and Exploration of the Solar System”) and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 12-02-00270-a).

Popel, Sergey; Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, Alexander; Izvekova, Yulia; Dolnikov, Gennady; Dubinskii, Andrey; Kopnin, Sergey; Golub, Anatoly

196

A 660 D&O Gravitational Field of the Moon from the GRAIL Primary Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has completed its primary three-month tour that resulted in a gravitational field of 660 degree-and-order or equivalent surface resolution of 8 km. The primary measurement for the gravity field is the inter-spacecraft K-Band Range Rate (KBRR) measurement derived from dual spacecraft one-way range. Direct Doppler tracking at X-band from the Deep Space Network for Ebb and Flow supplemented The KBRR. Advanced system calibrations and measurement timing have resulted in unprecedented data quality of better than 0.1 microns/sec. The gravity field solution shows an error spectrum with several orders of magnitude improvement for all wavelengths when compared to previous missions. Nearly uniform correlations with topography exist through higher harmonic degrees and are a good measure of field integrity. The results of the mission satisfy the scientific objectives of determining the structure of the lunar interior from crust to core and advancing the understanding of the thermal evolution of the Moon. They also directly address the mission's investigations that include mapping the structure of the crust and lithosphere, understanding the Moon's asymmetric thermal evolution, determining the subsurface structure of impact basins and the origin of mascons, ascertaining the temporal evolution of the crustal brecciation and magmatism, constrain deep interior structure from tides, and place limits on the size of a possible solid inner core.

Yuan, Dah-Ning; Konopliv, Alex; Asmar, Sami; Park, Ryan; Williams, James; Watkins, Michael; Fahnestock, Eugene; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Paik, Meegyeong; Strekalov, Dmitry; Harvey, Nate; Zuber, Maria; Smith, David

2013-04-01

197

Former Apollo astronauts speak at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Former Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong (left) and Gene Cernan entertain the audience during an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo program team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Other guests at the banquet were astronauts Wally Schirra, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin and Walt Cunningham. Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon; Cernan was the last.

1999-01-01

198

Former Apollo astronauts speak at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Former Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong (left) and Gene Cernan entertain the audience during an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo program team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Other guests at the banquet were astronauts Wally Schirra, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin and Walt Cunningham. Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon; Gene Cernan was the last.

1999-01-01

199

Is There Water on the Moon? NASA's LCROSS Mission [Supplemental Video  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Presents a supplemental video supporting the original conference presentation under the same title. The conference presentation discussed NASA's preparation for its return to the moon with the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission which will robotically seek to determine the presence of water ice at the Moon's South Pole. This secondary payload spacecraft will travel with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) satellite to the Moon on the same Atlas-V 401 Centaur rocket launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. The 1000kg Secondary Payload budget is efficiently used to provide a highly modular and reconfigurable LCROSS Spacecraft with extensive heritage to accurately guide the expended Centaur into the crater. Upon separation, LCROSS flies through the impact plume, telemetering real-time images and characterizing water ice in the plume with infrared cameras and spectrometers. LCROSS then becomes a 700kg impactor itself, to provide a second opportunity to study the nature of the Lunar Regolith. LCROSS provides a critical ground-truth for Lunar Prospector and LRO neutron and radar maps, making it possible to assess the total lunar water inventory. The video contains an animated simulation of the Centaur launch, LRO separation, LRO high resolution lunar survey, LCROSS mission elements and LCROSS impactor separation and impact observations.

2007-01-01

200

Operating the Dual-Orbiter GRAIL Mission to Measure the Moon's Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's mission to measure the Moon's gravity and determine the interior structure, from crust to core, has almost completed its 3-month science data collection phase. The twin orbiters of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission were launched from Florida on September 10, 2011, on a Delta-II launch vehicle. After traveling for nearly four months on a low energy trajectory to the Moon, they were inserted into lunar orbit on New Year's Eve and New Year's Day. In January 2012 a series of circularization maneuvers brought the orbiters into co-planar near-circular polar orbits. In February a distant (75- km) rendezvous was achieved and the science instruments were turned on. A dual- frequency (Ka and S-band) inter-orbiter radio link provides a precise orbiter-to-orbiter range measurement that enables the gravity field estimation. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA, manages the GRAIL project. Mission management, mission planning and sequencing, and navigation are conducted at JPL. Lockheed Martin, the flight system manufacturer, operates the orbiters from their control center in Denver, Colorado. The orbiters together have performed 28 propulsive maneuvers to reach and maintain the science phase configuration. Execution of these maneuvers, as well as the payload checkout and calibration activities, has gone smoothly due to extensive pre-launch operations planning and testing. The key to the operations success has been detailed timelines for product interchange between the operations teams and proven procedures from previous JPL/LM planetary missions. Once in science phase, GRAIL benefitted from the payload operational heritage of the GRACE mission that measures the Earth's gravity.

Beerer, Joseph G.; Havens, Glen G.

2012-01-01

201

Apollo 11 Astronauts In Prayer Within Quarantine Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via a Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was taken to safety aboard the USS Hornet, where they were quartered in a mobile quarantine facility. Shown here is the Apollo 11 crew inside the quarantine facility as prayer is offered by Lt. Commander John Pirrto, USS Hornet Chaplain accompanied by U.S. President Richard Nixon (front right). With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

202

Moon Pie  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners will work in teams to apply their knowledge about the Moon, its environment, and the LRO mission to match responses to Moon questions. With the correct responses, they build a picture of the Moon. This activity is part of Explore! To the Moon and Beyond! - a resource developed specifically for use in libraries.

203

Preface: The Chang'e-3 lander and rover mission to the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Chang'e-3 (CE-3) lander and rover mission to the Moon was an intermediate step in China's lunar exploration program, which will be followed by a sample return mission. The lander was equipped with a number of remote-sensing instruments including a pair of cameras (Landing Camera and Terrain Camera) for recording the landing process and surveying terrain, an extreme ultraviolet camera for monitoring activities in the Earth's plasmasphere, and a first-ever Moon-based ultraviolet telescope for astronomical observations. The Yutu rover successfully carried out close-up observations with the Panoramic Camera, mineralogical investigations with the VIS-NIR Imaging Spectrometer, study of elemental abundances with the Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer, and pioneering measurements of the lunar subsurface with Lunar Penetrating Radar. This special issue provides a collection of key information on the instrumental designs, calibration methods and data processing procedures used by these experiments with a perspective of facilitating further analyses of scientific data from CE-3 in preparation for future missions.

Ip, Wing-Huen; Yan, Jun; Li, Chun-Lai; Ouyang, Zi-Yuan

2014-12-01

204

Electromyographic analysis of skeletal muscle changes arising from 9 days of weightlessness in the Apollo-Soyuz space mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Both integration and frequency analyses of the electromyograms from voluntary contractions were performed in one crewman of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. Of particular interest were changes in excitability, electrical efficiency, and fatigability. As a result of 9 days of weightlessness, muscle excitability was shown to increase; muscle electrical efficiency was found to decrease in calf muscles and to increase in arm muscles; and fatigability was found to increase significantly, as shown by spectral power shifts into lower frequencies. It was concluded from this study that skeletal muscles are affected by the disuse of weightlessness early in the period of weightlessness, antigravity muscles seem most affected by weightlessness, and exercise may abrogate the weightlessness effect. It was further concluded that electromyography is a sensitive tool for measuring spaceflight muscle effects.

Lafevers, E. V.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Hursta, W. N.

1976-01-01

205

Flight Operations reunion for the Apollo 11 20th anniversary of the first manned lunar landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following major areas are presented: (1) the Apollo years; (2) official flight control manning list for Apollo 11; (3) original mission control emblem; (4) foundations of flight control; (5) Apollo-11 20th anniversary program and events; (6) Apollo 11 mission operations team certificate; (7) Apollo 11 mission summary (timeline); and (8) Apollo flight control team photographs and biographies.

1989-01-01

206

Neil Armstrong chats with attendees at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong talks with a former Apollo team member during an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon.

1999-01-01

207

Project APEX: Advanced Phobos Exploration. Manned mission to the Martian moon Phobos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The manned exploration of Mars is a massive undertaking which requires careful consideration. A mission to the moon of Mars called Phobos as a prelude to manned landings on the Martian surface offers some advantages. One is that the energy requirements, in terms of delta 5, is only slightly higher than going to the Moon's surface. Another is that Phobos is a potential source of water and carbon which could be extracted and processed for life support and cryogenic propellants for use in future missions; thus, Phobos might serve as a base for extended Mars exploration or for exploration of the outer planets. The design of a vehicle for such a mission is the subject of our Aerospace System Design course this year. The materials and equipment needed for the processing plant would be delivered to Phobos in a prior unmanned mission. This study focuses on what it would take to send a crew to Phobos, set up the processing plant for extraction and storage of water and hydrocarbons, conduct scientific experiments, and return safely to Earth. The size, configuration, and subsystems of the vehicle are described in some detail. The spacecraft carries a crew of five and is launched from low Earth orbit in the year 2010. The outbound trajectory to Mars uses a gravitational assisted swing by of Venus and takes eight months to complete. The stay at Phobos is 60 days at which time the crew will be engaged in setting up the processing facility. The crew will then return to Earth orbit after a total mission duration of 656 days. Both stellar and solar observations will be conducted on both legs of the mission. The design of the spacecraft addresses human factors and life science; mission analysis and control; propulsion; power generation and distribution; thermal control; structural analysis; and planetary, solar, and stellar science. A 0.5 g artificial gravity is generated during transit by spinning about the lateral body axis. Nuclear thermal rockets using hydrogen as fuel are selected to reduce total launch mass and to shorten the duration of the mission. The nuclear systems also provide the primary electrical power via dual mode operation. The overall spacecraft length is 110 meters and the total mass departing from low Earth orbit is 900 metric tons.

1992-04-01

208

Project APEX: Advanced Phobos Exploration. Manned mission to the Martian moon Phobos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The manned exploration of Mars is a massive undertaking which requires careful consideration. A mission to the moon of Mars called Phobos as a prelude to manned landings on the Martian surface offers some advantages. One is that the energy requirements, in terms of delta 5, is only slightly higher than going to the Moon's surface. Another is that Phobos is a potential source of water and carbon which could be extracted and processed for life support and cryogenic propellants for use in future missions; thus, Phobos might serve as a base for extended Mars exploration or for exploration of the outer planets. The design of a vehicle for such a mission is the subject of our Aerospace System Design course this year. The materials and equipment needed for the processing plant would be delivered to Phobos in a prior unmanned mission. This study focuses on what it would take to send a crew to Phobos, set up the processing plant for extraction and storage of water and hydrocarbons, conduct scientific experiments, and return safely to Earth. The size, configuration, and subsystems of the vehicle are described in some detail. The spacecraft carries a crew of five and is launched from low Earth orbit in the year 2010. The outbound trajectory to Mars uses a gravitational assisted swing by of Venus and takes eight months to complete. The stay at Phobos is 60 days at which time the crew will be engaged in setting up the processing facility. The crew will then return to Earth orbit after a total mission duration of 656 days. Both stellar and solar observations will be conducted on both legs of the mission. The design of the spacecraft addresses human factors and life science; mission analysis and control; propulsion; power generation and distribution; thermal control; structural analysis; and planetary, solar, and stellar science. A 0.5 g artificial gravity is generated during transit by spinning about the lateral body axis. Nuclear thermal rockets using hydrogen as fuel are selected to reduce total launch mass and to shorten the duration of the mission. The nuclear systems also provide the primary electrical power via dual mode operation. The overall spacecraft length is 110 meters and the total mass departing from low Earth orbit is 900 metric tons.

1992-01-01

209

Cylindrical isomorphic mapping applied to invariant manifold dynamics for Earth-Moon Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several families of periodic orbits exist in the context of the circular restricted three-body problem. This work studies orbital motion of a spacecraft among these periodic orbits in the Earth-Moon system, using the planar circular restricted three-body problem model. A new cylindrical representation of the spacecraft phase space (i.e., position and velocity) is described, and allows representing periodic orbits and the related invariant manifolds. In the proximity of the libration points, the manifolds form a four-fold surface, if the cylindrical coordinates are employed. Orbits departing from the Earth and transiting toward the Moon correspond to the trajectories located inside this four-fold surface. The isomorphic mapping under consideration is also useful for describing the topology of the invariant manifolds, which exhibit a complex geometrical stretch-and-folding behavior as the associated trajectories reach increasing distances from the libration orbit. Moreover, the cylindrical representation reveals extremely useful for detecting periodic orbits around the primaries and the libration points, as well as the possible existence of heteroclinic connections. These are asymptotic trajectories that are ideally traveled at zero-propellant cost. This circumstance implies the possibility of performing concretely a variety of complex Earth-Moon missions, by combining different types of trajectory arcs belonging to the manifolds. This work studies also the possible application of manifold dynamics to defining a suitable, convenient end-of-life strategy for spacecraft placed in any of the unstable orbits. The final disposal orbit is an externally confined trajectory, never approaching the Earth or the Moon, and can be entered by means of a single velocity impulse (of modest magnitude) along the right unstable manifold that emanates from the Lyapunov orbit at L_2.

Giancotti, Marco; Pontani, Mauro; Teofilatto, Paolo

2014-07-01

210

Apollo 16 mission anomaly report no. 1: Oxidizer deservicing tank failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The command module reaction control system is emptied of all remaining propellant using ground support equipment designed to provide an acid/base neutralization of the propellant in both the liquid and gaseous phases so that it may be disposed of safely. During the deactivation operation of the oxidizer from the Apollo 16 command module on 7 May 1972, the scrubber tank of the decontamination unit exploded, destroying the ground support equipment unit and damaging the building that housed the operation. Only minor injuries were received by the personnel in the area and the command module was not damaged. Test results show that the failure was caused by an insufficient quantity of neutralizer for the quantity of oxidizer. This insufficiency lead to exothermic nitration-type reactions which produced large quantities of gas at a very high rate and failed the decontamination tank.

1972-01-01

211

Apollo 11 Astronaut Edwin Aldrin Prepares for Weightless Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In preparation of the nation's first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin, donned in his space suit, gets in more time under weightless conditions aboard a KC-135 aircraft from the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

212

Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong Performs Ladder Practice  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In preparation of the nation's first Lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training activities to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, Neil Armstrong, donned in his space suit, practices getting back to the first rung of the ladder on the Lunar Module (LM). The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

213

U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Watches Apollo 11 Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon, aboard the U.S.S. Hornet aircraft carrier, used binoculars to watch the Apollo 11 Lunar Mission recovery. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days post mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

214

NASA Apollo 11 30th Anniversary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On July 20, 1969 Neil A. Armstrong took his "Small Step" onto the surface of the moon. To celebrate the 30th anniversary of its greatest success, NASA has created this new site, which features interviews with the crew, the full text of Apollo: Expeditions to the Moon and The First Lunar Landing: As Told By The Astronauts, biographies, several documents, multimedia galleries, and timelines. Highlights include the Apollo 11 image gallery, panorama photos in the Apollo 11 Lunar Service Journal gallery, the astronauts comments in The First Lunar Landing, and the "Top Ten Scientific Discoveries Made During Apollo Exploration of the Moon," located in the document section.

215

Apollo soil mechanics experiment S-200  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical and mechanical properties of the unconsolidated lunar surface material samples that were obtained during the Apollo missions were studied. Sources of data useful for deduction of soil information, and methods used to obtained the data are indicated. A model for lunar soil behavior is described which considers soil characteristics, density and porosity, strength, compressibility, and trafficability parameters. Lunar history and processes are considered, and a comparison is made of lunar and terrestrial soil behavior. The impact of the findings on future exploration and development of the moon are discussed, and publications resulting from lunar research by the soil mechanics team members are listed.

Mitchell, J. K.; Houston, W. N.; Carrier, W. D., III; Costes, N. C.

1974-01-01

216

Interpretation Of The Apollo Lunar Surface Data Using The Unified And The Two Scale Full Wave Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. ABSTRACT Bistatic radar experiments carried out by Tyler and Howard during the Apollo 16 mission provide a very useful data set with which to compare theoretical models and experimental data. These bistatic radar experiments provide data on the quasi-specular scattering cross sections of the Moon's surface for angles of incidence between 12' and 87.5'. Recently Vesecky et al., (1988)

E. Bahar; M. Haugland

1989-01-01

217

A lander mission to probe subglacial water on Saturn's moon Enceladus for life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The plumes discovered by the Cassini mission emanating from the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus and the unique chemistry found in them have fueled speculations that Enceladus may harbor life. The presumed aquiferous fractures from which the plumes emanate would make a prime target in the search for extraterrestrial life and would be more easily accessible than the moon's subglacial ocean. A lander mission that is equipped with a subsurface maneuverable ice melting probe will be most suitable to assess the existence of life on Enceladus. A lander would have to land at a safe distance away from a plume source and melt its way to the inner wall of the fracture to analyze the plume subsurface liquids before potential biosignatures are degraded or destroyed by exposure to the vacuum of space. A possible approach for the in situ detection of biosignatures in such samples can be based on the hypothesis of universal evolutionary convergence, meaning that the independent and repeated emergence of life and certain adaptive traits is wide-spread throughout the cosmos. We thus present a hypothetical evolutionary trajectory leading towards the emergence of methanogenic chemoautotrophic microorganisms as the baseline for putative biological complexity on Enceladus. To detect their presence, several instruments are proposed that may be taken aboard a future subglacial melting probe. The 'Enceladus Explorer' (EnEx) project funded by the German Space Administration (DLR), aims to develop a terrestrial navigation system for a subglacial research probe and eventually test it under realistic conditions in Antarctica using the EnEx-IceMole, a novel maneuverable subsurface ice melting probe for clean sampling and in situ analysis of ice and subglacial liquids. As part of the EnEx project, an initial concept study is foreseen for a lander mission to Enceladus to deploy the IceMole near one of the active water plumes on the moon's South-Polar Terrain, where it will search for signatures of life. The general mission concept is to place the Lander at a safe distance from an active plume. The IceMole would then be deployed to melt its way through the ice crust to an aquiferous fracture at a depth of 100 m or more for an in situ examination for the presence of microorganisms. The driving requirement for the mission is the high energy demand by the IceMole to melt through the cold Enceladan ices. This requirement is met by a nuclear reactor providing 5 kW of electrical power. The nuclear reactor and the IceMole are placed on a pallet lander platform. An Orbiter element is also foreseen, with the main function of acting as a communications relay between Lander and Earth. After launch, the Lander and Orbiter will perform the interplanetary transfer to Saturn together, using the on-board nuclear reactor to power electric thrusters. After Saturn orbit insertion, the Combined Spacecraft will continue using Nuclear Electric Propulsion to reach the orbit of Enceladus. After orbit insertion at Enceladus, the Orbiter will perform a detailed reconnaissance of the South-Polar Terrain. At the end of the reconnaissance phase, the Lander will separate from the Orbiter and an autonomously guided landing sequence will place it near one of the active vapor plumes. Once landed, the IceMole will be deployed and start melting through the ice, while navigating around hazards and towards a target subglacial aquiferous fracture. An initial estimation of the mission's cost is given, as well as recommendations on the further development of enabling technologies. The planetary protection challenges posed by such a mission are also addressed.

Konstantinidis, Konstantinos; Flores Martinez, Claudio L.; Dachwald, Bernd; Ohndorf, Andreas; Dykta, Paul; Bowitz, Pascal; Rudolph, Martin; Digel, Ilya; Kowalski, Julia; Voigt, Konstantin; Förstner, Roger

2015-01-01

218

Passive seismic experiment. [Apollo 17 flight contributions to determining lunar structure by analyzing moonquake and meteoroid impact seismic signals  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The network of seismometers installed by the Apollo 17 and other Apollo missions is described. The effects of the impacts of lunar modules and S-4B stages on the lunar surfaces are discussed. The information concerning lunar composition which is obtained by analyzing the seismic signals generated by moonquakes and meteoroid impacts are analyzed. It is concluded that the seismic activity within the moon is extremely low compared to that with the earth. The moon is characterized by a rigid, dynamically inactive outer shell, approximately 1000 kilometers thick, surrounding a core that has markedly different elastic properties.

Latham, G. V.; Ewing, M.; Press, F.; Dorman, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Toksoz, N.; Lammlein, D.; Duennebier, F.; Dainty, A.

1973-01-01

219

Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Vehicle Design Options for Future NASA Missions to the Moon and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners/designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a 'dual mode' system capable of generating electrical power for spacecraft environmental systems, communications, and enhanced stage operations (e.g., refrigeration for long-term liquid hydrogen storage). At present the Nuclear Propulsion Office (NPO) is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, single-burn, trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) mission to all propulsive, multiburn, NTR-powered spacecraft supporting a 'split cargo-piloted sprint' Mars mission architecture. Each application results in a particular set of requirements in areas such as the number of engines and their respective thrust levels, restart capability, fuel operating temperature and lifetime, cryofluid storage, and stage size. Two solid core NTR concepts are examined -- one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide 'twisted ribbon' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The NDR and CIS concepts have an established technology database involving significant nuclear testing at or near representative operating conditions. Integrated systems and mission studies indicate that clusters of two to four 15 to 25 klbf NDR or CIS engines are sufficient for most of the lunar and Mars mission scenarios currently under consideration. This paper provides descriptions and performance characteristics for the NDR and CIS concepts, summarizes NASA's First Lunar Outpost and Mars mission scenarios, and describes characteristics for representative cargo and piloted vehicles compatible with a reference 240 t-class heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) and smaller 120 t HLLV option. Attractive performance characteristics and high-leverage technologies associated with both the engine and stage are identified, and supporting parametric sensitivity data is provided. The potential for commonality of engine and stage components to satisfy a broad range of lunar and Mars missions is also discussed.

Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Mcguire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.

1995-01-01

220

Remembering Apollo 11: The 30th Anniversary Data Archive CD-ROM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On July 20, 1969, the human race accomplished its single greatest technological achievement of all time when a human first set foot on another celestial body. Six hours after landing at 4:17 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (with less than thirty seconds of fuel remaining), Neil A. Armstrong took the "small step" into our greater future when he stepped off the Lunar Module, named Eagle, onto the surface of the Moon, from which he could look up and see Earth in the heavens as no one had done before him. He was shortly joined by Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, and the two astronauts spent twenty-one hours on the lunar surface and returned forty-six pounds of lunar rocks. After their historic walks on the Moon, they successfully docked with Michael Collins, patiently orbiting the cold but no longer lifeless Moon alone in the Command module Columbia. This CR-ROM is intended as a collection of hard to find technical data and other interesting information about the Apollo 11 mission, as well as the apollo program in general. It includes basic overviews, such as a retrospective analysis, an annotated bibliography, and history of the lunar-orbit rendezvous concept. It also contains technical data, such as mission operations reports, press kits, and news references for all of the Apollo missions, the Apollo spacecraft, and the Saturn V launch vehicle. Rounding out this CD-ROM are extensive histories of the lunar Orbiter program (the robotic predecessor to Apollo, biographies of the Apollo astronauts and other key individuals, and interesting audio-visual materials, such as video and audio clips, photo galleries, and blueprint-like diagrams of the Apollo spacecraft.

