Sample records for apollo moon mission

  1. The Moon: What Have the Apollo Missions Taught Us? Part II: The View from Apollo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeever, S. W. S.

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes scientific findings resulting from the Apollo missions, including lunar rocks and soil, age determination, and the moon's interior, evolution, and origin. Indicates experiments for future lunar research. (SK)

  2. Apollo 17 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Operational and engineering aspects of the Apollo 17 mission are outlined. The vehicle configuration was similar to those of Apollo 15 and 16. There were significant differences in the science payload for Apollo 17 and spacecraft hardware differences and experiment equipment are described. The mission achieved a landing in the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon and returned samples of the pre-Imbrium highlands and young craters.

  3. Apollo: Expeditions to the Moon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1975-07-30

    This is an electronic version of an historical NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) publication, written by members of the Apollo program, containing information about the history and accomplishments of NASA's Apollo space program. Beginning with pre-space years and the first man in flight from the USSR, this publication looks into the beginnings of the Apollo space program and the space race between the United States and USSR in the 1950s and 60s. The generation and goals of the Apollo program are covered, as well as the programs that made Apollo possible (Gemini, Mercury, the Saturn V Booster). Details about the development of the spacecraft cover the Lunar Module concept, the beginnings of mission control, selecting astronauts for the Apollo program, problems that occurred, and the historic landing of Apollo 11. Also covered is the Apollo 13 crisis, the contributions Apollo discoveries made to our understanding of the Moon and Solar System, and the legacy of the Apollo program. There is a timeline of key events for Apollo as well as a mission profile highlighting the objectives and goals for the missions.

  4. Apollo Manned Missions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, produced by the Kennedy Space Center, presents the complete history of the Apollo Program, a series of missions which ultimately resulted in manned landings on the Moon. It features sections on mission goals, spacecraft, and summaries of both manned and unmanned missions. Mission summaries describe each flight crew, the conduct of each flight and landing, and accounts of experiments that were conducted and samples taken.

  5. Apollo 11 Moon Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The crowning achievement for the Saturn V rocket came when it launched Apollo 11 astronauts, Neil Armstrong, Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, and Michael Collins, to the Moon in July 1969. In this photograph, astronaut Aldrin takes his first step onto the surface of the Moon.

  6. Apollo to the Moon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Apollo to the Moon is a display at the National Air & Space Museum of the Smithsonian, dedicated to telling the history of human exploration of the moon by the United States. The Web site places the history of space travel within the context of the political environment, including the Cold War. The Space Race with Russia and the beginning of NASA are also discussed in detail, along with the rationale behind Kennedy's decision to pursue human space exploration. Finally, the Web site discusses the information learned from expeditions to the moon and the changing goals for space exploration.

  7. Apollo 15 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A detailed discussion is presented of the Apollo 15 mission, which conducted exploration of the moon over longer periods, greater ranges, and with more instruments of scientific data acquisition than previous missions. The topics include trajectory, lunar surface science, inflight science and photography, command and service module performance, lunar module performance, lunar surface operational equipment, pilot's report, biomedical evaluation, mission support performance, assessment of mission objectives, launch phase summary, anomaly summary, and vehicle and equipment descriptions. The capability of transporting larger payloads and extending time on the moon were demonstrated. The ground-controlled TV camera allowed greater real-time participation by earth-bound personnel. The crew operated more as scientists and relied more on ground support team for systems monitoring. The modified pressure garment and portable life support system provided better mobility and extended EVA time. The lunar roving vehicle and the lunar communications relay unit were also demonstrated.

  8. Apollo Lunar Sample Integration into Google Moon: A New Approach to Digitization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. D. Dawson; N. S. Todd; G. E. Lofgren

    2011-01-01

    The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project enhances the Apollo mission data available on Google Moon and provides an interactive research and learning tool for the Apollo lunar rock sample collection.

  9. Apollo Lunar Sample Integration into Google Moon: A New Approach to Digitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, M. D.; Todd, N. S.; Lofgren, G. E.

    2011-03-01

    The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project enhances the Apollo mission data available on Google Moon and provides an interactive research and learning tool for the Apollo lunar rock sample collection.

  10. How Apollo Flew to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Nick

    2009-10-01

    Eos readers who were even young children in the summer of 1969 probably will remember the first Moon landing vividly. If, like myself, they went on to develop a lifelong interest in manned spaceflight, they will have read many accounts in the intervening years, as diverse as Norman Mailer's, Andrew Chaikin's, and the first-person reminiscences of NASA astronaut Michael Collins. The prospect of another book about the Moon landing at first may seem uninspiring, and I confess this was my original reaction to the prospect of reading this book. Additionally, in the intervening 40 years since Apollo 11, there have been some superb films including For All Mankind (1989) and In the Shadow of the Moon (2006). The Internet has brought new possibilities for space documentation. The best known Web site on the Apollo missions is the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal, which now is hosted by NASA at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/. The Web site includes commentary from all of the surviving Moon walkers. Scottish space enthusiast W. David Woods created the companion Apollo Flight Journal, found at http://history.nasa.gov/afj//, which focuses on how the missions actually got to the Moon and back. Now Woods has distilled the information into the book How Apollo Flew to the Moon.

  11. Apollo 8, Man Around the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet presents a series of photographs depicting the story of the Apollo 8 mission around the moon and includes a brief description as well as quotes from the astronauts. The photographs show scenes of the astronauts training, the Saturn V rocket, pre-flight preparation, blast off, the earth from space, the lunar surface, the earth-based…

  12. Integration of Apollo Lunar Sample Data into Google Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Melissa D.; Todd, Nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project is a continuation of the Apollo 15 Google Moon Add-On project, which provides a scientific and educational tool for the study of the Moon and its geologic features. The main goal of this project is to provide a user-friendly interface for an interactive and educational outreach and learning tool for the Apollo missions. Specifically, this project?s focus is the dissemination of information about the lunar samples collected during the Apollo missions by providing any additional information needed to enhance the Apollo mission data on Google Moon. Apollo missions 15 and 16 were chosen to be completed first due to the availability of digitized lunar sample photographs and the amount of media associated with these missions. The user will be able to learn about the lunar samples collected in these Apollo missions, as well as see videos, pictures, and 360 degree panoramas of the lunar surface depicting the lunar samples in their natural state, following collection and during processing at NASA. Once completed, these interactive data layers will be submitted for inclusion into the Apollo 15 and 16 missions on Google Moon.

  13. Apollo Expeditions to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cortright, E. M. (editor)

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo program is described from the planning stages through Apollo 17. The organization of the program is discussed along with the development of the spacecraft and related technology. The objectives and accomplishments of each mission are emphasized along with personal accounts of the major figures involved. Other topics discussed include: ground support systems and astronaut selection.

  14. Apollo astronaut supports return to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-12-01

    Nearly 40 years after the Apollo 17 Moon launch on 7 December 1972, former NASA astronaut Harrison Schmitt said there is “no question” that the Moon is still worth going to, “whether you think about the science of the Moon or the resources of the Moon, or its relationship to accelerating our progress toward Mars.” Schmitt, a geologist and the lunar module pilot for that final Apollo mission, was speaking at a 6 December news briefing about lunar science at the AGU Fall Meeting. “By going back to the Moon, you accelerate your ability to go anywhere else,” Schmitt said, because of the ability to gain experience on a solar system body just a 3-day journey from Earth; test new hardware and navigation and communication techniques; and utilize lunar resources such as water, hydrogen, methane, and helium-3. He said lunar missions also would be a way “to develop new generations of people who know how to work in deep space. The people who know how to work [there] are my age, if not older, and we need young people to get that kind of experience.” Schmitt, 77, said that a particularly interesting single location to explore would be the Aitken Basin at the Moon's south pole, where a crater may have reached into the Moon's upper mantle. He also said a longer duration exploration program might be able to explore multiple sites.

  15. Apollo 16 Moon Plaque Installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Working inside the Apollo 16 Saturn V space vehicle at the launch pad, Grumman Aerospace Corporation technician Ken Crow attaches a plaque bearing the names and signatures of the Apollo 16 crew to the front leg of the lunar module's descent stage. The stainless steel plaque, which will remain on the lunar surface, measures 18 by 23 cm (seven by nine inches) and will bear the names of the Apollo 16 astronauts, John W. Young, mission Commander; Thomas K. Mattingly II, Command Module Pilot; and Charles M. Duke, Jr., Lunar Module Pilot.

  16. View of plaque Apollo 11 astronauts left on moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Closeup view of the plaque which the Apollo 11 astronauts left on the moon in commemoration of the historic lunar landing mission. The plaque was attached to the ladder on the landing gear strut on the descent stage of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module. The plaque was covered with a thin sheet of stainless steel during flight.

  17. Apollo 16 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Information is provided on the operational and engineering aspects of the Apollo 16 mission. Customary units of measurement are used in those sections of the report pertaining to spacecraft systems and trajectories. The International System of Units is used in sections pertaining to science activities.

  18. Replica of Plaque Left on Moon by Apollo 17 Astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This image is a photographic replica of the plaque that the Apollo 17 astronauts left on the Moon at the Taurus-Littrow landing site. Apollo 17 was the final lunar landing mission in NASA's Apollo program. The commemorative plaque was unveiled at the close of the third extravehicular activity (EVA-3). The plaque was made of stainless steel measuring nine by seven and five-eighths inches, and one-sixteenth inch thick. It was attached to the ladder on the landing gear strut on the descent stage of Apollo 17 Lunar Module 'Challenger.'

  19. Working on the moon: The Apollo experience

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    The successful completion of any scientific or engineering project on the Moon will depend, in part, on human ability to do useful work under lunar conditions. In making informed decisions about such things as the use of humans rather than robots for specific tasks, the scheduling of valuable human time, and the design and selection of equipment and tools, good use can be made of the existing experience base. During the six completed landing missions, Apollo lunar surface crews conducted 160 astronaut-hours of extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) and also spent a similar sum of waking hours working in the cramped confines of the Lunar Module. The first three missions were primarily proof-tests of flight hardware and procedures. The ability to land equipment and consumables was very modest but, despite stay times of no more than 32 hours, the crews of Apollos 11, 12, and 14 were able to test their mobility and their capability of doing useful work outside the spacecraft. For the last three missions, thanks to LM modifications which enabled landings with significant amounts of cargo, stay times more than doubled to three days. The crews were able to use Lunar Rovers to conduct extensive local exploration and to travel up to 10 kilometers away from their immediate landing sites. During these final missions, the astronauts spent enough time doing work of sufficient complexity that their experience should be of use in the formulation early-stage lunar base operating plans. 2 refs.

  20. On the Moon with Apollo 15, A Guidebook to Hadley Rille and the Apennine Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Gene

    The booklet, published before the Apollo 15 mission, gives a timeline for the mission; describes and illustrates the physiography of the landing site; and describes and illustrates each lunar surface scientific experiment. Separate timelines are included for all traverses (the traverses are the Moon walks and, for Apollo 15, the Moon rides in the…

  1. Moon Rock Presented to Smithsonian Institute by Apollo 11 Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 astronauts, (left to right) Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Neil A. Armstrong, commander, are showing a two-pound Moon rock to Frank Taylor, director of the Smithsonian Institute in Washington D.C. The rock was picked up from the Moon's surface during the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) of Aldrin and Armstrong following man's first Moon landing and was was presented to the Institute for display in the Art and Industries Building. The Apollo 11 mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  2. Apollo Lunar Sample Integration into Google Moon: A New Approach to Digitization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Melissa D.; Todd, nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project is part of a larger, LASER-funded 4-year lunar rock photo restoration project by NASA s Acquisition and Curation Office [1]. The objective of this project is to enhance the Apollo mission data already available on Google Moon with information about the lunar samples collected during the Apollo missions. To this end, we have combined rock sample data from various sources, including Curation databases, mission documentation and lunar sample catalogs, with newly available digital photography of rock samples to create a user-friendly, interactive tool for learning about the Apollo Moon samples

  3. Plaque the Apollo 14 crew will leave on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A close-up view of the plaque which the Apollo 14 crew will leave behind on the Moon during their lunar landing mission. The seven by nine-inch stainless steel plaque will be attached to the ladder on the landing gear strut on the Lunar Module's descent stage.

  4. Apollo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    US programme to land men on the moon. Included 11 manned missions, October 1968-December 1972, with three missions restricted to a lunar flyby or orbital survey (Apollos 8, 10 and 13), and six landings (Apollos 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17). Returned 385 kg of lunar soil and rock samples which provided evidence that the Moon was about the same age as the Earth and probably originated from material d...

  5. Where No Man Has Gone Before: A History of Apollo Lunar Exploration Missions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    William Compton

    1989-01-01

    This is an electronic version of an historical NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) publication about the United States Apollo lunar missions. This report discusses the beginning of the Apollo program from the organization of space exploration, the decision to begin Apollo, the progress and planning of the missions, Moon landing site selections, crew selections, the accomplishments of each mission (Apollo 1-17) and issues that arose during the Apollo missions.

  6. Apollo Rock Reveals Moon Had Molten Core | Universe Additional Resources

    E-print Network

    Weiss, Benjamin P.

    Apollo Rock Reveals Moon Had Molten Core | Universe Today Subscribe Podcast Home Additional Apollo Rock Reveals Moon Had Molten Core Written by Nancy Atkinson If you're new here, you may want to subscribe to my RSS feed. Thanks for visiting! Apollo Rock Reveals Moon Had Molten Core | Universe Today

  7. Apollo experience report: Mission planning for Apollo entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, C. A.; Harpold, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The problems encountered and the experience gained in the entry mission plans, flight software, trajectory-monitoring procedures, and backup trajectory-control techniques of the Apollo Program should provide a foundation upon which future spacecraft programs can be developed. Descriptions of these entry activities are presented. Also, to provide additional background information needed for discussion of the Apollo entry experience, descriptions of the entry targeting for the Apollo 11 mission and the postflight analysis of the Apollo 10 mission are presented.

  8. More than 50 missions to the Moon have been launched

    E-print Network

    More than 50 missions to the Moon have been launched by the USA and Russia (formerly the USSR) since 1959.Lunik 3,which flew past the Moon in 1959,was the first to photograph its far side. The ambitious Apollo project sent 27 astronauts to the Moon between 1968 and 1972,12 of whom landed

  9. Apollo Mission Techniques Lunar Orbit Activities - Part 1a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the planned sequence of events and the rationale for all lunar missions, and the flight experiences and lessons learned for the lunar orbit activities from a trajectory perspective. Shown are trajectories which include the moon's position at the various stages in the complete trip from launch, to the return and reentry. Included in the presentation are objectives and the sequence of events,for the Apollo 8, and Apollo 10. This is followed by a discussion of Apollo 11, including: the primary mission objective, the sequence of events, and the flight experience. The next mission discussed was Apollo 12. It reviews the objectives, the ground tracking, procedure changes, and the sequence of events. The aborted Apollo 13 mission is reviewed, including the objectives, and the sequence of events. Brief summaries of the flight experiences for Apollo 14-16 are reviewed. The flight sequence of events of Apollo 17 are discussed. In summary each mission consistently performing precision landings required that Apollo lunar orbit activities devote considerable attention to: (1) Improving fidelity of lunar gravity models, (2) Maximizing availability of ground tracking, (3) Minimizing perturbations on the trajectory, (4) Maximizing LM propellant reserves for hover time. Also the use of radial separation maneuvers (1) allows passive re-rendezvous after each rev, but ... (2) sensitive to small dispersions in initial sep direction

  10. Managing the Moon Program: Lessons Learned from Project Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    There have been many detailed historical studies of the process of deciding on and executing the Apollo lunar landing during the 1960s and early 1970s. From the announcement of President John F Kennedy on May 25, 1961, of his decision to land an American on the Moon by the end of the decade, through the first lunar landing on July 20, 1969, on to the last of six successful Moon landings with Apollo 17 in December 1972, NASA carried out Project Apollo with enthusiasm and aplomb. While there have been many studies recounting the history of Apollo, at the time of the 30th anniversary of the first lunar landing by Apollo 11, it seems appropriate to revisit the process of large-scale technological management as it related to the lunar mission. Consequently, the NASA History Office has chosen to publish this monograph containing the recollections of key partcipants in the management process. The collective oral history presented here was recorded in 1989 at the Johnson Space Center's Gilruth Recreation Center in Houston, Texas. It includes the recollections of key participants in Apollo's administration, addressing issues such as communication between field centers, the prioritization of technological goals, and the delegation of responsibility. The following people participated: George E. Muller, Owen W. Morris, Maxime A. Faget, Robert R. Gilruth, Christopher C. Kraft, and Howard W. (Bill) Tindall. The valuable perspectives of these individuals deepen and expand our understanding of this important historical event. This is the 14th in a series of special studies prepared by the NASA History Office. The Monographs in Aerospace History series is designed to provide a wide variety of investigations relative to the history of aeronautics and space. These publications are intended to be tightly focused in terms of subject, relatively short in length, and reproduced in an inexpensive format to allow timely and broad dissemination to researchers in aerospace history.

  11. The 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Lee

    2014-01-01

    The 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) scientific investigations were completed on Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii in July 2012. The investigations were conducted on the southeast flank of the Mauna Kea volcano at an elevation of approximately 11,500 ft. This area is known as "Apollo Valley" and is in an adjacent valley to the Very Large Baseline Array dish antenna.

  12. APOLLO OVER THE MOON A View From Orbit

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Objectives 1 Orbital Science Photographic Team . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Orbital Camera Systems. 1. Moon-Photographs from space. 2. Project Apollo. I. Masursky, Harold, 1922- 11. Colton, George step was taken by Apollo, when photographic equipment captured the Moon's surface in intimate detail

  13. The voyages of Apollo: The exploration of the moon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Lewis

    1974-01-01

    The scientific background of the exploration of the moon conducted in connection with the Apollo project is examined, giving attention to models of the moon and the general significance of lunar investigations for the study of the solar system. Space programs preceding the Apollo project and helping to prepare the technological and navigational basis for it are examined, taking into

  14. Apollo 13 Facts [Post Mission Honorary Ceremony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Apollo 13 astronauts, James Lovell, Jr., John Swigert, Jr., and Fred Haise, Jr., are seen during this post mission honorary ceremony, led by President Richard Nixon. Lovell is shown during an interview, answering questions about the mission.

  15. Photographic replica of plaque Apollo 15 astronauts will leave on Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A photographic replica of the plaque which Apollo 15 astronauts will leave behind on the Moon during their lunar landing mission. The seven by nine-inch stainless steel plaque will be attached to the ladder on the landing gear strut on the Lunar Module's descent stage.

  16. Photographic replica of the plaque Apollo 13 astronauts will leave on moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    A photographic replica of the plaque which the Apollo 13 astronauts will leave behind on the Moon during their lunar landing mission. The plaque will be attached to the ladder on the landing gear strut on the Lunar Module's descent stage.

  17. Where No Man Has Gone Before: A History of Apollo Lunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, William David

    1988-01-01

    This book is a narrative account of the development of the science program for the Apollo lunar landing missions. It focuses on the interaction between scientific interests and operational considerations in such matters as landing site selection and training of crews, quarantine and back contamination control, and presentation of results from scientific investigations. Scientific exploration of the moon on later flights, Apollo 12 through Apollo 17 is emphasized.

  18. Apollo experience report: Guidance and control systems. Mission control programmer for unmanned missions AS-202, Apollo 4, and Apollo 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    An unmanned test flight program required to evaluate the command module heat shield and the structural integrity of the command and service module/Saturn launch vehicle is described. The mission control programer was developed to provide the unmanned interface between the guidance and navigation computer and the other spacecraft systems for mission event sequencing and real-time ground control during missions AS-202, Apollo 4, and Apollo 6. The development of this unmanned programer is traced from the initial concept through the flight test phase. Detailed discussions of hardware development problems are given with the resulting solutions. The mission control programer functioned correctly without any flight anomalies for all missions. The Apollo 4 mission control programer was reused for the Apollo 6 flight, thus being one of the first subsystems to be reflown on an Apollo space flight.

  19. After Apollo - Fission origin of the moon. [from planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Okeefe, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The present work maintains that the Apollo moon data substantiate the fission theory of the origin of the moon. It has been objected to this theory that prior to fission, the total mass and angular momentum of the earth-moon system would have to be greater than the present total of the earth and the moon, which would imply that angular momentum must have been lost since the fission. The present work states that this loss of momentum can be accounted for by the subsequent boiling off of a large amount of the original lunar mass. This would also mean that the moon ought to be greatly impoverished in volatiles, which it, indeed, is according to Apollo data. It is suggested that at one time the solar system was a binary star, namely, the sun and Jupiter. Successive fissions of Jupiter would have created other planets, which themselves could undergo fission, producing satellites.

  20. Apollo 16 view of moon taken with Fairchild metric mapping camera in orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A newly-analyzed photograph of the southwest quadrant of the Moon with an overlay indicating where the launch vehicle stages from two Apollo missions, 13 and 14, hit the lunar surface. This is the first time two S-IVB stage impact points have been located in a single photo. The S-IVB stage is the thrid stage of the Saturn V launch vehicle. The Riphaeus Mountains run northward between the two impact points. The fresh, raised-rim crater at center left is Euclides; and the largest crater near the horizon at upper left is Landberg. The mare area at lower right is the Known Sea. The photograph was taken by the Apollo 16 Fairchild metric mapping camera in lunar orbit, at a 40-degree north oblique angle. The picture was taken during the Apollo 16 Command/Service Module's 59th revolution of the Moon, at an altitude of 124 kilometers. The Sun elevation was 18 degrees.

  1. Biocore experiment. [Apollo 17 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, O. T.; Benton, E. V.; Cruty, M. R.; Harrison, G. A.; Haymaker, W.; Humason, G.; Leon, H. A.; Lindberg, R. L.; Look, B. C.; Lushbaugh, C. C.

    1973-01-01

    The Apollo 17 biological cosmic ray experiment to determine the effect of heavy cosmic ray particles on the brain and eyes is reported. The pocket mouse was selected as the biological specimen for the experiment. The radiation monitors, animal autopsy and animal processing are described, and the radiation effects on the scalp, retina, and viscera are analyzed.

  2. After Apollo: Fission Origin of the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, John A.

    1973-01-01

    Presents current ideas about the fission process of the Moon, including loss of mass. Saturnian rings, center of the Moon, binary stars, and uniformitarianism. Indicates that planetary formation may be best explained as a destructive, rather than a constructive process. (CC)

  3. Apollo 17 mission 5-day report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A five day report of the Apollo 17 mission is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) sequence of events, (2) extravehicular activities, (3) first, second, and third lunar surface extravehicular activity, (4) transearth extravehicular activity, (5) lunar surface experiments conducted, (6) orbital science activities, (7) spacecraft reentry and recovery.

  4. View of Mission Control Center during the Apollo 13 emergency return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Overall view showing some of the activity in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) of the Mission Control Center (MCC) during the final 24 hours of the Apollo 13 mission. Here, flight controllers and several NASA/MSC Officials confer at the flight director's console. When this picture was made, the Apollo 13 moon landing had been cancelled and the Apollo 13 crewmen were in transearth trajectory attempting to bring their crippled spacecraft back home (35368); Discussion in the MOCR dealing with the Apollo 13 crewmen during their final day in space. From left to right are Glynn S. Lunney, Shift 4 Flight Director; Gerald D. Griffin, SHift 2 Flight Director; Astronaut James A. McDivitt, Manager, APollo Spacecraft Program, MSC; Dr. Donald K. Slayton, Director of Flight Crew Operations, MSC; and Dr. Willard R. Hawkins, M.D., Shift 1 Flight Surgeon (35369).

  5. Apollo 13 Astronaut Fred Haise and Apollo 13 Mission Patch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Astronaut Fred Haise Jr. of Biloxi, Miss., views his Apollo 13 mission patch, the flight on which he served in 1970, in a StenniSphere display donated to NASA by the American Needlepoint Guild. The exhibit is on permanent display at StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center. In its first year of operation, more than 251,000 visitors representing over 40 countries have viewed the 123 hand-stitched patches in the exhibit. Forty-two guild members from 20 states made the trip to StenniSphere for the opening of the exhibit, one of the most popular at StenniSphere.

  6. Plaque which Apollo 11 astronauts will leave on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Closeup view of the plaque which the Apollo 11 astronauts will leave behind on the moon is commemoration of the historic event. The plaque is made of stainless steel measuring nine by seven and five-eighths inches, and one-sixteenth inch thick. The plaque will be attached to the ladder on the landing gear strut on the descent stage of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module. Covering the plaque during flight will be a thin sheet of stainless steel which will be removed on the lunar surface.

  7. Two of Apollo 17 crewmen join in commemoration of their lunar landing mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Two of the three Apollo 17 crewmen join in commemoration of their historic lunar landing mission of one year ago by presenting the flight controllers in Mission Control Center (MSC) the U.S. flag which flew with them to the Moon. Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, center, Apollo 17 commander, and Harrison H. Schmitt, right, lunar module pilot, are shown with Eugene F. Kranz, who accepted the flag on behalf of all the flight controllers during special ceremonies in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) of MCC during the third manned Skylab mission. Kranz is Chief of the Flight Control Division of the Flight Operations Directorate at JSC.

  8. Apollo 11 mission: Glycol temperature control valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    An analysis was made of the cause or causes of malfunctions in the glycol temperature control valve during the Apollo 11 mission. The valve was designed to control inlet temperatures at 45 (+ or - 3) F. Test results show malfunctions were caused by a bearing failure on the worm gear shaft in the actuator. It was concluded that no corrective action was needed because an existing procedure allows manual setting of the value at a position which will meet system requirements.

  9. In This Decade, Mission to the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The development and accomplishments of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from its inception in 1958 to the final preparations for the Apollo 11 mission in 1969 are traced in this brochure. A brief account of the successes of projects Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo is presented and many color photographs and drawings of the…

  10. Endocrine Laboratory Results Apollo Missions 14 and 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.

    1972-01-01

    Endocrine/metabolic responses to space flight have been measured on the crewmen of Apollo missions 14 and 15. There were significant biochemical changes in the crewmen of both missions immediately postflight. However, the Apollo 15 mission results differed from Apollo 14 and preflight shown by a normal to increased urine volume with slight increases in antidiuretic hormone. Although Apollo 15 was the first mission in which the exchangeable potassium measurement was made (a decrease), results from other missions were indicative of similar conclusions.

  11. Apollo renaissance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-02-01

    Forty years ago, the Apollo missions brought unprecedented knowledge of the Moon. After a lengthy period of hibernation, the material recovered in the late 1960s and early 1970s is back in the limelight.

  12. View of Mission Control Center during the Apollo 13 oxygen cell failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    A group of eight astronauts and flight controllers monitor the console activity in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) of the Mission Control Center (MCC) during the Apollo 13 lunar landing mission. Seated, left to right, are MOCR Guidance Officer Raymond F. Teague; Astronaut Edgar D. Michell, and Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., Standing, left to right, are Scientist-Astronaut Anthony W. England; Astronaut Joe H. Engle; Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan; Astronaut Ronald E. Evans; and M.P. Frank, a flight controller. When this picture was made, the Apollo 13 moon landing had already been cancelled, and the Apollo 13 crewmen were in transearth trajectory attempting to bring their crippled spacecraft back home.

  13. Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Future Missions to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This document contained the following topics: A Miniature Mass Spectrometer Module; SELENE Gamma Ray Spectrometer Using Ge Detector Cooled by Stirling Cryocooler; Lunar Elemental Composition and Investigations with D-CIXS X-Ray Mapping Spectrometer on SMART-1; X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer Onboard the SELENE Lunar Orbiter: Its Science and Instrument; Detectability of Degradation of Lunar Impact Craters by SELENE Terrain Camera; Study of the Apollo 16 Landing Site: As a Standard Site for the SELENE Multiband Imager; Selection of Targets for the SMART-1 Infrared Spectrometer (SIR); Development of a Telescopic Imaging Spectrometer for the Moon; The Lunar Seismic Network: Mission Update.

  14. View of Mission Control Center during Apollo 13 splashdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Overall view of Mission Operations Control Room in Mission Control Center at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) during the ceremonies aboard the U.S.S. Iwo Jima, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 13 mission. Dr. Donald K. Slayton (in black shirt, left of center), Director of Flight Crew Operations at MSC, and Chester M. Lee of the Apollo Program Directorate, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters, shake hands, while Dr. Rocco A. Petrone, Apollo Program Director, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters (standing, near Lee), watches the large screen showing Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., Apollo 13 commander, during the on-board ceremonies. In the foreground, Glynn S. Lunney (extreme left) and Eugene F. Kranz (smoking a cigar), two Apollo 13 Flight Directors, view the activity from their consoles.

  15. Endocrine, electrolyte, and fluid volume changes associated with Apollo missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Alexander, W. C.; Johnson, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    The endocrine and metabolic results obtained before and after the Apollo missions and the results of the limited in-flight sampling are summarized and discussed. The studies were designed to evaluate the biochemical changes in the returning Apollo crewmembers, and the areas studied included balance of fluids and electrolytes, regulation of calcium metabolism, adaptation to the environment, and regulation of metabolic processes.

  16. View of Mission Control Center during the Apollo 13 liftoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Sigurd A. Sjoberg, Director of Flight Operations at Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), views the Apollo 13 liftoff from a console in the MSC Mission Control Center, bldg 30. Apollo 13 lifted off at 1:13 p.m., April 11, 1970 (34627); Astronaut Thomas F. Mattingly II, who was scheduled as a prime crewman for the Apollo 13 mission but was replaced in the final hours when it was discovered he had been exposed to measles, watches the liftoff phase of the mission. He is seated at a console in the Mission Control Center's Mission Operations Control Room. Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin, a spacecraft communicator for the mission, looks on at right (34628).

  17. View of replica of plaque Apollo 12 astronauts will leave on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Close-up view of a replica of the plaque which the Apollo 12 astronauts will leave on the Moon in commemoration of their flight. The plaque will be attached to the ladder on the landing gear strut on the descent stage of the Apollo 12 Lunar Module.

  18. Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities for Mauna Kea 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Lee D.; Morris, Richard V.; Graff, Trevor G.; Yingst, R. Aileen; tenKate, I. L.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Hedlund, Magnus; Malespin, Charles A.; Mumm, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Rover-based 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) scientific investigations were recently completed at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Scientific investigations, scientific input, and science operations constraints were tested in the context of an existing project and protocols for the field activities designed to help NASA achieve the Vision for Space Exploration. Initial science operations were planned based on a model similar to the operations control of the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER). However, evolution of the operations process occurred as the analog mission progressed. We report here on the preliminary sensor data results, an applicable methodology for developing an optimum science input based on productive engineering and science trades discussions and the science operations approach for an investigation into the valley on the upper slopes of Mauna Kea identified as "Apollo Valley".

  19. Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities for Mauna Kea 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, L. D.; Morris, R. V.; Graff, T. G.; Yingst, R. A.; ten Kate, I. L.; Glavin, D. P.; Hedlund, M.; Malespin, C. A.; Mumm, E.

    Rover-based 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) scientific investigations were recently completed at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Scientific investigations, scientific input, and science operations constraints were tested in the context of an existing project and protocols for the field activities designed to help NASA achieve the Vision for Space Exploration. Initial science operations were planned based on a model similar to the operations control of the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER). However, evolution of the operations process occurred as the analog mission progressed. We report here on the preliminary sensor data results, an applicable methodology for developing an optimum science input based on productive engineering and science trades and the science operations approach for an investigation into the valley on the upper slopes of Mauna Kea identified as “ Apollo Valley.”

  20. Visual light flash phenomenon. [Apollo 17 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinsky, L. S.; Osborne, W. Z.; Bailey, J. V.

    1973-01-01

    Light flash phenomenon observed by crewmen on Apollo 14, 15, 16, and 17 are analyzed. The passage of cosmic rays through the crewman's head and eyes was recorded by the Apollo light flash moving emulsion detector. Events of all the light flash observations are tabulated. It is suggested that the most probable explanation of the phenomenon is that it is caused by cosmic rays penetrating the eyes and retinas of the observers.

  1. Stennis engineer part of LCROSS moon mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Karma Snyder, a project manager at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, was a senior design engineer on the RL10 liquid rocket engine that powered the Centaur, the upper stage of the rocket used in NASA's Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission in October 2009. Part of the LCROSS mission was to search for water on the moon by striking the lunar surface with a rocket stage, creating a plume of debris that could be analyzed for water ice and vapor. Snyder's work on the RL10 took place from 1995 to 2001 when she was a senior design engineer with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne. Years later, she sees the project as one of her biggest accomplishments in light of the LCROSS mission. 'It's wonderful to see it come into full service,' she said. 'As one of my co-workers said, the original dream was to get that engine to the moon, and we're finally realizing that dream.'

  2. Apollo 15 impact melts, the age of Imbrium, and the Earth-Moon impact cataclysm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1992-01-01

    The early impact history of the lunar surface is of critical importance in understanding the evolution of both the primitive Moon and the Earth, as well as the corresponding populations of planetesimals in Earth-crossing orbits. Two endmember hypotheses call for greatly dissimilar impact dynamics. One is a heavy continuous (declining) bombardment from about 4.5 Ga to 3.85 Ga. The other is that an intense but brief bombardment at about 3.85 +/- Ga was responsible for producing the visible lunar landforms and for the common 3.8-3.9 Ga ages of highland rocks. The Apennine Front, the main topographic ring of the Imbrium Basin, was sampled on the Apollo 15 mission. The Apollo 15 impact melts show a diversity of chemical compositions, indicating their origin in at least several different impact events. The few attempts at dating them have generally not produced convincing ages, despite their importance. Thus, we chose to investigate the ages of melt rock samples from the Apennine Front, because of their stratigraphic importance yet lack of previous age definition.

  3. Apollo 14 mission food preparation unit leakage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A bubble of water collected on the delivery probe of the food preparation unit after hot water was dispensed by the Apollo 14 crew. Postflight tests showed that dimensional interference between the cylinder and the piston at hot water temperatures produced the apparent leak by causing erratic and slow stroke time of the valve assembly.

  4. Apollo 11 LM Interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This interior view of the Apollo 11 Lunar Module shows Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., lunar module pilot, during the lunar landing mission. This picture was taken by Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, prior to the moon landing.

  5. Lunar interior as seen by seismology: from Apollo to future missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, Philippe; Kobayashi, Naoki; Garcia, Raphael; Weber, Renee; Johnson, Catherine; Gagnepain-Beyneix, Jeannine

    2012-07-01

    About 40 years ago, the Apollo missions deployed a network of 4 passive seismometers on the Moon, at landing sites 12, 14, 15 and 16. A seismometer was also deployed on Apollo 11 and a gravimeter on Apollo 17 landing sites. Although this network stopped its operation in 1977, the analysis of the data is surprisingly still ongoing and has led to the determination of major radial features in the lunar interior, including the recent discovery of core phases in 2011 by Weber et al and Garcia et all, 2011. We review in this presentation the general results of these seismic analyses, from the subsurface near the landing sites to the core. Special focus is given to the crustal structure, both in term of thickness and lateral variation and to the core structure, in term of radius, core state, temperature and composition. We also discuss the existence of possible discontinuities in the mantle, proposed by some early seismic models but challenged by others and interpreted as the possible limit of an early magma ocean. We finally present the perspectives of future missions, first with the SELENE2 mission, which is expected to deploy a new generation of very broad band seismometer followed by other projects proposed either in Europe or the USA. By using the expected sensitivity of the seismometers considered for these mission, we conclude by presenting the potential challenges, science objectives and discoveries of this future step in the seismic exploration of our satellite.

  6. NASA's Lunar Polar Ice Prospector, RESOLVE: Mission Rehearsal in Apollo Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Picard, Martin; Quinn, Jacqueline; Sanders, Gerald B.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    After the completion of the Apollo Program, space agencies didn't visit the moon for many years. But then in the 90's, the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions returned and showed evidence of water ice at the poles. Then in 2009 the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite indisputably showed that the Cabeus crater contained water ice and other useful volatiles. Furthermore, instruments aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) show evidence that the water ice may also be present in areas that receive several days of continuous sunlight each month. However, before we can factor this resource into our mission designs, we must understand the distribution and quantity of ice or other volatiles at the poles and whether it can be reasonably harvested for use as propellant or mission consumables. NASA, in partnership with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), has been developing a payload to answer these questions. The payload is named RESOLVE. RESOLVE is on a development path that will deliver a tested flight design by the end of 2014. The team has developed a Design Reference Mission using LRO data that has RESOLVE landing near Cabeus Crater in May of2016. One of the toughest obstacles for RESOLVE's solar powered mission is its tight timeline. RESOLVE must be able to complete its objectives in the 5-7 days of available sunlight. The RESOLVE team must be able to work around obstacles to the mission timeline in real time. They can't afford to take a day off to replan as other planetary missions have done. To insure that this mission can be executed as planned, a prototype version of RESOLVE was developed this year and tested at a lunar analog site on Hawaii, known as Apollo Valley, which was once used to train the Apollo astronauts. The RESOLVE team planned the mission with the same type of orbital imagery that would be available from LRO. The simulation team prepositioned a Lander in Apollo Valley with RESOLVE on top mounted on its CSA rover. Then the mission simulation began as the operations team's consoles came alive with data and images. They executed the mission just like the real mission with lunar communications delays and limited bandwidth and a realistic remote mission control room. This paper will describe the RESOLVE payload in detail and describe the results of the mission simulation in Hawaii.

  7. Clementine: An inexpensive mission to the Moon and Geographos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shoemaker, Eugene M.; Nozette, Stewart

    1993-01-01

    The Clementine Mission, a joint project of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) and NASA, has been planned primarily to test and demonstrate a suite of lightweight sensors and other lightweight spacecraft components under extended exposure to the space environment. Although the primary objective of the mission is to space-qualify sensors for Department of Defense applications, it was recognized in 1990 that such a mission might also be designed to acquire scientific observations of the Moon and of Apollo asteroid (1620) Geographos. This possibility was explored jointly by SDIO and NASA, including representatives from NASA's Discovery Program Science Working Group, in early 1991. Besides the direct return of scientific information, one of the benefits envisioned from a joint venture was the development of lightweight components for possible future use in NASA's Discovery-class spacecraft. In Jan. 1992, SDIO informed NASA of its intent to fly a 'Deep Space Program Science Experiment,' now popularly called Clementine; NASA then formed an advisory science working group to assist in the early development of the mission. The Clementine spacecraft is being assembled at the Naval Research Laboratory, which is also in charge of the overall mission design and mission operations. Support for mission design is being provided by GSFC and by JPL. NASA's Deep Space Network will be utilized in tracking and communicating with the spacecraft. Following a recommendation of the COMPLEX committee of the Space Science Board, NASA will issue an NRA and appoint a formal science team in early 1993. Clementine is a 3-axis stabilized, 200 kg (dry weight) spacecraft that will be launched on a refurbished Titan-2G. One of the goals has been to build two spacecraft, including the sensors, for $100M. Total time elapsed from the decision to proceed to the launch will be two years.

  8. Apollo 17 petrology and experimental determination of differentiation sequences in model moon compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, F. N.; Kushiro, I.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental studies of model moon compositions are discussed, taking into account questions related to the differentiation of the outer layer of the moon. Phase relations for a series of proposed lunar compositions have been determined and a petrographic and electron microprobe study was conducted on four Apollo 17 samples. Two of the samples consist of high-titanium mare basalts, one includes crushed anorthosite and gabbro, and another contains blue-gray breccia.

  9. Apollo 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, David

    1972-01-01

    This is the Press Kit that was given to the various media outlets that were interested in covering the Apollo 17 mission. It includes information about the moon, lunar science, concentrating on the planned mission. The kit includes information about the flight, and the trajectory, planned orbit insertion maneuvers, the extravehicular mission events, a comparison with the Apollo 16, a map of the lunar surface, and the surface activity, information about the Taurus-Littrow landing site, the planned science experiments, the power source for the experiment package and diagrams of some of the instrumentation that was used to perform the experiments.

  10. View of earth during return from moon taken from Apollo 8 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    View of the earth as photographed by the Apollo 8 astronauts on their return trip from the moon. Note that the terminator is straighter than on the outbound pictures. The terminator crosses Australia. India is visible. The sun reflection is within the Indian Ocean.

  11. Apollo 11 30th Anniversary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    On July 20, 1969, humans took their first steps on the moon. The Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum is honoring the 30th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing through this Website. The site is divided into three main sections: Anniversary Events, Exhibitions, and Apollo Online. The latter is a great source for information on the history and significance of the mission. Also through the Apollo Online link, users may send questions to Apollo 11 astronaut Buzz Aldrin or take an online tour of the landing at Dateline Moon: The Media and the Space Race Website.

  12. Apollo 16 mission Report. Supplement 1: Apollo 16 guidance, navigation, and control system performance analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The results are reported of additional studies which were conducted to supplement conclusions drawn in the MSC Mission Report and analyses which were not completed in time to meet the Mission Report dealine. A detailed evaluation of the Abort Guidance System sensor assembly and results from the investigation of the X gyro loop anomaly are included. Further evidence is presented substantiating the excellent LM IMU performance obtained from preliminary indications. A detailed study is presented of the procedural changes implemented on Apollo 16 to diminish the number and duration of interruptions to the CSM DAP attitude maneuver during P20 Option 5 operations.

  13. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

  14. MSFC Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount summary mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    A summary of the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) performance during the 8.5-month Skylab mission is presented. A brief description of each ATM system, system performance summaries, discussion of all significant ATM anomalies which occurred during the Skylab mission, and, in an appendix, a summary of the Skylab ATM Calibration Rocket Project (CALROC) are provided. The text is supplemented and amplified by photographs, drawings, curves, and tables. The report shows that the ATM not only met, but exceeded premission performance criteria, and that participation of man in space for this scientific investigation greatly enhanced the quality and quantity of the data attained.

  15. Volatile elements in Apollo 16 samples - Possible evidence for outgassing of the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krahenbuhl, U.; Ganapathy, R.; Morgan, J. W.; Anders, E.

    1973-01-01

    Several Apollo 16 breccias, including one containing goethite, are strikingly enriched in volatile elements such as bromine, cadmium, germanium, antimony, thallium, and zinc. Similar but smaller enrichments are found in all highland soils. It appears that volcanic processes took place in the lunar highlands, involving the release of volatiles including water. The lunar thallium/uranium ratio is .0002 of the cosmic ratio, which suggests that the moon's original water content could not have exceeded the equivalent of a layer 22 meters deep. The cataclastic anorthosites at the Apollo 16 site may represent deep ejecta from the Nectaris basin.

  16. View of Mission Control Center during the Apollo 13 emergency return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    As the Apollo 13 crewmen entered their final 24 hours in space, several persons important to the mission remained attentive at consoles in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) of the Mission Control Center (MCC) at Manned Spacecraft Center. Among those monitoring communications and serving in supervisory capacities were (from left)Thomas H. McMullen, Office of Manned Space Flight, Shift 1 Mission Director; Dale Myers, Associate Administrator, Manned Space Flight; Chester M. Lee of the Apollo Program Directorate, OMSF, Apollo 13 Mission Director; and Dr. Rocco A. Petrone, Apollo Program Dirctor, OMSF. All four were from NASA Headquarters in Washington, D.C.

  17. In Situ Biological Contamination Studies of the Moon: Implications for Planetary Protection and Life Detection Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Lupisella, Mark; Williams, David R.; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.

    2010-12-01

    NASA and ESA have outlined visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic precursor missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moon, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations, including possibly asteroids. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of life. The search for life on objects such as Mars will require careful operations, and that all systems be sufficiently cleaned and sterilized prior to launch to ensure that the scientific integrity of extraterrestrial samples is not jeopardized by terrestrial organic contamination. Under the Committee on Space Research's (COSPAR's) current planetary protection policy for the Moon, no sterilization procedures are required for outbound lunar spacecraft, nor is there a different planetary protection category for human missions, although preliminary COSPAR policy guidelines for human missions to Mars have been developed. Future in situ investigations of a variety of locations on the Moon by highly sensitive instruments designed to search for biologically derived organic compounds would help assess the contamination of the Moon by lunar spacecraft. These studies could also provide valuable "ground truth" data for Mars sample return missions and help define planetary protection requirements for future Mars bound spacecraft carrying life detection experiments. In addition, studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts could provide valuable data to help refine future Mars surface exploration plans for a human mission to Mars.

  18. Log of Apollo 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The major events of the first manned moon landing mission, Apollo 11, are presented in chronological order from launch time until arrival of the astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The log is descriptive, non-technical, and includes numerous color photographs of the astronauts on the moon. (PR)

  19. Human exploration: Moon/Mars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohandley, Douglas A.

    With the initial launch of the elements of Space Station Freedom in 1992, America and her partners will become permanent residents of space. Establishment of the beginnings of what will become a permanent settlement on the moon is planned for early in the next century. Following that, extension of exploration and settlement to Mars is planned. This paper includes an outline of the early stages in the planning and development process. Currently, a group of senior specialists called the Synthesis group is soliciting ideas from the public, universities, and agencies of the US Government with a report expected in 1991. This group is establishing reference mission architectures, prioritizing a list of critical technologies, and identifying visible milestones on the way to the ultimate goal. In the near term, activities will include further analysis of the architectures developed in the Synthesis process. A wide array of system level studies will be performed at NASA and development of critical technologies will continue. Enabling technologies will be defined. The major priority in the near term will be the initiation of the long-lead development program required for a heavy-lift launch vehicle.

  20. In Situ Biological Contamination Studies of the Moon: Implications for Planetary Protection and Life Detection Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Lupisella, Mark; Williams, David R.; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and ESA have outlined visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic precursor missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moan, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations, including possibly asteroids. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of life. The search for life on objects such as Mars will require careful operations, and that all systems be sufficiently cleaned and sterilized prior to launch to ensure that the scientific integrity of extraterrestrial samples is not jeopardized by terrestrial organic contamination. Under the Committee on Space Research's (COSPAR's) current planetary protection policy for the Moon, no sterilization procedures are required for outbound lunar spacecraft, nor is there a different planetary protection category for human missions, although preliminary C SPAR policy guidelines for human missions to Mars have been developed. Future in situ investigations of a variety of locations on the Moon by highly sensitive instruments designed to search for biologically derived organic compounds would help assess the contamination of the Moon by lunar spacecraft. These studies could also provide valuable "ground truth" data for Mars sample return missions and help define planetary protection requirements for future Mars bound spacecraft carrying life detection experiments. In addition, studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts could provide valuable data to help refine future: Mars surface exploration plans for a human mission to Mars.

  1. Former Apollo astronauts speak at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo astronauts Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin (left) and Gene Cernan share stories about their missions for an audience attending an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo program team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Other guests at the banquet were astronauts Wally Schirra, Gene Cernan and Walt Cunningham. Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon; Gene Cernan was the last.

  2. Forward Contamination of the Moon and Mars: Implications for Future Life Detection Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Lupisella, Mark; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.

    2004-01-01

    NASA and ESA have outlined new visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moon, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of life. The search for life on objects such as Mars will require that all spacecraft and instrumentation be sufficiently cleaned and sterilized prior to launch to ensure that the scientific integrity of extraterrestrial samples is not jeopardized by terrestrial organic contamination. Under COSPAR's current planetary protection policy for the Moon, no sterilization procedures are required for outbound lunar spacecraft. Nonetheless, future in situ investigations of a variety of locations on the Moon by highly sensitive instruments designed to search for biologically derived organic compounds would help assess the contamination of the Moon by lunar spacecraft. These studies could also provide valuable "ground truth" data for Mars sample return missions and help define planetary protection requirements for future Mars bound spacecraft carrying life detection experiments. In addition, studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts could provide valuable data to help refine future Mars surface exploration plans for a human mission to Mars.

  3. KSC Launch Complex 34 during Apollo/Saturn Mission 202 pre-launch alert

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Scene at the Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 34 during an Apollo/Saturn Mission 202 pre-launch alert. The mission was a step toward qualifying the Apollo Command and Service modules and the uprated Saturn I launch vehicle for manned flight.

  4. A description of hardware and mission planning for the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. C. Littleton

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo-Soyuz Test Program (ASTP) is scheduled for flight in July 1975. This paper will describe briefly the mission planning and hardware associated with the program. Of interest are modifications to the basic Apollo and Soyuz vehicles as well as the newly developed docking module and docking system. Joint aspects of the mission profile are explained. Science objectives and corresponding

  5. Petrologic constraints on the origin of the Moon: Evidence from Apollo 14

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, J.W.; Taylor, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Fra Mauro breccias at Apollo 14 contain distinctive suites of mare basalts and highland crustal rocks that contrast significantly with equivalent rocks from other Apollo sites. These contrasts imply lateral heterogeneity of the lunar crust and mantle on a regional scale. This heterogeneity may date back to the earliest stages of lunar accretion and differentiation. Current theories requiring a Moon-wide crust of Ferroan Anorthosite are based largely on samples from Apollo 16, where all but a few samples represent the FAN suite. However, at the nearside sites, FAN is either scarce (A-15) or virtually absent (A-12, A-14, A-17). It is suggested that the compositional variations could be accounted for by the acceleration of a large mass of material (e.g., 0.1 to 0.2 moon masses) late in the crystallization history of the magma ocean. Besides adding fresh, primordial material, this would remelt a large pocket of crust and mantle, thereby allowing a second distillation to occur in the resulting magma sea.

