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Sample records for apollo moon mission

  1. The Apollo Missions and the Chemistry of the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacer, Richard A.; Ehmann, William D.

    1975-01-01

    Presents the principle chemical features of the moon obtained by analyzing lunar samples gathered on the Apollo missions. Outlines the general physical features of the moon and presents theories on its origin. (GS)

  2. The Moon: What Have the Apollo Missions Taught Us? Part II: The View from Apollo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeever, S. W. S.

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes scientific findings resulting from the Apollo missions, including lunar rocks and soil, age determination, and the moon's interior, evolution, and origin. Indicates experiments for future lunar research. (SK)

  3. Apollo 17 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Operational and engineering aspects of the Apollo 17 mission are outlined. The vehicle configuration was similar to those of Apollo 15 and 16. There were significant differences in the science payload for Apollo 17 and spacecraft hardware differences and experiment equipment are described. The mission achieved a landing in the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon and returned samples of the pre-Imbrium highlands and young craters.

  4. Preserving the Science Legacy from the Apollo Missions to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Cindy; Zeigler, Ryan; Lehnert, Kerstin; Todd, Nancy; Blumenfeld, Erika

    2015-01-01

    Six Apollo missions landed on the Moon from 1969-72, returning to Earth 382 kg of lunar rock, soil, and core samples-among the best documented and preserved samples on Earth that have supported a robust research program for 45 years. From mission planning through sample collection, preliminary examination, and subsequent research, strict protocols and procedures are followed for handling and allocating Apollo subsamples. Even today, 100s of samples are allocated for research each year, building on the science foundation laid down by the early Apollo sample studies and combining new data from today's instrumentation, lunar remote sensing missions and lunar meteorites. Today's research includes advances in our understanding of lunar volatiles, lunar formation and evolution, and the origin of evolved lunar lithologies. Much sample information is available to researchers at curator.jsc.nasa.gov. Decades of analyses on lunar samples are published in LPSC proceedings volumes and other peer-reviewed journals, and tabulated in lunar sample compendia entries. However, for much of the 1969-1995 period, the processing documentation, individual and consortia analyses, and unpublished results exist only in analog forms or primitive digital formats that are either inaccessible or at risk of being lost forever because critical data from early investigators remain unpublished. We have initiated several new efforts to rescue some of the early Apollo data, including unpublished analytical data. We are scanning NASA documentation that is related to the Apollo missions and sample processing, and we are collaborating with IEDA to establish a geochemical database called Moon DB. To populate this database, we are working with prominent lunar PIs to organize and transcribe years of both published and unpublished data. Other initiatives include micro-CT scanning of complex lunar samples to document their interior structure (e.g. clasts, vesicles); linking high-resolution scans of Apollo film products to samples; and new procedures for systematic high resolution photography of samples before additional processing, enabling detailed 3D reconstructions of the samples. All of these efforts will provide comprehensive access to Apollo samples and support better curation of the samples for decades to come.

  5. Apollo 11 Mission Commemorated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    On 24 July 1969, 4 days after Apollo 11 Mission Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Eagle Pilot Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin had become the first people to walk on the Moon, they and Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins peered through a window of the Mobile Quarantine Facility on board the U.S.S. Hornet following splashdown of the command module in the central Pacific as U.S. President Richard Nixon told them, “This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the creation.” Forty years later, the Apollo 11 crew and other Apollo-era astronauts gathered at several events in Washington, D. C., to commemorate and reflect on the Apollo program, that mission, and the future of manned spaceflight. “I don’t know what the greatest week in history is,” Aldrin told Eos. “But it was certainly a pioneering opening the door. With the door open when we touched down on the Moon, that was what enabled humans to put many more footprints on the surface of the Moon.”

  6. Apollo 15 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A detailed discussion is presented of the Apollo 15 mission, which conducted exploration of the moon over longer periods, greater ranges, and with more instruments of scientific data acquisition than previous missions. The topics include trajectory, lunar surface science, inflight science and photography, command and service module performance, lunar module performance, lunar surface operational equipment, pilot's report, biomedical evaluation, mission support performance, assessment of mission objectives, launch phase summary, anomaly summary, and vehicle and equipment descriptions. The capability of transporting larger payloads and extending time on the moon were demonstrated. The ground-controlled TV camera allowed greater real-time participation by earth-bound personnel. The crew operated more as scientists and relied more on ground support team for systems monitoring. The modified pressure garment and portable life support system provided better mobility and extended EVA time. The lunar roving vehicle and the lunar communications relay unit were also demonstrated.

  7. Apollo Lunar Sample Integration into Google Moon: A New Approach to Digitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, M. D.; Todd, N. S.; Lofgren, G. E.

    2011-03-01

    The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project enhances the Apollo mission data available on Google Moon and provides an interactive research and learning tool for the Apollo lunar rock sample collection.

  8. How Apollo Flew to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watkins, Nick

    2009-10-01

    Eos readers who were even young children in the summer of 1969 probably will remember the first Moon landing vividly. If, like myself, they went on to develop a lifelong interest in manned spaceflight, they will have read many accounts in the intervening years, as diverse as Norman Mailer's, Andrew Chaikin's, and the first-person reminiscences of NASA astronaut Michael Collins. The prospect of another book about the Moon landing at first may seem uninspiring, and I confess this was my original reaction to the prospect of reading this book. Additionally, in the intervening 40 years since Apollo 11, there have been some superb films including For All Mankind (1989) and In the Shadow of the Moon (2006). The Internet has brought new possibilities for space documentation. The best known Web site on the Apollo missions is the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal, which now is hosted by NASA at http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/. The Web site includes commentary from all of the surviving Moon walkers. Scottish space enthusiast W. David Woods created the companion Apollo Flight Journal, found at http://history.nasa.gov/afj//, which focuses on how the missions actually got to the Moon and back. Now Woods has distilled the information into the book How Apollo Flew to the Moon.

  9. Apollo 8, Man Around the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet presents a series of photographs depicting the story of the Apollo 8 mission around the moon and includes a brief description as well as quotes from the astronauts. The photographs show scenes of the astronauts training, the Saturn V rocket, pre-flight preparation, blast off, the earth from space, the lunar surface, the earth-based…

  10. Apollo Expeditions to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cortright, E. M. (editor)

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo program is described from the planning stages through Apollo 17. The organization of the program is discussed along with the development of the spacecraft and related technology. The objectives and accomplishments of each mission are emphasized along with personal accounts of the major figures involved. Other topics discussed include: ground support systems and astronaut selection.

  11. Integration of Apollo Lunar Sample Data into Google Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Melissa D.; Todd, Nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project is a continuation of the Apollo 15 Google Moon Add-On project, which provides a scientific and educational tool for the study of the Moon and its geologic features. The main goal of this project is to provide a user-friendly interface for an interactive and educational outreach and learning tool for the Apollo missions. Specifically, this project?s focus is the dissemination of information about the lunar samples collected during the Apollo missions by providing any additional information needed to enhance the Apollo mission data on Google Moon. Apollo missions 15 and 16 were chosen to be completed first due to the availability of digitized lunar sample photographs and the amount of media associated with these missions. The user will be able to learn about the lunar samples collected in these Apollo missions, as well as see videos, pictures, and 360 degree panoramas of the lunar surface depicting the lunar samples in their natural state, following collection and during processing at NASA. Once completed, these interactive data layers will be submitted for inclusion into the Apollo 15 and 16 missions on Google Moon.

  12. Apollo 11 Lunar Mission Logo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    This is the flight insignia, or logo, for the Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar landing mission. Descending on the lunar surface, the eagle in the logo depicts the Lunar Module (LM), named 'Eagle''. Carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, the 'Eagle' was the first crewed vehicle to land on the Moon. Astronaut Collins piloted the Command Module in a parking orbit around the Moon. Aboard a Saturn V launch vehicle, the Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand upon the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. The crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. The surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V launch vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  13. Apollo 16 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Information is provided on the operational and engineering aspects of the Apollo 16 mission. Customary units of measurement are used in those sections of the report pertaining to spacecraft systems and trajectories. The International System of Units is used in sections pertaining to science activities.

  14. Working on the moon: The Apollo experience

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1989-01-01

    The successful completion of any scientific or engineering project on the Moon will depend, in part, on human ability to do useful work under lunar conditions. In making informed decisions about such things as the use of humans rather than robots for specific tasks, the scheduling of valuable human time, and the design and selection of equipment and tools, good use can be made of the existing experience base. During the six completed landing missions, Apollo lunar surface crews conducted 160 astronaut-hours of extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) and also spent a similar sum of waking hours working in the cramped confines of the Lunar Module. The first three missions were primarily proof-tests of flight hardware and procedures. The ability to land equipment and consumables was very modest but, despite stay times of no more than 32 hours, the crews of Apollos 11, 12, and 14 were able to test their mobility and their capability of doing useful work outside the spacecraft. For the last three missions, thanks to LM modifications which enabled landings with significant amounts of cargo, stay times more than doubled to three days. The crews were able to use Lunar Rovers to conduct extensive local exploration and to travel up to 10 kilometers away from their immediate landing sites. During these final missions, the astronauts spent enough time doing work of sufficient complexity that their experience should be of use in the formulation early-stage lunar base operating plans. 2 refs.

  15. On the Moon with Apollo 15, A Guidebook to Hadley Rille and the Apennine Mountains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Gene

    The booklet, published before the Apollo 15 mission, gives a timeline for the mission; describes and illustrates the physiography of the landing site; and describes and illustrates each lunar surface scientific experiment. Separate timelines are included for all traverses (the traverses are the Moon walks and, for Apollo 15, the Moon rides in the…

  16. Moon Rock Presented to Smithsonian Institute by Apollo 11 Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 astronauts, (left to right) Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Neil A. Armstrong, commander, are showing a two-pound Moon rock to Frank Taylor, director of the Smithsonian Institute in Washington D.C. The rock was picked up from the Moon's surface during the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) of Aldrin and Armstrong following man's first Moon landing and was was presented to the Institute for display in the Art and Industries Building. The Apollo 11 mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  17. Apollo 11 (launch, on moon, in orbit)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Apollo 11 Command and Service Modules are shown in a photo taken from the Lunar Module while in orbit around the Moon. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 98), by James Schultz.

  18. Apollo Lunar Sample Integration into Google Moon: A New Approach to Digitization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Melissa D.; Todd, nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary E.

    2011-01-01

    The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project is part of a larger, LASER-funded 4-year lunar rock photo restoration project by NASA s Acquisition and Curation Office [1]. The objective of this project is to enhance the Apollo mission data already available on Google Moon with information about the lunar samples collected during the Apollo missions. To this end, we have combined rock sample data from various sources, including Curation databases, mission documentation and lunar sample catalogs, with newly available digital photography of rock samples to create a user-friendly, interactive tool for learning about the Apollo Moon samples

  19. Apollo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    US programme to land men on the moon. Included 11 manned missions, October 1968-December 1972, with three missions restricted to a lunar flyby or orbital survey (Apollos 8, 10 and 13), and six landings (Apollos 11, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17). Returned 385 kg of lunar soil and rock samples which provided evidence that the Moon was about the same age as the Earth and probably originated from material d...

  20. Cameras on the moon with Apollos 15 and 16.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Page, T.

    1972-01-01

    Description of the cameras used for photography and television by Apollo 15 and 16 missions, covering a hand-held Hasselblad camera for black and white panoramic views at locations visited by the astronauts, a special stereoscopic camera designed by astronomer Tom Gold, a 16-mm movie camera used on the Apollo 15 and 16 Rovers, and several TV cameras. Details are given on the far-UV camera/spectrograph of the Apollo 16 mission. An electronographic camera converts UV light to electrons which are ejected by a KBr layer at the focus of an f/1 Schmidt camera and darken photographic films much more efficiently than far-UV. The astronomical activity of the Apollo 16 astronauts on the moon, using this equipment, is discussed.

  1. Apollo 17: One giant step toward understanding the tectonic evolution of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, Virgil L.

    1992-01-01

    Our present understanding of the tectonic history of the Moon has been shaped in large measure by the Apollo Program, and particularly the Apollo 17 Mission. I attempt to summarize some of the interpretations that have emerged since Apollo 17, focusing on some of the problems and uncertainties that remain to stimulate future exploration of the Moon. The topics covered include: (1) Taurus-Littrow Valley; (2) origin of mare ridges; and (3) nature and timing of tectonic rille formation.

  2. Apollo Rock Reveals Moon Had Molten Core | Universe Additional Resources

    E-print Network

    Weiss, Benjamin P.

    Apollo Rock Reveals Moon Had Molten Core | Universe Today Subscribe Podcast Home Additional Apollo Rock Reveals Moon Had Molten Core Written by Nancy Atkinson If you're new here, you may want to subscribe to my RSS feed. Thanks for visiting! Apollo Rock Reveals Moon Had Molten Core | Universe Today

  3. Apollo experience report: Mission planning for Apollo entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, C. A.; Harpold, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    The problems encountered and the experience gained in the entry mission plans, flight software, trajectory-monitoring procedures, and backup trajectory-control techniques of the Apollo Program should provide a foundation upon which future spacecraft programs can be developed. Descriptions of these entry activities are presented. Also, to provide additional background information needed for discussion of the Apollo entry experience, descriptions of the entry targeting for the Apollo 11 mission and the postflight analysis of the Apollo 10 mission are presented.

  4. Bonus: Apollo's Amazing Mission and Spin-Offs from Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Two posters examine the 1969 Apollo moon mission. The first tracks the stages and path of the mission, suggesting that students create their own diagrams or models. The second presents a puzzle that helps student understand how many items developed for the mission are useful to today's everyday life. (SM)

  5. More than 50 missions to the Moon have been launched

    E-print Network

    More than 50 missions to the Moon have been launched by the USA and Russia (formerly the USSR) since 1959.Lunik 3,which flew past the Moon in 1959,was the first to photograph its far side. The ambitious Apollo project sent 27 astronauts to the Moon between 1968 and 1972,12 of whom landed

  6. Apollo Soyuz, mission evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo Soyuz mission was the first manned space flight to be conducted jointly by two nations - the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The primary purpose of the mission was to test systems for rendezvous and docking of manned spacecraft that would be suitable for use as a standard international system, and to demonstrate crew transfer between spacecraft. The secondary purpose was to conduct a program of scientific and applications experimentation. With minor modifications, the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft were like those flown on previous missions. However, a new module was built specifically for this mission - the docking module. It served as an airlock for crew transfer and as a structural base for the docking mechanism that interfaced with a similar mechanism on the Soyuz orbital module. The postflight evaluation of the performance of the docking system and docking module, as well as the overall performance of the Apollo spacecraft and experiments is presented. In addition, the mission is evaluated from the viewpoints of the flight crew, ground support operations, and biomedical operations. Descriptions of the docking mechanism, docking module, crew equipment and experiment hardware are given.

  7. Apollo Mission Techniques Lunar Orbit Activities - Part 1a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the planned sequence of events and the rationale for all lunar missions, and the flight experiences and lessons learned for the lunar orbit activities from a trajectory perspective. Shown are trajectories which include the moon's position at the various stages in the complete trip from launch, to the return and reentry. Included in the presentation are objectives and the sequence of events,for the Apollo 8, and Apollo 10. This is followed by a discussion of Apollo 11, including: the primary mission objective, the sequence of events, and the flight experience. The next mission discussed was Apollo 12. It reviews the objectives, the ground tracking, procedure changes, and the sequence of events. The aborted Apollo 13 mission is reviewed, including the objectives, and the sequence of events. Brief summaries of the flight experiences for Apollo 14-16 are reviewed. The flight sequence of events of Apollo 17 are discussed. In summary each mission consistently performing precision landings required that Apollo lunar orbit activities devote considerable attention to: (1) Improving fidelity of lunar gravity models, (2) Maximizing availability of ground tracking, (3) Minimizing perturbations on the trajectory, (4) Maximizing LM propellant reserves for hover time. Also the use of radial separation maneuvers (1) allows passive re-rendezvous after each rev, but ... (2) sensitive to small dispersions in initial sep direction

  8. Managing the Moon Program: Lessons Learned from Project Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    There have been many detailed historical studies of the process of deciding on and executing the Apollo lunar landing during the 1960s and early 1970s. From the announcement of President John F Kennedy on May 25, 1961, of his decision to land an American on the Moon by the end of the decade, through the first lunar landing on July 20, 1969, on to the last of six successful Moon landings with Apollo 17 in December 1972, NASA carried out Project Apollo with enthusiasm and aplomb. While there have been many studies recounting the history of Apollo, at the time of the 30th anniversary of the first lunar landing by Apollo 11, it seems appropriate to revisit the process of large-scale technological management as it related to the lunar mission. Consequently, the NASA History Office has chosen to publish this monograph containing the recollections of key partcipants in the management process. The collective oral history presented here was recorded in 1989 at the Johnson Space Center's Gilruth Recreation Center in Houston, Texas. It includes the recollections of key participants in Apollo's administration, addressing issues such as communication between field centers, the prioritization of technological goals, and the delegation of responsibility. The following people participated: George E. Muller, Owen W. Morris, Maxime A. Faget, Robert R. Gilruth, Christopher C. Kraft, and Howard W. (Bill) Tindall. The valuable perspectives of these individuals deepen and expand our understanding of this important historical event. This is the 14th in a series of special studies prepared by the NASA History Office. The Monographs in Aerospace History series is designed to provide a wide variety of investigations relative to the history of aeronautics and space. These publications are intended to be tightly focused in terms of subject, relatively short in length, and reproduced in an inexpensive format to allow timely and broad dissemination to researchers in aerospace history.

  9. Apollo scientific exploration of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, W. D.

    1987-01-01

    The fundamental dichotomy of space exploration, unmanned versus manned projects, is discussed from an historical perspective. The integration of science into Apollo operations is examined with attention given to landing sites, extending the missions, and crew selection. A Science Working Group composed of scientists and Manned Spacecraft Center flight planners was formed in an attempt to produce the most scientific information possible within those operational limits that were considered absolutely inviolable.

  10. Apollo 11 Mission Official Relax After Apollo 11 Liftoff

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 mission officials relax in the Launch Control Center following the successful Apollo 11 liftoff on July 16, 1969. From left to right are: Charles W. Mathews, Deputy Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight; Dr. Wernher von Braun, Director of the Marshall Space Flight Center; George Mueller, Associate Administrator for the Office of Manned Space Flight; Lt. Gen. Samuel C. Phillips, Director of the Apollo Program

  11. The 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Lee

    2014-01-01

    The 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) scientific investigations were completed on Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii in July 2012. The investigations were conducted on the southeast flank of the Mauna Kea volcano at an elevation of approximately 11,500 ft. This area is known as "Apollo Valley" and is in an adjacent valley to the Very Large Baseline Array dish antenna.

  12. Engineering potential for lunar missions after Apollo.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The need for continuing post-Apollo lunar research is defined by outlining problems in stellar, planetary, biological, and social evolution which require specific studies of the moon. Engineering capabilities existing immediately after the Apollo program are described in the areas of launch vehicles and spacecraft, lunar surface mobility, instrumentation, and communications.

  13. Structure of the moon. [Apollo seismic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toksoz, M. N.; Dainty, A. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Anderson, K. R.

    1974-01-01

    Seismic data fron the four stations of the Apollo passive seismic network have been analyzed to obtain the velocity structure of the moon. Analysis of body wave phases from artificial impacts of known impact time and position yields a crustal section. In the Mare Cognitum region the crust is about 60 km thick and is layered. In the 20-km-thick upper layer, velocity gradients are high and microcracks may play an important role. The 40-km-thick lower layer has a nearly constant 6.8-km/sec velocity. There may be a thin high-velocity layer present beneath the crust. The determination of seismic velocities in the lunar mantle is attempted by using natural impacts and deep moonquakes. The simplest model that can be proposed for the mantle consists of a 'lithosphere' overlying an 'asthenosphere'.

  14. Apollo Soyuz Mission: 5-Day Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo Soyuz Test Project mission objectives and technical investigations are summarized. Topics discussed include: spacecraft and crew systems performance; joint flight activities; scientific and applications experiments; in-flight demonstrations; biomedical considerations; and mission support performance.

  15. Apollo 13 Facts [Post Mission Honorary Ceremony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Apollo 13 astronauts, James Lovell, Jr., John Swigert, Jr., and Fred Haise, Jr., are seen during this post mission honorary ceremony, led by President Richard Nixon. Lovell is shown during an interview, answering questions about the mission.

  16. Activity in the Mission Control Center during Apollo 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Two individuals are examining a seismic reading in the Mission Control Center's Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP) Room during the Apollo 14 S-IVB impact on the moon. Dr. Maurice Ewing (left) is the Director of the Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory at Columbia University. David Lammlein, a Columbia graduate student, is on the right (17609); Partial view of activity in the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center at the time the Apollo 14 S-IVB stage impacted on the lunar surface. The flight director's console in in the foregroune. Eugene F. Kranz, Chief of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Flight Control Division, is in the right foreground. Seated at the console is Glynn S. Lunney, Head of the Flight Directors Office, Flight Control Division. Facing the camera is Gerald D. Griffin, Flight Director of the Third (Gold) team (17610).

  17. MoonNEXT: A European Mission to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, J. D.; Koschny, D.; Crawford, I.; Falcke, H.; Kempf, S.; Lognonne, P.; Ricci, C.; Houdou, B.; Pradier, A.

    2008-09-01

    MoonNEXT is a mission currently being studied, under the direction of the European Space Agency, whose launch is foreseen between 2015 and 2018. MoonNEXT is intended to prepare the way for future exploration activities on the Moon, while addressing key science questions. Exploration Objectives The primary goal for the MoonNEXT mission is to demonstrate autonomous soft precision landing with hazard avoidance; a key capability for future exploration missions. The nominal landing site is at the South Pole of the Moon, at the edge of the Aitken basin and in the region of Shackleton crater, which has been identified as an optimal location for a future human outpost by the NASA lunar architecture team [1]. This landing site selection ensures a valuable contribution by MoonNEXT to the Global Exploration Strategy [2]. MoonNEXT will also prepare for future lunar exploration activities by characterising the environment at the lunar surface. The potentially hazardous radiation environment will me monitored while a dedicated instrument package will investigate the levitation and mobility of lunar dust. Experience on Apollo demonstrated the potentially hazardous effects of dust for surface operations and human activities and so an understanding of these processes is important for the future. Life sciences investigations will be carried out into the effects of the lunar environment (including radiation, gravity and illumination conditions) on a man made ecosystem analogous to future life support systems. In doing so MoonNEXT will demonstrate the first extraterrestrial man made ecosystem and develop valuable expertise for future missions. Geological and geochemical investigations will explore the possibilities for In Situ Resource Utilisation (ISRU), which will be essential for long term human habitation on the Moon and is of particular importance at the proposed landing site, given its potential as a future habitat location. Science Objectives In addition to providing extensive preparation and technology demonstration for future exploration activities MoonNEXT will advance our understanding of the origin, structure and evolution of the Moon. These advances in understanding will come about through a range of geophysical and geochemical investigations. MoonNEXT will also assess the value of the lunar surface as a future site for performing science from the Moon, using radio astronomy as an example. The scientific objectives are: • To study the geophysics of the Moon, in particular the origin, differentiation, internal structure and early geological evolution of the Moon. • To obtain in-situ geochemical data from, within the Aitken Basin, where material from the lower crust and possibly the upper mantle may be found. • To investigate the nature of volatiles implanted into the lunar regolith at the South Pole and identify their species. • To study the environment at the lunar South pole, in particular to measure the radiation environment, the dust flux due to impact ejecta and micrometeoroids, and a possibly the magnetic field. • To study the effect of the lunar environment on biological systems. • To further our understanding of the ULF/VLF background radiation of the universe. • Investigate the electromagnetic environment of the moon at radio wavelengths with the potential to perform astronomical radio observations. Various mission scenarios are currently under study, incorporating options for a lander-only configuration or a lander with the possible addition of a rover. The working experimental payload includes cameras, broad band and short period seismometers, a radiation monitor, instruments to measure dust transport and micrometeoroid fluxes, instruments to provide elemental and mineralogical analyses of surface rocks, a mole for subsurface heat flow and regolith properties measurements, a radio antenna and a package containing a self sustaining biological system to observe the effects of the lunar environment. The addition of a rover, if shown to be feasible, would provide mobility for geochemical measurements, which

  18. Apollo Basin, Moon: Estimation of Impact Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echaurren, J. C.

    2015-07-01

    The Apollo Basin is a, pre-Nectarian, multi-ring basin located within the large South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA). Multispectral data from both Galileo and Clementine showed that the composition of materials in Apollo is distinct…

  19. Where No Man Has Gone Before: A History of Apollo Lunar Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, William David

    1988-01-01

    This book is a narrative account of the development of the science program for the Apollo lunar landing missions. It focuses on the interaction between scientific interests and operational considerations in such matters as landing site selection and training of crews, quarantine and back contamination control, and presentation of results from scientific investigations. Scientific exploration of the moon on later flights, Apollo 12 through Apollo 17 is emphasized.

  20. Apollo experience report: Guidance and control systems. Mission control programmer for unmanned missions AS-202, Apollo 4, and Apollo 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    An unmanned test flight program required to evaluate the command module heat shield and the structural integrity of the command and service module/Saturn launch vehicle is described. The mission control programer was developed to provide the unmanned interface between the guidance and navigation computer and the other spacecraft systems for mission event sequencing and real-time ground control during missions AS-202, Apollo 4, and Apollo 6. The development of this unmanned programer is traced from the initial concept through the flight test phase. Detailed discussions of hardware development problems are given with the resulting solutions. The mission control programer functioned correctly without any flight anomalies for all missions. The Apollo 4 mission control programer was reused for the Apollo 6 flight, thus being one of the first subsystems to be reflown on an Apollo space flight.

  1. How the Apollo Program Changed the Geology of the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, J. V.; Steele, I. M.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluates the effect of the Apollo program on the geology of the Moon to determine further study problems. Concludes that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration can provide excellent justification for its extension since human beings have the possibility of using the rocks in ways not currently conceived. (CC)

  2. After Apollo: Fission Origin of the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Keefe, John A.

    1973-01-01

    Presents current ideas about the fission process of the Moon, including loss of mass. Saturnian rings, center of the Moon, binary stars, and uniformitarianism. Indicates that planetary formation may be best explained as a destructive, rather than a constructive process. (CC)

  3. Apollo 17 mission 5-day report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A five day report of the Apollo 17 mission is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) sequence of events, (2) extravehicular activities, (3) first, second, and third lunar surface extravehicular activity, (4) transearth extravehicular activity, (5) lunar surface experiments conducted, (6) orbital science activities, (7) spacecraft reentry and recovery.

  4. Apollo 13 Astronaut Fred Haise and Apollo 13 Mission Patch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Astronaut Fred Haise Jr. of Biloxi, Miss., views his Apollo 13 mission patch, the flight on which he served in 1970, in a StenniSphere display donated to NASA by the American Needlepoint Guild. The exhibit is on permanent display at StenniSphere, the visitor center at John C. Stennis Space Center. In its first year of operation, more than 251,000 visitors representing over 40 countries have viewed the 123 hand-stitched patches in the exhibit. Forty-two guild members from 20 states made the trip to StenniSphere for the opening of the exhibit, one of the most popular at StenniSphere.