Cortright, Edgar M. (Editor)

1999-01-01

221

Field Trip to the Moon DVD - LRO/LCROSS Edition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This special edition DVD--introducing NASA's LRO/LCROSS mission--captures the experience in a feature video created using NASA engineering models and scientific data. Viewers will experience what is like to travel through space to land on the Moon. Along the way, they'll discover some of the differences between the Earth and the Moon and what makes our planet unique and habitable. The DVD includes support media including segments on the LRO/LCROSS Mission, the Moon's formation, Apollo landing sites, future lunar landing animation, and Moon trivia questions. Educator Guide, Informal Educator Guide, Live Presenter Script, and other downloads are available at http://www.amnh.org/education/ftm. Length: 20:42 . The program is also offered at the American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium as a full-dome experience with a live presenter during the school year for school groups and visitors to take a virtual field trip to the Moon.

2009-03-10

222

Lunar Nautics: Designing a Mission to Live and Work on the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit features 40 activities that challenge students to assume the roles of workers at Lunar Nautics Space Systems, Inc., a fictional aerospace company specializing in mission management, lunar habitat and exploration design, and scientific research. The guide includes information to teach the basics on Newton's Laws of Motion, rocket design, microgravity, and the moon. Students design, test and analyze a model lunar lander, a robot, and a soda bottle rocket. They also build edible models, a solar oven to cook hot dogs, and a microgravity sled while underwater. Educators can use this guide in a variety of formats such as week-long day camps, after-school programs, a classroom unit or as supporting curriculum.

223

President Nixon visits Apollo 11 crew in quarantine  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

President Richard M. Nixon was in the central Pacific recovery area to welcome the Apollo 11 astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, prime recovery ship for the historic Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Already confined to the Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) are (left to right) Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, command module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot. Apollo 11 splashed down at 11:49 a.m. (CDT), July 24, 1969, about 812 nautical miles southwest of Hawaii and only 12 nautical miles from the U.S.S. Hornet. The three crew men will remain in the MQF until they arrive at the Manned Spacecraft Center's (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL). While astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin descended in the Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' to explore the Sea of Tranquility region of the Moon, astronaut Collins remained with the Command and Service Modules (CSM) 'Columbia' in lunar-orbit.

1969-01-01

224

The scientific rationale for the C1XS X-ray spectrometer on India's Chandrayaan-1 mission to the moon  

E-print Network

reserved. 1. Introduction The primary scientific importance of the Moon arises from the fact that it hasThe scientific rationale for the C1XS X-ray spectrometer on India's Chandrayaan-1 mission with the earlier D-CIXS instrument on SMART-1, but will be a scientifically much more capable instrument. Here we

Wieczorek, Mark

225

Appendix A: The Scientific Rationale for MoonLITE Context for a Lunar Network Mission using Penetrators  

E-print Network

with measurements of the deeper interior that will resolve fundamental scientific questions of lunar origin orbit was evaluated for its ability to address first-order scientific questions. These questions includeAppendix A: The Scientific Rationale for MoonLITE Context for a Lunar Network Mission using

Crawford, Ian

226

Apollo experience report: Battery subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experience with the Apollo command service module and lunar module batteries is discussed. Significant hardware development concepts and hardware test results are summarized, and the operational performance of batteries on the Apollo 7 to 13 missions is discussed in terms of performance data, mission constraints, and basic hardware design and capability. Also, the flight performance of the Apollo battery charger is discussed. Inflight data are presented.

Trout, J. B.

1972-01-01

227

Apollo: Learning From the Past, For the Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper shares an interesting and unique case study of knowledge capture by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), an ongoing project to recapture and make available the lessons learned from the Apollo lunar landing project so that those working on future projects do not have to "reinvent the wheel". NASA's new Constellation program, the successor to the Space Shuttle program, proposes a return to the Moon using a new generation of vehicles. The Orion Crew Vehicle and the Altair Lunar Lander will use hardware, practices, and techniques descended and derived from Apollo, Shuttle and the International Space Station. However, the new generation of engineers and managers who will be working with Orion and Altair are largely from the decades following Apollo, and are likely not well aware of what was developed in the 1960s. In 2006 a project at NASA's Johnson Space Center was begun to find pertinent Apollo-era documentation and gather it, format it, and present it using modern tools for today's engineers and managers. This "Apollo Mission Familiarization for Constellation Personnel" project is accessible via the web from any NASA center for those interested in learning "how did we do this during Apollo?"

Grabois, Michael R.

2009-01-01

228

Apollo: Learning From the Past, For the Future  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper shares an interesting and unique case study of knowledge capture by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), an ongoing project to recapture and make available the lessons learned from the Apollo lunar landing project so that those working on future projects do not have to "reinvent the wheel". NASA's new Constellation program, the successor to the Space Shuttle program, proposes a return to the Moon using a new generation of vehicles. The Orion Crew Vehicle and the Altair Lunar Lander will use hardware, practices, and techniques descended and derived from Apollo, Shuttle and the International Space Station. However, the new generation of engineers and managers who will be working with Orion and Altair are largely from the decades following Apollo, and are likely not well aware of what was developed in the 1960s. In 2006 a project at NASA's Johnson Space Center was begun to find pertinent Apollo-era documentation and gather it, format it, and present it using modern tools for today's engineers and managers. This "Apollo Mission Familiarization for Constellation Personnel" project is accessible via the web from any NASA center for those interested in learning "how did we do this during Apollo?"

Grabois, Michael R.

2010-01-01

229

Apollo Video Photogrammetry Estimation of Plume Impingement Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each of the six Apollo mission landers touched down at unique sites on the lunar surface. Aside from the Apollo 12 landing site located 180 meters from the Surveyor III lander, plume impingement effects on ground hardware during the landings were largely not an issue. The Constellation Project's planned return to the moon requires numerous landings at the same site. Since the top few centimeters are loosely packed regolith, plume impingement from the lander ejects the granular material at high velocities. With high vacuum conditions on the moon (10 (exp -14) to 10 (epx -12) torr), motion of all particles is completely ballistic. Estimates from damage to the Surveyor III show that the ejected regolith particles to be anywhere 400 m/s to 2500 m/s. It is imperative to understand the physics of plume impingement to safely design landing sites for the Constellation Program.

Immer, Christopher; Lane, John; Metzger, Philip; Clements, Sandra

2008-01-01

230

The interaction of the Galilean moons with their space environment: Lessons learnt from previous missions and prospects for JUICE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galilean moons of Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto are embedded within the magnetospheric plasma that aproximately corotates with Jupiter. The physical processes revealed in the regions of space surrounding them are remarkably diverse. The Galilean moons, with their exospheres, are conductive bodies. As they move through the Jovian magnetic field, they create a specific current system. This electrodynamical coupling is not stationary. Part of the electromagnetic energy is converted into kinetic energy of accelerated particles, with the formation of particular auroral features. Ganymede, the unique magnetized moon to date, possesses its own mini-magnetosphere that is coupled to Jupiter's giant magnetosphere. This interaction is powerful enough to create an intense auroral footpoint at Jupiter. The coupling with Europa is apparently much less powerful, even if it seems able to generate intense waves. By contrast, Callisto is the most quiet. The parameters that determine the strength of the coupling, the way magnetic fields are distorted and large-scale fluctuations are generated, are unknown, as are the details of the interaction itself. I will first review some of the multi-instrument observations obtained in the vicinity of the Galilean moons by the NASA/Galileo mission that contribute to our current understanding of the moon-magnetosphere interactions. I will then discuss how the ESA/JUICE mission to be launched in 2022 will provide a thorough investigation of these unique planetary bodies in all their complexity.

André, N.

2012-12-01

231

Project Columbiad: Mission to the Moon. Book 1: Executive Summary. Volume 1: Mission trade studies and requirements. Volume 2: Subsystem trade studies and selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the Report of the Advisory Committee on the future of the U.S. Space Program and a request from NASA's Exploration Office, the MIT Hunsaker Aerospace Corporation (HAC) conducted a feasibility study, known as Project Columbiad, on reestablishing human presence on the Moon before the year 2000. The mission criteria established were to transport a four person crew to the lunar surface at any latitude and back to Earth with a 14-28 day stay on the lunar surface. Safety followed by cost of the Columbiad Mission were the top level priorities of HAC. The resulting design has a precursor mission that emplaces the required surface payloads before the piloted mission arrives. Both the precursor and piloted missions require two National Launch System (NLS) launches. Both the precursor and piloted mission have an Earth orbit rendezvous (EOR) with a direct transit to the Moon post-EOR. The piloted mission returns to Earth via a direct transit. Included among the surface payloads preemplaced are a habitat, solar power plant (including fuel cells for the lunar night), lunar rover, and mechanisms used to cover the habitat with regolith (lunar soil) in order to protect the crew members from severe solar flare radiation.

Clarke, Michael; Denecke, Johan; Garber, Suzanne; Kader, Beth; Liu, Celia; Weintraub, Ben; Cazeau, Patrick; Goetz, John; Haughwout, James; Larson, Erik

1992-01-01

232

Gene Cernan speaks at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo program team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible, former Apollo astronaut Gene Cernan relates a humorous comment while Wally Schirra (background) gestures behind him. Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17, was the last man to walk on the moon; Schirra flew on Apollo 7. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Other guests at the banquet were former Apollo astronauts are Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch of the first moon landing, and Walt Cunningham, who also flew on Apollo 7.

1999-01-01

233

NASA Administrator Dan Goldin speaks at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin (right) addresses the audience at the Apollo 11 anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex, with seating under an unused Saturn V rocket like those that powered the Apollo launches . This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Among the guests at the banquet were former Apollo astronauts are Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch of the first moon landing; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17 and was the last man to walk on the moon; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7.

1999-01-01

234

Neil Armstrong chats with attendees at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong poses for a photograph with fans who attended the anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon.

1999-01-01

235

A cost and risk analysis of human exploration missions to Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) initiated a renewal of America's space exploration efforts which had come to an end following the Apollo 17 mission in 1972. SEI was a massive proposed program which was to culminate in a permanent human settlement on the Moon and a base for humans on Mars. Russian space agencies have also proposed human exploration missions,

Steven Carl Merrihew

1997-01-01

236

The first precise global gravity and topography of the Moon by KAGUYA (SELENE) mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Japanese lunar mission KAGUYA (SELENE) was launched on September 14th, 2007 and continued its operation by June 11th, 2009. KAGUYA had two subsatellites (OKINA and OUNA) for gravity measurements. The gravity field, which is obtained by radio tracking of spacecraft, is a fundamental quantity for the study of the internal structure and the evolution of the Moon. However, the previous lunar gravity models are in lack of direct observations of the farside gravity. Synchronous rotation of the Moon with its orbit inhibits a direct link between a ground tracking station and a lunar-orbiting spacecraft over the farside. Using 4-way Doppler tracking with relay satellite OKINA, KAGUYA obtained the first precise gravity field of the lunar far-side [1]. Multi-frequency differential VLBI observation using subsatellites OKINA and OUNA improved the accuracy of gravity, through precise determination of OKINA's orbit. Current gravity field model SGM100h has much less error on the farside in comparison with previous models. The gravity field will be improved using differential VLBI data between OKINA and OUNA. Laser altimeter (LALT) on board KAGUYA obtained the first precise global topography of the Moon with range accuracy of 5m [2]. Range data exceeded 20 million by the end of the mission. In the polar regions where laser altimeter on board CLEMENTINE did not observe, LALT clarified topographic features including permanently shadowed areas. Distribution of solar illumination rates was also estimated at elevated areas [3]. The amplitude of the power spectrum of topography spherical harmonics is larger than that of the previous model at L¿30 [2]. We have better correlation of spherical harmonics coefficients between gravity and topography than the previous model [1]. Gravity signatures of far-side impact basins are mostly explained by topography except for the central high. Extended density anomalies such as "mascons" are not observed in the farside, suggesting the difference of thermal condition between the nearside and the farside. Probably the farside interior have cooled more rapidly than the nearside interior. Combined with topography data, we estimate Bouguer anomaly and the crustal thickness variation of the Moon [4]. The region with the thinnest crust is Mare Moscoviense in the far side. Bouguer anomaly does not change largely both within South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA) and within far-side highland terrain (FHT). This would imply relatively smooth crust-mantle boundary there. SPA is also characterized by the admittance spectra. Although the crustal thickness of SPA is much thinner than that FHT, the elastic thicknesses of both zones are not so different on the basis of the admittance. SPA area would be elastically supported by a part of upper mantle. References: [1] Namiki, N. et al.(2009) Science 323, 900, [2] Araki, H. et al. (2009) Science 323, 892. [3] Noda et al. (2008) GRL, 35, doi:10.1029/2008GL035692 [4] Ishihara, Y. et al.(2009) GRL, 36, L19202, doi:10.1029/2009GL039708.

Sasaki, Sho; Sasaki, Sho; Namiki, Noriyuki; Hanada, Hideo; Araki, Hiroshi; Iwata, Takahiro; Noda, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Koji; Kawano, Nobuyuki; Kikuchi, Fuyuhiko; Liu, Quinhui; Goossens, Sander; Ishihara, Yoshi-Aki; Harada, Yuji; Tsuruta, Seiitsu; Tazawa, Seiichi; Asari, Kazuyoshi; Ishikawa, Toshiaki; Oberst, Juergen; Lemoine, Frank; Shum, C. K.

237

Lunar Terrain and Albedo Reconstruction from Apollo Imagery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Generating accurate three dimensional planetary models and albedo maps is becoming increasingly more important as NASA plans more robotics missions to the Moon in the coming years. This paper describes a novel approach for separation of topography and albedo maps from orbital Lunar images. Our method uses an optimal Bayesian correlator to refine the stereo disparity map and generate a set of accurate digital elevation models (DEM). The albedo maps are obtained using a multi-image formation model that relies on the derived DEMs and the Lunar- Lambert reflectance model. The method is demonstrated on a set of high resolution scanned images from the Apollo era missions.

Nefian, Ara V.; Kim, Taemin; Broxton, Michael; Moratto, Zach

2010-01-01

238

Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Watch Cake Cutting Ceremony  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home for 21 days following the mission. In this photograph, the Hornet crew and honor guard snap to attention to begin the official cake cutting ceremony for the Apollo 11 astronauts. Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin are visible in the window of the MQF.

1969-01-01

239

Apollo 13 Senate Space Committee Hearings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut James A. Lovell, Jr., Commander of the Apollo 13, relates to the members of the Senate Space Committee in an open session the problems of the Apollo 13 mission. In the background is Dr. Thomas O. Paine, NASA Administrator.

1970-01-01

240

Apollo light flash investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The visual phenomenon of light flashes resulting from high energy, heavy cosmic rays penetrating the command module structure and crewmembers' eyes is investigated. Light flash events observed during dedicated sessions on Apollo 15, 16, 17 are described along with a Monte Carlo simulation of the exposure of an astronaut to cosmic radiation during a mission. Results of the Apollo Light Flash Moving Emulsion Detector experiment developed for Apollo 16 and 17 to obtain a direct record of incident cosmic ray particles are correlated with crewmembers' reports of light flashes.

Osborne, W. Z.; Pinsky, L. S.; Bailey, J. V.

1975-01-01

241

Apollo 12 Astronauts Peer Out of the Mobile Quarantine Facility  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The smiling Apollo 12 astronauts peer out of the window of the mobile quarantine facility aboard the recovery ship, USS Hornet. Pictured (Left to right) are Spacecraft Commander, Charles Conrad; Command Module (CM) Pilot, Richard Gordon; and Lunar Module (LM) Pilot, Alan L. Bean. The crew were housed in the quarantine facility immediately after the Pacific recovery operation took place. The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12 launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms while astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples. Apollo 12 returned safely to Earth on November 24, 1969.

1969-01-01

242

Apollo 14 and 16 Active Seismic Experiments, and Apollo 17 Lunar Seismic Profiling  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Seismic refraction experiments were conducted on the moon by Apollo astronauts during missions 14, 16, and 17. Seismic velocities of 104, 108, 92, 114 and 100 m/sec were inferred for the lunar regolith at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 landing sites, respectively. These data indicate that fragmentation and comminution caused by meteoroid impacts has produced a layer of remarkably uniform seismic properties moonwide. Brecciation and high porosity are the probable causes of the very low velocities observed in the lunar regolith. Apollo 17 seismic data revealed that the seismic velocity increases very rapidly with depth to 4.7 km/sec at a depth of 1.4 km. Such a large velocity change is suggestive of compositional and textural changes and is compatible with a model of fractured basaltic flows overlying anorthositic breccias. 'Thermal' moonquakes were also detected at the Apollo 17 site, becoming increasingly frequent after sunrise and reaching a maximum at sunset. The source of these quakes could possibly be landsliding.

1976-01-01

243

Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Addressed by U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). In this photograph, the U.S.S. Hornet crew looks on as the quarantined Apollo 11 crew is addressed by U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon via microphone and intercom. The president was aboard the recovery vessel awaiting return of the astronauts. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

244

Lunar Soil Erosion Physics for Landing Rockets on the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To develop a lunar outpost, we must understand the blowing of soil during launch and landing of the new Altair Lander. For example, the Apollo 12 Lunar Module landed approximately 165 meters from the deactivated Surveyor Ill spacecraft, scouring its surfaces and creating numerous tiny pits. Based on simulations and video analysis from the Apollo missions, blowing lunar soil particles have velocities up to 2000 m/s at low ejection angles relative to the horizon, reach an apogee higher than the orbiting Command and Service Module, and travel nearly the circumference of the Moon [1-3]. The low ejection angle and high velocity are concerns for the lunar outpost.

Clegg, Ryan N.; Metzger, Philip T.; Huff, Stephen; Roberson, Luke B.

2008-01-01

245

The Cassini-Huygens mission includes the Cassini orbiter, which orbits Saturn and its moons for four years, and the Huygens probe,  

E-print Network

The Cassini-Huygens mission includes the Cassini orbiter, which orbits Saturn and its moons and photochemistry of Saturn, Titan and other moons,and the nature and history of Saturn's rings. UVIS was built by a Titan IV/B Centaur rocket Launched from Kennedy Space Center in Florida Cruise to Saturn 7 years and 3

Mojzsis, Stephen J.

246

NASA Administrator Dan Goldin speaks at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin addresses the audience at the Apollo 11 anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Among the guests at the banquet were former Apollo astronauts are Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch of the first moon landing; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17 and was the last man to walk on the moon; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7.

1999-01-01

247

Apollo 11 Launched Via the Saturn V Rocket-High Angle View  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first lunar landing mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle produced a holocaust of flames as it rose from its pad at Launch complex 39. The 363 foot tall, 6,400,000 pound rocket hurled the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit and then placed it on the trajectory to the moon for man's first lunar landing. This high angle view of the launch was provided by a `fisheye' camera mounted on the launch tower. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

248

U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Watches Apollo 11 Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (center), aboard the U.S.S. Hornet aircraft carrier, used binoculars to watch the Apollo 11 Lunar Mission Recovery. Standing next to the President is astronaut Frank Borman, Apollo 8 Commander. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days post mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

249

JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (juice): AN ESA L-Class Mission Candidate to the Jupiter System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. Humankind wonders whether the origin of life is unique to the Earth or if it occurs elsewhere in our Solar System or beyond. To answer this question, even though the mechanisms by which life originated on Earth are not yet clearly understood, one can assume that the necessary conditions involve the simultaneous presence of organic compounds, trace elements, water, energy sources and a relative stability of the environment over time. JUICE will address the question: Are there current habitats elsewhere in the Solar System with the necessary conditions (water, biological essential elements, energy and stability) to sustain life? The spatial extent and evolution of habitable zones within the Solar System are critical elements in the development and sustainment of life, as well as in addressing the question of whether life developed on Earth alone or whether it was developed in other Solar System environments and was then imported to Earth. The focus of JUICE is to characterise the conditions that may have led to the emergence of habitable environments among the Jovian icy satellites, with special emphasis on the three ocean-bearing worlds, Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto. Ganymede is identified for detailed investigation since it provides a natural laboratory for analysis of the nature, evolution and potential habitability of icy worlds in general, but also because of the role it plays within the system of Galilean satellites, and its unique magnetic and plasma interactions with the surrounding Jovian environment. For Europa, where two targeted flybys are planned, the focus will be on the chemistry essential to life, including organic molecules, and on understanding the formation of surface features and the composition of the non water-ice material, leading to the identification and characterisation of candidate sites for future in situ exploration. Furthermore, JUICE will provide the first subsurface observations of this icy moon, including the first determination of the minimal thickness of the icy crust over the most recently active regions. JUICE will determine the characteristics of liquid-water oceans below the icy surfaces of the moons. This will lead to an understanding of the possible sources and cycling of chemical and thermal energy, allow investigation of the evolution and chemical composition of the surfaces and of the subsurface oceans, and enable an evaluation of the processes that have affected the satellites and their environments through time. The study of the diversity of the satellite system will be enhanced with additional information gathered remotely on Io and smaller moons. The mis-sion will also focus on characterising the diversity of processes in the Jupiter system which may be required in order to provide a stable environment at Ganymede, Europa and Callisto on geologic time scales, including gravitational coupling between the Galilean satellites and their long term tidal influence on the system as a whole. Focused stud-ies of Jupiter's atmosphere, and magnetosphere and their interaction with the Galilean satellites will further enhance our understanding of the evolution and dynamics of the Jovian system. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of Jupiter will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. These observations will be attained over a sufficiently long temporal baseline with broad latitudinal coverage to investigate evolving weather systems and the mechanisms of transporting energy, momentum and material between the different layers. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions and their response to the solar wind will be elucidated.

Dougherty, M. K.; Grasset, O.; Erd, C.; Titov, D.; Bunce, E. J.; Coustenis, A.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A. J.; Drossart, P.; Fletcher, L.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; Van Hoolst, T.

2012-04-01

250

In Search of Moon Trees  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1971, hundreds of tree seedlings germinated aboard NASA's Apollo 14 mission to the moon. A few years later, they were planted around the nation, often with much fanfare. However, no one kept a systematic record of these plantings, and as a result, the whereabouts of most of the trees remains a mystery. Visitors can read or listen to an account of the history and current status of them at this Web site, and follow links to access additional information relating to the story or to learn the location of known Moon trees. NASA scientist Dave Williams continues to search for the remaining trees and encourages readers to contact him if they believe they know of trees not currently mentioned on his list. What this site lacks in colorful, interactive features is more than made up for by its engaging feature story.

Phillips, Tony.

2002-01-01

251

Earthrise - Apollo 8  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This view of the rising Earth greeted the Apollo 8 astronauts as they came from behind the Moon after the lunar orbit insertion burn. Earth is about five degrees above the horizon in the photo. The unnamed surface features in the foreground are near the eastern limb of the Moon as viewed from Earth. The lunar horizon is approximately 780 kilometers from the spacecraft. Width of the photographed area at the horizon is about 175 km (109 miles). On the Earth 386,000 km (240,000 miles) away, the sunset terminator bisects Africa.