  6. Surface electrical properties experiment. [for Taurus-Littrow region of the moon on Apollo 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, G.

    1974-01-01

    The Surface Electrical Properties Experiment (SEP) was flown to the moon in December 1972 on Apollo 17 and used to explore a portion of the Taurus-Littrow region. SEP used a relatively new technique, termed radio frequency interferometry (RFI). Electromagnetic waves were radiated from two orthogonal, horizontal electric dipole antennas on the surface of the moon at frequencies of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 Mhz. The field strength of the EM waves was measured as a function of distance with a receiver mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle and using three orthogonal, electrically small, loops. The interference pattern produced by the waves that travelled above the moon's surface and those that travelled below the surface was recorded on magnetic tape. The tape was returned to earth for analysis and interpretation. Several reprints, preprints, and an initial draft of the first publication of the SEP results are included. These documents provide a rather complete account of the details of the theory of the RFI technique, of the terrestrial tests of the technique, and of the present state of our interpretation of the Apollo 17 data.

  7. Apollo 15 Logo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is the Apollo 15 Moon landing mission logo. Apollo 15 launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on July 26, 1971 via a Saturn Five launch vehicle. Aboard was a crew of three astronauts including David R. Scott, Mission Commander; James B. Irwin, Lunar Module Pilot; and Alfred M. Worden, Command Module Pilot. It was the first mission designed to explore the Moon over longer periods, greater ranges, and with more instruments for the collection of scientific data than on previous missions. The mission included the introduction of a $40,000,000 lunar roving vehicle (LRV) that reached a top speed of 16 kph (10 mph) across the Moon's surface. The successful Apollo 15 lunar landing mission was the first in a series of three advanced missions planned for the Apollo program. The primary scientific objectives were to observe the lunar surface, survey and sample material and surface features in a preselected area of the Hadley-Apennine region, setup and activation of surface experiments and conduct in-flight experiments and photographic tasks from lunar orbit. Apollo 15 televised the first lunar liftoff and recorded a walk in deep space by Alfred Worden. Both the Saturn Five rocket and the LRV were developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  8. Future lunar missions and investigation of dusty plasma processes on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Sergey I.; Zelenyi, Lev M.; Zelenyi

    2013-08-01

    From the Apollo era of exploration, it was discovered that sunlight was scattered at the terminators giving rise to ``horizon glow'' and ``streamers'' above the lunar surface. Subsequent investigations have shown that the sunlight was most likely scattered by electrostatically charged dust grains originating from the surface. A renaissance is being observed currently in investigations of the Moon. The Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource missions (the latter jointly with India) are being prepared in Russia. Some of these missions will include investigations of lunar dust. Here we discuss the future experimental investigations of lunar dust within the missions of Luna-Glob and Luna-Resource. We consider the dusty plasma system over the lunar surface and determine the maximum height of dust rise. We describe mechanisms of formation of the dusty plasma system over the Moon and its main properties, determine distributions of electrons and dust over the lunar surface, and show a possibility of rising dust particles over the surface of the illuminated part of the Moon in the entire range of lunar latitudes. Finally, we discuss the effect of condensation of micrometeoriod substance during the expansion of the impact plume and show that this effect is important from the viewpoint of explanation of dust particle rise to high altitudes in addition to the dusty plasma effects.

  9. The Apollo Program and Lunar Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuiper, Gerard P.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the history of the Vanguard project and the findings in Ranger records and Apollo missions, including lunar topography, gravity anomalies, figure, and chemistry. Presented are speculative remarks on the research of the origin of the Moon. (CC)

  10. Apollo experience report: Mission planning for lunar module descent and ascent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, F. V.

    1972-01-01

    The premission planning, the real-time situation, and the postflight analysis for the Apollo 11 lunar descent and ascent are described. A comparison between premission planning and actual results is included. A navigation correction capability, developed from Apollo 11 postflight analysis was used successfully on Apollo 12 to provide the first pinpoint landing. An experience summary, which illustrates typical problems encountered by the mission planners, is also included.

  11. Return to the moon - The Lunar Observer mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Richard A.; Sergeyevsky, Andrey B.; Belbruno, Edward A.; Sweetser, Theodore H.

    1990-01-01

    The Lunar Observer mission seeks to understand the moon in its global context. Motivation for this project comes from scientific interest and the need for robotic precursor missions in the proposed Space Exploration Initiative. The multiple roles to be performed by this mission mean that the trajectory design process promises to be quite complex and unique. The choice of launch vehicle, launch opportunity and daily launch window are affected by the selection of the translunar transfer trajectory, as well as the arrival conditions desired at lunar orbit insertion. The length of the mission and the tight lunar orbit control requirements determine the design of the circumlunar portions of the Lunar Observer mission.

  12. Human exploration: Moon\\/Mars mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas A. Ohandley

    1990-01-01

    With the initial launch of the elements of Space Station Freedom in 1992, America and her partners will become permanent residents of space. Establishment of the beginnings of what will become a permanent settlement on the moon is planned for early in the next century. Following that, extension of exploration and settlement to Mars is planned. This paper includes an

  13. View of Mission Control Center during the Apollo 13 oxygen cell failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Several persons important to the Apollo 13 mission, at consoles in the Mission Operations Control Room of the Mission Control Center (MCC). Seated at consoles, from left to right, are Astronaut Donald K. Slayton, Director of Flight Crew Operations; Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Shift 3 spacecraft communicator; and Astronaut John W. Young, commander of the Apollo 13 back-up crew. Standing, left to right, are Astronaut Tom K. Mattingly, who was replaced as Apollo 13 command module pilot after it was learned he may come down with measles, and Astronaut Vance D. Brand, Shift 2 spacecraft communicator. Several hours earlier crew members of the Apollo 13 mission reported to MCC that trouble had developed with an oxygen cell in their spacecraft.

  14. An update on the MoonLite Lunar mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gowen, R.

    2009-04-01

    In December 2008 the UK BNSC/STFC announced that it would undertake a phase-A study of the proposed 4 penetrator lunar mission, MoonLITE. A status report will be given which includes: a brief science overview; technological assessment (including some results of the first impact trials) and identification of critical areas; organisation and plans for the phase A; longer term plans given a successful phase A; and role of international collaborations. Background: The MoonLITE mission involves implanting 4 penetrators globally spaced at impact speeds of ~300m/s and is aimed for launch in 2014 and operate for 1 year. Each penetrator is designed to come to rest a few metres under the lunar surface to provide a solid emplacement for an effective seismic network and for geochemical and heat flow investigations. Polar emplacement will also allow an exciting ability to characterize the presence of water-ice currently indirectly inferred in the permanently shaded craters. They will also allow investigation of the presence of other volatiles, possibly including organics of astrobiologic interest. MoonLITE can also provide strong support for future human lunar missions including seismic detection of large quakes of surface regions which may dangerous to the construction of lunar habitation or observation facilities; and the possible presence and concentration of water which is important to support future human missions. Potential International Collaboration: The timing of this mission may allow arrangement of coincident impacts of other spacecraft which are at the end of their natural mission lifetime, to provide strong artificial seismic signals to allow probing the deep interior of the Moon. Perhaps no better way to end an otherwise very successful mission ? In addition, the presence of multiple Lunar orbiting spacecraft may allow the possibility of inter-communication between different missions to enhance telemetry rates from the lunar surface and provide mission fault tolerance.

  15. THE MOST REDUCED ROCK FROM THE MOON APOLLO 14 BASALT 14053: EXTREME REDUCTION ENTIRELY FROM A RE-HEATING EVENT.

    E-print Network

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    THE MOST REDUCED ROCK FROM THE MOON ­ APOLLO 14 BASALT 14053: EXTREME REDUCTION ENTIRELY FROM A RE of the rocks were breccias. Only four rocks were believed to be basaltic: a) 14310, and its smaller-sized pair rocks that is addressed herein. Basalt 14053 is a fine-grained, holocrystalline, equigranular hi-Al mare

  16. NASA's J-2X Engine Builds on the Apollo Program for Lunar Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Jimmy R.

    2006-01-01

    In January 2006, NASA streamlined its U.S. Vision for Space Exploration hardware development approach for replacing the Space Shuttle after it is retired in 2010. The revised CLV upper stage will use the J-2X engine, a derivative of NASA s Apollo Program Saturn V s S-II and S-IVB main propulsion, which will also serve as the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) engine. This paper gives details of how the J- 2X engine effort mitigates risk by building on the Apollo Program and other lessons learned to deliver a human-rated engine that is on an aggressive development schedule, with first demonstration flight in 2010 and human test flights in 2012. It is well documented that propulsion is historically a high-risk area. NASA s risk reduction strategy for the J-2X engine design, development, test, and evaluation is to build upon heritage hardware and apply valuable experience gained from past development efforts. In addition, NASA and its industry partner, Rocketdyne, which originally built the J-2, have tapped into their extensive databases and are applying lessons conveyed firsthand by Apollo-era veterans of America s first round of Moon missions in the 1960s and 1970s. NASA s development approach for the J-2X engine includes early requirements definition and management; designing-in lessons learned from the 5-2 heritage programs; initiating long-lead procurement items before Preliminary Desi& Review; incorporating design features for anticipated EDS requirements; identifying facilities for sea-level and altitude testing; and starting ground support equipment and logistics planning at an early stage. Other risk reduction strategies include utilizing a proven gas generator cycle with recent development experience; utilizing existing turbomachinery ; applying current and recent main combustion chamber (Integrated Powerhead Demonstrator) and channel wall nozzle (COBRA) advances; and performing rigorous development, qualification, and certification testing of the engine system, with a philosophy of "test what you fly, and fly what you test". These and other active risk management strategies are in place to deliver the J-2X engine for LEO and lunar return missions as outlined in the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration.

  17. The Clementine Mission science return at the Moon and Geographos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorderbruegge, R. W.; Davies, M. E.; Horan, D. M.; Lucey, P. G.; Pieters, C. M.; Mcewen, A. S.; Nozette, S.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Squyres, S. W.; Thomas, P. C.

    1993-01-01

    The Clementine Mission is being built and flown by the Naval Research Laboratory under the sponsorship of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization of the United States Department of Defense in joint-cooperation with NASA, and will explore the Moon and the near-Earth asteroid (NEA) 1620 Geographos with lightweight sensors developed by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. A NASA Science Team for this mission will be selected by way of a NRA in April 1993. The instrument suite includes imaging cameras that cover a spectral range from the near-ultraviolet to the mid-infrared, a laser ranger, and, potentially, a charged particle telescope. To be launched in early 1994, Clementine will be in lunar orbit from February through May 1994, at which time it will depart the Moon for a flyby of 1620 Geographos in August 1994. This mission represents an outstanding opportunity for scientists interested in the Moon and asteroids. It is anticipated that the data returned from this mission will permit: an assessment of global lunar crustal heterogeneity and a resolution of less than 1 km; an assessment of the lithologic heterogeneity of Geographos at a scale of 100 m or better; and an assessment of surface processes on Geographos on the order of 10 m. The basic mission of Clementine and some of the key scientific questions that will be addressed are described. Additional material on the Clementine mission, its data handling and processing, and its instrument suite is presented elsewhere.

  18. LUNETTE - A Discovery Class Mission to the Moon to Establish a Geophysical Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, C. R.; Banerdt, W. B.; Alkalai, L.

    2009-12-01

    Lunette is a Discovery mission concept that is designed to deliver three landed geophysical packages (“nodes”) to widely spaced (3000-5000 km) locations on the lunar surface. This mission will provide detailed information on the interior of the Moon through seismic, thermal, electromagnetic, and precision laser ranging measurements, and will substantially address the lunar interior science objectives set out in “The Scientific Context for the Exploration of the Moon” (NRC, 2008) and ”The Final Report for the International Lunar Network Anchor Nodes Science Definition Team” (NASA, 2009). Each node will contain: a very broad band seismometer that is at least an order of magnitude more sensitive over a wider frequency band than the seismometers used during Apollo; a heat flow probe, delivered via a self-penetrating “mole” device; a low-frequency electromagnetic sounding instrument, which will measure the electromagnetic properties of the outermost few hundred km of the Moon; and a corner-cube laser retroreflector for lunar laser ranging. These instruments will provide an enormous advance in our knowledge of the structure and processes of the lunar interior over that provided by Apollo-era data, allowing insights into the earliest history of the formation and evolution of the Moon. The instruments that comprise the individual nodes are all optimized for low power operation and this mission will not rely on a radioisotope power supply. Improvements in solar energy and battery technology, along with an Event Timer Module which allows the lander to shut down its electronics for most of the lunar night, enables a solar/battery mission architecture with continuous instrument operation and a two-year nominal lifetime. The instruments have a combined mass of <12 kg, and the dry mass of each lander will be on the order of 100 kg, including solar panels, batteries, and communications. The most power hungry instrument is the heat flow “mole”, which requires ~ 11 W during penetration and ~5-6 W during the active heating tests for thermal conductivity measurements. Normal operations of the mole only require 2.2 W. The nodes will operate during the lunar night in a low power mode where only systems required for data acquisition are powered. Communications back to Earth will only occur during the lunar day so there is data storage on the order of 3-4 Gbits to enable continuous operations during the lunar night (up to 16 earth days). The direct-to-Earth link is S-band at 120 kbps to a DSN 34 m ground station. UHF cross-links from remote units to the communications hub will utilize small, low power UHF transceiver for two-way communication at 128 kbps.

  19. Project Apollo Image Gallery

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This image gallery features photos taken throughout the history of NASA's Apollo program, the initiative to put humans on the moon. The collection is organized chronologically by mission and includes both on-board photos, training, spacecraft rollout, control room, launch, and many other images. It is also searchable by keyword.

  20. Former Apollo astronauts talk to the media.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Apollo/Saturn V Center, Lisa Malone (left), chief of KSC's Media Services branch, relays a question from the media to former Apollo astronaut Neil A. Armstrong. Beside Armstrong are Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan, and Walt Cunningham, all of whom also flew on Apollo missions. The four met with the media prior to an anniversary banquet highlighting the contributions of aerospace employees who made the Apollo program possible. The banquet celebrated the 30th anniversary of the launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon.

  1. Magnetism and the interior of the moon. [measured at Apollo landing sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    During the time period 1961-1972 eleven magnetometers were sent to the moon. The results of lunar magnetometer data analysis are reviewed, with emphasis on the lunar interior. Magnetic fields have been measured on the lunar surface at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 landing sites. The remanent field values at these sites are given. Satellite and surface measurements show strong evidence that the lunar crust is magnetized over much of the lunar globe. The origin of the lunar remanent field is not yet satisfactorily understood; several source models are presented. Simultaneous data from the Apollo 12 lunar surface magnetometer and the Explorer 35 Ames magnetometer are used to construct a wholemoon hysteresis curve, from which the global lunar permeability is determined. Total iron abundance is calculated for two assumed compositional models of the lunar interior. Other lunar models with a small iron core and with a shallow iron-rich layer are also discussed in light of the measured global permeability.

  2. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Langley Center Director Floyd Thompson shows Ann Kilgore the 'picture of the century.' This was the first picture of the earth taken from space. From Spaceflight Revolution: 'On 23 August 1966 just as Lunar Orbiter I was about to pass behind the moon, mission controllers executed the necessary maneuvers to point the camera away from the lunar surface and toward the earth. The result was the world's first view of the earth from space. It was called 'the picture of the century' and 'the greatest shot taken since the invention of photography.' Not even the color photos of the earth taken during the Apollo missions superseded the impact of this first image of our planet as a little island of life floating in the black and infinite sea of space.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), pp. 345-346.

  3. In Situ Biological Contamination Studies of the Moon: Implications for Future Planetary Protection and Life Detection Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Lupisella, Mark; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and ESA have outlined visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic precursor missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moon, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of life. The search for life on objects such as Mars will require that all spacecraft and instrumentation be sufficiently cleaned and sterilized prior to launch to ensure that the scientific integrity of extraterrestrial samples is not jeopardized by terrestrial organic contamination. Under the Committee on Space Research's (COSPAR's) current planetary protection policy for the Moon, no sterilization procedures are required for outbound lunar spacecraft, nor is there yet a planetary protection category for human missions. Future in situ investigations of a variety of locations on the Moon by highly sensitive instruments designed to search for biologically derived organic compounds would help assess the contamination of the Moon by lunar spacecraft. These studies could also provide valuable "ground truth" data for Mars sample return missions and help define planetary protection requirements for future Mars bound spacecraft carrying life detection experiments. In addition, studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts could provide valuable data to help refine future Mars surface exploration plans for a human mission to Mars.

  4. High Leverage Space Transportation System Technologies for Human Exploration Missions to the Moon and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of returning humans to the Moon by 2004, the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing, is examined assuming the use of existing launch vehicles (the Space Shuttle and Titan 4B), a near term, advanced technology space transportation system, and extraterrestrial propellant--specifically 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen or LUNOX. The lunar transportation system (LTS) elements consist of an expendable, nuclear thermal rocket (NTR)-powered translunar injection (TLI) stage and a combination lunar lander/Earth return vehicle (LERV) using cryogenic liquid oxygen and hydrogen (LOX/LH2) chemical propulsion. The 'wet' LERV, carrying a crew of 2, is configured to fit within the Shuttle orbiter cargo bay and requires only modest assembly in low Earth orbit. After Earth orbit rendezvous and docking of the LERV with the Titan 4B-launched NTR TLI stage, the initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) is approx. 40 t. To maximize mission performance at minimum mass, the LERV carries no return LOX but uses approx. 7 t of LUNOX to 'reoxidize' itself for a 'direct return' flight to Earth followed by an 'Apollo-style' capsule recovery. Without LUNOX, mission capability is constrained and the total LTS mass approaches the combined Shuttle-Titan 4B IMLEO limit of approx. 45 t even with enhanced NTR and chemical engine performance. Key technologies are discussed, lunar mission scenarios described, and LTS vehicle designs and characteristics are presented. Mission versatility provided by using a small 'all LH2' NTR engine or a 'LOX-augmented' derivative, either individually or in clusters, for outer planet robotic orbiter, small Mars cargo, lunar 'commuter', and human Mars exploration class missions is also briefly discussed.

  5. Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Courtney Brooks

    1979-01-01

    This is an electronic version of an historical NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) publication containing information about the history of manned lunar spacecraft up to the Apollo 11 mission which successfully landed on the Moon. This book goes through the beginning of our National Space Policy including issues such as funding, challenges, and planning of the Apollo missions. There are details about contracting for building spacecraft including the command module and lunar module, astronavigation, proposals, adjustments to dates and machinery, problems with certain aspects of the program, and progress throughout the Apollo missions. There is a summary of each mission up through Apollo 11 with the mission launch date, goals, and accomplishments.

  6. Moons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This Topic in Depth features websites about the moons of the planets in our solar system. First, NASA presents its proposed mission to orbit Jupiter's three planet-sized moons: Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa (1). Users can view animations of the proposed orbiter and images of the three moons. The site offers an abundance of information on the technology, mission, fast facts, and news. Next, Cornell University provides the Athena scientist, Thomas J. Wdowiak's kid's column _Tommy Test Tubes_ (2). At this website, he educates children about the two moons of Mars by offering entertaining facts and remarkable images. The third site, provided by the educator Hiram Bertoch, offers introductory materials about the moons of Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto (3). Visitors can also find educational materials about asteroids, comets, and planets. Next, the Fourmilab supplies numerous views of the Earth's Moon's lunar formations (4). The website allows users to pan, zoom in and out, and select images based on coordinates, time, and size. The fifth site presents an article by the Discovery Channel about the latest analyses of the geologic landscapes of Saturn's moon, Titan (5). Users can learn about the differences and similarities between Titan's and Earth's atmosphere, environment, and geologic activity. Next, the NinePlanets.org website furnishes information on the distance, radius, mass, and discoverer of Uranus's numerous moons (6). Through an abundance of images and movies, users can learn many interesting facts about Uranus. The seventh site, developed by EOA Scientific Systems, supplies fascinating facts and images of Neptune and its moons (7). Students can learn how and when each of the eight moons was discovered. Lastly, NASA offers a wonderful tutorial on Pluto and its moon, Charon, for elementary school children (8). Students can discover why Pluto is sometimes called a double planet and where its moon may have originated.

  7. The Origin of the Moon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Most planetary scientists expected that lunar samples brought to back to Earth by the six Apollo missions would confirm one of three leading hypotheses of the Moon's origin. Instead, the samples left all three explanations unconfirmed, requiring the development of a new hypothesis for how the Moon formed. This video segment shows Apollo 15 astronauts collecting a type of rock (anorthosite) that is thought to represent the original crust of the Moon. This evidence helps explain the origins and relationship between Earth and Moon. The segment is three minutes fifty-seven seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

  8. Field Trip to the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the geology of a single area of the Moon, the Imbrium Basin, and shows how geologists have combined basic geologic principles with evidence collected by the Apollo missions to learn more about the history of the Moon as a whole. In this article, the author discusses lunar geology teaching tips and mapping the Imbrium Basin…

  9. Apollo 14 mission report. Supplement 8: Summary of Apollo experiments on launch phase electrical phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An atmospheric electrical field experiment was conducted during Apollo 14 launch to measure the electrical perturbations produced by the space vehicle. The measurements showed the presence of a much stronger electrical field than was expected, and that the disturbance might be caused by a buildup of electrostatic charges in the launch vehicle engine exhaust clouds, charge buildup of the vehicle itself, or a combination of both. Efforts were also made to establish the origin and carriers of the charge.

  10. A mission to Mercury and a mission to the moons of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Two Advanced Design Projects were completed this academic year at Penn State - a mission to the planet Mercury and a mission to the moons of Mars (Phobos and Deimos). At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into six groups and given their choice of missions. Once a mission was chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These designs were then evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into two separate mission scenarios. To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form two mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission team so that communication and exchange of information would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Lewis Research Center Advanced Projects Office. Robotic planetary missions throughout the solar system can be considered valuable precursors to human visits and test beds for innovative technology. For example, by studying the composition of the Martian moons, scientists may be able to determine if their resources may be used or synthesized for consumption during a first human visit.

  11. Protolife on the Moon--A Neglected Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J.

    Fumaroles contain the ingredients for protolife on the earth and on the moon. Early Precambrian lunar fumaroles in shadow probably produced H_2O, HCHO, CO_2, CO, C_2N_2, HC_3N, NH3, COS, CH_4, HCN, S-bearing fluids and other compounds. Fumarolic water could have been more abundant in the early Precambrian on the moon based in part on fugacity data for the Apollo fire fountain beads. Formaldehyde formed "in the spark" on the moon in shadow would not be decomposed. Volcanism by flow charging and/or freezing by charge separation of some fumarolic fluids can readily provide the "spark". Only nanocurrents need be invoked. In shadow on the moon, most fumarolic fluids could be preserved as ices for up to billions of years at 40 Kelvin. Realistically, these ices would be discontinuously interlaminated or admixed with ejecta. Early formed amphiphilic compounds (lipids) probably formed double membraned vesicles. Miller-type reactions could possibly provide hydroxy amino acids, sugars, purines and pyrimidines. Cooling of ammonium cyanide compounds with formaldehyde in lunar shadow is presumed to have created hydrogen cyanide and adenine. Fischer-Tropsch reactions in fumaroles could result in aromatic and basic amino acids and on clay produce ribose. Ribose and adenine react to form adenosine which in turn could combine with soluble polyphosphates found in fumaroles to yield adenosine triphosphate. RNA evolving through intermediate compounds can polymerize even in an ice matrix (Monnard, 2002) as would be expected in lunar shadow. In the laboratory, RNA attached to montmorillonite template particles can be encapsulated within enlarged lipid vesicles or protocells (Hanczyc et al, 2003). Clay associated with RNA enhances the enzymatic activity of RNA (Marco, 1999). On earth, the evolution of the Archaea was dependent on tungsto-enzymes; fumaroles on earth are enriched in tungsten. Fumaroles within a distance of meters, exhibit a wide range of temperatures, pH, Eh, periods of desiccation, condensing agents, clay types, and hydrolytic reactivity. In addition, thermodynamically viable reactions involving hydrogen sulfide and troilite can produce biofilms. If methyl thiols are involved, resulting products include the prebiotic agents of formic and acetic acids. All of these parameters would be enhanced by lunar conditions of (1) lower lunar gravity and (2) surface vacuum. Lower lunar gravity would result in a deeper nucleation of bubbles in a fumarolic system with a slower bubble rise rate enhancing probabilities of reactivities of metabolites. Surface vacuum would result in lower boiling points of prebiotic agents such as formic acid producing temperatures more favorable for the formation of protolife. Assuming volcanism, targets for the search for protolife are discussed.

  12. Analogue Missions on Earth, a New Approach to Prepare Future Missions on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebeuf, Martin

    Human exploration of the Moon is a target by 2020 with an initial lunar outpost planned in polar regions. Current architectures maintain a capability for sorties to other latitudes for science activities. In the early stages of design of lunar outpost infrastructure and science activity planning, it has been recognized that analogue missions could play a major role in Moon mission design. Analogue missions, as high fidelity simulations of human and robotic surface operations, can help field scientists and engineers develop and test strategies as well as user requirements, as they provide opportunities to groundtruth measurements, and for the team to share understanding of key science needs and key engineering trades. These types of missions also provide direct training in planning science operations, and in team building and communication. The Canadian Space Agency's Exploration Core Program targets the development of technology infrastructure elements in key areas of science, technology and robotics in preparation for its role in the future exploration of the Moon and Mars. Within this Program, Analogue Missions specifically target the operations requirements and lessons learned that will reduce costs and lower the risk of planetary surface missions. Analogue missions are simulations of planetary surface operations that take place at analogue sites on Earth. A terrestrial analogue site resembles in some key way: eg. geomorphologically or geochemically, a surface environment of another planet. An analogue mission can, therefore, be defined as an integrated set of activities that represent (or simulate) entire mission designs or narrowly focus on specific aspects of planned or potential future planetary exploration missions. Within the CSA's Exploration Core Program, Analogue Missions facilitate the maturation of science instruments and mission concepts by integrating ongoing space instrument and technology development programs with science and analogue elements. As well as using analogue missions to meet agency programmatic needs, the Canadian Space Agency encourages scientists and engineers to make use of opportunities presented by analogue missions to further their own research objectives. Specific objectives of Analogue Missions are to (1) foster a multidisciplinary approach to planning, data acquisition, processing and interpretation, calibration of instruments, and telemetry during mission operations; (2) integrate new science with emerging technologies; and (3) develop an expertise on exploration architecture design from projects carried out at terrestrial analogue sites. Within Analogue Missions, teams develop planning tools, use mission-specific software and technology, and communicate results as well as lessons learned during tactical operations. The expertise gained through Analogue Missions will contribute to inform on all aspects of exploration architectures, including planetary mobility requirements and astronaut training.

  13. Moon search algorithms for NASA's Dawn Mission to asteroid Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Memarsadeghi, Nargess; McFadden, Lucy A.; Skillman, David R.; McLean, Brian; Mutchler, Max; Carsenty, Uri; Palmer, Eric E.

    2012-03-01

    A moon or natural satellite is a celestial body that orbits a planetary body such as a planet, dwarf planet, or an asteroid. Scientists seek understanding the origin and evolution of our solar system by studying moons of these bodies. Additionally, searches for satellites of planetary bodies can be important to protect the safety of a spacecraft as it approaches or orbits a planetary body. If a satellite of a celestial body is found, the mass of that body can also be calculated once its orbit is determined. Ensuring the Dawn spacecraft's safety on its mission to the asteroid (4) Vesta primarily motivated the work of Dawn's Satellite Working Group (SWG) in summer of 2011. Dawn mission scientists and engineers utilized various computational tools and techniques for Vesta's satellite search. The objectives of this paper are to 1) introduce the natural satellite search problem, 2) present the computational challenges, approaches, and tools used when addressing this problem, and 3) describe applications of various image processing and computational algorithms for performing satellite searches to the electronic imaging and computer science community. Furthermore, we hope that this communication would enable Dawn mission scientists to improve their satellite search algorithms and tools and be better prepared for performing the same investigation in 2015, when the spacecraft is scheduled to approach and orbit the dwarf planet (1) Ceres.

  14. Moon Search Algorithms for NASA's Dawn Mission to Asteroid Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Mcfadden, Lucy A.; Skillman, David R.; McLean, Brian; Mutchler, Max; Carsenty, Uri; Palmer, Eric E.

    2012-01-01

    A moon or natural satellite is a celestial body that orbits a planetary body such as a planet, dwarf planet, or an asteroid. Scientists seek understanding the origin and evolution of our solar system by studying moons of these bodies. Additionally, searches for satellites of planetary bodies can be important to protect the safety of a spacecraft as it approaches or orbits a planetary body. If a satellite of a celestial body is found, the mass of that body can also be calculated once its orbit is determined. Ensuring the Dawn spacecraft's safety on its mission to the asteroid Vesta primarily motivated the work of Dawn's Satellite Working Group (SWG) in summer of 2011. Dawn mission scientists and engineers utilized various computational tools and techniques for Vesta's satellite search. The objectives of this paper are to 1) introduce the natural satellite search problem, 2) present the computational challenges, approaches, and tools used when addressing this problem, and 3) describe applications of various image processing and computational algorithms for performing satellite searches to the electronic imaging and computer science community. Furthermore, we hope that this communication would enable Dawn mission scientists to improve their satellite search algorithms and tools and be better prepared for performing the same investigation in 2015, when the spacecraft is scheduled to approach and orbit the dwarf planet Ceres.

  15. Apollo: A Retrospective Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Launius, Roger D.

    2004-01-01

    The program to land an American on the Moon and return safely to Earth in the 1960s has been called by some observers a defining event of the twentieth century. Pulitzer Prize-winning historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., even suggested that when Americans two centuries hence study the twentieth century, they will view the Apollo lunar landing as the critical event of the century. While that conclusion might be premature, there can be little doubt but that the flight of Apollo 11 in particular and the overall Apollo program in general was a high point in humanity s quest to explore the universe beyond Earth. Since the completion of Project Apollo more than twenty years ago there have been a plethora of books, studies, reports, and articles about its origin, execution, and meaning. At the time of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the first landing, it is appropriate to reflect on the effort and its place in U.S. and NASA history. This monograph has been written as a means to this end. It presents a short narrative account of Apollo from its origin through its assessment. That is followed by a mission by mission summary of the Apollo flights and concluded by a series of key documents relative to the program reproduced in facsimile. The intent of this monograph is to provide a basic history along with primary documents that may be useful to NASA personnel and others desiring information about Apollo.

  16. Impact landing ends SMART-1 mission to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    SMART-1 scientists, engineers and space operations experts witnessed the final moments of the spacecraft’s life in the night between Saturday 2 and Sunday 3 September at ESA’s European Space Operations Centre (ESOC), in Darmstadt, Germany. The confirmation of the impact reached ESOC at 07:42:22 CEST (05:42:22 UT) when ESA’s New Norcia ground station in Australia suddenly lost radio contact with the spacecraft. SMART-1 ended its journey in the Lake of Excellence, in the point situated at 34.4º South latitude and 46.2º West longitude. The SMART-1 impact took place on the near side of the Moon, in a dark area just near the terminator (the line separating the day side from the night side), at a “grazing” angle of about one degree and a speed of about 2 kilometres per second. The impact time and location was planned to favour observations of the impact event from telescopes on Earth, and was achieved by a series of orbit manoeuvres and corrections performed during the course of summer 2006, the last of which was on 1 September. Professional and amateur ground observers all around the world - from South Africa to the Canary Islands, South America, the continental United States, Hawaii, and many other locations - were watching before and during the small SMART-1 impact, hoping to spot the faint impact flash and to obtain information about the impact dynamics and about the lunar surface excavated by the spacecraft. The quality of the data and images gathered from the ground observatories - a tribute to the end of the SMART-1 mission and a possible additional contribution to lunar science - will be assessed in the days to come. For the last 16 months and until its final orbits, SMART-1 has been studying the Moon, gathering data about the morphology and mineralogical composition of the surface in visible, infrared and X-ray light. “The legacy left by the huge wealth of SMART-1 data, to be analysed in the months and years to come, is a precious contribution to lunar science at a time when the exploration of the Moon is once again getting the world’s interest” said Bernard Foing, ESA SMART-1 Project Scientist. “The measurements by SMART-1 call into question the theories concerning the Moon’s violent origin and evolution,” he added. The Moon may have formed from the impact of a Mars-size asteroid with the Earth 4500 million years ago. “SMART-1 has mapped large and small impact craters, studied the volcanic and tectonic processes that shaped the Moon, unveiled the mysterious poles, and investigated sites for future exploration,” Foing concluded. “ESA’s decision to extend the SMART-1 scientific mission by a further year ( it was initially planned to last only six months around the Moon) allowed the instrument scientists to extensively use a number of innovative observing modes at the Moon,” added Gerhard Schwehm, ESA’s SMART-1 Mission Manager. In addition to plain nadir observations (looking down on the ‘vertical’ line for lunar surveys), they included targeted observations, moon-spot pointing and ‘push-broom’ observations (a technique SMART-1 used to obtain colour images). “This was tough work for the mission planners, but the lunar data archive we are now building is truly impressive.” “SMART-1 has been an enormous success also from a technological point of view,” said Giuseppe Racca, ESA SMART-1 Project Manager. The major goal of the mission was to test an ion engine (solar electric propulsion) in space for the first time for interplanetary travel, and capture a spacecraft into orbit around another celestial body, in combination with gravity assist manoeuvres. SMART-1 also tested future deep-space communication techniques for spacecraft, techniques to achieve autonomous spacecraft navigation, and miniaturised scientific instruments, used for the first time around the Moon. “It is a great satisfaction to see how well the mission achieved its technological objectives, and did great lunar science at the same time,” Racca concluded. “Operating SMART-1 has been an extremely comple

  17. Apollo experience report: Guidance and control systems: Automated control system for unmanned mission AS-201

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo command module heat shield and Apollo command and service module/Saturn launch vehicle structural integrity were evaluated in an unmanned test flight. An automated control system was developed to provide the mission event sequencing, the real-time ground control interface, and the backup attitude reference system for the unmanned flight. The required mission events, the design logic, the redundancy concept, and the ground-support-equipment concept are described and some development problem areas are discussed. The mission event time line and the real-time ground command list are included to provide an outline of the control system capabilities and requirements. The mission was accomplished with the automated control system, which functioned without flight anomalies.

  18. Chandrayaan-2: India's First Soft-landing Mission to Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylswamy, Annadurai; Krishnan, A.; Alex, T. K.; Rama Murali, G. K.

    2012-07-01

    The first Indian planetary mission to moon, Chandrayaan-1, launched on 22nd October, 2008 with a suite of Indian and International payloads on board, collected very significant data over its mission duration of close to one year. Important new findings from this mission include, discovery of hydroxyl and water molecule in sunlit lunar surface region around the poles, exposure of large anorthositic blocks confirming the global lunar magma hypothesis, signature of sub surface ice layers in permanently shadowed regions near the lunar north pole, evidence for a new refractory rock type, mapping of reflected lunar neutral atoms and identification of mini-magnetosphere, possible signature of water molecule in lunar exosphere, preserved lava tube that may provide site for future human habitation and radiation dose en-route and around the moon. Chandrayaan-2:, The success of Chandrayaan-1 orbiter mission provided impetus to implement the second approved Indian mission to moon, Chandrayaan-2, with an Orbiter-Lander-Rover configuration. The enhanced capabilities will enable addressing some of the questions raised by the results obtained from the Chandrayaan-1 and other recent lunar missions and also to enhance our understanding of origin and evolution of the moon. The orbiter that will carry payloads to further probe the morphological, mineralogical and chemical properties of the lunar surface material through remote sensing observations in X-ray, visible, infra-red and microwave regions. The Lander-Rover system will enable in-depth studies of a specific lunar location and probe various physical properties of the moon. The Chandrayaan-2 mission will be collaboration between Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and the Federal Space Agency of Russia. ISRO will be responsible for the Launch Vehicle, the Orbiter and the Rover while the Lander will be provided by Russia. Initial work to realize the different elements of the mission is currently in progress in both countries. Mission Elements:, On board segment of Chandrayaan-2 mission consists of a lunar Orbiter and a lunar Lander-Rover. The orbiter for Chandrayaan-2 mission is similar to that of Chandrayaan-1 from structural and propulsion aspects. Based on a study of various mission management and trajectory options, such as, separation of the Lander-Rover module in Earth Parking Orbit (EPO) or in lunar transfer trajectory (LTT) or in lunar polar orbit (LPO), the option of separating of this module at LTT, after required midcourse corrections, was selected as this offers an optimum mass and overall mission management advantage. The orbiter propulsion system will be used to transfer Orbiter-Lander-Rover composite from EPO to LTT. On reaching LTT, the Lander-Rover module will be separated from the orbiter module. The Lander-Rover and Orbiter modules are configured with individual propulsion and housekeeping systems. The indigenously developed Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle GSLV (Mk-II) will be used for this mission. The most critical aspect of its feasibility was an accurate evaluation of the scope for taking a 3200kg lift off mass into EPO. A Lander-Rover mass of 1270kg (including the propellant for soft landing) will provide sufficient margin for such a lift off within the capability of flight proven GSLV (Mk-II) for the EPO. Mission Scenario: ,GSLV (Mk-II) will launch the Lunar Orbiter coupled to the Lunar Lander-Rover into EPO (170 x 16980 km) following which the Orbiter will boost the orbit from EPO to LTT where the two modules will be separated. Both of them will make their independent journey towards moon and reach lunar polar orbit independently. The orbiter module will be initially placed in a circular polar orbit (200km) and the Lander-Rover module descends towards the lunar surface. After landing, a motorized rover with robotic arm and scientific instruments would be released on to the lunar surface. Although the exact landing location is yet to be finalized, a high latitude location is preferred from scientific interest. Multiple communication links involving

  19. A Simulated Geochemical Rover Mission to the Taurus-Littrow Valley of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.; Haskin, Larry A.; Jolliff, Bradley L.

    1995-01-01

    We test the effectiveness of using an alpha backscatter, alpha-proton, X ray spectrometer on a remotely operated rover to analyze soils and provide geologically useful information about the Moon during a simulated mission to a hypothetical site resembling the Apollo 17 landing site. On the mission, 100 soil samples are "analyzed" for major elements at moderate analytical precision (e.g., typical relative sample standard deviation from counting statistics: Si[11%], Al[18%], Fe[6%], Mg[20%], Ca[5%]). Simulated compositions of soils are generated by combining compositions of components representing the major lithologies occurring at the site in known proportions. Simulated analyses are generated by degrading the simulated compositions according to the expected analytical precision of the analyzer. Compositions obtained from the simulated analyses are modeled by least squares mass balance as mixtures of the components, and the relative proportions of those components as predicted by the model are compared with the actual proportions used to generate the simulated composition. Boundary conditions of the modeling exercise are that all important lithologic components of the regolith are known and are represented by model components, and that the compositions of these components are well known. The effect of having the capability of determining one incompatible element at moderate precision (25%) is compared with the effect of the lack of this capability. We discuss likely limitations and ambiguities that would be encountered, but conclude that much of our knowledge about the Apollo 17 site (based on the return samples) regarding the distribution and relative abundances of lithologies in the regolith could be obtained. This success requires, however, that at least one incompatible element be determined.

  20. Saturn 5 launch vehicle flight evaluation report-AS-511 Apollo 16 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A postflight analysis of the Apollo 16 mission is presented. The basic objective of the flight evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight problems are identified, their causes are deet determined, and recommendations are made for corrective actions. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. Significant events for all phases of the flight are provide in tabular form.

  1. Apollo 14 mission: Inability to disconnect main bus A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    During entry, the Apollo 14 spacecraft busses should have de-energized when the main bus-tie motor switches were switched to the off position. One motor switch did not transfer and main bus A remained energized until the battery bus-tie circuit breakers were opened after landing. Analysis revealed that residual catalyst caused the terminal pin seals to revert to a gummy state. Resulting reversion products then migrated to the motor commutator and caused brush degradation, increased and erratic commutator resistance, and reduced motor torque. The motor stalled when available motor torque was reduced below that required to drive through the maximum torque point of the switch.

  2. Chandrayaan-1: India's First Mission to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil

    India's first lunar mission Chandrayaan-1 was launched on Oct. 22, 2008, using Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-XL), and was inserted into lunar polar orbit on Nov. 8, 2008. The spacecraft was placed in the designated 100 km lunar polar orbit on Nov. 12, 2008, and the Moon Impact Probe (MIP) was released on Nov. 14, to land at a pre-determined location in the south pole. The MIP carried a mass spectrometer (CHACE), a radar altimeter and a visible camera. The battery of ten experiments on the Chandrayaan-1 orbiter included the Terrain Mapping stereo Camera (TMC), Hyper Spectral Imager (HYSI), Lunar Laser Ranging Instrument (LLRI), Low Energy (1-10 keV) X-ray spectrometer (C1XS, which also included Solar X-ray Monitor (SXM) working in the 2-10 keV energy range), High Energy (10-200 keV) X-ray/gamma-ray spectrometer (HEX), Miniature Synthetic Aperture Radar (Mini-SAR), Near-Infrared Spectrometer (SIR-2), Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA, which consist of 2 instruments: Chandrayaan Energetic Neutral Atom Analyzer (CENA) and Solar Wind monitor (SWIM)), Moon Mineral Mapper (MMM), and Radiation Dose Monitor (RADOM). All the experiments performed very well and a large amount of high quality data has been obtained until the end of August 2009, when mission was terminated due to communication loss. New findings and discoveries have been reported from observations made by experiments on the Chandrayaan-1. This talk will summarize the Chandrayaan-1 mission and its major scientific results. Chandrayaan-1 mission is a good example of an international cooperation and collaboration and marked the beginning of India's foray into planetary exploration.

  3. Radioactivity observed in the sodium iodide gamma-ray spectrometer returned on the Apollo 17 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, C. S.; Trombka, J. I.; Schmadebeck, R. L.; Eller, E.; Bielefeld, M. J.; Okelley, G. D.; Eldridge, J. S.; Northcutt, K. J.; Metzger, A. E.; Reedy, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    In order to obtain information on radioactive background induced in the Apollo 15 and 16 gamma-ray spectrometers (7 cm x 7 cm NaI) by particle irradiation during spaceflight, and identical detector was flown and returned to earth on the Apollo 17 mission. The induced radioactivity was monitored both internally and externally from one and a half hours after splashdown. When used in conjunction with a computation scheme for estimating induced activation from calculated trapped proton and cosmic-ray fluences, these results show an important contribution resulting from both thermal and energetic neutrons produced in the heavy spacecraft by cosmic-ray interactions.

  4. Apollo experience report: Mission evaluation team postflight documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodson, J. W.; Cordiner, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    The various postflight reports prepared by the mission evaluation team, including the final mission evaluation report, report supplements, anomaly reports, and the 5-day mission report, are described. The procedures for preparing each report from the inputs of the various disciplines are explained, and the general method of reporting postflight results is discussed. Recommendations for postflight documentation in future space programs are included. The official requirements for postflight documentation and a typical example of an anomaly report are provided as appendixes.

  5. Moon geophysics and Lunar environemental monitoring: Apollo data reprocessing and perspectives with the MoonTwin project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Lognonné; P. Regnier

    2007-01-01

    The formation of the Moon is probably results from a large impact between a Mars-sized planet and the Earth. The size of the Moon's core, the thickness of the crust and the structure of the lunar mantle are among the few parameters able to constrain this impact, along with the depth and vigor of the magma ocean that appeared on

  6. Small satellite survey mission to the second Earth moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pergola, P.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an innovative space mission devoted to the survey of the small Earth companion asteroid by means of nano platforms. Also known as the second Earth moon, Cruithne, is the target identified for the mission. Both the trajectory to reach the target and a preliminary spacecraft budget are here detailed. The idea is to exploit high efficient ion thrusters to reduce the propellant mass fraction in such a high total impulse mission (of the order of 1e6 Ns). This approach allows for a 100 kg class spacecraft with a very small Earth escape energy (5 km2/s2) to reach the destination in about 320 days. The 31% propellant mass fraction allows for a payload mass fraction of the order of 8% and this is sufficient to embark on such a small spacecraft a couple of nano-satellites deployed once at the target to carry out a complete survey of the asteroid. Two 2U Cubesats are here considered as representative payload, but also other scientific payloads or different platforms might be considered according with the specific mission needs. The small spacecraft used to transfer these to the target guarantees the manoeuvre capabilities during the interplanetary journey, the protection against radiations along the path and the telecommunication relay functions for the data transmission with Earth stations. The approach outlined in the paper offers reliable solutions to the main issues associated with a deep space nano-satellite mission thus allowing the exploitation of distant targets by means of these tiny spacecraft. The study presents an innovative general strategy for the NEO observation and Cruithne is chosen as test bench. This target, however, mainly for its relevant inclination, requires a relatively large propellant mass fraction that can be reduced if low inclination asteroids are of interest. This might increase the payload mass fraction (e.g. additional Cubesats and/or additional scientific payloads on the main bus) for the same 100 kg class mission.

  7. Overview of a Preliminary Destination Mission Concept for a Human Orbital Mission to the Martial Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, D. D.; Abell, P. A.; Antol, J.; Barbee, B. W.; Beaty, D. W.; Bass, D. S.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Coan, D. A.; Colaprete, A.; Daugherty, K. J.; Drake, B. G.; Earle, K. D.; Graham, L. D.; Hembree, R. M.; Hoffman, S. J.; Jefferies, S. A.; Lupisella, M. L.; Reeves, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has been developing a preliminary Destination Mission Concept (DMC) to assess how a human orbital mission to one or both of the Martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, might be conducted as a follow-on to a human mission to a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) and as a possible preliminary step prior to a human landing on Mars. The HAT Mars-Phobos-Deimos (MPD) mission also permits the teleoperation of robotic systems by the crew while in the Mars system. The DMC development activity provides an initial effort to identify the science and exploration objectives and investigate the capabilities and operations concepts required for a human orbital mission to the Mars system. In addition, the MPD Team identified potential synergistic opportunities via prior exploration of other destinations currently under consideration.

  8. Report of the Terrestrial Bodies Science Working Group. Volume 4: The moon. [lunar polar orbiter mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, L. A.; Duke, M. B.; Hubbard, N.; Johnson, T. V.; Malin, M. C.; Minear, J.

    1977-01-01

    A rationale for furture exploration of the moon is given. Topics discussed include the objectives of the lunar polar orbiter mission, the mission profile, and general characteristics of the spacraft to be used.

  9. Lost moon, saved lives: using the movie Apollo 13 as a video primer in behavioral skills for simulation trainees and instructors.

    PubMed

    Halamek, Louis P

    2010-10-01

    Behavioral skills such as effective communication, teamwork, and leadership are critically important to successful outcomes in patient care, especially in resuscitation situations where correct decisions must be made rapidly. However, historically, these important skills have rarely been specifically addressed in learning programs directed at healthcare professionals. Not only have most healthcare professionals had little or no formal education and training in applying behavioral skills to their patient care activities but also many of those serving as instructors and content experts for training programs have few resources available that clearly illustrate what these skills are and how they may be used in the context of real clinical situations. This represents a serious shortcoming in the education and training of healthcare professionals and stands in distinct contrast to other industries.Aerospace, similar to other high-consequence industries, has a long history of the use of simulation to improve human performance and reduce risk: astronauts and the engineers in Mission Control spend hundreds of hours in simulated flight in preparation for every mission. The value of time spent in the simulator was clearly illustrated during the flight of Apollo 13, the third mission to land men on the moon. The Apollo 13 crew had to overcome a number of life-threatening technical and medical problems, and it was their simulation-based training that allowed them to display the teamwork, ingenuity, and determination needed to return to earth safely.The movie Apollo 13 depicts in a highly realistic manner the events that occurred during the flight, including the actions of the crew in space and those in Mission Control in Houston. Three scenes from this movie are described in this article; each serves as a useful example for healthcare professionals of the importance of simulation-based learning and the application of behavioral skills to successful resolution of crises. This article is meant to serve as a guide as to how this movie and other similar media may be used for facilitated group or independent learning, providing appropriate context and clear examples of key points to be discussed. PMID:21330813

  10. Explore the Moon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Moon is probably not humankind's final frontier. However, more than 30 years after the completion of the last lunar mission, the Apollo landings still stand out as six of the most ambitious and heroic voyages in exploration history. This interactive feature provides panoramic views of each of the six Apollo landing sites and offers a hint of what astronauts faced on the surface of the Moon. The VR images can be panned horizontally and vertically, and still images are also provided. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

  11. JUICE: a European mission to Jupiter and its icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, D.; Erd, C.; Duvet, L.; Wielders, A.; Torralba-Elipe, I.; Altobelli, N.