  5. Two of Apollo 17 crewmen join in commemoration of their lunar landing mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Two of the three Apollo 17 crewmen join in commemoration of their historic lunar landing mission of one year ago by presenting the flight controllers in Mission Control Center (MSC) the U.S. flag which flew with them to the Moon. Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, center, Apollo 17 commander, and Harrison H. Schmitt, right, lunar module pilot, are shown with Eugene F. Kranz, who accepted the flag on behalf of all the flight controllers during special ceremonies in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) of MCC during the third manned Skylab mission. Kranz is Chief of the Flight Control Division of the Flight Operations Directorate at JSC.

  6. Astronaut Alan Bean deploys ALSEP during first Apollo 12 EVA on moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Apollo 12 lunar module pilot, deploys components of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the moon. The photo was made by Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Apollo 12 commander, using a 70mm handheld Haselblad camera modified for lunar surface usage.

  7. Endocrine Laboratory Results Apollo Missions 14 and 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.

    1972-01-01

    Endocrine/metabolic responses to space flight have been measured on the crewmen of Apollo missions 14 and 15. There were significant biochemical changes in the crewmen of both missions immediately postflight. However, the Apollo 15 mission results differed from Apollo 14 and preflight shown by a normal to increased urine volume with slight increases in antidiuretic hormone. Although Apollo 15 was the first mission in which the exchangeable potassium measurement was made (a decrease), results from other missions were indicative of similar conclusions.

  8. Towards a Selenographic Information System: Apollo 15 Mission Digitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votava, J. E.; Petro, N. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Apollo missions represent some of the most technically complex and extensively documented explorations ever endeavored by mankind. The surface experiments performed and the lunar samples collected in-situ have helped form our understanding of the Moon's geologic history and the history of our Solar System. Unfortunately, a complication exists in the analysis and accessibility of these large volumes of lunar data and historical Apollo Era documents due to their multiple formats and disconnected web and print locations. Described here is a project to modernize, spatially reference, and link the lunar data into a comprehensive SELENOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM, starting with the Apollo 15 mission. Like its terrestrial counter-parts, Geographic Information System (GIS) programs, such as ArcGIS, allow for easy integration, access, analysis, and display of large amounts of spatially-related data. Documentation in this new database includes surface photographs, panoramas, samples and their laboratory studies (major element and rare earth element weight percents), planned and actual vehicle traverses, and field notes. Using high-resolution (<0.25 m/pixel) images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) the rover (LRV) tracks and astronaut surface activities, along with field sketches from the Apollo 15 Preliminary Science Report (Swann, 1972), were digitized and mapped in ArcMap. Point features were created for each documented sample within the Lunar Sample Compendium (Meyer, 2010) and hyperlinked to the appropriate Compendium file (.PDF) at the stable archive site: http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/compendium.cfm. Historical Apollo Era photographs and assembled panoramas were included as point features at each station that have been hyperlinked to the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal (ALSJ) online image library. The database has been set up to allow for the easy display of spatial variation of select attributes between samples. Attributes of interest that have data from the Compendium added directly into the database include age (Ga), mass, texture, major oxide elements (weight %), and Th and U (ppm). This project will produce an easily accessible and linked database that can offer technical and scientific information in its spatial context. While it is not possible given the enormous amounts of data, and the small allotment of time, to enter and/or link every detail to its map layer, the links that have been made here direct the user to rich, stable archive websites and web-based databases that are easy to navigate. While this project only created a product for the Apollo 15 mission, it is the model for spatially-referencing the other Apollo missions. Such a comprehensive lunar surface-activities database, a Selenographic Information System, will likely prove invaluable for future lunar studies. References: Meyer, C. (2010), The lunar sample compendium, June 2012 to August 2012, http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/compendium.cfm, Astromaterials Res. & Exploration Sci., NASA L. B. Johnson Space Cent., Houston, TX. Swann, G. A. (1972), Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 15 landing site, in Apollo 15 Preliminary Science Report, [NASA SP-289], pp. 5-1 - 5-112, NASA Manned Spacecraft Cent., Washington, D.C.

  9. In This Decade, Mission to the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The development and accomplishments of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from its inception in 1958 to the final preparations for the Apollo 11 mission in 1969 are traced in this brochure. A brief account of the successes of projects Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo is presented and many color photographs and drawings of the…

  10. Review of measurements of dust movements on the Moon during Apollo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Brian J.

    2011-11-01

    This is the first review of 3 Apollo experiments, which made the only direct measurements of dust on the lunar surface: (i) minimalist matchbox-sized 270 g Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) of Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15, produced 30 million Lunar Day measurements 21 July 1969-30 September, 1977; (ii) Thermal Degradation Samples (TDS) of Apollo 14, sprinkled with dust, photographed, taken back to Earth into quarantine and lost; and (iii) the 7.5 kg Lunar Ejecta and Meteoroids (LEAM) experiment of Apollo 17, whose original tapes and plots are lost. LEAM, designed to measure rare impacts of cosmic dust, registered scores of events each lunation most frequently around sunrise and sunset. LEAM data are accepted as caused by heavily-charged particles of lunar dust at speeds of <100 m/s, stimulating theoretical models of transporting lunar dust and adding significant motivation for returning to the Moon. New analyses here show some raw data are sporadic bursts of 1, 2, 3 or more events within time bubbles smaller than 0.6 s, not predicted by theoretical dust models but consistent with noise bits caused by electromagnetic interference (EMI) from switching of large currents in the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Experiment Package (ALSEP), as occurred in pre-flight LEAM-acceptance tests. On the Moon switching is most common around sunrise and sunset in a dozen heavy-duty heaters essential for operational survival during 350 h of lunar night temperatures of minus 170 °C. Another four otherwise unexplained features of LEAM data are consistent with the "noise bits" hypothesis. Discoveries with DDE and TDS reported in 1970 and 1971, though overlooked, and extensive DDE discoveries in 2009 revealed strengths of adhesive and cohesive forces of lunar dust. Rocket exhaust gases during Lunar Module (LM) ascent caused dust and debris to (i) contaminate instruments 17 m distant (Apollo 11) as expected, and (ii) unexpectedly cleanse Apollo hardware 130 m (Apollo 12) and 180 m (Apollo 14) from LM. TDS photos uniquely document in situ cohesion of dust particles and their adhesion to 12 different test surfaces. This review finds the entire TDS experiment was contaminated, being inside the aura of outgassing from astronaut Alan Shepard's spacesuit, and applies an unprecedented caveat to all TDS discoveries. Published and further analyses of Apollo DDE, TDS and LEAM measurements can provide evidence-based guidance to theoretical analyses and to management and mitigation of major problems from sticky dust, and thus help optimise future lunar and asteroid missions, manned and robotic.

  11. Mission officials relax after successful Apollo 11 Saturn V launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 mission officials relax in the Launch Control Center following the successful Apollo liftoff today. From left to right are Charles W. Mathews, deputy associate administrator for Manned Space Flight; Dr. Wernher von Braun, director of the Marshall Space Flight Center; Dr. George E. Mueller, associate administrator for Manned Space Flight; and Lt. General Samuel C. Phillips, director of the Apollo Program.

  12. Sunrise-driven movements of dust on the Moon: Apollo 12 Ground-truth measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Brian J.; Hollick, Monique

    2015-12-01

    The first sunrise after Apollo 12 astronauts left the Moon caused dust storms across the site where rocket exhausts had disrupted about 2000 kg of smooth fine dust. The next few sunrises started progressively weaker dust storms, and the Eastern horizon brightened, adding to direct sunlight for half an hour. These Ground truth measurements were made 100 cm above the surface by the 270 g Apollo 12 Dust Detector Experiment we invented in 1966. Dust deposited on the horizontal solar cell during two lunar days after the first sunrise was almost 30% of the total it then measured over 6 years. The vertical east-facing solar cell measured horizon brightening on 14 of the first 17 lunations, with none detected on the following 61 Lunar Days. Based on over 2 million such measurements we propose a new qualitative model of sunrise-driven transport of individual dust particles freed by Apollo 12 activities from strong particle-to-particle cohesive forces. Each sunrise caused sudden surface charging which, during the first few hours, freshly mobilised and lofted the dust remaining free, microscopically smoothing the disrupted local areas. Evidence of reliability of measurements includes consistency among all 6 sensors in measurements throughout an eclipse. We caution Google Lunar XPrize competitors and others planning missions to the Moon and large airless asteroids that, after a spacecraft lands, dust hazards may occur after each of the first few sunrises. Mechanical problems in its first such period stranded Chinese lunar rover Yutu in 2014, although we would not claim yet that the causes were dust. On the other hand, sunrise-driven microscopic smoothing of disturbed areas may offer regular natural mitigations of dust consequences of mining lunar resources and reduce fears that many expeditions might cause excessive fine dust globally around the Moon.

  13. Endocrine, electrolyte, and fluid volume changes associated with Apollo missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Alexander, W. C.; Johnson, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    The endocrine and metabolic results obtained before and after the Apollo missions and the results of the limited in-flight sampling are summarized and discussed. The studies were designed to evaluate the biochemical changes in the returning Apollo crewmembers, and the areas studied included balance of fluids and electrolytes, regulation of calcium metabolism, adaptation to the environment, and regulation of metabolic processes.

  14. Liftoff of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Closeup view as the 363 ft tall Apollo 11 space vehicle is launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center, at 9:37 a.m., July 16, 1969. Apollo 11 is the United Sates first lunar landing mission (39959); Fish-eye lens view of the smoke and fire in the wake of the launch of the Apollo 11 spacecraft. This photograph of the liftoff was taken by a camera mounted on the mobile launch tower (39960); Fisheye lens view of the Apollo 11 spacecraft atop its Saturn V launch vehicle as it launch from Pad A, Launch Complex 39 (39961); Aerial view of the launch of the Apollo 11 spacecraft. This view of the liftoff was taken by a camera mounted on the mobile launch tower (39962); Fish-eye lens view of the launch of the Apollo 11 spacecraft. This photograph was taken by a camera mounted on the mobile launch tower (39963).

  15. Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities for Mauna Kea 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, L. D.; Morris, R. V.; Graff, T. G.; Yingst, R. A.; ten Kate, I. L.; Glavin, D. P.; Hedlund, M.; Malespin, C. A.; Mumm, E.

    Rover-based 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) scientific investigations were recently completed at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Scientific investigations, scientific input, and science operations constraints were tested in the context of an existing project and protocols for the field activities designed to help NASA achieve the Vision for Space Exploration. Initial science operations were planned based on a model similar to the operations control of the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER). However, evolution of the operations process occurred as the analog mission progressed. We report here on the preliminary sensor data results, an applicable methodology for developing an optimum science input based on productive engineering and science trades and the science operations approach for an investigation into the valley on the upper slopes of Mauna Kea identified as “ Apollo Valley.”

  16. Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities for Mauna Kea 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Lee D.; Morris, Richard V.; Graff, Trevor G.; Yingst, R. Aileen; tenKate, I. L.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Hedlund, Magnus; Malespin, Charles A.; Mumm, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Rover-based 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) scientific investigations were recently completed at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Scientific investigations, scientific input, and science operations constraints were tested in the context of an existing project and protocols for the field activities designed to help NASA achieve the Vision for Space Exploration. Initial science operations were planned based on a model similar to the operations control of the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER). However, evolution of the operations process occurred as the analog mission progressed. We report here on the preliminary sensor data results, an applicable methodology for developing an optimum science input based on productive engineering and science trades discussions and the science operations approach for an investigation into the valley on the upper slopes of Mauna Kea identified as "Apollo Valley".

  17. Apollo 15 impact melts, the age of Imbrium, and the Earth-Moon impact cataclysm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryder, Graham; Dalrymple, G. Brent

    1992-01-01

    The early impact history of the lunar surface is of critical importance in understanding the evolution of both the primitive Moon and the Earth, as well as the corresponding populations of planetesimals in Earth-crossing orbits. Two endmember hypotheses call for greatly dissimilar impact dynamics. One is a heavy continuous (declining) bombardment from about 4.5 Ga to 3.85 Ga. The other is that an intense but brief bombardment at about 3.85 +/- Ga was responsible for producing the visible lunar landforms and for the common 3.8-3.9 Ga ages of highland rocks. The Apennine Front, the main topographic ring of the Imbrium Basin, was sampled on the Apollo 15 mission. The Apollo 15 impact melts show a diversity of chemical compositions, indicating their origin in at least several different impact events. The few attempts at dating them have generally not produced convincing ages, despite their importance. Thus, we chose to investigate the ages of melt rock samples from the Apennine Front, because of their stratigraphic importance yet lack of previous age definition.

  18. Stennis engineer part of LCROSS moon mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Karma Snyder, a project manager at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, was a senior design engineer on the RL10 liquid rocket engine that powered the Centaur, the upper stage of the rocket used in NASA's Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission in October 2009. Part of the LCROSS mission was to search for water on the moon by striking the lunar surface with a rocket stage, creating a plume of debris that could be analyzed for water ice and vapor. Snyder's work on the RL10 took place from 1995 to 2001 when she was a senior design engineer with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne. Years later, she sees the project as one of her biggest accomplishments in light of the LCROSS mission. 'It's wonderful to see it come into full service,' she said. 'As one of my co-workers said, the original dream was to get that engine to the moon, and we're finally realizing that dream.'

  19. An ESA precursor mission to human exploration of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Fisackerly, Richard; Houdou, Berengere; Pradier, Alain; de Rossa, Diego; Vanoutryve, Benjamin; Jojaghaian, Aliac; Espinasse, Sylvie; Gardini, Bruno

    2010-05-01

    The coming decades will once again see humans on the surface of the Moon. Unlike the Apollo missions of the 1960s this new lunar exploration will be an international effort, with long duration missions and a goal to pave the way for further human expansion into the solar system. Ensuring the success and sustainability of this exploration poses significant challenges for all involved. ESA is currently preparing its first contribution to this international lunar exploration effort; a lunar lander mission, which will be a precursor to a future, Ariane V launched, ESA cargo and logistics capability to the Moon. The precursor mission will demonstrate soft precision landing with hazard avoidance capabilities, which will be required by a future cargo lander. In addition the mission can be applied as a preparation for future human exploration activities and help to ensure the sustainability of future exploration efforts. Activities have included Phase A and B1 mission design studies and technology development activities (both reported in another paper) and the definition of mission objectives and a model payload. The mission objectives have been derived by the Lunar Exploration Definition Team, a group derived of European specialists in various areas of exploration related science and technology, supported by ESA. Major inputs to the definition process were the 195 responses received to a request for information for potential payload contributions to the mission. The group was tasked with establishing how such a mission could best prepare for future human exploration. It was determined that the mission's goal should be to enable sustainable exploration and objectives were identified within a number of themes: health, habitation, resources, mobility and scientific preparations for future human activities. Investigations seek to characterise the lunar environment (e.g. radiation, dust etc.) and its effects and the properties of a landing site (potential resources, geological context) as relevant to these areas and ensure the maturation of key technologies. In this paper we discuss the objectives for the lunar lander mission and describe the model payload and the approach to selection and implementation of a final payload for the mission.

  20. An ESA precursor mission to human exploration of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpenter, James; Fisackerly, Richard; Houdou, Berengere; Pradier, Alain; de Rossa, Diego; Vanoutryve, Benjamine; Jojaghaian, Aliac; Espinasse, Sylvie; Gardini, Bruno

    The coming decades will once again see humans on the surface of the Moon. Unlike the Apollo missions of the 1960s this new lunar exploration will be an international effort, with long duration missions and a goal to pave the way for further human expansion into the solar system. Ensuring the success and sustainability of this exploration poses significant challenges for all involved. ESA is currently preparing its first contribution to this international lunar exploration effort; a lunar lander mission, which will be a precursor to a future, Ariane V launched, ESA cargo and logistics capability to the Moon. The precursor mission will demonstrate soft precision landing with hazard avoidance capabilities, which will be required by a future cargo lander. In addition the mission can be applied as a preparation for future human exploration activities and help to ensure the sustainability of future exploration efforts. Activities have included Phase A and B1 mission design studies and technology development activities (both reported in another paper) and the definition of mission objectives and a model payload. The mission objectives have been derived by the Lunar Exploration Definition Team, a group derived of European specialists in various areas of exploration related science and technology, supported by ESA. Major inputs to the definition process were the 195 responses received to a request for information for potential payload contributions to the mission. The group was tasked with establishing how such a mission could best prepare for future human exploration. It was determined that the mission's goal should be to enable sustainable exploration and objectives were identified within a number of themes: health, habitation, resources, mobility and scientific preparations for future human activities. Investigations seek to characterise the lunar environment (e.g. radiation, dust etc.) and its effects and the properties of a landing site (potential resources, geological context) as relevant to these areas and ensure the maturation of key technologies. In this paper we discuss the objectives for the lunar lander mission and describe the model payload and the approach to selection and implementation of a final payload for the mission.

  1. Lunar interior as seen by seismology: from Apollo to future missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, Philippe; Kobayashi, Naoki; Garcia, Raphael; Weber, Renee; Johnson, Catherine; Gagnepain-Beyneix, Jeannine

    2012-07-01

    About 40 years ago, the Apollo missions deployed a network of 4 passive seismometers on the Moon, at landing sites 12, 14, 15 and 16. A seismometer was also deployed on Apollo 11 and a gravimeter on Apollo 17 landing sites. Although this network stopped its operation in 1977, the analysis of the data is surprisingly still ongoing and has led to the determination of major radial features in the lunar interior, including the recent discovery of core phases in 2011 by Weber et al and Garcia et all, 2011. We review in this presentation the general results of these seismic analyses, from the subsurface near the landing sites to the core. Special focus is given to the crustal structure, both in term of thickness and lateral variation and to the core structure, in term of radius, core state, temperature and composition. We also discuss the existence of possible discontinuities in the mantle, proposed by some early seismic models but challenged by others and interpreted as the possible limit of an early magma ocean. We finally present the perspectives of future missions, first with the SELENE2 mission, which is expected to deploy a new generation of very broad band seismometer followed by other projects proposed either in Europe or the USA. By using the expected sensitivity of the seismometers considered for these mission, we conclude by presenting the potential challenges, science objectives and discoveries of this future step in the seismic exploration of our satellite.

  2. NASA's Lunar Polar Ice Prospector, RESOLVE: Mission Rehearsal in Apollo Valley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Picard, Martin; Quinn, Jacqueline; Sanders, Gerald B.; Colaprete, Anthony; Elphic, Richard C.

    2012-01-01

    After the completion of the Apollo Program, space agencies didn't visit the moon for many years. But then in the 90's, the Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions returned and showed evidence of water ice at the poles. Then in 2009 the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite indisputably showed that the Cabeus crater contained water ice and other useful volatiles. Furthermore, instruments aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) show evidence that the water ice may also be present in areas that receive several days of continuous sunlight each month. However, before we can factor this resource into our mission designs, we must understand the distribution and quantity of ice or other volatiles at the poles and whether it can be reasonably harvested for use as propellant or mission consumables. NASA, in partnership with the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), has been developing a payload to answer these questions. The payload is named RESOLVE. RESOLVE is on a development path that will deliver a tested flight design by the end of 2014. The team has developed a Design Reference Mission using LRO data that has RESOLVE landing near Cabeus Crater in May of2016. One of the toughest obstacles for RESOLVE's solar powered mission is its tight timeline. RESOLVE must be able to complete its objectives in the 5-7 days of available sunlight. The RESOLVE team must be able to work around obstacles to the mission timeline in real time. They can't afford to take a day off to replan as other planetary missions have done. To insure that this mission can be executed as planned, a prototype version of RESOLVE was developed this year and tested at a lunar analog site on Hawaii, known as Apollo Valley, which was once used to train the Apollo astronauts. The RESOLVE team planned the mission with the same type of orbital imagery that would be available from LRO. The simulation team prepositioned a Lander in Apollo Valley with RESOLVE on top mounted on its CSA rover. Then the mission simulation began as the operations team's consoles came alive with data and images. They executed the mission just like the real mission with lunar communications delays and limited bandwidth and a realistic remote mission control room. This paper will describe the RESOLVE payload in detail and describe the results of the mission simulation in Hawaii.

  3. View of near full Moon photographed by Apollo 13 during transearth journey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This view of a near full Moon was photographed from the Apollo 13 spacecraft during its transearth journey homeward. Though the explosion of the oxygen tank in the Service Module forced the cancellation of the scheduled lunar landing, Apollo 13 made a pass around the Moon prior to returning to Earth. Some of the conspicuous lunar features include the Sea of Crisis, the Sea of Fertility, the Sea of Tranquility, the Sea of Serenity, The Sea of Nector, the Sea of Vapors, the Border Sea, Smyth's Sea, the crater Langenus, and the crater Tsiolkovsky.

  4. Gold replica of olive branch left on moons surface by Apollo 11

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A gold replica of an olive branch, the traditional symbol of peace, which was left on the Moon's surface by the Apollo 11 crew members. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, was in charge of placing the replica (less than half a foot in length) on the Moon. The gesture represents a fresh wish for peace for all mankind. astronauts will be released from quarantine on August 11, 1969. Donald K. Slayton (right), MSC Director of Flight Crew Operations; and Lloyd Reeder, training coordinator.

  5. Apollo 17 petrology and experimental determination of differentiation sequences in model moon compositions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, F. N.; Kushiro, I.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental studies of model moon compositions are discussed, taking into account questions related to the differentiation of the outer layer of the moon. Phase relations for a series of proposed lunar compositions have been determined and a petrographic and electron microprobe study was conducted on four Apollo 17 samples. Two of the samples consist of high-titanium mare basalts, one includes crushed anorthosite and gabbro, and another contains blue-gray breccia.

  6. Apollo 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, David

    1972-01-01

    This is the Press Kit that was given to the various media outlets that were interested in covering the Apollo 17 mission. It includes information about the moon, lunar science, concentrating on the planned mission. The kit includes information about the flight, and the trajectory, planned orbit insertion maneuvers, the extravehicular mission events, a comparison with the Apollo 16, a map of the lunar surface, and the surface activity, information about the Taurus-Littrow landing site, the planned science experiments, the power source for the experiment package and diagrams of some of the instrumentation that was used to perform the experiments.

  7. Apollo-Soyuz US-USSR joint mission results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bean, A. L.; Evans, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The technical and nontechnical objectives of the Apollo-Soyuz mission are briefly considered. The mission demonstrated that Americans and Russians can work together to perform a very complex operation, including rendezvous in space, docking, and the conduction of joint experiments. Certain difficulties which had to be overcome were partly related to differences concerning the role of the astronaut in the basic alignment and docking procedures for space vehicles. Attention is also given to the experiments conducted during the mission and the approach used to overcome the language barrier.

  8. Logo for the 20th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Logo for the 20th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 mission. Logo is described as the numeral 20. Inside the zero is a representation of an eagle landing on the lunar surface with the title 'Apollo 11' above it.

  9. MSFC Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount experiment systems mission evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, A. F., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A detailed evaluation is presented of the Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount experiments performance throughout the eight and one-half month Skylab Mission. Descriptions and the objectives of each instrument are included. The anomalies experienced, the causes, and corrective actions taken are discussed. Conclusions, based on evaluation of the performance of each instrument, are presented. Examples of the scientific data obtained, as well as a discussion of the quality and quantity of the data, are presented.

  10. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

  11. MSFC Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount summary mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morse, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    A summary of the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) performance during the 8.5-month Skylab mission is presented. A brief description of each ATM system, system performance summaries, discussion of all significant ATM anomalies which occurred during the Skylab mission, and, in an appendix, a summary of the Skylab ATM Calibration Rocket Project (CALROC) are provided. The text is supplemented and amplified by photographs, drawings, curves, and tables. The report shows that the ATM not only met, but exceeded premission performance criteria, and that participation of man in space for this scientific investigation greatly enhanced the quality and quantity of the data attained.

  12. The impact history of the Moon: implications of new high-resolution U-Pb analyses of Apollo impact breccias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snape, Joshua F.; Nemchin, Alexander A.; Thiessen, Fiona; Bellucci, Jeremy J.; Whitehouse, Martin J.

    2015-04-01

    Constraining the impact history of the Moon is a key priority, both for lunar science [1] and also for our understanding of how this fundamental geologic processes [2] has affected the evolution of planets in the inner solar system. The Apollo impact breccia samples provide the most direct way of dating impact events on the Moon. Numerous studies have dated samples from the Apollo landing sites by multiple different methods with varying degrees of precision [3]. This has led to an ongoing debates regarding the presence of a period of intense meteoritic bombardment (e.g. [4-8]). In this study we present high precision U-Pb analyses of Ca-phosphates in a variety of Apollo impact breccias. These data allow us to resolve the signatures of multiple different impact events in samples collected by the Apollo 12, 14 and 17 missions. In particular, the potential identification of three significant impact events between the period of ~3915-3940 Ma, is indicative of a high rate of meteorite impacts at this point in lunar history. A more fundamental problem with interpretations of Apollo breccia ages is that the samples originate from the lunar regolith and do not represent samples of actual bedrock exposures. As such, although improvements in analytical precision may allow us to continue identifying new impact signatures, the proposed links between these signatures and particular impact features remain highly speculative. This is a problem that will only be truly addressed with a more focused campaign of lunar exploration. Most importantly, this would include the acquisition of samples from below the lunar regolith, which could be confidently attributed to particular bedrock formations and provide a degree of geologic context that has been largely absent from studies of lunar geology to date. References: [1] National Research Council (2007) The scientific context for exploration of the Moon, National Academies Press. [2] Melosh H. J. (1989) Impact Cratering: A Geologic Process, Oxford University Press. [3] Stöffler D. et al. (2006) Rev. Min. Geochem., 60, 519-596. [4] Tera F. et al. (1974) EPSL, 22, 1-22. [5] Wetherill G. W. (1981) Multi-ring basins: Formation and evolution, 1-18, Pergamon Press. [6] Ryder G. (1990) Am. Geophy. Union, 71, 313-323. [7] Cohen B. A. et al. (2000) Science, 290, 1754-1756. [8] Baldwin R. B. (2006) Icarus, 184, 308-318.

  13. Volatile elements in Apollo 16 samples - Possible evidence for outgassing of the moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krahenbuhl, U.; Ganapathy, R.; Morgan, J. W.; Anders, E.

    1973-01-01

    Several Apollo 16 breccias, including one containing goethite, are strikingly enriched in volatile elements such as bromine, cadmium, germanium, antimony, thallium, and zinc. Similar but smaller enrichments are found in all highland soils. It appears that volcanic processes took place in the lunar highlands, involving the release of volatiles including water. The lunar thallium/uranium ratio is .0002 of the cosmic ratio, which suggests that the moon's original water content could not have exceeded the equivalent of a layer 22 meters deep. The cataclastic anorthosites at the Apollo 16 site may represent deep ejecta from the Nectaris basin.

  14. The Impact History of the Moon: Implications of New High-Resolution U-Pb Analyses of Apollo Impact Breccias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snape, J. F.; Thiessen, F.; Nemchin, A. A.; Bellucci, J. J.; Whitehouse, M. J.