Nasa

252

Extensible Modular Landing Systems for Human Moon and Mars Exploration  

E-print Network

Extensible Modular Landing Systems for Human Moon and Mars Exploration by Wilfried Hofstetter and Proposed Moon and Mars Exploration System architectures...... 27 2.1.1 The Apollo System...................................................................................... 54 3. Moon and Mars System Architectures Point Designs

de Weck, Olivier L.

253

Organics in APOLLO Lunar Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of many unknowns prior to the Apollo landings concerned the possibility of life, its remains, or its organic precursors on the surface of the Moon. While the existence of lunar organisms was considered highly unlikely, a program of biological quarantine and testing for the astronauts, the Apollo Command Modules, and the lunar rock and soil samples, was instituted in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL). No conclusive evidence of lunar organisms, was detected and the quarantine program was ended after Apollo 14. Analyses for organic compounds were also con-ducted. Considerable effort was expended, during lunar surface operations and in the LRL, to minimize and quantify organic contamination. Post-Apollo curatorial operations and cleaning minimize contamination from particulates, oxygen, and water but no longer specifically address organic contamination. The organic compounds measured in Apollo samples are generally consistent with known sources of contamination.

Allen, C. C.; Allton, J. H.

2007-01-01

254

More Surprises from the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Even with the naked eye, the dark, extensive plains of the lunar maria can be clearly seen on the surface of the Moon. The maria formed after meteorite impacts created large craters that later filled with lava flows. Mare volcanism is the dominant type of volcanic activity on the Moon and the lavas are made up of basaltic rocks. However, non-mare volcanic deposits, though rare, have been observed on the lunar nearside. The deposits are distinguished from the maria because they are compositionally more evolved rich in silica, potassium and thorium. The deposits are limited in surface extent and it was unknown whether similar non-mare volcanism occurred at all on the Moon s farside. Writing in Nature Geoscience, Jolliff et al. report using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter images and compositional data to identify the rare occurrence of more compositionally evolved volcanic deposits in an isolated area on the Moon s farside. In the 1960s and 1970s, rock and soil samples were collected by the Apollo and Luna missions, by the USA and USSR respectively. This material represents a geologic treasure trove that continues to provide a wealth of information about the Moon and its evolution, and it was a very small fraction of these samples that gave the first hint that non-mare volcanic activity might have occurred. The samples contained fragments of complex volcanic rocks that were unrelated to the maria basalts. Violent bombardment of the Moon by meteorite impacts has caused significant mixing of the rocks at its surface, so the fragments could have had a source hundreds or thousands of kilometres away. The origin of the fragments was unknown. Several decades later, the Lunar Prospector mission used a gamma-ray spectrometer to map the distribution and abundance of various elements, including thorium, on the Moon s surface. The maps identified a distinct and large area of high thorium concentration, as well as several smaller, but equally peculiar areas of high thorium concentration on the nearside of the Moon (Fig. 1). The rocks that contained high thorium contents also exhibited geomorphological and spectral features that were typical of volcanic deposits, and so the thorium hotspots were thought to represent non-mare volcanism on the nearside of the Moon. A relatively large region with extremely high thorium concentrations - the Compton-Belkovich thorium anomaly - was also identified on the Moon s farside. This thorium hotspot was particularly unusual because it was completely isolated, alone on the farside of the Moon, far from the nearest maria. No high-resolution image data were available for this region, so a definitive interpretation of the source of this isolated anomaly has been impossible.

Petro, Noah

2011-01-01

255

Operating the Dual-Orbtier GRAIL Mission to Measure the Moon's Gravity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The GRAIL mission is on track to satisfy all prime mission requirements. The performance of the orbiters and payload has been exceptional. Detailed pre-launch operations planning and validation have paid off. Prime mission timeline has been conducted almost exactly as laid out in the mission plan. Flight experience in the prime mission puts the flight team in a good position for completing the challenges of the extended mission where the science payoff is even greater

Beerer, Joseph G.; Havens, Glen G.

2012-01-01

256

President Nixon and Dr. Paine Wait to Meet Apollo 11 Astronauts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

President Richard M. Nixon and Dr. Thomas O. Paine, NASA Administrator, watch Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, Michael Collins and Buzz Aldrin Jr., walk from the recovery helicopter to the Mobile Quarantine Facility aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The President later congratulated the astronauts by microphone, speaking through a window of the quarantine trailer. During the eight-day space mission, Armstrong and Aldrin explored the Moon's surface and brought back rock samples for scientists to study. Collins piloted the command module in the lunar orbit during their 22-hour stay on the moon. The extravehicular activity lasted more than two hours.

1969-01-01

257

Gene Cernan talks at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Former Apollo astronaut Gene Cernan makes a point during a presentation at the Apollo 11 anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Cernan appeared with other former astronauts Neil Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon; Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin; Walt Cunningham; and others.

1999-01-01

258

Rb-Sr ages of igneous rocks from the Apollo 14 mission and the age of the Fra Mauro formation.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Internal Rb-Sr isochrons were determined on four basaltic rocks and on a basaltic clast from a breccia from the Fra Mauro landing site. An internal isochron was determined for rock 12004 and yielded a value in agreement with previous results for basaltic rocks from the Apollo 12 site. The crystallization ages for Apollo 14 basalts are only 0.2 to 0.3 AE older than were found for mare basalts from the Sea of Tranquility. Assuming these leucocratic igneous rocks to be representative of the Fra Mauro site, it follows that there were major igneous processes active in these regions, and presumably throughout the highlands, at times only slightly preceding the periods at which the maria were last flooded.

Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

1971-01-01

259

Was Project Management Life Really Better in Apollo?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation discusses the question of "Was Project Management Life Really Better in Apollo?" Was money really flowing freely all through Apollo? Are we wallowing in nostalgia and comparing current circumstances to a managerial time which did not exist? This talk discusses these and other questions as background for you as today s project managers. There are slides showing the timelines from before the speech that Kennedy gave promising to land a man on the moon, to the early 60's, when the manned space center prepared the preliminary lunar landing mission design, an NASA organization chart from 1970, various photos of the rockets, and the astronauts are presented. The next slides discuss the budgets from the 1960's to the early 1970's. Also the results of a survey of 62 managers, who were asked "What problems pose the greatest obstacles to successful project performance?"

2010-01-01

260

Apollo 11 Commander Armstrong Presents President With Commemorative Plaque  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On June 4, 1974, 5 years after the successful Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, commander Neil Armstrong (right) presented a plaque to U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (left) on behalf of all people who had taken part in the space program. In making the presentation, Armstrong said 'Mr. President, you have proclaimed this week to be United States Space week in conjunction with the fifth anniversary of our first successful landing on the Moon. It is my privilege to represent my colleagues, the crewmen of projects Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab, and the men and women of NASA, and the hundreds of thousands of Americans from across the land who contributed so mightily to the success of our efforts in space in presenting this plaque which bears the names of each individual who has had the privilege of representing this country' in a space flight. The presentation was made at the California white house in San Clemente.

1974-01-01

261

On the fundamental importance of the social psychology of research as a basic paradigm for the philosophy of science: A philosophical case study of the psychology of the Apollo moon scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combined philosophical and social psychological study of over 40 of the Apollo moon Scientists reveals that the Orthodox or Received View of Scientific Theories is found wanting in several respects: (1) observations are not theory-free; (2) scientific observations are not directly observable; and (3) observations are no less problematic than theories. The study also raises some severe criticisms of distinction between the context of discovery and the context of justification. Not only does this distinction fail to describe the actual practice of science but even more important it has the dangerous effect of excluding some of the strongest lines of evidence which could most effectively challenge the distinction. The distinction is harmful of efforts to found interdisciplinary theories and philosophies of science.

Mitroff, I. I.

1972-01-01

262

Apollo lunar surface experiments package  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ALSEP program status and monthly progress are reported. Environmental and quality control tests and test results are described. Details are given on the Apollo 17 Array E, and the lunar seismic profiling, ejecta and meteorites, mass spectrometer, surface gravimeter, and heat flow experiments. Monitoring of the four ALSEP systems on the moon is also described.

1972-01-01

263

Apollo 11 Astronaut Armstrong Arrives at the Flight Crew Training Building  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong walks to the flight crew training building at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, one week before the nation's first lunar landing mission. The Apollo 11 mission launched from KSC via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

264

Apollo 11 Astronaut Collins Arrives at the Flight Crew Training Building  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins carries his coffee with him as he arrives at the flight crew training building of the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, one week before the nation's first lunar landing mission. The Apollo 11 mission launched from KSC via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1968-01-01

265

NASA Administrator Paine and U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Await Apollo 11 Splashdown  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. Thomas Paine, NASA administrator (left) and U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon wait aboard the recovery ship, the U.S.S. Hornet, for splashdown of the Apollo 11 in the Pacific Ocean. Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man crew. The crew was taken to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

266

Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Addressed by U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days. Here, U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon gets a good laugh at something being said by Astronaut Collins (center) as astronauts Armstrong (left), and Aldrin (right) listen. The president was aboard the recovery vessel awaiting return of the astronauts. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

267

Jim Lovell Recalls Apollo 8 Launch Day - Duration: 1:11.  

NASA Video Gallery

Astronaut Jim Lovell, veteran of two Gemini flights as well as the legendary missions of Apollo 8 and Apollo 13, recalls his thoughts on launch day of Apollo 8 in 1968, when humans first left the E...

268

Apollo 11 Astronauts Share Laughs With U.S. President Nixon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). Here the quarantined Apollo 11 crew members (l to r) Armstrong, Collins, and Aldrin, and U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon share laughs over a comment made by fellow astronaut Frank Borman, Apollo 8 commander. The president was aboard the recovery vessel awaiting return of the astronauts. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

269

Tektite glass in apollo 12 sample.  

PubMed

The glassy portion of lunar sample 12013 from Apollo 12 is chemically more like some tektites from Java than like any terrestrial igneous rock. It satisfies all the chemical criteria for a tektite. Tektites are relatively recent and acid rocks, whereas the moon is chiefly ancient and basaltic; hence, tektites are probably ejected volcanically, rather than by impact, from the moon. PMID:17843588

O'keefe, J A

1970-06-01

270

First-order feasibility analysis of a space suit radiator concept based on estimation of water mass sublimation using Apollo mission data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal control of a space suit during extravehicular activity (EVA) is typically accomplished by sublimating water to provide system cooling. Spacecraft, on the other hand, primarily rely on radiators to dissipate heat. Integrating a radiator into a space suit has been proposed as an alternative design that does not require mass consumption for heat transfer. While providing cooling without water loss offers potential benefits for EVA application, it is not currently practical to rely on a directional, fixed-emissivity radiator to maintain thermal equilibrium of a spacesuit where the radiator orientation, environmental temperature, and crew member metabolic heat load fluctuate unpredictably. One approach that might make this feasible, however, is the use of electrochromic devices that are capable of infrared emissivity modulation and can be actively controlled across the entire suit surface to regulate net heat flux for the system. Integrating these devices onto the irregular, compliant space suit material requires that they be fabricated on a flexible substrate, such as Kapton film. An initial assessment of whether or not this candidate technology presents a feasible design option was conducted by first characterizing the mass of water loss from sublimation that could theoretically be saved if an electrochromic suit radiator was employed for thermal control. This is particularly important for lunar surface exploration, where the expense of transporting water from Earth is excessive, but the technology is potentially beneficial for other space missions as well. In order to define a baseline for this analysis by comparison to actual data, historical documents from the Apollo missions were mined for comprehensive, detailed metabolic data from each lunar surface outing, and related data from NASA's more recent "Advanced Lunar Walkback" tests were also analyzed. This metabolic database was then used to validate estimates for sublimator water consumption during surface EVAs, and solar elevation angles were added to predict the performance of an electrochromic space suit radiator under Apollo conditions. Then, using these actual data sets, the hypothetical water mass savings that would be expected had this technology been employed were calculated. The results indicate that electrochromic suit radiators would have reduced sublimator water consumption by 69.0% across the entire Apollo program, for a total mass savings of 68.5 kg to the lunar surface. Further analysis is needed to determine the net impact as a function of the complete system, taking into account both suit components and consumable mass, but the water mass reduction found in this study suggests a favorable system trade is likely.

Metts, Jonathan G.; Klaus, David M.

2012-01-01

271

Astronaut Eugene Cernan and Edwin Aldrin during Apollo 10 debriefing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan (left), lunar module pilot of the Apollo 10 lunar orbit mission, confers with Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. during an Apollo 10 postflight debriefing session. Aldrin is the lunar module pilot of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission.

1969-01-01

272

Geochemical Exploration of the Moon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information based on explorations of the Apollo program about the geochemistry of the moon and its importance in developing an understanding of formation/evolution of the solar system. Includes description and some results of orbital remote sensing, lunar x-ray experiments, gamma-ray experiments, alpha-particle experiments, and the Apollo

Adler, Isidore

1984-01-01

273

Recovery and Restoration of Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) Data by the NSSDC and the PDS Lunar Data Node  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronauts on the Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17 missions deployed long-lived (5 to 8 years) automated instrument suites on the Moon, the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Packages (ALSEP). The instruments were all turned off in September of 1977, but long before this the Apollo program and most of its funding had been abruptly cancelled. One result of this sudden cancellation was the loss of resources to properly archive these experiment data. Much of the data, particularly from the later years, were lost or saved in obsolete or difficult to access formats, and not properly documented. None of the surface data archived at National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) were in a form which could be easily archived with the Planetary Data System (PDS). The Lunar Data Project was started at NSSDC in order to recover and restore Apollo data into usable, well-documented digital formats. The PDS Lunar Data Node was established at NSSDC under the auspices of the PDS Geosciences Node to produce validated PDS data sets from the restored data. Six ALSEP data sets are archived at PDS: Apollo 12 and 15 Solar Wind Spectrometer 28-sec and hourly averages, and Apollo 14 and 15 Cold Cathode Ion Gage plots. (Other surface data, from the Apollo 17 Traverse Gravimeter and the Apollo 15 and 16 Penetrometer Soil Mechanics Experiments, have also been restored and are archived with PDS.) Apollo 14 and 15 Dust Detector data and Apollo 15 and 17 Heat Flow data have been restored and gone through a PDS review. They are now undergoing lien resolution. We are currently recovering data and restoring Apollo 12, 14, and 15 Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment, Apollo 14 Charged Particle Lunar Environment Experiment, Apollo 17 Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment, and Apollo 17 Lunar Ejecta and Meteorite data. Lunar Surface Magnetometer data from Apollo 15 and 16 are being restored by another group led by Peter Chi at U.C.L.A. We are also restoring, in conjunction with Yosio Nakamura (University of Texas), the ALSEP Housekeeping (Word 33) data which contain information on instrument status, temperature, power, and other parameters which are important to the interpretation of much of the instrument data. Raw data telemetry exist for the ALSEPs from March 1976 until turnoff in September 1977. Efforts are underway, led by Seiichi Nagihara (Texas Tech University), to recover more of this telemetry, stored on what are known as the ARCSAV tapes. A small number of these tapes have been recovered from the National Records Center and are being read. We report on progress and future work planned for the ALSEP data restorations.

Williams, D. R.; Hills, H. K.; Guinness, E. A.; Taylor, P. T.; McBride, M. J.

2013-12-01

274

Moon - Western Near Side  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image of the crescent moon was obtained by the Galileo Solid State imaging system on December 8 at 5 a.m. PST as the Galileo spacecraft neared the Earth. The image was taken through a green filter and shows the western part of the lunar nearside. The smallest features visible are 8 kilometers (5 miles) in size. Major features visible include the dark plains of Mare Imbrium in the upper part of the image, the bright crater Copernicus (100 km, 60 miles in diameter) in the central part, and the heavily cratered lunar highlands in the bottom of the image. The landing sides of the Apollo 12, 14 and 15 missions lie within the central part of the image. Samples returned from these sites will be used to calibrate this and accompanying images taken in different colors, which will extend the knowledge of the spectral and compositional properties of the nearside of the moon, seen from Earth, to the lunar far side.

1990-01-01

275

First Apollo 11 Lunar Samples Arrive at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. This photograph was taken as the mission's first loaded sample return container arrived at Ellington Air Force Base by air from the Pacific recovery area. The rock box was immediately taken to the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) in Houston, Texas. Happily posing for the photograph with the rock container are (L-R) Richard S. Johnston (back), special assistant to the MSC Director; George M. Low, MSC Apollo Spacecraft Program manager; George S. Trimble (back), MSC Deputy Director; Lt. General Samuel C. Phillips, Apollo Program Director, Office of Manned Spaceflight at NASA headquarters; Eugene G. Edmonds, MSC Photographic Technology Laboratory; Dr. Thomas O. Paine, NASA Administrator; and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC Director.

1969-01-01

276

NSSDC Photo Gallery Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA photo archive contains images of the moon from different spacecraft missions, including Clementine, Galileo, and the Hubble. The page also links to information about each craft and the moon.

2010-04-16

277

Apollo 15 30-day failure and anomaly listing report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The significant anomalies that occurred during the Apollo 15 mission are discussed. The five major areas are command and service modules, lunar module, scientific instrument module experiments, Apollo lunar surface experiment package and associated equipment, and government furnished equipment.

1971-01-01

278

General human health issues for Moon and Mars missions: Results from the HUMEX study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general health issues considered in two scenarios of human long-term exploratory missions, which include a mission to a lunar base and a mission to Mars, have been analysed. Based on statistical data from occupational and normal population groups of Western countries, the following safety objectives have been chosen: individual risk of death by illness (=natural death) during the mission shall be <2 × 10-3/year, that by injury (=accidental death) <4 × 10-4/year, and that from all causes, including spacecraft failure (taken from most exposed professions) <3 × 10-2/year. Using the classical reliability requirements for human space missions, reliability objectives have been set for each mission scenario, resulting in values compatible with the mission safety objectives. The main results are as follows: (i) based of the probability of occurrence of diseases and injuries and on the constraints imposed by exploratory mission scenarios, the crew shall have a full autonomy in terms of medical and surgical diagnostics and care means and competency; (ii) the control of the toxic and biological risks in a confined environment for a so long exposure shall be carefully analyzed and the technical solutions shall master these risks; (iii) the state of the art shows that bone loss during the long stay in weightlessness, especially during missions to Mars, remains an unacceptable risk. Solutions to control and to prevent this risk shall be developed; (iv) the control of human physical capacity impairment under weightlessness shall be optimised. A roadmap in the field of health care has been elaborated for a future European participation strategy towards human exploratory missions taking into account preparatory activities, such as analogue situations and ISS opportunities, and potential terrestrial applications and benefits.

Horneck, Gerda; Comet, Bernard

279

Apollo 11 Launched Via Saturn V Rocket - High Angle View  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle produced a holocaust of flames as it rose from its pad at Launch complex 39. The 363 foot tall, 6,400,000 pound rocket hurled the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit and then placed it on the trajectory to the moon. This high angle view of the launch was provided by a `fisheye' camera mounted on the launch tower. The Saturn V was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard the spacecraft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

280

Apollo 11 Quarantine Facility Prepared for Loading Onto Jet Transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. In this photo taken at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, the inhabited MQF is prepared for loading into an Air Force C-141 jet transport for the flight back to Ellington Air Force Base Texas and then on to the MSC.

1969-01-01

281

Apollo 11 Occupied Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) Moved For Transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. The occupied MQF was unloaded from the U.S.S. Hornet in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. In this photo, the facility is moved from the Hornet's dock enroute to Hickam Field where it was loaded aboard an Air Force C-141 jet transport for the flight back to Ellington Air Force Base Texas, and then on to the MSC.

1969-01-01

282

Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Address by Hawaiian Governor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days. The recovery vessel docked in Pearl Harbor Hawaii, where the occupied MQF was transferred for transport to the to NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. In this photo the quarantined astronauts are addressed by Hawaiian Governor John Burns upon their arrival at Pearl Harbor.

1969-01-01

283

Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Loaded Onto Trailer For Transport  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home for 21 days. In this photo taken at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, the quarantined housing facility is being lowered from the U.S.S. Hornet, onto a trailer for transport to Hickam Field. From there, it was loaded aboard an Air Force C-141 jet and flown back to Ellington Air Force Base Texas, and then on to the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas.

1969-01-01

284

The Legacy of Apollo: a Thirty Year Perspective  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

John F. Kennedy's challenge in 1961 for an American commitment toward "achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to Earth" stimulated a remarkable coincidence of many truly American characteristics. It can be argued that American's do truly great things for humanity and themselves when five societal conditions are in coincidence - a sufficient base of technology to serve as a foundation for the effort, a reservoir of young engineers and skilled workers to draw up on, a pervasive environment of national unease about the way things are, a catalytic event that begins to focus attention on a potential goal worth the Nation's effort, and an articulate and trusted President. Kennedy fully deserves the credit for recognizing the needed response to the Soviet challenge and thus formally initiating the U.S. effort that first put men, in particular, Americans on the Moon. Much of the conceptual and political heavy lifting, however, necessary to give policy makers the confidence that such an effort could be successful, had been undertaken in the last few years of President Dwight D. Eisenhower's Administration. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) had been created in 1958, NASA and industry studies of manned lunar missions were well advanced, and Eisenhower had initiated the development of rockets capable of such missions. Apollo also gave all human beings a new evolutionary status in the universe as well as a new foundation of know-how for life on Earth. With Apollo, humankind demonstrated that it had the intellect and the will to go into space and stay there permanently. As a consequence, young people alive today will live on the Moon and Mars and will help their home planet survive itself as America helped former homelands in Europe and Asia in recent centuries. race to the Moon. Both Americans and Russians can be proud of the eventual results of their competition.

Schmitt, Harrison H.

2002-01-01

285

Complex Indigenous Organic Matter Embedded in Apollo 17 Volcanic Black Glass Surface Deposits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers presented at the first Lunar Science Conference [1] and those published in the subsequent Science Moon Issue [2] reported the C content of Apollo II soils, breccias, and igneous rocks as rang-ing from approx.50 to 250 parts per million (ppm). Later Fegley & Swindle [3] summarized the C content of bulk soils from all the Apollo missions as ranging from 2.5 (Apollo 15) to 280 ppm (Apollo 16) with an overall average of 124+/- 45 ppm. These values are unexpectedly low given that multiple processes should have contributed (and in some cases continue to contribute) to the lunar C inventory. These include exogenous accretion of cometary and asteroidal dust, solar wind implantation, and synthesis of C-bearing species during early lunar volcanism. We estimate the contribution of C from exogenous sources alone is approx.500 ppm, which is approx.4x greater than the reported average. While the assessm ent of indigenous organic matter (OM) in returned lunar samples was one of the primary scientific goals of the Apollo program, extensive analysis of Apollo samples yielded no evidence of any significant indigenous organic species. Furthermore, with such low concentrations of OM reported, the importance of discriminating indigenous OM from terrestrial contamination (e.g., lunar module exhaust, sample processing and handling) became a formidable task. After more than 40 years, with the exception of CH4 [5-7], the presence of indigenous lunar organics still remains a subject of considerable debate. We report for the first time the identification of arguably indigenous OM present within surface deposits of black glass grains collected on the rim of Shorty crater during the Apollo 17 mission by astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt.

Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, S. J.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; Rahman, Z.; Gonzalez, C.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.

2013-01-01

286

Heterogeneous distribution of water in the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Initial analyses of lunar samples returned by the Apollo missions indicated that the Moon was essentially devoid of water. However, improved analytical techniques have revealed that pyroclastic glass beads in Apollo samples contain measurable amounts of water. Taking into account volatile loss during eruption of the glass beads onto the surface, the pre-eruption magma could have contained water on the order of 100 ppm by weight, concentrations that are similar to the mantle sources of mid-ocean ridge basalts on Earth. Lava flows from vast basaltic plains -- the lunar maria -- also contain appreciable amounts of water, as shown by analyses of apatite in mare basalt samples. In contrast, apatite in most non-mare rocks contains much less water than the mare basalts and glass beads. The hydrogen isotopic composition of lunar samples is relatively similar to that of the Earth's interior, but the deuterium to hydrogen ratios obtained from lunar samples seem to have a larger range than found in Earth's mantle. Thus, measurements of water concentration and hydrogen isotopic composition suggest that water is heterogeneously distributed in the Moon and varies in isotopic composition. The variability in the Moon's water may reflect heterogeneity in accretion processes, redistribution during differentiation or later additions by volatile-rich impactors.

Robinson, Katharine L.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey

2014-06-01

287

High-resolution Local Gravity Model of the South Pole of the Moon from GRAIL Extended Mission Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We estimated a high-resolution local gravity field model over the south pole of the Moon using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory's extended mission. Our solution consists of adjustments with respect to a global model expressed in spherical harmonics. The adjustments are expressed as gridded gravity anomalies with a resolution of 1/6deg by 1/6deg (equivalent to that of a degree and order 1080 model in spherical harmonics), covering a cap over the south pole with a radius of 40deg. The gravity anomalies have been estimated from a short-arc analysis using only Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data over the area of interest. We apply a neighbor-smoothing constraint to our solution. Our local model removes striping present in the global model; it reduces the misfit to the KBRR data and improves correlations with topography to higher degrees than current global models.

Goossens, Sander Johannes; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Rowlands, David D.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

2014-01-01

288

Neil Armstrong chats with attendees at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong is the center of attention at the anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon. He appeared at the banquet with other former astronauts Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan, Walt Cunningham and others.

1999-01-01

289

Continued Analysis and Restoration of Apollo DTREM Instrument Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the years of 1969 to 1972, NASA sent 12 men to walk on the surface of the Moon. On each mission, on the first lunar extra vehicular activity, the astronauts deployed the Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP) (Apollo 11) or the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) (Apollo 12 - 17). The EASEP was a short-lived package that operated for a few months while the ALSEP contained scientific instruments to collect data on the lunar environment long after the astronauts had left the lunar surface. Part of the package on Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 was the Dust, Radiation, Thermal, Engineering Measurement (DTREM), also known as the Lunar Dust Detector. The DTREM was a small fiberglass box that had 3 thermometers and 3 solar cells. The output from the solar cells was used to determine the degradation of the cells from dust, temperature, and radiation on the lunar surface. Over a period of 5-7 years, the DTREM instruments collected data and returned them to Earth through the ALSEP central station housekeeping (Word 33) telemetry stream. The data were in the form of raw digitized telemetry files. The only translated and calibrated data from the instrument that existed were 38 reels of computer printout images archived at the National Space Science Data Center. As part of the lunar data restoration effort, the raw telemetry files from the communications stream have been translated and recalibrated, using the archived microfilm record to determine the correct values in terms of temperature and voltage output. Once they have been properly archived by the Lunar Data Node of the Planetary Data System (PDS) the data sets will be released to the scientific community. The DTREM instrument collected data every 54 seconds for 6 years on the Apollo 14 and 15 missions. The immense size of the data set required that a process be created to convert the raw telemetry fires autonomously. Therefore, we have recreated a digital version of the data from Apollo 14 and 15 that includes time, temperature, and uncalibrated and calibrated solar cell output. The digital version of the data allows modern analytical techniques to be performed with computers which were unavailable in the 1970's. We have also extended the available data to the turn-off in 1977. This makes it easier to determine solar cell degradation and to study the effects of dust and temperature vs. radiation. In the future, we plan to examine effects of the August, 1972 solar-proton event on the solar cells, and to look at other sources of solar cell degradation.

McBride, M. J.; Williams, D. R.; Hills, H. K.

2013-12-01

290

Exploring the Moon Educator Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educator's guide with activities promotes problem solving, communication skills and teamwork. Topics include lunar geology and regolith, distance to the moon, Apollo landing sites, and life support systems. Some of the activities involve the Lunar Sample Disk, a set of samples of lunar rocks and regolith embedded in a 15-cm diameter plastic disk. Disks are sent via registered mail to educators for one- to two-week loan periods. The package also includes the book 'Exploring the Moon', an annotated slide set of lunar images, and a collection of color photographs and descriptions of the six samples. The activities are divided into three units: Pre-Apollo, Learning from Apollo, and the Future. These correspond roughly to exercises that can be done before the Lunar Sample Disk arrives (Pre-Apollo), while it is there (Learning from Apollo), and after it has been returned (The Future).

291

COMPASS Final Report: Saturn Moons Orbiter Using Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP): Flagship Class Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The COllaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team was approached by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) In-Space Project to perform a design session to develop Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) Spacecraft Conceptual Designs (with cost, risk, and reliability) for missions of three different classes: New Frontier s Class Centaur Orbiter (with Trojan flyby), Flagship, and Discovery. The designs will allow trading of current and future propulsion systems. The results will directly support technology development decisions. The results of the Flagship mission design are reported in this document

Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.

2011-01-01

292

Gravity field of the Moon from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission.  

PubMed

Spacecraft-to-spacecraft tracking observations from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) have been used to construct a gravitational field of the Moon to spherical harmonic degree and order 420. The GRAIL field reveals features not previously resolved, including tectonic structures, volcanic landforms, basin rings, crater central peaks, and numerous simple craters. From degrees 80 through 300, over 98% of the gravitational signature is associated with topography, a result that reflects the preservation of crater relief in highly fractured crust. The remaining 2% represents fine details of subsurface structure not previously resolved. GRAIL elucidates the role of impact bombardment in homogenizing the distribution of shallow density anomalies on terrestrial planetary bodies. PMID:23223395

Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E; Watkins, Michael M; Asmar, Sami W; Konopliv, Alexander S; Lemoine, Frank G; Melosh, H Jay; Neumann, Gregory A; Phillips, Roger J; Solomon, Sean C; Wieczorek, Mark A; Williams, James G; Goossens, Sander J; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Mazarico, Erwan; Park, Ryan S; Yuan, Dah-Ning

2013-02-01

293

NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets Neil Armstrong at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible, former Apollo astronaut Neil A. Armstrong (left) shakes the hand of Judy Goldin (center), wife of NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin (right). The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Among the guests at the banquet were former Apollo astronauts are Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch of the first moon landing; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17 and was the last man to walk on the moon; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7.

1999-01-01

294

U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Arrives Aboard U.S.S. Hornet for Apollo 11 Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (center), is saluted by the honor guard of flight deck crewmen when he arrives aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 11 mission, to watch recovery operations and welcome the astronauts home. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days following the mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun.

1969-01-01

295

Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Addressed by U.S. President Nixon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted by helicopter and taken to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). Shown here are the Apollo 11 crew members (L to R) Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin Aldrin inside the MQF as U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon speaks to them via intercom. The president was aboard the recovery vessel awaiting return of the astronauts. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

296

View of activity in Mission Control Center during Lunar Module liftoff  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A partial view of activity in the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center during the liftoff of the Apollo 15 Lunar Module 'Falcon' ascent stage from the lunar surface. An RCA color television camera mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle made it possible for people on Earth to watch the Lunar Module (LM) launch from the Moon. Seated in the right foreground is Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, a spacecraft communicator. Note liftoff on the television monitor in the center background.

1971-01-01

297

Interpretation of the Apollo 14 Thermal Degradation Sample experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Thermal Degradation Sample (TDS) experiment was one of the many investigations performed on the lunar surface during Apollo 14. Remarkably, the results of this 40 year old experiment were never fully interpreted, perhaps in part because the hardware vanished after its return. Mission records, high resolution photographs returned from the mission, and recent laboratory investigations have been used to glean important results from this experiment. It is most likely that the dust adhesion to the TDS was less than anticipated because of atomic-level contamination of its surfaces. These contaminants were probably removed from most equipment surfaces on the Moon by sputter cleaning by the solar wind, but the TDS experiments were not exposed to the solar wind long enough to affect the cleaning.

Gaier, James R.

2012-09-01

298

3D Lunar Terrain Reconstruction from Apollo Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Generating accurate three dimensional planetary models is becoming increasingly important as NASA plans manned missions to return to the Moon in the next decade. This paper describes a 3D surface reconstruction system called the Ames Stereo Pipeline that is designed to produce such models automatically by processing orbital stereo imagery. We discuss two important core aspects of this system: (1) refinement of satellite station positions and pose estimates through least squares bundle adjustment; and (2) a stochastic plane fitting algorithm that generalizes the Lucas-Kanade method for optimal matching between stereo pair images.. These techniques allow us to automatically produce seamless, highly accurate digital elevation models from multiple stereo image pairs while significantly reducing the influence of image noise. Our technique is demonstrated on a set of 71 high resolution scanned images from the Apollo 15 mission

Broxton, Michael J.; Nefian, Ara V.; Moratto, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Lundy, Michael; Segal, Alkeksandr V.

2009-01-01

299

General Human Health Issues For Moon And Mars Missions: Results From The HUMEX Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human exploratory missions, such as the establishment of a permanently inhabited lunar base and/or human visits to Mars will add a new dimension to human space flight, concerning the distance of travel, the radiation environment, the gravity lev-els, the duration of the mission, and the level of confinement and isolation the crew will be exposed to. This will raise the significance of several health issues. Besides spaceflight specific risks, such as radiation health, gravity related effects and psy-chological issues, general health issues need to be considered. These individual risks of illness, injury or death are based on general human health statistics. The duration of the mission is the main factor in these considerations. These risk estimations are the base which have to supplemented by the risks related specifically to the nature of the expedition under consideration. Crew health and performance have to be secured during transfer flights, during lunar or Mars surface exploration, including EVAs, and upon return to Earth, as defined within the constraints of safety objectives and mass restrictions of the mission. Within the ESA Study on the Survivability and Adaptation of Humans to Long-Duration Interplanetary and Planetary Environments (so called HUMEX study), we have critically assessed the human responses, limits and needs with regard to the environments of interplanetary and planetary missions. Based on various scenarios, the crew health risks have been evaluated. The main results are as follows: (i) The state of the art shows that bone loss during the long stay in weightlessness, especially during missions to Mars, remains an unacceptable risk. Solutions to control and to prevent this risk shall be developed. (ii) The control of human physical capacity impairment under weightlessness shall be optimized. (iii) Based of the probability of occurrence of diseases and injuries and on the con-straints imposed by exploratory mission scenarios, the crew shall have a full auton-omy in terms of medical and surgical diagnostics and care means and competency. (iv) The control of the toxic and biological risks in a confined environment for a so long exposure shall be carefully analyzed and the technical solutions shall master these risks. A roadmap in the field of health care has been elaborated for a future European participation strategy towards human exploratory missions taking into account preparatory activities, such as analogue situations and ISS opportunities, European positioning and potential terrestrial applications and benefits. References: Horneck G. , R. Facius, M. Reichert, P. Rettberg, W. Seboldt, D. Man-zey, B. Comet, A. Maillet, H. Preiss, L. Schauer, C.G. Dussap, L. Poughon, A. Belyavin, G. Reitz, C. Baumstark-Khan, R. Gerzer (2003) HUMEX, a Study on the Survivability and Adaptation of Humans to Long-Duration Exploratory Missions, ESA SP-1264

Horneck, G.; Comet, B.

300

Seismology of the moon and implications on internal structure, origin and evolution.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The objective of the passive seismic experiment is to measure vibrations of the lunar surface produced by all natural and artificial sources of seismic energy and to use these data to deduce the internal structure and constitution of the moon and the nature of tectonic processes which may be active within the moon. Lunar seismic signals are discussed together with the sources of these signals, and aspects of lunar structure and dynamics. Seismic signals from approximately 250 natural events and from two man-made impacts have been recorded during seven months of operation of the two seismic stations installed during Apollo missions 11 and 12.

Ewing, M.; Latham, G.; Dorman, J.; Press, F.; Sutton, G.; Meissner, R.; Duennebier, F.; Nakamura, Y.; Kovach, R.

1971-01-01

301

Five Apollo astronauts with Lunar Module at ASVC prior to grand opening  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some of the former Apollo program astronauts observe a Lunar Module and Moon mockup during a tour the new Apollo/Saturn V Center (ASVC) at KSC prior to the gala grand opening ceremony for the facility that was held Jan. 8, 1997. The astronauts were invited to participate in the event, which also featured NASA Administrator Dan Goldin and KSC Director Jay Honeycutt. Some of the visiting astonauts were (from left): Apollo 10 Lunar Module Pilot and Apollo 17 Commander Eugene A. Cernan; Apollo 9 Lunar Module Pilot Russell L. Schweikart; Apollo 10 Command Module Pilot and Apollo 16 Commander John W. Young; Apollo 10 Commander Thomas P. Stafford; and Apollo 11 Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. 'Buzz' Aldrin, Jr. The ASVC also features several other Apollo program spacecraft components, multimedia presentations and a simulated Apollo/Saturn V liftoff. The facility will be a part of the KSC bus tour that embarks from the KSC Visitor Center.

1997-01-01

302

APOLLO 13: A News Bulletin from ABC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

APOLLO 13: ABC breaks the news of a mishap aboard the spacecraft From the film documentary 'APOLLO 13: 'Houston, We've got a problem'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 13 : Third manned lunar landing attempt with James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Pressure lost in SM oxygen system; mission aborted; LM used for life support. Mission Duration 142hrs 54mins 41sec

1974-01-01

303

Apollo Field Geology: 45 Years of Digesting Rocks, Field Data, and Future Objectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Twelve Apollo astronauts participated in the Lunar Field Geological Experiment, overseen by Gene Shoemaker, Gordon Swann, and Bill Muehlberger and their Co-Investigators. In conjunction with geologists and engineers of the Geological Survey and NASA, this team planned, trained and executed the first extraterrestrial field geological investigation. As a result, astronaut sample selection, observations, photo-documentation and experiment deployment underpin 45 years of laboratory analyses and interpretation by thousands of lunar and planetary scientists. --Current hypotheses related to the origin, evolution and nature of the Moon would be far different had Apollo geological explorations not occurred, even assuming that all robotic missions flown before and since Apollo were flown. *Would we have recognized lunar meteorites without the broad suite of Apollo samples to guide us? If we eventually had properly identified such meteorites, would their chemistry and age data give us the same detailed insights about the origin and evolution of the Moon without the highly specific field documentation of samples collected by the astronauts? *Would we recognize that the early history of the Earth and Mars up to 3.8 billion years ago, including the development of life's precursors, was a period of the prolonged violence due to impacts of asteroids and comets? Would we have realized that clay minerals, produced by the alteration of impact-generated glass and debris, would have been dominant components and potential templates for complex organic molecules in the terrestrial and Martian environments? *Would we fully understand the surface environments of asteroids and young terrestrial planets without the detailed dissection and analysis of Apollo's lunar regolith samples? *Would the Moon's near-surface environment, and its mantle and core structure, be as well defined as they are without the ground-truth provided by Apollo samples and the equipment carefully emplaced there by the Apollo astronauts? *Would we finally be having an observation-based debate about testable hypotheses related to the origin of the Moon without the pristine samples of volatile-rich, orange and green pyroclastic glass? *Would we know of the three potential sources of lunar water-ice in permanent shadow, namely, comets, solar wind, and primordial water, without Apollo's samples of the regolith and pristine pyroclastic glasses? *Would we know the extent of the distributed resources of the Moon, including solar Helium-3, without regolith samples from six sites on the Moon? *Without the broad spectrum of Apollo samples, many other questions about the Moon would still be open or unasked. --Future lunar and planetary geological exploration should focus both on expanding science related to the history of the Earth and other planets and on preparations for permanent human settlement. In optimizing that exploration, an enhanced partnership between field activities undertaken by humans and robots should be developed. Robotic precursor and post-cursor support of planning, equipment deployment, and systematic data-gathering can add significantly to the normal returns provided by the insights of trained and experienced field geologists. They should do what humans do best, that is, react instantaneously and with perspicacity to new situations, discoveries and challenges.

Schmitt, H. H.

2012-12-01

304

Rare earth element selenochemistry of immiscible liquids and zircon at Apollo 14 - An ion probe study of evolved rocks on the moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results are presented of trace-element analyses of three lunar zircons. The major-element and REE compositions were determined using electron microprobes, and a correction was made for zircon for Zr-Si-O molecular interferences in the La to Pr mass region. The three zircons were found to exhibit similar REE abundances and patterns. Results of the analyses confirm earlier studies (Hess et al., 1975; Watson, 1976; Neal and Taylor, 1989) on the partitioning behavior of trace elements in immiscible liquid-liquid pairs. The results also support the postulated importance of silicate liquid immiscibility in the differentiation of the upper mantle and crust of the moon.

Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Crozaz, Ghislaine

1993-01-01

305

What happened to the moon? A lunar history mission using neutrons  

SciTech Connect

The ages of lunar rocks can be determined using the {sup 40}Ar -{sup 39}Ar technique that can be used in-situ on the moon if a neutron source, a noble gas mass spectrometer and a gas extraction and purification system are brought to the lunar surface. A possible instrument for such a task is ISAGE, which combines a strong {sup 252}Cf neutron source and a compact spectrometer for in-situ dating of e.g. the South Pole Aitken impact basin or the potentially very young basalts south of the Aristachus Plateau. In this paper, the design of the neutron source will be discussed. The source is assumed to be a hollow sphere surrounded by a reflector, a geometry that provides a very homogeneous flux at the irradiation position inside the sphere. The optimal source geometry depending on the experimental conditions, the costs of transportation for the reflector and the costs of the source itself are calculated. A minimum {sup 252}Cf mass of 1.5 mg is determined. (authors)

Breitkreutz, H.; Li, X. [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, FRM II, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Burfeindt, J.; Bernhardt, H. G.; Hoffmann, P. [Kayser-Threde GmbH, Wolfratshauser Str. 48, D-81379 Muenchen (Germany); Trieloff, M.; Schwarz, W. H.; Hopp, J. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Jessberger, E. K.; Hiesinger, H. [Institut fuer Planetologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

2011-07-01

306

The Impact of Apollo-Era Microbiology on Human Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The microbiota of crewmembers and the spacecraft environment contributes significant risk to crew health during space flight missions. NASA reduces microbial risk with various mitigation methods that originated during the Apollo Program and continued to evolve through subsequent programs: Skylab, Shuttle, and International Space Station (ISS). A quarantine of the crew and lunar surface samples, within the Lunar Receiving Laboratory following return from the Moon, was used to prevent contamination with unknown extraterrestrial organisms. The quarantine durations for the crew and lunar samples were 21 days and 50 days, respectively. A series of infections among Apollo crewmembers resulted in a quarantine before launch to limit exposure to infectious organisms. This Health Stabilization Program isolated the crew for 21 days before flight and was effective in reducing crew illness. After the program developed water recovery hardware for Apollo spacecraft, the 1967 National Academy of Science Space Science Board recommended the monitoring of potable water. NASA implemented acceptability limits of 10 colony forming units (CFU) per mL and the absence of viable E. coli, anaerobes, yeasts, and molds in three separate 150 mL aliquots. Microbiological investigations of the crew and spacecraft environment were conducted during the Apollo program, including the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project and Skylab. Subsequent space programs implemented microbial screening of the crew for pathogens and acceptability limits on spacecraft surfaces and air. Microbiology risk mitigation methods have evolved since the Apollo program. NASA cancelled the quarantine of the crew after return from the lunar surface, reduced the duration of the Health Stabilization Program; and implemented acceptability limits for spacecraft surfaces and air. While microbial risks were not a main focus of the early Mercury and Gemini programs, the extended duration of Apollo flights resulted in the increased scrutiny of impact of the space flight environment on crew health. The lessons learned during that era of space flight continue to impact microbiology risk mitigation in space programs today.

Elliott, T. F; Castro, V. A.; Bruce, R. J.; Pierson, D. L.

2014-01-01

307

Mineralization on the moon? Theoretical considerations of Apollo 16 'rusty rocks', sulfide replacement in 67016, and surface-correlated volatiles on lunar volcanic glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical considerations of vapor-rock interactions in the lunar environment are a useful supplement to petrologic studies of mineralization or alteration in rocks from the moon. They also provide insights into the potential for the existence of more extensive mineralization on the moon than is found in the limited sample set. Discussed in this paper are the coexistence and textural association in 66095 of the phases lawrencite, troilite, schreibersite, iron metal, and sphalerite; the replacement of olivine in certain clasts of 67016 by troilite and enstatite; and the existence of Zn + S deposits on the surfaces of volcanic glass beads. Particular attention is given in each case to whether the observed mineralization implies that metals, as well as S, P, or Cl, have been mobilized in the vapor. Vapor species that might mobilize metals in the absence of H2O are considered. Most importantly, the suggestion is made that in the dry lunar environment carbonyl species may be important carriers of S and metals. The implications of this possibility are discussed.

Colson, Russell O.

1992-01-01

308

Apollo 14 lunar photography. Part 1: Data user's note  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The availability of Apollo 14 pictorial data is announced to aid investigators in the selection of Apollo 14 photographs for study. Guidance in the interpretation of the photographs is provided. As background information, the note includes brief descriptions of the Apollo 14 mission objectives, photographic equipment, and photographic coverage and quality. The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) can provide the photographs described.

Anderson, A. T.; Niksch, M. A.

1971-01-01

309

Science Goals of MAJIS, the Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer, selected for the ESA/JUICE mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer (MAJIS) is the VIS-IR spectral mapper selected for the JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer) L-class mission by ESA. Launched in 2022, JUICE will perform 35 targeted flybys of Galilean satellites (Callisto: 20; Ganymede: 13; Europa: 2) from January 2030 to September 2032, then a 9 months orbital phase around Ganymede. This comprehensive tour will make it possible to perform in-depth investigations of the atmosphere of Jupiter (including at high latitudes during a sequence of inclined orbits in mid-tour), Io, small satellites, rings and dust in the Jupiter system. Spectral imaging in the visible and near-IR ranges is a key technique for characterizing the composition of both surfaces and atmospheres. MAJIS will provide spectral imaging observations of the Jupiter system with an unprecedented coverage, spatial resolution (0.125 mrad, e.g. 62.5 m / pixel for Ganymede on a 500 km altitude orbit and 125 km / pixel for Jupiter from the orbit of Ganymede) and spectral resolution (1280 spectral channels from 0.4 µm to 5.7 µm), adressing major science goals of JUICE: - Determination of the icy, mineral and organic composition of the surface of satellites - Relationship between composition and geological processes - Detection of volatiles, relationship with cryovolcanic activity and exobiology - Interaction of surfaces with the environment, characterization of exospheres - Time evolution of hot spots on Io (40 distant encounters, down to 50 km/pixel) - Exospheres of Galilean satellites, relationship with the surface and the environment - Compositional relationship between small satellites and rings - Stratospheric and thermospheric structure of the atmosphere of Jupiter - Composition and general circulation of the atmosphere of Jupiter, clouds, hot spots - Minor constituents (water, hydrocarbon chemistry) - Vertical mixing in the stratosphere of Jupiter - Observations of Auroral emissions During the initial stages of the study phase, specific scenarios are investigated so as to best use spacecraft capabilities for science during critical mission phases such as the 500 km circular orbit arount Ganymede, the Europa flybys and the high inclination orbits. A large mass storage capability is foreseen, which is particularly useful for MAJIS given its large data output during satellite flybys and time evolution sequences for Jupiter. There will be limitations due to downlink, but the present allocation will already make it possible to obtain extensive coverage as well as many opportunities for HR observations by MAJIS.