    2013-09-01

    JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) is the first L-class mission selected for the ESA's Cosmic Vision programme 2015-2025 which has just entered the definition phase. JUICE will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system in all their inter-relations and complexity with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. Investigations of Europa and Callisto will complete a comparative picture of the Galilean moons. By performing detailed investigations of Jupiter's system, JUICE will address in depth two key questions of the ESA's Cosmic Vision programme: (1) What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? and (2) How does the Solar System work? The overarching theme for JUICE has been formulated as: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a comprehensive multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants including exoplanets. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions and their response to the solar wind will be elucidated. Within Jupiter's satellite system, JUICE will study the moons' interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE will be a three-axis stabilised spacecraft with dry mass of about 1800 kg at launch, chemical propulsion system and 60-75 m2 solar arrays. The high-gain antenna of about 3 m in diameter will provide a downlink capability of not less than 1.4 Gb/day. Special measures will be used to protect the spacecraft and payload from the harsh radiation environment at Jupiter. The spacecraft will carry a highly capable state-of-the-art scientific payload consisting of remote sensing instruments, geophysical sounders and plasma experiments. The foreseen launch of the JUICE spacecraft is June 2022. After the Jupiter orbit insertion in January 2030 the spacecraft will perform a 2.5 year tour in the Jovian system focusing on observations of the atmosphere and magnetosphere of the giant. During the tour, gravity assists at Callisto will shape the trajectory to perform two targeted Europa flybys and raise the orbit inclination up to 30 degrees. 13 Callisto flybys will enable unique remote observations of the moon and in situ measurements in its vicinity. The mission will culminate in a dedicated 8 months orbital tour around Ganymede. The tour will include phases with high (5000 km), medium (500 km), and low (200 km) circular orbits that will have different observation conditions optimized for particular science investigations. The presentation will give an overview of the JUICE mission, its science scenario and observation strategy, and the newly selected payload.

  12. The Effects of Lunar Dust on EVA Systems During the Apollo Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Mission documents from the six Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface have been studied in order to catalog the effects of lunar dust on Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) systems, primarily the Apollo surface space suit. It was found that the effects could be sorted into nine categories: vision obscuration, false instrument readings, dust coating and contamination, loss of traction, clogging of mechanisms, abrasion, thermal control problems, seal failures, and inhalation and irritation. Although simple dust mitigation measures were sufficient to mitigate some of the problems (i.e., loss of traction) it was found that these measures were ineffective to mitigate many of the more serious problems (i.e., clogging, abrasion, diminished heat rejection). The severity of the dust problems were consistently underestimated by ground tests, indicating a need to develop better simulation facilities and procedures.

  13. The Effects of Lunar Dust on EVA Systems During the Apollo Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Mission documents from the six Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface have been studied in order to catalog the effects of lunar dust on Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) systems, primarily the Apollo surface space suit. It was found that the effects could be sorted into nine categories: vision obscuration, false instrument readings, dust coating and contamination, loss of traction, clogging of mechanisms, abrasion, thermal control problems, seal failures, and inhalation and irritation. Although simple dust mitigation measures were sufficient to mitigate some of the problems (i.e., loss of traction) it was found that these measures were ineffective to mitigate many of the more serious problems (i.e., clogging, abrasion, diminished heat rejection). The severity of the dust problems were consistently underestimated by ground tests, indicating a need to develop better simulation facilities and procedures.

  14. Saturn 5 launch vehicle flight evaluation report-AS-509 Apollo 14 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A postflight analysis of the Apollo 14 flight is presented. The basic objective of the flight evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight failures are identified, their causes are determined and corrective actions are recommended. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. The significant events for all phases of the flight are analyzed.

  15. Saturn 5 Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report-AS-512 Apollo 17 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation of the launch vehicle and lunar roving vehicle performance for the Apollo 17 flight is presented. The objective of the evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight problems are identified, their causes are determined, and recommendations are made for corrective action. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. The significant events for all phases of the flight are analyzed.

  16. Apollo 15 mission report. Supplement 3: Ascent propulsion system final flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of the postflight analysis of the ascent propulsion system (APS) performance during the Apollo 15 Mission. The information presented includes: (1) calculated performance values for the APS lunar liftoff burn; (2) disucssion of analysis techniques, problems and assumptions; (3) comparison of postflight analysis and preflight prediction; (4) reaction control system (RCS) duty cycle included in the APS performance analysis; (5) transient performance analysis; and (6) the APS propellant consumption values.

  17. Apollo 12 mission report. Supplement 4: Ascent propulsion system final flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    The results of the postflight analysis of the ascent propulsion system (APS) performance during the Apollo 12 Mission are presented. The steady-state performance analysis, and pressurization system are discussed along with the propellant loading and usage, APS overburn, and burn time. It is concluded that APS flight performance reconstructions for LM-3, LM-4, LM-5, and LM-6 indicate that engine performance prediction techniques are conservative.

  18. APOLLO 8: Birth of a Machine (Pt 2/2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Part 2 of the clip 'Birth of a machine'. This clip reveals the origins of the major components of the mission. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 8:'Debrief': part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) APOLLO 8: First manned Saturn V flight with Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr., and william A. Anders. First manned lunar orbit mission; provided a close-up look at the moon during 10 lunar orbits. Mission Duration 147hrs 0m 42s

  19. Apollo 8's Christmas Eve 1968 Message - Duration: 2:02.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Apollo 8, the first manned mission to the moon, entered lunar orbit on Christmas Eve, Dec. 24, 1968. That evening, the astronauts--Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot Jim Lovell, and Lunar...

  20. Code-Name: Spider, Flight of Apollo 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Apollo 9, an earth orbiting mission during which the Lunar Module was first tested in space flight in preparation for the eventual moon landing missions, is the subject of this pamphlet. Many color photographs and diagrams of the Lunar Module and flight activities are included with a brief description of the mission. (PR)

  1. View of the plaque to be left on the moon by the Apollo 17 astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    View of the plaque to be left at the Taurus-Littrow lunar landing site by the Apollo 17 astronauts. The commemorative plaque is made of stainless steel measuring nine by seven by five-eighths inches and one-sixteenth inch thick. It is attached to the ladder on the landing gear strut on the descent stage of the Apollo 17 Lunar Module 'Challenger'.

  2. Global Elemental Maps of the Moon Using Gamma Rays Measured by the Kaguya (SELENE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, Robert C.; Hasebe, N.; Yamashita, N.; Karouji, Y.; Kobayashi, S.; Hareyama, M.; Hayatsu, K.; Okudaira, O.; Kobayashi, M.; d'Uston, C.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Diez, B.; Kim, K.

    2009-09-01

    The Kaguya spacecraft was in a circular polar lunar orbit from 17 October 2007 until 10 June 2009 as part of JAXA's SELENE lunar exploration program. Among the 13 instruments, an advanced gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) studied the distributions of many elements. The gamma rays were from the decay of the naturally-radioactive elements K, Th, and U and from cosmic-ray interactions with H, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and other elements. They are emitted from the top few tens of centimeters of the lunar surface. The main detector of the GRS was high-purity germanium, which was surrounded by bismuth germanate and plastic scintillators to reduce backgrounds. Gamma-ray spectra were sent to the Earth every 17 seconds (1 degree of the lunar surface) with energies from 0-12 MeV. These spectra were adjusted to a standard gain and then summed over many lunar regions. Background spectra were also determined. Over 200 gamma rays have been observed, with most being backgrounds but many being from the lunar surface, an order more gamma rays than from any previous lunar GRS missions. Elemental results have been determined for K, Th, and U. Results for K and Th are consistent with those from the GRS on Apollo and Lunar Prospector. The first lunar global maps for U have been determined. These 3 elements show strong correlations among themselves, which implies that the Moon is homogeneous in these elements over the entire Moon. Their elemental ratios agree well with those measured in lunar samples and meteorites. Preliminary maps for Fe are consistent with earlier maps. Other elements, including O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, are being mapped, and their distributions vary over the lunar surface and appear consistent with previous lunar elemental results. This work was supported by JAXA, NASA, and CNRS, France.

  3. Apollo 17: At Taurus Littrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    A summation, with color illustrations, is presented on the Apollo 17 mission. The height, weight, and thrust specifications are given on the launch vehicle. Presentations are given on: the night launch; earth to moon ascent; separation and descent; EVA, the sixth lunar surface expedition; ascent from Taurus-Littrow; the America to Challenger rendezvous; return, reentry, and recovery; the scientific results of the mission; background information on the astronauts; and the future projects.

  4. Moon-Mars Analogue Mission (EuroMoonMars 1 at the Mars Desert Research Station)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lia Schlacht, Irene; Voute, Sara; Irwin, Stacy; Foing, Bernard H.; Stoker, Carol R.; Westenberg, Artemis

    The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) is situated in an analogue habitat-based Martian environment, designed for missions to determine the knowledge and equipment necessary for successful future planetary exploration. For this purpose, a crew of six people worked and lived together in a closed-system environment. They performed habitability experiments within the dwelling and conducted Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) for two weeks (20 Feb to 6 Mar 2010) and were guided externally by mission support, called "Earth" within the simulation. Crew 91, an international, mixed-gender, and multidisciplinary group, has completed several studies during the first mission of the EuroMoonMars campaign. The crew is composed of an Italian designer and human factors specialist, a Dutch geologist, an American physicist, and three French aerospace engineering students from Ecole de l'Air, all with ages between 21 and 31. Each crewmember worked on personal research and fulfilled a unique role within the group: commander, executive officer, engineer, health and safety officer, scientist, and journalist. The expedition focused on human factors, performance, communication, health and safety pro-tocols, and EVA procedures. The engineers' projects aimed to improve rover manoeuvrability, far-field communication, and data exchanges between the base and the rover or astronaut. The crew physicist evaluated dust control methods inside and outside the habitat. The geologist tested planetary geological sampling procedures. The crew designer investigated performance and overall habitability in the context of the Mars Habitability Experiment from the Extreme-Design group. During the mission the crew also participated in the Food Study and in the Ethospace study, managed by external groups. The poster will present crew dynamics, scientific results and daily schedule from a Human Factors perspective. Main co-sponsors and collaborators: ILEWG, ESA ESTEC, NASA Ames, Ecole de l'Air, SKOR, Extreme-Design, Universit` di Torino, MMS TU-Berlin, Space Florida, DAAD, Uni-a versity of Utrecht, The Mars Society.

  5. Pressurized Rover for Moon and Mars Surface Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhof, Barbara; Ransom, Stephen; et al.

    The work described in this paper was done under ESA and Thales Alenia Space contract in the frame of the Analysis of Surface Architecture for European Space Exploration -Element Design. Future manned space missions to the Moon or to Mars will require a vehicle for transporting astronauts in a controlled and protected environment and in relative comfort during surface traverses of these planetary bodies. The vehicle that will be needed is a pressurized rover which serves the astronauts as a habitat, a refuge and a research laboratory/workshop. A number of basic issues influencing the design of such a rover, e.g. habitability, human-machine interfaces, safety, dust mitigation, interplanetary contamination and radiation protection, have been analysed in detail. The results of these analyses were subsequently used in an investigation of various designs for a rover suitable for surface exploration, from which a single concept was developed that satisfied scientific requirements as well as environmental requirements encoun-tered during surface exploration of the Moon and Mars. This concept was named in memory of the late Sir Arthur C. Clark RAMA (Rover for Advanced Mission Applications, Rover for Advanced Moon Applications, Rover for Advanced Mars Applications) The concept design of the pressurized rover meets the scientific and operational requirements defined during the course of the Surface Architecture Study. It is designed for surface missions with a crew of two or three lasting up to approximately 40 days, its source of energy, a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen fuel cell, allowing it to be driven and operated during the day as well as the night. Guidance, navigation and obstacle avoidance systems are foreseen as standard equipment to allow it to travel safely over rough terrain at all times of the day. The rover allows extra-vehicular activity and a remote manipulator is provided to recover surface samples, to deploy surface instruments and equipment and, in general, to assist the astronauts' field activities wherever and whenever needed. The vehicle has also been designed to have a very high degree of manoeuvrability. In addition, RAMA may be operated and replenished from a fixed site base or co-operate with other rovers of the same type to provide a mobile base. The rover in all cases will be refuelled using the products supplied by an in-situ resources facility. Transportation and surface exploration requirements defined the size and mass of the rover. RAMA has a launch mass of approximately 7000 kg, a dry mass of about 6200 kg and surface mission masses of between 7800 and 8300 kg. The rover can be launched by a future heavy lift launcher similar to the American ARES V concept. The factor most affecting the mass of the rover, other than the quantities of fuel cell reactants and crew consumables, is the amount of radiation shielding integrated in the design of the rover's pressurized shell. The factor most influencing the rover's external and internal configuration is the launcher's payload envelope and the need for the rover's centre-of-mass to be aligned with or close to the launcher's longitudinal axis. Technologies needed to support the design of the rover and its subsystems were investigated to identify the issues concerned with a possible implementation.

  6. Integrated Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Mission Operations Design Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young; Korth, David; LeBlanc, Troy

    2007-01-01

    For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in support of human crews. The challenges of human Mars missions, including roundtrip communications time delays of 6 to 40 minutes, interplanetary transit times of many months, and the need to manage lifecycle costs, will require the evolution of a new mission operations paradigm far less dependent on real-time monitoring and response by an Earthbound operations team. Robotic systems and automation will augment human capability, increase human safety by providing means to perform many tasks without requiring immediate human presence, and enable the transfer of traditional mission control tasks from the ground to crews. Developing and validating the new paradigm and its associated infrastructure may place requirements on operations design for nearer-term lunar missions. The authors, representing both the human and robotic mission operations communities, assess human lunar and Mars mission challenges, and consider how human-robot operations may be integrated to enable efficient joint operations, with the eventual emergence of a unified exploration operations culture.

  7. Constraints on the formation age and evolution of the Moon from 142Nd-143Nd systematics of Apollo 12 basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Claire L.; Brandon, Alan D.; Armytage, Rosalind M. G.

    2014-06-01

    The Moon likely formed as a result of a giant impact between proto-Earth and another large body. The timing of this event and the subsequent lunar differentiation timescales are actively debated. New high-precision Nd isotope data of Apollo mare basalts are used to evaluate the Low-Ti, High-Ti and KREEP mantle source reservoirs within the context of lunar formation and evolution. The resulting models are assessed using both reported 146Sm half-lives (68 and 103 Myr). The linear relationship defined by 142Nd-143Nd systematics does not represent multi-component mixing and is interpreted as an isochron recording a mantle closure age for the Sm-Nd system in the Moon. Using a chondritic source model with present day ?142Nd of -7.3, the mare basalt mantle source reservoirs closed at 4.45-09+10 Ga (t Sm146=68 Myr) or 4.39-14+16 Ga (t Sm146=103 Myr). In a superchondritic, 2-stage evolution model with present day ?Nd142 of 0, mantle source closure ages are constrained to 4.41-08+10 (t Sm146=68 Myr) or 4.34-14+15 Ga (t Sm146=103 Myr). The lunar mantle source reservoir closure ages <4.5 Ga may be reconciled by 3 potential scenarios. First, the Moon formed later than currently favored models indicate, such that the lunar mantle closure age is near or at the time of lunar formation. Second, the Moon formed ca. 4.55 to 4.47 Ga and small amounts of residual melts were sustained within a crystallizing lunar magma ocean (LMO) for up to ca. 200 Myr from tidal heating or asymmetric LMO evolution. Third, the LMO crystallized rapidly after early Moon formation. Thus the Sm-Nd mantle closure age represents a later resetting of isotope systematics. This may have resulted from a global wide remelting event. While current Earth-Moon formation constraints cannot exclusively advocate or dismiss any of these models, the fact that U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes for Jack Hills zircons from Australia are best explained by an Earth that re-equilibrated at 4.4 Ga or earlier following the Moon-forming impact, does not favor a later forming Moon. If magma oceans crystallize in a few million years as currently advocated, then a global resetting, possibly by a large impact at 4.40 to 4.34 Ga, such as that which formed the South Pole Aitken Basin, best explains the late mantle closure age for the coupled Sm-Nd isotope systematics presented here.

  8. Major impacts on the moon - Characterization from trace elements in Apollo 12 and 14 samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, J. W.; Laul, J. C.; Krahenbuhl, U.; Ganapathy, R.; Anders, E.

    1972-01-01

    Seventeen trace elements have been determined by neutron activation analysis in 33 lunar samples from Apollo 14, 5 from Apollo 12, and 2 from Luna 16. Apollo 14 soils and breccias contain at least two, and possibly three, ancient meteoritic components of unusual composition, probably derived from the Imbrian and Serenitatis impacts, and mixed planetesimal debris from the pre-Imbrian regolith. These components have a lower ratio of volatiles to siderophiles than any known class of chondrites. They also have Ir/Au, Ge/Au ratios outside the range for most iron meteorites, except groups IVA and possibly IIIA. One of these components, of very low Ir/Au, Re/Au ratio, occurs in light norites, 14321 microbreccias, and KREEP separates from 12033 soil. Another is found in dark norites, glasses, and several other Apollo 14 samples, as well as rock 12013 and Apollo 11 anorthosite. From these compositional clues it appears that the Imbrian body and the pre-Imbrian planetesimals, like the earth, were relatively rich in iron, but depleted in volatiles. Such a composition is consistent with the Imbrian body originating as an earth-crossing planetesimal.

  9. Apollo 11 Recovery Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via a Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. The Command Module (CM), piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the Lunar Module (LM), named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. Shown here is the recovery operation of the capsule in the Pacific Ocean after splashdown. Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was taken to safety aboard the USS Hornet, where they were quartered in a mobile quarantine facility. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  10. Early Impacts on the Moon: Crystallization Ages of Apollo 16 Melt Breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, M. D.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Taylor, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    A better understanding of the early impact history of the terrestrial planets has been identified one of the highest priority science goals for solar system exploration. Crystallization ages of impact melt breccias from the Apollo 16 site in the central nearside lunar highlands show a pronounced clustering of ages from 3.75-3.95 Ga, with several impact events being recognized by the association of textural groups and distinct ages. Here we present new geochemical and petrologic data for Apollo 16 crystalline breccia 67955 that document a much older impact event with an age of 4.2 Ga.

  11. Summary of lightning activities by NASA for the Apollo Soyuz test project: Supplement no. 1 to Apollo Soyuz mission evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    To avoid the possibility of an unnecessary launch delay, a special program was initiated to provide aircraft measurement of electric fields at various altitudes over the Apollo vehicle launch pad. Eight aircraft, each equipped with electric field meters, were used in the program. This program and some of the more important findings are discussed. Also included is a summary of the history of manned space vehicle involvement with lightning, a brief description of the lightning instrumentation in use at KSC (Kennedy Space Center) at the time of the Apollo Soyuz mission and a discussion of the airborne instrumentation and related data.

  12. JUICE (JUpiter ICy moon Explorer): a European-led mission to the Jupiter system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, M. K.; Grasset, O.; Bunce, E.; Coustenis, A.; Titov, D. V.; Erd, C.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A. J.; Coradini, A.; Drossart, P.; Fletcher, L.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; van Hoolst, T.; Lebreton, J.-P.

    2011-10-01

    The former ESA-NASA EJSM-Laplace mission is being reformulated by ESA as a European-led single spacecraft mission to the Jovian system. The concept has been recently renamed JUICE (JUpiter ICy moon Explorer). The new mission is based on the design of the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) - the ESA flight element of EJSM-Laplace.

  13. To the Moon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    To the Moon, a companion website to PBS's NOVA television program, chronicles the untold science and engineering story of how we got to the moon. There are images with captions from the Apollo missions, games and activities, journal excerpts from the last man on the Moon (Eugene Cerran), and a discussion of where humans may have come from. The Space Pioneers section offers audio and text about space from those who have experienced it, such as Jim Lovell and Buzz Aldrin. Additional resources are suggested for more information. The accompanying video is available to order.

  14. Relativistic time corrections for Apollo 12 and Apollo 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented of computer calculations on the relativistic time corrections relative to a ground-based clock of on-board clock readings for a lunar mission, using simple Newtonian gravitational potentials of earth and moon and based on actual trajectory data for Apollo 12 and Apollo 13. Although the second order Doppler effect and the gravitational red shift give rise to corrections of opposite sign, the net accumulated time corrections, namely a gain of 560 (+ or - 1.5) microseconds for Apollo 12 and gain of 326 (+ or - 1.3) microseconds for Apollo 13, are still large enough that with present day atomic frequency standards, such as the rubidium clock, they can be measured with an accuracy of about + or - 0.5 percent.

  15. APOLLO 8: Birth of a Machine (pt 1/2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This clip shows the launch of APOLLO 8: The 'Birth of a Machine' and begins to reveal the origin of its components. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 8:'Debrief'': part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) First manned Saturn V flight with Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr.,and william A. Anders. First manned lunar orbit mission; provided a close-up look at the moon during 10 lunar orbits. Mission Duration 147hrs. 0 min. 42s.

  16. Mini-SAR: An Imaging Radar for the Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spudis, Paul D.; Bussey, Ben; Lichtenberg, Chris; Marinelli, Bill; Nozette, Stewart

    2005-01-01

    The debate on the presence of ice at the poles of the Moon continues. We will fly a small imaging radar on the Indian Chandrayaan mission to the Moon, to be launched in September, 2007. Mini-SAR will map the scattering properties of the lunar poles, determining the presence and extent of polar ice.

  17. Human Mission from Planet Earth: finding a rationale for exploration of the Moon and Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eligar Sadeh

    2001-01-01

    This paper advances scenarios for an evolutionary approach to the establishment of a Human Mission from Planet Earth involving exploration and utilization of the Moon and Mars. Of critical importance are the concepts of robotic–human and Moon–Mars synergies. The paper discusses the rationale variables that have an influence on types of space activities pursued and thus the policy that leads

  18. NASA: Apollo 11 - 35 Years Later

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    At this website, NASA commemorates the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 11 crew's landing on the moon. Using Macromedia Flash Player, the site recreates the mission's journey from the launch on July 16, 1969 to its splashdown on July 24th. Users can view fantastic videos of Neil Armstrong's first step, a tribute to the mission, and NASA's Vision for Space Exploration. Visitors can find links to the mission's audio recordings, news articles, and additional photo and video galleries.

  19. Apollo 11 Facts Project [Pre-Launch Activities and Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The crewmembers of Apollo 11, Commander Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., are seen during various stages of preparation for the launch of Apollo 11, including suitup, breakfast, and boarding the spacecraft. They are also seen during mission training, including preparation for extravehicular activity on the surface of the Moon. The launch of Apollo 11 is shown. The ground support crew is also seen as they wait for the spacecraft to approach the Moon.

  20. Recovered Apollo-Era Saturn V F-1 Engines Arrive at Cape Canaveral - Duration: 1:48.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two F-1 engines that powered the first stage of the Saturn V rockets that lifted NASAâ??s Apollo missions to the moon were recovered from the Atlantic Ocean March 20, 2013 by Jeff Bezos, the founde...

  1. APOLLO 8: It's Christmas in zero gravity...

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Astronauts and ground control consider how Santa is going to gain access to the command module... From the film documentary 'APOLLO 8:'Debrief': part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) First manned Saturn V flight with Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr.,and william A. Anders. First manned lunar orbit mission; provided a close-up look at the moon during 10 lunar orbits. Mission Duration 147hrs 0m 42s

  2. Apollo 15 mission report. Supplement 3: Ascent propulsion system final flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, W. G.; Griffin, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    Results from the postflight analysis of the ascent propulsion system (APS) performance during the Apollo 15 mission are presented. The duty cycle for the LM-10 APS consisted of two firings, and ascent stage liftoff from the lunar surface and the terminal phase ignition (TPI) burn. An evaluation was made of APS performance for the first firing and found to be satisfactory. No propulsion data was received from the second APS burn; however, all indications were that the burn was nominal. All performance parameters were well within their LM-10 3-sigma limits. Calculated throat erosion at engine cutoff for the LM-10 APS was approximately 3 percent greater than predicted.

  3. Saturn 5 launch vehicle flight evaluation report, AS-510, Apollo 15 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A postflight analysis of the Apollo 15 flight is presented. The performance of the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and lunar roving vehicle are discussed. The objective of the evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight problems are identified, their causes are determined, and recommendations are made for corrective actions. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. Significant events for all phases of the flight are tabulated.

  4. Geology of Earth's Moon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    First, researchers at the University of California, San Diego discuss the importance of studying earthquakes on the moon, also known as moonquakes, and the Apollo Lunar Seismic Experiment (1). Users can discover the problems scientists must deal with when collecting the moon's seismic data. The students at Case Western Reserve University created the second website to address three missions the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) has planned between now and 2010, including a mission to the moon (2). Visitors can learn about the Lunar-A probe that will be used to photograph the surface of the moon, "monitor moonquakes, measure temperature, and study the internal structure." Next, the Planetary Data Service (PDS) at the USGS offers users four datasets that they can use to create an image of a chosen area of the moon (3). Each dataset can be viewed as a basic clickable map; a clickable map where users can specify size, resolution, and projection; or an advanced version where visitors can select areas by center latitude and longitude. The fourth site, produced by Robert Wickman at the University of North Dakota, presents a map of the volcanoes on the moon and compares their characteristics with those on earth (4). Students can learn how the gravitational forces on the Moon affect the lava flows. Next, Professor Jeff Ryan at the University of South Florida at Tampa supplies fantastic images and descriptive text of the lunar rocks obtained by the Apollo missions (5). Visitors can find links to images of meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and Apollo landings as well. At the Science Channel website, students and educators can find a video clip discussing the geologic studies on the moon along with videos about planets (6). Users can learn about how studying moon rocks help scientists better understand the formation of the earth. Next, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum presents its research of "lunar topography, cratering and impacts basins, tectonics, lava flows, and regolith properties" (7). Visitors can find summaries of the characteristics of the moon and the main findings since the 1950s. Lastly, the USGS Astrogeology Research Program provides archived lunar images and data collected between 1965 and 1992 by Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Galileo, and Zond 8 missions (8). While the data is a little old, students and educators can still find valuable materials about the moon's topography, chemical composition, and geology.

  5. Stationkeeping of the First Earth-Moon Libration Orbiters: The ARTEMIS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Woodard, Mark; Cosgrove, D.

    2011-01-01

    Libration point orbits near collinear locations are inherently unstable and must be controlled. For Acceleration Reconnection and Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) Earth-Moon Lissajous orbit operations, stationkeeping is challenging because of short time scales, large orbital eccentricity of the secondary, and solar gravitational and radiation pressure perturbations. ARTEMIS is the first NASA mission continuously controlled at both Earth-Moon L1 and L2 locations and uses a balance of optimization, spacecraft implementation and constraints, and multi-body dynamics. Stationkeeping results are compared to pre-mission research including mode directions.

  6. Human Exploration of the Moon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael B. Duke

    2002-01-01

    The Earth's Moon is the only planetary body other than the Earth that has been explored directly by humans. The Apollo missions sent six crews of two astronauts to the lunar surface under conditions that were experimental, highly constrained and expensive. There are many scientific issues that would benefit from concerted human exploration that could be conducted from an outpost

  7. United States lunar mapping - A basis for and result of project Apollo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. St. Clair; R. W. Carder; L. A. Schimerman

    1979-01-01

    The lunar mapping program carried out by the United States Defense Mapping Agency is reviewed, emphasizing its role as both a basis for and a result of Project Apollo. Telescopic photography of the moon was given impetus by the announcement of the Apollo project, and the results of the Ranger and Lunar Orbiter missions supplied nearly complete photographic coverage of

  8. The Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Stage (NTPS): A Key Space Asset for Human Exploration and Commercial Missions to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Burke, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) has frequently been discussed as a key space asset that can bridge the gap between a sustained human presence on the Moon and the eventual human exploration of Mars. Recently, a human mission to a near Earth asteroid (NEA) has also been included as a "deep space precursor" to an orbital mission of Mars before a landing is attempted. In his "post-Apollo" Integrated Space Program Plan (1970 to 1990), Wernher von Braun, proposed a reusable Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Stage (NTPS) to deliver cargo and crew to the Moon to establish a lunar base initially before sending human missions to Mars. The NTR was selected because it was a proven technology capable of generating both high thrust and high specific impulse (Isp approx. 900 s)-twice that of today's best chemical rockets. During the Rover and NERVA programs, 20 rocket reactors were designed, built and successfully ground tested. These tests demonstrated the (1) thrust levels; (2) high fuel temperatures; (3) sustained operation; (4) accumulated lifetime; and (5) restart capability needed for an affordable in-space transportation system. In NASA's Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the "Copernicus" crewed NTR Mars transfer vehicle used three 25 klbf "Pewee" engines-the smallest and highest performing engine tested in the Rover program. Smaller lunar transfer vehicles-consisting of a NTPS with three approx. 16.7 klbf "SNRE-class" engines, an in-line propellant tank, plus the payload-can be delivered to LEO using a 70 t to LEO upgraded SLS, and can support reusable cargo delivery and crewed lunar landing missions. The NTPS can play an important role in returning humans to the Moon to stay by providing an affordable in-space transportation system that can allow initial lunar outposts to evolve into settlements capable of supporting commercial activities. Over the next decade collaborative efforts between NASA and private industry could open up new exploration and commercial opportunities for both organizations. With efficient NTP, commercial habitation and crew delivery systems, a "mobile cislunar research station" can transport crews to small NEAs delivered to the E-ML2 point. Also possible are week-long "lunar tourism" missions that can carry passengers into lunar orbit for sightseeing (and plenty of picture taking), then return them to Earth orbit where they would re-enter and land using a small reusable lifting body based on NASA's HL-20 design. Mission descriptions, key vehicle features and operational characteristics are described and presented.

  9. Human Spaceflight - The Moon and Mars

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Visitors to this site will learn about NASA's manned and unmanned explorations of the Moon and Mars. Topics include the history of the Apollo program, robotic missions to Mars, and future visions for space exploration. The document "Vision for Space Eploration," which describes a timeline and major realignment of NASA's resources and efforts for manned and unmanned missions to the Moon and elsewhere, is available at this site.

  10. Apollo 11 Lunar Message For Mankind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1959-01-01

    Millions of people on Earth watched via television as a message for all mankind was delivered to the Mare Tranquilitatis (Sea of Tranquility) region of the Moon during the historic Apollo 11 mission, where it still remains today. This commemorative plaque, attached to the leg of the Lunar Module (LM), Eagle, is engraved with the following words: 'Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon July, 1969 A.D. We came in peace for all of mankind.' It bears the signatures of the Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot along with the signature of the U.S. President Richard M. Nixon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  11. Apollo 11 Lunar Message For Mankind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Millions of people on Earth watched via television as a message for all mankind was delivered to the Mare Tranquilitatis (Sea of Tranquility) region of the Moon during the historic Apollo 11 mission, where it still remains today. A technician holds the commemorative plaque that was later attached to the leg of the Lunar Module (LM), Eagle, engraved with the following words: 'Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon July, 1969 A.D. We came in peace for all of mankind.' It bears the signatures of the Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot along with the signature of the U.S. President Richard M. Nixon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  12. PDS Lunar Data Node Restoration of Apollo In-Situ Surface Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Guinness, Edward A.; Lowman, Paul D.; Taylor, Patrick T.

    2010-01-01

    The Apollo missions between 1969 and 1972 deployed scientific instruments on the Moon's surface which made in-situ measurements of the lunar environment. Apollo II had the short-term Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP) and Apollos 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 each set up an Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). Each ALSEP package contained a different suite of instruments which took measurements and radioed the results back to Earth over periods from 5 to 7 years until they were turned off on 30 September 1977. To this day the ALSEP data remain the only long-term in-situ information on the Moon's surface environment. The Lunar Data Node (LDN) has been formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node to put relevant, scientifically important Apollo data into accessible digital form for use by researchers and mission planners. We will report on progress made since last year and plans for future data restorations.

  13. Mineralogy of Apollo 15415 ?genesis rock' - Source of anorthosite on moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, I. M.; Smith, J. V.

    1971-01-01

    Results of electron microprobe analyses of plagioclase points and pyroxene grains of Apollo 15415 ?genesis rock.' It is pointed out that no evidence of cumulate textures has yet appeared to support suggestions of extensive crystal-liquid differentiation producing an anorthositic crust or a lunar crust composed of a mixture of plagioclase-rich rock, basalts and minor ultramafic material, which require that plagioclase crystals float in a basaltic liquid. The plagioclase in 15415 does not show cumulate texture either. It is noted that it remains to be seen whether rock 15415 is correctly named the ?genesis rock.'

  14. Apollo experience report: The role of flight mission rules in mission preparation and conduct

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keyser, L. W.

    1974-01-01

    The development of flight mission rules from the mission development phase through the detailed mission-planning phase and through the testing and training phase is analyzed. The procedure for review of the rules and the coordination requirements for mission-rule development are presented. The application of the rules to real-time decision making is outlined, and consideration is given to the benefit of training ground controllers and flightcrews in the methods of determining the best response to a nonnominal in-flight situation for which no action has been preplanned. The Flight Mission Rules document is discussed in terms of the purpose and objective thereof and in terms of the definition, the development, and the use of mission rules.

  15. Proposal for revisions of the United Nations Moon Treaty

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vera Fernandes; Neyda Abreu; J. Fritz; Martin Knapmeyer; Lisa Smeenk; Inge Ten Kate; Monica Trüninger

    2010-01-01

    During this new 2010-decade, it will be imperative to reconsider the effectiveness of the current United Nations (U.N.) Moon Treaty (c.1979). Amendments are necessary to underline the mandatory human stewardship of this fragile planetary body of our Solar System, indispensible to life on Earth. After the very successful Apollo and Luna missions to the Moon (ending in 1976), which brought

  16. Seismometer reading viewed in ALSEP Room in Misson Control during Apollo 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The seismometer readings from the impact made by the Apollo 17 Saturn S-IVB stage when it struck the lunar surface are viewed in the ALSEP Room in the Misson Control Center at Houston by Dr. Maurice Ewing, professor of geophysics of the Universtiy of Texas at Galveston. The seismic tracings are from sensings made by seismometers of Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages left on the Moon during earlier Apollo lunar landing missions.

  17. Some things we can infer about the Moon from the Composition of the Apollo 16 Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1997-01-01

    Characteristics of the regolith of Cayley plains as sampled at the Apollo 16 lunar landing site are reviewed and new compositional data are presented for samples of less than 1 mm fines ('soils') and 1-2 mm regolith particles. As a means of determining which of the many primary (igneous) and secondary (crystalline breccias) lithologic components that have been identified in the soil are volumetrically important and providing an estimate of their relative abundances, more than 3 x 10(exp 6) combinations of components representing nearly every lithology that has been observed in the Apollo 16 regolith were systematically tested to determine which combinations best account for the composition of the soils. Conclusions drawn from the modeling include the following. At the site, mature soil from the Cayley plains consists of 64.5% +/- 2.7% components representing 'prebasin' materials: anorthosites, feldspathic breccias, and a small amount (2.6% +/- 1.5% of total soil) of nonmare, mafic plutonic rocks, mostly gabbronorites. On average, these components are highly feldspathic, with average concentrations of 3l-32% Al2O3 and 2-3% FeO and a molar Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratio of O.68. The remaining 36% of the regolith is syn- and postbasin material: 28.8% +/- 2.4% mafic impact-melt breccias (MIMBS, i.e., 'LKFM' and 'VHA basalts') created at the time of basin formation, 6.0% +/- 1.4% mare-derived material (impact and volcanic glass, crystalline basalt) with an average TiO2 concentration of 2.4%, and 1% postbasin meteoritic material. The MIMBs are the principal (80-90%) carrier of incompatible trace elements (rare earths, Th, etc.) and the carrier of about one-half of the siderophile elements and elements associated with mafic mineral phases (Fe, Mg, Mn, Cr, Sc). Most (71 %) of the Fe in the present regolith derives from syn- and postbasin sources (MIMBS, mare-derived material, and meteorites). Thus, although the bulk composition of the Apollo 16 regolith is nominally that of noritic anorthosite, the noritic part (the MIMBs) and anorthositic parts (the prebasin components) are largely unrelated.

  18. South Pole-Aitken Sample Return Mission: Collecting Mare Basalts from the Far Side of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Lucey, P. G.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the probability that a sample mission to a site within the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) would return basaltic material. A sample mission to the SPA would be the first opportunity to sample basalts from the far side of the Moon. The near side basalts are more abundant in terms of volume and area than their far-side counterparts (16:1), and the basalt deposits within SPA represent approx. 28% of the total basalt surface area on the far side. Sampling far-side basalts is of particular importance because as partial melts of the mantle, they could have derived from a mantle that is mineralogically and chemically different than determined for the nearside, as would be expected if the magma ocean solidified earlier on the far side. For example, evidence to support the existence of high-Th basalts like those that appear to be common on the nearside in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane has been found. Although SPA is the deepest basin on the Moon, it is not extensively filled with mare basalt, as might be expected if similar amounts of partial melting occurred in the mantle below SPA as for basins on the near side. These observations may mean that mantle beneath the far-side crust is lower in Th and other heat producing elements than the nearside. One proposed location for a sample-return landing site is 60 S, 160 W. This site was suggested to maximize the science return with respect to sampling crustal material and SPA impact melt, however, basaltic samples would undoubtedly occur there. On the basis of Apollo samples, we should expect that basaltic materials would be found in the vicinity of any landing site within SPA, even if located away from mare deposits. For example, the Apollo 16 mission landed in an ancient highlands region 250-300 km away from the nearest mare-highlands boundary yet it still contains a small component of basaltic samples (20 lithic fragments ranging is size from <1 to .01 cm). A soil sample from the floor of SPA will likely contain an assortment of basaltic fragments from surrounding regions. In terms both of selecting the best landing sites and understanding the geologic context for returned samples, it is important to understand the compositional distribution of basalts within SPA basin.

  19. Apollo 11 Recovery Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. Shown here is the recovery operation of the capsule in the Pacific Ocean after splashdown. One of the three astronauts is airlifted from the life raft into a helicopter. The helicopter airlifted the crew to safety aboard the prime recovery ship, the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  20. Apollo 11 Recovery Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. Shown here is the recovery operation of the capsule in the Pacific Ocean after splashdown. A Navy para-rescue man and one of the three astronauts close the spacecraft hatch as the other astronauts watch from the life raft. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  1. Active moon: evidences from Chandrayaan-1 and the proposed Indian missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Narendra; Srivastava, Neeraj

    2014-12-01

    Chandrayaan-1, the polar Lunar orbiter mission of Indian Space Research Organization, successfully carried out study of Moon's environment and surface processes for a period of about nine months during 2008-2009. The results obtained by the mission established (i) A tenuous but active hydrosphere (ii) Volcanically active and geologically dynamic Moon and (iii) Global melting of Moon's surface regions and formation of magma ocean early in the history of Moon. Chandrayaan-1 was equipped with a dozen instruments, including an impact probe, which housed three additional instruments. The results obtained by four instruments viz. Chandra's Altitudinal Composition Explorer, Moon Mineral Mapper (M3), Solar Wind Monitor and Synthetic Aperture Radar gave an insight into an active hydrosphere, with several complex processes operating between lunar surface and its environment. These inferences are based on identification of H, OH, H2O, CO2, Ar etc. in the lunar atmosphere. There are indications that several young (~2 to100 Ma) volcanic regions are present on the Moon as shown by integrated studies using Terrain Mapping Camera and M3 of Chandrayaan-1 and data from other contemporary missions i.e. Kaguya and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. These data establish that Moon has a dynamic and probably still active interior, in contrast to the generally accepted concept of dormant and quiet Moon. Discovery of Mg spinel anorthosites and finding of kilometer sized crystalline anorthosite exposures by M3 support the formation of global magma ocean on Moon and differentiation early in its evolutionary history. Furthermore, X-ray Spectrometer data showed anorthositic terrain with composition, high in Al, poor in Ca and low in Mg, Fe and Ti in a nearside southern highland region. This mission provided excellent opportunity for multilateral international cooperation and collaboration in instrumentation and observation in which a dozen countries participated and contributed to the success of the mission. The Mars Orbiter Mission, for study of Martian atmosphere and ionosphere was launched on 5th November, 2013 and is already on its way to Mars. This will be followed by Chandrayaan-2, a well equipped Orbiter-Lander-Rover mission. This article summarises a few results obtained by Chandrayaan-1, which changed some of the concepts about Moon's evolutionary history.

  2. Apollo 11: The Twentieth Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Live footage shows the Apollo 11 crew, Commander Neil A. Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, preparing for their mission. The crewmembers are seen getting their medical examinations, suiting up, and walking out to the Astro-van. Scenes include a brief view of the Launch Control Center (LCC), ignition, liftoff, and shell and engine skirt separation. The most important images are those of the moon landing and astronauts walk on the moon. Also shown are the parachute landing of the shuttle and the celebration of the world.

  3. Workshop on Moon in Transition: Apollo 14, KREEP, and Evolved Lunar Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. J. (editor); Warren, P. H. (editor)

    1989-01-01

    Lunar rocks provide material for analyzing lunar history and now new evaluation procedures are available for discovering new information from the Fra Mauro highlands rocks, which are different from any other lunar samples. These and other topics were discussed at this workshop, including a new evaluation of the nature and history of KREEP, granite, and other evolved lunar rock types, and ultimately a fresh evaluation of the transition of the moon from its early anorthosite-forming period to its later stages of KREEPy, granitic, and mare magmatism. The summary of presentations and discussion is based on notes taken by the respective summarizers during the workshop.

  4. Mission Activity Planning for Humans and Robots on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, C.; Shelton, K.; Lincoln, W.; Elfes, A.; Smith, J.H.; Mrozinski, J.; Hua, H.; Adumitroaie, V.; Silberg, R.

    2008-01-01

    A series of studies is conducted to develop a systematic approach to optimizing, both in terms of the distribution and scheduling of tasks, scenarios in which astronauts and robots accomplish a group of activities on the Moon, given an objective function (OF) and specific resources and constraints. An automated planning tool is developed as a key element of this optimization system.

  5. The Clementine Mission to the Moon: Scientific Overview

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stewart Nozette; I. T. Lewis; C. L. Lichtenberg; D. M. Horan; E. Malaret; E. M. Shoemaker; J. H. Resnick; C. J. Rollins; D. N. Baker; J. E. Blamont; B. J. Buratti; C. M. Pieters; M. E. Davies; M. S. Robinson; E. M. Eliason; B. M. Jakosky; T. C. Sorenson; R. W. Vorder Bruegge; P. G. Lucey; M. A. Massie; H. S. Park; A. S. McEwen; R. E. Priest; R. A. Reisse; R. A. Simpson; D. E. Smith; R. W. Vorder Breugge; M. T. Zuber

    1994-01-01

    In the course of 71 days in lunar orbit, from 19 February to 3 May 1994, the Clementine spacecraft acquired just under two million digital images of the moon at visible and infrared wavelengths. These data are enabling the global mapping of the rock types of the lunar crust and the first detailed investigation of the geology of the lunar

  6. Measurements of heavy solar wind and higher energy solar particles during the Apollo 17 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. M.; Zinner, E.; Maurette, M.

    1973-01-01

    The lunar surface cosmic ray experiment, consisting of sets of mica, glass, plastic, and metal foil detectors, was successfully deployed on the Apollo 17 mission. One set of detectors was exposed directly to sunlight and another set was placed in shade. Preliminary scanning of the mica detectors shows the expected registration of heavy solar wind ions in the sample exposed directly to the sun. The initial results indicate a depletion of very-heavy solar wind ions. The effect is probably not real but is caused by scanning inefficiencies. Despite the lack of any pronounced solar activity, energetic heavy particles with energies extending to 1 MeV/nucleon were observed. Equal track densities of approximately 6000 tracks/cm sq 0.5 microns in length were measured in mica samples exposed in both sunlight and shade.

  7. NASA honors Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise Jr.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden (left) presents the Ambassador of Exploration Award (an encased moon rock) to Biloxi native and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise Jr. (right) for his contributions to space exploration. During a Dec. 2 ceremony at Gorenflo elementary School in Biloxi, Miss., Bolden praised Haise for his overall space career and his performance on the Apollo 13 mission that was crippled two days after launch. Haise and fellow crewmembers nursed the spacecraft on a perilous trip back to Earth. 'The historic Apollo 13 mission was as dramatic as any Hollywood production,' Bolden said. 'When an explosion crippled his command module, Fred and his crewmates, Jim Lovell and Jack Swigert, guided their spacecraft around the moon and back to a successful splashdown in the Pacific Ocean - all while the world held its breath. While Fred didn't have the chance to walk on the moon, the cool courage and concentration in the face of crisis is among NASA's most enduring legacies.'

  8. Lunar surface radioactivity - Preliminary results of the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 gamma-ray spectrometer experiments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, A. E.; Trombka, J. I.; Peterson, L. E.; Reedy, R. C.; Arnold, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometers on the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 missions have been used to map the moon's radioactivity over 20 percent of its surface. The highest levels of natural radioactivity are found in Mare Imbrium and Oceanus Procellarum with contrastingly lower enhancements in the eastern maria. The ratio of potassium to uranium is higher on the far side than on the near side, although it is everywhere lower than commonly found on the earth.

  9. Return to the Moon: NASA's LCROSS AND LRO Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Lester

    2012-01-01

    NASA s goals include objectives for robotic and human spaceflight: a) Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond; b) Extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon by the year 2020, in preparation for human exploration of Mars and other destinations; c) A lunar outpost is envisioned. Site Considerations: 1) General accessibility of landing site (orbital mechanics) 2) Landing site safety 3) Mobility 4) Mars analog 5) Power 6) Communications 7) Geologic diversity 8) ISRU considerations

  10. Thursday, March 16, 2006 POSTER SESSION II: MOON MISSIONS: PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE

    E-print Network

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    . Takizawa Y. Sasaki S. SELENE Project Team SELENE, the Japanese Lunar Orbiting Satellites Mission: Present, a Japanese lunar polar orbiter that will be launched in 2007, is being developed for lunar X-ray exploration. Girten B. McKay C. P. Return to the Moon: Site Selection Process and Considerations for NASA's Robotic

  11. The Mini-SAR Imaging Radar on the Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. D. Spudis; D. B. J. Bussey; B. Butler; L. Carter; J. Gillis-Davis; J. Goswami; E. Heggy; R. Kirk; T. Misra; S. Nozette; M. S. Robinson; R. K. Raney; B. Thomson; E. Ustinov

    2009-01-01

    The Mini-SAR is an imaging radar instrument on the Indian Chandrayaan-1 mission to the Moon. It will map both lunar poles, revealing terrain in permanently dark areas and characterizing the backscattering properties of these areas, looking for evidence of ice.

  12. Lunar Robotic Arm Camera (L-RAC) for Future Missions to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josset, J.-L.; Souchon, A.; Josset, M.; Korablev, O.

    2014-04-01

    In the context of the development of many missions dedicated to the exploration of the Moon with landers and rovers, we present the Lunar Robotic Arm Camera (L-RAC), a powerful instrument dedicated to the close-up investigation of the surface rocks and regolith.

  13. Apollo Seals: A Basis for the Crew Exploration Vehicle Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently designing the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) as a replacement for the Space Shuttle for manned missions to the International Space Station, as a command module for returning astronauts to the moon, and as an earth reentry vehicle for the final leg of manned missions to the moon and Mars. The CEV resembles a scaled-up version of the heritage Apollo vehicle; however, the CEV seal requirements are different than those from Apollo because of its different mission requirements. A review is presented of some of the seals used on the Apollo spacecraft for the gap between the heat shield and backshell and for penetrations through the heat shield, docking hatches, windows, and the capsule pressure hull.

  14. Apollo Seals: A Basis for the Crew Exploration Vehicle Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently designing the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) as a replacement for the Space Shuttle for manned missions to the International Space Station, as a command module for returning astronauts to the moon, and as an earth reentry vehicle for the final leg of manned missions to the moon and Mars. The CEV resembles a scaled-up version of the heritage Apollo vehicle; however, the CEV seal requirements are different than those from Apollo because of its different mission requirements. A review is presented of some of the seals used on the Apollo spacecraft for the gap between the heat shield and backshell and for penetrations through the heat shield, docking hatches, windows, and the capsule pressure hull.

  15. Assessing the Dangers of Moon Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noble, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the sources, problems and some solutions to dust on the moon. While there appeared to be no long term effects from Lunar Dust in Apollo astronauts, the future lunar missions will be longer in duration, and therefore more problems may present themselves. Some of the se problems are reviewed, and plans to deal with them are reviewed.

  16. Apollo 11 5th Annivesary Commemoration Plaque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    On July 3, 1974 NASA commemorated the 5th anniversary of the Apollo 11, first lunar landing mission, at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC). Launch Pad 39, from which astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, and Michael Collins first embarked on their historic journey to the Moon, was dedicated as a national landmark. Apollo 11 was launched at 9:32 am on July 16, 1969 and made the first successful lunar landing July 20th. During the 45 minute ceremony, the three Apollo 11 astronauts unveiled this plaque which was placed at the launch site. Other participating dignitaries included Dr. James Fletcher and Dr. George H. Low, NASA Administrator and Deputy Administrator respectively; Florida Governor Rubin Askew; Senator frank E. Moss; Congressman Olin E. Teague, and Kurt Debus, KSC Director. Apollo 11 launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via a Saturn V launch which was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  17. The Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Journal

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1995-08-01

    The material included in the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Journal has been assembled so that an uninitiated reader can understand, in some detail, what happened during Apollo 17 and why and what was learned, particularly about living and working on the Moon. At its heart, the Journal consists a corrected mission transcript which is interwoven with commentary by the crew and by Journal Editor -- commentary which, we hope, will make the rich detail of Apollo 17 accessible to a wide audience. To make the Journal even more accessible, this CD-ROM publication contains virtually all of the Apollo 17 audio, a significant fraction of the photographs and a selection of drawings, maps, video clips, and background documents.