    2015-07-01

    We present new U-Pb ages for a range Apollo impact breccias and discuss the implications of these for the impact history of the Moon, particularly with regard to models of the ~3.9 Ga lunar cataclysm.

  15. Log of Apollo 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The major events of the first manned moon landing mission, Apollo 11, are presented in chronological order from launch time until arrival of the astronauts aboard the U.S.S. Hornet. The log is descriptive, non-technical, and includes numerous color photographs of the astronauts on the moon. (PR)

  16. MSFC Flight Mission Directive Apollo-Saturn 205 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The purpose of this directive is to provide, under one cover, coordinated direction for the AS-205 Space Vehicle Flight. Within this document, mission objectives are specified, vehicle configuration is described and referenced, flight trajectories, data acquisition requirements, instrumentation requirements, and detailed documentation requirements necessary to meet launch vehicle mission objectives are defined and/or referenced.

  17. Artists concept of Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    A Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation artist's concept depicting mankind's first walk on another celestianl body. Here, Astronaut Neil Armstrong, Apollo 11 commander, is making his first step onto the surface of the moon. In the background is the Earth, some 240,000 miles away. Armstrong. They are continuing their postflight debriefings. The three astronauts will be released from quarantine on August 11, 1969. Donald K. Slayton (right), MSC Director of Flight Crew Operations; and Lloyd Reeder, training coordinator.

  18. Estimates of the moon's geometry using lunar orbiter imagery and Apollo laser altimeter data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. L.

    1973-01-01

    Selenographic coordinates for about 6000 lunar points identified on the Lunar Orbiter photographs are tabulated and have been combined with those lunar radii derived from the Apollo 15 laser altimeter data. These coordinates were used to derive that triaxial ellipsoid which best fits the moon's irregular surface. Fits were obtaind for different constraints on both the axial orientations and the displacement of the center of the ellipsoid. The semiaxes for the unconstrained ellipsoid were a = 1737.6 km, b = 1735.6 km, and c = 1735.0 km which correspond to a mean radius of about 1736.1 km. These axes were found to be nearly parallel to the moon's principal axes of inertia, and the origin was displaced about 2.0 km from the moon's center of gravity in a direction away from the earth and to the south of the lunar equator.

  19. Official emblam of Apollo 11, the first scheduled lunar landing mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Official emblam of Apollo 11, the first scheduled lunar landing mission. It depicts and eagle descending toward the lunar surface with an olive branch, symbolizing America's peaceful mission in space.

  20. In Situ Biological Contamination Studies of the Moon: Implications for Planetary Protection and Life Detection Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Lupisella, Mark; Williams, David R.; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and ESA have outlined visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic precursor missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moan, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations, including possibly asteroids. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of life. The search for life on objects such as Mars will require careful operations, and that all systems be sufficiently cleaned and sterilized prior to launch to ensure that the scientific integrity of extraterrestrial samples is not jeopardized by terrestrial organic contamination. Under the Committee on Space Research's (COSPAR's) current planetary protection policy for the Moon, no sterilization procedures are required for outbound lunar spacecraft, nor is there a different planetary protection category for human missions, although preliminary C SPAR policy guidelines for human missions to Mars have been developed. Future in situ investigations of a variety of locations on the Moon by highly sensitive instruments designed to search for biologically derived organic compounds would help assess the contamination of the Moon by lunar spacecraft. These studies could also provide valuable "ground truth" data for Mars sample return missions and help define planetary protection requirements for future Mars bound spacecraft carrying life detection experiments. In addition, studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts could provide valuable data to help refine future: Mars surface exploration plans for a human mission to Mars.

  1. Petrologic constraints on the origin of the Moon: Evidence from Apollo 14

    SciTech Connect

    Shervais, J.W.; Taylor, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Fra Mauro breccias at Apollo 14 contain distinctive suites of mare basalts and highland crustal rocks that contrast significantly with equivalent rocks from other Apollo sites. These contrasts imply lateral heterogeneity of the lunar crust and mantle on a regional scale. This heterogeneity may date back to the earliest stages of lunar accretion and differentiation. Current theories requiring a Moon-wide crust of Ferroan Anorthosite are based largely on samples from Apollo 16, where all but a few samples represent the FAN suite. However, at the nearside sites, FAN is either scarce (A-15) or virtually absent (A-12, A-14, A-17). It is suggested that the compositional variations could be accounted for by the acceleration of a large mass of material (e.g., 0.1 to 0.2 moon masses) late in the crystallization history of the magma ocean. Besides adding fresh, primordial material, this would remelt a large pocket of crust and mantle, thereby allowing a second distillation to occur in the resulting magma sea.

  2. Forward Contamination of the Moon and Mars: Implications for Future Life Detection Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Lupisella, Mark; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.

    2004-01-01

    NASA and ESA have outlined new visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moon, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of life. The search for life on objects such as Mars will require that all spacecraft and instrumentation be sufficiently cleaned and sterilized prior to launch to ensure that the scientific integrity of extraterrestrial samples is not jeopardized by terrestrial organic contamination. Under COSPAR's current planetary protection policy for the Moon, no sterilization procedures are required for outbound lunar spacecraft. Nonetheless, future in situ investigations of a variety of locations on the Moon by highly sensitive instruments designed to search for biologically derived organic compounds would help assess the contamination of the Moon by lunar spacecraft. These studies could also provide valuable "ground truth" data for Mars sample return missions and help define planetary protection requirements for future Mars bound spacecraft carrying life detection experiments. In addition, studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts could provide valuable data to help refine future Mars surface exploration plans for a human mission to Mars.

  3. Using Technology to Better Characterize the Apollo Sample Suite: A Retroactive PET Analysis and Potential Model for Future Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, R. A.

    2015-01-01

    From 1969-1972 the Apollo missions collected 382 kg of lunar samples from six distinct locations on the Moon. Studies of the Apollo sample suite have shaped our understanding of the formation and early evolution of the Earth-Moon system, and have had important implications for studies of the other terrestrial planets (e.g., through the calibration of the crater counting record) and even the outer planets (e.g., the Nice model of the dynamical evolution of the Solar System). Despite nearly 50 years of detailed research on Apollo samples, scientists are still developing new theories about the origin and evolution of the Moon. Three areas of active research are: (1) the abundance of water (and other volatiles) in the lunar mantle, (2) the timing of the formation of the Moon and the duration of lunar magma ocean crystallization, (3) the formation of evolved lunar lithologies (e.g., granites) and implications for tertiary crustal processes on the Moon. In order to fully understand these (and many other) theories about the Moon, scientists need access to "new" lunar samples, particularly new plutonic samples. Over 100 lunar meteorites have been identified over the past 30 years, and the study of these samples has greatly aided in our understanding of the Moon. However, terrestrial alteration and the lack of geologic context limit what can be learned from the lunar meteorites. Although no "new" large plutonic samples (i.e., hand-samples) remain to be discovered in the Apollo sample collection, there are many large polymict breccias in the Apollo collection containing relatively large (approximately 1 cm or larger) previously identified plutonic clasts, as well as a large number of unclassified lithic clasts. In addition, new, previously unidentified plutonic clasts are potentially discoverable within these breccias. The question becomes how to non-destructively locate and identify new lithic clasts of interest while minimizing the contamination and physical degradation of the samples.

  4. Surface electrical properties experiment. [for Taurus-Littrow region of the moon on Apollo 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, G.

    1974-01-01

    The Surface Electrical Properties Experiment (SEP) was flown to the moon in December 1972 on Apollo 17 and used to explore a portion of the Taurus-Littrow region. SEP used a relatively new technique, termed radio frequency interferometry (RFI). Electromagnetic waves were radiated from two orthogonal, horizontal electric dipole antennas on the surface of the moon at frequencies of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 Mhz. The field strength of the EM waves was measured as a function of distance with a receiver mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle and using three orthogonal, electrically small, loops. The interference pattern produced by the waves that travelled above the moon's surface and those that travelled below the surface was recorded on magnetic tape. The tape was returned to earth for analysis and interpretation. Several reprints, preprints, and an initial draft of the first publication of the SEP results are included. These documents provide a rather complete account of the details of the theory of the RFI technique, of the terrestrial tests of the technique, and of the present state of our interpretation of the Apollo 17 data.

  5. Mare glasses from Apollo 17 - Constraints on the moon's bulk composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delano, J. W.; Lindsley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    Two previously unreported varieties of mare volcanic glass have been discovered in Apollo 17 samples. Twenty-three chemical types of volcanic glass have now been analyzed from the six Apollo landing sites. These volcanic glasses, which may be samples of primary magmas derived from the differentiated lunar mantle, define two linear arrays that seem to reflect regional, if not global, regularities among the source regions of these melts. Additional systematics among these glasses have been used to estimate the bulk composition of the moon. The results suggest that the refractory lithophile elements are present at abundances of 1.7 x chondrites. The silicate portion of the moon appears to have a major-element composition similar to a volatile (Si, Na, K)-depleted, earth's upper mantle. The theory involving an earth-fission origin of the moon can be tested further through trace element analyses on the volcanic glasses, and through determination of the N/Ar-36 ratio and noble gas isotopes from primordial lunar gas trapped within vesicles associated with mare volcanic glass.

  6. Apollo 15 Logo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is the Apollo 15 Moon landing mission logo. Apollo 15 launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on July 26, 1971 via a Saturn Five launch vehicle. Aboard was a crew of three astronauts including David R. Scott, Mission Commander; James B. Irwin, Lunar Module Pilot; and Alfred M. Worden, Command Module Pilot. It was the first mission designed to explore the Moon over longer periods, greater ranges, and with more instruments for the collection of scientific data than on previous missions. The mission included the introduction of a $40,000,000 lunar roving vehicle (LRV) that reached a top speed of 16 kph (10 mph) across the Moon's surface. The successful Apollo 15 lunar landing mission was the first in a series of three advanced missions planned for the Apollo program. The primary scientific objectives were to observe the lunar surface, survey and sample material and surface features in a preselected area of the Hadley-Apennine region, setup and activation of surface experiments and conduct in-flight experiments and photographic tasks from lunar orbit. Apollo 15 televised the first lunar liftoff and recorded a walk in deep space by Alfred Worden. Both the Saturn Five rocket and the LRV were developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  7. JUICE: A European Mission to Jupiter and its Icy Moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witasse, O.; Altobelli, N.; Barabash, S.; Bruzzone, L.; Dougherty, M.; Erd, C.; Fletcher, L.; Gladstone, R.; Grasset, O.; Gurvits, L.; Hartogh, P.; Hussmann, H.; Iess, I.; Langevin, Y.; Palumbo, P.; Piccioni, G.; Sarri, G.; Titov, D.; Wahlund, J.-E.

    2015-10-01

    JUICE -JUpiter ICy moons Explorer -is the first large mission in the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 programme[1]. The mission was selected in May 2012 and adopted in November 2014. The implementation phase starts in July 2015, following the selection of the prime industrial contractor. Planned for launch in June 2022 and arrival at Jupiter in October 2029, it will spend at least three years making detailed observations of Jupiter and three of its largest moons, Ganymede, Callisto and Europa.

  8. Lunette: A Dual Lander Mission to the Moon to Explore Early Planetary Differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, C. R.; Banerdt, B.; Jones, M.; Elliott, J.; Alkalai, L.; Turyshev, S.; Lognonné, P.; Kobayashi, N.; Grimm, R. E.; Spohn, T.; Weber, R. C.; Lunette Science; Instrument Support Team

    2010-12-01

    The Moon is critical for understanding fundamental aspects of how terrestrial planets formed and evolved. The Moon’s size means that a record of early planetary differentiation has been preserved. However, data from previous, current and planned missions are (will) not (be) of sufficient fidelity to provide definitive conclusions about its internal state, structure, and composition. Lunette rectifies this situation. Lunette is a solar-powered, 2 identical lander geophysical network mission that operates for at least 4 years on the surface of the Moon. Each Lunette lander carries an identical, powerful geophysical payload consisting of four instruments: 1) An extremely sensitive instrument combining a 3-axis triad of Short Period sensors and a 3-axis set of Long Period sensors, to be placed with its environmental shield on the surface; 2) A pair of self-penetrating “Moles,” each carrying thermal and physical sensors at least 3 m below the surface to measure the heat flow from the lunar interior; 3) Lunar Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector: A high-precision, high-performance corner cube reflector for laser ranging between the Earth and the Moon; and 4) ElectroMagnetic Sounder: A set of directional magnetometers and electrometers that together probe the electrical resistivity and thermal conductivity of the interior. The 2 landers are deployed to distinct lunar terranes: the Feldspathic Highlands Terrane (FHT) and the Procellarum KREEP Terrane (PKT) on the lunar nearside. They are launched together on a single vehicle, then separate shortly after trans-lunar injection, making their way individually to an LL2 staging point. Each lander descends to the lunar surface at the beginning of consecutive lunar days; the operations team can concentrate on completing lander checkout and instrument deployments well before lunar night descends. Lunette has one primary goal: Understand the early stages of terrestrial planet differentiation. Lunette uses Apollo knowledge of deep moonquake nests and Earth-based nearside impact flash monitoring (IFM) to enable a 2-station mission to address this goal. IFM provides known seismic sources, allowing detailed seismic study of the lunar interior from a 2-station network, representing a major advance since Apollo. The instruments and support systems are designed to operate for much longer than four years and therefore could be integrated into any future international lunar geophysical network. Modeling undertaken demonstrates the feasibility of this approach for seismic data. Using the Apollo seismic record, the sensitivity and broadband nature of the seismometer is shown to be able to address the challenges of seismic scattering, low frequency seismology, detection of core phases (e.g. PKP, ScS), and meteoroid impact characterization to achieve the primary mission goal.

  9. Apollo experience report: Mission planning for lunar module descent and ascent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, F. V.

    1972-01-01

    The premission planning, the real-time situation, and the postflight analysis for the Apollo 11 lunar descent and ascent are described. A comparison between premission planning and actual results is included. A navigation correction capability, developed from Apollo 11 postflight analysis was used successfully on Apollo 12 to provide the first pinpoint landing. An experience summary, which illustrates typical problems encountered by the mission planners, is also included.

  10. The Apollo Program and Lunar Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuiper, Gerard P.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the history of the Vanguard project and the findings in Ranger records and Apollo missions, including lunar topography, gravity anomalies, figure, and chemistry. Presented are speculative remarks on the research of the origin of the Moon. (CC)

  11. Robotics and telepresence for moon missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sallaberger, Christian

    1994-01-01

    An integrated moon program has often been proposed as a logical next step for today's space efforts. In the context of preparing for the possibility of launching a moon program, the European Space Agency is currently conducting an internal study effort which is focusing on the assessment of key technologies. Current thinking has this moon program organized into four phases. Phase 1 will deal with lunar resource exploration. The goal would be to produce a complete chemical inventory of the moon, including oxygen, water, other volatiles, carbon, silicon, and other resources. Phase 2 will establish a permanent robotic presence on the moon via a number of landers and surface rovers. Phase 3 will extend the second phase and concentrate on the use and exploitation of local lunar resources. Phase 4 will be the establishment of a first human outpost. Some preliminary work such as the building of the outpost and the installation of scientific equipment will be done by unmanned systems before a human crew is sent to the moon.

  12. On Eagle's Wings: The Parkes Observatory's Support of the Apollo 11 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkissian, John M.

    At 12:56 p.m., on Monday 21 July 1969 (AEST), six hundred million people witnessed Neil Armstrong's historic first steps on the Moon through television pictures transmitted to Earth from the lunar module, Eagle. Three tracking stations were receiving the signals simultaneously. They were the CSIRO's Parkes Radio Telescope, the Honeysuckle Creek tracking station near Canberra, and NASA's Goldstone station in California. During the first nine minutes of the broadcast, NASA alternated between the signals being received by the three stations. When they switched to the Parkes pictures, they were of such superior quality that NASA remained with them for the rest of the 2½-hour moonwalk. The television pictures from Parkes were received under extremely trying and dangerous conditions. A violent squall struck the telescope on the day of the historic moonwalk. The telescope was buffeted by strong winds that swayed the support tower and threatened the integrity of the telescope structure. Fortunately, cool heads prevailed and as Aldrin activated the TV camera, the Moon rose into the field-of-view of the Parkes telescope. This report endeavours to explain the circumstances of the Parkes Observatory's support of the Apollo 11 mission, and how it came to be involved in the historic enterprise.

  13. Return to the Moon: Lunar robotic science missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Lawrence A.

    1992-01-01

    There are two important aspects of the Moon and its materials which must be addressed in preparation for a manned return to the Moon and establishment of a lunar base. These involve its geologic science and resource utilization. Knowledge of the Moon forms the basis for interpretations of the planetary science of the terrestrial planets and their satellites; and there are numerous exciting explorations into the geologic science of the Moon to be conducted using orbiter and lander missions. In addition, the rocks and minerals and soils of the Moon will be the basic raw materials for a lunar outpost; and the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) of lunar materials must be considered in detail before any manned return to the Moon. Both of these fields -- planetary science and resource assessment -- will necessitate the collection of considerable amounts of new data, only obtainable from lunar-orbit remote sensing and robotic landers. For over fifteen years, there have been a considerable number of workshops, meetings, etc. with their subsequent 'white papers' which have detailed plans for a return to the Moon. The Lunar Observer mission, although grandiose, seems to have been too expensive for the austere budgets of the last several years. However, the tens of thousands of man-hours that have gone into 'brainstorming' and production of plans and reports have provided the precursor material for today's missions. It has been only since last year (1991) that realistic optimism for lunar orbiters and soft landers has come forth. Plans are for 1995 and 1996 'Early Robotic Missions' to the Moon, with the collection of data necessary for answering several of the major problems in lunar science, as well as for resource and site evaluation, in preparation for soft landers and a manned-presence on the Moon.

  14. Portrait of Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander of Apollo 11 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander of the Apollo 11 Lunar Landing mission in his space suit, with his helmet on the table in front of him. Behind him is a large photograph of the lunar surface.

  15. Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Construction of the Lunar Landing Research Facility. Work is on the cross-member beam. James Hansen noted that 'it was conceived in 1962 by engineer Donald Hewes and built under the careful direction of his quiet but ingenious division chief, W. Hewitt Phillips, this gigantic facility designed to develop techniques for landing the rocket-powered LEM on the moon's surface.'(p. 373) Hansen further reports Hewitt Phillips' account of the construction: '*Since we knew that the moon's gravity is one-sixth that of the Earth's, we needed to support five-sixths of the vehicle's weight to simulate the actual conditions on the moon.' Perhaps, some practical method could be devised to lower the apparent weight of a mock-up LEM to its lunar equivalent by a method of suspension using vertical cables attached to a traveling bridge crane. From this basic notion, the design evolved. A huge gantry structure was built that would dominate Langley's landscape for years to come. Phillips and Hewes wanted the supporting gantry to be even taller, but because of the heavy military air traffic from adjacent Langley AFB, the structure was limited to 200 feet. The completed facility, however, stood 240 feet 6 inches, excluding the top warning lights and antennae.' (p. 374) From A.W. Vigil, 'Piloted Space-Flight Simulation at Langley Research Center,' Paper presented at the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 1966 Winter Meeting, New York, NY, November 27 - December 1, 1966. 'Ground-based simulators are not very satisfactory for studying the problems associated with the final phases of landing. This is due primarily to the fact that the visual scene cannot be simulated with sufficient realism. For this reason it is preferable to go to some sort of flight-test simulator which can provide real-life visual cues. One research facility designed to study the final phases of lunar landing is in operation at Langley. ... The facility is an overhead crane structure about 250 feet tall and 400 feet long. The crane system supports five-sixths of the vehicle's weight through servo-driven vertical cables. The remaining one-sixth of the vehicle weight pulls the vehicle downward simulating the lunar gravitational force. During actual flights the overhead crane system is slaved to keep the cable near vertical at all times. A gimbal system on the vehicle permits angular freedom for pitch, roll, and yaw. The facility is capable of testing vehicles up to 20,000 pounds. A research vehicle, weighing 10,500 pounds fully loaded, is being used and is shown [in this picture]. This vehicle is provided with a large degree of flexibility in cockpit positions, instrumentation, and control parameters. It has main engines of 6,000 pounds thrust, throttle able down to 600 pounds, and attitude jets. This facility is studying the problems of the final 200 feet of lunar landing and the problems of maneuvering about in close proximity to the lunar surface.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), pp. 373-378.

  16. 2012 Moon Mars Analog Mission Activities on Mauna Kea, Hawai'i

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Lee; Graff, Trevor G.; Aileen Yingst, R.; ten Kate, Inge L.; Russell, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    Rover-based 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) scientific investigations were completed at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Scientific investigations, scientific input, and science operations constraints were tested in the context of an existing project and protocols for the field activities designed to help NASA achieve the Vision for Space Exploration. Four separate science investigations were integrated in a Martian analog environment with initial science operations planned based on a model similar to the operations control of the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER). However, evolution of the operations process occurred during the initial planning sessions and as the analog mission progressed. We review here the overall program of the investigation into the origin of the valley including preliminary sensor data results, an applicable methodology for developing an optimum science input based on productive engineering, and science trades and the science operations approach for an investigation into the valley on the upper slopes of Mauna Kea identified as “Apollo Valley”.

  17. The Japanese Air Pollusion Observation Missions, GMAP-Asia and APOLLO.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Y.; Kita, K.; Kanaya, Y.; Gmap-Asia; Apollo Mission Team

    2011-12-01

    There are two mission concepts in Japan for air quality observation, GMAP-Asia (Geostationary mission for Meteorology and Air Pollution) from geostationary orbit and APOLLO (Atmospheric pollution observation) from Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) of International Space Station (ISS). The mission's purpose is to identify human versus natural sources of ozone and its precursors, aerosols, and intercontinental air pollution transport, and understand the dynamics of coastal ecosystems. The scientific targets are: 1. Understanding of global air quality status. 2. Air pollution and human health. 3. Impact of air pollution on climate change. GMAP-Asia passed the Mission Definition Review in Japanese space agency in December 2009, and continue the investigation of the instrument. Science working groups are developing and prioritizing the requirements for atmospheric composition, and aerosols for for APOLLO mission. In this talk we will summarize the current status of GMAP-Asia and APOLLO mission study activities.

  18. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    From Spaceflight Revolution: 'Top NASA officials listen to a LOPO briefing at Langley in December 1966. Sitting to the far right with his hand on his chin is Floyd Thompson. To the left sits Dr. George Mueller, NASA associate administrator for Manned Space Flight. On the wall is a diagram of the sites selected for the 'concentrated mission.' 'The most fundamental issue in the pre-mission planning for Lunar Orbiter was how the moon was to be photographed. Would the photography be 'concentrated' on a predetermined single target, or would it be 'distributed' over several selected targets across the moon's surface? On the answer to this basic question depended the successful integration of the entire mission plan for Lunar Orbiter.' The Lunar Orbiter Project made systematic photographic maps of the lunar landing sites. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 337.

  19. NASA's J-2X Engine Builds on the Apollo Program for Lunar Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Jimmy R.

    2006-01-01

    In January 2006, NASA streamlined its U.S. Vision for Space Exploration hardware development approach for replacing the Space Shuttle after it is retired in 2010. The revised CLV upper stage will use the J-2X engine, a derivative of NASA s Apollo Program Saturn V s S-II and S-IVB main propulsion, which will also serve as the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) engine. This paper gives details of how the J- 2X engine effort mitigates risk by building on the Apollo Program and other lessons learned to deliver a human-rated engine that is on an aggressive development schedule, with first demonstration flight in 2010 and human test flights in 2012. It is well documented that propulsion is historically a high-risk area. NASA s risk reduction strategy for the J-2X engine design, development, test, and evaluation is to build upon heritage hardware and apply valuable experience gained from past development efforts. In addition, NASA and its industry partner, Rocketdyne, which originally built the J-2, have tapped into their extensive databases and are applying lessons conveyed firsthand by Apollo-era veterans of America s first round of Moon missions in the 1960s and 1970s. NASA s development approach for the J-2X engine includes early requirements definition and management; designing-in lessons learned from the 5-2 heritage programs; initiating long-lead procurement items before Preliminary Desi& Review; incorporating design features for anticipated EDS requirements; identifying facilities for sea-level and altitude testing; and starting ground support equipment and logistics planning at an early stage. Other risk reduction strategies include utilizing a proven gas generator cycle with recent development experience; utilizing existing turbomachinery ; applying current and recent main combustion chamber (Integrated Powerhead Demonstrator) and channel wall nozzle (COBRA) advances; and performing rigorous development, qualification, and certification testing of the engine system, with a philosophy of "test what you fly, and fly what you test". These and other active risk management strategies are in place to deliver the J-2X engine for LEO and lunar return missions as outlined in the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration.

  20. Organic analyses of selected areas of Surveyor III recovered on the Apollo 12 mission.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneit, B. R.; Burlingame, A. L.

    1971-01-01

    Results of organic analyses of certain parts of the Surveyor 3 television camera retrieved from the moon by the Apollo 12 astronauts. Organic contamination of the mirror surface and camera exterior (shroud) is reported and is attributed to spacecraft outgassing, Lunar Module descent engine blasting, possible Surveyor 3 engine exhaust products, and unknown sources.

  1. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Langley Center Director Floyd Thompson shows Ann Kilgore the 'picture of the century.' This was the first picture of the earth taken from space. From Spaceflight Revolution: 'On 23 August 1966 just as Lunar Orbiter I was about to pass behind the moon, mission controllers executed the necessary maneuvers to point the camera away from the lunar surface and toward the earth. The result was the world's first view of the earth from space. It was called 'the picture of the century' and 'the greatest shot taken since the invention of photography.' Not even the color photos of the earth taken during the Apollo missions superseded the impact of this first image of our planet as a little island of life floating in the black and infinite sea of space.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), pp. 345-346.

  2. Magnetism and the interior of the moon. [measured at Apollo landing sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    During the time period 1961-1972 eleven magnetometers were sent to the moon. The results of lunar magnetometer data analysis are reviewed, with emphasis on the lunar interior. Magnetic fields have been measured on the lunar surface at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, and 16 landing sites. The remanent field values at these sites are given. Satellite and surface measurements show strong evidence that the lunar crust is magnetized over much of the lunar globe. The origin of the lunar remanent field is not yet satisfactorily understood; several source models are presented. Simultaneous data from the Apollo 12 lunar surface magnetometer and the Explorer 35 Ames magnetometer are used to construct a wholemoon hysteresis curve, from which the global lunar permeability is determined. Total iron abundance is calculated for two assumed compositional models of the lunar interior. Other lunar models with a small iron core and with a shallow iron-rich layer are also discussed in light of the measured global permeability.

  3. LUNETTE - A Discovery Class Mission to the Moon to Establish a Geophysical Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, C. R.; Banerdt, W. B.; Alkalai, L.