Langevin, Yves; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Filacchione, Gianrico; Poulet, Francois; Eng, Pascal; Tosi, Federico; Majis Team

2014-05-01

310

Apollo 15 Proves Galileo Correct - Duration: 0:48.  

NASA Video Gallery

At the end of the last Apollo 15 moon walk, Commander David Scott held out a geologic hammer and a feather and dropped them at the same time. Because they were essentially in a vacuum, there was no...

311

Abort Options for Human Missions to Earth-Moon Halo Orbits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abort trajectories are optimized for human halo orbit missions about the translunar libration point (L2), with an emphasis on the use of free return trajectories. Optimal transfers from outbound free returns to L2 halo orbits are numerically optimized in the four-body ephemeris model. Circumlunar free returns are used for direct transfers, and cislunar free returns are used in combination with lunar gravity assists to reduce propulsive requirements. Trends in orbit insertion cost and flight time are documented across the southern L2 halo family as a function of halo orbit position and free return flight time. It is determined that the maximum amplitude southern halo incurs the lowest orbit insertion cost for direct transfers but the maximum cost for lunar gravity assist transfers. The minimum amplitude halo is the most expensive destination for direct transfers but the least expensive for lunar gravity assist transfers. The on-orbit abort costs for three halos are computed as a function of abort time and return time. Finally, an architecture analysis is performed to determine launch and on-orbit vehicle requirements for halo orbit missions.

Jesick, Mark C.

2013-01-01

312

The Moon may have been more active than  

E-print Network

The Moon may have been more active than thought. Photo: Paul Sutherland http://w w w .skymania.com/w p/2012/01/w hat-drove-old-moons-magnetic-field.html/5442/ March 14, 2012 What drove Moon's magnetic field? Posted by Rocks returned from the Moon by Apollo astronauts continue to continue to give up

Weiss, Benjamin P.

313

Exploring the Moon: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Earth and Space Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This educational guide concerns exploring the moon. Activities are divided into three units: Pre-Apollo, Learning from Apollo, and The Future. These correspond, at least roughly, to exercises that can be done before the Lunar Sample Disk (available from NASA) arrives to the school (Pre-Apollo), while it is there (Learning from Apollo), and after…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

314

Long-lasting Science Returns from the Apollo Heat Flow Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Apollo astronauts deployed geothermal heat flow instruments at landing sites 15 and 17 as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEP) in July 1971 and December 1972, respectively. These instruments continuously transmitted data to the Earth until September 1977. Four decades later, the data from the two Apollo sites remain the only set of in-situ heat flow measurements obtained on an extra-terrestrial body. Researchers continue to extract additional knowledge from this dataset by utilizing new analytical techniques and by synthesizing it with data from more recent lunar orbital missions such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. In addition, lessons learned from the Apollo experiments help contemporary researchers in designing heat flow instruments for future missions to the Moon and other planetary bodies. For example, the data from both Apollo sites showed gradual warming trends in the subsurface from 1971 to 1977. The cause of this warming has been debated in recent years. It may have resulted from fluctuation in insolation associated with the 18.6-year-cycle precession of the Moon, or sudden changes in surface thermal environment/properties resulting from the installation of the instruments and the astronauts' activities. These types of re-analyses of the Apollo data have lead a panel of scientists to recommend that a heat flow probe carried on a future lunar mission reach 3 m into the subsurface, ~0.6 m deeper than the depths reached by the Apollo 17 experiment. This presentation describes the authors' current efforts for (1) restoring a part of the Apollo heat flow data that were left unprocessed by the original investigators and (2) designing a compact heat flow instrument for future robotic missions to the Moon. First, at the conclusion of the ALSEP program in 1977, heat flow data obtained at the two Apollo sites after December 1974 were left unprocessed and not properly archived through NASA. In the following decades, heat flow data from January 1975 through February 1976, as well as the metadata necessary for processing the data (the data reduction algorithm, instrument calibration data, etc.), were somehow lost. In 2010, we located 450 original master archival tapes of unprocessed data from all the ALSEP instruments for a period of April through June 1975 at the Washington National Records Center. We are currently extracting the heat flow data packets from these tapes and processing them. Second, on future lunar missions, heat flow probes will likely be deployed by a network of small robotic landers, as recommended by the latest Decadal Survey of the National Academy of Science. In such a scenario, the heat flow probe must be a compact system, and that precludes use of heavy excavation equipment such as a rotary drill for reaching the 3-m target depth. The new heat flow system under development uses a pneumatically driven penetrator. It utilizes a stem that winds out of a reel and pushes its conical tip into the regolith. Simultaneously, gas jets, emitted from the cone tip, loosen and blow away the soil. Lab experiments have demonstrated its effectiveness in lunar vacuum.

Nagihara, S.; Taylor, P. T.; Williams, D. R.; Zacny, K.; Hedlund, M.; Nakamura, Y.

2012-12-01

315

Elemental mapping of the moon using gamma rays : past, present, and future /  

SciTech Connect

The energies and intensities of gamma rays From a planetary surface can be used to infer the elemental composition of an object with no or a thin atmosphere. The Apollo gamma-ray spectrometers in 1972 and 1973 produced many of the results for the distribution of elements in the Moon that are now generally well accepted. Lunar Prospector in 1998 and 1999 globally mapped the Moon with gamma rays and neutrons. Both missions used spectrometers with poor energy resolution ({approx}8-10%). The Japanese plan to send a high-resolution germanium gamma-ray spectrometer to the Moon in about 2004 on their SELENE mission. However, little has been done since the 1970s on the models used to unfold planetary gamma-ray spectra. More work needs to be done on understanding what to expect in future gamma-ray spectra and how to unfold such data.

Reedy, R. C. (Robert C.)

2001-01-01

316

The magnetic fields of Mercury, Mars, and moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mariner observations have shown a significant global magnetic field at Mercury with a dipole moment at a tilt of 14 + or - 5 deg relative to the normal of the orbit plane. A presently active dynamo is the most likely origin for the planet's magnetic field. Limited evidence for an intrinsic magnetic field on Mars was obtained by USSR spacecraft in 1971 and 1974. The Martian magnetic field, if it exists, may result from either remanent magnetism or an active dynamo. On the moon, local magnetic fields have been detected by the Apollo and Lunokhod missions, but no global correlation of the steady state values has been noted.

Ness, N. F.

1979-01-01

317

A New Moon for the Twenty-First Century  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thirty years of lunar sample studies supplemented by spotty remote sensing and geophysical data gave us the broad outline of the nature and geologic history of the Moon. Many cherished beliefs are now being questioned on the basis of global data returned by two bargain-basement missions sent to the Moon in the 1990s, Clementine and Lunar Prospector. These data are being integrated with new and old lunar sample data, to give us new, though still controversial, ideas about the nature of the Moon. Two articles in a special section of the Journal of Geophysical Research (Planets) illustrate the point. Brad Jolliff and his colleagues at Washington University in St. Louis, Jeff Gillis, Larry Haskin, Randy Korotev, and Mark Wieczorek (now at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology) divide the Moon's crust into distinct geochemical provinces quite different from the traditional highlands (or terra) and maria. In a separate paper, Randy Korotev presents a detailed analysis of a common rock type among the samples returned by the Apollo missions. This rock type, nicknamed enigmatically "LKFM," was thought by many of us to represent the composition of the lower crust everywhere on the Moon. Korotev argues that it is confined to only one of Jolliff's provinces. If correct, this changes our estimates of the composition of the lunar crust, hence of the entire Moon. Although other lunar scientists will scrutinize these new views of the Moon, it is clear that some long-held ideas about the Moon might be modified significantly, if not tossed out completely.

Taylor, G. J.

2000-08-01

318

Apollo 14 and Apollo 16 heavy-particle dosimetry experiments.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Doses of heavy particles at positions inside the command modules of Apollo missions 8, 12, 14, and 16 correlate well with the calculated effects of solar modulation of the primary cosmic radiation. Differences in doses at different stowage positions indicate that the redistribution of mass within the spacecraft could enhance safety from the biological damage that would otherwise be expected on manned, deep-space missions.

Fleischer, R. L.; Hart, H. R., Jr.; Comstock, G. M.; Carter, M.; Renshaw, A.; Hardy, A.

1973-01-01

319

Case study of magmatic differentiation trends on the Moon based on lunar meteorite Northwest Africa 773 and comparison with Apollo 15 quartz monzodiorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyroxene and feldspar compositions indicate that most clasts from the Northwest Africa 773 (NWA 773) lunar meteorite breccia crystallized from a common very low-Ti (VLT) mare basalt parental magma on the Moon. An olivine cumulate (OC), with low-Ca and high-Ca pyroxenes and plagioclase feldspar formed during early stages of crystallization, followed by pyroxene gabbro, which is characterized by zoned pyroxene (Fe# = molar Fe/(Fe + Mg) × 100 from ˜35 to 90; Ti# = molar Ti/(Ti + Cr) × 100 from ˜20 to 99) and feldspar (˜An90-95Ab05-10 to An80-85Ab10-16). Late stage lithologies include alkali-poor symplectite consisting of fayalite, hedenbergitic pyroxene and silica, and alkaline-phase-ferroan clasts characterized by K-rich glass and/or K,Ba-feldspar with fayalite and/or pyroxene. Igneous silica only occurs with the alkaline-phase-ferroan clasts. This sequence of clasts represents stages of magmatic evolution along a ferroan-titanian trend characterized by correlated Fe# and Ti# in pyroxene, and a wide range of increase in Fe# and Ti# prior to crystallization of igneous silica.

Fagan, Timothy J.; Kashima, Daiju; Wakabayashi, Yuki; Suginohara, Akiko

2014-05-01

320

Apollo 16 Experiments - Fluorescence Spectrometer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page, from the Lunar and Planetary Institute, describes how the composition of portions of the lunar surface was determined by observing the fluorescence produced by solar x-rays. Images are provided with results from the experiments and links are offered to other LPI pages with information on the Apollo missions. This page is written at the level of introductory physics.

2009-07-29

321

Plasma thyroxine changes of the Apollo crewmen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blood drawn from Apollo crew members prior to the mission, at recovery, and postmission, was used to examine the effect Apollo mission activities have on thyroid hormone levels. At recovery, statistically significant increases in thyroxine and the free thyroxine index were found. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased. No change of statistical significance was found in the T3 binding percentage, total serum proteins, and albumin. We conclude that Apollo activities and environment caused the postmission increase in plasma thyroxine. The prolonged postmission decreases in serum cholesterol may be one result of the increased thyroxine activity.

Sheinfeld, M.; Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.

1975-01-01

322

Moon revolving observation satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of the conceptual study of the moon revolving observation satellites to be launched by the H-2 launch vehicle for lunar surface mapping and resources exploration from a polar orbit at an altitude of 100 km is presented. The results of the mission study, including the studies of mission requirements and mission equipment selection, and mission analysis including analyses

Reiji Katane; Tsuyoshi Okazaki

1992-01-01

323

Center Director Bridges speaks at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo program team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible, Center Director Roy D. Bridges offers remarks. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Among the guests at the banquet were astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Wally Schirra, Gene Cernan and Walt Cunningham. Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon; Gene Cernan was the last.

1999-01-01

324

APOLLO 11 COMMANDER NEIL ARMSTRONG IN SIMULATOR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 11 commander Neil Armstrong is going through flight training in the lunar module simulator situated in the flight crew training building at KSC. Armstrong will pilot the lunar module to a moon landing on July 20, following launch from KSC on July 16.

1969-01-01

325

The Apollo Program and Amino Acids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the determination of hydrolyzable amino acid precursors and a group of six amino acids in the returned lunar samples of the Apollo programs. Indicates that molecular evolution is arrested at the precursor stage on the Moon because of lack of water. (CC)

Fox, Sidney W.

1973-01-01

326

Astronaut Eugene Cernan eating a meal aboard Apollo 17 spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A fellow crewman took this photograph of Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, Apollo 17 mission commander, eating a meal under the weightless conditions of space during the final lunar landing mission in the Apollo program. Cernan appears to be eating chocolate pudding.

1972-01-01

327

Re-examination of Apollo 17 LSPE data with respect to new LRO coordinates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the existing Apollo 17 Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (LSPE) data with respect to new coordinates obtained through the combined use of lunar surface photography and high-resolution Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) data. The LSPE of Apollo 17 was used to explore the subsurface structure of the Moon. For the analysis of such seismic data sets it is necessary to have the exact positions of all used equipment, such as geophones and seismic sources. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission launched on June 18, 2009. The LROC mapped the surface of the Moon from orbit, at a maximum resolution of 50 cm/pixel (20 inch/pixel), and therefore allows us a detailed mapping of the Apollo landing sites and a reconstruction of the geometry of the seismic network used. In addition, we re-examined the surface photography taken by the astronauts during the extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Astronauts documented the deployment of equipment by using calibrated Hasselblad Electric Data Cameras by taking single shots with prominent features in the background or by taking a series of panoramic images while driving in the area of the deployed equipment. By combined analysis of both high-resolution LROC orthoimages and Apollo surface images we determined geometrically accurate lunar-fixed ME-coordinates (Mean-Earth/Polar Axis) of the Apollo landing sites and equipment. We find significant point deflections ranging from 1m up to 10m between previously published coordinates and the new LROC supported values for geophone and seismic source locations. Consequently, we are now in progress to re-evaluate the data from the Apollo 17 Profiling Experiment with the new obtained coordinates, in order to obtain improved models concerning layering and seismic velocity structure of the lunar subsurface. Progress in this effort will be reported at the conference. This study is supported by the Helmholtz Alliance "Robotic Exploration of Extreme Environments - ROBEX". The ROBEX alliance aims to develop a new seismic experiment concept that can be conducted autonomously by robotic rovers on the Moon.

Czeluschke, Alexandra; Knapmeyer, Martin; Oberst, Jürgen; Haase, Isabel

2014-05-01

328

Epic Moon: a history of lunar exploration in the age of the telescope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As early as 1609 Galileo's first telescope showed the Moon to be another world. The Moon has thus been the object of intense study not only since the 1960s but for at least the previous three and a half centuries. The first "race to the Moon" was not undertaken by American astronauts and Soviet cosmonauts but by German and British selenographers in the nineteenth century, who mapped lunar detail so painstakingly that by 1878 - the year Julius Schmidt of the Athens Observatory published his great Moon map. In part, the reason for the long preoccupation with lunar surface details lay in the fact that the mapping of the Moon provided a form of therapy for astronomically inclined obsessive personalities. In part, too, it lay in the partiality of selenographers for the project - first systematically pursued by Johann Schroeter at the end of the eighteenth century - of discovering evidence of minor changes in the lunar surface. What became a Promethean quest for changes - veils, clouds, landslips, eruptions - was initially tied in with the theory that the lunar surface features had been formed by volcanic eruptions; however, it curiously survived the demise of the volcanic theory and still shows intermittent gasps of life in the largely amateur-driven search for transient lunar phenomena, or TLP. The long era of pre-Apollo lunar studies is a fascinating subject that has never been told in detail. Though there was a lapse of interest in the Moon in the immediate post-Apollo era, there has been a recent "return to the Moon" with the successful Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions. There is also growing evidence of a return of amateur observers to the Moon as an object worthy of their attentions. This is understandable inasmuch as the Moon remains the most accessible planetary realm; it is, moreover, the only alien world open to geological prospecting from the eyepiece of the backyard telescope. In that sense, this book is - like the Moon itself - both timely and timeless. The story of mankind's endless fascination with the world of the Moon and the gallery of interesting characters who pursued the details of the lunar surface with often strange intensity is a modern-day epic. Many of the stories recounted for the first time here will still be recounted generations hence, when the Apollo explorations may seem a mere interlude in what has actually been a more sustained and more significant era of endeavour. It is possible that the names of Schroeter, Beer and Mädler, Webb and Schmidt may prove to be as memorable as those of Armstrong, Aldrin, Cernan and Schmitt.

Sheehan, William P.; Dobbins, Thomas A.

329

Meteoroid environment near the Earth-Moon system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We undertook a research program to investigate the properties of small objects crossing the orbit of the Earth-Moon system using a unique set of data obtained during the Apollo lunar landing missions with a network of seismic stations on the surface of the Moon. The primary objectives of the study were to find out the nature of these objects, whether they were of cometary or asteroidal origin based on their orbital distributions and seismic effects upon impacts, and then to infer the role these small objects play in the evolution of the solar system. In this final technical report, we briefly summarize the results of this study. Detailed results of the study have been published in a series of papers and a dissertation, which are listed in the PUBLICATIONS section. Abstracts of the published papers and the dissertation are attached as an appendix.

Nakamura, Yosio

1992-03-01

330

Apollo 17 preliminary science report. [Apollo 17 investigation of Taurus-Littrow lunar region  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of the Apollo 17 flight is presented in the form of a preliminary science report. The subjects discussed are: (1) Apollo 17 site selection, (2) mission description, (3) geological investigation of landing site, (4) lunar experiments, (5) visual flight flash phenomenon, (6) volcanic studies, (7) mare ridges and related studies, (8) remote sensing and photogrammetric studies, and (9) astronomical photography. Extensive photographic data are included for all phases of the mission.

1973-01-01

331

Apollo 11 Passive Seismic Experiment Package (PSEP) Deployed on Lunar Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon, while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew set up experiments, collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth, planted the U.S Flag, and left a message for all mankind. In this photograph, Aldrin is deploying the Passive Seismic Experiment Package (PSEP).

1969-01-01

332

Apollo 11 Passive Seismic Experiment Package (PSEP) Deployed on Lunar Surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon, while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew set up experiments, collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth, planted the U.S Flag, and left a message for all mankind. In this photograph, Aldrin is deploying the Passive Seismic Experiment Package (PSEP).

1969-01-01

333

The Use of Deep Moonquakes for Constraining the Internal Structure of the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The installation of seismometers on the Moon s surface during the Apollo era provided a wealth of information that transformed our understanding of lunar formation and evolution. Seismic events detected by the nearside network were used to constrain the structure of the Moon s crust and mantle down to a depth of about 1000 km. The presence of an attenuating region in the deepest interior has been inferred from the paucity of farside events, as well as other indirect geophysical measurements. Recent re-analyses of the Apollo data have tentatively identified this region as a lunar core, although its properties are not yet constrained. Here we present new modeling in support of seismic missions that plan to build upon the knowledge of the Moon s interior gathered by Apollo. We have devised a method in which individual events can be linked to a known cluster using the observed S-P arrival time differences and azimuth to only two stations. Events can be further identified using each cluster's unique occurrence time signature

Weber, Renee; Garcia, Raphael; Johnson, Catherine; Knapmeyer, Martin; Lognonne, Philippe; Nakamura, Yosio; Schmerr, Nick

2010-01-01

334

Neil Armstrong On The Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo ll mission commander, at the modular equipment storage assembly (MESA) of the Lunar Module 'Eagle' on the historic first extravehicular activity (EVA) on the lunar surface. Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. took the photograph with a Hasselblad 70mm camera. Most photos from the Apollo 11 mission show Buzz Aldrin. This is one of only a few that show Neil Armstrong (some of these are blurry).

1969-01-01

335

The Clementine mission: Initial results from lunar mapping  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Clementine was a mission designed to test the space worthiness of a variety of advanced sensors for use on military surveillance satellites while, at the same time, gathering useful scientific information on the composition and structure of the Moon and a near Earth asteroid. Clementine was dispatched for an extended stay in the vicinity of Earth's Moon on 25 Jan. 1994 and arrived at the Moon on 20 Feb. 1994. The spacecraft started systematic mapping on 26 Feb., completed mapping on 22 Apr., and left lunar orbit on 3 May. The entire Clementine project, from conception through end of mission, lasted approximately three years. Topographic profiles derived from lidar laser altimetry permitted construction of a global topographic map of the Moon. Clementine also aimed at mapping the color of the Moon in eleven different wavelengths in the visible and near infrared parts of the system. With rock and soil samples of known geological context available from the Apollo and Lunar programs, the Clementine mission offers the data needed to construct a global digital image model of the Moon.

Spudis, P. D.; Shoemaker, E.; Acton, C.; Burratti, B.; Duxbury, T.; Baker, D.; Smith, D.; Blamont, J.; Davies, M.; Eliason, E.

1994-01-01

336

Moon Rise, Moon Set.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out the potential of the moon as a rich teaching resource for subject areas like astronomy, physics, and biology. Presents historical, scientific, technological, and interesting facts about the moon. Includes suggestions for maximizing student interest and learning about the moon. (YDS)

Redman, Christine

2001-01-01

337

Evolution of the moon: The 1974 model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Investigations are reported of Apollo and Luna explorations which have brought about the understanding of the moon and its structure. It is shown that with this knowledge of the moon, a better understanding is presented of the earth's origin, structure and composition.

Schmitt, H. H.

1974-01-01

338

Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiment equipment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Table-top views of some of the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiment equipment. Included are the Geophone Module and Cable Reels of the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (S-203), a component of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package which will be carried on the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission. After it is triggered, the experiment will settle down into a passive listening mode, detecting Moonquakes, meteorite impacts and the thump caused by the Lunar Module ascent stage impact (37259); The remote antenna for the Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (S-203) (37260).

1972-01-01

339

Apollo 12 ropy glasses revisited  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We analyzed ropy glasses from Apollo 12 soils 12032 and 12033 by a variety of techniques including SEM/EDX, electron microprobe analysis, INAA, and Ar-39-Ar-40 age dating. The ropy glasses have potassium rare earth elements phosphorous (KREEP)-like compositions different from those of local Apollo 12 mare soils; it is likely that the ropy glasses are of exotic origin. Mixing calculations indicate that the ropy glasses formed from a liquid enriched in KREEP and that the ropy glass liquid also contained a significant amount of mare material. The presence of solar Ar and a trace of regolith-derived glass within the ropy glasses are evidence that the ropy glasses contain a small regolith component. Anorthosite and crystalline breccia (KREEP) clasts occur in some ropy glasses. We also found within these glasses clasts of felsite (fine-grained granitic fragments) very similar in texture and composition to the larger Apollo 12 felsites, which have a Ar-39-Ar-40 degassing age of 800 +/- 15 Ma. Measurements of 39-Ar-40-Ar in 12032 ropy glass indicate that it was degassed at the same time as the large felsite although the ropy glass was not completely degassed. The ropy glasses and felsites, therefore, probably came from the same source. Most early investigators suggested that the Apollo 12 ropy glasses were part of the ejecta deposited at the Apollo 12 site from the Copernicus impact. Our new data reinforce this model. If these ropy glasses are from Copernicus, they provide new clues to the nature of the target material at the Copernicus site, a part of the Moon that has not been sampled directly.