  18. Moon's Radiation Environment and Expected Performance of Solar Cells during Future Lunar Missions

    E-print Network

    T. E Girish; S Aranya

    2010-12-03

    Several lunar missions are planned ahead and there is an increasing demand for efficient photovoltaic power generation in the moon. The knowledge of solar cell operation in the lunar surface obtained during early seventies need to be updated considering current views on solar variability and emerging space solar cell technologies. In this paper some aspects of the solar cell performance expected under variable lunar radiation environment during future space missions to moon are addressed. We have calculated relative power expected from different types of solar cells under extreme solar proton irradiation conditions and high lunar daytime temperature. It is also estimated that 2-3 % of annual solar cell degradation is most probable during the future lunar missions. We have also discussed photovoltaic power generation in long term lunar bases emphasizing technological needs such as sunlight concentration, solar cell cooling and magnetic shielding of radiation for improving the efficiency of solar cells in the lunar environment.

  19. New findings expand Apollo observations of lunar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-08-01

    In December 1972 the astronauts of Apollo 17—the last manned mission to the moon—deployed the Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment (LACE), a spectrometer designed to measure and characterize the thin lunar atmosphere. Forty years later, Stern et al built upon those initial measurements, providing the first remotely sensed measurement of the Moon's gaseous environment from lunar orbit. Using the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project's (LAMP) far ultraviolet spectrograph aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the authors determined the atmospheric concentration of helium.

  20. An Overview of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Mission, Environments, and Materials Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Congress authorized NASA's Prometheus Project in February 2003, with the first Prometheus mission slated to explore the icy moons of Jupiter with the following main objectives: (1) Develop a nuclear reactor that would provide unprecedented levels of power and show that it could be processed safely and operated reliably in space for long-duration. (2) Explore the three icy moons of Jupiter -- Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa -- and return science data that would meet the scientific goals as set forth in the Decadal Survey Report of the National Academy of Sciences.

  1. Former Apollo astronauts talk to the media.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At a media conference in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, former Apollo astronaut Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17, makes a point in a comment for the press. Joining him in the conference are other Apollo astronauts (left) Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, who both flew on Apollo 11, the launch to the moon; and (right) Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7. The four astronauts were at KSC for the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon.

  2. Apollo 11 Lunar Message For Mankind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Millions of people on Earth watched via television as a message for all mankind was delivered to the Mare Tranquilitatis (Sea of Tranquility) region of the Moon during the historic Apollo 11 mission, where it still remains today. A commemorative plaque was attached to the leg of the Lunar Module (LM), Eagle, engraved with the following words: 'Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon July, 1969 A.D. We came in peace for all of mankind.' It bears the signatures of the Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot along with the signature of the U.S. President Richard M. Nixon. The plaque, as shown here, covered with protective steel for the launch and journey to the moon, was uncovered by crew members after landing. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  3. Science exploration opportunities for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, Phobos, and an asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Douglas B.; Plescia, Jeffrey; Cintala, Mark; Levine, Joel; Lowman, Paul; Mancinelli, Rocco; Mendell, Wendell; Stoker, Carol; Suess, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Scientific exploration opportunities for human missions to the Moon, Phobos, Mars, and an asteroid are addressed. These planetary objects are of prime interest to scientists because they are the accessible, terresterial-like bodies most likely to be the next destinations for human missions beyond Earth orbit. Three categories of science opportunities are defined and discussed: target science, platform science, and cruise science. Target science is the study of the planetary object and its surroundings (including geological, biological, atmospheric, and fields and particle sciences) to determine the object's natural physical characteristics, planetological history, mode of origin, relation to possible extant or extinct like forms, surface environmental properties, resource potential, and suitability for human bases or outposts. Platform science takes advantage of the target body using it as a site for establishing laboratory facilities and observatories; and cruise science consists of studies conducted by the crew during the voyage to and from a target body. Generic and specific science opportunities for each target are summarized along with listings of strawman payloads, desired or required precursor information, priorities for initial scientific objectives, and candidate landing sites. An appendix details the potential use of the Moon for astronomical observatories and specialized observatories, and a bibliography compiles recent work on topics relating to human scientific exploration of the Moon, Phobos, Mars, and asteroids. It is concluded that there are a wide variety of scientific exploration opportunities that can be pursued during human missions to planetary targets but that more detailed studies and precursor unmanned missions should be carried out first.

  4. Apollo 11 Launched Via Saturn V Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle produced a holocaust of flames as it rose from its pad at Launch complex 39. The 363 foot tall, 6,400,000 pound rocket hurled the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit and then placed it on the trajectory to the moon for man's first lunar landing. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  5. Apollo 11 Launched Via Saturn V Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle produced a holocaust of flames as it rose from its pad at Launch complex 39. The 363 foot tall, 6,400,000 pound rocket hurled the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit and then placed it on the trajectory to the moon for man's first lunar landing. The Saturn V was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard the spacecraft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  6. Apollo 11 Launched Via Saturn V Rocket

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Saturn V vehicle produced a holocaust of flames as it rose from its pad at Launch complex 39. The 363 foot tall, 6,400,000 pound rocket hurled the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit and then placed it on the trajectory to the moon for man's first lunar landing. Aboard the spacecraft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  7. Radiation protection for human missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonsen, Lisa C.; Nealy, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation protection assessments are performed for advanced Lunar and Mars manned missions. The Langley cosmic ray transport code and the nucleon transport code are used to quantify the transport and attenuation of galactic cosmic rays and solar proton flares through various shielding media. Galactic cosmic radiation at solar maximum and minimum, as well as various flare scenarios are considered. Propagation data for water, aluminum, liquid hydrogen, lithium hydride, lead, and lunar and Martian regolith (soil) are included. Shield thickness and shield mass estimates required to maintain incurred doses below 30 day and annual limits (as set for Space Station Freedom and used as a guide for space exploration) are determined for simple geometry transfer vehicles. On the surface of Mars, dose estimates are presented for crews with their only protection being the carbon dioxide atmosphere and for crews protected by shielding provided by Martian regolith for a candidate habitat.

  8. Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology for Moon and Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Gaby, Joseph D.; Salerno, Louis J.; Sutherlin, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    In support of the U.S. Space Exploration Policy, focused cryogenic fluid management technology efforts are underway within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Under the auspices of the Exploration Technology Development Program, cryogenic fluid management technology efforts are being conducted by the Cryogenic Fluid Management Project. Cryogenic Fluid Management Project objectives are to develop storage, transfer, and handling technologies for cryogens to support high performance demands of lunar, and ultimately, Mars missions in the application areas of propulsion, surface systems, and Earth-based ground operations. The targeted use of cryogens and cryogenic technologies for these application areas is anticipated to significantly reduce propellant launch mass and required on-orbit margins, to reduce and even eliminate storage tank boil-off losses for long term missions, to economize ground pad storage and transfer operations, and to expand operational and architectural operations at destination. This paper organizes Cryogenic Fluid Management Project technology efforts according to Exploration Architecture target areas, and discusses the scope of trade studies, analytical modeling, and test efforts presently underway, as well as future plans, to address those target areas. The target areas are: liquid methane/liquid oxygen for propelling the Altair Lander Ascent Stage, liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen for propelling the Altair Lander Descent Stage and Ares V Earth Departure Stage, liquefaction, zero boil-off, and propellant scavenging for Lunar Surface Systems, cold helium and zero boil-off technologies for Earth-Based Ground Operations, and architecture definition studies for long term storage and on-orbit transfer and pressurization of LH2, cryogenic Mars landing and ascent vehicles, and cryogenic production via in situ resource utilization on Mars.

  9. Apollo 11 Astronauts Review Lunar Charts During Breakfast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Chief astronaut and director of flight crew operations, Donald K. Slayton (right front) reviews lunar charts with Apollo 11 astronauts Michael Collins (left), Neil Armstrong, and Edwin Aldrin (next to Slayton) during breakfast a short time before the three men launched for the first Moon landing mission. Sharing breakfast with the crew was William Anders (left rear), Lunar Module pilot for the Apollo 8 lunar orbit mission. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  10. The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions and Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Joseph; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.; Novak, Joseph D.

    2007-01-01

    Medical requirements for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits and Lunar habitat are currently being developed. Crews returning to the lunar surface will construct the lunar habitat and conduct scientific research. Inherent in aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. Physiological responses to and the operational environment of short forays during the Apollo lunar missions were studied and documented. Little is known about the operational environment in which crews will live and work and the hardware that will be used for long-duration lunar surface operations.Additional information is needed regarding productivity and the events that affect crew function such as a compressed timeline. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations that had impact to crew health and/or performance. The operationally oriented goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new exploration vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with the multiple entities at NASA and abroad participating in the exploration effort.

  11. The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions and Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Novak, Joseph D.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Josef; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    Medical requirements for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits and Lunar habitat are currently being developed. Crews returning to the lunar surface will construct the lunar habitat and conduct scientific research. Inherent in aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. Physiological responses and the operational environment for short forays during the Apollo lunar missions were studied and documented. Little is known about the operational environment in which crews will live and work and the hardware will be used for long-duration lunar surface operations. Additional information is needed regarding productivity and the events that affect crew function such as a compressed timeline. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations that had impact to crew health and/or performance. The operationally oriented goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new exploration vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with the multiple entities at NASA and abroad participating in the exploration effort.

  12. Navigation Design and Analysis for the Orion Earth-Moon Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DSouza, Christopher; Zanetti, Renato

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the design of the cislunar optical navigation system being proposed for the Orion Earth-Moon (EM) missions. In particular, it presents the mathematics of the navigation filter. The unmodeled accelerations and their characterization are detailed. It also presents the analysis that has been performed to understand the performance of the proposed system, with particular attention paid to entry flight path angle constraints and the delta-V performance.

  13. NASA Officials in MCC to decide whether to land Apollo 16 or cancel landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    NASA Officials gather around a console in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) in the Mission Control Center (MCC) prior to the making of a decision whether to land Apollo 16 on the moon or to abort the landing. Seated, left to right, are Dr. Christopher C. Kraft Jr., Director of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), and Brig. Gen. James A. McDivitt (USAF), Manager, Apollo Spacecraft Program Office, MSC; and standing, left to right, are Dr. Rocco A. Petrone, Apollo Program Director, Office Manned Space Flight (OMSF), NASA HQ.; Capt. John K. Holcolmb (U.S. Navy, Ret.), Director of Apollo Operations, OMSF; Sigurd A. Sjoberg, Deputy Director, MSC; Capt. Chester M. Lee (U.S. Navy, Ret.), Apollo Mission Director, OMSF; Dale D. Myers, NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight; and Dr. George M. Low, NASA Deputy Administrator.

  14. The Lunar Potential Determination Using Apollo-Era Data and Modern Measurements and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Farrell, William M.; Espley, Jared; Webb, Phillip; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Webb, Phillip; Hills, H. Kent; Delory, Greg

    2008-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. More recently, the Lunar Prospector (LP) Electron Reflectometer used electron distributions to infer negative lunar surface potentials, primarily in shadow. We will present initial results from a study to combine lunar surface potential measurements from both SIDE and the LP/Electron Reflectometer to calibrate an advanced model of lunar surface charging which includes effects from the plasma environment, photoemission, secondaries ejected by ion impact onto the lunar surface, and the lunar wake created downstream by the solar wind-lunar interaction.

  15. Apollo 11 Lunar Message For Mankind- Reproduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Millions of people on Earth watched via television as a message for all mankind was delivered to the Mare Tranquilitatis (Sea of Tranquility) region of the Moon during the historic Apollo 11 mission, where it still remains today. This photograph is a reproduction of the commemorative plaque that was attached to the leg of the Lunar Module (LM), Eagle, engraved with the following words: 'Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon July, 1969 A.D. We came in peace for all of mankind.' It bears the signatures of the Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot along with the signature of the U.S. President Richard M. Nixon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  16. NASA honors Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise Jr.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Apollo 13 astronaut and Biloxi native Fred Haise Jr. smiles during a Dec. 2 ceremony at Gorenflo Elementary School in Biloxi honoring his space career. During the ceremony, Haise was presented with NASA's Ambassador of Exploration Award (an encased moon rock). He subsequently presented the moon rock to Gorenflo officials for display at the school. Haise is best known as one of three astronauts who nursed a crippled Apollo 13 spacecraft back to Earth during a perilous 1970 mission. Although he was unable to walk on the moon as planned for that mission, Haise ended his astronaut career having logged 142 hours and 54 minutes in space. During the ceremony, he praised all those who contributed to the space program.

  17. Dusty plasmas over the Moon: theory research in support of the upcoming lunar missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Sergey; Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, Alexander; Izvekova, Yulia; Dolnikov, Gennady; Dubinskii, Andrey; Kopnin, Sergey; Golub, Anatoly

    The future Russian lunar missions Luna 25 and Luna 27 are planned to be equipped with instruments for direct detection of nano- and microscale dust particles and determination of plasma properties over the surface of the Moon. Lunar dust over the Moon is usually considered as a part of a dusty plasma system. Here, we present the main our theory results concerning the lunar dusty plasmas. We start with the description of the observational data on dust particles on and over the surface of the Moon. We show that the size distribution of dust on the lunar surface is in a good agreement with the Kolmogorov distribution, which is the size distribution of particles in the case of multiple crushing. We discuss the role of adhesion which has been identified as a significant force in the dust particle launching process. We evaluate the adhesive force for lunar dust particles with taking into account the roughness and adsorbed molecular layers. We show that dust particle launching can be explained if the dust particles rise at a height of about dozens of nanometers owing to some processes. This is enough for the particles to acquire charges sufficient for the dominance of the electrostatic force over the gravitational and adhesive forces. The reasons for the separation of the dust particles from the surface of the Moon are, in particular, their heating by solar radiation and cooling. We consider migration of free protons in regolith from the viewpoint of the photoemission properties of the lunar soil. Finally, we develop a model of dusty plasma system over the Moon and show that it includes charged dust, photoelectrons, and electrons and ions of the solar wind. We determine the distributions of the photoelectrons and find the characteristics of the dust which rise over the lunar regolith. We show that there are no significant constraints on the Moon landing sites for future lunar missions that will study dusty plasmas in the surface layer of the Moon. We discuss also waves in dusty plasmas over the lunar surface. This work was supported by the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences (basic research program no. 22 “Fundamental Problems of Research and Exploration of the Solar System”) and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 12-02-00270-a).

  18. A 660 D&O Gravitational Field of the Moon from the GRAIL Primary Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Dah-Ning; Konopliv, Alex; Asmar, Sami; Park, Ryan; Williams, James; Watkins, Michael; Fahnestock, Eugene; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Paik, Meegyeong; Strekalov, Dmitry; Harvey, Nate; Zuber, Maria; Smith, David

    2013-04-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has completed its primary three-month tour that resulted in a gravitational field of 660 degree-and-order or equivalent surface resolution of 8 km. The primary measurement for the gravity field is the inter-spacecraft K-Band Range Rate (KBRR) measurement derived from dual spacecraft one-way range. Direct Doppler tracking at X-band from the Deep Space Network for Ebb and Flow supplemented The KBRR. Advanced system calibrations and measurement timing have resulted in unprecedented data quality of better than 0.1 microns/sec. The gravity field solution shows an error spectrum with several orders of magnitude improvement for all wavelengths when compared to previous missions. Nearly uniform correlations with topography exist through higher harmonic degrees and are a good measure of field integrity. The results of the mission satisfy the scientific objectives of determining the structure of the lunar interior from crust to core and advancing the understanding of the thermal evolution of the Moon. They also directly address the mission's investigations that include mapping the structure of the crust and lithosphere, understanding the Moon's asymmetric thermal evolution, determining the subsurface structure of impact basins and the origin of mascons, ascertaining the temporal evolution of the crustal brecciation and magmatism, constrain deep interior structure from tides, and place limits on the size of a possible solid inner core.

  19. Former Apollo astronauts talk to the media.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Photographers and cameramen fill the stands of the Apollo/Saturn V Center for a press conference with former Apollo astronauts (seated, left to right) Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch to the moon; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7. At left is Lisa Malone, chief of KSC's Media Services branch, who monitored the session. The four astronauts were at KSC for the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon.

  20. Former Apollo astronauts talk to the media.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Apollo/Saturn V Center, Lisa Malone (left), chief of KSC's Media Services branch, laughs at a humorous comment along with former Apollo astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch to the moon; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7. The four met with the media before an anniversary banquet celebrating the accomplishments of the Apollo program team. This is the 30th anniversary of the launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon.

  1. Former Apollo astronauts talk to the media.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo astronauts meet with the media at the Apollo/Saturn V Center prior to an anniversary banquet highlighting the contributions of aerospace employees who made the Apollo program possible. From left are Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch to the moon; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7. This is the 30th anniversary of the launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon.

  2. A new propulsion concept for interplanetary missions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Dujarric

    2001-01-01

    When tons of payload must be brought back from the planets to Earth, the current launch-system technology hits size limitations. The huge Saturn-V launcher that enabled the Apollo missions to go to the Moon would be dwarfed by a single launcher capable of sending men to a destination like Mars and bringing them back. Keeping interplanetary missions within a reasonable

  3. Risk Assessment of Bone Fracture During Space Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Myers, Jerry G.; Nelson, Emily S.; Licatta, Angelo; Griffin, Devon

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of a traumatic bone fracture in space is a concern due to the observed decrease in astronaut bone mineral density (BMD) during spaceflight and because of the physical demands of the mission. The Bone Fracture Risk Module (BFxRM) was developed to quantify the probability of fracture at the femoral neck and lumbar spine during space exploration missions. The BFxRM is scenario-based, providing predictions for specific activities or events during a particular space mission. The key elements of the BFxRM are the mission parameters, the biomechanical loading models, the bone loss and fracture models and the incidence rate of the activity or event. Uncertainties in the model parameters arise due to variations within the population and unknowns associated with the effects of the space environment. Consequently, parameter distributions were used in Monte Carlo simulations to obtain an estimate of fracture probability under real mission scenarios. The model predicts an increase in the probability of fracture as the mission length increases and fracture is more likely in the higher gravitational field of Mars than on the moon. The resulting probability predictions and sensitivity analyses of the BFxRM can be used as an engineering tool for mission operation and resource planning in order to mitigate the risk of bone fracture in space.

  4. Risk Assessment of Bone Fracture During Space Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Myers, Jerry G.; Nelson, Emily S.; Griffin, Devon

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of a traumatic bone fracture in space is a concern due to the observed decrease in astronaut bone mineral density (BMD) during spaceflight and because of the physical demands of the mission. The Bone Fracture Risk Module (BFxRM) was developed to quantify the probability of fracture at the femoral neck and lumbar spine during space exploration missions. The BFxRM is scenario-based, providing predictions for specific activities or events during a particular space mission. The key elements of the BFxRM are the mission parameters, the biomechanical loading models, the bone loss and fracture models and the incidence rate of the activity or event. Uncertainties in the model parameters arise due to variations within the population and unknowns associated with the effects of the space environment. Consequently, parameter distributions were used in Monte Carlo simulations to obtain an estimate of fracture probability under real mission scenarios. The model predicts an increase in the probability of fracture as the mission length increases and fracture is more likely in the higher gravitational field of Mars than on the moon. The resulting probability predictions and sensitivity analyses of the BFxRM can be used as an engineering tool for mission operation and resource planning in order to mitigate the risk of bone fracture in space.

  5. Is There Water on the Moon? NASA's LCROSS Mission [Supplemental Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Presents a supplemental video supporting the original conference presentation under the same title. The conference presentation discussed NASA's preparation for its return to the moon with the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission which will robotically seek to determine the presence of water ice at the Moon's South Pole. This secondary payload spacecraft will travel with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) satellite to the Moon on the same Atlas-V 401 Centaur rocket launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. The 1000kg Secondary Payload budget is efficiently used to provide a highly modular and reconfigurable LCROSS Spacecraft with extensive heritage to accurately guide the expended Centaur into the crater. Upon separation, LCROSS flies through the impact plume, telemetering real-time images and characterizing water ice in the plume with infrared cameras and spectrometers. LCROSS then becomes a 700kg impactor itself, to provide a second opportunity to study the nature of the Lunar Regolith. LCROSS provides a critical ground-truth for Lunar Prospector and LRO neutron and radar maps, making it possible to assess the total lunar water inventory. The video contains an animated simulation of the Centaur launch, LRO separation, LRO high resolution lunar survey, LCROSS mission elements and LCROSS impactor separation and impact observations.

  6. Comparison of the magnetic properties of glass from Luna 20 with similar properties of glass from the Apollo missions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Thorpe, A.N.; Alexander, C.C.; Briggs, C.L.

    1973-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made on four glass spherules and fragments from the Luna 20 fines; two at 300??K and two from 300??K to 4??K. From these data the magnetic susceptibility extrapolated to infinite field, the magnetization at low fields and also the saturation magnetization at high fields, the Curie constant, the Weiss temperature, and the temperature-independent susceptibility were determined. Using a model previously proposed for the Apollo specimens, the Curie constant of the antiferromagnetic inclusions and a zero field splitting parameter were calculated for the same specimens. The data show the relatively low concentration of iron in all forms in these specimens. In addition, the Weiss temperature is lower than that measured for the Apollo specimens, and can be attributed almost entirely to the ligand field distortion about the Fe2+ ions in the glassy phase. The data further suggest that the Luna 20 specimens cooled more slowly than those of the Apollo missions, and that some of the antiferromagnetic inclusions in the glass may have crystallized from the glass during cooling. ?? 1973.

  7. Prospects in the orbital and rotational dynamics of the Moon with the advent of sub-centimeter lunar laser ranging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. M. Kopeikin; E. Pavlis; D. Pavlis; V. A. Brumberg; A. Escapa; J. Getino; A. Gusev; J. Müller; W.-T. Ni; N. Petrova

    2008-01-01

    Lunar laser ranging (LLR) measurements are crucial for advanced exploration of the laws of fundamental gravitational physics and geophysics as well as for future human and robotic missions to the Moon. The corner-cube reflectors (CCR) currently on the Moon require no power and still work perfectly since their installation during the project Apollo era. Current LLR technology allows us to

  8. Operating the Dual-Orbiter GRAIL Mission to Measure the Moon's Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beerer, Joseph G.; Havens, Glen G.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's mission to measure the Moon's gravity and determine the interior structure, from crust to core, has almost completed its 3-month science data collection phase. The twin orbiters of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission were launched from Florida on September 10, 2011, on a Delta-II launch vehicle. After traveling for nearly four months on a low energy trajectory to the Moon, they were inserted into lunar orbit on New Year's Eve and New Year's Day. In January 2012 a series of circularization maneuvers brought the orbiters into co-planar near-circular polar orbits. In February a distant (75- km) rendezvous was achieved and the science instruments were turned on. A dual- frequency (Ka and S-band) inter-orbiter radio link provides a precise orbiter-to-orbiter range measurement that enables the gravity field estimation. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA, manages the GRAIL project. Mission management, mission planning and sequencing, and navigation are conducted at JPL. Lockheed Martin, the flight system manufacturer, operates the orbiters from their control center in Denver, Colorado. The orbiters together have performed 28 propulsive maneuvers to reach and maintain the science phase configuration. Execution of these maneuvers, as well as the payload checkout and calibration activities, has gone smoothly due to extensive pre-launch operations planning and testing. The key to the operations success has been detailed timelines for product interchange between the operations teams and proven procedures from previous JPL/LM planetary missions. Once in science phase, GRAIL benefitted from the payload operational heritage of the GRACE mission that measures the Earth's gravity.

  9. Moon Pie

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-05

    Learners will work in teams to apply their knowledge about the Moon, its environment, and the LRO mission to match responses to Moon questions. With the correct responses, they build a picture of the Moon. This activity is part of Explore! To the Moon and Beyond! - a resource developed specifically for use in libraries.

  10. A potpourri of pristine moon rocks, including a VHK mare basalt and a unique, augite-rich Apollo 17 anorthosite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, P. H.; Shirley, D. N.; Kallemeyn, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    The anorthosite fragment, 76504,18, the first of the Apollo 17's pristine anorthosites, was found to have: (1) a higher ratio of high-Ca pyroxine to low-Ca pyroxene, (2) higher Na in its plagioclase, (3) higher contents of incompatible elements, and (4) a higher Eu/Al ratio in comparison to ferroan anorthosites. With a parent melt having a negative Eu anomaly, 76504,18 closely resembles a typical mare basalt. This anorthosite was among the latest to be formed by plagioclase flotation above a primordial magmasphere; typical mare basalt regions accumulated at about the same time or even earlier. Another fragment 14181c, a very high potassium basalt, was studied and found to be similar to typical Apollo 14 mare basalt though it has a K/La ratio of 1050. It is suggested that this lithology formed after a normal Apollo 14 mare basaltic melt partially assimilated granite. New data for siderphile elements in Apollo 12 mare basalts indicate that only the lowest of earlier data are trustworthy as being free of laboratory contamination.

  11. Apollo Soyuz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froehlich, W.

    1978-01-01

    The mission, background, and spacecraft of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are summarized. Scientific experiments onboard the spacecraft are reviewed, along with reentry procedures. A small biography of each of the five astronauts (U.S. and Russian) is also presented.

  12. Preface: The Chang'e-3 lander and rover mission to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ip, Wing-Huen; Yan, Jun; Li, Chun-Lai; Ouyang, Zi-Yuan

    2014-12-01

    The Chang'e-3 (CE-3) lander and rover mission to the Moon was an intermediate step in China's lunar exploration program, which will be followed by a sample return mission. The lander was equipped with a number of remote-sensing instruments including a pair of cameras (Landing Camera and Terrain Camera) for recording the landing process and surveying terrain, an extreme ultraviolet camera for monitoring activities in the Earth's plasmasphere, and a first-ever Moon-based ultraviolet telescope for astronomical observations. The Yutu rover successfully carried out close-up observations with the Panoramic Camera, mineralogical investigations with the VIS-NIR Imaging Spectrometer, study of elemental abundances with the Active Particle-induced X-ray Spectrometer, and pioneering measurements of the lunar subsurface with Lunar Penetrating Radar. This special issue provides a collection of key information on the instrumental designs, calibration methods and data processing procedures used by these experiments with a perspective of facilitating further analyses of scientific data from CE-3 in preparation for future missions.

  13. Rendezvous with Toutatis from the Moon: The Chang'e-2 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Tang, X.; Meng, L.

    2014-07-01

    Chang'e-2 probe was the second lunar probe of China, with the main objectives to demonstrate some key features of the new lunar soft landing technology, and its applications to future exploration missions. After completing the planned mission successfully, Chang'e-2 flew away from the Moon and entered into the interplanetary space. Later, at a distance of 7 million km from the Earth, Chang'e-2 encountered asteroid (4179) Toutatis with a very close fly-by distance and obtained colorful images with a 3-m resolution. Given some surplus velocity increment as well as the promotion of autonomous flight ability and improvement of control, propulsion, and thermal systems in the initial design, Chang'e-2 had the capabilities necessary for escaping from the Moon. By taking advantage of the unique features of the Lagrangian point, the first close fly-by of asteroid Toutatis was realized despite the tight constraints of propellant allocation, spacecraft-Earth communication, and coordination of execution sequences. Chang'e-2 realized the Toutatis flyby with a km-level distance at closest approach. In the absence of direct measurement method, based on the principle of relative navigation and through the use of the sequence of target images, we calculated the rendezvous parameters such as relative distance and image resolution. With the help of these parameters, some fine and new scientific discoveries about the asteroid were obtained by techniques of optical measurements and image processing. Starting with an innovative design, followed by high-fidelity testing and demonstration, elaborative implementation, and optimal usage of residual propellant, Chang'e-2 has for the first time successfully explored the Moon, L2 point and an asteroid, while achieving the purpose of 'faster, better, cheaper'. What Chang'e-2 has accomplished was far beyond our expectations. *J. Huang is the chief designer (PI) of Chang'e-2 probe, planned Chang'e-2's multi-objective and multitasking exploration mission.

  14. Galileo on the Moon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Galileo used thought experiments to test many assumptions, including the notion that heavy objects fall more quickly than lighter objects when they are dropped. Lacking access to either a vacuum chamber or a planetary body that has no atmosphere, he nevertheless correctly predicted that all falling objects would accelerate at the same rate in the absence of air resistance. In this video segment astronaut David Scott re-creates the famous experiment, which supported Galileo's prediction, on the Apollo 15 mission to the Moon. The segment is forty-seven seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

  15. Apollo 13: Houston, We've Got a Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video contains historical footage of the flight of Apollo-13, the fifth Lunar Mission and the third spacecraft that was to land on the Moon. Apollo-13's launch date was April 11, 1970. On the 13th of April, after docking with the Lunar Module, the astronauts, Jim Lovell, Fred Haise, and Jack Swiggert, discovered that their oxygen tanks had ruptured and ended up entering and returning to Earth in the Lunar Module instead of the Command Module. There is footage of inside module and Mission Control shots, personal commentary by the astronauts concerning the problems as they developed, national news footage and commentary, and a post-flight Presidential Address by President Richard Nixon. Film footage of the approach to the Moon and departing from Earth, and air-to-ground communication with Mission Control is included.

  16. Infrared radiation and spectroscopy of the moon and lunar soil

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. V. Dementev; M. N. Markov

    1978-01-01

    Astronomical techniques for studying thermal radiation from and the reflection spectrum of the moon are considered. Selective reflection spectra (maximum intensity at a wavelength of about 4.5 microns) obtained from earth and the Salyut 4 space station are examined, along with lunar soils collected by the Luna probes and during the Apollo missions. A relationship between the albedos of the

  17. Dr. Garry Latham studies seismometer tracings from the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Dr. Garry Latham (on left), with the Lamont Geological Observatory, studies seismometer tracings in the Mission Control Center's ALSEP control room. The electronic data was comming from the Passive Seismic Experiments Package which the Apollo 11 astronauts had just deployed on the surface of the moon.

  18. Apollo rocks, fines and soil cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allton, J.; Bevill, T.

    Apollo rocks and soils not only established basic lunar properties and ground truth for global remote sensing, they also provided important lessons for planetary protection (Adv. Space Res ., 1998, v. 22, no. 3 pp. 373-382). The six Apollo missions returned 2196 samples weighing 381.7 kg, comprised of rocks, fines, soil cores and 2 gas samples. By examining which samples were allocated for scientific investigations, information was obtained on usefulness of sampling strategy, sampling devices and containers, sample types and diversity, and on size of sample needed by various disciplines. Diversity was increased by using rakes to gather small rocks on the Moon and by removing fragments >1 mm from soils by sieving in the laboratory. Breccias and soil cores are diverse internally. Per unit weight these samples were more often allocated for research. Apollo investigators became adept at wringing information from very small sample sizes. By pushing the analytical limits, the main concern was adequate size for representative sampling. Typical allocations for trace element analyses were 750 mg for rocks, 300 mg for fines and 70 mg for core subsamples. Age-dating and isotope systematics allocations were typically 1 g for rocks and fines, but only 10% of that amount for core depth subsamples. Historically, allocations for organics and microbiology were 4 g (10% for cores). Modern allocations for biomarker detection are 100mg. Other disciplines supported have been cosmogenic nuclides, rock and soil petrology, sedimentary volatiles, reflectance, magnetics, and biohazard studies . Highly applicable to future sample return missions was the Apollo experience with organic contamination, estimated to be from 1 to 5 ng/g sample for Apollo 11 (Simonheit &Flory, 1970; Apollo 11, 12 &13 Organic contamination Monitoring History, U.C. Berkeley; Burlingame et al., 1970, Apollo 11 LSC , pp. 1779-1792). Eleven sources of contaminants, of which 7 are applicable to robotic missions, were identified and reduced; thus, improving Apollo 12 samples to 0.1 ng/g. Apollo sample documentation preserves the parentage, orientation, and location, packaging, handling and environmental histories of each of the 90,000 subsamples currently curated. Active research on Apollo samples continues today, and because 80% by weight of the Apollo collection remains pristine, researchers have a reservoir of material to support studies well into the future.

  19. Apollo 16 mission anomaly report no. 9: Lunar roving vehicle electrical system meter anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The off-scale low indications of the voltmeters for batteries one and two at initial powerup of the Apollo 16 lunar roving vehicle were analyzed. No single condition was found that would explain the anomalous meter indications. It is concluded that the intermittent conditions must have existed in the multiple wire splices to the meters.

  20. Guidance, navigation, and control systems performance analysis: Apollo 13 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The conclusions of the analyses of the inflight performance of the Apollo 13 spacecraft guidance, navigation, and control equipment are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) the command module systems, (2) the lunar module inertial measurement unit, (3) the lunar module digital autopilot, (4) the lunar module abort guidance system, (5) lunar module optical alignment checks, and (6) spacecraft component separation procedures.

  1. Venus, Mars, and the ices on Mercury and the moon: astrobiological implications and proposed mission designs.

    PubMed

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Dohm, James M; Fairén, Alberto G; Baker, Victor R; Fink, Wolfgang; Strom, Robert G

    2005-12-01

    Venus and Mars likely had liquid water bodies on their surface early in the Solar System history. The surfaces of Venus and Mars are presently not a suitable habitat for life, but reservoirs of liquid water remain in the atmosphere of Venus and the subsurface of Mars, and with it also the possibility of microbial life. Microbial organisms may have adapted to live in these ecological niches by the evolutionary force of directional selection. Missions to our neighboring planets should therefore be planned to explore these potentially life-containing refuges and return samples for analysis. Sample return missions should also include ice samples from Mercury and the Moon, which may contain information about the biogenic material that catalyzed the early evolution of life on Earth (or elsewhere). To obtain such information, science-driven exploration is necessary through varying degrees of mission operation autonomy. A hierarchical mission design is envisioned that includes spaceborne (orbital), atmosphere (airborne), surface (mobile such as rover and stationary such as lander or sensor), and subsurface (e.g., ground-penetrating radar, drilling, etc.) agents working in concert to allow for sufficient mission safety and redundancy, to perform extensive and challenging reconnaissance, and to lead to a thorough search for evidence of life and habitability. PMID:16379531

  2. A trade study on radiation exposure for a crewed mission to the jovian moon callisto

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nealy, J. E.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Wilson, J. W.; de Angelis, G.; Anderson, B. M.; Krizan, S. A.; Troutman, P. A.; Stillwagon, F. H.; Adams, R. B.; Borowski, S. K.

    In support of the NASA Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) Human Outer Planet Exploration (HOPE) activity goal to investigate the technology required for future crewed missions to the outer solar system, a trade study for a mission to the Jovian moon Callisto was performed. Three different mission scenarios were developed, each with a different propulsion method, resulting in different mission durations. Nuclear thermal, nuclear electric, and fusion propulsion systems were considered. While the three mission scenarios were different in several ways including trajectory, spacecraft configuration, and whether or not an initial vessel was used to deliver supplies, each scenario included a crewed trip to Callisto beginning in late 2044 or early 2045 and a short surface stay, 29 to 120 days. For each scenario, the crew radiation exposure was evaluated. The radiation analysis for this trade study is described here. The effects of trip duration on the exposure levels are discussed as well as the advantages of avoiding solar minimum, i.e. the time in the solar cycle when the solar wind is at its minimum and interplanetary galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation is at its maximum. The benefits of choosing shielding material containing hydrogen and the possibility of using the hydrogen fuel tanks to shield the crew quarters are also discussed.

  3. Project APEX: Advanced Phobos Exploration. Manned mission to the Martian moon Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The manned exploration of Mars is a massive undertaking which requires careful consideration. A mission to the moon of Mars called Phobos as a prelude to manned landings on the Martian surface offers some advantages. One is that the energy requirements, in terms of delta 5, is only slightly higher than going to the Moon's surface. Another is that Phobos is a potential source of water and carbon which could be extracted and processed for life support and cryogenic propellants for use in future missions; thus, Phobos might serve as a base for extended Mars exploration or for exploration of the outer planets. The design of a vehicle for such a mission is the subject of our Aerospace System Design course this year. The materials and equipment needed for the processing plant would be delivered to Phobos in a prior unmanned mission. This study focuses on what it would take to send a crew to Phobos, set up the processing plant for extraction and storage of water and hydrocarbons, conduct scientific experiments, and return safely to Earth. The size, configuration, and subsystems of the vehicle are described in some detail. The spacecraft carries a crew of five and is launched from low Earth orbit in the year 2010. The outbound trajectory to Mars uses a gravitational assisted swing by of Venus and takes eight months to complete. The stay at Phobos is 60 days at which time the crew will be engaged in setting up the processing facility. The crew will then return to Earth orbit after a total mission duration of 656 days. Both stellar and solar observations will be conducted on both legs of the mission. The design of the spacecraft addresses human factors and life science; mission analysis and control; propulsion; power generation and distribution; thermal control; structural analysis; and planetary, solar, and stellar science. A 0.5 g artificial gravity is generated during transit by spinning about the lateral body axis. Nuclear thermal rockets using hydrogen as fuel are selected to reduce total launch mass and to shorten the duration of the mission. The nuclear systems also provide the primary electrical power via dual mode operation. The overall spacecraft length is 110 meters and the total mass departing from low Earth orbit is 900 metric tons.

  4. Space Mission Concept for a Nuclear-Powered Airplane for Saturn's Moon Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, Jason W.

    2010-10-01

    Saturn's large moon Titan is one of the most interesting places in the solar system. It's the only moon with a significant atmosphere. With a temperature of around 90K, the methane in that atmosphere plays the same role that water does in Earth's atmosphere. Titan has methane clouds, methane rainfall, methane rivers, and methane lakes and seas as seen by the Cassini spacecraft. Future Titan exploration will require a more aggressive vehicle in order to follow up on Cassini's discoveries. I will present the motivation and design for a robotic `drone' aircraft mission to Titan: AVIATR, the Aerial Vehicle for In situ and Airborne Titan Reconnaissance. This platform makes sense because with 4 x Earth's air density and only 17 its gravity, flying at Titan is easier than any place else in the solar system. From AVIATR we could acquire images and near-infrared spectroscopy of the surface, search for waves in liquids, and measure winds and atmospheric properties directly, which would dramatically advance our understanding of this enigmatic, frigid moon.

  5. The Apollo 11 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of the prime crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. From left to right they are: Commander, Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot, Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. On July 20th 1969 at 4:18 PM, EDT the Lunar Module 'Eagle' landed in a region of the Moon called the Mare Tranquillitatis, also known as the Sea of Tranquillity. After securing his spacecraft, Armstrong radioed back to earth: 'Houston, Tranquility Base here, the Eagle has landed'. At 10:56 p.m. that same evening and witnessed by a worldwide television audience, Neil Armstrong stepped off the 'Eagle's landing pad onto the lunar surface and said: 'That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.' He became the first human to set foot upon the Moon.

  6. Orion/MoonRise: A proposed human & robotic sample return mission from the Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkalai, L.; Solish, B.; Elliott, J.; McElrath, T.; Mueller, J.; Parker, J.

    This paper describes a new mission concept called Orion/MoonRise that proposes to return samples from the Lunar far-side South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPAB) using a combination of a robotic Sample Return Vehicle (SRV) based on the MoonRise mission concept developed at National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle currently under development by NASA at Lockheed Martin. The mission concept proposes significant challenges for both robotic and human parts of the mission. Whereas there are many ways to execute this mission concept, one approach is for the Orion and the SRV to launch separately. We assume that the Orion will be staged at the Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 2 (EM-L2) and the SRV at EM-L1. Once both are in place, the SRV descends to the SPAB while the Orion provides critical relay coverage with ground control on Earth. During surface operations, the Orion crew tele-operate the lander sampling system and possibly deploy a sample fetch rover. Once the samples are collected, the Lunar Ascent Vehicle (LAV) launches towards the EM-L2 to rendezvous with Orion. The samples are then brought back to Earth for detailed sample curation and analysis by the scientific community. The Orion/MoonRise mission concept has many strengths worth noting: it provides a very exciting mission to be performed in cis-Lunar space, as a precursor to future human exploration beyond the Earth-Moon System and as a technology demonstration for future sample return from Mars; it implements a mission that is of tremendous value to the planetary science community; it provides an exciting and challenging mission for astronauts to perform and demonstrate in deep-space including remote teleoperations and sample rendezvous and capture; and finally it provides an exciting opportunity for the broad engagement of the general public.

  7. Apollo 11 Recovery Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. Shown here is the recovery operation of the capsule in the Pacific Ocean after splashdown. The three astronauts wait in the life raft as a pararescue man closes and secures the capsule hatch. The crew was then air lifted to the prime recovery ship, the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were housed in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF).

  8. Cylindrical isomorphic mapping applied to invariant manifold dynamics for Earth-Moon Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giancotti, Marco; Pontani, Mauro; Teofilatto, Paolo

    2014-07-01

    Several families of periodic orbits exist in the context of the circular restricted three-body problem. This work studies orbital motion of a spacecraft among these periodic orbits in the Earth-Moon system, using the planar circular restricted three-body problem model. A new cylindrical representation of the spacecraft phase space (i.e., position and velocity) is described, and allows representing periodic orbits and the related invariant manifolds. In the proximity of the libration points, the manifolds form a four-fold surface, if the cylindrical coordinates are employed. Orbits departing from the Earth and transiting toward the Moon correspond to the trajectories located inside this four-fold surface. The isomorphic mapping under consideration is also useful for describing the topology of the invariant manifolds, which exhibit a complex geometrical stretch-and-folding behavior as the associated trajectories reach increasing distances from the libration orbit. Moreover, the cylindrical representation reveals extremely useful for detecting periodic orbits around the primaries and the libration points, as well as the possible existence of heteroclinic connections. These are asymptotic trajectories that are ideally traveled at zero-propellant cost. This circumstance implies the possibility of performing concretely a variety of complex Earth-Moon missions, by combining different types of trajectory arcs belonging to the manifolds. This work studies also the possible application of manifold dynamics to defining a suitable, convenient end-of-life strategy for spacecraft placed in any of the unstable orbits. The final disposal orbit is an externally confined trajectory, never approaching the Earth or the Moon, and can be entered by means of a single velocity impulse (of modest magnitude) along the right unstable manifold that emanates from the Lyapunov orbit at L_2.

  9. Petrographic and petrological studies of lunar rocks. [from the Apollo 15 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winzer, S. R.

    1978-01-01

    Thin sections and polished electron probe mounts of Apollo 15 glasscoated breccias 15255, 15286, 15466, and 15505 were examined optically and analyzed by sem/microprobe. Sections from breccias 15465 and 15466 were examined in detail, and chemical and mineralogical analyses of several larger lithic clasts, green glass, and partly crystallized green glass spheres are presented. Area analyses of 33 clasts from the above breccias were also done using the SEM/EDS system. Mineralogical and bulk chemical analyses of clasts from the Apollo 15 glass-coated breccias reveal a diverse set of potential rock types, including plutonic and extrusive igneous rocks and impact melts. Examination of the chemistry of the clasts suggests that many of these clasts, like those found in 61175, are impact melts. Their variability suggests formation by several small local impacts rather than by a large basin-forming event.

  10. Second Stage (S-II) Plays Key Role in Apollo missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This photograph of the Saturn V Second Stage (S-II) clearly shows the cluster of five powerful J-2 engines needed to boost the Apollo spacecraft into earth orbit following first stage separation. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  11. Apollo 11 Facts Project [EVA Training/Washington, D. C. Tour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Footage shows the crew of Apollo 11, Commander Neil Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Aldrin Jr., and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, during various pre-mission activities. They are seen training for the extravehicular activity on the surface of the Moon, giving speeches in front of the White House, and during a parade in Houston.

  12. Former Apollo astronauts talk to the media.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Apollo/Saturn V Center, Lisa Malone (left), chief of KSC's Media Services branch, identifies a reporter to pose a question to one of the former Apollo astronauts seated next to her. From left, they are Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch to the moon; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7. This is the 30th anniversary of the launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon.

  13. Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orloff, Richard; Garber, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide researchers, students, and space enthusiasts with a comprehensive reference for facts about Project Apollo, America's effort to put humans in the Moon. Research for this work started in 1988, when the author discovered that, despite the number of excellent books that focused on the drama of events that highlighted Apollo, there were none that focused on the drama of the numbers. This book is separated into two parts. The first part contains narratives for the Apollo 1 fire and the 11 flown Apollo missions. Included after each narrative is a series of data tables, followed by a comprehensive timeline of events from just before liftoff to just after crew and spacecraft recovery. The second part contains more than 50 tables. These tables organize much of the data from the narratives in one place so they can be compared among all missions. The tables offer additional data as well. The reader can select a specific mission narrative or specific data table by consulting the Table of Contents.

  14. Agnew and Johnson Watch Apollo 11 Lift Off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Amidst a crowd of other onlookers, U.S. Vice President Spiro T. Agnew (right) and former U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson watch the Saturn V vehicle roar skyward carrying the Apollo 11 manned spacecraft into the vast regions of space. On a trajectory to the Moon, the craft lifted off from launch pad 39 at Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC) on July 16, 1969. The moon bound crew included astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The mission finalized with splashdown on July 24, 1969. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Werher von Braun.

  15. Former Apollo astronauts speak at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong (left) and Gene Cernan entertain the audience during an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo program team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Other guests at the banquet were astronauts Wally Schirra, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin and Walt Cunningham. Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon; Cernan was the last.

  16. Former Apollo astronauts speak at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong (left) and Gene Cernan entertain the audience during an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo program team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Other guests at the banquet were astronauts Wally Schirra, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin and Walt Cunningham. Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon; Gene Cernan was the last.

  17. Gravity Fields of the Moon Derived from GRAIL Primary and Extended Mission Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Goossens, S. J.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Loomis, B.; Chinn, D. S.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft conducted the mapping of the gravity field of the Moon from March 1, 2012 to May 29, 2012, for the primary mission and from August 30, 2012 to December 14, 2012 for the extended mission and endgame. During both mission phases, the twin spacecraft acquired highly precise Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) intersatellite ranging data and Deep Space Network (DSN) data from altitudes of 2.3 to 98.2 km above the lunar surface. We have processed the GRAIL data using the NASA GSFC GEODYN orbit determination and geodetic parameter estimation program and used the supercomputers of the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) at NASA GSFC to accumulate the SRIF arrays and derive the geopotential solutions. During the extended mission, the spacecraft orbits were maintained at a mean altitude of ~23 km, compared to ~50 km during the primary mission. In addition, from December 7 to December 14, 2012, data were acquired from a mean altitude of 11.5 km. With these data, we have derived solutions in spherical harmonics to degree 900. The new gravity solutions show improved correlations with LOLA-derived topography to very high degree and order and resolve many lunar features in the geopotential with a resolution of less than 15 km. We discuss the methods we used for the processing of the GRAIL data, and evaluate these solutions with respect to the derived power spectra, Bouguer anomalies, and fits with independent data (such as from the low-altitude phase of the Lunar Prospector mission).

  18. Apollo 11 Astronauts In Prayer Within Quarantine Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via a Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was taken to safety aboard the USS Hornet, where they were quartered in a mobile quarantine facility. Shown here is the Apollo 11 crew inside the quarantine facility as prayer is offered by Lt. Commander John Pirrto, USS Hornet Chaplain accompanied by U.S. President Richard Nixon (front right). With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  19. ArcGIS Digitization of Apollo Surface Traverses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, N. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Gladdis, L. R.; Garry, W. B.; Lam, F.; Mest, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Apollo surface activities were documented in extraordinary detail, with every action performed by the astronauts while on the surface recorded either in photo, audio, film, or by written testimony [1]. The samples and in situ measurements the astronauts collected while on the lunar surface have shaped our understanding of the geologic history of the Moon, and the earliest history and evolution of the inner Solar System. As part of an ongoing LASERfunded effort, we are digitizing and georeferencing data from astronaut traverses and spatially associating them to available, co-registered remote sensing data. Here we introduce the products produced so far for Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions.