    2009-12-01

    Lunette is a Discovery mission concept that is designed to deliver three landed geophysical packages (“nodes”) to widely spaced (3000-5000 km) locations on the lunar surface. This mission will provide detailed information on the interior of the Moon through seismic, thermal, electromagnetic, and precision laser ranging measurements, and will substantially address the lunar interior science objectives set out in “The Scientific Context for the Exploration of the Moon” (NRC, 2008) and ”The Final Report for the International Lunar Network Anchor Nodes Science Definition Team” (NASA, 2009). Each node will contain: a very broad band seismometer that is at least an order of magnitude more sensitive over a wider frequency band than the seismometers used during Apollo; a heat flow probe, delivered via a self-penetrating “mole” device; a low-frequency electromagnetic sounding instrument, which will measure the electromagnetic properties of the outermost few hundred km of the Moon; and a corner-cube laser retroreflector for lunar laser ranging. These instruments will provide an enormous advance in our knowledge of the structure and processes of the lunar interior over that provided by Apollo-era data, allowing insights into the earliest history of the formation and evolution of the Moon. The instruments that comprise the individual nodes are all optimized for low power operation and this mission will not rely on a radioisotope power supply. Improvements in solar energy and battery technology, along with an Event Timer Module which allows the lander to shut down its electronics for most of the lunar night, enables a solar/battery mission architecture with continuous instrument operation and a two-year nominal lifetime. The instruments have a combined mass of <12 kg, and the dry mass of each lander will be on the order of 100 kg, including solar panels, batteries, and communications. The most power hungry instrument is the heat flow “mole”, which requires ~ 11 W during penetration and ~5-6 W during the active heating tests for thermal conductivity measurements. Normal operations of the mole only require 2.2 W. The nodes will operate during the lunar night in a low power mode where only systems required for data acquisition are powered. Communications back to Earth will only occur during the lunar day so there is data storage on the order of 3-4 Gbits to enable continuous operations during the lunar night (up to 16 earth days). The direct-to-Earth link is S-band at 120 kbps to a DSN 34 m ground station. UHF cross-links from remote units to the communications hub will utilize small, low power UHF transceiver for two-way communication at 128 kbps.

  4. Apollo 11: 20th anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-07-01

    The Apollo 11 Mission which culminated in the first manned lunar landing on July 20, 1969 is recounted. Historical footage of preparation, takeoff, stage separation, the Eagle Lunar Lander, and the moon walk accompany astronauts Michael Collins, Buzz Aldrin, and Neal Armstrong giving their recollections of the mission are shown.

  5. Activity Book. Celebrate Apollo 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barchert, Linda; And Others

    1994-01-01

    An activity book helps students learn about the 1969 Apollo 11 mission to the moon as they get a sense of the mission's impact on their lives. The activities enhance understanding of science, math, social studies, and language arts. A teacher's page offers information on books, magazines, computer materials, and special resources. (SM)

  6. Apollo 14 mission report. Supplement 7: Inflight demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Experiments performed on board the Apollo 14 are reviewed. These include a liquid transfer demonstration during the transearth coast, electrophoresis separation, a composite casting demonstration, and a heat flow and convection demonstration.

  7. Characterization of Apollo Regolith by X-Ray and Electron Microbeam Techniques: An Analog for Future Sample Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeigler, Ryan A.

    2015-01-01

    The Apollo missions collected 382 kg of rock and regolith from the Moon; approximately 1/3 of the sample mass collected was regolith. Lunar regolith consists of well mixed rocks, minerals, and glasses less than 1-centimeter n size. The majority of most surface regolith samples were sieved into less than 1, 1-2, 2-4, and 4-10- millimiter size fractions; a portion of most samples was re-served unsieved. The initial characterization and classification of most Apollo regolith particles was done primarily by binocular microscopy. Optical classification of regolith is difficult because (1) the finest fraction of the regolith coats and obscures the textures of the larger particles, and (b) not all lithologies or minerals are uniquely identifiable optically. In recent years, we have begun to use more modern x-ray beam techniques [1-3], coupled with high resolution 3D optical imaging techniques [4] to characterize Apollo and meteorite samples as part of the curation process. These techniques, particularly in concert with SEM imaging of less than 1-millimeter regolith grain mounts, allow for the rapid characterization of the components within a regolith.

  8. High Leverage Space Transportation System Technologies for Human Exploration Missions to the Moon and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

    1996-01-01

    The feasibility of returning humans to the Moon by 2004, the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing, is examined assuming the use of existing launch vehicles (the Space Shuttle and Titan 4B), a near term, advanced technology space transportation system, and extraterrestrial propellant--specifically 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen or LUNOX. The lunar transportation system (LTS) elements consist of an expendable, nuclear thermal rocket (NTR)-powered translunar injection (TLI) stage and a combination lunar lander/Earth return vehicle (LERV) using cryogenic liquid oxygen and hydrogen (LOX/LH2) chemical propulsion. The 'wet' LERV, carrying a crew of 2, is configured to fit within the Shuttle orbiter cargo bay and requires only modest assembly in low Earth orbit. After Earth orbit rendezvous and docking of the LERV with the Titan 4B-launched NTR TLI stage, the initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) is approx. 40 t. To maximize mission performance at minimum mass, the LERV carries no return LOX but uses approx. 7 t of LUNOX to 'reoxidize' itself for a 'direct return' flight to Earth followed by an 'Apollo-style' capsule recovery. Without LUNOX, mission capability is constrained and the total LTS mass approaches the combined Shuttle-Titan 4B IMLEO limit of approx. 45 t even with enhanced NTR and chemical engine performance. Key technologies are discussed, lunar mission scenarios described, and LTS vehicle designs and characteristics are presented. Mission versatility provided by using a small 'all LH2' NTR engine or a 'LOX-augmented' derivative, either individually or in clusters, for outer planet robotic orbiter, small Mars cargo, lunar 'commuter', and human Mars exploration class missions is also briefly discussed.

  9. In Situ Biological Contamination Studies of the Moon: Implications for Future Planetary Protection and Life Detection Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Lupisella, Mark; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and ESA have outlined visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic precursor missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moon, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of life. The search for life on objects such as Mars will require that all spacecraft and instrumentation be sufficiently cleaned and sterilized prior to launch to ensure that the scientific integrity of extraterrestrial samples is not jeopardized by terrestrial organic contamination. Under the Committee on Space Research's (COSPAR's) current planetary protection policy for the Moon, no sterilization procedures are required for outbound lunar spacecraft, nor is there yet a planetary protection category for human missions. Future in situ investigations of a variety of locations on the Moon by highly sensitive instruments designed to search for biologically derived organic compounds would help assess the contamination of the Moon by lunar spacecraft. These studies could also provide valuable "ground truth" data for Mars sample return missions and help define planetary protection requirements for future Mars bound spacecraft carrying life detection experiments. In addition, studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts could provide valuable data to help refine future Mars surface exploration plans for a human mission to Mars.

  10. Apollo

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Apollo ; CASRN 74115 - 24 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  11. Moon - Possible nature of the body that produced the Imbrian Basin, from the composition of Apollo 14 samples.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapathy, R.; Laul, J. C.; Morgan, J. W.; Anders, E.

    1972-01-01

    Soils from the Apollo 14 site contain nearly three times as much meteoritic material as soils from the Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Luna 16 sites. Part of this material consists of the ubiquitous micrometeorite component, of primitive (carbonaceous-chondrite-like) composition. The remainder, seen most conspicuously in coarse glass and norite fragments, has a decidedly fractionated composition, with volatile elements less than one-tenth as abundant as siderophiles. This material seems to be debris of the Cyprus-sized planetesimal that produced the Imbrian Basin. Compositionally this planetesimal has no exact counterpart among known meteorite classes, though group IVA irons come close. It also resembles the initial composition of the earth as postulated by the two-component model. Apparently the Imbrian planetesimal was an earth satellite swept up by the moon during tidal recession or capture, or an asteroid deflected by Mars into terrestrial space.

  12. Science Operations For Esa's Smart-1 Mission To The Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, M.; Foing, B.; Heather, D.; Marini, A.; Lumb, R.; Racca, G.

    The primary objective of the European Space Agency's SMART-1 mission to the Moon is to test and validate a new electric propulsion engine for potential use on other larger ESA Cornerstone missions. However, the SMART-1 spacecraft will also carry a number of scientific instruments and experiments for use en-route to and in orbit about the Moon. SMART-1's major operational constraint is that it will be only contacted twice per week. As a result, there will be a stronger emphasis on mid-term planning, and the spacecraft will be operated using a large list of telecommands sent during the communication windows. This approach leads to a higher probability of there being resource and/or instruments conflicts. To eliminate these, two software tools were developed: the Experiment Planning System (EPS), and the Project Test Bed (PTB). These tools will also allow us to predict the lunar coverage of the scien- tific instruments, and to simulate target selections.

  13. Apollo experience report: Evolution of the rendezvous-maneuver plan for the lunar-landing missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. D.; Becker, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    The evolution of the nominal rendezvous-maneuver plan for the lunar landing missions is presented along with a summary of the significant development for the lunar module abort and rescue plan. A general discussion of the rendezvous dispersion analysis that was conducted in support of both the nominal and contingency rendezvous planning is included. Emphasis is placed on the technical developments from the early 1960's through the Apollo 15 mission (July to August 1971), but pertinent organizational factors also are discussed briefly. Recommendations for rendezvous planning for future programs relative to Apollo experience also are included.

  14. Field Trip to the Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    This article focuses on the geology of a single area of the Moon, the Imbrium Basin, and shows how geologists have combined basic geologic principles with evidence collected by the Apollo missions to learn more about the history of the Moon as a whole. In this article, the author discusses lunar geology teaching tips and mapping the Imbrium Basin…

  15. Moon Express: Lander Capabilities and Initial Payload and Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spudis, P.; Richards, R.; Burns, J. O.

    2013-12-01

    Moon Express Inc. is developing a common lander design to support the commercial delivery of a wide variety of possible payloads to the lunar surface. Significant recent progress has been made on lander design and configuration and a straw man mission concept has been designed to return significant new scientific and resource utilization data from the first mission. The Moon Express lander is derived from designs tested at NASA Ames Research Center over the past decade. The MX-1 version is designed to deliver 26 kg of payload to the lunar surface, with no global restrictions on landing site. The MX-2 lander can carry a payload of 400 kg and can deliver an upper stage (designed for missions that require Earth-return, such as sample retrieval) or a robotic rover. The Moon Express lander is powered by a specially designed engine capable of being operated in either monoprop or biprop mode. The concept for the first mission is a visit to a regional pyroclastic deposit on the lunar near side. We have focused on the Rima Bode dark mantle deposits (east of crater Copernicus, around 13 N, 4 W). These deposits are mature, having been exposed to solar wind for at least 3 Ga, and have high Ti content, suggesting high concentrations of implanted hydrogen. Smooth areas near the vent suggest that the ash beds are several tens of meters thick. The projected payload includes an imaging system to document the geological setting of the landing area, an APX instrument to provide major element composition of the regolith and a neutron spectrometer to measure the bulk hydrogen composition of the regolith at the landing site. Additionally, inclusion of a next generation laser retroreflector would markedly improve measurements of lunar librations and thus, constrain the dimensions of both the liquid and solid inner cores of the Moon, as well as provide tests of General Relativity. Conops are simple, with measurements of the surface composition commencing immediately upon landing. APX chemical analysis and neutron measurements would be completed within an hour or so. If any propellant remains after landing and a 'hop' to another site was undertaken, we can repeat these analyses at the second site, adding confidence that we have obtained representative measurements. Thus, the scientific goals of the first Moon Express mission are satisfied early and easily in the mission profile. This mission scenario provides significant scientific accomplishment for very little investment in payload and operations. Although minimally configured, the payload has been chosen to provide the most critical ground truth parameters for mapping hydrogen concentrations across the entire lunar surface. As hydrogen is a key element to the development of the Moon, understanding its occurrences in both non-polar and polar environments is critical. This mission achieves significant new scientific accomplishment as well as taking the first steps towards lunar presence and permanence.

  16. Apollo: A Retrospective Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Launius, Roger D.

    2004-01-01

    The program to land an American on the Moon and return safely to Earth in the 1960s has been called by some observers a defining event of the twentieth century. Pulitzer Prize-winning historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., even suggested that when Americans two centuries hence study the twentieth century, they will view the Apollo lunar landing as the critical event of the century. While that conclusion might be premature, there can be little doubt but that the flight of Apollo 11 in particular and the overall Apollo program in general was a high point in humanity s quest to explore the universe beyond Earth. Since the completion of Project Apollo more than twenty years ago there have been a plethora of books, studies, reports, and articles about its origin, execution, and meaning. At the time of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the first landing, it is appropriate to reflect on the effort and its place in U.S. and NASA history. This monograph has been written as a means to this end. It presents a short narrative account of Apollo from its origin through its assessment. That is followed by a mission by mission summary of the Apollo flights and concluded by a series of key documents relative to the program reproduced in facsimile. The intent of this monograph is to provide a basic history along with primary documents that may be useful to NASA personnel and others desiring information about Apollo.

  17. Radish plant exposed to lunar material collected on the Apollo 12 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The leaves of this radish plant were rubbed with lunar material colleted on the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission in experiments conducted in the Manned Spacecraft Center's Lunar Receiving Laboratory. The plant was exposed to the material 30 days before this photograph was made. Evidently no ill effects resulted from contact with the lunar soil.

  18. Prime Crew for Apollo Mission 204 enter spacecraft in altitude chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Prime Crew for first manned Apollo Mission (204) prepare to enter their spacecraft inside the altitude chamber at the Kennedy Space Center. Entering the hatch is Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom. Behind him is Astronaut Roger B. Chaffee. Standing at left with chamber technicians is Astronaut Edward H. White II.

  19. Apollo experience report: Guidance and control systems: Automated control system for unmanned mission AS-201

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holloway, G. F.

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo command module heat shield and Apollo command and service module/Saturn launch vehicle structural integrity were evaluated in an unmanned test flight. An automated control system was developed to provide the mission event sequencing, the real-time ground control interface, and the backup attitude reference system for the unmanned flight. The required mission events, the design logic, the redundancy concept, and the ground-support-equipment concept are described and some development problem areas are discussed. The mission event time line and the real-time ground command list are included to provide an outline of the control system capabilities and requirements. The mission was accomplished with the automated control system, which functioned without flight anomalies.

  20. A mission to Mercury and a mission to the moons of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Two Advanced Design Projects were completed this academic year at Penn State - a mission to the planet Mercury and a mission to the moons of Mars (Phobos and Deimos). At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into six groups and given their choice of missions. Once a mission was chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These designs were then evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into two separate mission scenarios. To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form two mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission team so that communication and exchange of information would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Lewis Research Center Advanced Projects Office. Robotic planetary missions throughout the solar system can be considered valuable precursors to human visits and test beds for innovative technology. For example, by studying the composition of the Martian moons, scientists may be able to determine if their resources may be used or synthesized for consumption during a first human visit.

  1. Apollo Soyuz test project, USA-USSR. [mission plan of spacecraft docking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The mission plan of the docking of a United States Apollo and a Soviet Union Soyuz spacecraft in Earth orbit to test compatible rendezvous and docking equipment and procedures is presented. Space experiments conducted jointly by the astronauts and cosmonauts during the joint phase of the mission as well as experiments performed solely by the U.S. astronauts and spread over the nine day span of the flight are included. Biographies of the astronauts and cosmonauts are given.

  2. Saturn 5 launch vehicle flight evaluation report-AS-511 Apollo 16 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A postflight analysis of the Apollo 16 mission is presented. The basic objective of the flight evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight problems are identified, their causes are deet determined, and recommendations are made for corrective actions. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. Significant events for all phases of the flight are provide in tabular form.

  3. Analogue Missions on Earth, a New Approach to Prepare Future Missions on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebeuf, Martin

    Human exploration of the Moon is a target by 2020 with an initial lunar outpost planned in polar regions. Current architectures maintain a capability for sorties to other latitudes for science activities. In the early stages of design of lunar outpost infrastructure and science activity planning, it has been recognized that analogue missions could play a major role in Moon mission design. Analogue missions, as high fidelity simulations of human and robotic surface operations, can help field scientists and engineers develop and test strategies as well as user requirements, as they provide opportunities to groundtruth measurements, and for the team to share understanding of key science needs and key engineering trades. These types of missions also provide direct training in planning science operations, and in team building and communication. The Canadian Space Agency's Exploration Core Program targets the development of technology infrastructure elements in key areas of science, technology and robotics in preparation for its role in the future exploration of the Moon and Mars. Within this Program, Analogue Missions specifically target the operations requirements and lessons learned that will reduce costs and lower the risk of planetary surface missions. Analogue missions are simulations of planetary surface operations that take place at analogue sites on Earth. A terrestrial analogue site resembles in some key way: eg. geomorphologically or geochemically, a surface environment of another planet. An analogue mission can, therefore, be defined as an integrated set of activities that represent (or simulate) entire mission designs or narrowly focus on specific aspects of planned or potential future planetary exploration missions. Within the CSA's Exploration Core Program, Analogue Missions facilitate the maturation of science instruments and mission concepts by integrating ongoing space instrument and technology development programs with science and analogue elements. As well as using analogue missions to meet agency programmatic needs, the Canadian Space Agency encourages scientists and engineers to make use of opportunities presented by analogue missions to further their own research objectives. Specific objectives of Analogue Missions are to (1) foster a multidisciplinary approach to planning, data acquisition, processing and interpretation, calibration of instruments, and telemetry during mission operations; (2) integrate new science with emerging technologies; and (3) develop an expertise on exploration architecture design from projects carried out at terrestrial analogue sites. Within Analogue Missions, teams develop planning tools, use mission-specific software and technology, and communicate results as well as lessons learned during tactical operations. The expertise gained through Analogue Missions will contribute to inform on all aspects of exploration architectures, including planetary mobility requirements and astronaut training.

  4. Protolife on the Moon--A Neglected Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, J.

    Fumaroles contain the ingredients for protolife on the earth and on the moon. Early Precambrian lunar fumaroles in shadow probably produced H_2O, HCHO, CO_2, CO, C_2N_2, HC_3N, NH3, COS, CH_4, HCN, S-bearing fluids and other compounds. Fumarolic water could have been more abundant in the early Precambrian on the moon based in part on fugacity data for the Apollo fire fountain beads. Formaldehyde formed "in the spark" on the moon in shadow would not be decomposed. Volcanism by flow charging and/or freezing by charge separation of some fumarolic fluids can readily provide the "spark". Only nanocurrents need be invoked. In shadow on the moon, most fumarolic fluids could be preserved as ices for up to billions of years at 40 Kelvin. Realistically, these ices would be discontinuously interlaminated or admixed with ejecta. Early formed amphiphilic compounds (lipids) probably formed double membraned vesicles. Miller-type reactions could possibly provide hydroxy amino acids, sugars, purines and pyrimidines. Cooling of ammonium cyanide compounds with formaldehyde in lunar shadow is presumed to have created hydrogen cyanide and adenine. Fischer-Tropsch reactions in fumaroles could result in aromatic and basic amino acids and on clay produce ribose. Ribose and adenine react to form adenosine which in turn could combine with soluble polyphosphates found in fumaroles to yield adenosine triphosphate. RNA evolving through intermediate compounds can polymerize even in an ice matrix (Monnard, 2002) as would be expected in lunar shadow. In the laboratory, RNA attached to montmorillonite template particles can be encapsulated within enlarged lipid vesicles or protocells (Hanczyc et al, 2003). Clay associated with RNA enhances the enzymatic activity of RNA (Marco, 1999). On earth, the evolution of the Archaea was dependent on tungsto-enzymes; fumaroles on earth are enriched in tungsten. Fumaroles within a distance of meters, exhibit a wide range of temperatures, pH, Eh, periods of desiccation, condensing agents, clay types, and hydrolytic reactivity. In addition, thermodynamically viable reactions involving hydrogen sulfide and troilite can produce biofilms. If methyl thiols are involved, resulting products include the prebiotic agents of formic and acetic acids. All of these parameters would be enhanced by lunar conditions of (1) lower lunar gravity and (2) surface vacuum. Lower lunar gravity would result in a deeper nucleation of bubbles in a fumarolic system with a slower bubble rise rate enhancing probabilities of reactivities of metabolites. Surface vacuum would result in lower boiling points of prebiotic agents such as formic acid producing temperatures more favorable for the formation of protolife. Assuming volcanism, targets for the search for protolife are discussed.

  5. Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer: mission status after the Definition Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Dmitri; Barabash, Stas; Bruzzone, Lorenzo; Dougherty, Michele; Erd, Christian; Fletcher, Leigh; Gare, Philippe; Gladstone, Randall; Grasset, Olivier; Gurvits, Leonid; Hartogh, Paul; Hussmann, Hauke; Iess, Luciano; Jaumann, Ralf; Langevin, Yves; Palumbo, Pasquale; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Sarri, Giuseppe; Wahlund, Jan-Erik; Witasse, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (JUICE), the ESA first large-class mission within the Cosmic Vision Program 2015-2025, was adopted in November 2014. The mission will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede, the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions will be elucidated. JUICE will study the moons' interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE highly capable scientific payload includes 10 state-of-the-art instruments onboard the spacecraft plus one experiment that uses the spacecraft telecommunication system with ground-based radio telescopes. The remote sensing package includes a high-resolution multi-band visible imager (JANUS) and spectro-imaging capabilities from the ultraviolet to the sub-millimetre wavelengths (MAJIS, UVS, SWI). A geophysical package consists of a laser altimeter (GALA) and a radar sounder (RIME) for exploring the surface and subsurface of the moons, and a radio science experiment (3GM) to probe the atmospheres of Jupiter and its satellites and to perform measurements of the gravity fields. An in situ package comprises a powerful particle environment package (PEP), a magnetometer (J-MAG) and a radio and plasma wave instrument (RPWI), including electric fields sensors and a Langmuir probe. An experiment (PRIDE) using ground-based Very-Long-Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) will provide precise determination of the moons ephemerides. The mission scenario will include a Jovian tour with multiple flybys of Callisto and Ganymede, the phase with more than 20 degrees inclination orbits, and two Europa flybys. The Ganymede tour will include high (5000 km) and low (500 km) almost polar orbits around the moon. The mission scenario has evolved slightly during the definition phase, reassuring that the mission will still be able to fulfil all major science objectives. The talk will give an overview of the mission status at the end of the definition phase, focusing on the evolution of science performance and payload synergies in achieving the mission goals.

  6. Moon Search Algorithms for NASA's Dawn Mission to Asteroid Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Memarsadeghi, Nargess; Mcfadden, Lucy A.; Skillman, David R.; McLean, Brian; Mutchler, Max; Carsenty, Uri; Palmer, Eric E.

    2012-01-01

    A moon or natural satellite is a celestial body that orbits a planetary body such as a planet, dwarf planet, or an asteroid. Scientists seek understanding the origin and evolution of our solar system by studying moons of these bodies. Additionally, searches for satellites of planetary bodies can be important to protect the safety of a spacecraft as it approaches or orbits a planetary body. If a satellite of a celestial body is found, the mass of that body can also be calculated once its orbit is determined. Ensuring the Dawn spacecraft's safety on its mission to the asteroid Vesta primarily motivated the work of Dawn's Satellite Working Group (SWG) in summer of 2011. Dawn mission scientists and engineers utilized various computational tools and techniques for Vesta's satellite search. The objectives of this paper are to 1) introduce the natural satellite search problem, 2) present the computational challenges, approaches, and tools used when addressing this problem, and 3) describe applications of various image processing and computational algorithms for performing satellite searches to the electronic imaging and computer science community. Furthermore, we hope that this communication would enable Dawn mission scientists to improve their satellite search algorithms and tools and be better prepared for performing the same investigation in 2015, when the spacecraft is scheduled to approach and orbit the dwarf planet Ceres.

  7. Apollo 15-Lunar Module Falcon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is a photo of the Apollo 15 Lunar Module, Falcon, on the lunar surface. Apollo 15 launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) on July 26, 1971 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. Aboard was a crew of three astronauts including David R. Scott, Mission Commander; James B. Irwin, Lunar Module Pilot; and Alfred M. Worden, Command Module Pilot. The first mission designed to explore the Moon over longer periods, greater ranges and with more instruments for the collection of scientific data than on previous missions, the mission included the introduction of a $40,000,000 lunar roving vehicle (LRV) that reached a top speed of 16 kph (10 mph) across the Moon's surface. The successful Apollo 15 lunar landing mission was the first in a series of three advanced missions planned for the Apollo program. The primary scientific objectives were to observe the lunar surface, survey and sample material and surface features in a preselected area of the Hadley-Apennine region, setup and activation of surface experiments and conduct in-flight experiments and photographic tasks from lunar orbit. Apollo 15 televised the first lunar liftoff and recorded a walk in deep space by Alfred Worden. Both the Saturn V rocket and the LRV were developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  8. Radioactivity observed in the sodium iodide gamma-ray spectrometer returned on the Apollo 17 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, C. S.; Trombka, J. I.; Schmadebeck, R. L.; Eller, E.; Bielefeld, M. J.; Okelley, G. D.; Eldridge, J. S.; Northcutt, K. J.; Metzger, A. E.; Reedy, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    In order to obtain information on radioactive background induced in the Apollo 15 and 16 gamma-ray spectrometers (7 cm x 7 cm NaI) by particle irradiation during spaceflight, and identical detector was flown and returned to earth on the Apollo 17 mission. The induced radioactivity was monitored both internally and externally from one and a half hours after splashdown. When used in conjunction with a computation scheme for estimating induced activation from calculated trapped proton and cosmic-ray fluences, these results show an important contribution resulting from both thermal and energetic neutrons produced in the heavy spacecraft by cosmic-ray interactions.

  9. A Simulated Geochemical Rover Mission to the Taurus-Littrow Valley of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.; Haskin, Larry A.; Jolliff, Bradley L.

    1995-01-01

    We test the effectiveness of using an alpha backscatter, alpha-proton, X ray spectrometer on a remotely operated rover to analyze soils and provide geologically useful information about the Moon during a simulated mission to a hypothetical site resembling the Apollo 17 landing site. On the mission, 100 soil samples are "analyzed" for major elements at moderate analytical precision (e.g., typical relative sample standard deviation from counting statistics: Si[11%], Al[18%], Fe[6%], Mg[20%], Ca[5%]). Simulated compositions of soils are generated by combining compositions of components representing the major lithologies occurring at the site in known proportions. Simulated analyses are generated by degrading the simulated compositions according to the expected analytical precision of the analyzer. Compositions obtained from the simulated analyses are modeled by least squares mass balance as mixtures of the components, and the relative proportions of those components as predicted by the model are compared with the actual proportions used to generate the simulated composition. Boundary conditions of the modeling exercise are that all important lithologic components of the regolith are known and are represented by model components, and that the compositions of these components are well known. The effect of having the capability of determining one incompatible element at moderate precision (25%) is compared with the effect of the lack of this capability. We discuss likely limitations and ambiguities that would be encountered, but conclude that much of our knowledge about the Apollo 17 site (based on the return samples) regarding the distribution and relative abundances of lithologies in the regolith could be obtained. This success requires, however, that at least one incompatible element be determined.