Wentworth, S. J.; Mckay, D. S.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Basu, A.; Martinez, R. R.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.

1994-01-01

340

Infant Moon: Moon Mix!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate the Moon's infancy and model how an ocean of molten rock (magma) helped shape the Moon that we see today. Learners create a simple model of this process by mixing household items of different densities in a bottle and allowing to them to settle into separate layers. Learners decide which materials make the best model for the infant Moon. Learners may examine a type of Earth rock (named anorthosite) that is also found on the Moon and that would have been shaped by the processes explored here. This activity station is part of a sequence of stations that can be set up to help learners trace the Moon's 4.5-billion-year history from "infancy" to the imagined future. Learners tie together major events in the Moon's geologic history as a series of comic panels in their Marvel Moon comic books.

Institute, Lunar A.

2010-01-01

341

Ice on the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This information about the Lunar Prospector mission to the Moon discusses the possibility that ice exists on the lunar surface. The article indicates that no native water ice has been found on the moon. If ice has been found, it most likely originated from meteors and meteorites which periodically bombard the lunar surface.

David Williams

2003-01-22

342

Neil Armstrong gets round of applaus at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong stands to a round of applause after being introduced at the anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon. He appeared at the banquet with other former astronauts Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan, Walt Cunningham and others.

1999-01-01

343

Former astronauts Armstrong and Cernan talk at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo program team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible, former Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong (left) and Gene Cernan talk about their experiences. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Other guests at the banquet were astronauts Wally Schirra, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin and Walt Cunningham. Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon; Gene Cernan was the last.

1999-01-01

344

Apollo 11 Artist Concept- Transearth Injection and Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. These sketches illustrate the steps taken by the astronauts to return to Earth. The service propulsion system engine was fired to increase space craft speed enough to escape Lunar orbit on a trajectory for Earth. Any necessary midcourse corrections were made enroute. Near the point of reentry into Earth's atmosphere, the CM separated from the service module and turned 180 degrees so the heat shield faced forward on the line of flight. Friction of the atmosphere heated the shield to a white hot temperature, as a meteor, which slowed the craft as it reached lower altitudes. At about three miles altitude, drogue parachutes opened to stabilize the craft. Moments later the main parachutes opened to lower the CM to the waters of the Pacific Ocean. Helicopters and recovery crews from the U.S. S. Hornet aircraft carrier were standing by to pick up the astronauts.

1969-01-01

345

Apollo Lunar Sample Photograph Digitization Project Update  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is an update of the progress of a 4-year data restoration project effort funded by the LASER program to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images and undertaken by the Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC [1]. The project is currently in its last year of funding. We also provide an update on the derived products that make use of the digitized photos including the Lunar Sample Catalog and Photo Database[2], Apollo Sample data files for GoogleMoon[3].

Todd, N. S.; Lofgren, G. E.

2012-01-01

346

Impact origin of the Moon  

SciTech Connect

A few years after the Apollo flights to the Moon, it became clear that all of the existing theories on the origin of the Moon would not satisfy the growing body of constraints which appeared with the data gathered by the Apollo flights. About the same time, researchers began to realize that the inner (terrestrial) planets were not born quietly -- all had evidences of impacts on their surfaces. This fact reinforced the idea that the planets had formed by the accumulation of planetesimals. Since the Earth`s moon is unique among the terrestrial planets, a few researchers realized that perhaps the Moon originated in a singular event; an event that was quite probable, but not so probable that one would expect all the terrestrial planets to have a large moon. And thus was born the idea that a giant impact formed the Moon. Impacts would be common in the early solar system; perhaps a really large impact of two almost fully formed planets of disparate sizes would lead to material orbiting the proto-earth, a proto-moon. This idea remained to be tested. Using a relatively new, but robust, method of doing the hydrodynamics of the collision (Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics), the author and his colleagues (W. Benz, Univ. of Arizona, and A.G.W. Cameron, Harvard College Obs.) did a large number of collision simulations on a supercomputer. The author found two major scenarios which would result in the formation of the Moon. The first was direct formation; a moon-sized object is boosted into orbit by gravitational torques. The second is when the orbiting material forms a disk, which, with subsequent evolution can form the Moon. In either case the physical and chemical properties of the newly formed Moon would very neatly satisfy the physical and chemical constraints of the current Moon. Also, in both scenarios the surface of the Earth would be quite hot after the collision. This aspect remains to be explored.

Slattery, W.L.

1998-12-31

347

Preparing to return to the Moon: Lessons from science-driven analogue missions to the Mistastin Lake impact structure, Canada, a unique lunar analogue site  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Impact cratering is the dominant geological process on the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars - the objectives for the new Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). Led by members of the Canadian Lunar Research Network (CLRN), funded by the Canadian Space Agency, and with participants from the U.S., we carried out a series of analogue missions on Earth in order to prepare and train for future potential robotic and human sample return missions. Critically, these analogue missions were driven by the paradigm that operational and technical objectives are conducted while conducting new science and addressing real overarching scientific objectives. An overarching operational goal was to assess the utility of a robotic field reconnaissance mission as a precursor to a human sortie sample return mission. Here, we focus on the results and lessons learned from a robotic precursor mission and follow on human-robotic mission to the Mistastin Lake impact structure in Labrador, northern Canada (55°53'N; 63°18'W). The Mistastin structure was chosen because it represents an exceptional analogue for lunar craters. This site includes both an anorthositic target, a central uplift, well-preserved impact melt rocks - mostly derived from melting anorthosite - and is (or was) relatively unexplored. This crater formed ~36 million years ago and has a diameter of ~28 km. The scientific goals for these analogue missions were to further our understanding of impact chronology, shock processes, impact ejecta and potential resources within impact craters. By combining these goals in an analogue mission campaign key scientific requirements for a robotic precursor were determined. From the outset, these analogue missions were formulated and executed like an actual space mission. Sites of interest were chosen using remote sensing imagery without a priori knowledge of the site through a rigorous site selection process. The first deployment occurred in August and September 2010 and involved simulated robotic surveying of selected 'landing sites' at the Mistastin structure. The second deployment took place at the same location in 2011, which included simulated astronaut surface operations with, and without, the aid of a robotic assistant. A mission control team, based at the University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, 1,900 km from the field site, oversaw operations. Our study showed the value of precursor reconnaissance missions in providing surface geology visualization at resolutions and from viewpoints not achievable from orbit, including high-resolution surface imagery on the scale of 10s of metres to kilometres. Indeed, data collected during the robotic precursor mission led to the formulation of a hypothesis that a large impact melt outcrop - named Discovery Hill - represents an impact melt pond in the terraced region of the crater, analogous to similar ponds of melt documented around the rim of well-preserved lunar craters such as Tycho. Further discoveries, that will be highlight here, include documentation of ejecta deposits for the first time at Mistastin, quantification of shock in anorthosites, and refined age estimates for the Mistastin impact event.

Osinski, G. R.; Barfoot, T.; Chanou, A.; Daly, M. G.; Francis, R.; Hodges, K. V.; Jolliff, B. L.; Mader, M. M.; McCullough, E. M.; Moores, J. E.; Pickersgill, A.; Pontefract, A.; Preston, L.; Shankar, B.; Singleton, A.; Sylvester, P.; Tornabene, L. L.; Young, K. E.

2013-12-01

348

Field Exploration Science for a Return to the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Apollo field exploration science, and subsequent analysis, and interpretation of its findings and collected samples, underpin our current understanding of the origin and history of the Moon. That understanding, in turn, continues to provide new and important insights into the early histories of the Earth and other bodies in the solar system, particularly during the period that life formed and began to evolve on Earth and possibly on Mars. Those early explorations also have disclosed significant and potentially commercially viable lunar resources that might help satisfy future demand for both terrestrial energy alternatives and space consumables. Lunar sortie missions as part of the Vision for Space Exploration provide an opportunity to continue and expand the human geological, geochemical and geophysical exploration of the Moon. Specific objectives of future field exploration science include: (1) Testing of the consensus "giant impact" hypothesis for the origin of the Moon by further investigation of materials that may augment understanding of the chondritic geochemistry of the lower lunar mantle; (2) Testing of the consensus impact "cataclysm" hypothesis by obtaining absolute ages on large lunar basins of relative ages older than the 3.8-3.9 Ga mascon basins dated by Apollo 15 and 17; (3) Calibration of the end of large impacts in the inner solar system; (4) Global delineation of the internal structure of the Moon; (5) Global sampling and field investigations that extend the data necessary to remotely correlate major lunar geological and geochemical units; (6) Definition of the depositional history of polar volatiles - cometary, solar wind, or otherwise; (7) Determine the recoverable in situ concentrations and distribution of potential volatile resources; and (8) Acquisition of information and samples related to relatively less site-specific aspects of lunar geological processes. Planning for renewed field exploration of the Moon depends largely on the selection, training and use of sortie crews; the selection of landing sites; and the adopted operational approach to sortie extravehicular activity (EVA). The equipment necessary for successful exploration consists of that required for sampling, sample documentation, communications, mobility, and position knowledge. Other types of active geophysical. geochemical and petrographic equipment, if available, could clearly enhance the scientific and operational return of extended exploration over that possible during Apollo missions. Equipment to increase the efficiency of exploration should include the following, helmet-mounted, systems: (1) voice activated or automatic, electronic, stereo photo-documentation camera that is photometrically and geometrically fully calibrated; (2) automatic position and elevation determination system; and (3) laser-ranging device, aligned with the stereo camera axis. Heads-up displays and controls on the helmet, activated and selected by voice, should be available for control and use of this equipment.

Schmitt, H. H.; Helper, M. A.; Muehlbberger, W.; Snoke, A. W.

2006-12-01

349

Neil Armstrong talks of his experiences at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Neil Armstrong, former Apollo 11 astronaut, and first man to walk on the moon, talks about his experiences for an enthusiastic audience at the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. The occasion was a banquet celebrating the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Among other guests at the banquet were astronauts Wally Schirra, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin and Walt Cunningham. Gene Cernan was the last man to walk on the moon.

1999-01-01

350

THE LADEE MISSION: THE NEXT STEP AFTER THE DISCOVERY OF WATER ON THE MOON. G. T. Delory1,2  

E-print Network

and OH over significant areas of the Moon [2-4]. The water and hydroxyl are within the first few with some freshly exposed materials, including the anorthositic highlands [2, 4]. Observations by EPOXI from. Elphic1 , A. Colaprete1 , P. Mahaffy3 , and M. Horanyi4 1 NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA

California at Berkeley, University of

351

Mission Assurance and Flight Safety of Manned Space Flight: Implications for Future Exploration of the Moon and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA implements the nation's Vision for Space Exploration to return to the moon and travel to Mars, new considerations will be be given to the processes governing design and operations of manned spaceflight. New objectives bring new technical challenges; Safety will drive many of these decisions.

Kezirian, M. T.

2007-01-01

352

Astronauts Evans and Cernan aboard the Apollo 17 spacecraft  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientist-Astronaut Harrison H. 'Jack' Schmitt, Apollo 17 lunar module pilot, took this photograph of his two fellow crewmen under zero-gravity conditions aboard the Apollo 17 spacecraft during the final lunar landing mission in the Apollo program. That is Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan (foreground), commander, who is seemingly 'right side up.' Astronaut Ronald E. Evans, command module pilot, appears to be 'upside down.'

1972-01-01

353

Finite Element Modelling of the Apollo Heat Flow Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The heat flow experiments sent on Apollo missions 15 and 17 were designed to measure the temperature gradient of the lunar regolith in order to determine the heat flux of the moon. Major problems in these experiments arose from the fact that the astronauts were not able to insert the probes below the thermal skin depth. Compounding the problem, anomalies in the data have prevented scientists from conclusively determining the temperature dependent conductivity of the soil, which enters as a linear function into the heat flow calculation, thus stymieing them in their primary goal of constraining the global heat production of the Moon. Different methods of determining the thermal conductivity have yielded vastly different results resulting in downward corrections of up to 50% in some cases from the original calculations. Along with problems determining the conductivity, the data was inconsistent with theoretical predictions of the temperature variation over time, leading some to suspect that the Apollo experiment itself changed the thermal properties of the localised area surrounding the probe. The average temperature of the regolith, according to the data, increased over time, a phenomenon that makes calculating the thermal conductivity of the soil and heat flux impossible without knowing the source of error and accounting for it. The changes, possibly resulting from as varied sources as the imprint of the Astronauts boots on the lunar surface, compacted soil around the bore stem of the probe or even heat radiating down the inside of the tube, have convinced many people that the recorded data is unusable. In order to shed some light on the possible causes of this temperature rise, we implemented a finite element model of the probe using the program COMSOL Multi-physics as well as Matlab. Once the cause of the temperature rise is known then steps can be taken to account for the failings of the experiment and increase the data's utility.

Platt, J.; Siegler, M. A.; Williams, J.

2013-12-01

354

Teen Moon: Moon Ooze  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners model how the Moon's volcanic period reshaped its earlier features. Learners consider that the broad, shallow impact basins--which had formed earlier while it was a "kid Moon"--contained cracks through which magma seeped up. A plate in which slits have been cut is used to represent an impact basin and a dish of red-colored water is used to represent the pockets of magma within the Moon's upper layers. When the model impact basin is pressed into the magma, "lava" fills in the low areas through the same process that produced the dark patches, or maria, on the Moon. Learners may examine a type of Earth rock (named basalt) that is also found on the Moon and that would have been shaped by the processes explored here. This activity investigates the Moon's "teen years," when it was one to three billion years old.

This activity station is part of a sequence of stations that can be set up to help learners trace the Moon's 4.5-billion-year history from "infancy" to the imagined future. Learners tie together major events in the Moon's geologic history as a series of comic panels in their Marvel Moon comic books.

2014-07-01

355

Proposal for revisions of the United Nations Moon Treaty  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During this new 2010-decade, it will be imperative to reconsider the effectiveness of the current United Nations (U.N.) Moon Treaty (c.1979). Amendments are necessary to underline the mandatory human stewardship of this fragile planetary body of our Solar System, indispensible to life on Earth. After the very successful Apollo and Luna missions to the Moon (ending in 1976), which brought a wide array of data (samples, surface and orbital experiments), the Moon lost its exploratory attraction in favor of other programs, such as the International Space Station and potential human exploration of Mars. However, since the mid-90's, the enthusiasm for the Moon has been revived, which resulted in several space agencies worldwide (NASA, ESA, ISRO, JAXA, and the Chinese Space Agency) having made great efforts to re-start ex-ploratory and scientific campaigns even though budgetary changes may delay the process. As a result, a wide array of peoples and their interests are put together in each mission planned to reach the Moon (e.g., orbiters and landers). Up to now, mission plans focus on technical requirements and the desires of scientists and engineers, but hardly any other aspects. Field specialists on issues regarding the social, economic, political, cultural, ethical and environmen-tal impacts of Moon exploration and colonization have had little to no involvement in current and past lunar missions. However, these fields would provide different and essential points of view regarding the planning of lunar missions. Moreover, recent documents written by the scientific community, such as "The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon: Final Re-port" Committee on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon, National Research Council (2007), or the recent (summer 2009) White Papers for the National Research Council Planetary Science Decadal Survey 2011-2020, do not seem to leave space for a multidisciplinary approach regarding the future lunar exploration either. More than 30 years have passed since the Moon Treaty (c. 1979) was elaborated, and since then technology and science have evolved leading to the need to change the requirements. As stated in the Moon Treaty, the State par-ties who had signed the Treaty meet every 5 and 10 years to revise the Treaty and suggest the necessary ratifications and amendments. The present version of the Moon Treaty, however, does not demonstrate ratifications that take into consideration environmental protection and preservation. For this, it is here suggested, that both the Antarctica Treaty (c. 1959), and more importantly, the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (c. 1991) are to be used as references for future documents that will be drawn pertaining the Moon. The Antarctica Treaty is currently one of the world's most successful international agreements and has evolved through time as needs and awareness require. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty reflects concerns regarding the impact of humans on the fragile environment of that continent. This concern is equally critical as new stages of lunar exploration unfold and the effects of such activity are progressively assessed. The key aspects of the Antarctic Protocol applicable to the Moon Treaty are: (1) a ban on commercial mineral resource activity, (2) careful waste disposal management, and (3) protection of areas of par-ticular scientific, environmental, and historical value. These measures should be implemented to prevent irreparable damage of the pristine lunar environment while permitting scientific, educational, and touristic uses and encouraging continued commitment to exploration of the Moon and other planetary bodies irrespective of exploration being robotic or human. A num-ber of other documents that establish an Environmental Code of Conduct for certain areas within the Antarctic continent (e.g., Management Plan for the Antarctic Specially Managed Area No.2, the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Southern Victoria Land) will also be instrumental in improving the current

Fernandes, Vera; Abreu, Neyda; Fritz, J.; Knapmeyer, Martin; Smeenk, Lisa; Ten Kate, Inge; Trüninger, Monica

356

Astronaut Edwin Aldrin prepares to deploy EASEP on surface of moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., lunar module pilot, prepares to deploy the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP) on the surface of the Moon during the Apollo 11 extravehicular activity. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, took this photograph with a 70mm lunar surface camera. In the foreground is the Apollo 11 35mm stereo close-up camera.

1969-01-01

357

Armstrong Retrieves Equipment From Apollo 11 Storage Bay  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The first manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, launched from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Astronauts onboard included Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew set up experiments, collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth, planted the U.S Flag, and left a message for all mankind. In this photograph, Armstrong is removing scientific equipment from a storage bay of the LM. The brilliant sunlight emphasizes the U. S. Flag to the left. The object near the flag is the Solar Wind Composition Experiment deployed by Aldrin earlier.

1969-01-01

358

13 Things That Saved Apollo 13  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Perhaps, the most exciting rescue, terrestrial or extra-terrestrial, is the successful return of the Apollo 13 crew to Earth in April of 1970. The mission s warning system engineer, Jerry Woodfill, who remains a NASA employee after 47 years of government service has examined facets of the rescue for the past 42 years. He will present "13 Things That Saved Apollo 13" from the perspective of his real time experience as well as two score years of study. Many are recent discoveries never before published in mission reports, popular books or documentary and Hollywood movies depicting the rescue.

Woodfill, Jared

2012-01-01

359

President Nixon and Apollo 13 crewmen at Hickam AFB  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., A U.S. Navy captain and Apollo 13 mission commander, salutes the U.S. flag during ceremonies with President Richard M. Nixon at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii. The Apollo 13 crewmen, Astronauts Lovell, John L. Swigert Jr. (right) and Fred W. Haise Jr. were presented the Presidential Medal of Freedom by the Chief Executive.

1970-01-01

360

THE "APOLLO" OF AERONAUTICS  

E-print Network

#12;THE "APOLLO" OF AERONAUTICS #12;Copyright © 2010 by the National Aeronautics and Space the official position of the United States Government or of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. #12;NASA's Aircraft Energy Efficiency Program 1973­1987 THE "APOLLO" OF AERONAUTICS THE "APOLLO

361

Making a Model: Mapping the Moon  

E-print Network

1 Making a Model: Mapping the Moon Learning Objectives: · To build a topographic map of a "Moon mountain." · To use a topographic map to determine a safe landing place for a Moon mission StudentswilllearnaboutNASA'smissiontofindsafelandingsitesonthe surface of the Moon. After seeing a visualization

Christian, Eric

362

Apollo-Soyuz pamphlet no. 4: Gravitational field. [experimental design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two Apollo Soyuz experiments designed to detect gravity anomalies from spacecraft motion are described. The geodynamics experiment (MA-128) measured large-scale gravity anomalies by detecting small accelerations of Apollo in the 222 km orbit, using Doppler tracking from the ATS-6 satellite. Experiment MA-089 measured 300 km anomalies on the earth's surface by detecting minute changes in the separation between Apollo and the docking module. Topics discussed in relation to these experiments include the Doppler effect, gravimeters, and the discovery of mascons on the moon.

Page, L. W.; From, T. P.

1977-01-01

363

The electrostatic environments of Mars and the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electrical activity present in the environment near the surfaces of Mars and the moon has very different origins and presents a challenge to manned and robotic planetary exploration missions. Mars is covered with a layer of dust that has been redistributed throughout the entire planet by global dust storms. Dust, levitated by these storms as well as by the frequent dust devils, is expected to be electrostatically charged due to the multiple grain collisions in the dust-laden atmosphere. Dust covering the surface of the moon is expected to be electrostatically charged due to the solar wind, cosmic rays, and the solar radiation itself through the photoelectric effect. Electrostatically charged dust has a large tendency to adhere to surfaces. NASA's Mars exploration rovers have shown that atmospheric dust falling on solar panels can decrease their efficiency to the point of rendering the rover unusable. And as the Apollo missions to the moon showed, lunar dust adhesion can hinder manned and unmanned lunar exploration activities. Taking advantage of the electrical activity on both planetary system bodies, dust removal technologies are now being developed that use electrostatic and dielectrophoretic forces to produce controlled dust motion. This paper presents a short review of the theoretical and semiempirical models that have been developed for the lunar and Martian electrical environments.

Calle, C. I.

2011-06-01

364

Thermal conductivity of Apollo 16 lunar fines  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vacuum thermal conductivity of the Apollo 16 fines is presented as a function of temperature for the approximate range of diurnal temperatures on the moon. The density used is 1500 kg/cu m, which is approximately the density of the core-tube samples returned from the landing site. The thermal diffusivity was calculated from the conductivity, density, and specific heat and is also presented.

Cremers, C. J.; Hsia, H. S.