  20. Planetary protection considerations for sample-return missions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Rummel

    2002-01-01

    The analysis on Earth of materials returned from other solar system bodies, and beyond, is likely one of the most effective ways for us to learn about the origins, history, and present state of the universe outside of our home planet. In the past, the Apollo missions were able to return large quantities of material from the Moon, while missions

  1. The Mitigation of Radiation Hazards on Missions to Deep Space

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohi Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Since the advent of human space flight in the late 1950s, more than 200 people have flown in space, from sub-orbital flights and the Apollo missions to the Moon, to space stations Skylab, Soyuz, and the International Space Station. Even tourists are beginning to travel to space. As technology advances, human interplanetary missions are seen as the next steps for

  2. A lander mission to probe subglacial water on Saturn's moon Enceladus for life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinidis, Konstantinos; Flores Martinez, Claudio L.; Dachwald, Bernd; Ohndorf, Andreas; Dykta, Paul; Bowitz, Pascal; Rudolph, Martin; Digel, Ilya; Kowalski, Julia; Voigt, Konstantin; Förstner, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The plumes discovered by the Cassini mission emanating from the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus and the unique chemistry found in them have fueled speculations that Enceladus may harbor life. The presumed aquiferous fractures from which the plumes emanate would make a prime target in the search for extraterrestrial life and would be more easily accessible than the moon's subglacial ocean. A lander mission that is equipped with a subsurface maneuverable ice melting probe will be most suitable to assess the existence of life on Enceladus. A lander would have to land at a safe distance away from a plume source and melt its way to the inner wall of the fracture to analyze the plume subsurface liquids before potential biosignatures are degraded or destroyed by exposure to the vacuum of space. A possible approach for the in situ detection of biosignatures in such samples can be based on the hypothesis of universal evolutionary convergence, meaning that the independent and repeated emergence of life and certain adaptive traits is wide-spread throughout the cosmos. We thus present a hypothetical evolutionary trajectory leading towards the emergence of methanogenic chemoautotrophic microorganisms as the baseline for putative biological complexity on Enceladus. To detect their presence, several instruments are proposed that may be taken aboard a future subglacial melting probe. The 'Enceladus Explorer' (EnEx) project funded by the German Space Administration (DLR), aims to develop a terrestrial navigation system for a subglacial research probe and eventually test it under realistic conditions in Antarctica using the EnEx-IceMole, a novel maneuverable subsurface ice melting probe for clean sampling and in situ analysis of ice and subglacial liquids. As part of the EnEx project, an initial concept study is foreseen for a lander mission to Enceladus to deploy the IceMole near one of the active water plumes on the moon's South-Polar Terrain, where it will search for signatures of life. The general mission concept is to place the Lander at a safe distance from an active plume. The IceMole would then be deployed to melt its way through the ice crust to an aquiferous fracture at a depth of 100 m or more for an in situ examination for the presence of microorganisms. The driving requirement for the mission is the high energy demand by the IceMole to melt through the cold Enceladan ices. This requirement is met by a nuclear reactor providing 5 kW of electrical power. The nuclear reactor and the IceMole are placed on a pallet lander platform. An Orbiter element is also foreseen, with the main function of acting as a communications relay between Lander and Earth. After launch, the Lander and Orbiter will perform the interplanetary transfer to Saturn together, using the on-board nuclear reactor to power electric thrusters. After Saturn orbit insertion, the Combined Spacecraft will continue using Nuclear Electric Propulsion to reach the orbit of Enceladus. After orbit insertion at Enceladus, the Orbiter will perform a detailed reconnaissance of the South-Polar Terrain. At the end of the reconnaissance phase, the Lander will separate from the Orbiter and an autonomously guided landing sequence will place it near one of the active vapor plumes. Once landed, the IceMole will be deployed and start melting through the ice, while navigating around hazards and towards a target subglacial aquiferous fracture. An initial estimation of the mission's cost is given, as well as recommendations on the further development of enabling technologies. The planetary protection challenges posed by such a mission are also addressed.

  3. Electromyographic analysis of skeletal muscle changes arising from 9 days of weightlessness in the Apollo-Soyuz space mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafevers, E. V.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Hursta, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    Both integration and frequency analyses of the electromyograms from voluntary contractions were performed in one crewman of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. Of particular interest were changes in excitability, electrical efficiency, and fatigability. As a result of 9 days of weightlessness, muscle excitability was shown to increase; muscle electrical efficiency was found to decrease in calf muscles and to increase in arm muscles; and fatigability was found to increase significantly, as shown by spectral power shifts into lower frequencies. It was concluded from this study that skeletal muscles are affected by the disuse of weightlessness early in the period of weightlessness, antigravity muscles seem most affected by weightlessness, and exercise may abrogate the weightlessness effect. It was further concluded that electromyography is a sensitive tool for measuring spaceflight muscle effects.

  4. JUICE: A European mission to Jupiter and its icy moons (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, M. K.

    2013-12-01

    The recently selected European Space Agency mission JUICE (JUipter ICy moon Explorer), is planned for launch in 2022. Details of the mission will be described, including the payload, planned orbits and the resulting science. The focus of JUICE is to characterise the conditions that may have led to the emergence of habitable environments among the Jovian icy satellites, with special emphasis on the three ocean-bearing worlds, Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto. Ganymede is identified for detailed investigation since it provides a natural laboratory for analysis of the nature, evolution and potential habitability of icy worlds in general, but also because of the role it plays within the system of Galilean satellites, and its unique magnetic and plasma interactions with the surrounding Jovian environment. The mission will also focus on characterising the diversity of processes in the Jupiter system which may be required in order to provide a stable environment at Ganymede, Europa and Callisto on geologic time scales. Focused studies of Jupiter's atmosphere, and magnetosphere and their interaction with the Galilean satellites will further enhance our understanding of the evolution and dynamics of the Jovian system. JUICE spacecraft at Ganymede (courtesy Mike Carroll)

  5. Human Exploration Mission Capabilities to the Moon, Mars, and Near Earth Asteroids Using ''Bimodal'' NTR Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley K. Borowski; Leonard A. Dudzinski; Melissa L. McGuire

    2000-06-04

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is one of the leading propulsion options for future human exploration missions because of its high specific impulse (Isp {approx} 850 to 1000 s) and attractive engine thrust-to-weight ratio ({approx} 3 to 10). Because only a minuscule amount of enriched {sup 235}U fuel is consumed in an NRT during the primary propulsion maneuvers of a typical Mars mission, engines configured both for propulsive thrust and modest power generation (referred to as 'bimodal' operation) provide the basis for a robust, power-rich stage with efficient propulsive capture capability at the moon and near-earth asteroids (NEAs), where aerobraking cannot be utilized. A family of modular bimodal NTR (BNTR) space transfer vehicles utilize a common core stage powered by three {approx}15-klb{sub f} engines that produce 50 kW(electric) of total electrical power for crew life support, high data rate communications with Earth, and an active refrigeration system for long-term, zero-boiloff liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) storage. This paper describes details of BNTR engines and designs of vehicles using them for various missions.

  6. Nuclear Thermal Rocket/vehicle design options for future NASA missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.

    1995-09-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners/designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a 'dual mode' system capable of generating electrical power for spacecraft environmental systems, communications, and enhanced stage operations (e.g., refrigeration for long-term liquid hydrogen storage). At present the Nuclear Propulsion Office (NPO) is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, single-burn, trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) mission to all propulsive, multiburn, NTR-powered spacecraft supporting a 'split cargo-piloted sprint' Mars mission architecture. Each application results in a particular set of requirements in areas such as the number of engines and their respective thrust levels, restart capability, fuel operating temperature and lifetime, cryofluid storage, and stage size. Two solid core NTR concepts are examined -- one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide 'twisted ribbon' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The NDR and CIS concepts have an established technology database involving significant nuclear testing at or near representative operating conditions. Integrated systems and mission studies indicate that clusters of two to four 15 to 25 klbf NDR or CIS engines are sufficient for most of the lunar and Mars mission scenarios currently under consideration. This paper provides descriptions and performance characteristics for the NDR and CIS concepts, summarizes NASA's First Lunar Outpost and Mars mission scenarios, and describes characteristics for representative cargo and piloted vehicles compatible with a reference 240 t-class heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) and smaller 120 t HLLV option. Attractive performance characteristics and high-leverage technologies associated with both the engine and stage are identified, and supporting parametric sensitivity data is provided. The potential for commonality of engine and stage components to satisfy a broad range of lunar and Mars missions is also discussed.

  7. Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Vehicle Design Options for Future NASA Missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Mcguire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners/designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a 'dual mode' system capable of generating electrical power for spacecraft environmental systems, communications, and enhanced stage operations (e.g., refrigeration for long-term liquid hydrogen storage). At present the Nuclear Propulsion Office (NPO) is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, single-burn, trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) mission to all propulsive, multiburn, NTR-powered spacecraft supporting a 'split cargo-piloted sprint' Mars mission architecture. Each application results in a particular set of requirements in areas such as the number of engines and their respective thrust levels, restart capability, fuel operating temperature and lifetime, cryofluid storage, and stage size. Two solid core NTR concepts are examined -- one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide 'twisted ribbon' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The NDR and CIS concepts have an established technology database involving significant nuclear testing at or near representative operating conditions. Integrated systems and mission studies indicate that clusters of two to four 15 to 25 klbf NDR or CIS engines are sufficient for most of the lunar and Mars mission scenarios currently under consideration. This paper provides descriptions and performance characteristics for the NDR and CIS concepts, summarizes NASA's First Lunar Outpost and Mars mission scenarios, and describes characteristics for representative cargo and piloted vehicles compatible with a reference 240 t-class heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) and smaller 120 t HLLV option. Attractive performance characteristics and high-leverage technologies associated with both the engine and stage are identified, and supporting parametric sensitivity data is provided. The potential for commonality of engine and stage components to satisfy a broad range of lunar and Mars missions is also discussed.

  8. Apollo 11 Astronauts Exit Recovery Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Donned in biological isolation garments, the Apollo 11 crew members, (L-R) Edwin Aldrin, Neil Armstrong (waving), and Michael Collins exit the recovery pick up helicopter to board the U.S.S. Hornet aircraft carrier after splashdown. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). This portable facility served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Werher von Braun.

  9. MAJIS, the Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer, designed for the future ESA/JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piccioni, Giuseppe; Langevin, Yves; Filacchione, Gianrico; Poulet, Francois; Tosi, Federico; Eng, Pascal; Dumesnil, Cydalise; Zambelli, Massimo; Saggin, Bortolino; Fonti, Sergio; Grassi, Davide; Altieri, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    The Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer (MAJIS) is the VIS-IR spectral mapper selected for JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer), the first Large-class mission in the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme. Scheduled for a launch in 2022, JUICE will perform a comprehensive exploration of the Jovian system thanks to several flybys of Callisto, Ganymede and Europa, before finally entering orbit around Ganymede. During these phases, MAJIS will acquire hyperspectral data necessary to unveil and map the surface composition of different geologic units of the satellites. Transfers between successive satellites' flybys shall be devoted to remote observations of Jupiter's atmosphere and auroras. MAJIS' instrument design relies on a 75 mm pupil, f/3.2 aperture TMA telescope matching two Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometers. A dichroic element is used to split the beam between the two spectral channels. The VIS-NIR spectral channel covers the 0.4-1.9 ?m range with a sampling of 2.3 nm/band. The IR channel works in the 1.5-5.7 ?m range with a 6.6 nm/band sampling. The entire optical structure is passively cooled at cryogenic temperature

  10. Former Apollo astronauts talk to the media.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At a media conference in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, former Apollo astronaut Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, who flew on Apollo 11, the launch to the moon, demonstrates a point in his comment for the press. Joining him in the conference are other Apollo astronauts Neil A. Armstrong (left), who also flew on Apollo 11 and was the first man to set foot on the moon; Gene Cernan (right), who flew on Apollo 10 and 17; and Walt Cunningham (back to camera), who flew on Apollo 7. In the background is Lisa Malone, chief of KSC's Media Services branch, who monitored the session. The four astronauts were at KSC for the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969.

  11. Project Columbiad: Mission to the Moon. Book 1: Executive Summary. Volume 1: Mission trade studies and requirements. Volume 2: Subsystem trade studies and selection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Clarke; Johan Denecke; Suzanne Garber; Beth Kader; Celia Liu; Ben Weintraub; Patrick Cazeau; John Goetz; James Haughwout; Erik Larson

    1992-01-01

    In response to the Report of the Advisory Committee on the future of the U.S. Space Program and a request from NASA's Exploration Office, the MIT Hunsaker Aerospace Corporation (HAC) conducted a feasibility study, known as Project Columbiad, on reestablishing human presence on the Moon before the year 2000. The mission criteria established were to transport a four person crew

  12. Flight Operations reunion for the Apollo 11 20th anniversary of the first manned lunar landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The following major areas are presented: (1) the Apollo years; (2) official flight control manning list for Apollo 11; (3) original mission control emblem; (4) foundations of flight control; (5) Apollo-11 20th anniversary program and events; (6) Apollo 11 mission operations team certificate; (7) Apollo 11 mission summary (timeline); and (8) Apollo flight control team photographs and biographies.

  13. Apollo 13 lunar photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Michlovitz, C. K.; Hug, K.

    1970-01-01

    A data users' note announces the availability of Apollo 13 pictorial data and aids the investigator in the selection of Apollo 13 photographs for study. This note provides guidance in the interpretation of the photographs. The note includes brief descriptions of the Apollo 13 mission objectives, photographic equipment, and photographic coverage and quality. The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) can provide all forms of the photographs described.

  14. Neil Armstrong chats with attendees at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong talks with a former Apollo team member during an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon.

  15. The Penn state lunar lion: A university mission to explore the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Michael V.; Spencer, David B.; Lego, Sara E.; Muncks, John P.

    2014-03-01

    The Penn State Lunar Lion Team plans to send a robotic explorer to the surface of the Moon and, by applying 30 years of technological advancements, win the Google Lunar X Prize. The Google Lunar X Prize aims to showcase the ability of the growing private space industry by having teams pursue the goal of becoming the first private entity to land a spacecraft on another body in the solar system. Through the Team's pursuit of this Prize, Penn State will establish itself as a leader in space exploration. The Lunar Lion Team will win this Prize through the collaboration of faculty and students from multiple disciplines, and the engineering and technical staff at the Penn State Applied Research Lab, as well as strategic collaborations with industry partners. The diversity of technical disciplines required to build a system that can land on the Moon can be found at Penn State. This multidisciplinary project will be not only a means for bringing together personnel from around the University, but also a way to attract faculty and students to these fields. The baseline concept for the Lunar Lion will strictly follow the requirements of the Grand Prize and the Grand Prize only, leading to the simplest possible system for the mission. By achieving the Grand Prize, Penn State will have accomplished what once took the large-scale effort of NASA's early robotic lunar landers or the USSR's space program. While the Bonus Prizes are noteworthy, ensuring their accomplishment will add development and operational risk to the flight system that could jeopardize the Team's ability to win the Grand Prize. The Team will build the simplest spacecraft, with the fewest number of systems and components. This philosophy will shorten the development timeline and result in a robust flight system that is of minimum cost. Wherever possible, the Team will use commercially available products to satisfy the needs of the system. The work of the Team will be efficient systems integration, careful operational planning, and focused mission execution, all with the Grand Prize in mind. By focusing on innovation rather than invention, Penn State will lead the field of competitors and land the next spacecraft on the Moon.

  16. Field Trip to the Moon DVD - LRO/LCROSS Edition

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2009-03-10

    This special edition DVD--introducing NASA's LRO/LCROSS mission--captures the experience in a feature video created using NASA engineering models and scientific data. Viewers will experience what is like to travel through space to land on the Moon. Along the way, they'll discover some of the differences between the Earth and the Moon and what makes our planet unique and habitable. The DVD includes support media including segments on the LRO/LCROSS Mission, the Moon's formation, Apollo landing sites, future lunar landing animation, and Moon trivia questions. Educator Guide, Informal Educator Guide, Live Presenter Script, and other downloads are available at http://www.amnh.org/education/ftm. Length: 20:42 . The program is also offered at the American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium as a full-dome experience with a live presenter during the school year for school groups and visitors to take a virtual field trip to the Moon.

  17. Apollo 12: Pinpoint for science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-09-01

    This video, using historical film footage, photography, and computer animation, describes the launch, flight, lunar landing and exploration, and return flight of Apollo 12, one of the manned lunar missions. The astronauts were Charles Conrad, Richard Gordon, and Allen Bean. Thirty-six seconds into the November 14, 1969 launch, the spacecraft was hit by lightning from the thunderstorm surrounding the launch site. In spite of this mishap, the vehicle and astronauts were not harmed and continued with their mission. The Yankee Clipper (command module) docked with the Intrepid (lunar module) and upon reaching the Moon, the Intrepid disconnected during lunar orbit and descended to the Moon's surface to a landing area previously marked by the Surveyor satellite. After lunar surface exploration, soil sample collection, satellite maintenance, and setting up various lunar surface monitoring equipment (a seismometer and two atmospheric monitors), the Intrepid launched back into lunar orbit, docked with the Yankee Clipper, and returned to Earth. There are both B/W and color photography and film footage, which includes the earth launch, lunar orbit, descent and ascent of Intrepid on the Moon, return flight, atmospheric reentry, and recovery on the Earth, and ground to air and space communication is shown.

  18. Apollo 12: Pinpoint for Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video, using historical film footage, photography, and computer animation, describes the launch, flight, lunar landing and exploration, and return flight of Apollo 12, one of the manned lunar missions. The astronauts were Charles Conrad, Richard Gordon, and Allen Bean. Thirty-six seconds into the November 14, 1969 launch, the spacecraft was hit by lightning from the thunderstorm surrounding the launch site. In spite of this mishap, the vehicle and astronauts were not harmed and continued with their mission. The Yankee Clipper (command module) docked with the Intrepid (lunar module) and upon reaching the Moon, the Intrepid disconnected during lunar orbit and descended to the Moon's surface to a landing area previously marked by the Surveyor satellite. After lunar surface exploration, soil sample collection, satellite maintenance, and setting up various lunar surface monitoring equipment (a seismometer and two atmospheric monitors), the Intrepid launched back into lunar orbit, docked with the Yankee Clipper, and returned to Earth. There are both B/W and color photography and film footage, which includes the Earth launch, lunar orbit, descent and ascent of Intrepid on the Moon, return flight, atmospheric reentry, and recovery on the Earth, and ground to air and space communication is shown.

  19. Apollo 16 mission anomaly report no. 1: Oxidizer deservicing tank failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The command module reaction control system is emptied of all remaining propellant using ground support equipment designed to provide an acid/base neutralization of the propellant in both the liquid and gaseous phases so that it may be disposed of safely. During the deactivation operation of the oxidizer from the Apollo 16 command module on 7 May 1972, the scrubber tank of the decontamination unit exploded, destroying the ground support equipment unit and damaging the building that housed the operation. Only minor injuries were received by the personnel in the area and the command module was not damaged. Test results show that the failure was caused by an insufficient quantity of neutralizer for the quantity of oxidizer. This insufficiency lead to exothermic nitration-type reactions which produced large quantities of gas at a very high rate and failed the decontamination tank.

  20. Apollo/Saturn 5 Postflight Trajectory - SA-513 Skylab 1 Mission. Tracking and Flight Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The postflight trajectory for the Apollo/Saturn V SA-513 Skylab I flight is presented. An analysis is included of the orbital and powered flight trajectories of the launch vehicle, the orbital trajectory of the spent S-II stage, and the free flight impact trajectory of the expended S-IC stage. Launch vehicle trajectory dependent parameters are provided in earth-fixed launch site, launch vehicle navigation, and geographic polar coordinate systems. The time history of the trajectory parameters for the launch vehicle is presented from guidance reference release to the transfer to ATM control. Tables of significant launch vehicle parameters at engine cutoff, stage separation, and workshop orbit insertion are included. Figures of such parameters as altitude, surface and cross range, and the magnitude of total velocity and acceleration as a function of range time for the powered flight trajectory are given.

  1. On the Relationship between the Apollo 16 Ancient Regolith Breccias and Feldspathic Fragmental Breccias, and the Composition of the Prebasin Crust in the Central Highlands of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1996-01-01

    Two types of texturally and compositionally similar breccias that consist largely of fragmental debris from meteorite impacts occur at the Apollo 16 lunar site: Feldspathic fragmental breccias (FFBS) and ancient regolith breccias (ARBs). Both types of breccia are composed of a suite of mostly feldspathic components derived from the early crust of the Moon and mafic impact-melt breccias produced during the time of basin formation. The ARBs also contain components, such as agglutinates and glass spherules, indicating that the material of which they are composed occurred at the surface of the Moon as fine-grained regolith prior to lithification of the breccias. These components are absent from the FFBS, suggesting that the FFBs might be the protolith of the ARBS. However, several compositional differences exist between the two types of breccia, making any simple genetic relationship implausible. First, clasts of mafic impact-melt breccia occurring in the FFBs are of a different composition than those in the ARBS. Also the feldspathic "prebasin" components of the FFBs have a lower average Mg/Fe ratio than the corresponding components of the ARBS; the average composition of the plagiociase in the FFBs is more sodic than that of the ARBS; and there are differences in relative abundances of rare earth elements. The two breccia types also have different provenances: the FFBs occur primarily in ejecta from North Ray crater and presumably derive from the Descartes Formation, while the ARBs are restricted to the Cayley plains. Together these observations suggest that although some type of fragmental breccia may have been a precursor to the ARBS, the FFBs of North Ray crater are not a significant component of the ARBs and, by inference, the Cayley plains. The average compositions of the prebasin components of the two types of fragmental breccia are generally similar to the composition of the feldspathic lunar meteorites. With 30-31% Al203, however, they are slightly richer in plagiociase than the most feldspathic lunar meteorites (approximately 29% Al203), implying that the crust of the early central nearside of the Moon contained a higher abundance of highly feldspathic anorthosite than typical lunar highlands, as inferred from the lunar meteorites. The ancient regolith breccias, as well as the current surface regolith ofthe Cayley plains, are more mafic than (1) prebasin regoliths in the Central Highlands and (2) regions of highlands presently distant from nearside basins because they contain a high abundance (approximately 30%) of mafic impact-melt breccias produced during the time of basin formation that is absent from other regoliths.

  2. Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Stage Technology Options for NASA's Future Human Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.

    1994-07-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners and designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (Isp ~ 850-1000 seconds) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (~ 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a ``dual mode'' system capable of generating stage electrical power. At present, NASA is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, ``single burn'' trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's ``First Lunar Outpost'' (FLO) mission to all propulsive, ``multi-burn,'' spacecraft supporting a ``split cargo/piloted sprint'' Mars mission architecture. Two ``proven'' solid core NTR concepts are examined -one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application)-derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide ``twisted ribbon'' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Integrated systems and mission study results are used in designing ``aerobraked'' and ``all propulsive'' Mars vehicle concepts which are mass-, and volume-compatible with both a reference 240 metric tonne (t) heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) and a smaller 120 t HLLV option. For the ``aerobraked'' scenario, the 2010 piloted mission determines the size of the expendable trans-Mars injection (TMI) stage which is a growth version of the FLO TLI stage. An ``all-propulsive'' Moon/Mars mission architecture is also described which uses common ``modular'' engine and stage hardware consisting of: (1) clustered 15 thousand pounds force (klbf) NDR or CIS engines; (2) two ``standardized'' liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank sizes; and (3) ``dual mode'' NTR and refrigeration system technologies for long duration missions. The ``modular'' NTR approach can form the basis for a ``faster, safer, and cheaper'' space transportation system for tomorrow's piloted missions to the Moon and Mars.

  3. The interaction of the Galilean moons with their space environment: Lessons learnt from previous missions and prospects for JUICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André, N.

    2012-12-01

    The Galilean moons of Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto are embedded within the magnetospheric plasma that aproximately corotates with Jupiter. The physical processes revealed in the regions of space surrounding them are remarkably diverse. The Galilean moons, with their exospheres, are conductive bodies. As they move through the Jovian magnetic field, they create a specific current system. This electrodynamical coupling is not stationary. Part of the electromagnetic energy is converted into kinetic energy of accelerated particles, with the formation of particular auroral features. Ganymede, the unique magnetized moon to date, possesses its own mini-magnetosphere that is coupled to Jupiter's giant magnetosphere. This interaction is powerful enough to create an intense auroral footpoint at Jupiter. The coupling with Europa is apparently much less powerful, even if it seems able to generate intense waves. By contrast, Callisto is the most quiet. The parameters that determine the strength of the coupling, the way magnetic fields are distorted and large-scale fluctuations are generated, are unknown, as are the details of the interaction itself. I will first review some of the multi-instrument observations obtained in the vicinity of the Galilean moons by the NASA/Galileo mission that contribute to our current understanding of the moon-magnetosphere interactions. I will then discuss how the ESA/JUICE mission to be launched in 2022 will provide a thorough investigation of these unique planetary bodies in all their complexity.

  4. Apollo 16 regolith breccias and soils - Recorders of exotic component addition to the Descartes region of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Laul, J. C.; Hughes, S. S.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Using the subdivision of Apollo 16 regolith breccias into ancient (about 4 Gyr) and younger samples (McKay et al., 1986), with the present-day soils as a third sample, a petrologic and chemical determination of regolith evolution and exotic component addition at the A-16 site was performed. The modal petrologies and mineral and chemical compositions of the regolith breccias in the region are presented. It is shown that the early regolith was composed of fragments of plutonic rocks, impact melt rocks, and minerals and impact glasses. It is found that KREEP lithologies and impact melts formed early in lunar history. The mare components, mainly orange high-TiO2 glass and green low-TiO2 glass, were added to the site after formation of the ancient breccias and prior to the formation of young breccias. The major change in the regolith since the formation of the young breccias is an increase in maturity represented by the formation of fused soil particles with prolonged exposure to micrometeorite impacts.

  5. U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Watches Apollo 11 Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon, aboard the U.S.S. Hornet aircraft carrier, used binoculars to watch the Apollo 11 Lunar Mission recovery. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days post mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  6. Project Columbiad: Mission to the Moon. Book 1: Executive Summary. Volume 1: Mission trade studies and requirements. Volume 2: Subsystem trade studies and selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Michael; Denecke, Johan; Garber, Suzanne; Kader, Beth; Liu, Celia; Weintraub, Ben; Cazeau, Patrick; Goetz, John; Haughwout, James; Larson, Erik

    In response to the Report of the Advisory Committee on the future of the U.S. Space Program and a request from NASA's Exploration Office, the MIT Hunsaker Aerospace Corporation (HAC) conducted a feasibility study, known as Project Columbiad, on reestablishing human presence on the Moon before the year 2000. The mission criteria established were to transport a four person crew to the lunar surface at any latitude and back to Earth with a 14-28 day stay on the lunar surface. Safety followed by cost of the Columbiad Mission were the top level priorities of HAC. The resulting design has a precursor mission that emplaces the required surface payloads before the piloted mission arrives. Both the precursor and piloted missions require two National Launch System (NLS) launches. Both the precursor and piloted mission have an Earth orbit rendezvous (EOR) with a direct transit to the Moon post-EOR. The piloted mission returns to Earth via a direct transit. Included among the surface payloads preemplaced are a habitat, solar power plant (including fuel cells for the lunar night), lunar rover, and mechanisms used to cover the habitat with regolith (lunar soil) in order to protect the crew members from severe solar flare radiation.

  7. Project Columbiad: Mission to the Moon. Book 1: Executive Summary. Volume 1: Mission trade studies and requirements. Volume 2: Subsystem trade studies and selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Michael; Denecke, Johan; Garber, Suzanne; Kader, Beth; Liu, Celia; Weintraub, Ben; Cazeau, Patrick; Goetz, John; Haughwout, James; Larson, Erik

    1992-01-01

    In response to the Report of the Advisory Committee on the future of the U.S. Space Program and a request from NASA's Exploration Office, the MIT Hunsaker Aerospace Corporation (HAC) conducted a feasibility study, known as Project Columbiad, on reestablishing human presence on the Moon before the year 2000. The mission criteria established were to transport a four person crew to the lunar surface at any latitude and back to Earth with a 14-28 day stay on the lunar surface. Safety followed by cost of the Columbiad Mission were the top level priorities of HAC. The resulting design has a precursor mission that emplaces the required surface payloads before the piloted mission arrives. Both the precursor and piloted missions require two National Launch System (NLS) launches. Both the precursor and piloted mission have an Earth orbit rendezvous (EOR) with a direct transit to the Moon post-EOR. The piloted mission returns to Earth via a direct transit. Included among the surface payloads preemplaced are a habitat, solar power plant (including fuel cells for the lunar night), lunar rover, and mechanisms used to cover the habitat with regolith (lunar soil) in order to protect the crew members from severe solar flare radiation.

  8. Apollo soil mechanics experiment S-200

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Houston, W. N.; Carrier, W. D., III; Costes, N. C.

    1974-01-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of the unconsolidated lunar surface material samples that were obtained during the Apollo missions were studied. Sources of data useful for deduction of soil information, and methods used to obtained the data are indicated. A model for lunar soil behavior is described which considers soil characteristics, density and porosity, strength, compressibility, and trafficability parameters. Lunar history and processes are considered, and a comparison is made of lunar and terrestrial soil behavior. The impact of the findings on future exploration and development of the moon are discussed, and publications resulting from lunar research by the soil mechanics team members are listed.

  9. NASA Apollo 11 30th Anniversary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    On July 20, 1969 Neil A. Armstrong took his "Small Step" onto the surface of the moon. To celebrate the 30th anniversary of its greatest success, NASA has created this new site, which features interviews with the crew, the full text of Apollo: Expeditions to the Moon and The First Lunar Landing: As Told By The Astronauts, biographies, several documents, multimedia galleries, and timelines. Highlights include the Apollo 11 image gallery, panorama photos in the Apollo 11 Lunar Service Journal gallery, the astronauts comments in The First Lunar Landing, and the "Top Ten Scientific Discoveries Made During Apollo Exploration of the Moon," located in the document section.

  10. The Moon's Formation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    How did the Moon form? The most favored theory - a cataclysmic impact on our planet - that has dominated scientific thinking for over a quarter of a century has always had its critics. But the final piece of the puzzle may just be in place. This radio broadcast considers new research that could offer the complete picture into the events that led to the creation of our moon. Analysis of moon rocks following the Apollo missions added weight to a newly emerging theory that a Mars-sized body in the early days of the solar system crashed into the young Earth, melting its crust and that from the resulting shattered remains, the Moon emerged. This broadcast examines new computer simulations of events and reveals startling new evidence from a researcher who believes that this Mars-sized body hid in a seemingly impossible, but increasingly likely location a mere 150 million kilometers from the orbit of Earth for millions of years, until it was set on an inevitable collision course with the Earth. If the theory is correct, it could provide far reaching proof that the universe is full of hidden areas where life might flourish. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

  11. Former Apollo astronauts talk to the media.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Apollo/Saturn V Center, Lisa Malone, chief of KSC's Media Services branch, identifies a reporter in the stands to pose a question to one of the former Apollo astronauts seated next to her. From left to right, they are Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch to the moon; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7. Behind them on the lower floor are the original computer consoles used in the firing room during the Apollo program. They are now part of the reenactment of the Apollo launches in the exhibit at the center. This is the 30th anniversary of the launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon.

  12. Apollo-Lunar Orbital Rendezvous Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Apollo-Lunar Orbital Rendezvous Technique. The film shows artists rendition of the spacecrafts, boosters, and flight of the Apollo lunar missions. The Apollo spacecraft will consist of three modules: the manned Command Module; the Service Module, which contains propulsion systems; and the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM) to carry astronauts to the moon and back to the Command and Service Modules. The spacecraft will be launched via a three-stage Saturn booster. The first stage will provide 7.5 million pounds of thrust from five F-1 engines for liftoff and initial powered flight. The second stage will develop 1 million pounds of thrust from five J-2 engines to boost the spacecraft almost into Earth orbit. Immediately after ignition of the second stage, the Launch Escape System will be jettisoned. A single J-2 engine in the S4B stage will provide 200,000 pounds of thrust to place the spacecraft in an earth parking orbit. It also will be used to propel the spacecraft into a translunar trajectory, then it will separate from the Apollo Modules. Onboard propulsion systems will be used to insert the spacecraft into lunar orbit. Two astronauts will enter the LEM, which will separate from the command and service modules. The LEM will go into elliptical orbit and prepare for landing. The LEM will lift off of the Moon's surface to return to the Command and Service Modules, and most likely be left in lunar orbit. After leaving the Moon's orbit, and shortly before entering Earth's orbit, the Service Module will be ejected. The Command Module will be oriented for reentry into the Earth's atmosphere. A drogue parachute will deploy at approximately 50,000 feet, followed by the main parachute system for touchdown. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030988. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  13. Remembering Apollo 11: The 30th Anniversary Data Archive CD-ROM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cortright, Edgar M. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    On July 20, 1969, the human race accomplished its single greatest technological achievement of all time when a human first set foot on another celestial body. Six hours after landing at 4:17 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (with less than thirty seconds of fuel remaining), Neil A. Armstrong took the "small step" into our greater future when he stepped off the Lunar Module, named Eagle, onto the surface of the Moon, from which he could look up and see Earth in the heavens as no one had done before him. He was shortly joined by Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, and the two astronauts spent twenty-one hours on the lunar surface and returned forty-six pounds of lunar rocks. After their historic walks on the Moon, they successfully docked with Michael Collins, patiently orbiting the cold but no longer lifeless Moon alone in the Command module Columbia. This CR-ROM is intended as a collection of hard to find technical data and other interesting information about the Apollo 11 mission, as well as the apollo program in general. It includes basic overviews, such as a retrospective analysis, an annotated bibliography, and history of the lunar-orbit rendezvous concept. It also contains technical data, such as mission operations reports, press kits, and news references for all of the Apollo missions, the Apollo spacecraft, and the Saturn V launch vehicle. Rounding out this CD-ROM are extensive histories of the lunar Orbiter program (the robotic predecessor to Apollo, biographies of the Apollo astronauts and other key individuals, and interesting audio-visual materials, such as video and audio clips, photo galleries, and blueprint-like diagrams of the Apollo spacecraft.

  14. Apollo experience report: Protection of life and health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooley, B. C.

    1972-01-01

    The development, implementation, and effectiveness of the Apollo Lunar Quarantine Program and the Flight Crew Health Stabilization Program are discussed as part of the broad program required for the protection of the life and health of U.S. astronauts. Because the goal of the Apollo Program has been the safe transport of men to the moon and back to earth, protection of the astronauts and of the biosphere from potentially harmful lunar contaminants has been required. Also, to ensure mission success, the continuing good health of the astronauts before and during a mission has been necessary. Potential applications of specific aspects of the health and quarantine programs to possible manned missions to other planets are discussed.

  15. Former Apollo astronauts talk to the media.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In this closeup viewed from above, former Apollo astronauts (seated, left to right) Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch to the moon; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7, answer questions from the media during a press conference in the Apollo/Saturn V Center. At left is Lisa Malone, chief of KSC's Media Services branch, who monitored the session. In the background are the original computer consoles used in the firing room during the Apollo program. They are now part of the reenactment of the Apollo launches in the exhibit at the center. The four astronauts were at KSC for the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969.

  16. Former Apollo astronauts talk to the media.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Viewed from above, former Apollo astronauts (seated, left to right) Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch to the moon; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7, answer questions from the media during a press conference in the Apollo/Saturn V Center. At left is Lisa Malone, chief of KSC's Media Services branch, who monitored the session. In the background are the original computer consoles used in the firing room during the Apollo program. They are now part of the reenactment of the Apollo launches in the exhibit at the center. The four astronauts were at KSC for the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969.

  17. Apollo 11 Mission Report, Supplement 5: Performance of Lunar Module Reaction Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, D. R.; Jenkins, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Spacecraft velocity data and crew reports indicated that RCS engine performance was nominal. It is estimated that the RCS engines accumulated a total of 1060 seconds on-time and 12,000 firings during the mission. The quad temperatures ranged from 132 to 232 F during the period when the heaters were active, within predicated ranges. The total propellant consumption from the RCS tanks was about 319 pounds, compared to a predicted value of 253 pounds. An additional 69 pounds of propellant were used from the ascent propulsion system tanks during interconnect feed operations associated with APS lift-off, following periods of rapid propellant usage. The only problems noted were two thrust chamber pressure switch failures on the quad one down-firing engine and on the quad 2 aft-firing engine. Engine performance was nominal on both engines, and the switch failures had no effect on the mission.

  18. Apollo Video Photogrammetry Estimation of Plume Impingement Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher; Lane, John; Metzger, Philip; Clements, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Each of the six Apollo mission landers touched down at unique sites on the lunar surface. Aside from the Apollo 12 landing site located 180 meters from the Surveyor III lander, plume impingement effects on ground hardware during the landings were largely not an issue. The Constellation Project's planned return to the moon requires numerous landings at the same site. Since the top few centimeters are loosely packed regolith, plume impingement from the lander ejects the granular material at high velocities. With high vacuum conditions on the moon (10 (exp -14) to 10 (epx -12) torr), motion of all particles is completely ballistic. Estimates from damage to the Surveyor III show that the ejected regolith particles to be anywhere 400 m/s to 2500 m/s. It is imperative to understand the physics of plume impingement to safely design landing sites for the Constellation Program.

  19. A cost and risk analysis of human exploration missions to Mars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Carl Merrihew

    1997-01-01

    The Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) initiated a renewal of America's space exploration efforts which had come to an end following the Apollo 17 mission in 1972. SEI was a massive proposed program which was to culminate in a permanent human settlement on the Moon and a base for humans on Mars. Russian space agencies have also proposed human exploration missions,

  20. Apollo: Learning From the Past, For the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabois, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shares an interesting and unique case study of knowledge capture by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), an ongoing project to recapture and make available the lessons learned from the Apollo lunar landing project so that those working on future projects do not have to "reinvent the wheel". NASA's new Constellation program, the successor to the Space Shuttle program, proposes a return to the Moon using a new generation of vehicles. The Orion Crew Vehicle and the Altair Lunar Lander will use hardware, practices, and techniques descended and derived from Apollo, Shuttle and the International Space Station. However, the new generation of engineers and managers who will be working with Orion and Altair are largely from the decades following Apollo, and are likely not well aware of what was developed in the 1960s. In 2006 a project at NASA's Johnson Space Center was begun to find pertinent Apollo-era documentation and gather it, format it, and present it using modern tools for today's engineers and managers. This "Apollo Mission Familiarization for Constellation Personnel" project is accessible via the web from any NASA center for those interested in learning "how did we do this during Apollo?"

  1. Apollo: Learning From the Past, For the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabois, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper shares an interesting and unique case study of knowledge capture by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), an ongoing project to recapture and make available the lessons learned from the Apollo lunar landing project so that those working on future projects do not have to "reinvent the wheel". NASA's new Constellation program, the successor to the Space Shuttle program, proposes a return to the Moon using a new generation of vehicles. The Orion Crew Vehicle and the Altair Lunar Lander will use hardware, practices, and techniques descended and derived from Apollo, Shuttle and the International Space Station. However, the new generation of engineers and managers who will be working with Orion and Altair are largely from the decades following Apollo, and are likely not well aware of what was developed in the 1960s. In 2006 a project at NASA's Johnson Space Center was begun to find pertinent Apollo-era documentation and gather it, format it, and present it using modern tools for today's engineers and managers. This "Apollo Mission Familiarization for Constellation Personnel" project is accessible via the web from any NASA center for those interested in learning "how did we do this during Apollo?"

  2. Restoration of the Apollo Heat Flow Experiments Metadata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagihara, S.; Stephens, M. K.; Taylor, P. T.; Williams, D. R.; Hills, H. K.; Nakamura, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Geothermal heat flow probes were deployed on the Apollo 15 and 17 missions as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). At each landing site, the astronauts drilled 2 holes, 10-m apart, and installed a probe in each. The holes were 1- and 1.5-m deep at the Apollo 15 site and 2.5-m deep at the Apollo 17 sites. The probes monitored surface temperature and subsurface temperatures at different depths. At the Apollo 15 site, the monitoring continued from July 1971 to January 1977. At the Apollo 17 site, it did from December 1972 to September 1977. Based on the observations made through December 1974, Marcus Langseth, the principal investigator of the heat flow experiments (HFE), determined the thermal conductivity of the lunar regolith by mathematically modeling how the seasonal temperature fluctuation propagated down through the regolith. He also determined the temperature unaffected by diurnal and seasonal thermal waves of the regolith at different depths, which yielded the geothermal gradient. By multiplying the thermal gradient and the thermal conductivity, Langseth obtained the endogenic heat flow of the Moon as 21 mW/m(exp 2) at Site 15 and 16 mW/m(exp 2) at Site 17.

  3. Apollo 13 Facts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Footage is seen of the Earth from the Apollo 13 spacecraft as it travels towards the Moon. The crew, James Lovell, Jr., John Swigert, Jr., and Fred Haise, Jr., are shown performing various on-orbit activities. The Lunar Module rendezvous and docking, tunnel repressurization, and S4-B separation are also seen.

  4. Apollo experience report: Battery subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trout, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    Experience with the Apollo command service module and lunar module batteries is discussed. Significant hardware development concepts and hardware test results are summarized, and the operational performance of batteries on the Apollo 7 to 13 missions is discussed in terms of performance data, mission constraints, and basic hardware design and capability. Also, the flight performance of the Apollo battery charger is discussed. Inflight data are presented.

  5. Jim Lovell Recalls Apollo 8 Launch Day - Duration: 71 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronaut Jim Lovell, veteran of two Gemini flights as well as the legendary missions of Apollo 8 and Apollo 13, recalls his thoughts on launch day of Apollo 8 in 1968, when humans first left the E...

  6. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Construction of Model 1 used in the LOLA simulator. This was a twenty-foot sphere which simulated for the astronauts what the surface of the moon would look like from 200 miles up. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote: 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  7. Apollo Lesson Sampler: Apollo 13 Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains a two-part case study of the Apollo 13 accident. The first lesson contains an overview of the electrical system hardware on the Apollo spacecraft, providing a context for the details of the oxygen tank explosion, and the failure chain reconstruction that led to the conditions present at the time of the accident. Given this background, the lesson then covers the tank explosion and immediate damage to the spacecraft, and the immediate response of Mission Control to what they saw. Part 2 of the lesson picks up shortly after the explosion of the oxygen tank on Apollo 13, and discusses how Mission Control gained insight to and understanding of the damage in the aftermath. Impacts to various spacecraft systems are presented, along with Mission Control's reactions and plans for in-flight recovery leading to a successful entry. Finally, post-flight vehicle changes are presented along with the lessons learned.

  8. JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (juice): AN ESA L-Class Mission Candidate to the Jupiter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, M. K.; Grasset, O.; Erd, C.; Titov, D.; Bunce, E. J.; Coustenis, A.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A. J.; Drossart, P.; Fletcher, L.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; Van Hoolst, T.

    2012-04-01

    The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. Humankind wonders whether the origin of life is unique to the Earth or if it occurs elsewhere in our Solar System or beyond. To answer this question, even though the mechanisms by which life originated on Earth are not yet clearly understood, one can assume that the necessary conditions involve the simultaneous presence of organic compounds, trace elements, water, energy sources and a relative stability of the environment over time. JUICE will address the question: Are there current habitats elsewhere in the Solar System with the necessary conditions (water, biological essential elements, energy and stability) to sustain life? The spatial extent and evolution of habitable zones within the Solar System are critical elements in the development and sustainment of life, as well as in addressing the question of whether life developed on Earth alone or whether it was developed in other Solar System environments and was then imported to Earth. The focus of JUICE is to characterise the conditions that may have led to the emergence of habitable environments among the Jovian icy satellites, with special emphasis on the three ocean-bearing worlds, Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto. Ganymede is identified for detailed investigation since it provides a natural laboratory for analysis of the nature, evolution and potential habitability of icy worlds in general, but also because of the role it plays within the system of Galilean satellites, and its unique magnetic and plasma interactions with the surrounding Jovian environment. For Europa, where two targeted flybys are planned, the focus will be on the chemistry essential to life, including organic molecules, and on understanding the formation of surface features and the composition of the non water-ice material, leading to the identification and characterisation of candidate sites for future in situ exploration. Furthermore, JUICE will provide the first subsurface observations of this icy moon, including the first determination of the minimal thickness of the icy crust over the most recently active regions. JUICE will determine the characteristics of liquid-water oceans below the icy surfaces of the moons. This will lead to an understanding of the possible sources and cycling of chemical and thermal energy, allow investigation of the evolution and chemical composition of the surfaces and of the subsurface oceans, and enable an evaluation of the processes that have affected the satellites and their environments through time. The study of the diversity of the satellite system will be enhanced with additional information gathered remotely on Io and smaller moons. The mis-sion will also focus on characterising the diversity of processes in the Jupiter system which may be required in order to provide a stable environment at Ganymede, Europa and Callisto on geologic time scales, including gravitational coupling between the Galilean satellites and their long term tidal influence on the system as a whole. Focused stud-ies of Jupiter's atmosphere, and magnetosphere and their interaction with the Galilean satellites will further enhance our understanding of the evolution and dynamics of the Jovian system. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of Jupiter will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. These observations will be attained over a sufficiently long temporal baseline with broad latitudinal coverage to investigate evolving weather systems and the mechanisms of transporting energy, momentum and material between the different layers. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions and their response to the solar wind will be elucidated.

  9. Lunar Soil Erosion Physics for Landing Rockets on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clegg, Ryan N.; Metzger, Philip T.; Huff, Stephen; Roberson, Luke B.

    2008-01-01

    To develop a lunar outpost, we must understand the blowing of soil during launch and landing of the new Altair Lander. For example, the Apollo 12 Lunar Module landed approximately 165 meters from the deactivated Surveyor Ill spacecraft, scouring its surfaces and creating numerous tiny pits. Based on simulations and video analysis from the Apollo missions, blowing lunar soil particles have velocities up to 2000 m/s at low ejection angles relative to the horizon, reach an apogee higher than the orbiting Command and Service Module, and travel nearly the circumference of the Moon [1-3]. The low ejection angle and high velocity are concerns for the lunar outpost.

  10. Adrenocortical responses of the Apollo 17 crew members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Rambaut, P. C.; Johnson, P. C.

    1974-01-01

    Changes in adrenal activity of the three Apollo 17 crew members were studied during the 12.55-day mission and during selected post-recovery days. Aldosterone excretion was normal early and elevated later in the mission, probably causing a loss in total body exchangeable potassium. There was decreased 17-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion only during the early mission days for the two moon landers and throughout the mission for the other astronaut. Cortisol excretion was elevated on physically stressful mission days. At recovery, plasma ACTH was elevated without a similar increase in plasma cortisol. Angiotensin I activity was elevated at recovery in only one crewman. This crewman was the only one with a decreased extracellular fluid volume. These results indicate that the mission and its activities affect adrenal function of the crewmen.

  11. Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Watch Cake Cutting Ceremony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home for 21 days following the mission. In this photograph, the Hornet crew and honor guard snap to attention to begin the official cake cutting ceremony for the Apollo 11 astronauts. Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin are visible in the window of the MQF.

  12. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin speaks at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin (right) addresses the audience at the Apollo 11 anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex, with seating under an unused Saturn V rocket like those that powered the Apollo launches . This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Among the guests at the banquet were former Apollo astronauts are Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch of the first moon landing; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17 and was the last man to walk on the moon; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7.

  13. Gene Cernan speaks at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo program team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible, former Apollo astronaut Gene Cernan relates a humorous comment while Wally Schirra (background) gestures behind him. Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17, was the last man to walk on the moon; Schirra flew on Apollo 7. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Other guests at the banquet were former Apollo astronauts are Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch of the first moon landing, and Walt Cunningham, who also flew on Apollo 7.

  14. Apollo 11 Astronauts Headed For Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard the craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). Donned in biological isolation garments, the Apollo 11 crew members (front to rear) Armstrong, Collins, and Aldrin leave the pick up helicopter making their way to the MQF. This portable facility served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. With the success of Apollo 11 mission the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  15. Neil Armstrong chats with attendees at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong poses for a photograph with fans who attended the anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon.

  16. Moon Tune

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a lesson about NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Learners will sing about the LRO mission to the Moon, learn that craters on the Moon may harbor water ice, and they discover how LRO is searching for this and other resources needed to build future lunar outposts. This is a good introductory activity. This activity is part of Explore! To the Moon and Beyond! - a resource developed specifically for use in libraries.

  17. Lunar seismology - The internal structure of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goins, N. R.; Dainty, A. M.; Toksoz, M. N.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that seismology has provided the most detailed information concerning the structure and state of the earth's interior. Beginning in 1969, seismometers were landed on the moon by the Apollo missions, providing the first opportunity to attempt similar studies on another planetary body. In September 1977 the operation of these instruments was terminated. A description is presented of the internal structure of the moon, as determined from the obtained lunar seismic data. The analysis of the lunar data is approached in a systematic fashion, using appropriate techniques to minimize the number of necessary assumptions, extract the maximum amount of structural information, and determine its reliability. The completed lunar seismic network consists of four stations located at the landing sites of Apollo missions 12, 14, 15, and 16. Attention is given to crustal structure, the structure of the lunar mantle, the attenuating region, and the core.

  18. Former Apollo astronauts talk to the media.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    In the Apollo/Saturn V Center, Lisa Malone (left), chief of KSC's Media Services branch, waits for photographers to take photos of former Apollo astronauts (left to right) Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch to the moon; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7. The four met with the media prior to an anniversary banquet highlighting the contributions of aerospace employees who made the Apollo program possible. The banquet celebrated the 30th anniversary of the launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon.

  19. In Search of Moon Trees

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Phillips, Tony.