  10. Impact landing ends SMART-1 mission to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    SMART-1 scientists, engineers and space operations experts witnessed the final moments of the spacecraft’s life in the night between Saturday 2 and Sunday 3 September at ESA’s European Space Operations Centre (ESOC), in Darmstadt, Germany. The confirmation of the impact reached ESOC at 07:42:22 CEST (05:42:22 UT) when ESA’s New Norcia ground station in Australia suddenly lost radio contact with the spacecraft. SMART-1 ended its journey in the Lake of Excellence, in the point situated at 34.4º South latitude and 46.2º West longitude. The SMART-1 impact took place on the near side of the Moon, in a dark area just near the terminator (the line separating the day side from the night side), at a “grazing” angle of about one degree and a speed of about 2 kilometres per second. The impact time and location was planned to favour observations of the impact event from telescopes on Earth, and was achieved by a series of orbit manoeuvres and corrections performed during the course of summer 2006, the last of which was on 1 September. Professional and amateur ground observers all around the world - from South Africa to the Canary Islands, South America, the continental United States, Hawaii, and many other locations - were watching before and during the small SMART-1 impact, hoping to spot the faint impact flash and to obtain information about the impact dynamics and about the lunar surface excavated by the spacecraft. The quality of the data and images gathered from the ground observatories - a tribute to the end of the SMART-1 mission and a possible additional contribution to lunar science - will be assessed in the days to come. For the last 16 months and until its final orbits, SMART-1 has been studying the Moon, gathering data about the morphology and mineralogical composition of the surface in visible, infrared and X-ray light. “The legacy left by the huge wealth of SMART-1 data, to be analysed in the months and years to come, is a precious contribution to lunar science at a time when the exploration of the Moon is once again getting the world’s interest” said Bernard Foing, ESA SMART-1 Project Scientist. “The measurements by SMART-1 call into question the theories concerning the Moon’s violent origin and evolution,” he added. The Moon may have formed from the impact of a Mars-size asteroid with the Earth 4500 million years ago. “SMART-1 has mapped large and small impact craters, studied the volcanic and tectonic processes that shaped the Moon, unveiled the mysterious poles, and investigated sites for future exploration,” Foing concluded. “ESA’s decision to extend the SMART-1 scientific mission by a further year ( it was initially planned to last only six months around the Moon) allowed the instrument scientists to extensively use a number of innovative observing modes at the Moon,” added Gerhard Schwehm, ESA’s SMART-1 Mission Manager. In addition to plain nadir observations (looking down on the ‘vertical’ line for lunar surveys), they included targeted observations, moon-spot pointing and ‘push-broom’ observations (a technique SMART-1 used to obtain colour images). “This was tough work for the mission planners, but the lunar data archive we are now building is truly impressive.” “SMART-1 has been an enormous success also from a technological point of view,” said Giuseppe Racca, ESA SMART-1 Project Manager. The major goal of the mission was to test an ion engine (solar electric propulsion) in space for the first time for interplanetary travel, and capture a spacecraft into orbit around another celestial body, in combination with gravity assist manoeuvres. SMART-1 also tested future deep-space communication techniques for spacecraft, techniques to achieve autonomous spacecraft navigation, and miniaturised scientific instruments, used for the first time around the Moon. “It is a great satisfaction to see how well the mission achieved its technological objectives, and did great lunar science at the same time,” Racca concluded. “Operating SMART-1 has been an extremely comple

  11. Decompression sickness in simulated Apollo-Soyuz space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, J. P.; Robertson, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    Apollo-Soyuz docking module atmospheres were evaluated for incidence of decompression sickness in men simulating passage from the Russian spacecraft atmosphere, to the U.S. spacecraft atmosphere, and then to the American space suit pressure. Following 8 hr of 'shirtsleeve' exposure to 31:69::O2:N2 gas breathing mixture, at 10 psia, subjects were 'denitrogenated' for either 30 or 60 min with 100% O2 prior to decompression directly to 3.7 psia suit equivalent while performing exercise at fixed intervals. Five of 21 subjects experienced symptoms of decompression sickness after 60 min of denitrogenation compared to 6 among 20 subjects after 30 min of denitrogenation. A condition of Grade I bends was reported after 60 min of denitrogenation, and 3 of these 5 subjects noted the disappearance of all symptoms of bends at 3.7 psia. After 30 min of denitrogenation, 2 out of 6 subjects developed Grade II bends at 3.7 psia.

  12. Lost moon, saved lives: using the movie Apollo 13 as a video primer in behavioral skills for simulation trainees and instructors.

    PubMed

    Halamek, Louis P

    2010-10-01

    Behavioral skills such as effective communication, teamwork, and leadership are critically important to successful outcomes in patient care, especially in resuscitation situations where correct decisions must be made rapidly. However, historically, these important skills have rarely been specifically addressed in learning programs directed at healthcare professionals. Not only have most healthcare professionals had little or no formal education and training in applying behavioral skills to their patient care activities but also many of those serving as instructors and content experts for training programs have few resources available that clearly illustrate what these skills are and how they may be used in the context of real clinical situations. This represents a serious shortcoming in the education and training of healthcare professionals and stands in distinct contrast to other industries.Aerospace, similar to other high-consequence industries, has a long history of the use of simulation to improve human performance and reduce risk: astronauts and the engineers in Mission Control spend hundreds of hours in simulated flight in preparation for every mission. The value of time spent in the simulator was clearly illustrated during the flight of Apollo 13, the third mission to land men on the moon. The Apollo 13 crew had to overcome a number of life-threatening technical and medical problems, and it was their simulation-based training that allowed them to display the teamwork, ingenuity, and determination needed to return to earth safely.The movie Apollo 13 depicts in a highly realistic manner the events that occurred during the flight, including the actions of the crew in space and those in Mission Control in Houston. Three scenes from this movie are described in this article; each serves as a useful example for healthcare professionals of the importance of simulation-based learning and the application of behavioral skills to successful resolution of crises. This article is meant to serve as a guide as to how this movie and other similar media may be used for facilitated group or independent learning, providing appropriate context and clear examples of key points to be discussed. PMID:21330813

  13. Internal structure of the Moon inferred from Apollo seismic data and selenodetic data from GRAIL and LLR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Koji; Yamada, Ryuhei; Kikuchi, Fuyuhiko; Kamata, Shunichi; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Iwata, Takahiro; Hanada, Hideo; Sasaki, Sho

    2015-09-01

    The internal structure of the Moon is important for discussions on its origin and evolution. However, the deep structure of the Moon is still debated due to the absence of comprehensive seismic data. This study explores lunar interior models by complementing Apollo seismic travel time data with selenodetic data which have recently been improved by Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR). The observed data can be explained by models including a deep-seated zone with a low velocity (S wave velocity = 2.9 ± 0.5 km/s) and a low viscosity (˜3 × 1016 Pa s). The thickness of this zone above the core-mantle boundary is larger than 170 km, showing a negative correlation with the radius of the fluid outer core. The inferred density of the lowermost mantle suggests a high TiO2 content (>11 wt.%) which prefers a mantle overturn scenario.

  14. Small satellite survey mission to the second Earth moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pergola, P.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents an innovative space mission devoted to the survey of the small Earth companion asteroid by means of nano platforms. Also known as the second Earth moon, Cruithne, is the target identified for the mission. Both the trajectory to reach the target and a preliminary spacecraft budget are here detailed. The idea is to exploit high efficient ion thrusters to reduce the propellant mass fraction in such a high total impulse mission (of the order of 1e6 Ns). This approach allows for a 100 kg class spacecraft with a very small Earth escape energy (5 km2/s2) to reach the destination in about 320 days. The 31% propellant mass fraction allows for a payload mass fraction of the order of 8% and this is sufficient to embark on such a small spacecraft a couple of nano-satellites deployed once at the target to carry out a complete survey of the asteroid. Two 2U Cubesats are here considered as representative payload, but also other scientific payloads or different platforms might be considered according with the specific mission needs. The small spacecraft used to transfer these to the target guarantees the manoeuvre capabilities during the interplanetary journey, the protection against radiations along the path and the telecommunication relay functions for the data transmission with Earth stations. The approach outlined in the paper offers reliable solutions to the main issues associated with a deep space nano-satellite mission thus allowing the exploitation of distant targets by means of these tiny spacecraft. The study presents an innovative general strategy for the NEO observation and Cruithne is chosen as test bench. This target, however, mainly for its relevant inclination, requires a relatively large propellant mass fraction that can be reduced if low inclination asteroids are of interest. This might increase the payload mass fraction (e.g. additional Cubesats and/or additional scientific payloads on the main bus) for the same 100 kg class mission.

  15. Overview of a Preliminary Destination Mission Concept for a Human Orbital Mission to the Martial Moons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, D. D.; Abell, P. A.; Antol, J.; Barbee, B. W.; Beaty, D. W.; Bass, D. S.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Coan, D. A.; Colaprete, A.; Daugherty, K. J.; Drake, B. G.; Earle, K. D.; Graham, L. D.; Hembree, R. M.; Hoffman, S. J.; Jefferies, S. A.; Lupisella, M. L.; Reeves, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has been developing a preliminary Destination Mission Concept (DMC) to assess how a human orbital mission to one or both of the Martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, might be conducted as a follow-on to a human mission to a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) and as a possible preliminary step prior to a human landing on Mars. The HAT Mars-Phobos-Deimos (MPD) mission also permits the teleoperation of robotic systems by the crew while in the Mars system. The DMC development activity provides an initial effort to identify the science and exploration objectives and investigate the capabilities and operations concepts required for a human orbital mission to the Mars system. In addition, the MPD Team identified potential synergistic opportunities via prior exploration of other destinations currently under consideration.

  16. Report of the Terrestrial Bodies Science Working Group. Volume 4: The moon. [lunar polar orbiter mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haskin, L. A.; Duke, M. B.; Hubbard, N.; Johnson, T. V.; Malin, M. C.; Minear, J.

    1977-01-01

    A rationale for furture exploration of the moon is given. Topics discussed include the objectives of the lunar polar orbiter mission, the mission profile, and general characteristics of the spacraft to be used.

  17. The Effects of Lunar Dust on EVA Systems During the Apollo Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Mission documents from the six Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface have been studied in order to catalog the effects of lunar dust on Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) systems, primarily the Apollo surface space suit. It was found that the effects could be sorted into nine categories: vision obscuration, false instrument readings, dust coating and contamination, loss of traction, clogging of mechanisms, abrasion, thermal control problems, seal failures, and inhalation and irritation. Although simple dust mitigation measures were sufficient to mitigate some of the problems (i.e., loss of traction) it was found that these measures were ineffective to mitigate many of the more serious problems (i.e., clogging, abrasion, diminished heat rejection). The severity of the dust problems were consistently underestimated by ground tests, indicating a need to develop better simulation facilities and procedures.

  18. The Effects of Lunar Dust on EVA Systems During the Apollo Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, James R.

    2007-01-01

    Mission documents from the six Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface have been studied in order to catalog the effects of lunar dust on Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) systems, primarily the Apollo surface space suit. It was found that the effects could be sorted into nine categories: vision obscuration, false instrument readings, dust coating and contamination, loss of traction, clogging of mechanisms, abrasion, thermal control problems, seal failures, and inhalation and irritation. Although simple dust mitigation measures were sufficient to mitigate some of the problems (i.e., loss of traction) it was found that these measures were ineffective to mitigate many of the more serious problems (i.e., clogging, abrasion, diminished heat rejection). The severity of the dust problems were consistently underestimated by ground tests, indicating a need to develop better simulation facilities and procedures.

  19. Apollo Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggar, G. M.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the scientific activities of the Apollo program, including findings from analyses of the returned lunar sample. Descriptions are made concerning the possible origin of the moon and the formation of the lunar surface. (CC)

  20. Mars Moons Prospector Mission with CubeSats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udrea, Bogdan; Nayak, Mikey; Allen, Brett; Bourke, Justin; Casariego, Gabriela; Gosselin, Steven; Hiester, Evan; Maier, Margaret; Melchert, Jeanmarie; Patel, Chitrang; Reis, Leslie; Smith, Gregory; Snow, Travis; Williams, Sarah; Franquiz, Francsico

    2015-04-01

    The preliminary design of a low-cost Discovery class mission for prospecting Mars moons Phobos and Deimos is undertaken as capstone senior design class in spacecraft design. The mission design is centred on a mothership that carries a dozen of 12U CubeSats, each of 22x22x34cm in size and 24kg in mass. The mothership is equipped with a set of instruments for the investigation of regolith samples, similar to those with identical functions on the Curiosity and the Mars 2020 rovers. The mothership also serves as a telecommunication hub with Earth. Six of the CubeSats have the role of touching down and picking up soil samples for delivery to the mothership for analysis and the six have the role of visually inspecting the moon at close proximity in visible and near and mid infrared light and deploying instruments on the surface of the moons. A suite of miniaturized instruments are investigated for deployment on the CubeSats. The CubeSats are designed to dock with the mothership to be refueled and they heavily leverage the design of the ARAPAIMA (www.eraucubesat.org) proximity operations 6U CubeSat currently in development at ERAU for the Air Force University Nanosatellite Program. The concept of operations envisions the launch of the mothership as a primary payload on a Mars transfer trajectory. After performing a Mars capture maneuver the mothership undertakes autonomous aerobraking to achieve a highly elliptic orbit with the apoapsis at Deimos altitude of 23,460km. Further maneuvering places the mothership in a relative orbit about Deimos from which the CubeSats are deployed. Once the investigation of Deimos is completed the mothership retrieves its CubeSats and maneuver to achieve a relative orbit about Phobos. An investigation similar to that of Deimos is performed. If the mass margins allow it then an extended mission will attempt to confirm the presence of a dust ring between Phobos and Deimos and conduct multi-point atmospheric investigations with supplemental 3U CubeSats.

  1. Saturn 5 launch vehicle flight evaluation report-AS-509 Apollo 14 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A postflight analysis of the Apollo 14 flight is presented. The basic objective of the flight evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight failures are identified, their causes are determined and corrective actions are recommended. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. The significant events for all phases of the flight are analyzed.

  2. Saturn 5 Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report-AS-512 Apollo 17 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An evaluation of the launch vehicle and lunar roving vehicle performance for the Apollo 17 flight is presented. The objective of the evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight problems are identified, their causes are determined, and recommendations are made for corrective action. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. The significant events for all phases of the flight are analyzed.

  3. Apollo 15 mission report, supplement 4: Descent propulsion system final flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avvenire, A. T.; Wood, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    The results of a postflight analysis of the LM-10 Descent Propulsion System (DPS) during the Apollo 15 Mission are reported. The analysis determined the steady state performance of the DPS during the descent phase of the manned lunar landing. Flight measurement discrepancies are discussed. Simulated throttle performance results are cited along with overall performance results. Evaluations of the propellant quantity gaging system, propellant loading, pressurization system, and engine are reported. Graphic illustrations of the evaluations are included.

  4. Apollo 15 mission report. Supplement 2: Service propulsion system final flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. J.; Wood, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    The command and service module 112 service propulsion system performance for the Apollo 15 mission was evaluated and found to be satisfactory. The following items were considered: (1) the steady-state performance as determined from analysis of the third and eight burns; (2) techniques, problems, and assumptions; (3) flight analysis results as compared to the preflight predicted performance; (4) the propellant utilization and gaging system operation; (5) the pressurization system performance; (6) transient data; and (7) revision of estimated propellant consumption.

  5. APOLLO 8: Birth of a Machine (Pt 2/2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Part 2 of the clip 'Birth of a machine'. This clip reveals the origins of the major components of the mission. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 8:'Debrief': part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) APOLLO 8: First manned Saturn V flight with Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr., and william A. Anders. First manned lunar orbit mission; provided a close-up look at the moon during 10 lunar orbits. Mission Duration 147hrs 0m 42s

  6. Code-Name: Spider, Flight of Apollo 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Apollo 9, an earth orbiting mission during which the Lunar Module was first tested in space flight in preparation for the eventual moon landing missions, is the subject of this pamphlet. Many color photographs and diagrams of the Lunar Module and flight activities are included with a brief description of the mission. (PR)

  7. JUICE: a European mission to Jupiter and its icy moons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, D.; Erd, C.; Duvet, L.; Wielders, A.; Torralba-Elipe, I.; Altobelli, N.

    2013-09-01

    JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) is the first L-class mission selected for the ESA's Cosmic Vision programme 2015-2025 which has just entered the definition phase. JUICE will perform detailed investigations of Jupiter and its system in all their inter-relations and complexity with particular emphasis on Ganymede as a planetary body and potential habitat. Investigations of Europa and Callisto will complete a comparative picture of the Galilean moons. By performing detailed investigations of Jupiter's system, JUICE will address in depth two key questions of the ESA's Cosmic Vision programme: (1) What are the conditions for planet formation and the emergence of life? and (2) How does the Solar System work? The overarching theme for JUICE has been formulated as: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. At Ganymede the mission will characterize in detail the ocean layers; provide topographical, geological and compositional mapping of the surface; study the physical properties of the icy crusts; characterize the internal mass distribution, investigate the exosphere; study Ganymede's intrinsic magnetic field and its interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere. For Europa, the focus will be on the non-ice chemistry, understanding the formation of surface features and subsurface sounding of the icy crust over recently active regions. Callisto will be explored as a witness of the early solar system. JUICE will perform a comprehensive multidisciplinary investigation of the Jupiter system as an archetype for gas giants including exoplanets. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of the Jovian atmosphere will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions and their response to the solar wind will be elucidated. Within Jupiter's satellite system, JUICE will study the moons' interactions with the magnetosphere, gravitational coupling and long-term tidal evolution of the Galilean satellites. JUICE will be a three-axis stabilised spacecraft with dry mass of about 1800 kg at launch, chemical propulsion system and 60-75 m2 solar arrays. The high-gain antenna of about 3 m in diameter will provide a downlink capability of not less than 1.4 Gb/day. Special measures will be used to protect the spacecraft and payload from the harsh radiation environment at Jupiter. The spacecraft will carry a highly capable state-of-the-art scientific payload consisting of remote sensing instruments, geophysical sounders and plasma experiments. The foreseen launch of the JUICE spacecraft is June 2022. After the Jupiter orbit insertion in January 2030 the spacecraft will perform a 2.5 year tour in the Jovian system focusing on observations of the atmosphere and magnetosphere of the giant. During the tour, gravity assists at Callisto will shape the trajectory to perform two targeted Europa flybys and raise the orbit inclination up to 30 degrees. 13 Callisto flybys will enable unique remote observations of the moon and in situ measurements in its vicinity. The mission will culminate in a dedicated 8 months orbital tour around Ganymede. The tour will include phases with high (5000 km), medium (500 km), and low (200 km) circular orbits that will have different observation conditions optimized for particular science investigations. The presentation will give an overview of the JUICE mission, its science scenario and observation strategy, and the newly selected payload.

  8. Apollo 17: At Taurus Littrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderton, D. A.

    1973-01-01

    A summation, with color illustrations, is presented on the Apollo 17 mission. The height, weight, and thrust specifications are given on the launch vehicle. Presentations are given on: the night launch; earth to moon ascent; separation and descent; EVA, the sixth lunar surface expedition; ascent from Taurus-Littrow; the America to Challenger rendezvous; return, reentry, and recovery; the scientific results of the mission; background information on the astronauts; and the future projects.

  9. Recovered Apollo-Era Saturn V F-1 Engines Arrive at Cape Canaveral - Duration: 108 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Two F-1 engines that powered the first stage of the Saturn V rockets that lifted NASAâ??s Apollo missions to the moon were recovered from the Atlantic Ocean March 20, 2013 by Jeff Bezos, the founde...

  10. Apollo 8's Christmas Eve 1968 Message - Duration: 2 minutes, 2 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Apollo 8, the first manned mission to the moon, entered lunar orbit on Christmas Eve, Dec. 24, 1968. That evening, the astronauts--Commander Frank Borman, Command Module Pilot Jim Lovell, and Lunar...

  11. Tether-mission design for multiple flybys of moon Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanmartin, J. R. S.; Charro, M. C.; Sanchez-Arriaga, G. S. A.; Sanchez-Torres, A. S. T.

    2015-10-01

    A tether mission to carry out multiple flybys of Jovian moon Europa is here presented. There is general agreement on elliptic-orbit flybys of Europa resulting in cost to attain given scientific goals lower than if actually orbiting the moon, tethers being naturally fit to fly-by rather than orbit moons1. The present mission is similar in this respect to the Clipper mission considered by NASA, the basic difference lying in location of periapsis, due to different emphasis on mission-challenge metrics. Clipper minimizes damaging radiation-dose by avoiding the Jupiter neighborhood and its very harsh environment; periapsis would be at Europa, apoapsis as far as moon Callisto. As in all past outer-planet missions, Clipper faces, however, critical power and propulsion needs. On the other hand, tethers can provide both propulsion and power, but must reach near the planet to find high plasma density and magnetic field values, leading to high induced tether current, and Lorentz drag and power. The bottom line is a strong radiation dose under the very intense Radiation Belts of Jupiter. Mission design focuses on limiting dose. Perijove would be near Jupiter, at about 1.2-1.3 Jovian radius, apojove about moon Ganymede, corresponding to 1:1 resonance with Europa, so as to keep dose down: setting apojove at Europa, for convenient parallel flybys, would require two perijove passes per flyby (the Ganymede apojove, resulting in high eccentricity, about 0.86, is also less requiring on tether operations). Mission is designed to attain reductions in eccentricity per perijove pass as high as ?e ? - 0.04. Due the low gravity-gradient, tether spinning is necessary to keep it straight, plasma contactors placed at both ends taking active turns at being cathodic. Efficiency of capture of the incoming S/C by the tether is gauged by the ratio of S/C mass to tether mass; efficiency is higher for higher tape-tether length and lower thickness and perijove. Low tether bowing due to the Lorentz force requires opposite conditions. Low heating requires not too low perijove and not too long length. In addition, too long a tape will result in attracted electrons hitting the anodic end with somewhat relativistic energy, and penetration depth larger than thickness4. Tape width is not involved in the above design criteria, just scaling with S/C mass. A no-tilt, no-offset dipole model of the magnetic field and the plasma density in the equatorial plane as given by the classical Divine-Garrett model, are used in calculations; ?e proves near-independent of the e-value before each perijove pass1-3. Capture from the direct (no-gravity assists) hyperbolic, Hohmann-like, transfer orbit, corresponds to an incoming velocity of about 6.4 km/s, and eccentricity eh ? 1.02, requiring a net ?e decrement around 0.16 to reach Ganymede. EPSC Abstracts Vol. 10, EPSC2015-112, 2015 European Planetary Science Congress 2015 c Author(s) 2015 EPSC European Planetary Science Congress Dose per orbit for eccentricity above 0.5, say, proves also nearly independent of perijove at 1.2-1.5 Jovian radius, the number of perijove passes thus being a metric for total dose. The dose per orbit is about 0.1 Mrad for 200 mils of Aluminum shielding (or 13.5 kg for 1 m2 surface). Dose is also near independent of longitude, proving accurate the simple dipole model in the inner magnetosphere. The GIRE radiation model was used throughout calculations2-3. A typical sequence of eccentricity decrements ?e = - 0.04, would allow reaching e = 0.86 in about 4 perijove passes, though the last decrement previous to a first resonant orbit must be reached in two convenient steps, by switching current off appropriately over part of the drag arc, to allow for a first flyby of Europa; switching off the current afterward over the entire resonance orbit would allow for repeated flybys. Over 20 flybys would then make a total of 25 perijove passes, leading to 25 × 0.1 Mrad, or 2.5 Mrad cumulative dose under 200 mils shielding (to be compared with 2.9 Mrad for 100 mils shielding of the Jupiter Europa Orbiter in t

  12. Global Elemental Maps of the Moon Using Gamma Rays Measured by the Kaguya (SELENE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reedy, Robert C.; Hasebe, N.; Yamashita, N.; Karouji, Y.; Kobayashi, S.; Hareyama, M.; Hayatsu, K.; Okudaira, O.; Kobayashi, M.; d'Uston, C.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Diez, B.; Kim, K.

    2009-09-01

    The Kaguya spacecraft was in a circular polar lunar orbit from 17 October 2007 until 10 June 2009 as part of JAXA's SELENE lunar exploration program. Among the 13 instruments, an advanced gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) studied the distributions of many elements. The gamma rays were from the decay of the naturally-radioactive elements K, Th, and U and from cosmic-ray interactions with H, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and other elements. They are emitted from the top few tens of centimeters of the lunar surface. The main detector of the GRS was high-purity germanium, which was surrounded by bismuth germanate and plastic scintillators to reduce backgrounds. Gamma-ray spectra were sent to the Earth every 17 seconds (1 degree of the lunar surface) with energies from 0-12 MeV. These spectra were adjusted to a standard gain and then summed over many lunar regions. Background spectra were also determined. Over 200 gamma rays have been observed, with most being backgrounds but many being from the lunar surface, an order more gamma rays than from any previous lunar GRS missions. Elemental results have been determined for K, Th, and U. Results for K and Th are consistent with those from the GRS on Apollo and Lunar Prospector. The first lunar global maps for U have been determined. These 3 elements show strong correlations among themselves, which implies that the Moon is homogeneous in these elements over the entire Moon. Their elemental ratios agree well with those measured in lunar samples and meteorites. Preliminary maps for Fe are consistent with earlier maps. Other elements, including O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, are being mapped, and their distributions vary over the lunar surface and appear consistent with previous lunar elemental results. This work was supported by JAXA, NASA, and CNRS, France.

  13. Constraints on the formation age and evolution of the Moon from 142Nd-143Nd systematics of Apollo 12 basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, Claire L.; Brandon, Alan D.; Armytage, Rosalind M. G.

    2014-06-01

    The Moon likely formed as a result of a giant impact between proto-Earth and another large body. The timing of this event and the subsequent lunar differentiation timescales are actively debated. New high-precision Nd isotope data of Apollo mare basalts are used to evaluate the Low-Ti, High-Ti and KREEP mantle source reservoirs within the context of lunar formation and evolution. The resulting models are assessed using both reported 146Sm half-lives (68 and 103 Myr). The linear relationship defined by 142Nd-143Nd systematics does not represent multi-component mixing and is interpreted as an isochron recording a mantle closure age for the Sm-Nd system in the Moon. Using a chondritic source model with present day ?142Nd of -7.3, the mare basalt mantle source reservoirs closed at 4.45-09+10 Ga (t Sm146=68 Myr) or 4.39-14+16 Ga (t Sm146=103 Myr). In a superchondritic, 2-stage evolution model with present day ?Nd142 of 0, mantle source closure ages are constrained to 4.41-08+10 (t Sm146=68 Myr) or 4.34-14+15 Ga (t Sm146=103 Myr). The lunar mantle source reservoir closure ages <4.5 Ga may be reconciled by 3 potential scenarios. First, the Moon formed later than currently favored models indicate, such that the lunar mantle closure age is near or at the time of lunar formation. Second, the Moon formed ca. 4.55 to 4.47 Ga and small amounts of residual melts were sustained within a crystallizing lunar magma ocean (LMO) for up to ca. 200 Myr from tidal heating or asymmetric LMO evolution. Third, the LMO crystallized rapidly after early Moon formation. Thus the Sm-Nd mantle closure age represents a later resetting of isotope systematics. This may have resulted from a global wide remelting event. While current Earth-Moon formation constraints cannot exclusively advocate or dismiss any of these models, the fact that U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes for Jack Hills zircons from Australia are best explained by an Earth that re-equilibrated at 4.4 Ga or earlier following the Moon-forming impact, does not favor a later forming Moon. If magma oceans crystallize in a few million years as currently advocated, then a global resetting, possibly by a large impact at 4.40 to 4.34 Ga, such as that which formed the South Pole Aitken Basin, best explains the late mantle closure age for the coupled Sm-Nd isotope systematics presented here.