1974-01-01

365

From the Moon: Bringing Space Science to Diverse Audiences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA's Apollo missions held a place in the mindset of many Americans - we dared to go someplace where humans had never set foot, a place unknown and beyond our imaginations. These early NASA missions and discoveries resulted in an enhanced public understanding of the Moon. Now, with the human element so far removed from space exploration, students must rely on textbooks, TV's, and computers to build their understanding of our Moon. However, NASA educational materials about the Moon are stale and out-of-date. In addition, they do not effectively address 21st Century Skills, an essential for today's classrooms. Here, we present a three-part model for developing opportunities in lunar science education professional development that is replicable and sustainable and integrates NASA mission-derived data (e.g., Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)/Chandrayaan-1). I) With the return of high resolution/high spatial data from M3/Chandrayaan-1, we can now better explore and understand the compositional variations on the lunar surface. Data and analysis techniques from the imaging spectrometer are incorporated into the M3 Educator's Guide: Seeing the Moon in a New Light. The guide includes an array of activities and lessons to help educators and students understand how NASA is currently exploring the Moon. The guide integrates NASA maps and data into the interactive lessons, bringing the excitement of scientific exploration and discovery into the classroom. II) Utilizing the M3 Educator's Guide as well as educational activities from more current NASA lunar missions, we offer two sustained professional development opportunities for educators to explore the Moon through interactive and creative strategies. 1) Geology of the Moon, an online course offered through Montana State University's National Teacher Enhancement Network, is a 3-credit graduate course. 2) Fly Me to the Moon, offered through the College of Charleston's Office of Professional Development in Education, is a two-hour graduate credit course. Through these courses, teachers from a variety of disciplines and grade levels journey to the Moon, exploring NASA's historic and current missions and data. As both of these courses are primarily online, we incorporate interactive ways for educators to explore and communicate their ideas. Through a series of scaffolded webquests, educators work through inquiry-oriented lessons to gather information and data directly through the Internet. The webquests allow students to freely explore, motivating them to investigate open-ended questions and enhance their self-learning process. III) To address more diverse audiences, a unique partnership among the College of Charleston's School of Science and Math and the School of the Arts will showcase a two-year celebration of lunar observations and analyses. From the Moon: Mapping and Exploration will open in November, 2011. From the Moon: Mysteries and Myths exhibit at the Halsey Gallery of Art in Charleston, SC will open in Fall, 2013. Patrons will explore one-of-a-kind artifacts, as well as early observations from Galileo to current observations from ongoing NASA lunar missions. Both exhibits will be paired with tactile activities, lesson plans and professional development opportunities.

Runyon, C. J.; Hall, C.; Joyner, E.; Meyer, H. M.; M3 Science; E/PO Team

2011-12-01

366

F-1 engines of Apollo/Saturn V first stage leave trail of flame after liftoff  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The five F-1 engines of the Apollo/Saturn V space vehicle's first (S-IC) stage leaves a trail of flame in the sky after liftoff. The launch of the Apollo 6 (Spacecraft 020/Saturn 502) unmanned space mission occurred on April 4, 1968. These views of the Apollo 6 launch were taken from a chase plane.

1968-01-01

367

President Nixon on deck of U.S.S. Hornet awaiting Apollo 11 crew arrival  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

President Richard M. Nixon photographed on the deck of the U.S.S. Hornet, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, awaiting the Apollo 11 crew arrival. swimmer. All four men are wearing biological isolation garments. Apollo 11 splashed down at 11:40 a.m., July 24, 1969, about 812 nautical miles southwest of Hawaii.

1969-01-01

368

Moon 101: Introducing Students to Lunar Science and Exploration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moon 101 is designed with the purpose of familiarizing students with lunar geology and exploration. Armed with guiding questions, students read articles covering various lunar science topics and browse images from past and current lunar missions to familiarize themselves with available lunar data sets. Moon 101 was originally created for high school students preparing to conduct open-inquiry, lunar research. Most high school students' knowledge of lunar science is limited to lunar phases and tides, and their knowledge of lunar exploration is close to non-existent. Moon 101 provides a summary of the state of knowledge of the Moon's formation and evolution, and the exploration that has helped inform the lunar science community. Though designed for high school students, Moon 101 is highly appropriate for the undergraduate classroom, especially at the introductory level where resources for teaching lunar science are scarce. Moon 101 is comprised of two sections covering lunar science (formation and geologic evolution of the Moon) and one section covering lunar exploration. Students read information on the formation and geologic evolution of the Moon from sources such as the Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) website and the USGS professional paper A Geologic History of the Moon by Wilhelms. While these resources are not peer-reviewed journals, the information is presented at a level more advanced than articles from newspapers and popular science magazines. This ensures that the language is accessible to students who do not have a strong lunar/planetary science background, or a strong science background in general. Formation readings include information on older and current formation hypotheses, including the Giant Impact Hypothesis, the Magma Ocean hypothesis, and the age of the lunar crust. Lunar evolution articles describe ideas such as the Late Heavy Bombardment and geologic processes such as volcanism and impact cratering. After reading the articles, students are asked a series of questions which help reinforce the lunar science concepts they should take away from the readings. Students then use their new knowledge of the Moon in the final section of Moon 101 where they are asked to characterize the geology of the region surrounding the Apollo 11 landing site. To do this, they conduct a survey of available lunar data, examining imagery from lunar missions as recent as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and as old as the Ranger missions of the 1960s. This allows students to explore the available datasets and identify the advantages and disadvantages of each. Pre/post test questions have also been developed to assess changes in student understanding of the formation and evolution of the Moon, and lunar exploration. Moon 101 is a framework for introducing students to lunar science, and can be followed up with student-driven research. Moon 101 can be easily modified to suit the needs of the students and the instructor. Because lunar science is an evolving field of study, the use of resources such as the PSRD allows Moon 101 to be flexible and to change as the lunar community re-discovers our celestial neighbor.

Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

2011-12-01

369

Project Apollo: The Tough Decisions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The report reviews the major Mercury and then Gemini precursors for the Apollo mission program and its development and mission sequence. But, very importantly, it describes the major and often complex deliberations that encouraged inputs from the broad range of informed internal Agency individuals in order to arrive at the resulting actions taken; it recognizes differences among their various views, including even sensitivities within the leadership of the Agency, and it acknowledges NASA's relationships with the President and key executive branch personnel, as well as the very important and often complex relationships with members of Congress. The process of writing this book was searching and comprehensive. The achievement of the world's first manned lunar landings, after the earlier Mercury and Gemini programs played catch-up to match the Soviet Union's advanced position, clearly established the United States' preeminence in space. Early in the book, Bob describes an extended meeting in the White House in which the President's views and those of Mr. Webb were seriously discussed. Bob tells how, through Apollo's lunar landing, NASA clearly met both President Kennedy's goal to overcome the Soviets' leadership image and James Webb's goal to use Apollo as a major part of his program to demonstrate U.S. technological preeminence.

Seamans, Robert C., Jr.

2005-01-01

370

A Thorium-rich Mare Basalt Rock Fragment from the Apollo 12 Regolith: A Sample from a Young Procellarum Flow?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this abstract, we report on the composition, mineralogy and petrography of a basaltic rock fragment, 12032,366-18, found in the Apollo 12 regolith. Age data, collected as part of an investigation by Barra et al., will be presented in detail in. Here, only the age dating result is summarized. This rock fragment garnered our attention because it is significantly enriched in incompatible elements, e.g., 7 ppm thorium, compared to other known lunar basalts. Its mineral- and trace-element chemistry set it apart from other Apollo 12 basalts and indeed from all Apollo and Luna basalts. What makes it potentially very significant is the possibility that it is a sample of a relatively young, thorium-rich basalt flow similar to those inferred to occur in the Procellarum region, especially northwestern Procellarum, on the basis of Lunar Prospector orbital data. Exploiting the lunar regolith for the diversity of rock types that have been delivered to a landing site by impact processes and correlating them to their likely site of origin using remote sensing will be an important part of future missions to the Moon. One such mission is Moonrise, which would collect regolith samples from the South Pole-Aitken Basin, concentrating thousands of rock fragments of 3-20 mm size from the regolith, and returning the samples to Earth.

Jolliff, B. L.; Zeigler, R. A.; Korotev, R. L.; Barra, F.; Swindle, T. D.

2005-01-01

371

Effects of radiobiological uncertainty on vehicle and habitat shield design for missions to the moon and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some consequences of uncertainties in radiobiological risk due to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure are analyzed for their effect on engineering designs for the first lunar outpost and a mission to explore Mars. This report presents the plausible effect of biological uncertainties, the design changes necessary to reduce the uncertainties to acceptable levels for a safe mission, and an evaluation of the mission redesign cost. Estimates of the amount of shield mass required to compensate for radiobiological uncertainty are given for a simplified vehicle and habitat. The additional amount of shield mass required to provide a safety factor for uncertainty compensation is calculated from the expected response to GCR exposure. The amount of shield mass greatly increases in the estimated range of biological uncertainty, thus, escalating the estimated cost of the mission. The estimates are used as a quantitative example for the cost-effectiveness of research in radiation biophysics and radiation physics.

Wilson, John W.; Nealy, John E.; Schimmerling, Walter; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wood, James S.

1993-01-01

372

Moon Phases  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When teaching Moon phases, the focus seems to be on the sequence of Moon phases and, in some grade levels, how Moon phases occur. Either focus can sometimes be a challenge, especially without the use of models and observations of the Moon. In this month's column, the author describes some of the lessons that he uses to teach the phases of the Moon

Riddle, Bob

2010-01-01

373

Evolved Lithologies and Their Inferred Sources in the Northwestern Procellarum Region of the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Compositional remote sensing from the Lunar Prospector mission reveals the Procellarum- Imbrium region of the Moon, also referred to as the Procellarum KREEP Terrane, to be an area of significant enrichment of heat-producing residua (i.e., Thrich) of the early lunar differentiation. Previous estimates place as much as 60-70% of the whole-Moon content of Th into the crust and as much as 35-40% of the crustal Th content into the Procellarum KREEP Terrane [5], which occupies only approx. 10-15% of the volume of the crust. Although these estimates have significant uncertainty, the correspondence of the enrichment of Th (and other heat producers U and K) in this region is consistent with extended igneous activity, manifested at the surface by extensive basaltic volcanism and subdued topography. Such activity may have extended also to a significant depth, probably including the upper mantle. In this abstract, we present evidence based on Apollo samples for some of the most extensively fractionated lunar rocks types, including a Th-rich mare basalt from Apollo 12, and monzogabbro (also known as monzodiorite), granite, and alkali anorthosite from Apollo 12 and 14 samples. We relate these to likely exposures and sources indicated by compositional remote sensing.

Jolliff, Bradley L.

2004-01-01

374

Apollo portable life support system performance report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The performance of the Apollo portable life support system (PLSS) on actual lunar missions is discussed. Both subjective comments by the crewmen and recorded telemetry data are evaluated although emphasis is on the telemetry data. Because the most important information yielded by the PLSS deals with determination of crewman metabolic rates, these data and their interpretation are explained in detail. System requirements are compared with actual performance, and the effect of performance margins on mission planning are described. Mission preparation testing is described to demonstrate how the mission readiness of the PLSS and the crewmen in verified, and to show how the PLSS and the crewmen are calibrated for mission evaluation.

Carson, M. A.

1972-01-01

375

PDS Archive Release of Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Apollo 17 Lunar Rock Sample Images  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scientists at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) Lunar Sample Laboratory, Information Resources Directorate, and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory have been working to digitize (scan) the original film negatives of Apollo Lunar Rock Sample photographs [1, 2]. The rock samples, and associated regolith and lunar core samples, were obtained during the Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17 missions. The images allow scientists to view the individual rock samples in their original or subdivided state prior to requesting physical samples for their research. In cases where access to the actual physical samples is not practical, the images provide an alternate mechanism for study of the subject samples. As the negatives are being scanned, they have been formatted and documented for permanent archive in the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS). The Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science Directorate (which includes the Lunar Sample Laboratory and Image Science & Analysis Laboratory) at JSC is working collaboratively with the Imaging Node of the PDS on the archiving of these valuable data. The PDS Imaging Node is now pleased to announce the release of the image archives for Apollo missions 11, 12, and 17.

Garcia, P. A.; Stefanov, W. L.; Lofgren, G. E.; Todd, N. S.; Gaddis, L. R.

2013-01-01

376

Apollo 17 Astronaut Evans Retrieves Film Canister During Space Walk  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this Apollo 17 onboard photo, Command Module pilot Ronald E. Evans retrieved the film canister of the mapping cameras on the day after Apollo 17 left lunar orbit. His space walk lasted an hour. The seventh and last manned lunar landing and return to Earth mission, the Apollo 17, carrying a crew of three astronauts: Evans; Mission Commander Eugene A. Cernan; and Lunar Module pilot Harrison H. Schmitt, lifted off on December 7, 1972 from the Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC). Scientific objectives of the Apollo 17 mission included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting in-flight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast (TEC). These objectives included: Deployed experiments such as the Apollo lunar surface experiment package (ALSEP) with a Heat Flow experiment, Lunar seismic profiling (LSP), Lunar surface gravimeter (LSG), Lunar atmospheric composition experiment (LACE) and Lunar ejecta and meteorites (LEAM). The mission also included Lunar Sampling and Lunar orbital experiments. Biomedical experiments included the Biostack II Experiment and the BIOCORE experiment. The mission marked the longest Apollo mission, 504 hours, and the longest lunar surface stay time, 75 hours, which allowed the astronauts to conduct an extensive geological investigation. They collected 257 pounds (117 kilograms) of lunar samples with the use of the Marshall Space Flight Center designed Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV). The mission ended on December 19, 1972

1972-01-01

377

The Dynamical Evolution of the Earth-Moon Progenitors. 1; Motivation and Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Giant Impact Hypothesis was introduced in the mid-1970's after consideration of results from the Apollo Moon missions. This hypothesis best explains the similarity in elemental proportions in lunar and terrestrial rocks, the depletion of lunar volatiles, the lack of lunar iron. and the large angular momentum in the Earth-Moon system. Comparison between the radiometric ages of inclusions in the most primitive meteorites and those of inclusions in the oldest lunar rocks and the differentiation age of Earth suggests that the Earth-Moon system formed about 100 Myr after the oldest meteorites. In addition, the age of the famous Martian meteorite ALH84001 and an early solidification time estimated from the Martian crust, suggest that the inner Solar System was fairly clear of large bodies about 10 Myr after the oldest meteorites formed. Thus, the 'standard model' suggests that for a period of several tens of millions of years the terrestrial planet region had few. if any, lunar-sized bodies and there were five terrestrial planets, Mercury, Venus, the two progenitors of the Earth-Moon system, and Mars. To simulate the dynamics of the Solar System before the hypothesized Moon-forming impact, we are integrating the Solar System with the Earth-Moon system replaced by two bodies in heliocentric orbits between Venus and Mars. The total (orbital) angular momentum of the Earth-Moon progenitors is that of the present Earth-Moon system, and their total mass is that of the Earth-Moon system. We are looking at ranges in mass ratio and initial values for eccentricity, inclination. and semi-major axis. We are using the SYMBA integrator to integrate these systems until a collision occurs or a time of 200 Myr elapses. Results are presented in a companion paper.

Lissuer, Jack; Rivera, E.; Duncan, M. J.; Levison, H. F.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

1999-01-01

378

Apollo 8 Astronaut James Lovell On Phone With President Johnson  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 8 Astronaut James Lovell, Command Module (CM) pilot of the first manned Saturn V space flight into Lunar orbit, accepted a phone call from the U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson prior to launch. Lovell, along with astronauts William Anders, Lunar Module (LM) pilot, and Frank Borman, commander, launched aboard the Apollo 8 mission on December 21, 1968 and returned safely to Earth on December 27, 1968. The mission achieved operational experience and tested the Apollo command module systems, including communications, tracking, and life-support, in cis-lunar space and lunar orbit, and allowed evaluation of crew performance on a lunar orbiting mission. The crew photographed the lunar surface, both far side and near side, obtaining information on topography and landmarks as well as other scientific information necessary for future Apollo landings. All systems operated within allowable parameters and all objectives of the mission were achieved.

1968-01-01

379

Apollo 8 Astronaut William Anders On Phone With President Johnson  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 8 Astronaut William Anders, Lunar Module (LM) pilot of the first manned Saturn V space flight into Lunar orbit, accepted a phone call from the U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson prior to launch. Anders, along with astronauts James Lovell, Command Module (CM) pilot, and Frank Borman, commander, launched aboard the Apollo 8 mission on December 21, 1968 and returned safely to Earth on December 27, 1968. The mission achieved operational experience and tested the Apollo command module systems, including communications, tracking, and life-support, in cis-lunar space and lunar orbit, and allowed evaluation of crew performance on a lunar orbiting mission. The crew photographed the lunar surface, both far side and near side, obtaining information on topography and landmarks as well as other scientific information necessary for future Apollo landings. All systems operated within allowable parameters and all objectives of the mission were achieved.

1968-01-01

380

Gene Cernan on Apollo 17 - Duration: 1:36.  

NASA Video Gallery

Apollo 17 Commander Gene Cernan recalls fixing a lunar rover problem with duct tape during his December 1972 mission. Cernan's interview was part of the commemoration of NASA's 50th anniversary in ...

381

Return to the Moon: A New Strategic Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reviews the value of a new lunar program, initially robotic and eventually manned, in the light of developments since the 1991 Synthes Group study of the Space Exploration Initiative. The objective is to evaluate a return to the Moon in comparison to proposed Mars programs as a focus for American space exploration with humans in the next century. The Moon is demonstrably accessible, hospitable, useful, and interesting. Lunar programs are inherently faster and less risky from a programmatic viewpoint than comparable Mars programs such as Mars Direct. The dominant reason for a resumption of manned lunar missions, focused on a single site such as Grimaldi, is to rebuild the infrastructure for missions beyond Earth orbit, the last of which was in 1972. A transitional program, corresponding to the 10 Gemini missions that bridged the gap between Mercury and Apollo, was considered absolutely essential by the Synthesis Group. Further justification for a return to the Moon is the demonstrated feasibility of a robotic lunar observatory, concentrating on optical and infrared interferometry. Many unsolved scientific questions about the Moon itself remain, and could be investigated using telerobotic lunar rovers even before the return of humans. Mars is unquestionably more interesting scientifically and far more hospitable for long-term colonization. A new lunar program would be the most effective possible preparation for the human exploration, settlement and eventually the terraforming of Mars. Lunar and Mars programs are complementary, not competitive. Both can be justified in the most fundamental terms as beginning the dispersal of the human species against uncontrollable natural disasters, cometary or asteroidal impacts in particular, to which mankind is vulnerable while confined to a single planet. Three specific programs are recommended for the 2001-2010 period: Ice Prospectors, to evaluate polar ice or hydrogen deposits; a robotic lunar observatory; and a manned lunar base and observatory.

Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

1999-01-01

382

Return to the Moon: A New Strategic Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reviews the value of a new lunar program, initially robotic and eventually manned, in the light of developments since the 1991 Synthesis Group study of the Space Exploration Initiative. The objective is to evaluate a return to the Moon in comparison to proposed Mars programs as a focus for American space exploration with humans in the next century. The Moon is demonstrably accessible, hospitable, useful, and interesting. Lunar programs are inherently faster and less risky from a programmatic viewpoint than comparable Mars programs such as Mars Direct. The dominant reason for a resumption of manned lunar missions, focussed on a single site such as Grimaldi, is to rebuild the infrastructure for missions beyond earth orbit, the last of which was in 1972. A transitional program, corresponding to the 10 Gemini missions that bridged the gap between Mercury and Apollo, was considered absolutely essential by the Synthesis Group. Further justification for a return to the Moon is the demonstrated feasibility of a robotic lunar observatory, concentrating on optical and infrared interferometry. Many unsolved scientific questions about the Moon itself remain, and could be investigated using telerobotic lunar rovers even before the return of humans. Mars is unquestionably more interesting scientifically and far more hospitable for long-term colonization. A new lunar program would be the most effective possible preparation for the human exploration, settlement, and eventually the terraforming of Mars. Lunar and Mars programs are complementary, not competitive. Both can be justified in the most fundamental terms as beginning the dispersal of the human species against uncontrollable natural disasters, cometary or asteroidal impacts in particular, to which mankind is vulnerable while confined to a single planet. Three specific programs are recommended for the 2001-2010 period: Ice Prospectors, to evaluate polar ice or hydrogen deposits; a robotic lunar observatory; and a manned lunar base and observatory.

Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

1999-01-01

383

Return to the Moon: A New Strategic Evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reviews the value of a new lunar program, initially robotic and eventually manned, in the light of developments since the 1991 Synthes Group study of the Space Exploration Initiative. The objective is to evaluate a return to the Moon in comparison to proposed Mars programs as a focus for American space exploration with humans in the next century. The Moon is demonstrably accessible, hospitable, useful, and interesting. Lunar programs are inherently faster and less risky from a programmatic viewpoint than comparable Mars programs such as Mars Direct. The dominant reason for a resumption of manned lunar missions, focused on a single site such as Grimaldi, is to rebuild the infrastructure for missions beyond Earth orbit, the last of which was in 1972. A transitional prograrr@ corresponding to the 10 Gemini missions that bridged the gap between Mercury and Apollo, was considered absolutely essential by the Synthesis Group. Further justification for a return to the Moon is the demonstrated feasibility of a robotic lunar observatory, concentrating on optical and infrared interferometry. Many unsolved scientific questions about the Moon itself remain, and could be investigated using telerobotic lunar rovers even before the return of humans. Mars is unquestionably more interesting scientifically and far more hospitable for long-term colonization. A new lunar program would be the most effective possible preparation for the human exploration, settlement and eventually the terraforming of Mars. Lunar and Mars programs are complementary, not competitive. Both can be justified in the most fundamental terms as beginning the dispersal of the human species against uncontrollable natural disasters, cometary or asteroidal impacts in particular, to which mankind is vulnerable while confined to a single planet. Three specific programs are recommended for the 2001-2010 period: Ice Prospectors, to evaluate polar ice or hydrogen deposits; a robotic lunar observatory; and a manned lunar base and observatory.

Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

1999-01-01

384

Apollo guidance, navigation and control: Guidance system operations plan for manned CM earth orbital and lunar missions using Program COLOSSUS 3. Section 3: Digital autopilots (revision 14)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Digital autopilots for the manned command module earth orbital and lunar missions using program COLOSSUS 3 are discussed. Subjects presented are: (1) reaction control system digital autopilot, (2) thrust vector control autopilot, (3) entry autopilot and mission control programs, (4) takeover of Saturn steering, and (5) coasting flight attitude maneuver routine.

1972-01-01

385

Magnesian anorthosites and a deep crustal rock from the farside crust of the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Among over thirty lunar meteorites recovered from the hot deserts and Antarctica, Dhofar 489 is the most depleted in thorium (0.05 ppm), FeO, and rare earth elements (REE). Dhofar 489 is a crystalline matrix anorthositic breccia and includes clasts of magnesian anorthosites and a spinel troctolite. The Mg / (Mg + Fe) mol% (Mg numbers = 75-85) of olivine and pyroxene grains in this meteorite are higher than those of the Apollo ferroan anorthosites. Such materials were not recovered by the Apollo and Luna missions. However, remote sensing data suggest that the estimated concentrations of Th and FeO are consistent with the presence of such samples on the farside of the Moon. The differentiation trend deduced from the mineralogy of the anorthositic clasts define a magnesian extension of the ferroan anorthosite (FAN) trend constructed from the Apollo samples. The presence of magnesian anorthositic clasts in Dhofar 489 still offers a possibility that the farside trend with magnesian compositions is more primitive than the FAN trend, and may require a revision of this classical differentiation trend. The Ar-Ar age of Dhofar 489 is 4.23 ± 0.034 Gyr, which is older than most Ar ages reported for highland rocks returned by Apollo. The old Ar-Ar age of impact formation of this breccia and the presence of a fragment of spinel troctolite of deep crustal origin suggest that a basin forming event on the farside excavated the deep crust and magnesian anorthosites before formation of Imbrium.