    2002-01-01

    In 1971, hundreds of tree seedlings germinated aboard NASA's Apollo 14 mission to the moon. A few years later, they were planted around the nation, often with much fanfare. However, no one kept a systematic record of these plantings, and as a result, the whereabouts of most of the trees remains a mystery. Visitors can read or listen to an account of the history and current status of them at this Web site, and follow links to access additional information relating to the story or to learn the location of known Moon trees. NASA scientist Dave Williams continues to search for the remaining trees and encourages readers to contact him if they believe they know of trees not currently mentioned on his list. What this site lacks in colorful, interactive features is more than made up for by its engaging feature story.

  20. JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE): An ESA mission to orbit Ganymede and to characterise the Jupiter system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasset, O.; Dougherty, M. K.; Coustenis, A.; Bunce, E. J.; Erd, C.; Titov, D.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A.; Drossart, P.; Fletcher, L. N.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; Van Hoolst, T.

    2013-04-01

    Past exploration of Jupiter's diverse satellite system has forever changed our understanding of the unique environments to be found around gas giants, both in our solar system and beyond. The detailed investigation of three of Jupiter's Galilean satellites (Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto), which are believed to harbour subsurface water oceans, is central to elucidating the conditions for habitability of icy worlds in planetary systems in general. The study of the Jupiter system and the possible existence of habitable environments offer the best opportunity for understanding the origins and formation of the gas giants and their satellite systems. The JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) mission, selected by ESA in May 2012 to be the first large mission within the Cosmic Vision Program 2015-2025, will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system in all their inter-relations and complexity with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. The investigations of the neighbouring moons, Europa and Callisto, will complete a comparative picture of the Galilean moons and their potential habitability. Here we describe the scientific motivation for this exciting new European-led exploration of the Jupiter system in the context of our current knowledge and future aspirations for exploration, and the paradigm it will bring in the study of giant (exo) planets in general.

  1. External Resource: Moon Mining

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    This activity encourages the use of process skills and an understanding of the idea that many things were learned from the rock samples that the astronauts brought back with them from the moon during NASA's Apollo flights to the moon. The activity simula

  2. Moon: Old and New

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This video presents the moon as studied by man for more than 20 centuries. It reviews the history of lunar studies before the first moon landing, the major things learned since Apollo 11, and closes with a resume of lunar investigations scientists would like to undertake in the future.

  3. Operating the Dual-Orbtier GRAIL Mission to Measure the Moon's Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beerer, Joseph G.; Havens, Glen G.

    2012-01-01

    The GRAIL mission is on track to satisfy all prime mission requirements. The performance of the orbiters and payload has been exceptional. Detailed pre-launch operations planning and validation have paid off. Prime mission timeline has been conducted almost exactly as laid out in the mission plan. Flight experience in the prime mission puts the flight team in a good position for completing the challenges of the extended mission where the science payoff is even greater

  4. More Surprises from the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Noah

    2011-01-01

    Even with the naked eye, the dark, extensive plains of the lunar maria can be clearly seen on the surface of the Moon. The maria formed after meteorite impacts created large craters that later filled with lava flows. Mare volcanism is the dominant type of volcanic activity on the Moon and the lavas are made up of basaltic rocks. However, non-mare volcanic deposits, though rare, have been observed on the lunar nearside. The deposits are distinguished from the maria because they are compositionally more evolved rich in silica, potassium and thorium. The deposits are limited in surface extent and it was unknown whether similar non-mare volcanism occurred at all on the Moon s farside. Writing in Nature Geoscience, Jolliff et al. report using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter images and compositional data to identify the rare occurrence of more compositionally evolved volcanic deposits in an isolated area on the Moon s farside. In the 1960s and 1970s, rock and soil samples were collected by the Apollo and Luna missions, by the USA and USSR respectively. This material represents a geologic treasure trove that continues to provide a wealth of information about the Moon and its evolution, and it was a very small fraction of these samples that gave the first hint that non-mare volcanic activity might have occurred. The samples contained fragments of complex volcanic rocks that were unrelated to the maria basalts. Violent bombardment of the Moon by meteorite impacts has caused significant mixing of the rocks at its surface, so the fragments could have had a source hundreds or thousands of kilometres away. The origin of the fragments was unknown. Several decades later, the Lunar Prospector mission used a gamma-ray spectrometer to map the distribution and abundance of various elements, including thorium, on the Moon s surface. The maps identified a distinct and large area of high thorium concentration, as well as several smaller, but equally peculiar areas of high thorium concentration on the nearside of the Moon (Fig. 1). The rocks that contained high thorium contents also exhibited geomorphological and spectral features that were typical of volcanic deposits, and so the thorium hotspots were thought to represent non-mare volcanism on the nearside of the Moon. A relatively large region with extremely high thorium concentrations - the Compton-Belkovich thorium anomaly - was also identified on the Moon s farside. This thorium hotspot was particularly unusual because it was completely isolated, alone on the farside of the Moon, far from the nearest maria. No high-resolution image data were available for this region, so a definitive interpretation of the source of this isolated anomaly has been impossible.

  5. Apollo: A retrospective analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Launius, Roger D.

    1994-01-01

    Since the completion of Project Apollo more than twenty years ago there have been a plethora of books, studies, reports, and articles about its origin, execution, and meaning. At the time of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the first landing, it is appropriate to reflect on the effort and its place in U.S. and NASA history. This monograph has been written as a means to this end. It presents a short narrative account of Apollo from its origin through its assessment. That is followed by a mission by mission summary of the Apollo flights and concluded by a series of key documents relative to the program reproduced in facsimile. The intent of this monograph is to provide a basic history along with primary documents that may be useful to NASA personnel and others desiring information about Apollo.

  6. Apollo 14 and 16 Active Seismic Experiments, and Apollo 17 Lunar Seismic Profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Seismic refraction experiments were conducted on the moon by Apollo astronauts during missions 14, 16, and 17. Seismic velocities of 104, 108, 92, 114 and 100 m/sec were inferred for the lunar regolith at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 landing sites, respectively. These data indicate that fragmentation and comminution caused by meteoroid impacts has produced a layer of remarkably uniform seismic properties moonwide. Brecciation and high porosity are the probable causes of the very low velocities observed in the lunar regolith. Apollo 17 seismic data revealed that the seismic velocity increases very rapidly with depth to 4.7 km/sec at a depth of 1.4 km. Such a large velocity change is suggestive of compositional and textural changes and is compatible with a model of fractured basaltic flows overlying anorthositic breccias. 'Thermal' moonquakes were also detected at the Apollo 17 site, becoming increasingly frequent after sunrise and reaching a maximum at sunset. The source of these quakes could possibly be landsliding.

  7. Apollo light flash investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, W. Z.; Pinsky, L. S.; Bailey, J. V.

    1975-01-01

    The visual phenomenon of light flashes resulting from high energy, heavy cosmic rays penetrating the command module structure and crewmembers' eyes is investigated. Light flash events observed during dedicated sessions on Apollo 15, 16, 17 are described along with a Monte Carlo simulation of the exposure of an astronaut to cosmic radiation during a mission. Results of the Apollo Light Flash Moving Emulsion Detector experiment developed for Apollo 16 and 17 to obtain a direct record of incident cosmic ray particles are correlated with crewmembers' reports of light flashes.

  8. Apollo lunar sounder experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, R.J.; Adams, G.F.; Brown, W.E., Jr.; Eggleton, R.E.; Jackson, P.; Jordan, R.; Linlor, W.I.; Peeples, W.J.; Porcello, L.J.; Ryu, J.; Schaber, G.; Sill, W.R.; Thompson, T.W.; Ward, S.H.; Zelenka, J.S.

    1973-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Apollo lunar sounder experiment (ALSE) are (1) mapping of subsurface electrical conductivity structure to infer geological structure, (2) surface profiling to determine lunar topographic variations, (3) surface imaging, and (4) measuring galactic electromagnetic radiation in the lunar environment. The ALSE was a three-frequency, wide-band, coherent radar system operated from lunar orbit during the Apollo 17 mission.

  9. External Resource: Exploring the Moon Educator Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    1900-01-01

    The NASA educators guide contains activities that promote problem solving, communication skills and teamwork while exploring the Moon. Topics: lunar geology, regolith, distance to the moon, Apollo landing sites, and life support systems.

  10. Science Exploration of the Moon with the European Space Agency SMART1 Mission

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H. Foing; G. Racca

    1998-01-01

    SMART-1, with a planned launch date of 2001, will be the first Small Mission for Advanced Research in Technology of the ESA Scientific Programme Horizons 2000. The mission is dedicated to the testing of new technologies for preparing future cornerstone missions, using solar electrical propulsion in deep space. The mission operational lifetime contains periods for cruise phase and an orbital

  11. Planning for the Future, a Look from Apollo to the Present

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segrera, David

    2008-01-01

    Future missions out of low Earth orbit, returning to the moon and Mars, will be some of the most complicated endeavors ever attempted by mankind. It will require the wealth of nations and the dedicated efforts of thousand of individuals working in a concerted effort to take man to the moon, Mars and beyond. These missions will require new equipment and new approaches to optimize our limited resources and time in space. This daily planning and optimization which currently is being performed by scores of people in MCC Houston and around the world will need to adapt to the challenges faced far from Earth. By studying the processes, methodologies, and tools employed from Apollo, Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and other programs such as NEEMO, we can learn from the past to plan for the future. This paper will explore the planning process used from Apollo onward and will discuss their relevancy in future applications.

  12. Apollo 11 Launched Via the Saturn V Rocket-High Angle View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first lunar landing mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle produced a holocaust of flames as it rose from its pad at Launch complex 39. The 363 foot tall, 6,400,000 pound rocket hurled the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit and then placed it on the trajectory to the moon for man's first lunar landing. This high angle view of the launch was provided by a `fisheye' camera mounted on the launch tower. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  13. U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Watches Apollo 11 Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (center), aboard the U.S.S. Hornet aircraft carrier, used binoculars to watch the Apollo 11 Lunar Mission Recovery. Standing next to the President is astronaut Frank Borman, Apollo 8 Commander. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days post mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  14. Apollo 11 Astronauts Headed For Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). Donned in biological isolation garments, the Apollo 11 crew members wave to well wishers as they leave the pick up helicopter making their way to the MQF. This portable facility served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  15. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White further described LOLA in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  16. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Track, Model 2 and Model 1, the 20-foot sphere. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) From Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966. 'The model system is designed so that a television camera is mounted on a camera boom on each transport cart and each cart system is shared by two models. The cart's travel along the tracks represents longitudinal motion along the plane of a nominal orbit, vertical travel of the camera boom represents latitude on out-of-plane travel, and horizontal travel of the camera boom represents altitude changes.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379.

  17. Apollo Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Construction of the track which runs in front of Model 3: Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'The model system is designed so that a television camera is mounted on a camera boom on each transport cart and each cart system is shared by two models. The cart's travel along the tracks represents longitudinal motion along the plane of a nominal orbit, vertical travel of the camera boom represents latitude on out-of-plane travel, and horizontal travel of the camera boom represents altitude changes.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  18. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White further described LOLA in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; From Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  19. Apollo Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Construction of the track which runs in front of Model 2. Technicians work on Model 1, the 20-foot sphere. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'The model system is designed so that a television camera is mounted on a camera boom on each transport cart and each cart system is shared by two models. The cart's travel along the tracks represents longitudinal motion along the plane of a nominal orbit, vertical travel of the camera boom represents latitude on out-of-plane travel, and horizontal travel of the camera boom represents altitude changes.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  20. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White described the simulator as follows: 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  1. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin speaks at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin addresses the audience at the Apollo 11 anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Among the guests at the banquet were former Apollo astronauts are Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch of the first moon landing; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17 and was the last man to walk on the moon; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7.

  2. Soil mechanics. [characteristics of lunar soil from Apollo 17 flight lunar landing site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Carrier, W. D., III; Costes, N. C.; Houston, W. N.; Scott, R. F.; Hovland, H. J.

    1973-01-01

    The soil mechanics experiment on the Apollo 17 mission to the Taurus-Littrow area of the moon is discussed. The objectives of the experiment were to determine the physical characteristics and mechanical properties of the lunar soil at the surface and subsurface in lateral directions. Data obtained on the lunar surface in conjunction with observations of returned samples of lunar soil are used to determine in-place density and porosity profiles and to determine strength characteristics on local and regional scales.

  3. Re-Assessment of "Water on the Moon" after LCROSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, Colin T.

    2010-01-01

    The LCROSS Mission has produced information about the possible presence of water in a permanently shaded regions of the Moon. Without the opportunity to have a controlled impact into a sun-lite site on the Moon, the LCROSS information must be carefully evaluated. The Apollo samples have provided a large amount of information on the nature of lunar hydrogen, water and other volatiles and this information must be considered in any interpretation of the observed data from the LCROSS and other lunar missions. Perhaps the volatiles seen by the LRO/LCROSS mission might be identical to lunar volatiles within ordinary lunar equatorial materials. Until the control experiment of having an impactor strike an equatorially site is carried out, caution must be taken when interpreting the results from the LCROSS mission.

  4. Declaring the Republic of the Moon - Some artistic strategies for re-imagining the Moon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Frenais., R.

    2014-04-01

    Sooner or later, humans are going back to the Moonwhether to mine it, to rehearse for a Mars mission or to just live there. But how will human activity there reflect what has happened on Earth since the last moon mission, to reflect the diversity and political and social changes that have happened since? Can artists imagine what it would be like to live on the Moon? Artists are already taking part in many scientific endeavours, becoming involved in emerging fields such as synthetic bioloogy, nanotechology, ecological remediation and enthusiastically participating in citizen science. There are already artists in Antarctica. It should be inevitable that artists will sooner or later accompany the next visit by humans to the Moon. But why wait? Artists are already imagining how it would be to live on the Moon, whether in their imaginations or though rehearsals in lunar analogues. In the recent exhibition 'Republic of the Moon' a number of visionary strategies were employed, from the use of earth-moon-earth 'moonbouncing' (Katie Paterson) to the breeding and imprinting of real geese as imagined astronauts. (Agnes Meyer-Brandis). The Outer Space Treaty and the (unsigned) Moon treaty were re-analysed and debates and even small demonstrations were organised protesting (or demanding) the industrial exploitation of the Moon. Fortuitously, China's Chang-e mission landed during the exhibition and the life and death of the rover Jade Rabbit brought a real life drama to the Republic of the Moon. There have been other artistic interventions into lunar exploration, including Aleksandra Mir's First Woman on the Moon, Alicia Framis's Moonlife project and of course the historic inclusion of two artistic artefacts into the Apollo missions, Monument to the Fallen Astronaut (still on the Moon) and the Moon Museum, reportedly inserted by an engineer into the leg of the Lunar Exploration Module. With the worldwide race by the Global Lunar X Prize teams to land a rover independently of any to fly in the government agency by the end of 2015 there must surely be a possibility for a real art project near future. In the meantime artists will keep working to re-imagine the Moon using whatever strategies they can find.

  5. Interviews with the Apollo lunar surface astronauts in support of planning for EVA systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.; Eppler, Dean B.; Morrow, Daniel G.

    1994-01-01

    Focused interviews were conducted with the Apollo astronauts who landed on the moon. The purpose of these interviews was to help define extravehicular activity (EVA) system requirements for future lunar and planetary missions. Information from the interviews was examined with particular attention to identifying areas of consensus, since some commonality of experience is necessary to aid in the design of advanced systems. Results are presented under the following categories: mission approach; mission structure; suits; portable life support systems; dust control; gloves; automation; information, displays, and controls; rovers and remotes; tools; operations; training; and general comments. Research recommendations are offered, along with supporting information.

  6. Earthrise - Apollo 8

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA

    This view of the rising Earth greeted the Apollo 8 astronauts as they came from behind the Moon after the lunar orbit insertion burn. Earth is about five degrees above the horizon in the photo. The unnamed surface features in the foreground are near the eastern limb of the Moon as viewed from Earth. The lunar horizon is approximately 780 kilometers from the spacecraft. Width of the photographed area at the horizon is about 175 km (109 miles). On the Earth 386,000 km (240,000 miles) away, the sunset terminator bisects Africa.

  7. The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to improve crew health and performance for future exploration missions and lunar surface operations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard A. Scheuring; Jeffrey A. Jones; Joseph D. Novak; James D. Polk; David B. Gillis; Josef Schmid; James M. Duncan; Jeffrey R. Davis

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Medical requirements for the future crew exploration vehicle (CEV), lunar surface access module (LSAM), advanced extravehicular activity (EVA) suits, and Lunar habitat are currently being developed within the exploration architecture. While much is known about the vehicle and lunar surface activities during Apollo, relatively little is known about whether the hardware, systems, or environment impacted crew health or performance

  8. Organics in APOLLO Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Allton, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    One of many unknowns prior to the Apollo landings concerned the possibility of life, its remains, or its organic precursors on the surface of the Moon. While the existence of lunar organisms was considered highly unlikely, a program of biological quarantine and testing for the astronauts, the Apollo Command Modules, and the lunar rock and soil samples, was instituted in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL). No conclusive evidence of lunar organisms, was detected and the quarantine program was ended after Apollo 14. Analyses for organic compounds were also con-ducted. Considerable effort was expended, during lunar surface operations and in the LRL, to minimize and quantify organic contamination. Post-Apollo curatorial operations and cleaning minimize contamination from particulates, oxygen, and water but no longer specifically address organic contamination. The organic compounds measured in Apollo samples are generally consistent with known sources of contamination.

  9. Apollo Landing Sites

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This is an activity about the siting and geology of the six Apollo lunar landings. Learners use latitude and longitude to identify potential landing sites and study the geology of lunar samples collected from those sites. This activity is in Unit 2 of the "Exploring the Moon" teacher’s guide and is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

  10. Apollo 11 -- 30th Anniversary

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    July 20, 1999 marks the 30th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing and the historic first steps by humans on the surface of another planet. In celebration, the National Air and Space Museum, Newseum, NASA, National Space Society and Artrain hosted a variety of activities in Washington, D.C. and on the internet. The site features a set of exhibitions: "Milestones of Flight," "Lunar Exploration Vehicles," "Apollo to the Moon," and the "Space Race." Additionally links to different collections, resources and activities, and past anniversary events are provided.

  11. Guide to the Apollo Collection Compiled by

    E-print Network

    Alabama in Huntsville, University of

    ---Saturn Apollo-Saturn 2 and 3 suborbital missions with Project High Water; Series 6---Saturn orbitalGuide to the Apollo Collection Compiled by Anne Coleman, Archivist & Vignesh Subbian, Archives to the Apollo Collection Contact Information: Department of Archives/Special Collections M. Louis Salmon Library

  12. The Apollo Archive Explorer Douglas W. Oard

    E-print Network

    Oard, Doug

    record of the Apollo program. The Johnson Space Center oral history project has interviewed a multitudeThe Apollo Archive Explorer Douglas W. Oard College of Information Studies/UMIACS University jmalionek@gmail.com ABSTRACT A system for exploring the rich recorded legacy of the Apollo missions

  13. Workshop on New Views of the Moon: Integrated Remotely Sensed, Geophysical, and Sample Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Brad L. (Editor); Ryder, Graham (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    It has been more than 25 years since Apollo 17 returned the last of the Apollo lunar samples. Since then, a vast amount of data has been obtained from the study of rocks and soils from the Apollo and Luna sample collections and, more recently, on a set of about a dozen lunar meteorites collected on Earth. Based on direct studies of the samples, many constraints have been established for the age, early differentiation, crust and mantle structure, and subsequent impact modification of the Moon. In addition, geophysical experiments at the surface, as well as remote sensing from orbit and Earth-based telescopic studies, have provided additional datasets about the Moon that constrain the nature of its surface and internal structure. Some might be tempted to say that we know all there is to know about the Moon and that it is time to move on from this simple satellite to more complex objects. However, the ongoing Lunar Prospector mission and the highly successful Clementine mission have provided important clues to the real geological complexity of the Moon, and have shown us that we still do not yet adequately understand the geologic history of Earth's companion. These missions, like Galileo during its lunar flyby, are providing global information viewed through new kinds of windows, and providing a fresh context for models of lunar origin, evolution, and resources, and perhaps even some grist for new questions and new hypotheses. The probable detection and characterization of water ice at the poles, the extreme concentration of Th and other radioactive elements in the Procellarum-Imbrium-Frigon's resurfaced areas of the nearside of the Moon, and the high-resolution gravity modeling enabled by these missions are examples of the kinds of exciting new results that must be integrated with the extant body of knowledge based on sample studies, in situ experiments, and remote-sensing missions to bring about the best possible understanding of the Moon and its history.

  14. Habitability of the giant icy moons: current knowledge and future insights from the JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasset, O.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Titov, D.; Erd, C.; Bunce, E.; Coustenis, A.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A.; Fletcher, L.; van Hoolst, T.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; Wielders, A.

    2012-09-01

    Large satellites of gas giants, at orbits beyond the snow-line, such as Jupiter or Saturn, can contain a large amount of water (almost 45% in mass). Hydrospheres are extremely thick, ~600 km for Ganymede and Callisto, and may possess liquid layers below the icy crust. Thus, the Galilean satellites provide a conceptual basis within which new theories for understanding habitability can be constructed. Measurements from the Voyager and Galileo spacecraft revealed the potential of these satellites in this context. The JUpiter Icy moons Explorer (JUICE) will greatly enhance our understanding of their potential habitability. It is known, even at Earth where life mostly depends on solar energy, that habitats exist deep in the oceans in eternal darkness feeding on chemical energy. Aqueous layers are suspected below the icy crusts of the moons, which possess similar physical characteristics than Earth's deep oceans. Since they are certainly very stable through time, and because complex chemistry and energy sources may be available, life may have originated within such subsurface habitats despite the hostile surface conditions. Liquid water reservoirs have been proposed on Ganymede, Europa and Callisto from geophysical models, based on Galileo observations. These oceans that are covered by ice shells exist independently of the input of stellar energy, and are located well outside the conventional habitable zone of the Sun. Considering the pressure range encountered within the icy moons, four different scenarios can be defined. These result from varying thicknesses of the water ice layers and the liquid ocean with respect to the silicate floor (Figure 1). Case 2 in Figure 1 is highly probable for the largest moons (Ganymede and Callisto), while case 3 is more probable for Europa and smaller icy moons if they host liquid reservoirs such as has been discovered at Enceladus. Europa's ocean is unique because it may be in contact with the rock layer. This substrate may be geologically active and affected by hydrothermal processes, similar to the terrestrial sea floor. This may enhance habitability conditions since the rock layer could release chemical elements and energy to the surrounding water ocean. Differentiation of the rock could be responsible for the presence of salts and other essential elements in the ocean, and produce the low albedo terrains seen on the surface. An estimation of the minimal thickness of the icy crust over the most active regions of Europa is among the measurement goals of JUICE and this will provide important constraints on the subsurface structure of the moon. On the larger icy moons, Ganymede and Callisto, where internal pressures are sufficient to allow for the formation of high pressure ice phases, the existence of an ocean suggests that it should be enclosed between thick ice layers. Chemical and energy exchanges between the rocky layer and the ocean, which are so important for habitability, cannot be ruled out but would imply efficient transport processes through the thick high pressure icy layer. Such processes are indeed possible but not as clearcut as the exchanges that can be envisaged for Europa. Icy and liquid layers are probably not solely constituted of pure H2O. Many other compounds such as salts, or CO2 have been observed on the surfaces and may emerge from the deep interiors of the moons. Volatiles, organics and minerals solidified from the aqueous cryo-magmas, could be detected remotely from an orbiting spacecraft. Analysis of these materials will give great insight to the physico-chemistry and composition of the deep environments. But such organic matter and other surface compounds will experience a different radiation environment at Europa than at Ganymede (due to the difference in radial distance from Jupiter) and thus may suffer different alteration processes, influencing their detection on the surface. Measurements from terrains on both Europa and Ganymede will allow a comparison of different radiation doses and terrain ages from similar materials. JUICE will address key areas that eme

  15. The Nature of the 4.2 Ga Impact Episode on the Moon: Evidence from North Ray Crater Breccias, Apollo 16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, M. D.

    2015-02-01

    The range of Ar ages obtained from clasts in the North Ray breccias may reflect variable resetting of ejecta from a 4.2 Ga basin that occurred in the PKT and was subsequently transported to the Apollo 16 site by Imbrium deposits.

  16. The case for planetary sample return missions - Origin and evolution of the moon and its environment

    SciTech Connect

    Ryder, G.; Spudis, P.D.; Taylor, G.J. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX (USA) USGS, Flagstaff, AZ (USA) New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque (USA))

    1989-11-01

    The most important questions concerning the origin and evolution of the moon and its environment are reviewed, and the ways that studying lunar samples could help answer them, are discussed. Recommendations are made about methods for obtaining samples and the best lunar sites for obtaining them using simple, unmanned sample returners. Lunar geologic field sites that require intensive field work with human interaction are also considered. 16 refs.

  17. On the fundamental importance of the social psychology of research as a basic paradigm for the philosophy of science: A philosophical case study of the psychology of the Apollo moon scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitroff, I. I.

    1972-01-01

    A combined philosophical and social psychological study of over 40 of the Apollo moon Scientists reveals that the Orthodox or Received View of Scientific Theories is found wanting in several respects: (1) observations are not theory-free; (2) scientific observations are not directly observable; and (3) observations are no less problematic than theories. The study also raises some severe criticisms of distinction between the context of discovery and the context of justification. Not only does this distinction fail to describe the actual practice of science but even more important it has the dangerous effect of excluding some of the strongest lines of evidence which could most effectively challenge the distinction. The distinction is harmful of efforts to found interdisciplinary theories and philosophies of science.

  18. Spacecraft Conceptual Design Compared to the Apollo Lunar Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, C.; Bowie, J.; Rust, R.; Lenius, J.; Anderson, M.; Connolly, J.

    2011-01-01

    Future human exploration of the Moon will require an optimized spacecraft design with each sub-system achieving the required minimum capability and maintaining high reliability. The objective of this study was to trade capability with reliability and minimize mass for the lunar lander spacecraft. The NASA parametric concept for a 3-person vehicle to the lunar surface with a 30% mass margin totaled was considerably heavier than the Apollo 15 Lunar Module "as flown" mass of 16.4 metric tons. The additional mass was attributed to mission requirements and system design choices that were made to meet the realities of modern spaceflight. The parametric tool used to size the current concept, Envision, accounts for primary and secondary mass requirements. For example, adding an astronaut increases the mass requirements for suits, water, food, oxygen, as well as, the increase in volume. The environmental control sub-systems becomes heavier with the increased requirements and more structure was needed to support the additional mass. There was also an increase in propellant usage. For comparison, an "Apollo-like" vehicle was created by removing these additional requirements. Utilizing the Envision parametric mass calculation tool and a quantitative reliability estimation tool designed by Valador Inc., it was determined that with today?s current technology a Lunar Module (LM) with Apollo capability could be built with less mass and similar reliability. The reliability of this new lander was compared to Apollo Lunar Module utilizing the same methodology, adjusting for mission timeline changes as well as component differences. Interestingly, the parametric concept's overall estimated risk for loss of mission (LOM) and loss of crew (LOC) did not significantly improve when compared to Apollo.

  19. Gene Cernan talks at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo astronaut Gene Cernan makes a point during a presentation at the Apollo 11 anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Cernan appeared with other former astronauts Neil Armstrong, the first man to walk on the moon; Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin; Walt Cunningham; and others.

  20. General Human Health Issues For Moon And Mars Missions: Results From The HUMEX Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Horneck; B. Comet

    2004-01-01

    Human exploratory missions, such as the establishment of a permanently inhabited lunar base and\\/or human visits to Mars will add a new dimension to human space flight, concerning the distance of travel, the radiation environment, the gravity lev-els, the duration of the mission, and the level of confinement and isolation the crew will be exposed to. This will raise the

  1. View of the earth transmitted during live television transmission Apollo 8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    This is how the surface of the moon looked from an altitude of approximately 60 miles as photographed by a television camera aboard the Apollo 8 spacecraft. This is Apollo 8's third live television transmission back to earth. At the time this picture was made, the Apollo 8 spacecraft was making its second revolution of the moon.

  2. Rb-Sr ages of igneous rocks from the Apollo 14 mission and the age of the Fra Mauro formation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1971-01-01

    Internal Rb-Sr isochrons were determined on four basaltic rocks and on a basaltic clast from a breccia from the Fra Mauro landing site. An internal isochron was determined for rock 12004 and yielded a value in agreement with previous results for basaltic rocks from the Apollo 12 site. The crystallization ages for Apollo 14 basalts are only 0.2 to 0.3 AE older than were found for mare basalts from the Sea of Tranquility. Assuming these leucocratic igneous rocks to be representative of the Fra Mauro site, it follows that there were major igneous processes active in these regions, and presumably throughout the highlands, at times only slightly preceding the periods at which the maria were last flooded.

  3. Geochemical Exploration of the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Isidore

    1984-01-01

    Provides information based on explorations of the Apollo program about the geochemistry of the moon and its importance in developing an understanding of formation/evolution of the solar system. Includes description and some results of orbital remote sensing, lunar x-ray experiments, gamma-ray experiments, alpha-particle experiments, and the Apollo

  4. General human health issues for Moon and Mars missions: Results from the HUMEX study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, Gerda; Comet, Bernard

    The general health issues considered in two scenarios of human long-term exploratory missions, which include a mission to a lunar base and a mission to Mars, have been analysed. Based on statistical data from occupational and normal population groups of Western countries, the following safety objectives have been chosen: individual risk of death by illness (=natural death) during the mission shall be <2 × 10-3/year, that by injury (=accidental death) <4 × 10-4/year, and that from all causes, including spacecraft failure (taken from most exposed professions) <3 × 10-2/year. Using the classical reliability requirements for human space missions, reliability objectives have been set for each mission scenario, resulting in values compatible with the mission safety objectives. The main results are as follows: (i) based of the probability of occurrence of diseases and injuries and on the constraints imposed by exploratory mission scenarios, the crew shall have a full autonomy in terms of medical and surgical diagnostics and care means and competency; (ii) the control of the toxic and biological risks in a confined environment for a so long exposure shall be carefully analyzed and the technical solutions shall master these risks; (iii) the state of the art shows that bone loss during the long stay in weightlessness, especially during missions to Mars, remains an unacceptable risk. Solutions to control and to prevent this risk shall be developed; (iv) the control of human physical capacity impairment under weightlessness shall be optimised. A roadmap in the field of health care has been elaborated for a future European participation strategy towards human exploratory missions taking into account preparatory activities, such as analogue situations and ISS opportunities, and potential terrestrial applications and benefits.

  5. Was Project Management Life Really Better in Apollo?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation discusses the question of "Was Project Management Life Really Better in Apollo?" Was money really flowing freely all through Apollo? Are we wallowing in nostalgia and comparing current circumstances to a managerial time which did not exist? This talk discusses these and other questions as background for you as today s project managers. There are slides showing the timelines from before the speech that Kennedy gave promising to land a man on the moon, to the early 60's, when the manned space center prepared the preliminary lunar landing mission design, an NASA organization chart from 1970, various photos of the rockets, and the astronauts are presented. The next slides discuss the budgets from the 1960's to the early 1970's. Also the results of a survey of 62 managers, who were asked "What problems pose the greatest obstacles to successful project performance?"

  6. Apollo 11 Commander Armstrong Presents President With Commemorative Plaque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    On June 4, 1974, 5 years after the successful Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, commander Neil Armstrong (right) presented a plaque to U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (left) on behalf of all people who had taken part in the space program. In making the presentation, Armstrong said 'Mr. President, you have proclaimed this week to be United States Space week in conjunction with the fifth anniversary of our first successful landing on the Moon. It is my privilege to represent my colleagues, the crewmen of projects Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab, and the men and women of NASA, and the hundreds of thousands of Americans from across the land who contributed so mightily to the success of our efforts in space in presenting this plaque which bears the names of each individual who has had the privilege of representing this country' in a space flight. The presentation was made at the California white house in San Clemente.

  7. Apollo Project - LOLA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Test subject sitting at the controls: Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) From Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966. 'A typical mission would start with the first cart positioned on model 1 for the translunar approach and orbit establishment. After starting the descent, the second cart is readied on model 2 and, at the proper time, when superposition occurs, the pilot's scene is switched from model 1 to model 2. then cart 1 is moved to and readied on model 3. The procedure continues until an altitude of 150 feet is obtained. The cabin of the LM vehicle has four windows which represent a 45 degree field of view. The projection screens in front of each window represent 65 degrees which allows limited head motion before the edges of the display can be seen. The lunar scene is presented to the pilot by rear projection on the screens with four Schmidt television projectors. The attitude orientation of the vehicle is represented by changing the lunar scene through the portholes determined by the scan pattern of four orthicons. The stars are front projected onto the upper three screens with a four-axis starfield generation (starball) mounted over the cabin and there is a separate starball for the low window. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379.

  8. Launching to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.

    2007-01-01

    America is returning to the Moon in preparation for the first human footprint on Mars, guided by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. This presentation will discuss NASA's mission today, the reasons for returning to the Moon and going to Mars, and how NASA will accomplish that mission. The primary goals of the Vision for Space Exploration are to finish the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed to return people to the Moon and go to Mars. Unlike the Apollo program of the 1960s, this phase of exploration will be a journey, not a race. In 1966, the NASA's budget was 4 percent of federal spending. Today, with 6/10 of 1 percent of the budget, NASA must incrementally develop the vehicles, infrastructure, technology, and organization to accomplish this goal. Fortunately, our knowledge and experience are greater than they were 40 years ago. NASA's goal is a return to the Moon by 2020. The Moon is the first step to America's exploration of Mars. Many questions about the Moon's history and how its history is linked to that of Earth remain even after the brief Apollo explorations of the 1960s and 1970s. This new venture will carry more explorers to more diverse landing sites with more capable tools and equipment. The Moon also will serve as a training ground in several respects before embarking on the longer, more perilous trip to Mars. The journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the Lunar Surface Access Module. The architecture for the lunar missions will use one launch to ferry the crew into orbit on the Ares I and a second launch to orbit the lunar lander and the Earth Departure Stage to send the lander and crew vehicle to the Moon. In order to reach the Moon and Mars within a lifetime and within budget, NASA is building on proven hardware and decades of experience derived from the Apollo Saturn, Space Shuttle, and contemporary commercial launch vehicle programs. Less than one year after the Exploration Launch Projects Office was formed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, engineers are testing engine components, firing test rocket motors, refining vehicle designs in wind tunnel tests, and building hardware for the first flight test of Ares I, scheduled for spring 2009. The Vision for Exploration will require this nation to develop tools, machines, materials, and processes never before invented, technologies and capabilities that can be turned over to the private sector to benefit nearly all aspects of life on Earth. This new pioneering venture, as did the Apollo Program before it, will contribute to America's economic leadership, national security, and technological global competitiveness and serve as an inspiration for all its citizens.

  9. Apollo 11 Astronaut Aldrin Carries Equipment on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The first manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon, while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew set up experiments, collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth, planted the U.S Flag, and left a message for all mankind. In this photograph, Aldrin walks past some rocks, easily carrying scientific equipment which would have been too heavy to carry on Earth. The two packages made up the Early Apollo Scientific Experiment Package (EASEP) on Apollo 11. On the left is the Passive Seismic Experiment Package (PSEP) and on the right is the Laser Ranging Retroreflector (LRR).

  10. Apollo 11 Astronaut Aldrin Carries Equipment on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The first manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon, while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew set up experiments, collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth, planted the U.S. Flag, and left a message for all mankind. In this photograph, Aldrin walks past some rocks, easily carrying scientific equipment experiements, which would have been to heavy too carry on Earth. The two packages made up the Early Apollo Scientific Experiment Package (EASEP) on Apollo 11. On the left is the Passive Seismic Experiment Package (PSEP) and on the right is the Laser Ranging Retroreflector (LRRR).

  11. High-resolution Local Gravity Model of the South Pole of the Moon from GRAIL Extended Mission Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goossens, Sander Johannes; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Rowlands, David D.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    We estimated a high-resolution local gravity field model over the south pole of the Moon using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory's extended mission. Our solution consists of adjustments with respect to a global model expressed in spherical harmonics. The adjustments are expressed as gridded gravity anomalies with a resolution of 1/6deg by 1/6deg (equivalent to that of a degree and order 1080 model in spherical harmonics), covering a cap over the south pole with a radius of 40deg. The gravity anomalies have been estimated from a short-arc analysis using only Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data over the area of interest. We apply a neighbor-smoothing constraint to our solution. Our local model removes striping present in the global model; it reduces the misfit to the KBRR data and improves correlations with topography to higher degrees than current global models.

  12. Apollo 11 Astronauts Wave on Their Way to Mobile Quarantine Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via a Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place after splash down in the Pacific Ocean. Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was taken to safety aboard the USS Hornet, where they were quartered in a mobile quarantine facility. Here the astronauts are shown waving as they enter the quarantine facility. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  13. Apollo 11 Astronaut Collins Arrives at the Flight Crew Training Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins carries his coffee with him as he arrives at the flight crew training building of the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, one week before the nation's first lunar landing mission. The Apollo 11 mission launched from KSC via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  14. SMART1 mission to the Moon: Status, first results and goals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H. Foing; G. D. Racca; A. Marini; E. Evrard; L. Stagnaro; M. Almeida; D. Koschny; D. Frew; J. Zender; J. Heather; M. Grande; J. Huovelin; H. U. Keller; A. Nathues; J. L. Josset; A. Malkki; W. Schmidt; G. Noci; R. Birkl; L. Iess; Z. Sodnik; P. McManamon

    2006-01-01

    We present the first results from SMART-1’s science and technology payload. SMART-1 is Europe’s first lunar mission and will provide some significant advances to many issues currently active in lunar science, such as our understanding of lunar origin and evolution. The mission also contributes a step in developing an international program of lunar exploration. The spacecraft was launched on 27

  15. Apollo gastrointestinal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, B. L.; Huang, C. T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Fecal bile acid patterns for the Apollo 17 flight were studied to determine the cause of diarrhea on the mission. The fecal sterol analysis gave no indication of an infectious diarrhea, or specific, or nonspecific etiology occurring during the entire flight. It is assumed that the gastrointestinal problems encountered are the consequences of altered physiology, perhaps secondary to physical or emotional stress of flight.

  16. Restoration of APOLLO Data by the NSSDC and PDS Lunar Data Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Guinness, Edward A.; Taylor, Patrick T.; McBride, Marie J.

    2012-01-01

    The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Packages (ALSEPs), suites of instruments deployed by the Apollo 12. 14, 15, 16 and 17 astronauts on the lunar surface, still represent the only in-situ measurements of the Moon's environment taken over long time periods, Much of these data are housed at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at Goddard Space Flight Center but are in forms that are not readily usable, such as microfilm, hardcopy, and magnetic tapes with older, obsolete formats. The Lunar Data Node (LDN) has been formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node to put relevant, scientifically important Apollo data into accessible digital form for use by researchers and mission planners. The LDN has prioritized the restoration of these data based on their scientific and engineering value and the level of effort required. We will report on progress made and plans for future data restorations.

  17. APOLLO 13: The Spirit that Built America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 13: Nixon commends the crew of APOLLO 13 From the film documentary 'APOLLO 13: 'Houston, We've got a problem'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 13 : Third manned lunar landing attempt with James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred w. Haise, Jr. Pressure lost in SM oxygen system; mission aborted; LM used for life support. Mission Duration 142hrs 54mins 41sec

  18. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White further described LOLA in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

  19. Apollo 17 traverse gravimeter experiment /Preliminary results/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talwani, M.; Kahle, H.-G.

    1976-01-01

    Preliminary results of the traverse gravimeter experiment successfully performed during the Apollo 17 mission are discussed. An earth-moon gravity tie was established. On the basis of several readings, a gravity value of 162,695 + or - 5 mgal was obtained at the lunar-module landing site in the Taurus-Littrow valley. Free-air and Bouguer corrections were applied to the gravity data. The resultant Bouguer anomaly, analyzed with a two-dimensional approximation, shows a relative gravity maximum of about 25 to 30 mgal over the Taurus-Littrow valley. This maximum is interpreted in terms of a 1-km-thick block of basalt flow with a positive density contrast of 0.8 g/cu cm relative to the highland material on either side.

  20. Tektite glass in apollo 12 sample.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A

    1970-06-01

    The glassy portion of lunar sample 12013 from Apollo 12 is chemically more like some tektites from Java than like any terrestrial igneous rock. It satisfies all the chemical criteria for a tektite. Tektites are relatively recent and acid rocks, whereas the moon is chiefly ancient and basaltic; hence, tektites are probably ejected volcanically, rather than by impact, from the moon. PMID:17843588

  1. COMPASS Final Report: Saturn Moons Orbiter Using Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP): Flagship Class Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2011-01-01

    The COllaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team was approached by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) In-Space Project to perform a design session to develop Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) Spacecraft Conceptual Designs (with cost, risk, and reliability) for missions of three different classes: New Frontier s Class Centaur Orbiter (with Trojan flyby), Flagship, and Discovery. The designs will allow trading of current and future propulsion systems. The results will directly support technology development decisions. The results of the Flagship mission design are reported in this document

  2. Apollo development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David M. Harland

    On 15 January 1962 the Manned Spacecraft Center reorganised the Apollo Project Office as the Apollo Spacecraft Project Office\\u000a (ASPO) and appointed Charles W. Frick as Manager, with Robert O. Piland, head of the extinct Apollo Project Office, as Deputy\\u000a Manager. In recognition of the scale of the project, on 13 February 1963 Piland’s responsibility was narrowed to the LEM

  3. Gravity field of the Moon from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission.

    PubMed

    Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E; Watkins, Michael M; Asmar, Sami W; Konopliv, Alexander S; Lemoine, Frank G; Melosh, H Jay; Neumann, Gregory A; Phillips, Roger J; Solomon, Sean C; Wieczorek, Mark A; Williams, James G; Goossens, Sander J; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Mazarico, Erwan; Park, Ryan S; Yuan, Dah-Ning

    2013-02-01

    Spacecraft-to-spacecraft tracking observations from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) have been used to construct a gravitational field of the Moon to spherical harmonic degree and order 420. The GRAIL field reveals features not previously resolved, including tectonic structures, volcanic landforms, basin rings, crater central peaks, and numerous simple craters. From degrees 80 through 300, over 98% of the gravitational signature is associated with topography, a result that reflects the preservation of crater relief in highly fractured crust. The remaining 2% represents fine details of subsurface structure not previously resolved. GRAIL elucidates the role of impact bombardment in homogenizing the distribution of shallow density anomalies on terrestrial planetary bodies. PMID:23223395

  4. Apollo 14 food system.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.

    1971-01-01

    The program for improving foods for use during space flights consists of introducing new foods and food-handling techniques on each successive manned space flight. Because of this continuing improvement program, the Apollo 14 food system was the most advanced and sophisticated food system to be used in the U.S. space program. The food system used during the Apollo 14 mission and recent space-food-system advances are described and discussed in regard to their usefulness for future manned space flights.

  5. HUMAN MOON AND MARS EXPLORATION MISSION CHALLENGES & TOOLS FOR PSYCHOLOGICAL SUPPORT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Iya Whiteley; Olga Bogatyreva

    This paper provides a summary of a European Space Agency (ESA) study that lead to definition of a range of tools aimed at providing psychological support to the crew during long-duration exploration missions. The investigation started from identifying the type of psychological issues the crew will need to deal with. Subsequently, the issues where broken down into groups of interacting

  6. Food and Nutrition for the Moon Base: What we have Learned in 45 Years of Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen; Kloeris, Vickie; Perchonok, Michele; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott M.

    2006-01-01

    The United States has a new human space flight mission to return to the Moon, this time to establish an outpost to continue research there and develop our ability to send humans to Mars and bring them back in good health. The Apollo missions were the first human expeditions to the Moon. Only 2 crew members landed on the lunar surface on each Apollo mission, and they spent a maximum of 72 hours there. Future trips will have at least 4 crew members, and the initial trips will include several days of surface activity. Eventually, these short (sortie) missions will extend to longer lunar surface times, on the order of weeks. Thus, the challenges of meeting the food and nutritional needs of crew members at a lunar outpost will be significantly different from those during the early Apollo missions. The U.S. has had humans in space beginning in 1961 with increasing lengths of time in space flight. Throughout these flights, the areas of particular concern for nutrition are body mass, bone health, and radiation protection. The development and refinement of the food systems over the last 30 years are discussed, as well as the plans for both the sortie and lunar. The articles briefly review what we know today about food and nutrition for space travelers and relate this knowledge to our planned human flights back to the Moon.

  7. Local Gravity Field Determination On The Moon Using GRAIL Extended Mission Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft were launched on September 10, 2011, and conducted their primary mapping mission from March 1 until May 29, 2012 at an average altitude of 50 km. GRAIL's extended mission commenced on August 30 and was completed on December 14, 2012. The average altitude during the extended mission was 23 km above lunar surface. Both primary and extended mission data have been processed at NASA/GSFC using the GEODYN software, resulting in high-resolution (degree and order 900 in spherical harmonics) gravity field models of high accuracy. However, especially during low-altitude passes, Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data residuals are still well above noise level. Here, we focus on methods to determine local gravity adjustments from KBRR data. We represent gravity in the area of interest as gravity anomaly adjustments with respect to the background spherical harmonics model. We use KBRR data only over the area of interest, and we then perform short-arc orbit determination. Our areas of focus are mainly the Mare Orientale area, where GRAIL achieved its lowest altitude above the lunar surface towards the end of the mission, and the south pole area, where naturally there is a confluence of orbit tracks. We investigate different grids and different smoothing constraints used in the estimation of the anomalies, numerical differentiation with respect to time of the KBRR data to localize its sensitivity further, and we evaluate the solutions in terms of Bouguer anomaly signatures, KBRR data fit, and correlations with local topography.

  8. General Human Health Issues For Moon And Mars Missions: Results From The HUMEX Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.; Comet, B.

    Human exploratory missions, such as the establishment of a permanently inhabited lunar base and/or human visits to Mars will add a new dimension to human space flight, concerning the distance of travel, the radiation environment, the gravity lev-els, the duration of the mission, and the level of confinement and isolation the crew will be exposed to. This will raise the significance of several health issues. Besides spaceflight specific risks, such as radiation health, gravity related effects and psy-chological issues, general health issues need to be considered. These individual risks of illness, injury or death are based on general human health statistics. The duration of the mission is the main factor in these considerations. These risk estimations are the base which have to supplemented by the risks related specifically to the nature of the expedition under consideration. Crew health and performance have to be secured during transfer flights, during lunar or Mars surface exploration, including EVAs, and upon return to Earth, as defined within the constraints of safety objectives and mass restrictions of the mission. Within the ESA Study on the Survivability and Adaptation of Humans to Long-Duration Interplanetary and Planetary Environments (so called HUMEX study), we have critically assessed the human responses, limits and needs with regard to the environments of interplanetary and planetary missions. Based on various scenarios, the crew health risks have been evaluated. The main results are as follows: (i) The state of the art shows that bone loss during the long stay in weightlessness, especially during missions to Mars, remains an unacceptable risk. Solutions to control and to prevent this risk shall be developed. (ii) The control of human physical capacity impairment under weightlessness shall be optimized. (iii) Based of the probability of occurrence of diseases and injuries and on the con-straints imposed by exploratory mission scenarios, the crew shall have a full auton-omy in terms of medical and surgical diagnostics and care means and competency. (iv) The control of the toxic and biological risks in a confined environment for a so long exposure shall be carefully analyzed and the technical solutions shall master these risks. A roadmap in the field of health care has been elaborated for a future European participation strategy towards human exploratory missions taking into account preparatory activities, such as analogue situations and ISS opportunities, European positioning and potential terrestrial applications and benefits. References: Horneck G. , R. Facius, M. Reichert, P. Rettberg, W. Seboldt, D. Man-zey, B. Comet, A. Maillet, H. Preiss, L. Schauer, C.G. Dussap, L. Poughon, A. Belyavin, G. Reitz, C. Baumstark-Khan, R. Gerzer (2003) HUMEX, a Study on the Survivability and Adaptation of Humans to Long-Duration Exploratory Missions, ESA SP-1264

  9. Exploring the Moon Educator Guide

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This educator's guide with activities promotes problem solving, communication skills and teamwork. Topics include lunar geology and regolith, distance to the moon, Apollo landing sites, and life support systems. Some of the activities involve the Lunar Sample Disk, a set of samples of lunar rocks and regolith embedded in a 15-cm diameter plastic disk. Disks are sent via registered mail to educators for one- to two-week loan periods. The package also includes the book 'Exploring the Moon', an annotated slide set of lunar images, and a collection of color photographs and descriptions of the six samples. The activities are divided into three units: Pre-Apollo, Learning from Apollo, and the Future. These correspond roughly to exercises that can be done before the Lunar Sample Disk arrives (Pre-Apollo), while it is there (Learning from Apollo), and after it has been returned (The Future).