  14. The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to improve crew health and performance for future exploration missions and lunar surface operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Novak, Joseph D.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Josef; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

    Introduction: Medical requirements for the future crew exploration vehicle (CEV), lunar surface access module (LSAM), advanced extravehicular activity (EVA) suits, and Lunar habitat are currently being developed within the exploration architecture. While much is known about the vehicle and lunar surface activities during Apollo, relatively little is known about whether the hardware, systems, or environment impacted crew health or performance during these missions. Also, inherent to the proposed aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations impacting crew health and/or performance during a lunar mission. The goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with various working groups participating in the exploration effort. Methods: A review of medical operations during Apollo missions 7-17 was conducted. Ten categories of hardware, systems, or crew factors were identified during preliminary data review generating 655 data records which were captured in an Access® database. The preliminary review resulted in 285 questions. The questions were posed to surviving Apollo crewmembers using mail, face-to-face meetings, phone communications, or online interactions. Results: Fourteen of 22 surviving Apollo astronauts (64%) participated in the project. This effort yielded 107 recommendations for future vehicles, habitats, EVA suits, and lunar surface operations. Conclusions: To date, the Apollo Medical Operations recommendations are being incorporated into the exploration mission architecture at various levels and a centralized database has been developed. The Apollo crewmember's input has proved to be an invaluable resource. We will continue soliciting input from this group as we continue to evolve and refine requirements for the future exploration missions.

  15. Moon-Mars Analogue Mission (EuroMoonMars 1 at the Mars Desert Research Station)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lia Schlacht, Irene; Voute, Sara; Irwin, Stacy; Foing, Bernard H.; Stoker, Carol R.; Westenberg, Artemis

    The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) is situated in an analogue habitat-based Martian environment, designed for missions to determine the knowledge and equipment necessary for successful future planetary exploration. For this purpose, a crew of six people worked and lived together in a closed-system environment. They performed habitability experiments within the dwelling and conducted Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) for two weeks (20 Feb to 6 Mar 2010) and were guided externally by mission support, called "Earth" within the simulation. Crew 91, an international, mixed-gender, and multidisciplinary group, has completed several studies during the first mission of the EuroMoonMars campaign. The crew is composed of an Italian designer and human factors specialist, a Dutch geologist, an American physicist, and three French aerospace engineering students from Ecole de l'Air, all with ages between 21 and 31. Each crewmember worked on personal research and fulfilled a unique role within the group: commander, executive officer, engineer, health and safety officer, scientist, and journalist. The expedition focused on human factors, performance, communication, health and safety pro-tocols, and EVA procedures. The engineers' projects aimed to improve rover manoeuvrability, far-field communication, and data exchanges between the base and the rover or astronaut. The crew physicist evaluated dust control methods inside and outside the habitat. The geologist tested planetary geological sampling procedures. The crew designer investigated performance and overall habitability in the context of the Mars Habitability Experiment from the Extreme-Design group. During the mission the crew also participated in the Food Study and in the Ethospace study, managed by external groups. The poster will present crew dynamics, scientific results and daily schedule from a Human Factors perspective. Main co-sponsors and collaborators: ILEWG, ESA ESTEC, NASA Ames, Ecole de l'Air, SKOR, Extreme-Design, Universit` di Torino, MMS TU-Berlin, Space Florida, DAAD, Uni-a versity of Utrecht, The Mars Society.

  16. Apollo 11 Recovery Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via a Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. The Command Module (CM), piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the Lunar Module (LM), named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. Shown here is the recovery operation of the capsule in the Pacific Ocean after splashdown. Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was taken to safety aboard the USS Hornet, where they were quartered in a mobile quarantine facility. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  17. Pressurized Rover for Moon and Mars Surface Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhof, Barbara; Ransom, Stephen; Mohanty, Susmita; Özdemir, Kürsad; Häuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Frischauf, Norbert; Hoheneder, Waltraut; Waclavicek, René

    The work described in this paper was done under ESA and Thales Alenia Space contract in the frame of the Analysis of Surface Architecture for European Space Exploration -Element Design. Future manned space missions to the Moon or to Mars will require a vehicle for transporting astronauts in a controlled and protected environment and in relative comfort during surface traverses of these planetary bodies. The vehicle that will be needed is a pressurized rover which serves the astronauts as a habitat, a refuge and a research laboratory/workshop. A number of basic issues influencing the design of such a rover, e.g. habitability, human-machine interfaces, safety, dust mitigation, interplanetary contamination and radiation protection, have been analysed in detail. The results of these analyses were subsequently used in an investigation of various designs for a rover suitable for surface exploration, from which a single concept was developed that satisfied scientific requirements as well as environmental requirements encoun-tered during surface exploration of the Moon and Mars. This concept was named in memory of the late Sir Arthur C. Clark RAMA (Rover for Advanced Mission Applications, Rover for Advanced Moon Applications, Rover for Advanced Mars Applications) The concept design of the pressurized rover meets the scientific and operational requirements defined during the course of the Surface Architecture Study. It is designed for surface missions with a crew of two or three lasting up to approximately 40 days, its source of energy, a liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen fuel cell, allowing it to be driven and operated during the day as well as the night. Guidance, navigation and obstacle avoidance systems are foreseen as standard equipment to allow it to travel safely over rough terrain at all times of the day. The rover allows extra-vehicular activity and a remote manipulator is provided to recover surface samples, to deploy surface instruments and equipment and, in general, to assist the astronauts' field activities wherever and whenever needed. The vehicle has also been designed to have a very high degree of manoeuvrability. In addition, RAMA may be operated and replenished from a fixed site base or co-operate with other rovers of the same type to provide a mobile base. The rover in all cases will be refuelled using the products supplied by an in-situ resources facility. Transportation and surface exploration requirements defined the size and mass of the rover. RAMA has a launch mass of approximately 7000 kg, a dry mass of about 6200 kg and surface mission masses of between 7800 and 8300 kg. The rover can be launched by a future heavy lift launcher similar to the American ARES V concept. The factor most affecting the mass of the rover, other than the quantities of fuel cell reactants and crew consumables, is the amount of radiation shielding integrated in the design of the rover's pressurized shell. The factor most influencing the rover's external and internal configuration is the launcher's payload envelope and the need for the rover's centre-of-mass to be aligned with or close to the launcher's longitudinal axis. Technologies needed to support the design of the rover and its subsystems were investigated to identify the issues concerned with a possible implementation.

  18. Integrated Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Mission Operations Design Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young; Korth, David; LeBlanc, Troy

    2007-01-01

    For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in support of human crews. The challenges of human Mars missions, including roundtrip communications time delays of 6 to 40 minutes, interplanetary transit times of many months, and the need to manage lifecycle costs, will require the evolution of a new mission operations paradigm far less dependent on real-time monitoring and response by an Earthbound operations team. Robotic systems and automation will augment human capability, increase human safety by providing means to perform many tasks without requiring immediate human presence, and enable the transfer of traditional mission control tasks from the ground to crews. Developing and validating the new paradigm and its associated infrastructure may place requirements on operations design for nearer-term lunar missions. The authors, representing both the human and robotic mission operations communities, assess human lunar and Mars mission challenges, and consider how human-robot operations may be integrated to enable efficient joint operations, with the eventual emergence of a unified exploration operations culture.

  19. Integrated Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Mission Operations Design Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korth, David; LeBlanc, Troy; Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young

    2006-01-01

    For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in support of human crews. The challenges of human Mars missions, including roundtrip communications time delays of 6 to 40 minutes, interplanetary transit times of many months, and the need to manage lifecycle costs, will require the evolution of a new mission operations paradigm far less dependent on real-time monitoring and response by an Earthbound operations team. Robotic systems and automation will augment human capability, increase human safety by providing means to perform many tasks without requiring immediate human presence, and enable the transfer of traditional mission control tasks from the ground to crews. Developing and validating the new paradigm and its associated infrastructure may place requirements on operations design for nearer-term lunar missions. The authors, representing both the human and robotic mission operations communities, assess human lunar and Mars mission challenges, and consider how human-robot operations may be integrated to enable efficient joint operations, with the eventual emergence of a unified exploration operations culture.

  20. Early Impacts on the Moon: Crystallization Ages of Apollo 16 Melt Breccias

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, M. D.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Taylor, L. A.

    2007-01-01

    A better understanding of the early impact history of the terrestrial planets has been identified one of the highest priority science goals for solar system exploration. Crystallization ages of impact melt breccias from the Apollo 16 site in the central nearside lunar highlands show a pronounced clustering of ages from 3.75-3.95 Ga, with several impact events being recognized by the association of textural groups and distinct ages. Here we present new geochemical and petrologic data for Apollo 16 crystalline breccia 67955 that document a much older impact event with an age of 4.2 Ga.

  1. Summary of lightning activities by NASA for the Apollo Soyuz test project: Supplement no. 1 to Apollo Soyuz mission evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    To avoid the possibility of an unnecessary launch delay, a special program was initiated to provide aircraft measurement of electric fields at various altitudes over the Apollo vehicle launch pad. Eight aircraft, each equipped with electric field meters, were used in the program. This program and some of the more important findings are discussed. Also included is a summary of the history of manned space vehicle involvement with lightning, a brief description of the lightning instrumentation in use at KSC (Kennedy Space Center) at the time of the Apollo Soyuz mission and a discussion of the airborne instrumentation and related data.

  2. On the moon with Apollo 15: A guidebook to Hadley Rille and the Apennine Mountains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, G.

    1971-01-01

    Information is given in simple terms of the Apollo 15 lunar exploration and scientific equipment, to be used in conjunction with other material shown over commercial TV. The EVAs of the astronauts on the surface are divided into experiments and traverses. The landing site and experimental equipment are described, and life sketches are given of the crew.

  3. On the Moon with Apollo 16. A Guidebook to the Descartes Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Gene

    The Apollo 16 guidebook describes and illustrates (with artist concepts) the physical appearance of the lunar region visited. Maps show the planned traverses (trips on the lunar surface via Lunar Rover); the plans for scientific experiments are described in depth; and timelines for all activities are included. A section on "The Crew" is…

  4. Relativistic time corrections for Apollo 12 and Apollo 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lavery, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Results are presented of computer calculations on the relativistic time corrections relative to a ground-based clock of on-board clock readings for a lunar mission, using simple Newtonian gravitational potentials of earth and moon and based on actual trajectory data for Apollo 12 and Apollo 13. Although the second order Doppler effect and the gravitational red shift give rise to corrections of opposite sign, the net accumulated time corrections, namely a gain of 560 (+ or - 1.5) microseconds for Apollo 12 and gain of 326 (+ or - 1.3) microseconds for Apollo 13, are still large enough that with present day atomic frequency standards, such as the rubidium clock, they can be measured with an accuracy of about + or - 0.5 percent.

  5. APOLLO 8: Birth of a Machine (pt 1/2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This clip shows the launch of APOLLO 8: The 'Birth of a Machine' and begins to reveal the origin of its components. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 8:'Debrief'': part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) First manned Saturn V flight with Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr.,and william A. Anders. First manned lunar orbit mission; provided a close-up look at the moon during 10 lunar orbits. Mission Duration 147hrs. 0 min. 42s.

  6. Apollo 11 Facts Project [Pre-Launch Activities and Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The crewmembers of Apollo 11, Commander Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., are seen during various stages of preparation for the launch of Apollo 11, including suitup, breakfast, and boarding the spacecraft. They are also seen during mission training, including preparation for extravehicular activity on the surface of the Moon. The launch of Apollo 11 is shown. The ground support crew is also seen as they wait for the spacecraft to approach the Moon.

  7. Apollo 15 mission report. Supplement 3: Ascent propulsion system final flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, W. G.; Griffin, W. G.

    1972-01-01

    Results from the postflight analysis of the ascent propulsion system (APS) performance during the Apollo 15 mission are presented. The duty cycle for the LM-10 APS consisted of two firings, and ascent stage liftoff from the lunar surface and the terminal phase ignition (TPI) burn. An evaluation was made of APS performance for the first firing and found to be satisfactory. No propulsion data was received from the second APS burn; however, all indications were that the burn was nominal. All performance parameters were well within their LM-10 3-sigma limits. Calculated throat erosion at engine cutoff for the LM-10 APS was approximately 3 percent greater than predicted.

  8. Saturn 5 launch vehicle flight evaluation report, AS-510, Apollo 15 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A postflight analysis of the Apollo 15 flight is presented. The performance of the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and lunar roving vehicle are discussed. The objective of the evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight problems are identified, their causes are determined, and recommendations are made for corrective actions. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. Significant events for all phases of the flight are tabulated.

  9. Apollo 14 mission report. Supplement 5: Descent propulsion system final flight evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avvenire, A. T.; Wood, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    The performance of the LM-8 descent propulsion system during the Apollo 14 mission was evaluated and found to be satisfactory. The average engine effective specific impulse was 0.1 second higher than predicted, but well within the predicted l sigma uncertainty. The engine performance corrected to standard inlet conditions for the FTP portion of the burn at 43 seconds after ignition was as follows: thrust, 9802, lbf; specific impulse, 304.1 sec; and propellant mixture ratio, 1603. These values are + or - 0.8, -0.06, and + or - 0.3 percent different respectively, from the values reported from engine acceptance tests and were within specification limits.

  10. Regolith maturation on the earth and the moon with an example from Apollo 15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basu, A.; Griffiths, S. A.; Mckay, D. S.; Nace, G.

    1982-01-01

    Petrographic data on twelve Apollo 15 surface samples and on twelve samples from the double drive tube 15010/011 are presented in the form of triangular AML (agglutinate-monomineralic fragments-lithic fragments) plots. The triangular AML plots for different grain sizes show smoothly varying contour lines only for the solids derived mainly from mare basalts. These contour lines are interpreted as lines of isomaturity. The AML plots with isomature contours are somewhat similar to QFR (quartz-feldspar-rock fragments) triangular plots used for terrestrial clastic sediments. Both kinds of plots are sensitive to maturity and both may be used to predict evolution paths. Soils from predominantly highland areas and from other mixed terrains at Apollo 15 sites do not make smooth contours on AML diagrams. By analogy with QFR diagrams, the lack of smooth contours may be due to mixed source rock families, or to recent mixing, or both.

  11. Data user's note: Apollo 15 lunar photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cameron, W. S.; Niksch, M. A. (editor)

    1972-01-01

    Brief descriptions are given of the Apollo 15 mission objectives, photographic equipment, and photographic coverage and quality. The lunar photographic tasks were: (1) ultraviolet photography of the earth and moon; (2) photography of the gegenschein from lunar orbit; (3) service module orbital photographic tasks; and (4) command module photographic tasks.

  12. Thermal conductivity of Apollo 15 lunar fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cremers, C. J.; Hsia, H. S.

    1974-01-01

    The moon is covered to a depth of several meters with fine material. Heat transfer calculations depend, therefore, for the most part on the properties of the fines. The results are presented of thermal conductivity measurements on fines samples returned by the Apollo 15 mission from the Hadley-Apennine region of the moon. Data are presented as a function of both density and temperature with typical lunar values being used for these parameters.

  13. Origin of the moon: New data from old rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, B. M.

    1972-01-01

    Knowledge of the moon is reviewed, particularly that obtained from Apollo 11 and 12 samples, to provide a framework for the geological results from the Apollo 15 mission. The three main theories that have resulted from the Apollo data are briefly discussed, and a review of modern lunar exploration is presented. The knowledge acquired from the Apollo missions is summarized and includes: (1) The rocks of the maria are from 3.3 to 3.7 billion years old, and the highlands are probably 4.6 billion years old. (2) Only small moonquakes are detected, and these appear related to tidal stresses produced by moon swings in its orbit. (3) The moon has a very weak magnetic field. (4) The moon was once hot enough to melt its interior.

  14. Moon Lunar Orbiter - Lunar Orbiter III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    The hidden or dark side of the Moon was taken by Lunar Orbiter III During its mission to photograph potential lunar-landing sites for Apollo missions. Photograph published in Winds of Change, 75th Anniversary NASA publication (page 94), by James Schultz.

  15. Mineralogy of Apollo 15415 ?genesis rock' - Source of anorthosite on moon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, I. M.; Smith, J. V.

    1971-01-01

    Results of electron microprobe analyses of plagioclase points and pyroxene grains of Apollo 15415 ?genesis rock.' It is pointed out that no evidence of cumulate textures has yet appeared to support suggestions of extensive crystal-liquid differentiation producing an anorthositic crust or a lunar crust composed of a mixture of plagioclase-rich rock, basalts and minor ultramafic material, which require that plagioclase crystals float in a basaltic liquid. The plagioclase in 15415 does not show cumulate texture either. It is noted that it remains to be seen whether rock 15415 is correctly named the ?genesis rock.'

  16. Stationkeeping of the First Earth-Moon Libration Orbiters: The ARTEMIS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folta, David; Woodard, Mark; Cosgrove, D.

    2011-01-01

    Libration point orbits near collinear locations are inherently unstable and must be controlled. For Acceleration Reconnection and Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) Earth-Moon Lissajous orbit operations, stationkeeping is challenging because of short time scales, large orbital eccentricity of the secondary, and solar gravitational and radiation pressure perturbations. ARTEMIS is the first NASA mission continuously controlled at both Earth-Moon L1 and L2 locations and uses a balance of optimization, spacecraft implementation and constraints, and multi-body dynamics. Stationkeeping results are compared to pre-mission research including mode directions.

  17. Trajectory Design for MoonRise: A Proposed Lunar South Pole Aitken Basin Sample Return Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Jeffrey S.; McElrath, Timothy P.; Anderson, Rodney L.; Sweetser, Theodore H.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the mission design for the proposed MoonRise New Frontiers mission: a lunar far side lander and return vehicle, with an accompanying communication satellite. Both vehicles are launched together, but fly separate low-energy transfers to the Moon. The communication satellite enters lunar orbit immediately upon arrival at the Moon, whereas the lander enters a staging orbit about the lunar Lagrange points. The lander descends and touches down on the surface 17 days after the communication satellite enters orbit. The lander remains on the surface for nearly two weeks before lifting off and returning to Earth via a low-energy return.

  18. PDS Lunar Data Node Restoration of Apollo In-Situ Surface Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Guinness, Edward A.; Lowman, Paul D.; Taylor, Patrick T.

    2010-01-01

    The Apollo missions between 1969 and 1972 deployed scientific instruments on the Moon's surface which made in-situ measurements of the lunar environment. Apollo II had the short-term Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP) and Apollos 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 each set up an Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). Each ALSEP package contained a different suite of instruments which took measurements and radioed the results back to Earth over periods from 5 to 7 years until they were turned off on 30 September 1977. To this day the ALSEP data remain the only long-term in-situ information on the Moon's surface environment. The Lunar Data Node (LDN) has been formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node to put relevant, scientifically important Apollo data into accessible digital form for use by researchers and mission planners. We will report on progress made since last year and plans for future data restorations.

  19. The Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Stage (NTPS): A Key Space Asset for Human Exploration and Commercial Missions to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; McCurdy, David R.; Burke, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) has frequently been discussed as a key space asset that can bridge the gap between a sustained human presence on the Moon and the eventual human exploration of Mars. Recently, a human mission to a near Earth asteroid (NEA) has also been included as a "deep space precursor" to an orbital mission of Mars before a landing is attempted. In his "post-Apollo" Integrated Space Program Plan (1970 to 1990), Wernher von Braun, proposed a reusable Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Stage (NTPS) to deliver cargo and crew to the Moon to establish a lunar base initially before sending human missions to Mars. The NTR was selected because it was a proven technology capable of generating both high thrust and high specific impulse (Isp approx. 900 s)-twice that of today's best chemical rockets. During the Rover and NERVA programs, 20 rocket reactors were designed, built and successfully ground tested. These tests demonstrated the (1) thrust levels; (2) high fuel temperatures; (3) sustained operation; (4) accumulated lifetime; and (5) restart capability needed for an affordable in-space transportation system. In NASA's Mars Design Reference Architecture (DRA) 5.0 study, the "Copernicus" crewed NTR Mars transfer vehicle used three 25 klbf "Pewee" engines-the smallest and highest performing engine tested in the Rover program. Smaller lunar transfer vehicles-consisting of a NTPS with three approx. 16.7 klbf "SNRE-class" engines, an in-line propellant tank, plus the payload-can be delivered to LEO using a 70 t to LEO upgraded SLS, and can support reusable cargo delivery and crewed lunar landing missions. The NTPS can play an important role in returning humans to the Moon to stay by providing an affordable in-space transportation system that can allow initial lunar outposts to evolve into settlements capable of supporting commercial activities. Over the next decade collaborative efforts between NASA and private industry could open up new exploration and commercial opportunities for both organizations. With efficient NTP, commercial habitation and crew delivery systems, a "mobile cislunar research station" can transport crews to small NEAs delivered to the E-ML2 point. Also possible are week-long "lunar tourism" missions that can carry passengers into lunar orbit for sightseeing (and plenty of picture taking), then return them to Earth orbit where they would re-enter and land using a small reusable lifting body based on NASA's HL-20 design. Mission descriptions, key vehicle features and operational characteristics are described and presented.

  20. Some things we can infer about the Moon from the Composition of the Apollo 16 Regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1997-01-01

    Characteristics of the regolith of Cayley plains as sampled at the Apollo 16 lunar landing site are reviewed and new compositional data are presented for samples of less than 1 mm fines ('soils') and 1-2 mm regolith particles. As a means of determining which of the many primary (igneous) and secondary (crystalline breccias) lithologic components that have been identified in the soil are volumetrically important and providing an estimate of their relative abundances, more than 3 x 10(exp 6) combinations of components representing nearly every lithology that has been observed in the Apollo 16 regolith were systematically tested to determine which combinations best account for the composition of the soils. Conclusions drawn from the modeling include the following. At the site, mature soil from the Cayley plains consists of 64.5% +/- 2.7% components representing 'prebasin' materials: anorthosites, feldspathic breccias, and a small amount (2.6% +/- 1.5% of total soil) of nonmare, mafic plutonic rocks, mostly gabbronorites. On average, these components are highly feldspathic, with average concentrations of 3l-32% Al2O3 and 2-3% FeO and a molar Mg/(Mg+Fe) ratio of O.68. The remaining 36% of the regolith is syn- and postbasin material: 28.8% +/- 2.4% mafic impact-melt breccias (MIMBS, i.e., 'LKFM' and 'VHA basalts') created at the time of basin formation, 6.0% +/- 1.4% mare-derived material (impact and volcanic glass, crystalline basalt) with an average TiO2 concentration of 2.4%, and 1% postbasin meteoritic material. The MIMBs are the principal (80-90%) carrier of incompatible trace elements (rare earths, Th, etc.) and the carrier of about one-half of the siderophile elements and elements associated with mafic mineral phases (Fe, Mg, Mn, Cr, Sc). Most (71 %) of the Fe in the present regolith derives from syn- and postbasin sources (MIMBS, mare-derived material, and meteorites). Thus, although the bulk composition of the Apollo 16 regolith is nominally that of noritic anorthosite, the noritic part (the MIMBs) and anorthositic parts (the prebasin components) are largely unrelated.

  1. Seismometer reading viewed in ALSEP Room in Misson Control during Apollo 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The seismometer readings from the impact made by the Apollo 17 Saturn S-IVB stage when it struck the lunar surface are viewed in the ALSEP Room in the Misson Control Center at Houston by Dr. Maurice Ewing, professor of geophysics of the Universtiy of Texas at Galveston. The seismic tracings are from sensings made by seismometers of Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages left on the Moon during earlier Apollo lunar landing missions.

  2. Apollo 11 Recovery Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. Shown here is the recovery operation of the capsule in the Pacific Ocean after splashdown. A Navy para-rescue man and one of the three astronauts close the spacecraft hatch as the other astronauts watch from the life raft. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  3. Apollo 11 Recovery Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. Shown here is the recovery operation of the capsule in the Pacific Ocean after splashdown. One of the three astronauts is airlifted from the life raft into a helicopter. The helicopter airlifted the crew to safety aboard the prime recovery ship, the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  4. European Space Agency Tools for Psychological Support during Exploration Missions to Mars and Moon

    E-print Network

    Theune, Mariët

    European Space Agency Tools for Psychological Support during Exploration Missions to Mars and Moon and traumatic events has a positive effect on one's health, rather than chitchat. Astronauts on a mission. Introduction: To talk and write about one's feelings has a beneficial effect on one's physical

  5. Extensible Modular Landing Systems for Human Moon and Mars Exploration

    E-print Network

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    Extensible Modular Landing Systems for Human Moon and Mars Exploration by Wilfried Hofstetter and Proposed Moon and Mars Exploration System architectures...... 27 2.1.1 The Apollo System ................................................................................... 27 2.1.2 The Mars Design Reference Mission of NASA ....................................... 29 2

  6. Workshop on Moon in Transition: Apollo 14, KREEP, and Evolved Lunar Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. J. (editor); Warren, P. H. (editor)

    1989-01-01

    Lunar rocks provide material for analyzing lunar history and now new evaluation procedures are available for discovering new information from the Fra Mauro highlands rocks, which are different from any other lunar samples. These and other topics were discussed at this workshop, including a new evaluation of the nature and history of KREEP, granite, and other evolved lunar rock types, and ultimately a fresh evaluation of the transition of the moon from its early anorthosite-forming period to its later stages of KREEPy, granitic, and mare magmatism. The summary of presentations and discussion is based on notes taken by the respective summarizers during the workshop.

  7. South Pole-Aitken Sample Return Mission: Collecting Mare Basalts from the Far Side of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillis, J. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Lucey, P. G.

    2003-01-01

    We consider the probability that a sample mission to a site within the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA) would return basaltic material. A sample mission to the SPA would be the first opportunity to sample basalts from the far side of the Moon. The near side basalts are more abundant in terms of volume and area than their far-side counterparts (16:1), and the basalt deposits within SPA represent approx. 28% of the total basalt surface area on the far side. Sampling far-side basalts is of particular importance because as partial melts of the mantle, they could have derived from a mantle that is mineralogically and chemically different than determined for the nearside, as would be expected if the magma ocean solidified earlier on the far side. For example, evidence to support the existence of high-Th basalts like those that appear to be common on the nearside in the Procellarum KREEP Terrane has been found. Although SPA is the deepest basin on the Moon, it is not extensively filled with mare basalt, as might be expected if similar amounts of partial melting occurred in the mantle below SPA as for basins on the near side. These observations may mean that mantle beneath the far-side crust is lower in Th and other heat producing elements than the nearside. One proposed location for a sample-return landing site is 60 S, 160 W. This site was suggested to maximize the science return with respect to sampling crustal material and SPA impact melt, however, basaltic samples would undoubtedly occur there. On the basis of Apollo samples, we should expect that basaltic materials would be found in the vicinity of any landing site within SPA, even if located away from mare deposits. For example, the Apollo 16 mission landed in an ancient highlands region 250-300 km away from the nearest mare-highlands boundary yet it still contains a small component of basaltic samples (20 lithic fragments ranging is size from <1 to .01 cm). A soil sample from the floor of SPA will likely contain an assortment of basaltic fragments from surrounding regions. In terms both of selecting the best landing sites and understanding the geologic context for returned samples, it is important to understand the compositional distribution of basalts within SPA basin.