Takeda, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, A.; Bogard, D. D.; Karouji, Y.; Ebihara, M.; Ohtake, M.; Saiki, K.; Arai, T.

2006-07-01

386

Photograph of moon after transearth insertion  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This photograph of the moon was taken after transearth insertion when the Apollo 10 spacecraft was high above the lunar equator near 27 degrees east longitude. North is about 20 degrees left of the top of the photograph. Apollo Landing Site 3 is on the lighted side of the terminator in a dark area just north of the equator. Apollo Landing Site 2 is near the lower left margin of the Sea of Tranquility (Mare Tranquillitatis), which is the large, dark area near the center of the photograph.

1969-01-01

387

Moon Dust may Simulate Vascular Hazards of Urban Pollution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A long duration mission to the moon presents several potential cardiovascular complications. To the risks of microgravity and hypokinesia, and the fact that pharmaceuticals cannot be always depended upon in the space fight conditions, there is a possible additional risk due to inhalation in the lunar module of ultra-fine dust (<100 nm). This may trigger endothelial dysfunction by mechanisms similar to those shown to precipitate endothelial insults complicating ultra-fine urban dust exposure. Vascular constriction and a significant increase in diastolic blood pressures have been found in subjects inhaling urban dust within just two hours, possibly triggered by oxidative stress, inflammatory effects, and calcium overload with a potential magnesium ion deficit playing an important contributing role. Both Irwin and Scott on Apollo 15, experienced arrhythmias, and in Irwin's case associated with syncope and severe dyspnea with angina during reentry. After the mission both had impairment in cardiac function, and delay in cardiovascular recovery, with Irwin in addition having stress test- induced extremely high blood pressures, with no available stress test results in Scott's case for comparison. It is conceivable that the chemical nature or particle size of the lunar dust is sufficiently variable to account for these complications, which were not described on the other Apollo missions. This could be determined by non-invasive endothelial-dependent flow-mediated dilatation studies in the lunar environment at various sites, thereby determining the site with the least endothelial vulnerability to dysfunction. These studies could be used also to demonstrate possible intensification of endothelial dysfunction from inhalation of ultra-fine moon dust in the lunar module.

Rowe, W. J.

388

Saturn's Moons  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about the relationship between a planet and it's moon(s). Learners will use the data provided on a set of Saturn Moon Cards to compare Saturn's moons with Earth's Moon, and to explore moon properties and physical relationships within a planet-moon system - for example, the farther the moon is from the center of the planet, the slower its orbital speed, and the longer its orbital period. This is lesson 2 of 6 in the Saturn Educators Guide.

389

Teaching Chemistry Using the Movie "Apollo 13."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Offers suggestions for incorporating topics that relate to the Apollo 13 space mission into a chemistry course. Discusses connections between the study of chemistry and space exploration, including fuels and oxidants used, reasons for an oxygen tank rupture, and lithium hydroxide-containing carbon dioxide filters. Contains 11 references. (WRM)

Goll, James G.; Woods, B. J.

1999-01-01

390

System integration issues in Apollo 11  

Microsoft Academic Search

“Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed.” Two obscure errors almost prevented these words from being spoken. The errors were not made by the crew of Apollo 11 or by the controllers in Houston, nor were they made during the mission. Rather, they were made by engineers and managers, years before the flight. How they happened, and how they

H. Blair-Smith

2010-01-01

391

The source of sublimates on the Apollo 15 green and Apollo 17 orange glass samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Elemental analyses of the thin film of micromounds which coat the surfaces of Apollo 15 green glass and Apollo 17 orange glass are reported. It is thought that Zn, Ga, Pb, Cu, Tl, S, F, and Cl condensed as a sublimate on the outside surface of these glass particles in lava fountains about 3.4 and 3.6 b.y. ago (Apollos 15 and 17, respectively). The heavy metals enriched in these samples may have been mobilized in a halide- and sulfide-rich vapor, while the source of these elements and of the glass may be a sulfide- and halide-rich pyroxenite inside the moon. The isotopic composition of lead on the surface of individual particles was determined, and the composition is considered with respect to the evolution of the source region. The lead on the surfaces is similar to lead that has been mixed into other soils and breccias at nearby sites.

Meyer, C., Jr.; Mckay, D. S.; Anderson, D. H.; Butler, P., Jr.

1975-01-01

392

Measurements of Charging of Apollo 17 Lunar Dust Grains by Electron Impact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is well known since the Apollo missions that the lunar surface is covered with a thick layer of micron size dust grains with unusually high adhesive characteristics. The dust grains levitated and transported on the lunar surface are believed to have a hazardous impact on the robotic and human missions to the Moon. The observed dust phenomena are attributed to the lunar dust being charged positively during the day by UV photoelectric emissions, and negatively during the night by the solar wind electrons. The current dust charging and the levitation models, however, do not fully explain the observed phenomena, with the uncertainty of dust charging processes and the equilibrium potentials of the individual dust grains. It is well recognized that the charging properties of individual dust grains are substantially different from those determined from measurements made on bulk materials that are currently available. An experimental facility has been developed in the Dusty Plasma Laboratory at MSFC for investigating the charging and optical properties of individual micron/sub-micron size positively or negatively charged dust grains by levitating them in an electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. In this paper, we present the laboratory measurements on charging of Apollo 17 individual lunar dust grains by a low energy electron beam. The charging rates and the equilibrium potentials produced by direct electron impact and by secondary electron emission process are discussed.

Abbas, Mian M.; Tankosic, Dragana; Spann, James F.; Dube, Michael J.; Gaskin, Jessica A.

2008-01-01

393

Measurements of Charging of Apollo 17 Lunar Dust Grains by Electron Impact  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is well known since the Apollo missions that the lunar surface is covered with a thick layer of micron size dust grains with unusually high adhesive characteristics. The dust grains observed to be levitated and transported on the lunar surface are believed to have a hazardous impact on the robotic and human missions to the Moon. The observed dust phenomena are attributed to the lunar dust being charged positively during the day by UV photoelectric emissions, and negatively during the night by the solar wind electrons. The current dust charging and the levitation models, however, do not fully explain the observed phenomena, with the uncertainty of dust charging processes and the equilibrium potentials of the individual dust grains. It is well recognized that the charging properties of individual dust grains are substantially different from those determined from measurements made on bulk materials that are currently available. An experimental facility has been developed in the Dusty Plasma Laboratory at MSFC for investigating the charging and optical properties of individual micron/sub-micron size positively or negatively charged dust grains by levitating them in an electrodynamic balance in simulated space environments. In this paper, we present the laboratory measurements on charging of Apollo 17 individual lunar dust grains by a low energy electron beam. The charging rates and the equilibrium potentials produced by direct electron impact and by secondary electron emission process are discussed.

Abbas, Mian M.; Tankosic, Dragana; Spann, James F.; Dube, Michael J.

2008-01-01

394

The Actual Apollo 13 Prime Crew  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The actual Apollo 13 lunar landing mission prime crew from left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell Jr., Command Module pilot, John L. Swigert Jr.and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise Jr. The original Command Module pilot for this mission was Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly Jr. but due to exposure to German measles he was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L. 'Jack' Swigert Jr.

1970-01-01

395

Electromagnetic Sounding of the Moon from ARTEMIS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ARTEMIS is a twin-satellite, two-year lunar orbital mission, formed by retasking two of the THEMIS constellation (Angelopoulos, Space Sci. Rev.2010). The two spacecraft achieved lunar orbit in summer 2011. Although conceived for heliospheric science, investigations of the exosphere, crustal magnetic fields, and interior are enabled by the electromagnetic (EM) instruments of ARTEMIS (Sibeck et al., Space Sci. Rev, 2011). EM sounding of the interior will be improved over Apollo-era investigations due to the larger bandwidth, longer mission duration, and geographic coverage. Science objectives include (1) structure and heterogeneity of the outermost 500 km (crust and upper mantle), a region that may contain key information on the lunar magma ocean and the origin of the anomalous Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT); (2) tighter bounds on the conductivity of the lower mantle (500-1400 km depth), in order to constrain the temperature and nature of trace elements that control electrical conduction, particularly water; and (3) size of the metallic core, and whether a surrounding layer of molten silicate is present. EM sounding from ARTEMIS can be performed in at least two ways. In the transfer-function (TF) method derived during Apollo, the magnetic fields at a distant platform are compared to a (near) surface sensor to derive the source and sum of source and induced fields, respectively. From these data the internal conductivity structure giving rise to the induced field can be derived. However, source-field heterogeneity disturbs TF responses > 0.01 Hz. These high frequencies are necessary to resolve the crust and upper mantle. In contrast, the magnetotelluric (MT) method derives internal structure from the horizontal components of electric and magnetic fields at a single near-surface sensor, and therefore does not depend strongly on source-field geometry. MT has been used for more than a half-century in terrestrial exploration, but ARTEMIS marks its first planetary application. Both TF and MT are optimally applied when the Moon is in the lobes of the geomagnetic tail and the spacecraft are in daylight, where plasma effects are minimized. Periapsis passages at altitudes of a few hundred km or less with this geometry appear regularly in Nov and Dec. Periapses in the diamagnetic wake cavity are the next choice for EM sounding. The current layer that develops on the day side when the Moon is exposed to the solar wind screens EM sounding from orbit, but ARTEMIS will determine the thickness of this layer. ARTEMIS will advance our understanding of the lunar interior in ways that are complementary to the GRAIL gravity mission, and will provide a baseline for long-integration EM sounding from a surface geophysical network.

Grimm, R. E.; Delory, G. T.; Angelopoulos, V.; Artemis Team

2011-12-01

396

The Apollo passive seismic experiment  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The completed data set obtained from the 4-station Apollo seismic network includes signals from approximately 11,800 events of various types. Four data sets for use by other investigators, through the NSSDC, are in preparation. Some refinement of the lunar model based on seismic data can be expected, but its gross features remain as presented two years ago. The existence of a small, molten core remains dependent upon the analysis of signals from a single, far-side impact. Analysis of secondary arrivals from other sources may eventually resolve this issue, as well as continued refinement of the magnetic field measurements. Evidence of considerable lateral heterogeneity within the moon continues to build. The mystery of the much meteoroid flux estimate derived from lunar seismic measurements, as compared with earth-based estimates, remains; although, significant correlations between terrestrial and lunar observations are beginning to emerge.

Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.; Horvath, P.; Ibrahim, A. K.; Koyama, J.; Nakamura, Y.

1979-01-01

397

Yes, there was a moon race  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Examination of newly disclosed evidence confirms that the Soviets were indeed striving to reach the moon before the U.S. in 1969. It is noted that a Soviet unmanned lunar probe crashed on the moon's surface only hours before the U.S. Apollo landing. Now confirmed openly are moon-exploration schedules that were competitive with Apollo plans, the names and histories of Soviet lunar boosters and landers, identities of the lunar cosmonauts; and even photos of manned lunar craft are available. Additional details on the troubled moon-probe program are presented: technical problems, continuous changes in goals, schedules, and planning, vehicle and personnel disasters, transfer of authority between ministries, and political power struggles in the scientific community.

Oberg, James E.

1990-01-01

398

Chondrules in Apollo 14 samples and size analyses of Apollo 14 and 15 fines.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Chondrules have been observed in several breccia samples and one fines sample returned by the Apollo 14 mission. The chondrules are formed by at least three different processes that appear to be related to large impacts: (1) crystallization of shock-melted spherules and droplets; (2) rounding of rock clasts and mineral grains by abrasion in the base surge; and (3) diffusion and recrystallization around clasts in hot base surge and fall-back deposits. In the case of the Apollo 14 samples, the large impact almost certainly is the Imbrian event. Grain size analyses of undisturbed fines samples from the Apollo 14 site and from the Apollo 15 Apennine Front are almost identical, indicating that the two localities have similar meteoroid bombardment exposure ages, approximately 3.7 x 10 to the 9th yr. This observation is consistent with the interpretation that both the Fra Mauro formation and the Apennine Front material originated as ejecta from the Imbrian event.

King, E. A., Jr.; Butler, J. C.; Carman, M. F.

1972-01-01

399

Scientific rationale for the D-CIXS X-ray spectrometer on board ESA's SMART1 mission to the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The D-CIXS X-ray spectrometer on ESA's SMART-1 mission will provide the first global coverage of the lunar surface in X-rays, providing absolute measurements of elemental abundances. The instrument will be able to detect elemental Fe, Mg, Al and Si under normal solar conditions and several other elements during solar flare events. These data will allow for advances in several areas

S. K Dunkin; M. Grande; I. Casanova; V. Fernandes; D. J Heather; B. Kellett; K. Muinonen; S. S. Russell; R. Browning; N. Waltham; D. Parker; B. Kent; C. H Perry; B. Swinyard; A. Perry; J. Feraday; C. Howe; K. Phillips; G. McBride; J. Huovelin; P. Muhli; P. J Hakala; O. Vilhu; N. Thomas; D. Hughes; H. Alleyne; M. Grady; R. Lundin; S. Barabash; D. Baker; P. E Clark; C. D Murray; J. Guest; L. C d'Uston; S. Maurice; B. Foing; A. Christou; C. Owen; P. Charles; J. Laukkanen; H. Koskinen; M. Kato; K. Sipila; S. Nenonen; M. Holmstrom; N. Bhandari; R. Elphic; D. Lawrence

2003-01-01

400

Diagram of the Apollo 15 & 16 Gamma-ray Detector  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a diagram of the Apollo 15 & 16 Gamma-ray Detector from the NASA website. Primarily intended to study the Moon's radioactivity, it made measurements of the cosmic gamma-ray background during its trip. It shows measurements in millimeters.

401

UThPb age of Apollo 12 rock 12013  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A UThPb isotopic study of three chips from lunar rock 12013 indicates that parental material of the intrusion breccia formed quite early in the moon's history, possibly 3.9 to 4.3 by ago. The UThPb characteristics of the rock are distinctly different from those of other Apollo 12 igneous rocks and suggest a different origin. ?? 1970.

Tatsumoto, M.

1970-01-01

402

Release of radiogenic gases from the moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rate of escape of Ar-40 from the moon is calculated from mass-spectrometer data obtained at the Apollo-17 landing site. It is shown that the rate of loss of Ar from the moon varies significantly over periods the order of one lunation and that the average loss rate is about 3 t\\/a, corresponding to about 6% of the present rate

R. R. Hodges Jr.

1977-01-01

403

Extreme Temperatures on the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the airless Moon experiences no weather analogous to terrestrial weather, conditions there are nothing short of extreme. This video segment recounts some of the experiences Apollo 16 astronauts had as they explored the lunar surface, particularly extremes of heat and cold occurring in sunlit and shady areas. The segment is three minutes eleven seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

2011-05-05

404

Extreme Temperatures on the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Although the airless Moon experiences no weather analogous to terrestrial weather, conditions there are nothing short of extreme. This video segment recounts some of the experiences Apollo 16 astronauts had as they explored the lunar surface, particularly extremes of heat and cold occurring in sunlit and shady areas. The segment is three minutes eleven seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

405

The Dynamical Evolution of the Earth-Moon Progenitors. 1; Motivation and Methodology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The giant impact hypothesis was introduced in the mid-1970s after consideration of results from the Apollo missions. This hypothesis best explains the similarity in elemental proportions in lunar and terrestrial rocks, the depletion of lunar volatiles, the lack of lunar Fe, and the large angular momentum in the Earth-Moon system. Comparison between the radiometric ages of inclusions in the most primitive meteorites and in the oldest lunar rocks and the differentiation age of Earth suggests that the Earth-Moon system formed about100 m.y. after the oldest meteorites. In addition, the age of the famous martian meteorite ALH 84001 and an early Martian solidification time obtained by Lee and Halliday suggest that the inner solar system was fairly clear of large bodies about 10 m.y. after the oldest meteorites formed. Thus, the "standard model" suggests that for several tens of millions of years, the terrestrial planet region had few, if any, lunar-sized bodies, and there were five terrestrial planets: Mercury, Venus, the two progenitors of the Earth-Moon system, and Mars. To simulate the dynamics of the solar system before the hypothesized Moon-forming impact, we are integrating the solar system with the Earth-Moon system replaced by two bodies in heliocentric orbits between Venus and Mars. The total (orbital) angular momentum of the Earth-Moon progenitors is that of the present Earth-Moon system, and their total mass is that of the Earth-Moon System. We are looking at ranges in mass ratio and initial values for eccentricity, inclination, and semimajor axis. We are using the SYMBA integrator to integrate these systems until a collision occurs or a time of 200 m.y. elapses. Results are presented in a companion abstract, (also presented at this meeting).

Lissauer, J. J.; Rivera, E.; Duncan, M. J.; Levison, H. F.

1998-01-01

406

The Original Apollo 13 Prime Crew  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The original Apollo 13 prime crew. From left to right are: Commander, James A. Lovell, Command Module pilot, Thomas K. Mattingly and Lunar Module pilot, Fred W. Haise. On the table in front of them are from left to right, a model of a sextant, the Apollo 13 insignia, and a model of an astrolabe. The sextant and astrolabe are two ancient forms of navigation. Command Module pilot Thomas 'Ken' Mattingly was exposed to German measles prior to his mission and was replaced by his backup, Command Module pilot, John L.'Jack' Swigert Jr.

1969-01-01

407

Moon Phases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Standard 1 : Students will understand that the appearance of the moon changes in a predictable cycle as it orbits Earth and as Earth rotates on its axis. On your Moon calendar from class record the phases of the moon for today and for the remainder of the month using the interactive ability of the following website: Virtual Reality Moon Phase Pictures If you do not have a Moon Phase Calendar, print one off from the following link and use that one instead of ...

Moser, Mrs.

2009-02-25

408

Moon Phases  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The representation depicts various views of the moon orbiting around the Earth. In the "top view" choice, the moon orbits the Earth, and the sun is shown at left. In the "Earth view," the moon's phases are shown as seen from Earth. A third option shows both views simultaneously. The viewer may stop the moon anywhere in its orbit and find the corresponding moon phase title from a list provided. A very brief description of waxing, waning, and solar eclipse are given.

409

Options for the human settlement of the moon and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolutionary approach to space development is discussed in the framework of three overall strategies encompassing four case studies. The first strategy, human expeditions, places emphasis on highly visible, near-term manned missions to Mars or to one of the two moons of Mars. These expeditions are similar in scope and objectives to the Apollo program, with infrastructure development only conducted to the degree necessary to support one or two short-duration trips. Two such expeditionary scenarios, one to Phobus and the other to the Mars surface, are discussed. The second strategy involves the construction of science outposts, and emphasizes scientific exploration as well as investigation of technologies and operations needed for permanent habitation. A third strategy, evolutionary expansion, would explore and settle the inner solar system in a series of steps, with continued development of technologies, experience, and infrastructure.

Fairchild, Kyle O.; Roberts, Barney B.

1989-01-01

410

Radiation exposure in the moon environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During a stay on the moon humans are exposed to elevated radiation levels due to the lack of substantial atmospheric and magnetic shielding compared to the Earth's surface. The absence of magnetic and atmospheric shielding allows cosmic rays of all energies to impinge on the lunar surface. Beside the continuous exposure to galactic cosmic rays (GCR), which increases the risk of cancer mortality, exposure through particles emitted in sudden nonpredictable solar particle events (SPE) may occur. SPEs show an enormous variability in particle flux and energy spectra and have the potential to expose space crew to life threatening doses. On Earth, the contribution to the annual terrestrial dose of natural ionizing radiation of 2.4 mSv by cosmic radiation is about 1/6, whereas the annual exposure caused by GCR on the lunar surface is roughly 380 mSv (solar minimum) and 110 mSv (solar maximum). The analysis of worst case scenarios has indicated that SPE may lead to an exposure of about 1 Sv. The only efficient measure to reduce radiation exposure is the provision of radiation shelters. Measurements on the lunar surface performed during the Apollo missions cover only a small energy band for thermal neutrons and are not sufficient to estimate the exposure. Very recently some data were added by the Radiation Dose Monitoring (RADOM) instrument operated during the Indian Chandrayaan Mission and the Cosmic Ray Telescope (CRaTER) instrument of the NASA LRO (Lunar Reconnaisance Orbiter) mission. These measurements need to be complemented by surface measurements. Models and simulations that exist describe the approximate radiation exposure in space and on the lunar surface. The knowledge on the radiation exposure at the lunar surface is exclusively based on calculations applying radiation transport codes in combination with environmental models. Own calculations are presented using Monte-Carlo simulations to calculate the radiation environment on the moon and organ doses on the surface of the moon for an astronaut in an EVA suit and are compared with measurements. Since it is necessary to verify/validate such calculations with measurement on the lunar surface, a description is given of a radiation detector for future detailed surface measurements. This device is proposed for the ESA Lunar Lander Mission and is capable to characterize the radiation field concerning particle fluencies, dose rates and energy transfer spectra for ionizing particles and to measure the dose contribution of secondary neutrons.

Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Matthiae, Daniel

2012-12-01

411

Astronaut Aldrin is photographed by Astronaut Armstrong on the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 11 Onboard Film -- The deployment of scientific experiments by Astronaut Edwin Aldrin Jr. is photographed by Astronaut Neil Armstrong. Man's first landing on the Moon occurred today at 4:17 p.m. as Lunar Module 'Eagle' touched down gently on the Sea of Tranquility on the east side of the Moon.

1969-01-01

412

Gold Olive Branch Left on the Moon by Neil Armstrong  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the gold replica of an olive branch, the traditional symbol of peace, left on the Moon's surface by Apollo 11 crewmembers. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, placed the small replica (less than half a foot in length) on the Moon. The gesture represented a wish for peace for all mankind.

1971-01-01

413

Pervasive Layering in the Lunar Highland Crust: Evidence from Apollos 15, 16,and 17  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents results of a photogeologic reconnaissance of 70 mm photographs taken on the lunar surface during the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, whose primary objective was to investigate the lunar highland crust. Photographs at all three sites, notably the Apennine Front, show pervasive layered structure. These layers are easily distinguished from lighting artifacts, and are considered genuine crustal structures. Their number, thickness, and extent implies that they are lava flows, not ejecta blankets or intrusive features. They appear to be the upper part of the earliest lunar crust, possibly forming a layer tens of kilometers thick. Remote sensing studies (X-ray fluorescence and reflectance spectroscopy), indicate that the highland crust is dominantly a feldspathic basalt. It is concluded that the highland layers represent a global crust formed by eruptions of high-alumina basalt in the first few hundred million years of the Moon's history.

Lowman, Paul D., Jr.; Yang, Tiffany

2005-01-01

414

Apollo 17 lunar surface cosmic ray experiment - Measurement of heavy solar wind particles  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Apollo 17 mission a series of metal foils and nuclear track detectors were exposed both in the sun and in the shade on the surface of the moon. Here we give the analysis of the mica detectors which were used to measure the flux of solar wind particles of Fe-group and heavier elements. These particles register as shallow pits after etching in hydrofluoric acid. Calibration experiments were performed to determine the registration properties of different ions and to simulate the lunar environment. We obtain an Fe-group flux of 39,000 per sec per sq cm, which together with the