  10. Recovery and Restoration of Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) Data by the NSSDC and the PDS Lunar Data Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. R.; Hills, H. K.; Guinness, E. A.; Taylor, P. T.; McBride, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Astronauts on the Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17 missions deployed long-lived (5 to 8 years) automated instrument suites on the Moon, the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Packages (ALSEP). The instruments were all turned off in September of 1977, but long before this the Apollo program and most of its funding had been abruptly cancelled. One result of this sudden cancellation was the loss of resources to properly archive these experiment data. Much of the data, particularly from the later years, were lost or saved in obsolete or difficult to access formats, and not properly documented. None of the surface data archived at National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) were in a form which could be easily archived with the Planetary Data System (PDS). The Lunar Data Project was started at NSSDC in order to recover and restore Apollo data into usable, well-documented digital formats. The PDS Lunar Data Node was established at NSSDC under the auspices of the PDS Geosciences Node to produce validated PDS data sets from the restored data. Six ALSEP data sets are archived at PDS: Apollo 12 and 15 Solar Wind Spectrometer 28-sec and hourly averages, and Apollo 14 and 15 Cold Cathode Ion Gage plots. (Other surface data, from the Apollo 17 Traverse Gravimeter and the Apollo 15 and 16 Penetrometer Soil Mechanics Experiments, have also been restored and are archived with PDS.) Apollo 14 and 15 Dust Detector data and Apollo 15 and 17 Heat Flow data have been restored and gone through a PDS review. They are now undergoing lien resolution. We are currently recovering data and restoring Apollo 12, 14, and 15 Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment, Apollo 14 Charged Particle Lunar Environment Experiment, Apollo 17 Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment, and Apollo 17 Lunar Ejecta and Meteorite data. Lunar Surface Magnetometer data from Apollo 15 and 16 are being restored by another group led by Peter Chi at U.C.L.A. We are also restoring, in conjunction with Yosio Nakamura (University of Texas), the ALSEP Housekeeping (Word 33) data which contain information on instrument status, temperature, power, and other parameters which are important to the interpretation of much of the instrument data. Raw data telemetry exist for the ALSEPs from March 1976 until turnoff in September 1977. Efforts are underway, led by Seiichi Nagihara (Texas Tech University), to recover more of this telemetry, stored on what are known as the ARCSAV tapes. A small number of these tapes have been recovered from the National Records Center and are being read. We report on progress and future work planned for the ALSEP data restorations.

  11. First Apollo 11 Lunar Samples Arrive at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. This photograph was taken as the mission's first loaded sample return container arrived at Ellington Air Force Base by air from the Pacific recovery area. The rock box was immediately taken to the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) in Houston, Texas. Happily posing for the photograph with the rock container are (L-R) Richard S. Johnston (back), special assistant to the MSC Director; George M. Low, MSC Apollo Spacecraft Program manager; George S. Trimble (back), MSC Deputy Director; Lt. General Samuel C. Phillips, Apollo Program Director, Office of Manned Spaceflight at NASA headquarters; Eugene G. Edmonds, MSC Photographic Technology Laboratory; Dr. Thomas O. Paine, NASA Administrator; and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC Director.

  12. Earth to Moon Transfer: Direct vs Via Libration Points (L1, L2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald L.; Wilson, Samuel W.

    2004-01-01

    For some three decades, the Apollo-style mission has served as a proven baseline technique for transporting flight crews to the Moon and back with expendable hardware. This approach provides an optimal design for expeditionary missions, emphasizing operational flexibility in terms of safely returning the crew in the event of a hardware failure. However, its application is limited essentially to low-latitude lunar sites, and it leaves much to be desired as a model for exploratory and evolutionary programs that employ reusable space-based hardware. This study compares the performance requirements for a lunar orbit rendezvous mission type with one using the cislunar libration point (L1) as a stopover and staging point for access to arbitrary sites on the lunar surface. For selected constraints and mission objectives, it contrasts the relative uniformity of performance cost when the L1 staging point is used with the wide variation of cost for the Apollo-style lunar orbit rendezvous.

  13. Apollo 8 Capsule Hoisted Onto Recovery Ship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    This is a photograph of the Apollo 8 Capsule being hoisted onto the recovery ship following splashdown on December 27, 1968. The first manned Apollo mission to escape Earth's gravity and travel to the lunar vicinity, the Saturn V, SA-503, Apollo 8 mission liftoff occurred seven days prior, on December 21, 1968. Aboard were astronauts William Anders, Lunar Module (LM) Pilot; James Lovell, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Frank Borman, commander. The mission achieved operational experience and tested the Apollo command module systems, including communications, tracking, and life-support, in cis-lunar space and lunar orbit, and allowed evaluation of crew performance on a lunar orbiting mission. The crew photographed the lunar surface, both far side and near side, obtaining information on topography and landmarks as well as other scientific information necessary for future Apollo landings. All systems operated within allowable parameters and all objectives of the mission were achieved.

  14. Apollo 13 creativity: in-the-box innovation.

    PubMed

    King, M J

    1997-01-01

    A study of the Apollo 13 mission, based on the themes showcased in the acclaimed 1995 film, reveals the grace under pressure that is the condition of optimal creativity. "Apollo 13 Creativity" is a cultural and creative problem-solving appreciation of the thinking style that made the Apollo mission succeed: creativity under severe limitations. Although creativity is often considered a "luxury good," of concern mainly for personal enrichment, the arts, and performance improvement, in life-or-death situations it is the critical pathway not only to success but to survival. In this case. the original plan for a moon landing had to be transformed within a matter of hours into a return to earth. By precluding failure as an option at the outset, both space and ground crews were forced to adopt a new perspective on their resources and options to solve for a successful landing. This now-classic problem provides a range of principles for creative practice and motivation applicable in any situation. The extreme situation makes these points dramatically. PMID:11541760

  15. Apollo 11 Astronauts In Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched aboard the Marshall Space light Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. The surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours. Once the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth, the LM redocked with the CM for the crew's return to Earth. Following splash down in the Pacific Ocean, Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). Pictured (L-R) are astronauts Armstrong, Collins, and Aldrin smiling through the window of the MQF.

  16. Apollo 11 Quarantine Facility Prepared for Loading Onto Jet Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. In this photo taken at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, the inhabited MQF is prepared for loading into an Air Force C-141 jet transport for the flight back to Ellington Air Force Base Texas and then on to the MSC.

  17. Apollo 11 Occupied Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) Moved For Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. The occupied MQF was unloaded from the U.S.S. Hornet in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. In this photo, the facility is moved from the Hornet's dock enroute to Hickam Field where it was loaded aboard an Air Force C-141 jet transport for the flight back to Ellington Air Force Base Texas, and then on to the MSC.

  18. Apollo 11 Launched Via Saturn V Rocket - High Angle View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle produced a holocaust of flames as it rose from its pad at Launch complex 39. The 363 foot tall, 6,400,000 pound rocket hurled the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit and then placed it on the trajectory to the moon. This high angle view of the launch was provided by a `fisheye' camera mounted on the launch tower. The Saturn V was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard the spacecraft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  19. Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Loaded Onto Trailer For Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home for 21 days. In this photo taken at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, the quarantined housing facility is being lowered from the U.S.S. Hornet, onto a trailer for transport to Hickam Field. From there, it was loaded aboard an Air Force C-141 jet and flown back to Ellington Air Force Base Texas, and then on to the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas.

  20. Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Address by Hawaiian Governor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days. The recovery vessel docked in Pearl Harbor Hawaii, where the occupied MQF was transferred for transport to the to NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. In this photo the quarantined astronauts are addressed by Hawaiian Governor John Burns upon their arrival at Pearl Harbor.

  1. What happened to the moon? A lunar history mission using neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Breitkreutz, H.; Li, X. [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, FRM II, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Burfeindt, J.; Bernhardt, H. G.; Hoffmann, P. [Kayser-Threde GmbH, Wolfratshauser Str. 48, D-81379 Muenchen (Germany); Trieloff, M.; Schwarz, W. H.; Hopp, J. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Jessberger, E. K.; Hiesinger, H. [Institut fuer Planetologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The ages of lunar rocks can be determined using the {sup 40}Ar -{sup 39}Ar technique that can be used in-situ on the moon if a neutron source, a noble gas mass spectrometer and a gas extraction and purification system are brought to the lunar surface. A possible instrument for such a task is ISAGE, which combines a strong {sup 252}Cf neutron source and a compact spectrometer for in-situ dating of e.g. the South Pole Aitken impact basin or the potentially very young basalts south of the Aristachus Plateau. In this paper, the design of the neutron source will be discussed. The source is assumed to be a hollow sphere surrounded by a reflector, a geometry that provides a very homogeneous flux at the irradiation position inside the sphere. The optimal source geometry depending on the experimental conditions, the costs of transportation for the reflector and the costs of the source itself are calculated. A minimum {sup 252}Cf mass of 1.5 mg is determined. (authors)

  2. NASA Exploration Launch Projects Systems Engineering Approach for Astronaut Missions to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Stephen A.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration directs NASA to design and develop a new generation of safe, reliable, and cost-effective transportation systems to hlfill the Nation s strategic goals and objectives. These launch vehicles will provide the capability for astronauts to conduct scientific exploration that yields new knowledge from the unique vantage point of space. American leadership in opening new fi-ontiers will improve the quality of life on Earth for generations to come. The Exploration Launch Projects office is responsible for delivering the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) that will loft the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into low-Earth orbit (LEO) early next decade, and for the heavy lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) that will deliver the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) to LEO for astronaut return trips to the Moon by 2020 in preparation for the eventual first human footprint on Mars. Crew travel to the International Space Station will be made available as soon possible after the Space Shuttle retires in 2010.

  3. Planetary Protection for the JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE) Mission Candidate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erd, Christian

    2012-07-01

    The JUICE mission is being studied by ESA in the framework of its Cosmic Vision programme, addressing the topical questions ``What are the conditions for planet formation and emergence of life?'' and ``How does the Solar System work?''. Jupiter can be seen as a paradigm of planetary systems forming a mini-solar system on its own. By investigating its diverse satellites, the understanding of the formation and evolution such of systems would be advanced. The question of whether possible habitats of life are provided underneath the surfaces of the icy satellites Callisto, Ganymede and Europa would be addressed by remote sensing and in situ observations of their surfaces, their compositions and their interiors, including the characterizations of subsurface liquid water oceans, including targeting of recently active regions on Europa for inferring the minimal thickness of the icy crust. JUICE would furthermore provide observations of Jupiter's atmosphere addressing open questions on the circulation at mid-latitudes, and also including coverage of the polar region from a distance of about 29~R_J (see also L. Fletcher et al. in meeting C3.1 "Planetary Atmospheres"). JUICE would study the properties of the magnetosphere and would provide extensive monitoring of Jupiter's plasma environment at distances ranging from more than 100 to 8.5~R_J, which is the distance of Europa. The unique magnetic and plasma interactions between the Jupiter environment and Ganymede would be target to focused investigations, from orbit around Ganymede (see also A. Coates et al in session C3.2 ``Planetary Upper Atmospheres, Ionospheres and Magnetospheres''). The magnetic field and its potential habitability of Ganymede makes it a unique target for specific investigation. The presentation will briefly describe the science objectives of the JUICE mission (see also C.~Erd et al. in session B0.3 ``Active Natural Satellites in the Solar System''), and will then discuss the baseline mission profile, which includes two Europa flybys, causing the mission to be in Planetary Protection Category III, requiring the probability of deposition of a viable organism to be <10^{-4}. The intended approach for complying with the planetary protection requirements is to avoid active sterilization measures by ensuring that the spacecraft's probability for critical failure is sufficiently low. The duration of critical contamination of Europa is limited by the fact that that the spacecraft's trajectory needs to be actively modified towards Europa for the flybys, and afterwards the spacecraft will be on a trajectory with higher pericenter, significantly reducing any accidental collision. The presentation will specifically discuss plans on mitigating the risk of contamination of Europa. It is intended as early information for planetary protection group and to seek comments and feed-back on the approach. At the time of writing the JUCE mission is still in competition with two other missions (ATHENA, NGO) for the L1 launch slot in ESA's Cosmic Vision Programme. The decision on which mission to be carried forward to Definition Phase is expected to be taken in April 2012, and will be reported at the meeting. The current status of the development and next steps will be summarized too.

  4. Exploring the Moon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This teacher's guide provides background information about the moon, its geological history, and progress in lunar science from before, during, and after the Apollo program. A set of activities is provided to demonstrate such concepts as scale models, proportional relationships, rock and mineral identification, and lunar geography.

  5. Astronauts Stafford and Brand at controls of Apollo Command Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Two American ASTP crewmen, Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (foreground) and Vance D. Brand are seen at the controls of the Apollo Command Module during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) docking in Earth orbit mission.

  6. Astronaut Vance Brand at controls of Apollo Command Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Astronaut Vance D. Brand, command module pilot of the American ASTP crew, is seen at the controls of the Apollo Command Module during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) docking in Earth orbit mission.

  7. Apollo 15 30-day failure and anomaly listing report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The significant anomalies that occurred during the Apollo 15 mission are discussed. The five major areas are command and service modules, lunar module, scientific instrument module experiments, Apollo lunar surface experiment package and associated equipment, and government furnished equipment.

  8. Selection and characterization of landing sites for the upcoming Russian robotic missions to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marov, Mikhail Ya.; Head, James; Bazilevskiy, Alexander; Dolgopolov, Vladimir

    Russian missions Luna-Glob, Luna-Resource and Luna-Grunt are considered to be a sequence of landers aimed, in particular, to study physical conditions at the lunar poles, lunar volatiles both in situ and delivered to Earth laboratories, opportunities for utilization of lunar resources and to perform technological experiments for future lunar exploration [Zelenyi et al.,2013, 2014]. The first of these missions, tentatively planned for 2016, along with partial accomplishment of these tasks, is also devoted to test new-generation technologies for soft landing. The second one (~2018) addresses most of the mentioned tasks. The major task of the third mission is cryogenic sample return from the polar area. The potential landing sites had to accommodate the 15x30 km landing ellipses and be within 70-85N, 30W-60E and 70-85S, 0-60E [Basilevsky et al., 2013]. In these regions a search based on analysis of LOLA altimetry, LROC NAC and WAC images and Mini-RF data led to finding several spots with rather smooth surfaces which then were tested by the LEND team [Mitrofanov 2011, 2012] to see if they show signatures of enrichment in H/H2O. At the next stage of the studies a floor of the 95-km crater Boguslavsky was studied. The H2O content here is not high, but this place is convenient for the test of the new soft landing technologies. These morphometric studies rely mostly on the data acquired by instruments of the U.S. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and their availability and usage were significantly facilitated through the Brown-Vernadsky/SSERVI interaction.

  9. Complex Indigenous Organic Matter Embedded in Apollo 17 Volcanic Black Glass Surface Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, S. J.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; Rahman, Z.; Gonzalez, C.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Papers presented at the first Lunar Science Conference [1] and those published in the subsequent Science Moon Issue [2] reported the C content of Apollo II soils, breccias, and igneous rocks as rang-ing from approx.50 to 250 parts per million (ppm). Later Fegley & Swindle [3] summarized the C content of bulk soils from all the Apollo missions as ranging from 2.5 (Apollo 15) to 280 ppm (Apollo 16) with an overall average of 124+/- 45 ppm. These values are unexpectedly low given that multiple processes should have contributed (and in some cases continue to contribute) to the lunar C inventory. These include exogenous accretion of cometary and asteroidal dust, solar wind implantation, and synthesis of C-bearing species during early lunar volcanism. We estimate the contribution of C from exogenous sources alone is approx.500 ppm, which is approx.4x greater than the reported average. While the assessm ent of indigenous organic matter (OM) in returned lunar samples was one of the primary scientific goals of the Apollo program, extensive analysis of Apollo samples yielded no evidence of any significant indigenous organic species. Furthermore, with such low concentrations of OM reported, the importance of discriminating indigenous OM from terrestrial contamination (e.g., lunar module exhaust, sample processing and handling) became a formidable task. After more than 40 years, with the exception of CH4 [5-7], the presence of indigenous lunar organics still remains a subject of considerable debate. We report for the first time the identification of arguably indigenous OM present within surface deposits of black glass grains collected on the rim of Shorty crater during the Apollo 17 mission by astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt.

  10. Science Goals of MAJIS, the Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer, selected for the ESA/JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Yves; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Filacchione, Gianrico; Poulet, Francois; Eng, Pascal; Tosi, Federico; Majis Team

    2014-05-01

    The Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer (MAJIS) is the VIS-IR spectral mapper selected for the JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer) L-class mission by ESA. Launched in 2022, JUICE will perform 35 targeted flybys of Galilean satellites (Callisto: 20; Ganymede: 13; Europa: 2) from January 2030 to September 2032, then a 9 months orbital phase around Ganymede. This comprehensive tour will make it possible to perform in-depth investigations of the atmosphere of Jupiter (including at high latitudes during a sequence of inclined orbits in mid-tour), Io, small satellites, rings and dust in the Jupiter system. Spectral imaging in the visible and near-IR ranges is a key technique for characterizing the composition of both surfaces and atmospheres. MAJIS will provide spectral imaging observations of the Jupiter system with an unprecedented coverage, spatial resolution (0.125 mrad, e.g. 62.5 m / pixel for Ganymede on a 500 km altitude orbit and 125 km / pixel for Jupiter from the orbit of Ganymede) and spectral resolution (1280 spectral channels from 0.4 µm to 5.7 µm), adressing major science goals of JUICE: - Determination of the icy, mineral and organic composition of the surface of satellites - Relationship between composition and geological processes - Detection of volatiles, relationship with cryovolcanic activity and exobiology - Interaction of surfaces with the environment, characterization of exospheres - Time evolution of hot spots on Io (40 distant encounters, down to 50 km/pixel) - Exospheres of Galilean satellites, relationship with the surface and the environment - Compositional relationship between small satellites and rings - Stratospheric and thermospheric structure of the atmosphere of Jupiter - Composition and general circulation of the atmosphere of Jupiter, clouds, hot spots - Minor constituents (water, hydrocarbon chemistry) - Vertical mixing in the stratosphere of Jupiter - Observations of Auroral emissions During the initial stages of the study phase, specific scenarios are investigated so as to best use spacecraft capabilities for science during critical mission phases such as the 500 km circular orbit arount Ganymede, the Europa flybys and the high inclination orbits. A large mass storage capability is foreseen, which is particularly useful for MAJIS given its large data output during satellite flybys and time evolution sequences for Jupiter. There will be limitations due to downlink, but the present allocation will already make it possible to obtain extensive coverage as well as many opportunities for HR observations by MAJIS.

  11. Dunes on Saturn’s moon Titan as revealed by the Cassini Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radebaugh, Jani

    2013-12-01

    Dunes on Titan, a dominant landform comprising at least 15% of the surface, represent the end product of many physical processes acting in alien conditions. Winds in a nitrogen-rich atmosphere with Earth-like pressure transport sand that is likely to have been derived from complex organics produced in the atmosphere. These sands then accumulate into large, planet-encircling sand seas concentrated near the equator. Dunes on Titan are predominantly linear and similar in size and form to the large linear dunes of the Namib, Arabian and Saharan sand seas. They likely formed from wide bimodal winds and appear to undergo average sand transport to the east. Their singular form across the satellite indicates Titan’s dunes may be highly mature, and may reside in a condition of stability that permitted their growth and evolution over long time scales. The dunes are among the youngest surface features, as even river channels do not cut through them. However, reorganization time scales of large linear dunes on Titan are likely tens of thousands of years. Thus, Titan’s dune forms may be long-lived and yet be actively undergoing sand transport. This work is a summary of research on dunes on Titan after the Cassini Prime and Equinox Missions (2004-2010) and now during the Solstice Mission (to end in 2017). It discusses results of Cassini data analysis and modeling of conditions on Titan and it draws comparisons with observations and models of linear dune formation and evolution on Earth.

  12. Abort Options for Human Missions to Earth-Moon Halo Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jesick, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Abort trajectories are optimized for human halo orbit missions about the translunar libration point (L2), with an emphasis on the use of free return trajectories. Optimal transfers from outbound free returns to L2 halo orbits are numerically optimized in the four-body ephemeris model. Circumlunar free returns are used for direct transfers, and cislunar free returns are used in combination with lunar gravity assists to reduce propulsive requirements. Trends in orbit insertion cost and flight time are documented across the southern L2 halo family as a function of halo orbit position and free return flight time. It is determined that the maximum amplitude southern halo incurs the lowest orbit insertion cost for direct transfers but the maximum cost for lunar gravity assist transfers. The minimum amplitude halo is the most expensive destination for direct transfers but the least expensive for lunar gravity assist transfers. The on-orbit abort costs for three halos are computed as a function of abort time and return time. Finally, an architecture analysis is performed to determine launch and on-orbit vehicle requirements for halo orbit missions.

  13. Seismology of the moon and implications on internal structure, origin and evolution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewing, M.; Latham, G.; Dorman, J.; Press, F.; Sutton, G.; Meissner, R.; Duennebier, F.; Nakamura, Y.; Kovach, R.

    1971-01-01

    The objective of the passive seismic experiment is to measure vibrations of the lunar surface produced by all natural and artificial sources of seismic energy and to use these data to deduce the internal structure and constitution of the moon and the nature of tectonic processes which may be active within the moon. Lunar seismic signals are discussed together with the sources of these signals, and aspects of lunar structure and dynamics. Seismic signals from approximately 250 natural events and from two man-made impacts have been recorded during seven months of operation of the two seismic stations installed during Apollo missions 11 and 12.

  14. Nickel for your thoughts: urey and the origin of the moon.

    PubMed

    Brush, S G

    1982-09-01

    The theories of Harold C. Urey (1893-1981) on the origin of the moon are discussed in relation to earlier ideas, especially George Howard Darwin's fission hypothesis. Urey's espousal of the idea that the moon had been captured by the earth and has preserved information about the earliest history of the solar system led him to advocate a manned lunar landing. Results from the Apollo missions, in particular the deficiency of siderophile elements in the lunar crust, led him to abandon the capture selenogony and tentatively adopt the fission hypothesis. PMID:17747939

  15. Probing gravity with the proposed MAGIA and ILN lunar missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garattini, M.; Lops, C.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Boni, A.; Berardi, S.; Cantone, C.; Delle Monache, G. O.; Intaglietta, N.; Maiello, M.; Martini, M.; Patrizi, G.; Porcelli, L.; Tibuzzi, M.; Currie, D. G.; Vittori, R.; Bianco, G.; Murphy, T.; Coradini, A.; Dionisio, C.; March, R.; Bellettini, G.; Tauraso, R.

    MAGIA (Missione Altimetrica Gravimetrica GeochImica Lunare) is a mission approved by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) for Phase A study. Using a single large-diameter laser retroreflector, a large laser retroreflector array and an atomic clock onboard MAGIA, we propose to perform several fundamental physics and absolute positioning metrology experiments: VESPUCCI, an improved test of the gravitational redshift in the Earth-Moon system predicted by General Relativity; MoonLIGHT-P, a precursor test of a second generation Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) payload for precision gravity Network (ILN). Future ILN geodetic nodes equipped with MoonLIGHT and the Apollo/Lunokhod retroreflectors will become the first realization of the International Moon Reference Frame (IMRF), the lunar analog of the ITRF (International Terrestrial Reference Frame).

  16. Neil Armstrong chats with attendees at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong is the center of attention at the anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon. He appeared at the banquet with other former astronauts Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan, Walt Cunningham and others.

  17. Lunar Module Eagle Upon Descent to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Carrying astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., the Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' was the first crewed vehicle to land on the Moon. The LM landed on the moon's surface on July 20, 1969 in the region known as Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility). The LM is shown here making its descent to the lunar surface, while Astronaut Collins piloted the Command Module in a parking orbit around the Moon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida aboard a Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface. As he stepped off the LM, Armstrong proclaimed, 'That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind'. He was followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, describing the lunar surface as Magnificent desolation. The crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. The surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. von Braun.

  18. U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Arrives Aboard U.S.S. Hornet for Apollo 11 Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (center), is saluted by the honor guard of flight deck crewmen when he arrives aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 11 mission, to watch recovery operations and welcome the astronauts home. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days following the mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  19. Continued Analysis and Restoration of Apollo DTREM Instrument Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, M. J.; Williams, D. R.; Hills, H. K.

    2013-12-01

    During the years of 1969 to 1972, NASA sent 12 men to walk on the surface of the Moon. On each mission, on the first lunar extra vehicular activity, the astronauts deployed the Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP) (Apollo 11) or the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) (Apollo 12 - 17). The EASEP was a short-lived package that operated for a few months while the ALSEP contained scientific instruments to collect data on the lunar environment long after the astronauts had left the lunar surface. Part of the package on Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 was the Dust, Radiation, Thermal, Engineering Measurement (DTREM), also known as the Lunar Dust Detector. The DTREM was a small fiberglass box that had 3 thermometers and 3 solar cells. The output from the solar cells was used to determine the degradation of the cells from dust, temperature, and radiation on the lunar surface. Over a period of 5-7 years, the DTREM instruments collected data and returned them to Earth through the ALSEP central station housekeeping (Word 33) telemetry stream. The data were in the form of raw digitized telemetry files. The only translated and calibrated data from the instrument that existed were 38 reels of computer printout images archived at the National Space Science Data Center. As part of the lunar data restoration effort, the raw telemetry files from the communications stream have been translated and recalibrated, using the archived microfilm record to determine the correct values in terms of temperature and voltage output. Once they have been properly archived by the Lunar Data Node of the Planetary Data System (PDS) the data sets will be released to the scientific community. The DTREM instrument collected data every 54 seconds for 6 years on the Apollo 14 and 15 missions. The immense size of the data set required that a process be created to convert the raw telemetry fires autonomously. Therefore, we have recreated a digital version of the data from Apollo 14 and 15 that includes time, temperature, and uncalibrated and calibrated solar cell output. The digital version of the data allows modern analytical techniques to be performed with computers which were unavailable in the 1970's. We have also extended the available data to the turn-off in 1977. This makes it easier to determine solar cell degradation and to study the effects of dust and temperature vs. radiation. In the future, we plan to examine effects of the August, 1972 solar-proton event on the solar cells, and to look at other sources of solar cell degradation.

  20. Rare earth element selenochemistry of immiscible liquids and zircon at Apollo 14 - An ion probe study of evolved rocks on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Crozaz, Ghislaine

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of trace-element analyses of three lunar zircons. The major-element and REE compositions were determined using electron microprobes, and a correction was made for zircon for Zr-Si-O molecular interferences in the La to Pr mass region. The three zircons were found to exhibit similar REE abundances and patterns. Results of the analyses confirm earlier studies (Hess et al., 1975; Watson, 1976; Neal and Taylor, 1989) on the partitioning behavior of trace elements in immiscible liquid-liquid pairs. The results also support the postulated importance of silicate liquid immiscibility in the differentiation of the upper mantle and crust of the moon.

  1. The Moon may have been more active than

    E-print Network

    Weiss, Benjamin P.

    The Moon may have been more active than thought. Photo: Paul Sutherland http://w w w .skymania.com/w p/2012/01/w hat-drove-old-moons-magnetic-field.html/5442/ March 14, 2012 What drove Moon's magnetic field? Posted by Rocks returned from the Moon by Apollo astronauts continue to continue to give up

  2. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets Neil Armstrong at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible, former Apollo astronaut Neil A. Armstrong (left) shakes the hand of Judy Goldin (center), wife of NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin (right). The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Among the guests at the banquet were former Apollo astronauts are Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch of the first moon landing; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17 and was the last man to walk on the moon; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7.

  3. 3D Lunar Terrain Reconstruction from Apollo Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broxton, Michael J.; Nefian, Ara V.; Moratto, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Lundy, Michael; Segal, Alkeksandr V.

    2009-01-01

    Generating accurate three dimensional planetary models is becoming increasingly important as NASA plans manned missions to return to the Moon in the next decade. This paper describes a 3D surface reconstruction system called the Ames Stereo Pipeline that is designed to produce such models automatically by processing orbital stereo imagery. We discuss two important core aspects of this system: (1) refinement of satellite station positions and pose estimates through least squares bundle adjustment; and (2) a stochastic plane fitting algorithm that generalizes the Lucas-Kanade method for optimal matching between stereo pair images.. These techniques allow us to automatically produce seamless, highly accurate digital elevation models from multiple stereo image pairs while significantly reducing the influence of image noise. Our technique is demonstrated on a set of 71 high resolution scanned images from the Apollo 15 mission

  4. Elemental mapping of the moon using gamma rays : past, present, and future /

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, R. C. (Robert C.)

    2001-01-01

    The energies and intensities of gamma rays From a planetary surface can be used to infer the elemental composition of an object with no or a thin atmosphere. The Apollo gamma-ray spectrometers in 1972 and 1973 produced many of the results for the distribution of elements in the Moon that are now generally well accepted. Lunar Prospector in 1998 and 1999 globally mapped the Moon with gamma rays and neutrons. Both missions used spectrometers with poor energy resolution ({approx}8-10%). The Japanese plan to send a high-resolution germanium gamma-ray spectrometer to the Moon in about 2004 on their SELENE mission. However, little has been done since the 1970s on the models used to unfold planetary gamma-ray spectra. More work needs to be done on understanding what to expect in future gamma-ray spectra and how to unfold such data.

  5. Compositional Variation in Apollo 16 Impact-Melt Breccias and Inferences for the Geology and Bombardment History of the Central Highlands of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1994-01-01

    High-precision data for the concentrations of a number of lithophile and siderophile elements were obtained on multiple subsamples from 109 impact-melt rocks and breccias (mostly crystalline) from the Apollo 16 site. Compositions of nearly all Apollo 16 melt rocks fall on one of two trends of increasing Sm concentration with increasing Sc concentration. The Eastern trend (lower Sm/Sc, Mg/Fe, and Sm/Yb ratios) consists of compositional groups 3 and 4 of previous classification schemes. These melt rocks are feldspathic, poor in incompatible and siderophile elements, and appear to have provenance in the Descartes formation to the east of the site. The Western trend (higher Sm/Sc. Mg/Fe, and Sm/ Yb ratios) consists of compositional groups 1 and 2. These relatively mafic, KREEP-bearing breccias are a major component (approx.35%) of the Cayley plains west of the site and are unusual, compared to otherwise similar melt breccias from other sites, in having high concentrations of Fe-Ni metal ( 1-2 %). The metal is the carrier of the low-Ir/Au (approx. 0.3 x chondritic) siderophile-element signature that is characteristic of the Apollo 16 site. Four compositionally distinct groups (1M, 1F, 2DB, and 2NR) of Western-trend melt breccias occur that are each represented by at least six samples. Compositional group 1 or previous classification schemes (the 'poikilitic' or 'LKFM' melt breccias) can be subdivided into two groups. Group 1M (represented by six samples, including 60315) is characterized by lower Al2O3 concentrations, higher MgO and alkali concentrations, and higher Mg/Fe and Cr/Sc ratios than group 1F (represented by fifteen samples, including 65015). Group 1M also has siderophile-element concentrations averaging about twice those of group lF and Ir/Au and Ir/Ni ratios that are even lower than those of other Western-trend melt rocks (Ir/Au = 0.24 +/- 0.03. CI-normalized). At the mafic extreme of group 2 ('VHA' melt breccias), the melt lithology occurring as clasts in feldspathic fragmental breccias from North Ray crater (group 2NR) is compositionally distinct from the melt lithology ofdimict breccias from the Cayley plains (group 2DB) in having higher concentrations of Sc, Cr, and heavy rare earth elements and lower concentrations of siderophile elements. The distinct siderophile-element signature (high absolute abundances, low Ir/Au ratio) suggest that the four groups ofmafic melt breccia are all somehow related. Ratios ofsome lithophile elements also suggest that they are more closely related to each other than then, are to melt breccias from other Apoll sites. However, none of the breccia compositions can be related to any of the others by any simple process of igneous fractionation or mixing involving common lunar materials. Thus, the origin of the four groups of mafic melt breccia is enigmatic. If they were produced in only one or two impacts, then a mechanism exists for generating regimes of impact-melt breccia in a single impact that are substantially different from each other in composition. For various reasons, including the problem of delivering large volumes of four different types of melt to the Apollo 16 site, it is unlikely that any of these breccias were produced in basin-forming impacts. If they were produced in as many as four crater-forming impacts, then the unusual siderophile-element signature is difficult to explain. Possible explanations are (1) the four groups of melt breccia all contain metal from a single, earlier impact, (2) they were each formed by related metal-rich meteoroids, or (3) some common postimpact process has resulted in metal of similar composition in each of four melt pools. Within a compositional group, most intrasample and intersample variation in lithophile element concentrations is caused by differences among samples in the proportion of a component of normative anorthosite or noritic anorthosite. In most cases, this compositional variation probably reflects variation in clast abundance. For group 2DB (and probably 2NR), differences in abundance of a component of ferroan anorthosit

  6. Exploring the Moon: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Earth and Space Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educational guide concerns exploring the moon. Activities are divided into three units: Pre-Apollo, Learning from Apollo, and The Future. These correspond, at least roughly, to exercises that can be done before the Lunar Sample Disk (available from NASA) arrives to the school (Pre-Apollo), while it is there (Learning from Apollo), and after…

  7. APOLLO 13: A News Bulletin from ABC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 13: ABC breaks the news of a mishap aboard the spacecraft From the film documentary 'APOLLO 13: 'Houston, We've got a problem'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 13 : Third manned lunar landing attempt with James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Pressure lost in SM oxygen system; mission aborted; LM used for life support. Mission Duration 142hrs 54mins 41sec

  8. APOLLO 13: The crew beats the odds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 13: The world holds its breath as the astronauts try to survive the final moments of their voyage From the film documentary 'APOLLO 13: 'Houston, We've got a problem'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 13 : Third manned lunar landing attempt with James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred w. Haise, Jr. Pressure lost in SM oxygen system; mission aborted; LM used for life support. Mission Duration 142hrs 54mins 41sec

  9. APOLLO 13: The Crew Makes Emergency Repairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 13: Support on the ground design emergency equipment for the crew of Aquarius, and then radio instructions From the film documentary 'APOLLO 13: 'Houston, We've got a problem'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 13 : Third manned lunar landing attempt with James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred w. Haise, Jr. Pressure lost in SM oxygen system; mission aborted; LM used for life support. Mission Duration 142hrs 54mins 41sec

  10. The Impact of Apollo-Era Microbiology on Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, T. F; Castro, V. A.; Bruce, R. J.; Pierson, D. L.

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota of crewmembers and the spacecraft environment contributes significant risk to crew health during space flight missions. NASA reduces microbial risk with various mitigation methods that originated during the Apollo Program and continued to evolve through subsequent programs: Skylab, Shuttle, and International Space Station (ISS). A quarantine of the crew and lunar surface samples, within the Lunar Receiving Laboratory following return from the Moon, was used to prevent contamination with unknown extraterrestrial organisms. The quarantine durations for the crew and lunar samples were 21 days and 50 days, respectively. A series of infections among Apollo crewmembers resulted in a quarantine before launch to limit exposure to infectious organisms. This Health Stabilization Program isolated the crew for 21 days before flight and was effective in reducing crew illness. After the program developed water recovery hardware for Apollo spacecraft, the 1967 National Academy of Science Space Science Board recommended the monitoring of potable water. NASA implemented acceptability limits of 10 colony forming units (CFU) per mL and the absence of viable E. coli, anaerobes, yeasts, and molds in three separate 150 mL aliquots. Microbiological investigations of the crew and spacecraft environment were conducted during the Apollo program, including the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project and Skylab. Subsequent space programs implemented microbial screening of the crew for pathogens and acceptability limits on spacecraft surfaces and air. Microbiology risk mitigation methods have evolved since the Apollo program. NASA cancelled the quarantine of the crew after return from the lunar surface, reduced the duration of the Health Stabilization Program; and implemented acceptability limits for spacecraft surfaces and air. While microbial risks were not a main focus of the early Mercury and Gemini programs, the extended duration of Apollo flights resulted in the increased scrutiny of impact of the space flight environment on crew health. The lessons learned during that era of space flight continue to impact microbiology risk mitigation in space programs today.

  11. Apollo 15 Proves Galileo Correct - Duration: 0:48.

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the end of the last Apollo 15 moon walk, Commander David Scott held out a geologic hammer and a feather and dropped them at the same time. Because they were essentially in a vacuum, there was no...

  12. Restoration of Apollo Magnetic Field Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Chi; Christopher Russell; Raymond Walker; David Williams

    2008-01-01

    The Apollo missions at the close of the 1960s and beginning of the 1970s provide the only magnetic field measurements on the lunar surface environment to date. These data, collected by the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Packages (ALSEPs), and the accompanying magnetic measurements by subsatellites can provide a wealth of information for scientific studies and planning for future lunar exploration.

  13. The Moon as a Test Body for General Relativity and New Gravitational Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Manuele; March, Riccardo; Bellettini, Giovanni; Dell'Agnello, S.; Delle Monache, G. O.; Currie, D. G.; Martini, M.; Lops, C.; Garattini, M.; March, R.; Bellettini, G.; Tauraso, R.; Battat, J. B.; Bianco, G.; Murphy, T. W., Jr.; Coradini, A.; Boni, A.; Cantone, C.; Maiello, M.; Porcelli, L.; Berardi, S.; Intaglietta, N.

    Since 1969 Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to the Apollo Cube Corner Reflector (CCR) arrays has supplied several significant tests of General Relativity (GR): it has evaluated the Geodetic Precession, probed the weak and strong equivalence principle, determined the PPN parameter , addressed the time change of G and 1/r2 deviations. We show that the Moon equipped with retroreflectors can be used effectively to test new gravitational theories beyond GR, like spacetime torsion (developed by some of the authors) and the unified braneworld theory by G. Dvali et al. LLR has also provided important information on the composition and origin of the Moon through measurement of its rotations and tides. Future robotic lunar missions, like the proposed International Lunar Network (ILN) will greatly expand this broad scientific program.Initially, the Apollo arrays contributed a negligible portion of the LLR error budget. Nowadays, the ranging accuracy of ground stations has improved by more than two orders of magnitude: the new APOLLO station at Apache Point, USA, is capable of mm-level range measurements; MRLO, at the ASI Space Geodesy Center in Matera, Italy, has re-started LR operations. Now, because of lunar librations, the Apollo arrays dominate the LLR error budget, which is a few cm. The University of Maryland, Principal Investigator for the Apollo arrays, and INFN-LNF are proposing an innovative CCR array design that will reduce the error contribution of LLR payloads by more than two orders of magnitude, down to tens of microns. This is the goal of the MoonLIGHT technological experiment of INFN (Moon Laser Instrumentation for General relativity High-Accuracy Tests) and of the SCF, the CCR space test facility at LNF. We have also proposed the precursor test of the MoonLIGHT payload on the ASI lunar orbiter mission MAGIA (A. Coradini PI), which concluded its Phase A Study in 2009. In our new array design the main challenges are: 1) address the thermal and optical effects of the absorption of solar radiation within the CCR; reduce the heat transfer from the hot housing and from the rapid temperature changes of the regolith to the CCR; 2) define a method of emplacing the CCR package on the surface such that it is stable over the lunar day/ night cycle; 3) adapt the design to the type of robotic mission (lander only or lander plus rover) and site. In the framework of robotic mission to the lunar surface we are also studying synergies of our payload with drilling, seismometers, local imaging and transponders (which can measure lunar librations and tides independently of LLR).

  14. Apollo 14 lunar photography. Part 1: Data user's note

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Niksch, M. A.

    1971-01-01

    The availability of Apollo 14 pictorial data is announced to aid investigators in the selection of Apollo 14 photographs for study. Guidance in the interpretation of the photographs is provided. As background information, the note includes brief descriptions of the Apollo 14 mission objectives, photographic equipment, and photographic coverage and quality. The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) can provide the photographs described.

  15. Conformal VHF antenna for the Apollo-Soyuz test project

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Sanford; R. E. Munson

    1975-01-01

    A dual-band VHF microstrip antenna conformal to the exterior of the Apollo Command\\/Service Module, and mechanically and thermally compatible with the launch and orbital environments of the Apollo vehicle, is designed for detection and measurement of localized gravitational anomalies as part of the Apollo mission. The article discusses the antenna design, conversion from linear to circular polarization, beamwidth minimization, and

  16. Long-Lasting Science Returns from the Apollo Heat Flow Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagihara, S.; Taylor, P. T.; Williams, D. R.; Zacny, K.; Hedlund, M.; Nakamura, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The Apollo astronauts deployed geothermal heat flow instruments at landing sites 15 and 17 as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEP) in July 1971 and December 1972, respectively. These instruments continuously transmitted data to the Earth until September 1977. Four decades later, the data from the two Apollo sites remain the only set of in-situ heat flow measurements obtained on an extra-terrestrial body. Researchers continue to extract additional knowledge from this dataset by utilizing new analytical techniques and by synthesizing it with data from more recent lunar orbital missions such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. In addition, lessons learned from the Apollo experiments help contemporary researchers in designing heat flow instruments for future missions to the Moon and other planetary bodies. For example, the data from both Apollo sites showed gradual warming trends in the subsurface from 1971 to 1977. The cause of this warming has been debated in recent years. It may have resulted from fluctuation in insolation associated with the 18.6-year-cycle precession of the Moon, or sudden changes in surface thermal environment/properties resulting from the installation of the instruments and the astronauts' activities. These types of reanalyses of the Apollo data have lead a panel of scientists to recommend that a heat flow probe carried on a future lunar mission reach 3 m into the subsurface, approx 0.6 m deeper than the depths reached by the Apollo 17 experiment. This presentation describes the authors current efforts for (1) restoring a part of the Apollo heat flow data that were left unprocessed by the original investigators and (2) designing a compact heat flow instrument for future robotic missions to the Moon. First, at the conclusion of the ALSEP program in 1977, heat flow data obtained at the two Apollo sites after December 1974 were left unprocessed and not properly archived through NASA. In the following decades, heat flow data from January 1975 through February 1976, as well as the metadata necessary for processing the data (the data reduction algorithm, instrument calibration data, etc.), were somehow lost. In 2010, we located 450 original master archival tapes of unprocessed data from all the ALSEP instruments for a period of April through June 1975 at the Washington National Records Center. We are currently extracting the heat flow data packets from these tapes and processing them. Second, on future lunar missions, heat flow probes will likely be deployed by a network of small robotic landers, as recommended by the latest Decadal Survey of the National Academy of Science. In such a scenario, the heat flow probe must be a compact system, and that precludes use of heavy excavation equipment such as a rotary drill for reaching the 3-m target depth. The new heat flow system under development uses a pneumatically driven penetrator. It utilizes a stem that winds out of a reel and pushes its conical tip into the regolith. Simultaneously, gas jets, emitted from the cone tip, loosen and blow away the soil. Lab experiments have demonstrated its effectiveness in lunar vacuum.

  17. Apollo 11 Facts Project [On-Orbit Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Footage is shown of the crew of Apollo 11 (Commander Neil Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Aldrin Jr., and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins) inside the spacecraft as they fly from the Earth to the Moon. A scene shows the entire Earth as seen from Apollo.

  18. Apollo Saturn V Height Comparison to Statue of Liberty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    This 1967 illustration compares the Apollo Saturn V Spacecraft of the Moon Landing era to the Statue of Liberty located on Ellis Island in New York City. The Apollo Saturn V, at 363 feet towers above Lady Liberty, as the statue is called, standing at 305 feet.

  19. John F. Kennedy, Jr., speaks to the media at KSC's HBO premiere 'From the Earth to the Moon.'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    John F. Kennedy, Jr., editor-in-chief of George Magazine, speaks with members of the national media at the Home Box Office (HBO) and Imagine Entertainment premiere of the 12-part miniseries 'From the Earth to the Moon' at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The series was filmed in part on location at KSC and dramatizes the human aspects of NASA's efforts to launch Americans to the Moon. The miniseries highlights NASA's Apollo program and the events leading up to and including the six successful missions to the Moon. A special 500-seat theater was constructed next to the Apollo/Saturn V Center for the KSC premiere showing. Speakers at the event included KSC Director Roy Bridges (at right); Jeff Bewkes, chairman and CEO for HBO; and John F. Kennedy, Jr. Also attending the event, which featured the episode entitled '1968,' were Buzz Aldrin, Apollo 11 astronaut, and Al Worden, Apollo 15 astronaut. The original miniseries event, created for HBO by actor Tom Hanks and Imagine Entertainment, will premiere on HBO beginning April 5, 1998.

  20. John F. Kennedy, Jr., speaks to invited guests at KSC's HBO premiere 'From the Earth to the Moon.'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    John F. Kennedy, Jr., editor-in-chief of George Magazine, greets invited guests at the Home Box Office (HBO) and Imagine Entertainment premiere of the 12-part miniseries 'From the Earth to the Moon' at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The series was filmed in part on location at KSC and dramatizes the human aspects of NASA's efforts to launch Americans to the Moon. The miniseries highlights NASA's Apollo program and the events leading up to and including the six successful missions to the Moon. A special 500- seat theater was constructed next to the Apollo/Saturn V Center for the KSC premiere showing. Speakers at the event included KSC Director Roy Bridges (at right); Jeff Bewkes, chairman and CEO for HBO; and John F. Kennedy, Jr. Also attending the event, which featured the episode entitled '1968,' were Buzz Aldrin, Apollo 11 astronaut, and Al Worden, Apollo 15 astronaut. The original miniseries event, created for HBO by actor Tom Hanks and Imagine Entertainment, will premiere on HBO beginning April 5, 1998.

  1. Moon Rise, Moon Set.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redman, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Points out the potential of the moon as a rich teaching resource for subject areas like astronomy, physics, and biology. Presents historical, scientific, technological, and interesting facts about the moon. Includes suggestions for maximizing student interest and learning about the moon. (YDS)

  2. Apollo 10 Astronauts participate in pad egress training at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut John W. Young, wearing a protective hat, participates in pad egress training at the Kennedy Space Center's (KSC) Pad 39B during preparations for the scheduled Apollo 10 lunar orbit mission. Young is the Apollo 10 command module pilot (30250); Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, Apollo 10 lunar module pilot, in hard hat, participating in pad egress training (30251); Astronaut Thomas P. Stafford, Apollo 10 commander, in hard hat, participating in pad egress training (30252).

  3. Food and nutrition studies for Apollo 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Rambaut, P. C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rapp, R. M.; Wheeler, H. O.

    1972-01-01

    A study has been conducted on nutrient intake and absorption during the Apollo 16 mission. Results indicate that inflight intakes of all essential nutrients were adequate and that absorption of these materials occurred normally.

  4. Apollo 13 Facts [Post Flight Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Apollo 13 astronauts, James Lovell, Jr., John Swigert, Jr., and Fred Haise, Jr., are seen during this post flight press conference. They describe their mission and answer questions from the audience.

  5. Apollo Telescope Mount of Skylab: an overview.

    PubMed

    Tousey, R

    1977-04-01

    This introductory paper describes Skylab and the course of events that led to this complex space project. In particular it covers the Apollo Telescope Mount and its instruments and the method of operation of the ATM mission. PMID:20168601

  6. Forecasting Proximal Femur and Wrist Fracture Caused by a Fall to the Side during Space Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Myers, Jerry G.; Sulkowski, C.; Ruehl, K.; Licata, A.

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of bone fracture in space is a concern due to the negative impact it could have on a mission. The Bone Fracture Risk Module (BFxRM) developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center is a statistical simulation that quantifies the probability of bone fracture at specific skeletal locations for particular activities or events during space exploration missions. This paper reports fracture probability predictions for the proximal femur and wrist resulting from a fall to the side during an extravehicular activity (EVA) on specific days of lunar and Martian exploration missions. The risk of fracture at the proximal femur on any given day of the mission is small and fairly constant, although it is slightly greater towards the end of the mission, due to a reduction in proximal femur bone mineral density (BMD). The risk of wrist fracture is greater than the risk of hip fracture and there is an increased risk on Mars since it has a higher gravitational environment than the moon. The BFxRM can be used to help manage the risk of bone fracture in space as an engineering tool that is used during mission operation and resource planning.

  7. Celebrated Moon Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2009-12-01

    The Need for Lunar Samples and Simulants: Where Engineering and Science Meet sums up one of the sessions attracting attention at the annual meeting of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG), held November 16-19, 2009 in Houston, Texas. Speakers addressed the question of how the Apollo lunar samples can be used to facilitate NASA's return to the Moon while preserving the collection for scientific investigation. Here is a summary of the LEAG presentations of Dr. Gary Lofgren, Lunar Curator at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, and Dr. Meenakshi (Mini) Wadhwa, Professor at Arizona State University and Chair of NASA's advisory committee called CAPTEM (Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials). Lofgren gave a status report of the collection of rocks and regolith returned to Earth by the Apollo astronauts from six different landing sites on the Moon in 1969-1972. Wadhwa explained the role of CAPTEM in lunar sample allocation.