  8. Measurements of heavy solar wind and higher energy solar particles during the Apollo 17 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, R. M.; Zinner, E.; Maurette, M.

    1973-01-01

    The lunar surface cosmic ray experiment, consisting of sets of mica, glass, plastic, and metal foil detectors, was successfully deployed on the Apollo 17 mission. One set of detectors was exposed directly to sunlight and another set was placed in shade. Preliminary scanning of the mica detectors shows the expected registration of heavy solar wind ions in the sample exposed directly to the sun. The initial results indicate a depletion of very-heavy solar wind ions. The effect is probably not real but is caused by scanning inefficiencies. Despite the lack of any pronounced solar activity, energetic heavy particles with energies extending to 1 MeV/nucleon were observed. Equal track densities of approximately 6000 tracks/cm sq 0.5 microns in length were measured in mica samples exposed in both sunlight and shade.

  9. Mission requirements CSM-111/DM-2 Apollo/Soyuz test project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackmer, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    Test systems are developed for rendezvous and docking of manned spacecraft and stations that are suitable for use as a standard international system. This includes the rendezvous and docking of Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft, and crew transfer. The conduct of the mission will include: (1) testing of compatible rendezvous systems in orbit; (2) testing of universal docking assemblies; (3) verifying the techniques for transfer of cosmonauts and astronauts; (4) performing certain activities by U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. crews in joint flight; and (5) gaining of experience in conducting joint flights by U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. spacecraft, including, in case of necessity, rendering aid in emergency situations.

  10. Apollo 1 Fire

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    Officially designated Apollo/Saturn 204, but more commonly known as Apollo 1, this close-up view of the interior of the Command Module shows the effects of the intense heat of the flash fire which killed the prime crew during a routine training exercise. While strapped into their seats inside the Command Module atop the giant Saturn V Moon rocket, a faulty electrical switch created a spark which ignited the pure oxygen environment. The speed and intensity of the fire quickly exhausted the oxygen supply inside the crew cabin. Unable to deploy the hatch due to its cumbersome design and lack of breathable oxygen, the crew lost consciousness and perished. They were: astronauts Virgil I. 'Gus' Grissom, (the second American to fly into space) Edward H. White II, (the first American to 'walk' in space) and Roger B. Chaffee, (a 'rookie' on his first space mission).

  11. Active moon: evidences from Chandrayaan-1 and the proposed Indian missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Narendra; Srivastava, Neeraj

    2014-12-01

    Chandrayaan-1, the polar Lunar orbiter mission of Indian Space Research Organization, successfully carried out study of Moon's environment and surface processes for a period of about nine months during 2008-2009. The results obtained by the mission established (i) A tenuous but active hydrosphere (ii) Volcanically active and geologically dynamic Moon and (iii) Global melting of Moon's surface regions and formation of magma ocean early in the history of Moon. Chandrayaan-1 was equipped with a dozen instruments, including an impact probe, which housed three additional instruments. The results obtained by four instruments viz. Chandra's Altitudinal Composition Explorer, Moon Mineral Mapper (M3), Solar Wind Monitor and Synthetic Aperture Radar gave an insight into an active hydrosphere, with several complex processes operating between lunar surface and its environment. These inferences are based on identification of H, OH, H2O, CO2, Ar etc. in the lunar atmosphere. There are indications that several young (~2 to100 Ma) volcanic regions are present on the Moon as shown by integrated studies using Terrain Mapping Camera and M3 of Chandrayaan-1 and data from other contemporary missions i.e. Kaguya and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. These data establish that Moon has a dynamic and probably still active interior, in contrast to the generally accepted concept of dormant and quiet Moon. Discovery of Mg spinel anorthosites and finding of kilometer sized crystalline anorthosite exposures by M3 support the formation of global magma ocean on Moon and differentiation early in its evolutionary history. Furthermore, X-ray Spectrometer data showed anorthositic terrain with composition, high in Al, poor in Ca and low in Mg, Fe and Ti in a nearside southern highland region. This mission provided excellent opportunity for multilateral international cooperation and collaboration in instrumentation and observation in which a dozen countries participated and contributed to the success of the mission. The Mars Orbiter Mission, for study of Martian atmosphere and ionosphere was launched on 5th November, 2013 and is already on its way to Mars. This will be followed by Chandrayaan-2, a well equipped Orbiter-Lander-Rover mission. This article summarises a few results obtained by Chandrayaan-1, which changed some of the concepts about Moon's evolutionary history.

  12. NASA honors Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise Jr.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden (left) presents the Ambassador of Exploration Award (an encased moon rock) to Biloxi native and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise Jr. (right) for his contributions to space exploration. During a Dec. 2 ceremony at Gorenflo elementary School in Biloxi, Miss., Bolden praised Haise for his overall space career and his performance on the Apollo 13 mission that was crippled two days after launch. Haise and fellow crewmembers nursed the spacecraft on a perilous trip back to Earth. 'The historic Apollo 13 mission was as dramatic as any Hollywood production,' Bolden said. 'When an explosion crippled his command module, Fred and his crewmates, Jim Lovell and Jack Swigert, guided their spacecraft around the moon and back to a successful splashdown in the Pacific Ocean - all while the world held its breath. While Fred didn't have the chance to walk on the moon, the cool courage and concentration in the face of crisis is among NASA's most enduring legacies.'

  13. APOLLO 16 ASTRONAUTS JOHN YOUNG AND CHARLES DUKE EXAMINE FAR ULTRAVIOLET CAMERA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Apollo 16 Lunar Module Pilot Charles M. Duke, Jr., left and Mission Commander John W. Young examine Far Ultraviolet Camera they will take to the Moon in March. They will measure the universe's ultraviolet spectrum. They will be launched to the Moon no earlier than March 17, 1972, with Command Module Pilot Thomas K. Mattingly, II.

  14. Mission Activity Planning for Humans and Robots on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisbin, C.; Shelton, K.; Lincoln, W.; Elfes, A.; Smith, J.H.; Mrozinski, J.; Hua, H.; Adumitroaie, V.; Silberg, R.

    2008-01-01

    A series of studies is conducted to develop a systematic approach to optimizing, both in terms of the distribution and scheduling of tasks, scenarios in which astronauts and robots accomplish a group of activities on the Moon, given an objective function (OF) and specific resources and constraints. An automated planning tool is developed as a key element of this optimization system.

  15. Eclipses by the Earth and by the Moon as Constraints on the AXAF Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Steven W.

    1998-01-01

    The Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF) is scheduled for launch on September 1, 1998, on a mission lasting ten years. During this time AXAF will be subject to eclipses by the Earth and the Moon. Eclipses by the Earth will occur during regular 'seasons' six months apart. AXAF requires that none last longer than 120 minutes, and this constrains the orbit orientation. Eclipses by the Moon occur infrequently, but may pose serious operational problems. The AXAF perigee altitude can be chosen, once the other initial conditions are known, so that objectionable Moon-eclipses can be avoided by targeting the final burn.

  16. Lunar surface radioactivity - Preliminary results of the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 gamma-ray spectrometer experiments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, A. E.; Trombka, J. I.; Peterson, L. E.; Reedy, R. C.; Arnold, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Gamma-ray spectrometers on the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 missions have been used to map the moon's radioactivity over 20 percent of its surface. The highest levels of natural radioactivity are found in Mare Imbrium and Oceanus Procellarum with contrastingly lower enhancements in the eastern maria. The ratio of potassium to uranium is higher on the far side than on the near side, although it is everywhere lower than commonly found on the earth.

  17. Supporting Crewed Missions using LiAISON Navigation in the Earth-Moon System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Jason M.

    Crewed navigation in certain regions of the Earth-Moon system provides a unique challenge due to the unstable dynamics and observation geometry relative to standard Earth-based tracking systems. The focus of this thesis is to advance the understanding of navigation precision in the Earth-Moon system, analyzing the observability of navigation data types frequently used to navigate spacecraft, and to provide a better understanding of the influence of a crewed vehicle disturbance model for future manned missions in the Earth-Moon system. In this research, a baseline for navigation performance of a spacecraft in a Lagrange point orbit in the Earth-Moon system is analyzed. Using operational ARTEMIS tracking data, an overlap analysis of the reconstructed ARTEMIS trajectory states is conducted. This analysis provides insight into the navigation precision of a spacecraft traversing a Lissajous orbit about the Earth-Moon L1 point. While the ARTEMIS analysis provides insight into the navigation precision using ground based tracking methods, an examination of the benefits of introducing Linked Autonomous Interplanetary Satellite Orbit Navigation (LiAISON) is investigated. This examination provides insight into the benefits and disadvantages of LiAISON range and range-rate measurements for trajectories in the Earth-Moon system. In addition to the characterization of navigation precision for spacecraft in the Earth-Moon system, an analysis of the uncertainty propagation for noisy crewed vehicles and quiet robotic spacecraft is given. Insight is provided on the characteristics of uncertainty propagation and how it is correlated to the instability of the Lagrange point orbit. A crewed vehicle disturbance model is provided based on either Gaussian or Poisson assumptions. The natural tendency for the uncertainty distribution in a Lagrange point orbit is to align with the unstable manifold after a certain period of propagation. This behavior is influenced directly by the unstable nature of the orbit itself. This thesis then examines several different LiAISON mission configurations to determine the benefits and disadvantages for future crewed missions in the Earth-Moon system. The following LiAISON supplemented configurations are analyzed over a wide trade space to determine their feasibility: 1) Geosynchronous and Earth-Moon halo orbiters; 2) A crewed vehicle in an Earth-Moon L 2 halo orbit with a navigation satellite orbiting another Earth-Moon Lagrange point; 3) A navigation satellite in an Earth-Moon halo orbit tracking a crewed vehicle in low lunar orbit; 4) A crewed vehicle on a trans-lunar cruise being tracked by a navigation satellite in an Earth-Moon halo orbit.

  18. Moon

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  MISR Views the Moon     View Larger Image On ... instruments to look at deep space and the waxing gibbous Moon. The purpose of this acrobatic feat is to assist in the calibration of ...

  19. The Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO): Two Years of Millimeter-Precision Measurements of the Earth-Moon Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battat, J. B. R.; Murphy, T. W., Jr.; Adelberger, E. G.; Gillespie, B.; Hoyle, C. D.; McMillan, R. J.; Michelsen, E. L.; Nordtvedt, K.; Orin, A. E.; Stubbs, C. W.; Swanson, H. E.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 April, the Apache Point Observatory Lunar Laser-ranging Operation (APOLLO) began its science campaign to measure the Earth-Moon separation to millimeter precision. Since that time more than 280 "normal-point" measurements have been made of the distance between the Apache Point Observatory (APO) 3.5-m telescope in New Mexico and retro-reflector arrays on the surface of the Moon. If only statistical errors are considered, then the median nightly range measurement uncertainty for all of our data is 1.8 mm of one-way path, and is 1.1 mm for data after 2007 September. We present an analysis of the APOLLO system performance, highlighting the record-breaking photon return rates and the ability to perform high-cadence observations of multiple lunar retro-reflector targets in a short (30-60 minute) time span. We also show that there is no evidence to suggest that the APOLLO apparatus introduces drifts in the lunar-range measurement over timescales of minutes to an hour.

  20. Apollo Seals: A Basis for the Crew Exploration Vehicle Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2006-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently designing the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) as a replacement for the Space Shuttle for manned missions to the International Space Station, as a command module for returning astronauts to the moon, and as an earth reentry vehicle for the final leg of manned missions to the moon and Mars. The CEV resembles a scaled-up version of the heritage Apollo vehicle; however, the CEV seal requirements are different than those from Apollo because of its different mission requirements. A review is presented of some of the seals used on the Apollo spacecraft for the gap between the heat shield and backshell and for penetrations through the heat shield, docking hatches, windows, and the capsule pressure hull.

  1. Apollo Seals: A Basis for the Crew Exploration Vehicle Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkbeiner, Joshua R.; Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Steinetz, Bruce M.; Daniels, Christopher C.

    2007-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration is currently designing the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) as a replacement for the Space Shuttle for manned missions to the International Space Station, as a command module for returning astronauts to the moon, and as an earth reentry vehicle for the final leg of manned missions to the moon and Mars. The CEV resembles a scaled-up version of the heritage Apollo vehicle; however, the CEV seal requirements are different than those from Apollo because of its different mission requirements. A review is presented of some of the seals used on the Apollo spacecraft for the gap between the heat shield and backshell and for penetrations through the heat shield, docking hatches, windows, and the capsule pressure hull.

  2. Apollo 11 Facts [Post Flight Press Conference]. Part 1 of 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Aldrin, Jr., and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins are seen during this post-mission conference, where they give details about the mission, concentrating on their activities on the Moon. They then answer questions from the audience. The second part of this conference is seen on 'Apollo 11 Facts: Post Flight Press Conference, Part 2 of 2' (internal ID 2001181396).

  3. The Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Journal

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, E.M.

    1995-08-01

    The material included in the Apollo 17 Lunar Surface Journal has been assembled so that an uninitiated reader can understand, in some detail, what happened during Apollo 17 and why and what was learned, particularly about living and working on the Moon. At its heart, the Journal consists a corrected mission transcript which is interwoven with commentary by the crew and by Journal Editor -- commentary which, we hope, will make the rich detail of Apollo 17 accessible to a wide audience. To make the Journal even more accessible, this CD-ROM publication contains virtually all of the Apollo 17 audio, a significant fraction of the photographs and a selection of drawings, maps, video clips, and background documents.

  4. Return to the Moon: NASA's LCROSS AND LRO Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morales, Lester

    2012-01-01

    NASA s goals include objectives for robotic and human spaceflight: a) Implement a sustained and affordable human and robotic program to explore the solar system and beyond; b) Extend human presence across the solar system, starting with a human return to the Moon by the year 2020, in preparation for human exploration of Mars and other destinations; c) A lunar outpost is envisioned. Site Considerations: 1) General accessibility of landing site (orbital mechanics) 2) Landing site safety 3) Mobility 4) Mars analog 5) Power 6) Communications 7) Geologic diversity 8) ISRU considerations

  5. Lunar Robotic Arm Camera (L-RAC) for Future Missions to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josset, J.-L.; Souchon, A.; Josset, M.; Korablev, O.

    2014-04-01

    In the context of the development of many missions dedicated to the exploration of the Moon with landers and rovers, we present the Lunar Robotic Arm Camera (L-RAC), a powerful instrument dedicated to the close-up investigation of the surface rocks and regolith.

  6. New findings expand Apollo observations of lunar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-08-01

    In December 1972 the astronauts of Apollo 17—the last manned mission to the moon—deployed the Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment (LACE), a spectrometer designed to measure and characterize the thin lunar atmosphere. Forty years later, Stern et al built upon those initial measurements, providing the first remotely sensed measurement of the Moon's gaseous environment from lunar orbit. Using the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project's (LAMP) far ultraviolet spectrograph aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the authors determined the atmospheric concentration of helium.

  7. Apollo 11 Astronauts Inside Quarantine Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via a Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. The Command Module (CM), piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the Lunar Module (LM), named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. The surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours, in which the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. Upon splash down in the Pacific Ocean, Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was taken to safety aboard the USS Hornet, where they were quartered in a mobile quarantine facility. Shown here is the Apollo 11 crew inside the quarantine facility. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  8. Apollo 11 Astronauts In Quarantine Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched aboard a Saturn V launch vehicle from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named Eagle, carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. The surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours. Once the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth, the LM redocked with the CM for the crew's return to Earth. Following splash down in the Pacific Ocean, Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was taken to safety aboard the USS Hornet, where they were quartered in a mobile quarantine facility. Shown here is the Apollo 11 crew peering out of the quarantine facility at the crowd assembled to greet them upon their arrival at Ellington Air Force Base in Houston, Texas. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V launch vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  9. Lunar shape via the Apollo laser altimeter.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjogren, W. L.; Wollenhaupt, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    The laser altimeter data obtained from the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 missions provide two elevation cross sections of the moon separated by 35 degrees of latitude. The data consist of measurements of the distance from the orbiting Command and Service Module (CSM) to the lunar surface at intervals of about 20 seconds. In order to extract the lunar shape parameters from the data, the position of the CSM must be known. This was accomplished by reducing the data from earth-based radio tracking of the CSM. The most striking result obtained in the studies is the consistency of the center of gravity offset in both the X and Y directions.

  10. Moon's Radiation Environment and Expected Performance of Solar Cells during Future Lunar Missions

    E-print Network

    T. E Girish; S Aranya

    2010-12-03

    Several lunar missions are planned ahead and there is an increasing demand for efficient photovoltaic power generation in the moon. The knowledge of solar cell operation in the lunar surface obtained during early seventies need to be updated considering current views on solar variability and emerging space solar cell technologies. In this paper some aspects of the solar cell performance expected under variable lunar radiation environment during future space missions to moon are addressed. We have calculated relative power expected from different types of solar cells under extreme solar proton irradiation conditions and high lunar daytime temperature. It is also estimated that 2-3 % of annual solar cell degradation is most probable during the future lunar missions. We have also discussed photovoltaic power generation in long term lunar bases emphasizing technological needs such as sunlight concentration, solar cell cooling and magnetic shielding of radiation for improving the efficiency of solar cells in the lunar environment.

  11. An Overview of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Mission, Environments, and Materials Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Dave

    2012-01-01

    Congress authorized NASA's Prometheus Project in February 2003, with the first Prometheus mission slated to explore the icy moons of Jupiter with the following main objectives: (1) Develop a nuclear reactor that would provide unprecedented levels of power and show that it could be processed safely and operated reliably in space for long-duration. (2) Explore the three icy moons of Jupiter -- Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa -- and return science data that would meet the scientific goals as set forth in the Decadal Survey Report of the National Academy of Sciences.

  12. The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions and Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Novak, Joseph D.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Josef; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

    2007-01-01

    Medical requirements for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits and Lunar habitat are currently being developed. Crews returning to the lunar surface will construct the lunar habitat and conduct scientific research. Inherent in aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. Physiological responses and the operational environment for short forays during the Apollo lunar missions were studied and documented. Little is known about the operational environment in which crews will live and work and the hardware will be used for long-duration lunar surface operations. Additional information is needed regarding productivity and the events that affect crew function such as a compressed timeline. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations that had impact to crew health and/or performance. The operationally oriented goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new exploration vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with the multiple entities at NASA and abroad participating in the exploration effort.

  13. The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions and Lunar Surface Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Joseph; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.; Novak, Joseph D.

    2007-01-01

    Medical requirements for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits and Lunar habitat are currently being developed. Crews returning to the lunar surface will construct the lunar habitat and conduct scientific research. Inherent in aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. Physiological responses to and the operational environment of short forays during the Apollo lunar missions were studied and documented. Little is known about the operational environment in which crews will live and work and the hardware that will be used for long-duration lunar surface operations.Additional information is needed regarding productivity and the events that affect crew function such as a compressed timeline. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations that had impact to crew health and/or performance. The operationally oriented goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new exploration vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with the multiple entities at NASA and abroad participating in the exploration effort.

  14. Science exploration opportunities for manned missions to the Moon, Mars, Phobos, and an asteroid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nash, Douglas B.; Plescia, Jeffrey; Cintala, Mark; Levine, Joel; Lowman, Paul; Mancinelli, Rocco; Mendell, Wendell; Stoker, Carol; Suess, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Scientific exploration opportunities for human missions to the Moon, Phobos, Mars, and an asteroid are addressed. These planetary objects are of prime interest to scientists because they are the accessible, terresterial-like bodies most likely to be the next destinations for human missions beyond Earth orbit. Three categories of science opportunities are defined and discussed: target science, platform science, and cruise science. Target science is the study of the planetary object and its surroundings (including geological, biological, atmospheric, and fields and particle sciences) to determine the object's natural physical characteristics, planetological history, mode of origin, relation to possible extant or extinct like forms, surface environmental properties, resource potential, and suitability for human bases or outposts. Platform science takes advantage of the target body using it as a site for establishing laboratory facilities and observatories; and cruise science consists of studies conducted by the crew during the voyage to and from a target body. Generic and specific science opportunities for each target are summarized along with listings of strawman payloads, desired or required precursor information, priorities for initial scientific objectives, and candidate landing sites. An appendix details the potential use of the Moon for astronomical observatories and specialized observatories, and a bibliography compiles recent work on topics relating to human scientific exploration of the Moon, Phobos, Mars, and asteroids. It is concluded that there are a wide variety of scientific exploration opportunities that can be pursued during human missions to planetary targets but that more detailed studies and precursor unmanned missions should be carried out first.

  15. Analysis of Sun/Moon Gravitational Redshift tests with the STE-QUEST Space Mission

    E-print Network

    Peter Wolf; Luc Blanchet

    2015-09-09

    The STE-QUEST space mission will perform tests of the gravitational redshift in the field of the Sun and the Moon to high precision by frequency comparisons of clocks attached to the ground and separated by intercontinental distances. In the absence of Einstein equivalence principle (EP) violation, the redshift is zero up to small tidal corrections as the Earth is freely falling in the field of the Sun and Moon. Such tests are thus null tests, allowing to bound possible violations of the EP. Here we analyze the Sun/Moon redshift tests using a generic EP violating theoretical framework, with clocks minimally modelled as two-level atoms. We present a complete derivation of the redshift (including both GR and non-GR terms) in a realistic experiment such as the one envisaged for STE-QUEST. We point out and correct an error in previous formalisms linked to the atom's recoil not being properly taken into account.

  16. Analysis of Sun/Moon Gravitational Redshift tests with the STE-QUEST Space Mission

    E-print Network

    Wolf, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The STE-QUEST space mission will perform tests of the gravitational redshift in the field of the Sun and the Moon to high precision by frequency comparisons of clocks attached to the ground and separated by intercontinental distances. In the absence of Einstein equivalence principle (EP) violation, the redshift is zero up to small tidal corrections as the Earth is freely falling in the field of the Sun and Moon. Such tests are thus null tests, allowing to bound possible violations of the EP. Here we analyze the Sun/Moon redshift tests using a generic EP violating theoretical framework, with clocks minimally modelled as two-level atoms. We present a complete derivation of the redshift (including both GR and non-GR terms) in a realistic experiment such as the one envisaged for STE-QUEST. We point out and correct an error in previous formalisms linked to the atom's recoil not being properly taken into account.

  17. Analysis of Sun/Moon Gravitational Redshift tests with the STE-QUEST Space Mission

    E-print Network

    Peter Wolf; Luc Blanchet

    2015-11-20

    The STE-QUEST space mission will perform tests of the gravitational redshift in the field of the Sun and the Moon to high precision by frequency comparisons of clocks attached to the ground and separated by intercontinental distances. In the absence of Einstein equivalence principle (EP) violation, the redshift is zero up to small tidal corrections as the Earth is freely falling in the field of the Sun and Moon. Such tests are thus null tests, allowing to bound possible violations of the EP. Here we analyze the Sun/Moon redshift tests using a generic EP violating theoretical framework, with clocks minimally modelled as two-level atoms. We present a complete derivation of the redshift (including both GR and non-GR terms) in a realistic experiment such as the one envisaged for STE-QUEST. We point out and correct an error in previous formalisms linked to the atom's recoil not being properly taken into account.

  18. Radiation protection for human missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonsen, Lisa C.; Nealy, John E.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation protection assessments are performed for advanced Lunar and Mars manned missions. The Langley cosmic ray transport code and the nucleon transport code are used to quantify the transport and attenuation of galactic cosmic rays and solar proton flares through various shielding media. Galactic cosmic radiation at solar maximum and minimum, as well as various flare scenarios are considered. Propagation data for water, aluminum, liquid hydrogen, lithium hydride, lead, and lunar and Martian regolith (soil) are included. Shield thickness and shield mass estimates required to maintain incurred doses below 30 day and annual limits (as set for Space Station Freedom and used as a guide for space exploration) are determined for simple geometry transfer vehicles. On the surface of Mars, dose estimates are presented for crews with their only protection being the carbon dioxide atmosphere and for crews protected by shielding provided by Martian regolith for a candidate habitat.

  19. Radiation protection for human missions to the Moon and Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Simonsen, L.C.; Nealy, J.E.

    1991-02-01

    Radiation protection assessments are performed for advanced Lunar and Mars manned missions. The Langley cosmic ray transport code and the nucleon transport code are used to quantify the transport and attenuation of galactic cosmic rays and solar proton flares through various shielding media. Galactic cosmic radiation at solar maximum and minimum, as well as various flare scenarios are considered. Propagation data for water, aluminum, liquid hydrogen, lithium hydride, lead, and lunar and Martian regolith (soil) are included. Shield thickness and shield mass estimates required to maintain incurred doses below 30 day and annual limits (as set for Space Station Freedom and used as a guide for space exploration) are determined for simple geometry transfer vehicles. On the surface of Mars, dose estimates are presented for crews with their only protection being the carbon dioxide atmosphere and for crews protected by shielding provided by Martian regolith for a candidate habitat.

  20. Apollo 11 Commemorative 20th Anniversary Logo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. This logo represents the Commemorative 20th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 Lunar mission. Housed inside the zero of the numeral twenty is the original flight insignia in which an Eagle descending upon the lunar surface depicts the LM, named 'Eagle''.

  1. Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology for Moon and Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael P.; Gaby, Joseph D.; Salerno, Louis J.; Sutherlin, Steven G.

    2010-01-01

    In support of the U.S. Space Exploration Policy, focused cryogenic fluid management technology efforts are underway within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Under the auspices of the Exploration Technology Development Program, cryogenic fluid management technology efforts are being conducted by the Cryogenic Fluid Management Project. Cryogenic Fluid Management Project objectives are to develop storage, transfer, and handling technologies for cryogens to support high performance demands of lunar, and ultimately, Mars missions in the application areas of propulsion, surface systems, and Earth-based ground operations. The targeted use of cryogens and cryogenic technologies for these application areas is anticipated to significantly reduce propellant launch mass and required on-orbit margins, to reduce and even eliminate storage tank boil-off losses for long term missions, to economize ground pad storage and transfer operations, and to expand operational and architectural operations at destination. This paper organizes Cryogenic Fluid Management Project technology efforts according to Exploration Architecture target areas, and discusses the scope of trade studies, analytical modeling, and test efforts presently underway, as well as future plans, to address those target areas. The target areas are: liquid methane/liquid oxygen for propelling the Altair Lander Ascent Stage, liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen for propelling the Altair Lander Descent Stage and Ares V Earth Departure Stage, liquefaction, zero boil-off, and propellant scavenging for Lunar Surface Systems, cold helium and zero boil-off technologies for Earth-Based Ground Operations, and architecture definition studies for long term storage and on-orbit transfer and pressurization of LH2, cryogenic Mars landing and ascent vehicles, and cryogenic production via in situ resource utilization on Mars.