  8. The prologue - A look at Apollo and Apollo\\/Soyuz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. Lee; A. S. Lyman

    1974-01-01

    The importance of man to the success of the Apollo missions is considered, giving attention to man's capabilities to provide rapid response to emergencies, the ability to carry out self-contained operations in the absence of communication with the ground, and the ability for rapid sensing, reaction, and vehicle control. In the upcoming Shuttle era the capabilities possessed by man are

  9. The Apollo Lunar Sample Image Collection: Digital Archiving and Online Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary E.; Stefanov, William L.; Garcia, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of the Apollo Program was to land human beings on the Moon and bring them safely back to Earth. This goal was achieved during six missions - Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 - that took place between 1969 and 1972. Among the many noteworthy engineering and scientific accomplishments of these missions, perhaps the most important in terms of scientific impact was the return of 382 kg (842 lb.) of lunar rocks, core samples, pebbles, sand, and dust from the lunar surface to Earth. Returned samples were curated at JSC (then known as the Manned Spacecraft Center) and, as part of the original processing, high-quality photographs were taken of each sample. The top, bottom, and sides of each rock sample were photographed, along with 16 stereo image pairs taken at 45-degree intervals. Photographs were also taken whenever a sample was subdivided and when thin sections were made. This collection of lunar sample images consists of roughly 36,000 photographs; all six Apollo missions are represented.

  10. Apollo 13 Guidance, Navigation, and Control Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Combustion and rupture of a liquid oxygen tank during the Apollo 13 mission provides lessons and insights for future spacecraft designers and operations personnel who may never, during their careers, have participated in saving a vehicle and crew during a spacecraft emergency. Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) challenges were the reestablishment of attitude control after the oxygen tank incident, re-establishment of a free return trajectory, resolution of a ground tracking conflict between the LM and the Saturn V S-IVB stage, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) alignments, maneuvering to burn attitudes, attitude control during burns, and performing manual GNC tasks with most vehicle systems powered down. Debris illuminated by the Sun and gaseous venting from the Service Module (SM) complicated crew attempts to identify stars and prevented execution of nominal IMU alignment procedures. Sightings on the Sun, Moon, and Earth were used instead. Near continuous communications with Mission Control enabled the crew to quickly perform time critical procedures. Overcoming these challenges required the modification of existing contingency procedures.

  11. Where no flag has gone before: Political and technical aspects of placing a flag on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platoff, Anne M.

    1993-01-01

    The flag on the Moon represents an important event in vexillological history. The political and technical aspects of placing a flag on the Moon, focusing on the first Moon landing, is examined. During their historic extravehicular activity, the Apollo 11 crew planted the flag of the United States on the lunar surface. This flag-raising was strictly a symbolic activity, as the United Nations Treaty on Outer Space precluded any territorial claim. Nevertheless, there were domestic and international debates over the appropriateness of the event. Congress amended the agency's appropriations bill to prevent the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from placing flags of other nations, or those of international associations, on the Moon during missions funded solely by the United States. Like any activity in space exploration, the Apollo flag-raising also provided NASA engineers with an interesting technical challenge. They designed a flagpole with a horizontal bar allowing the flag to 'fly' without the benefit of wind to overcome the effects of the Moon's lack of an atmosphere. Other factors considered in the design were weight, heat resistance, and ease of assembly by astronauts whose space suits restricted their range of movement and ability to grasp items. As NASA plans a return to the Moon and an expedition to Mars, we will likely see flags continue to go 'where no flag has gone before'.

  12. Apollo 14 and Apollo 16 heavy-particle dosimetry experiments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischer, R. L.; Hart, H. R., Jr.; Comstock, G. M.; Carter, M.; Renshaw, A.; Hardy, A.

    1973-01-01

    Doses of heavy particles at positions inside the command modules of Apollo missions 8, 12, 14, and 16 correlate well with the calculated effects of solar modulation of the primary cosmic radiation. Differences in doses at different stowage positions indicate that the redistribution of mass within the spacecraft could enhance safety from the biological damage that would otherwise be expected on manned, deep-space missions.

  13. Epic Moon: a history of lunar exploration in the age of the telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, William P.; Dobbins, Thomas A.

    As early as 1609 Galileo's first telescope showed the Moon to be another world. The Moon has thus been the object of intense study not only since the 1960s but for at least the previous three and a half centuries. The first "race to the Moon" was not undertaken by American astronauts and Soviet cosmonauts but by German and British selenographers in the nineteenth century, who mapped lunar detail so painstakingly that by 1878 - the year Julius Schmidt of the Athens Observatory published his great Moon map. In part, the reason for the long preoccupation with lunar surface details lay in the fact that the mapping of the Moon provided a form of therapy for astronomically inclined obsessive personalities. In part, too, it lay in the partiality of selenographers for the project - first systematically pursued by Johann Schroeter at the end of the eighteenth century - of discovering evidence of minor changes in the lunar surface. What became a Promethean quest for changes - veils, clouds, landslips, eruptions - was initially tied in with the theory that the lunar surface features had been formed by volcanic eruptions; however, it curiously survived the demise of the volcanic theory and still shows intermittent gasps of life in the largely amateur-driven search for transient lunar phenomena, or TLP. The long era of pre-Apollo lunar studies is a fascinating subject that has never been told in detail. Though there was a lapse of interest in the Moon in the immediate post-Apollo era, there has been a recent "return to the Moon" with the successful Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions. There is also growing evidence of a return of amateur observers to the Moon as an object worthy of their attentions. This is understandable inasmuch as the Moon remains the most accessible planetary realm; it is, moreover, the only alien world open to geological prospecting from the eyepiece of the backyard telescope. In that sense, this book is - like the Moon itself - both timely and timeless. The story of mankind's endless fascination with the world of the Moon and the gallery of interesting characters who pursued the details of the lunar surface with often strange intensity is a modern-day epic. Many of the stories recounted for the first time here will still be recounted generations hence, when the Apollo explorations may seem a mere interlude in what has actually been a more sustained and more significant era of endeavour. It is possible that the names of Schroeter, Beer and Mädler, Webb and Schmidt may prove to be as memorable as those of Armstrong, Aldrin, Cernan and Schmitt.

  14. The use of deep moonquakes for constraining the internal structure of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, R. C.; Garcia, R.; Johnson, C. L.; Knapmeyer, M.; Lognonne, P.; Nakamura, Y.; Schmerr, N. C.

    2010-12-01

    The installation of seismometers on the Moon’s surface during the Apollo era provided a wealth of information that transformed our understanding of lunar formation and evolution. Seismic events detected by the nearside network were used to constrain the structure of the Moon’s crust and mantle down to a depth of about 1000 km. The presence of an attenuating region in the deepest interior has been inferred from the paucity of farside events, as well as other indirect geophysical measurements. Recent re-analyses of the Apollo data have tentatively identified this region as a lunar core, although its properties are not yet constrained. Here we present new modeling in support of seismic missions that plan to build upon the knowledge of the Moon’s interior gathered by Apollo. Of the many types of Apollo events, deep moonquakes were the most numerous. They were found to originate in distinct nearside clusters, at depths between approximately 700 and 1200 km. Each cluster produced its own unique waveform, occurring with both monthly and 6-year periodicity as dictated by the lunar orbit. We predict that these clusters are still active today. By taking advantage of this periodicity we are therefore able to project the times of their occurrence into the future. Thus planned missions can rely on these events as known seismic sources. For most seismic methods used to determine structure, recorded events must be located. Traditional event-location techniques require a minimum of four stations. Due to cost constraints, new missions may not be able to deploy that many. Fortunately, future landers will be able to operate in a virtual network with the Apollo instruments, as deep moonquake source locations are already constrained. We have devised a method in which individual events can be linked to a known cluster using the observed S-P arrival time differences and azimuth to only two stations. Events can be further identified using each cluster’s unique occurrence time signature. As we expect future seismometers to be able to identify deep moonquakes, we can determine the ideal landing sites to detect the Moon’s core. Although current works have made progress in the recognition of core-reflected phases in the Apollo data, such phases typically arrive in the coda of the main P and S arrivals, hampering their identification on individual seismograms. We thus focus on the detection of PKP, a seismic compression wave that travels through the Moon’s core. Our method takes into account the predicted ray density, arrival amplitudes, and level of seismicity from the known distribution of deep moonquakes. At large epicentral distances, PKP is predicted as a first arrival, and hence should be easily identifiable on future seismograms. This method can be adapted to any core-interacting phase.

  15. Ice on the Moon

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David Williams

    2003-01-22

    This information about the Lunar Prospector mission to the Moon discusses the possibility that ice exists on the lunar surface. The article indicates that no native water ice has been found on the moon. If ice has been found, it most likely originated from meteors and meteorites which periodically bombard the lunar surface.

  16. Plasma thyroxine changes of the Apollo crewmen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheinfeld, M.; Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    Blood drawn from Apollo crew members prior to the mission, at recovery, and postmission, was used to examine the effect Apollo mission activities have on thyroid hormone levels. At recovery, statistically significant increases in thyroxine and the free thyroxine index were found. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased. No change of statistical significance was found in the T3 binding percentage, total serum proteins, and albumin. We conclude that Apollo activities and environment caused the postmission increase in plasma thyroxine. The prolonged postmission decreases in serum cholesterol may be one result of the increased thyroxine activity.

  17. A half-century of terrestrial analog studies: From craters on the Moon to searching for life on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léveillé, Richard

    2010-03-01

    Terrestrial analogs to the Moon and Mars have been used to advance knowledge in planetary science for over a half-century. They are useful in studies of comparative geology of the terrestrial planets and rocky moons, in astronaut training and testing of exploration technologies, and in developing hypotheses and exploration strategies in astrobiology. In fact, the use of terrestrial analogs can be traced back to the origins of comparative geology and astrobiology, and to the early phases of the Apollo astronaut program. Terrestrial analog studies feature prominently throughout the history of both NASA and the USGS' Astrogeology Research Program. In light of current international plans for a return missions to the Moon, and eventually to send sample return and manned missions to Mars, as well as the recent creation of various analog research and development programs, this historical perspective is timely.

  18. Apollo Program Summary Report: Synopsis of the Apollo Program Activities and Technology for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Overall program activities and the technology developed to accomplish lunar exploration are discussed. A summary of the flights conducted over an 11-year period is presented along with specific aspects of the overall program, including lunar science, vehicle development and performance, lunar module development program, spacecraft development testing, flight crew summary, mission operations, biomedical data, spacecraft manufacturing and testing, launch site facilities, equipment, and prelaunch operations, and the lunar receiving laboratory. Appendixes provide data on each of the Apollo missions, mission type designations, spacecraft weights, records achieved by Apollo crewmen, vehicle histories, and a listing of anomalous hardware conditions noted during each flight beginning with Apollo 4.

  19. Center Director Bridges speaks at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    At an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo program team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible, Center Director Roy D. Bridges offers remarks. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Among the guests at the banquet were astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Wally Schirra, Gene Cernan and Walt Cunningham. Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon; Gene Cernan was the last.

  20. Evolution of the moon: The 1974 model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    Investigations are reported of Apollo and Luna explorations which have brought about the understanding of the moon and its structure. It is shown that with this knowledge of the moon, a better understanding is presented of the earth's origin, structure and composition.

  1. The Use of Deep Moonquakes for Constraining the Internal Structure of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee; Garcia, Raphael; Johnson, Catherine; Knapmeyer, Martin; Lognonne, Philippe; Nakamura, Yosio; Schmerr, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The installation of seismometers on the Moon s surface during the Apollo era provided a wealth of information that transformed our understanding of lunar formation and evolution. Seismic events detected by the nearside network were used to constrain the structure of the Moon s crust and mantle down to a depth of about 1000 km. The presence of an attenuating region in the deepest interior has been inferred from the paucity of farside events, as well as other indirect geophysical measurements. Recent re-analyses of the Apollo data have tentatively identified this region as a lunar core, although its properties are not yet constrained. Here we present new modeling in support of seismic missions that plan to build upon the knowledge of the Moon s interior gathered by Apollo. We have devised a method in which individual events can be linked to a known cluster using the observed S-P arrival time differences and azimuth to only two stations. Events can be further identified using each cluster's unique occurrence time signature

  2. The Apollo Program and Amino Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sidney W.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the determination of hydrolyzable amino acid precursors and a group of six amino acids in the returned lunar samples of the Apollo programs. Indicates that molecular evolution is arrested at the precursor stage on the Moon because of lack of water. (CC)

  3. APOLLO 11 COMMANDER NEIL ARMSTRONG IN SIMULATOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 commander Neil Armstrong is going through flight training in the lunar module simulator situated in the flight crew training building at KSC. Armstrong will pilot the lunar module to a moon landing on July 20, following launch from KSC on July 16.

  4. Preparing to return to the Moon: Lessons from science-driven analogue missions to the Mistastin Lake impact structure, Canada, a unique lunar analogue site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Barfoot, T.; Chanou, A.; Daly, M. G.; Francis, R.; Hodges, K. V.; Jolliff, B. L.; Mader, M. M.; McCullough, E. M.; Moores, J. E.; Pickersgill, A.; Pontefract, A.; Preston, L.; Shankar, B.; Singleton, A.; Sylvester, P.; Tornabene, L. L.; Young, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Impact cratering is the dominant geological process on the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars - the objectives for the new Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). Led by members of the Canadian Lunar Research Network (CLRN), funded by the Canadian Space Agency, and with participants from the U.S., we carried out a series of analogue missions on Earth in order to prepare and train for future potential robotic and human sample return missions. Critically, these analogue missions were driven by the paradigm that operational and technical objectives are conducted while conducting new science and addressing real overarching scientific objectives. An overarching operational goal was to assess the utility of a robotic field reconnaissance mission as a precursor to a human sortie sample return mission. Here, we focus on the results and lessons learned from a robotic precursor mission and follow on human-robotic mission to the Mistastin Lake impact structure in Labrador, northern Canada (55°53'N; 63°18'W). The Mistastin structure was chosen because it represents an exceptional analogue for lunar craters. This site includes both an anorthositic target, a central uplift, well-preserved impact melt rocks - mostly derived from melting anorthosite - and is (or was) relatively unexplored. This crater formed ~36 million years ago and has a diameter of ~28 km. The scientific goals for these analogue missions were to further our understanding of impact chronology, shock processes, impact ejecta and potential resources within impact craters. By combining these goals in an analogue mission campaign key scientific requirements for a robotic precursor were determined. From the outset, these analogue missions were formulated and executed like an actual space mission. Sites of interest were chosen using remote sensing imagery without a priori knowledge of the site through a rigorous site selection process. The first deployment occurred in August and September 2010 and involved simulated robotic surveying of selected 'landing sites' at the Mistastin structure. The second deployment took place at the same location in 2011, which included simulated astronaut surface operations with, and without, the aid of a robotic assistant. A mission control team, based at the University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, 1,900 km from the field site, oversaw operations. Our study showed the value of precursor reconnaissance missions in providing surface geology visualization at resolutions and from viewpoints not achievable from orbit, including high-resolution surface imagery on the scale of 10s of metres to kilometres. Indeed, data collected during the robotic precursor mission led to the formulation of a hypothesis that a large impact melt outcrop - named Discovery Hill - represents an impact melt pond in the terraced region of the crater, analogous to similar ponds of melt documented around the rim of well-preserved lunar craters such as Tycho. Further discoveries, that will be highlight here, include documentation of ejecta deposits for the first time at Mistastin, quantification of shock in anorthosites, and refined age estimates for the Mistastin impact event.

  5. Apollo Rendezvous Docking Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1964-01-01

    Originally the Rendezvous was used by the astronauts preparing for Gemini missions. The Rendezvous Docking Simulator was then modified and used to develop docking techniques for the Apollo program. The pilot is shown maneuvering the LEM into position for docking with a full-scale Apollo Command Module. From A.W. Vogeley, 'Piloted Space-Flight Simulation at Langley Research Center,' Paper presented at the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1966 Winter Meeting, New York, NY, November 27 - December 1, 1966. 'The Rendezvous Docking Simulator and also the Lunar Landing Research Facility are both rather large moving-base simulators. It should be noted, however, that neither was built primarily because of its motion characteristics. The main reason they were built was to provide a realistic visual scene. A secondary reason was that they would provide correct angular motion cues (important in control of vehicle short-period motions) even though the linear acceleration cues would be incorrect.' Apollo Rendezvous Docking Simulator: Langley's Rendezvous Docking Simulator was developed by NASA scientists to study the complex task of docking the Lunar Excursion Module with the Command Module in Lunar orbit.

  6. Apollo video photogrammetry estimation of plume impingement effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immer, Christopher; Lane, John; Metzger, Philip; Clements, Sandra

    2011-07-01

    Future missions to the Moon may require numerous landings at the same site. Since the top few centimeters are loosely packed regolith, plume impingement from the Lander ejects the granular material at high velocities. Much work is needed to understand the physics of plume impingement during landing to protect hardware surrounding the landing sites. While mostly qualitative in nature, the Apollo Lunar Module landing videos can provide a wealth of quantitative information using modern photogrammetry techniques. The authors have used the digitized videos to quantify plume impingement effects of the landing exhaust on the lunar surface. The dust ejection angle from the plume is estimated at 1°-3°. The lofted particle density is estimated at 10 8-10 13 particles/m 3. Additionally, evidence for ejection of large 10-15 cm sized objects and a dependence of ejection angle on thrust are presented. Further work is ongoing to continue quantitative analysis of the landing videos.

  7. Apollo 11 Facts Project [On-Orbit Lunar Module Checkout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Footage is shown of the crew of Apollo 11 (Commander Neil Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Aldrin Jr., and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins) inside the spacecraft as they fly from the Earth to the Moon. The Moon is seen in its entirety and in close detail. Aldrin gives a brief demonstration on how the astronauts eat in space.

  8. Apollo 12, A New Vista for Lunar Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Man's second lunar landing, Apollo 12, provided a wealth of scientific information about the moon. The deployment of the magnetometer, seismometer, and ionosphere detector, and other activities on the lunar surface are described. A number of color photographs show the astronauts setting up equipment on the moon as well as close-ups of the lunar…

  9. Impact origin of the Moon

    SciTech Connect

    Slattery, W.L.

    1998-12-31

    A few years after the Apollo flights to the Moon, it became clear that all of the existing theories on the origin of the Moon would not satisfy the growing body of constraints which appeared with the data gathered by the Apollo flights. About the same time, researchers began to realize that the inner (terrestrial) planets were not born quietly -- all had evidences of impacts on their surfaces. This fact reinforced the idea that the planets had formed by the accumulation of planetesimals. Since the Earth`s moon is unique among the terrestrial planets, a few researchers realized that perhaps the Moon originated in a singular event; an event that was quite probable, but not so probable that one would expect all the terrestrial planets to have a large moon. And thus was born the idea that a giant impact formed the Moon. Impacts would be common in the early solar system; perhaps a really large impact of two almost fully formed planets of disparate sizes would lead to material orbiting the proto-earth, a proto-moon. This idea remained to be tested. Using a relatively new, but robust, method of doing the hydrodynamics of the collision (Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics), the author and his colleagues (W. Benz, Univ. of Arizona, and A.G.W. Cameron, Harvard College Obs.) did a large number of collision simulations on a supercomputer. The author found two major scenarios which would result in the formation of the Moon. The first was direct formation; a moon-sized object is boosted into orbit by gravitational torques. The second is when the orbiting material forms a disk, which, with subsequent evolution can form the Moon. In either case the physical and chemical properties of the newly formed Moon would very neatly satisfy the physical and chemical constraints of the current Moon. Also, in both scenarios the surface of the Earth would be quite hot after the collision. This aspect remains to be explored.

  10. Apollo 11 Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This NASA Kennedy Space Center video release presents the countdown and liftoff of Apollo 11, the first manned journey to the Moon which began at Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center, Florida at 9:32 a.m. EDT on July 16, 1969. The crew of Apollo 11 included Commander Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module pilot Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr. Several different camera viewpoints of the spacecraft as well as over-head shots of the Kennedy launch control center are presented prior to liftoff. Other footage includes shots of President Lyndon B. Johnson and his wife among the Florida audience viewing liftoff. During the countdown several audio updates from Kennedy launch control are presented as to the status of pre-launch testing and system readiness. Captivating footage from liftoff to the spacecraft nearing the outer Earth atmosphere is shown as the video ends with Neil Armstrong's confirmation of engine skirt separation and launch escape tower separation from the spacecraft.

  11. Influence of the lunar ambience on dynamic surface hydration on sunlit regions of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Califorrniaa, E.

    2015-03-01

    The accepted paradigm of a dry Moon has been upset by the recent detection of a wet Moon. EPOXI, NASA's extended mission for the Deep Impact spacecraft, observed and quantified dynamic surface hydration on sunlit regions of the Moon by infrared spectrometry in separate flybys. MIP CHACE, released from ISRO's Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft, detected H2O by mass spectrometry in orbit in the sunlit lunar ambience at a partial pressure exceeding Apollo inferences by over two orders of magnitude. Here it is shown CHACE and EPOXI are mutually supportive, suggesting the order of magnitude reported by CHACE is correct. With this confirmation in mind, it is shown the CHACE data imply H2O in the lunar ambience impinges upon near equatorial surfaces at an annual average of ?400 g m-2 yr-1 by cursory estimate.

  12. Prospecting for In Situ Resources on the Moon and Mars Using Wheel-Based Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G.; Anderson, Robert C.; Seshadri, Suresh; Schaap, Marcel G.

    2005-01-01

    The Apollo and Russian missions during 1970's were reviewed to rediscover the type and distribution of minerals on the Moon. This study revealed that the Moon is a relatively barren place in mineral content when compared with the Earth. Results from the Lunar minerals brought back to Earth, indicate that the Moon lacks water, hydroxyl ions, and carbon based minerals. Our approach to prospecting utilizes a vehicle with sensors embedded in a wheel that allow measurements while the vehicle is in motion. Once a change in soil composition is detected, decision making software stops the vehicle and analytical instruments perform a more definitive analysis of the soil. The focus of this paper is to describe the instrumentation and data from the wheel-based sensors.

  13. The Moon and Its Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urey, Harold C.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the origin of the Moon on the basis of the Apollo expeditions as an accumulated gas sphere at its very beginning and, later, a satellite captured by the Earth. Indicates that the model would be substantially believable if further observations should be proved to exist as estimated. (CC)

  14. Astronaut Eugene Cernan eating a meal aboard Apollo 17 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A fellow crewman took this photograph of Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, Apollo 17 mission commander, eating a meal under the weightless conditions of space during the final lunar landing mission in the Apollo program. Cernan appears to be eating chocolate pudding.

  15. Life sciences - On the critical path for missions of exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Connors, Mary M.; Gaiser, Karen

    1988-01-01

    Life sciences are important and critical to the safety and success of manned and long-duration space missions. The life science issues covered include gravitational physiology, space radiation, medical care delivery, environmental maintenance, bioregenerative systems, crew and human factors within and outside the spacecraft. The history of the role of life sciences in the space program is traced from the Apollo era, through the Skylab era to the Space Shuttle era. The life science issues of the space station program and manned missions to the moon and Mars are covered.

  16. Rb-Sr-analyses of apollo 16 melt rocks and a new age estimate for the imbrium basin: lunar basin chronology and the early heavy bombardment of the moon

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, A.; Stoeffler, D.

    1987-07-01

    Rb-Sr-model ages on 7 impact glass-bombs and internal Rb-Sr isochrons for two crystalline impact melt rocks from the Apollo 16 collection have been determined. The post-Cayley glass-bombs with model ages between 4.75 +- 0.45 AE and 3.97 +- 0.08 AE can be classified according to their calculated single stage (/sup 87/Rb/sup 86/Sr)/sub I/-ratios: 67728, 67946, and 67627.8 point to a KREEP-free precursor terrain - the Descartes highlands; whereas 63566, 67567, 67627.10 and 67629 are derived from the more heterogeneous Cayley plains. The very feldspar-rich impact melt rock 65795, which is compositionally similar to the group of feldspathic microporphyritic melt breccias (FM-suite), yields a crystallization age of 3.81 +- 0.04 AE (2sigma; lambda/sup 87/Rb = 1.42/sup -11/ yr/sup -1/) and I/sub Sr/ of .69929 +- 3. The authors suggest that the Imbrium basin and the related Fra Mauro and Cayley formations were formed 3.77 +- 0.02 AE ago and could be even as young as 3.75 AE. As a consequence, they adopt 3.92 +- 0.03 AE, 3.87 +- 0.03 AE, and 3.84 +- 0.04 AE as ages for the Nectaris, Serenitatis, and Crisium basins, respectively, in agreement with the relative crater densities measured on the ejecta blankets of these basins. The proposed age sequence leads to an average formation interval for the observed 12-13 Nectarian basins of 7 to 14 m.y. leaving approx. 30 pre-Nectarian basins of unknown age. These facts suggest that there is no late terminal lunar cataclysm in the sense of a culmination of the lunar impact rate at approx. 3.8 AE ago. Rather, the observations are compatible with a steeply and steadily decreasing flux of impactors in the sense of an early heavy bombardment which started at the time of the moon's accretion and terminated around 3.75 AE ago.

  17. Re-examination of Apollo 17 LSPE data with respect to new LRO coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czeluschke, Alexandra; Knapmeyer, Martin; Oberst, Jürgen; Haase, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    We examine the existing Apollo 17 Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (LSPE) data with respect to new coordinates obtained through the combined use of lunar surface photography and high-resolution Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) data. The LSPE of Apollo 17 was used to explore the subsurface structure of the Moon. For the analysis of such seismic data sets it is necessary to have the exact positions of all used equipment, such as geophones and seismic sources. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission launched on June 18, 2009. The LROC mapped the surface of the Moon from orbit, at a maximum resolution of 50 cm/pixel (20 inch/pixel), and therefore allows us a detailed mapping of the Apollo landing sites and a reconstruction of the geometry of the seismic network used. In addition, we re-examined the surface photography taken by the astronauts during the extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Astronauts documented the deployment of equipment by using calibrated Hasselblad Electric Data Cameras by taking single shots with prominent features in the background or by taking a series of panoramic images while driving in the area of the deployed equipment. By combined analysis of both high-resolution LROC orthoimages and Apollo surface images we determined geometrically accurate lunar-fixed ME-coordinates (Mean-Earth/Polar Axis) of the Apollo landing sites and equipment. We find significant point deflections ranging from 1m up to 10m between previously published coordinates and the new LROC supported values for geophone and seismic source locations. Consequently, we are now in progress to re-evaluate the data from the Apollo 17 Profiling Experiment with the new obtained coordinates, in order to obtain improved models concerning layering and seismic velocity structure of the lunar subsurface. Progress in this effort will be reported at the conference. This study is supported by the Helmholtz Alliance "Robotic Exploration of Extreme Environments - ROBEX". The ROBEX alliance aims to develop a new seismic experiment concept that can be conducted autonomously by robotic rovers on the Moon.

  18. Field Exploration Science for a Return to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, H. H.; Helper, M. A.; Muehlbberger, W.; Snoke, A. W.

    2006-12-01

    Apollo field exploration science, and subsequent analysis, and interpretation of its findings and collected samples, underpin our current understanding of the origin and history of the Moon. That understanding, in turn, continues to provide new and important insights into the early histories of the Earth and other bodies in the solar system, particularly during the period that life formed and began to evolve on Earth and possibly on Mars. Those early explorations also have disclosed significant and potentially commercially viable lunar resources that might help satisfy future demand for both terrestrial energy alternatives and space consumables. Lunar sortie missions as part of the Vision for Space Exploration provide an opportunity to continue and expand the human geological, geochemical and geophysical exploration of the Moon. Specific objectives of future field exploration science include: (1) Testing of the consensus "giant impact" hypothesis for the origin of the Moon by further investigation of materials that may augment understanding of the chondritic geochemistry of the lower lunar mantle; (2) Testing of the consensus impact "cataclysm" hypothesis by obtaining absolute ages on large lunar basins of relative ages older than the 3.8-3.9 Ga mascon basins dated by Apollo 15 and 17; (3) Calibration of the end of large impacts in the inner solar system; (4) Global delineation of the internal structure of the Moon; (5) Global sampling and field investigations that extend the data necessary to remotely correlate major lunar geological and geochemical units; (6) Definition of the depositional history of polar volatiles - cometary, solar wind, or otherwise; (7) Determine the recoverable in situ concentrations and distribution of potential volatile resources; and (8) Acquisition of information and samples related to relatively less site-specific aspects of lunar geological processes. Planning for renewed field exploration of the Moon depends largely on the selection, training and use of sortie crews; the selection of landing sites; and the adopted operational approach to sortie extravehicular activity (EVA). The equipment necessary for successful exploration consists of that required for sampling, sample documentation, communications, mobility, and position knowledge. Other types of active geophysical. geochemical and petrographic equipment, if available, could clearly enhance the scientific and operational return of extended exploration over that possible during Apollo missions. Equipment to increase the efficiency of exploration should include the following, helmet-mounted, systems: (1) voice activated or automatic, electronic, stereo photo-documentation camera that is photometrically and geometrically fully calibrated; (2) automatic position and elevation determination system; and (3) laser-ranging device, aligned with the stereo camera axis. Heads-up displays and controls on the helmet, activated and selected by voice, should be available for control and use of this equipment.

  19. Proposal for revisions of the United Nations Moon Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Vera; Abreu, Neyda; Fritz, J.; Knapmeyer, Martin; Smeenk, Lisa; Ten Kate, Inge; Trüninger, Monica

    During this new 2010-decade, it will be imperative to reconsider the effectiveness of the current United Nations (U.N.) Moon Treaty (c.1979). Amendments are necessary to underline the mandatory human stewardship of this fragile planetary body of our Solar System, indispensible to life on Earth. After the very successful Apollo and Luna missions to the Moon (ending in 1976), which brought a wide array of data (samples, surface and orbital experiments), the Moon lost its exploratory attraction in favor of other programs, such as the International Space Station and potential human exploration of Mars. However, since the mid-90's, the enthusiasm for the Moon has been revived, which resulted in several space agencies worldwide (NASA, ESA, ISRO, JAXA, and the Chinese Space Agency) having made great efforts to re-start ex-ploratory and scientific campaigns even though budgetary changes may delay the process. As a result, a wide array of peoples and their interests are put together in each mission planned to reach the Moon (e.g., orbiters and landers). Up to now, mission plans focus on technical requirements and the desires of scientists and engineers, but hardly any other aspects. Field specialists on issues regarding the social, economic, political, cultural, ethical and environmen-tal impacts of Moon exploration and colonization have had little to no involvement in current and past lunar missions. However, these fields would provide different and essential points of view regarding the planning of lunar missions. Moreover, recent documents written by the scientific community, such as "The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon: Final Re-port" Committee on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon, National Research Council (2007), or the recent (summer 2009) White Papers for the National Research Council Planetary Science Decadal Survey 2011-2020, do not seem to leave space for a multidisciplinary approach regarding the future lunar exploration either. More than 30 years have passed since the Moon Treaty (c. 1979) was elaborated, and since then technology and science have evolved leading to the need to change the requirements. As stated in the Moon Treaty, the State par-ties who had signed the Treaty meet every 5 and 10 years to revise the Treaty and suggest the necessary ratifications and amendments. The present version of the Moon Treaty, however, does not demonstrate ratifications that take into consideration environmental protection and preservation. For this, it is here suggested, that both the Antarctica Treaty (c. 1959), and more importantly, the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (c. 1991) are to be used as references for future documents that will be drawn pertaining the Moon. The Antarctica Treaty is currently one of the world's most successful international agreements and has evolved through time as needs and awareness require. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty reflects concerns regarding the impact of humans on the fragile environment of that continent. This concern is equally critical as new stages of lunar exploration unfold and the effects of such activity are progressively assessed. The key aspects of the Antarctic Protocol applicable to the Moon Treaty are: (1) a ban on commercial mineral resource activity, (2) careful waste disposal management, and (3) protection of areas of par-ticular scientific, environmental, and historical value. These measures should be implemented to prevent irreparable damage of the pristine lunar environment while permitting scientific, educational, and touristic uses and encouraging continued commitment to exploration of the Moon and other planetary bodies irrespective of exploration being robotic or human. A num-ber of other documents that establish an Environmental Code of Conduct for certain areas within the Antarctic continent (e.g., Management Plan for the Antarctic Specially Managed Area No.2, the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Southern Victoria Land) will also be instrumental in improving the current

  20. Development of the J-2X Engine for the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle: Building on the Apollo Program for Lunar Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Jim

    2006-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Vision for Space Exploration directs NASA to develop two new launch vehicles for sending humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. In January 2006, NASA streamlined its hardware development approach for replacing the Space Shuttle after it is retired in 2010. Benefits of this approach include reduced programmatic and technical risks and the potential to return to the Moon by 2020, by developing the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) propulsion elements now, with full extensibility to future Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) lunar systems. This decision was reached after the Exploration Launch Projects Office performed a variety of risk analyses, commonality assessments, and trade studies. The Constellation Program selected the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne J-2X engine to power the Ares I Upper Stage Element and the Ares V Earth Departure Stage. This paper narrates the evolution of that decision; describes the performance capabilities expected of the J-2X design, including potential commonality challenges and opportunities between the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles; and provides a current status of J-2X design, development, and hardware testing activities. This paper also explains how the J-2X engine effort mitigates risk by building on the Apollo Program and other lessons lived to deliver a human-rated engine that is on an aggressive development schedule, with its first demonstration flight in 2012.

  1. Apollo 17 preliminary science report. [Apollo 17 investigation of Taurus-Littrow lunar region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of the Apollo 17 flight is presented in the form of a preliminary science report. The subjects discussed are: (1) Apollo 17 site selection, (2) mission description, (3) geological investigation of landing site, (4) lunar experiments, (5) visual flight flash phenomenon, (6) volcanic studies, (7) mare ridges and related studies, (8) remote sensing and photogrammetric studies, and (9) astronomical photography. Extensive photographic data are included for all phases of the mission.

  2. Making a Model: Mapping the Moon

    E-print Network

    Christian, Eric

    1 Making a Model: Mapping the Moon Learning Objectives: · To build a topographic map of a "Moon mountain." · To use a topographic map to determine a safe landing place for a Moon mission StudentswilllearnaboutNASA'smissiontofindsafelandingsitesonthe surface of the Moon. After seeing a visualization

  3. Moon Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddle, Bob

    2010-01-01

    When teaching Moon phases, the focus seems to be on the sequence of Moon phases and, in some grade levels, how Moon phases occur. Either focus can sometimes be a challenge, especially without the use of models and observations of the Moon. In this month's column, the author describes some of the lessons that he uses to teach the phases of the Moon

  4. APOLLO 12: C.Conrad Jr. collects geological samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 12: 'Pete' Conrad collects samples from the lunar surface, while at the same time adjusting to, and remarking on, the working conditions. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 12: 'Pinpoint for Science'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLLO 12: Second manned lunar landing and return with Charles 'Pete' Conrad, Jr., Richard F. Gordon, and Alan F. Bean. Landed in the Ocean of Storms on November 19, 1969; deployed television camera and ALSEP experiments; two EVA's performed; collected core samples and lunar materials; photographed and retrieved parts from surveyor 3 spacecraft. Mission duration 244hrs 36min 24sec

  5. Waving Apollo 8 Astronauts Leaving Recovery Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Apollo 8 served as the first manned lunar orbit mission. Liftoff occurred on December 21, 1968, carrying a three man crew consisting of astronauts Frank Borman, commander; William Anders, Lunar Module (LM) Pilot; and James Lovell, Command Module (CM) pilot. The three safely returned to Earth on December 27, 1968. In this photograph, the crew members are waving as they leave the recovery helicopter. The mission achieved operational experience and tested the Apollo command module systems, including communications, tracking, and life-support, in cis-lunar space and lunar orbit, and allowed evaluation of crew performance on a lunar orbiting mission. The crew photographed the lunar surface, both far side and near side, obtaining information on topography and landmarks as well as other scientific information necessary for future Apollo landings. All systems operated within allowable parameters and all objectives of the mission were achieved.

  6. Former astronauts Armstrong and Cernan talk at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo program team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible, former Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong (left) and Gene Cernan talk about their experiences. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Other guests at the banquet were astronauts Wally Schirra, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin and Walt Cunningham. Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon; Gene Cernan was the last.

  7. Neil Armstrong gets round of applaus at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong stands to a round of applause after being introduced at the anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon. He appeared at the banquet with other former astronauts Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan, Walt Cunningham and others.

  8. From the Moon: Bringing Space Science to Diverse Audiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runyon, C. J.; Hall, C.; Joyner, E.; Meyer, H. M.; M3 Science; E/PO Team

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Apollo missions held a place in the mindset of many Americans - we dared to go someplace where humans had never set foot, a place unknown and beyond our imaginations. These early NASA missions and discoveries resulted in an enhanced public understanding of the Moon. Now, with the human element so far removed from space exploration, students must rely on textbooks, TV's, and computers to build their understanding of our Moon. However, NASA educational materials about the Moon are stale and out-of-date. In addition, they do not effectively address 21st Century Skills, an essential for today's classrooms. Here, we present a three-part model for developing opportunities in lunar science education professional development that is replicable and sustainable and integrates NASA mission-derived data (e.g., Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)/Chandrayaan-1). I) With the return of high resolution/high spatial data from M3/Chandrayaan-1, we can now better explore and understand the compositional variations on the lunar surface. Data and analysis techniques from the imaging spectrometer are incorporated into the M3 Educator's Guide: Seeing the Moon in a New Light. The guide includes an array of activities and lessons to help educators and students understand how NASA is currently exploring the Moon. The guide integrates NASA maps and data into the interactive lessons, bringing the excitement of scientific exploration and discovery into the classroom. II) Utilizing the M3 Educator's Guide as well as educational activities from more current NASA lunar missions, we offer two sustained professional development opportunities for educators to explore the Moon through interactive and creative strategies. 1) Geology of the Moon, an online course offered through Montana State University's National Teacher Enhancement Network, is a 3-credit graduate course. 2) Fly Me to the Moon, offered through the College of Charleston's Office of Professional Development in Education, is a two-hour graduate credit course. Through these courses, teachers from a variety of disciplines and grade levels journey to the Moon, exploring NASA's historic and current missions and data. As both of these courses are primarily online, we incorporate interactive ways for educators to explore and communicate their ideas. Through a series of scaffolded webquests, educators work through inquiry-oriented lessons to gather information and data directly through the Internet. The webquests allow students to freely explore, motivating them to investigate open-ended questions and enhance their self-learning process. III) To address more diverse audiences, a unique partnership among the College of Charleston's School of Science and Math and the School of the Arts will showcase a two-year celebration of lunar observations and analyses. From the Moon: Mapping and Exploration will open in November, 2011. From the Moon: Mysteries and Myths exhibit at the Halsey Gallery of Art in Charleston, SC will open in Fall, 2013. Patrons will explore one-of-a-kind artifacts, as well as early observations from Galileo to current observations from ongoing NASA lunar missions. Both exhibits will be paired with tactile activities, lesson plans and professional development opportunities.

  9. Apollo 17 photographic processing control document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, M. S.

    1972-01-01

    The control parameters are defined which are to be used by the Photographic Technology Division for the processing of all films flown on Apollo Mission J-3. The procedures necessary for establishment of processing control are given along with information for denoting and solving any problem areas or conflicts which may occur prior to the mission.

  10. Apollo 11 Artist Concept- Transearth Injection and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. These sketches illustrate the steps taken by the astronauts to return to Earth. The service propulsion system engine was fired to increase space craft speed enough to escape Lunar orbit on a trajectory for Earth. Any necessary midcourse corrections were made enroute. Near the point of reentry into Earth's atmosphere, the CM separated from the service module and turned 180 degrees so the heat shield faced forward on the line of flight. Friction of the atmosphere heated the shield to a white hot temperature, as a meteor, which slowed the craft as it reached lower altitudes. At about three miles altitude, drogue parachutes opened to stabilize the craft. Moments later the main parachutes opened to lower the CM to the waters of the Pacific Ocean. Helicopters and recovery crews from the U.S. S. Hornet aircraft carrier were standing by to pick up the astronauts.

  11. The electrostatic environments of Mars and the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calle, C. I.

    2011-06-01

    The electrical activity present in the environment near the surfaces of Mars and the moon has very different origins and presents a challenge to manned and robotic planetary exploration missions. Mars is covered with a layer of dust that has been redistributed throughout the entire planet by global dust storms. Dust, levitated by these storms as well as by the frequent dust devils, is expected to be electrostatically charged due to the multiple grain collisions in the dust-laden atmosphere. Dust covering the surface of the moon is expected to be electrostatically charged due to the solar wind, cosmic rays, and the solar radiation itself through the photoelectric effect. Electrostatically charged dust has a large tendency to adhere to surfaces. NASA's Mars exploration rovers have shown that atmospheric dust falling on solar panels can decrease their efficiency to the point of rendering the rover unusable. And as the Apollo missions to the moon showed, lunar dust adhesion can hinder manned and unmanned lunar exploration activities. Taking advantage of the electrical activity on both planetary system bodies, dust removal technologies are now being developed that use electrostatic and dielectrophoretic forces to produce controlled dust motion. This paper presents a short review of the theoretical and semiempirical models that have been developed for the lunar and Martian electrical environments.

  12. The Electrostatic Environments of Mars and the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calle, Carlos I.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical activity present in the environment near the surfaces of Mars and the moon has very different origins and presents a challenge to manned and robotic planetary exploration missions. Mars is covered with a layer of dust that has been redistributed throughout the entire planet by global dust storms. Dust, levitated by these storms as well as by the frequent dust devils, is expected to be electrostatically charged due to the multiple grain collisions in the dust-laden atmosphere. Dust covering the surface of the moon is expected to be electrostatically charged due to the solar wind, cosmic rays, and the solar radiation itself through the photoelectric effect. Electrostatically charged dust has a large tendency to adhere to surfaces. NASA's Mars exploration rovers have shown that atmospheric dust falling on solar panels can decrease their efficiency to the point of rendering the rover unusable. And as the Apollo missions to the moon showed, lunar dust adhesion can hinder manned and unmanned lunar exploration activities. Taking advantage of the electrical activity on both planetary system bodies, dust removal technologies are now being developed that use electrostatic and dielectrophoretic forces to produce controlled dust motion. This paper presents a short review of the theoretical and semiempirical models that have been developed for the lunar and Martian electrical environments.

  13. Effects of radiobiological uncertainty on vehicle and habitat shield design for missions to the moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Nealy, John E.; Schimmerling, Walter; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wood, James S.

    1993-01-01

    Some consequences of uncertainties in radiobiological risk due to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) exposure are analyzed for their effect on engineering designs for the first lunar outpost and a mission to explore Mars. This report presents the plausible effect of biological uncertainties, the design changes necessary to reduce the uncertainties to acceptable levels for a safe mission, and an evaluation of the mission redesign cost. Estimates of the amount of shield mass required to compensate for radiobiological uncertainty are given for a simplified vehicle and habitat. The additional amount of shield mass required to provide a safety factor for uncertainty compensation is calculated from the expected response to GCR exposure. The amount of shield mass greatly increases in the estimated range of biological uncertainty, thus, escalating the estimated cost of the mission. The estimates are used as a quantitative example for the cost-effectiveness of research in radiation biophysics and radiation physics.

  14. Moon 101: Introducing Students to Lunar Science and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shipp, S. S.; Allen, J. S.; Kring, D. A.

    2011-12-01

    Moon 101 is designed with the purpose of familiarizing students with lunar geology and exploration. Armed with guiding questions, students read articles covering various lunar science topics and browse images from past and current lunar missions to familiarize themselves with available lunar data sets. Moon 101 was originally created for high school students preparing to conduct open-inquiry, lunar research. Most high school students' knowledge of lunar science is limited to lunar phases and tides, and their knowledge of lunar exploration is close to non-existent. Moon 101 provides a summary of the state of knowledge of the Moon's formation and evolution, and the exploration that has helped inform the lunar science community. Though designed for high school students, Moon 101 is highly appropriate for the undergraduate classroom, especially at the introductory level where resources for teaching lunar science are scarce. Moon 101 is comprised of two sections covering lunar science (formation and geologic evolution of the Moon) and one section covering lunar exploration. Students read information on the formation and geologic evolution of the Moon from sources such as the Planetary Science Research Discoveries (PSRD) website and the USGS professional paper A Geologic History of the Moon by Wilhelms. While these resources are not peer-reviewed journals, the information is presented at a level more advanced than articles from newspapers and popular science magazines. This ensures that the language is accessible to students who do not have a strong lunar/planetary science background, or a strong science background in general. Formation readings include information on older and current formation hypotheses, including the Giant Impact Hypothesis, the Magma Ocean hypothesis, and the age of the lunar crust. Lunar evolution articles describe ideas such as the Late Heavy Bombardment and geologic processes such as volcanism and impact cratering. After reading the articles, students are asked a series of questions which help reinforce the lunar science concepts they should take away from the readings. Students then use their new knowledge of the Moon in the final section of Moon 101 where they are asked to characterize the geology of the region surrounding the Apollo 11 landing site. To do this, they conduct a survey of available lunar data, examining imagery from lunar missions as recent as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and as old as the Ranger missions of the 1960s. This allows students to explore the available datasets and identify the advantages and disadvantages of each. Pre/post test questions have also been developed to assess changes in student understanding of the formation and evolution of the Moon, and lunar exploration. Moon 101 is a framework for introducing students to lunar science, and can be followed up with student-driven research. Moon 101 can be easily modified to suit the needs of the students and the instructor. Because lunar science is an evolving field of study, the use of resources such as the PSRD allows Moon 101 to be flexible and to change as the lunar community re-discovers our celestial neighbor.

  15. Apollo 12 ropy glasses revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, S. J.; Mckay, D. S.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Basu, A.; Martinez, R. R.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.

    1994-01-01

    We analyzed ropy glasses from Apollo 12 soils 12032 and 12033 by a variety of techniques including SEM/EDX, electron microprobe analysis, INAA, and Ar-39-Ar-40 age dating. The ropy glasses have potassium rare earth elements phosphorous (KREEP)-like compositions different from those of local Apollo 12 mare soils; it is likely that the ropy glasses are of exotic origin. Mixing calculations indicate that the ropy glasses formed from a liquid enriched in KREEP and that the ropy glass liquid also contained a significant amount of mare material. The presence of solar Ar and a trace of regolith-derived glass within the ropy glasses are evidence that the ropy glasses contain a small regolith component. Anorthosite and crystalline breccia (KREEP) clasts occur in some ropy glasses. We also found within these glasses clasts of felsite (fine-grained granitic fragments) very similar in texture and composition to the larger Apollo 12 felsites, which have a Ar-39-Ar-40 degassing age of 800 +/- 15 Ma. Measurements of 39-Ar-40-Ar in 12032 ropy glass indicate that it was degassed at the same time as the large felsite although the ropy glass was not completely degassed. The ropy glasses and felsites, therefore, probably came from the same source. Most early investigators suggested that the Apollo 12 ropy glasses were part of the ejecta deposited at the Apollo 12 site from the Copernicus impact. Our new data reinforce this model. If these ropy glasses are from Copernicus, they provide new clues to the nature of the target material at the Copernicus site, a part of the Moon that has not been sampled directly.

  16. Space food systems - Mercury through Apollo.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, N. G.; Smith, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    Major achievements which characterized the development of food systems used by American astronauts in manned space flight are reviewed throughout a period spanning the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs up to and including the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Lists of food types are accompanied by information on packaging, storage, preparation, consumption, and quality of particular products. Experience gained from development efforts for the Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program is also discussed.

  17. Apollo Lunar Sample Photograph Digitization Project Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, N. S.; Lofgren, G. E.

    2012-01-01

    This is an update of the progress of a 4-year data restoration project effort funded by the LASER program to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images and undertaken by the Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC [1]. The project is currently in its last year of funding. We also provide an update on the derived products that make use of the digitized photos including the Lunar Sample Catalog and Photo Database[2], Apollo Sample data files for GoogleMoon[3].

  18. Lunar composition from Apollo orbital measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, I.; Trombka, J. I.; Yin, L. I.; Gorenstein, P.; Bjorkholm, P.; Gerald, J.

    1972-01-01

    Several spectrometers carried in the Service Module of the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 spacecraft were employed for the compositional mapping of the lunar surface. The observations involved the measurements of secondary (fluorescent) X-rays, gamma rays and alpha particle emissions. A large scale compositional map of over 20 percent of the lunar surface was obtained for the first time. It was possible to demonstrate interesting chemical differences between the mare and the highlands, to find specific areas of high radioactivity and to learn something about the composition of the moon's hidden side. Further the same devices were used to obtain useful astronomical data during the return to earth.

  19. Neil Armstrong talks of his experiences at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Neil Armstrong, former Apollo 11 astronaut, and first man to walk on the moon, talks about his experiences for an enthusiastic audience at the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. The occasion was a banquet celebrating the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Among other guests at the banquet were astronauts Wally Schirra, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin and Walt Cunningham. Gene Cernan was the last man to walk on the moon.

  20. Saturn's Moons

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a lesson about the relationship between a planet and it's moon(s). Learners will use the data provided on a set of Saturn Moon Cards to compare Saturn's moons with Earth's Moon, and to explore moon properties and physical relationships within a planet-moon system - for example, the farther the moon is from the center of the planet, the slower its orbital speed, and the longer its orbital period. This is lesson 2 of 6 in the Saturn Educators Guide.