  2. The Lunar Potential Determination Using Apollo-Era Data and Modern Measurements and Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Michael R.; Farrell, William M.; Espley, Jared; Webb, Phillip; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Webb, Phillip; Hills, H. Kent; Delory, Greg

    2008-01-01

    Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. More recently, the Lunar Prospector (LP) Electron Reflectometer used electron distributions to infer negative lunar surface potentials, primarily in shadow. We will present initial results from a study to combine lunar surface potential measurements from both SIDE and the LP/Electron Reflectometer to calibrate an advanced model of lunar surface charging which includes effects from the plasma environment, photoemission, secondaries ejected by ion impact onto the lunar surface, and the lunar wake created downstream by the solar wind-lunar interaction.

  3. The Apollo 13 Rescue Mission: the Role Played by the University of Toronto

    E-print Network

    New South Wales, University of

    of subjects, including hypersonic flow, air cushion vehicles, air bearings, biological flows as well Studies Phillip Sullivan Emeritus Professor ABSTRACT When an in-flight explosion damaged NASA's Apollo 13

  4. Apollo 11 Lunar Message For Mankind- Reproduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Millions of people on Earth watched via television as a message for all mankind was delivered to the Mare Tranquilitatis (Sea of Tranquility) region of the Moon during the historic Apollo 11 mission, where it still remains today. This photograph is a reproduction of the commemorative plaque that was attached to the leg of the Lunar Module (LM), Eagle, engraved with the following words: 'Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon July, 1969 A.D. We came in peace for all of mankind.' It bears the signatures of the Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot along with the signature of the U.S. President Richard M. Nixon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  5. Navigation Design and Analysis for the Orion Earth-Moon Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DSouza, Christopher; Zanetti, Renato

    2014-01-01

    This paper details the design of the cislunar optical navigation system being proposed for the Orion Earth-Moon (EM) missions. In particular, it presents the mathematics of the navigation filter. The unmodeled accelerations and their characterization are detailed. It also presents the analysis that has been performed to understand the performance of the proposed system, with particular attention paid to entry flight path angle constraints and the delta-V performance.

  6. Diagnostic Imaging in the Medical Support of the Future Missions to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sargsyan, Ashot E.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Hamilton, Douglas R.; Dulchavsky, Scott A.; Duncan, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation is a course that reviews the diagnostic imaging techniques available for medical support on the future moon missions. The educational objectives of the course are to: 1) Update the audience on the curreultrasound imaging in space flight; 2) Discuss the unique aspects of conducting ultrasound imaging on ISS, interplanetary transit, ultrasound imaging on ISS, interplanetary transit, and lunar surface operations; and 3) Review preliminary data obtained in simulations of medical imaging in lunar surface operations.

  7. Apollo Lunar Landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Artist rendering of the Lunar Orbiter, the most successful of the pre-Apollo probes, which mapped the equatorial regions of the moon and gave NASA the data it needed to pinpoint ideal landing spots. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 314.

  8. THE LADEE MISSION: THE NEXT STEP AFTER THE DISCOVERY OF WATER ON THE MOON. G. T. Delory1,2

    E-print Network

    California at Berkeley, University of

    THE LADEE MISSION: THE NEXT STEP AFTER THE DISCOVERY OF WATER ON THE MOON. G. T. Delory1,2 , R. C to this question bears directly on what volatile stratigraphy can reveal regarding the evolution of the Moon, a surface boundary exosphere whose composition and variability may provide direct insight

  9. NASA honors Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise Jr.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Apollo 13 astronaut and Biloxi native Fred Haise Jr. smiles during a Dec. 2 ceremony at Gorenflo Elementary School in Biloxi honoring his space career. During the ceremony, Haise was presented with NASA's Ambassador of Exploration Award (an encased moon rock). He subsequently presented the moon rock to Gorenflo officials for display at the school. Haise is best known as one of three astronauts who nursed a crippled Apollo 13 spacecraft back to Earth during a perilous 1970 mission. Although he was unable to walk on the moon as planned for that mission, Haise ended his astronaut career having logged 142 hours and 54 minutes in space. During the ceremony, he praised all those who contributed to the space program.

  10. High-resolution local gravity model of the south pole of the Moon from GRAIL extended mission data

    E-print Network

    Goossens, Sander

    We estimated a high-resolution local gravity field model over the south pole of the Moon using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory's extended mission. Our solution consists of adjustments with respect ...

  11. High-resolution Gravity Field Models of the Moon Using GRAIL mission Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, Frank G.; Goossens, Sander; Sabaka, Terrence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Loomis, Bryant D.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2015-04-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission was designed to map the structure of the lunar interior from crust to core and to advance the understanding of the Moon's thermal evolution by producing a high-quality, high-resolution map of the gravitational field of the Moon. GRAIL consisted of two spacecraft, with Ka-band tracking between the two satellites as the single science instrument, with the addition of Earth-based tracking using the Deep Space Network. The science mission was divided into two phases: a primary mission from March 1, 2012 to May 29, 2012, and an extended mission from August 30, 2012 to December 14, 2012. The altitude varied from 3 km to 94 km above the lunar surface during both mission phases. Both the primary and the extended mission data have been processed into global models of the lunar gravity field at NASA/GSFC using the GEODYN software up to 1080 x 1080 in spherical harmonics. In addition to the high-resolution global models, local models have also been developed. Due to varying spacecraft altitude and ground track spacing, the actual resolution of the global models varies geographically. Information beyond the current resolution is still present in the data, as indicated by relatively higher fits in the last part of the extended mission, where the satellites achieved their lowest altitude above lunar surface. Local models of the lunar gravitational field at high resolution were thus estimated to accommodate this signal. Here, we present the current status of GRAIL gravity modeling at NASA/GSFC, for both global and local models. We discuss the methods we used for the processing of the GRAIL data, and evaluate these solutions with respect to the derived power spectra, Bouguer anomalies, and fits with independent data (such as from the low-altitude phase of the Lunar Prospector mission). We also evaluate the prospects for extending the resolution of our current models

  12. Summary of apollo and lunar logistics system plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, W. B.

    1963-01-01

    The basic mission objective of Project Apollo is to land men on the Moon and return them to Earth at the earliest practicable date. The Apollo crew will consist of three men, two of whom will land on the surface of the Moon, conduct surface operations for up to 24 hr, and then rejoin the third crew member in lunar orbit for return to Earth. Initial Apollo spacecraft capabilities will require the early landings to be within +or-lO deg of the lunar equator on the visible side of the Moon, with preference for landing sites in the leading quadrant (between 270 and 360 deg lunar longitude). As presently planned, the Apollo spacecraft will be capable of carrying approximately 200 lb of scientific equipment to the lunar surface and of bringing approximately 80 lb of lunar material back to Earth. A detailed plan for utilization of crew capabilities while on the lunar surface is not expected to be complete for some time. The first Apollo lunar mission is now scheduled for the late 1960's with additional launches planned at reasonable intervals. i

  13. Of time and the moon.

    PubMed

    Wetherill, G W

    1971-07-30

    Considerable information concerning lunar chronology has been obtained by the study of rocks and soil returned by the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 missions. It has been shown that at the time the moon, earth, and solar system were formed, approximately 4.6 approximately 10(9) years ago, a severe chemical fractionation took place, resulting in depletion of relatively volatile elements such as Rb and Pb from the sources of the lunar rocks studied. It is very likely that much of this material was lost to interplanetary space, although some of the loss may be associated with internal chemical differentiation of the moon. It has also been shown that igneous processes have enriched some regions of the moon in lithophile elements such as Rb, U, and Ba, very early in lunar history, within 100 million years of its formation. Subsequent igneous and metamorphic activity occurred over a long period of time; mare volcanism of the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 sites occurred at distinctly different times, 3.6 approximately 10(9) and 3.3 approximately 10(9) years ago, respectively. Consequently, lunar magmatism and remanent magnetism cannot be explained in terms of a unique event, such as a close approach to the earth at a time of lunar capture. It is likely that these phenomena will require explanation in terms of internal lunar processes, operative to a considerable depth in the moon, over a long period of time. These data, together with the low present internal temperatures of the moon, inferred from measurements of lunar electrical conductivity, impose severe constraints on acceptable thermal histories of the moon. Progress is being made toward understanding lunar surface properties by use of the effects of particle bombardment of the lunar surface (solar wind, solar flare particles, galactic cosmic rays). It has been shown that the rate of micrometeorite erosion is very low (angstroms per year) and that lunar rocks and soil have been within approximately a meter of the lunar surface for hundreds of millions of years. Future work will require sampling distinctly different regions of the moon in order to provide data concerning other important lunar events, such as the time of formation of the highland regions and of the mare basins, and of the extent to which lunar volcanism has persisted subsequent to the first third of lunar history. This work will require a sufficient number of Apollo landings, and any further cancellation of Apollo missions will jeopardize this unique opportunity to study the development of a planetary body from its beginning. Such a study is fundamental to our understanding of the earth and other planets. PMID:17770436

  14. Comparison of the magnetic properties of glass from Luna 20 with similar properties of glass from the Apollo missions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senftle, F.E.; Thorpe, A.N.; Alexander, C.C.; Briggs, C.L.

    1973-01-01

    Magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made on four glass spherules and fragments from the Luna 20 fines; two at 300??K and two from 300??K to 4??K. From these data the magnetic susceptibility extrapolated to infinite field, the magnetization at low fields and also the saturation magnetization at high fields, the Curie constant, the Weiss temperature, and the temperature-independent susceptibility were determined. Using a model previously proposed for the Apollo specimens, the Curie constant of the antiferromagnetic inclusions and a zero field splitting parameter were calculated for the same specimens. The data show the relatively low concentration of iron in all forms in these specimens. In addition, the Weiss temperature is lower than that measured for the Apollo specimens, and can be attributed almost entirely to the ligand field distortion about the Fe2+ ions in the glassy phase. The data further suggest that the Luna 20 specimens cooled more slowly than those of the Apollo missions, and that some of the antiferromagnetic inclusions in the glass may have crystallized from the glass during cooling. ?? 1973.

  15. Apollo Soyuz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Froehlich, W.

    1978-01-01

    The mission, background, and spacecraft of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are summarized. Scientific experiments onboard the spacecraft are reviewed, along with reentry procedures. A small biography of each of the five astronauts (U.S. and Russian) is also presented.

  16. Reporters Interview Family of Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Newsmen talked with the wife and sons of Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong after the successful launch of Apollo 11 on its trajectory to the moon. The Apollo 11 mission, the first lunar landing mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  17. A 660 D&O Gravitational Field of the Moon from the GRAIL Primary Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Dah-Ning; Konopliv, Alex; Asmar, Sami; Park, Ryan; Williams, James; Watkins, Michael; Fahnestock, Eugene; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Paik, Meegyeong; Strekalov, Dmitry; Harvey, Nate; Zuber, Maria; Smith, David

    2013-04-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has completed its primary three-month tour that resulted in a gravitational field of 660 degree-and-order or equivalent surface resolution of 8 km. The primary measurement for the gravity field is the inter-spacecraft K-Band Range Rate (KBRR) measurement derived from dual spacecraft one-way range. Direct Doppler tracking at X-band from the Deep Space Network for Ebb and Flow supplemented The KBRR. Advanced system calibrations and measurement timing have resulted in unprecedented data quality of better than 0.1 microns/sec. The gravity field solution shows an error spectrum with several orders of magnitude improvement for all wavelengths when compared to previous missions. Nearly uniform correlations with topography exist through higher harmonic degrees and are a good measure of field integrity. The results of the mission satisfy the scientific objectives of determining the structure of the lunar interior from crust to core and advancing the understanding of the thermal evolution of the Moon. They also directly address the mission's investigations that include mapping the structure of the crust and lithosphere, understanding the Moon's asymmetric thermal evolution, determining the subsurface structure of impact basins and the origin of mascons, ascertaining the temporal evolution of the crustal brecciation and magmatism, constrain deep interior structure from tides, and place limits on the size of a possible solid inner core.

  18. A potpourri of pristine moon rocks, including a VHK mare basalt and a unique, augite-rich Apollo 17 anorthosite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, P. H.; Shirley, D. N.; Kallemeyn, G. W.

    1986-01-01

    The anorthosite fragment, 76504,18, the first of the Apollo 17's pristine anorthosites, was found to have: (1) a higher ratio of high-Ca pyroxine to low-Ca pyroxene, (2) higher Na in its plagioclase, (3) higher contents of incompatible elements, and (4) a higher Eu/Al ratio in comparison to ferroan anorthosites. With a parent melt having a negative Eu anomaly, 76504,18 closely resembles a typical mare basalt. This anorthosite was among the latest to be formed by plagioclase flotation above a primordial magmasphere; typical mare basalt regions accumulated at about the same time or even earlier. Another fragment 14181c, a very high potassium basalt, was studied and found to be similar to typical Apollo 14 mare basalt though it has a K/La ratio of 1050. It is suggested that this lithology formed after a normal Apollo 14 mare basaltic melt partially assimilated granite. New data for siderphile elements in Apollo 12 mare basalts indicate that only the lowest of earlier data are trustworthy as being free of laboratory contamination.

  19. Dusty plasmas over the Moon: theory research in support of the upcoming lunar missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popel, Sergey; Zelenyi, Lev; Zakharov, Alexander; Izvekova, Yulia; Dolnikov, Gennady; Dubinskii, Andrey; Kopnin, Sergey; Golub, Anatoly

    The future Russian lunar missions Luna 25 and Luna 27 are planned to be equipped with instruments for direct detection of nano- and microscale dust particles and determination of plasma properties over the surface of the Moon. Lunar dust over the Moon is usually considered as a part of a dusty plasma system. Here, we present the main our theory results concerning the lunar dusty plasmas. We start with the description of the observational data on dust particles on and over the surface of the Moon. We show that the size distribution of dust on the lunar surface is in a good agreement with the Kolmogorov distribution, which is the size distribution of particles in the case of multiple crushing. We discuss the role of adhesion which has been identified as a significant force in the dust particle launching process. We evaluate the adhesive force for lunar dust particles with taking into account the roughness and adsorbed molecular layers. We show that dust particle launching can be explained if the dust particles rise at a height of about dozens of nanometers owing to some processes. This is enough for the particles to acquire charges sufficient for the dominance of the electrostatic force over the gravitational and adhesive forces. The reasons for the separation of the dust particles from the surface of the Moon are, in particular, their heating by solar radiation and cooling. We consider migration of free protons in regolith from the viewpoint of the photoemission properties of the lunar soil. Finally, we develop a model of dusty plasma system over the Moon and show that it includes charged dust, photoelectrons, and electrons and ions of the solar wind. We determine the distributions of the photoelectrons and find the characteristics of the dust which rise over the lunar regolith. We show that there are no significant constraints on the Moon landing sites for future lunar missions that will study dusty plasmas in the surface layer of the Moon. We discuss also waves in dusty plasmas over the lunar surface. This work was supported by the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Sciences (basic research program no. 22 “Fundamental Problems of Research and Exploration of the Solar System”) and by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (project 12-02-00270-a).

  20. Risk Assessment of Bone Fracture During Space Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Myers, Jerry G.; Nelson, Emily S.; Licatta, Angelo; Griffin, Devon

    2007-01-01

    The possibility of a traumatic bone fracture in space is a concern due to the observed decrease in astronaut bone mineral density (BMD) during spaceflight and because of the physical demands of the mission. The Bone Fracture Risk Module (BFxRM) was developed to quantify the probability of fracture at the femoral neck and lumbar spine during space exploration missions. The BFxRM is scenario-based, providing predictions for specific activities or events during a particular space mission. The key elements of the BFxRM are the mission parameters, the biomechanical loading models, the bone loss and fracture models and the incidence rate of the activity or event. Uncertainties in the model parameters arise due to variations within the population and unknowns associated with the effects of the space environment. Consequently, parameter distributions were used in Monte Carlo simulations to obtain an estimate of fracture probability under real mission scenarios. The model predicts an increase in the probability of fracture as the mission length increases and fracture is more likely in the higher gravitational field of Mars than on the moon. The resulting probability predictions and sensitivity analyses of the BFxRM can be used as an engineering tool for mission operation and resource planning in order to mitigate the risk of bone fracture in space.

  1. Risk Assessment of Bone Fracture During Space Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Myers, Jerry G.; Nelson, Emily S.; Griffin, Devon

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of a traumatic bone fracture in space is a concern due to the observed decrease in astronaut bone mineral density (BMD) during spaceflight and because of the physical demands of the mission. The Bone Fracture Risk Module (BFxRM) was developed to quantify the probability of fracture at the femoral neck and lumbar spine during space exploration missions. The BFxRM is scenario-based, providing predictions for specific activities or events during a particular space mission. The key elements of the BFxRM are the mission parameters, the biomechanical loading models, the bone loss and fracture models and the incidence rate of the activity or event. Uncertainties in the model parameters arise due to variations within the population and unknowns associated with the effects of the space environment. Consequently, parameter distributions were used in Monte Carlo simulations to obtain an estimate of fracture probability under real mission scenarios. The model predicts an increase in the probability of fracture as the mission length increases and fracture is more likely in the higher gravitational field of Mars than on the moon. The resulting probability predictions and sensitivity analyses of the BFxRM can be used as an engineering tool for mission operation and resource planning in order to mitigate the risk of bone fracture in space.

  2. Effect of photogrammetric reading error on slope-frequency distributions. [obtained from Apollo 17 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, H. J.; Wu, S. C.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of reading error on two hypothetical slope frequency distributions and two slope frequency distributions from actual lunar data in order to ensure that these errors do not cause excessive overestimates of algebraic standard deviations for the slope frequency distributions. The errors introduced are insignificant when the reading error is small and the slope length is large. A method for correcting the errors in slope frequency distributions is presented and applied to 11 distributions obtained from Apollo 15, 16, and 17 panoramic camera photographs and Apollo 16 metric camera photographs.

  3. Is There Water on the Moon? NASA's LCROSS Mission [Supplemental Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Presents a supplemental video supporting the original conference presentation under the same title. The conference presentation discussed NASA's preparation for its return to the moon with the Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission which will robotically seek to determine the presence of water ice at the Moon's South Pole. This secondary payload spacecraft will travel with the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) satellite to the Moon on the same Atlas-V 401 Centaur rocket launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida. The 1000kg Secondary Payload budget is efficiently used to provide a highly modular and reconfigurable LCROSS Spacecraft with extensive heritage to accurately guide the expended Centaur into the crater. Upon separation, LCROSS flies through the impact plume, telemetering real-time images and characterizing water ice in the plume with infrared cameras and spectrometers. LCROSS then becomes a 700kg impactor itself, to provide a second opportunity to study the nature of the Lunar Regolith. LCROSS provides a critical ground-truth for Lunar Prospector and LRO neutron and radar maps, making it possible to assess the total lunar water inventory. The video contains an animated simulation of the Centaur launch, LRO separation, LRO high resolution lunar survey, LCROSS mission elements and LCROSS impactor separation and impact observations.

  4. Lunar Lander project: A study on future manned missions to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    This project is based on designing a small lunar probe which will conduct research relating to future manned missions to the moon. The basic design calls for two experiments to be run. The first of these experiments is an enclosed environment section which will be exposed to solar radiation while on the moon. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the effect of radiation on an enclosed environment and how different shielding materials can be used to moderate this effect. The eight compartments will have the following covering materials: glass, polarized glass, plexiglass, polyurethane, and boron impregnated versions of the polyurethane and plexiglass. The enclosed atmosphere will be sampled by a mass spectrometer to determine elemental breakdown of its primary constituents. This is needed so that an accurate atmospheric processing system can be designed for a manned mission. The second experiment is a seismic study of the moon. A small penetrating probe will be shot into the lunar surface and data will be collected onboard the lander by an electronic seismograph which will store the data in the data storage unit for retrieval and transmission once every twenty-three hours. The project is designed to last ten years with possible extended life for an additional nine years at which point power requirements prevent proper functioning of the various systems.

  5. The Surface Composition Investigation for Pluto and Its Moons from the New Horizons Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkin, C.; Grundy, W. M.; Stern, S. A.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Young, L. A.; Ennico Smith, K.; Binzel, R. P.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Jennings, D. E.; Parker, J. W.; Reuter, D.; Spencer, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    One of the main scientific goals of the New Horizons mission is to map the surface composition of Pluto and Charon. The mission will also investigate the composition of Pluto's smaller moons: Nix, Hydra, Kerberos and Styx. These objectives will primarily be accomplished using the Ralph instrument (Reuter et al. 2008) using the MVIC color channels (Red, Blue, Methane and Near-Infrared) and the LEISA infrared spectral imager. The planned compositional observations of Pluto, Charon and the small satellites will be described and compared to the current knowledge from Earth-based observations. Reuter, D. C., et al., 2008. Ralph: A Visible/Infrared Imager for the New Horizons Pluto/Kuiper Belt Mission. Space Science Reviews. 140, 129-154.

  6. Apollo rocks, fines and soil cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allton, J.; Bevill, T.

    Apollo rocks and soils not only established basic lunar properties and ground truth for global remote sensing, they also provided important lessons for planetary protection (Adv. Space Res ., 1998, v. 22, no. 3 pp. 373-382). The six Apollo missions returned 2196 samples weighing 381.7 kg, comprised of rocks, fines, soil cores and 2 gas samples. By examining which samples were allocated for scientific investigations, information was obtained on usefulness of sampling strategy, sampling devices and containers, sample types and diversity, and on size of sample needed by various disciplines. Diversity was increased by using rakes to gather small rocks on the Moon and by removing fragments >1 mm from soils by sieving in the laboratory. Breccias and soil cores are diverse internally. Per unit weight these samples were more often allocated for research. Apollo investigators became adept at wringing information from very small sample sizes. By pushing the analytical limits, the main concern was adequate size for representative sampling. Typical allocations for trace element analyses were 750 mg for rocks, 300 mg for fines and 70 mg for core subsamples. Age-dating and isotope systematics allocations were typically 1 g for rocks and fines, but only 10% of that amount for core depth subsamples. Historically, allocations for organics and microbiology were 4 g (10% for cores). Modern allocations for biomarker detection are 100mg. Other disciplines supported have been cosmogenic nuclides, rock and soil petrology, sedimentary volatiles, reflectance, magnetics, and biohazard studies . Highly applicable to future sample return missions was the Apollo experience with organic contamination, estimated to be from 1 to 5 ng/g sample for Apollo 11 (Simonheit &Flory, 1970; Apollo 11, 12 &13 Organic contamination Monitoring History, U.C. Berkeley; Burlingame et al., 1970, Apollo 11 LSC , pp. 1779-1792). Eleven sources of contaminants, of which 7 are applicable to robotic missions, were identified and reduced; thus, improving Apollo 12 samples to 0.1 ng/g. Apollo sample documentation preserves the parentage, orientation, and location, packaging, handling and environmental histories of each of the 90,000 subsamples currently curated. Active research on Apollo samples continues today, and because 80% by weight of the Apollo collection remains pristine, researchers have a reservoir of material to support studies well into the future.

  7. Discoveries from Revisiting Apollo Direct Active Measurements of Lunar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Brian

    2010-05-01

    New missions to the moon being developed by China, Japan, India, USA, Russia and Europe and possibilities of human missions about 2020 face the reality that 6 Apollo expeditions did not totally manage or mitigate effects of easily-mobilised and very "sticky" lunar dust on humans and hardware. Laboratory and theoretical modelling cannot reliably simulate the complex lunar environments that affect dynamical movements of lunar dust. The only direct active measurements of lunar dust during Apollo were made by matchbox-sized minimalist Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) deployed to transmit some 30 million digital measurements from Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15. These were misplaced or relatively ignored until 2009, when a self-funded suite of discoveries (O'Brien Geophys. Research Letters FIX 6 May 2099) revealed unexpected properties of lunar dust, such as the adhesive force being stronger as illumination increased. We give the first reports of contrasting effects, contamination or cleansing, from rocket exhausts of Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 Lunar Modules leaving the moon. We further strengthen the importance of collateral dust inadvertently splashed on Apollo hardware by human activities. Dust management designs and mission plans require optimum use of such in situ measurements, extended by laboratory simulations and theoretical modelling.

  8. Operating the Dual-Orbiter GRAIL Mission to Measure the Moon's Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beerer, Joseph G.; Havens, Glen G.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's mission to measure the Moon's gravity and determine the interior structure, from crust to core, has almost completed its 3-month science data collection phase. The twin orbiters of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission were launched from Florida on September 10, 2011, on a Delta-II launch vehicle. After traveling for nearly four months on a low energy trajectory to the Moon, they were inserted into lunar orbit on New Year's Eve and New Year's Day. In January 2012 a series of circularization maneuvers brought the orbiters into co-planar near-circular polar orbits. In February a distant (75- km) rendezvous was achieved and the science instruments were turned on. A dual- frequency (Ka and S-band) inter-orbiter radio link provides a precise orbiter-to-orbiter range measurement that enables the gravity field estimation. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, CA, manages the GRAIL project. Mission management, mission planning and sequencing, and navigation are conducted at JPL. Lockheed Martin, the flight system manufacturer, operates the orbiters from their control center in Denver, Colorado. The orbiters together have performed 28 propulsive maneuvers to reach and maintain the science phase configuration. Execution of these maneuvers, as well as the payload checkout and calibration activities, has gone smoothly due to extensive pre-launch operations planning and testing. The key to the operations success has been detailed timelines for product interchange between the operations teams and proven procedures from previous JPL/LM planetary missions. Once in science phase, GRAIL benefitted from the payload operational heritage of the GRACE mission that measures the Earth's gravity.

  9. Apollo 13: Houston, We've Got a Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video contains historical footage of the flight of Apollo-13, the fifth Lunar Mission and the third spacecraft that was to land on the Moon. Apollo-13's launch date was April 11, 1970. On the 13th of April, after docking with the Lunar Module, the astronauts, Jim Lovell, Fred Haise, and Jack Swiggert, discovered that their oxygen tanks had ruptured and ended up entering and returning to Earth in the Lunar Module instead of the Command Module. There is footage of inside module and Mission Control shots, personal commentary by the astronauts concerning the problems as they developed, national news footage and commentary, and a post-flight Presidential Address by President Richard Nixon. Film footage of the approach to the Moon and departing from Earth, and air-to-ground communication with Mission Control is included.

  10. Guidance, navigation, and control systems performance analysis: Apollo 13 mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The conclusions of the analyses of the inflight performance of the Apollo 13 spacecraft guidance, navigation, and control equipment are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) the command module systems, (2) the lunar module inertial measurement unit, (3) the lunar module digital autopilot, (4) the lunar module abort guidance system, (5) lunar module optical alignment checks, and (6) spacecraft component separation procedures.

  11. Thin section of rock brought back to earth by Apollo 12 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    An idea of the mineralogy and texture of a lunar sample can be achieved by use of color microphotos. This thin section is Apollo 12 lunar sample number 12057.27, under polarized light. The lavender minerals are pyrexene; the black mineral is ilmenite; the white and brown, feldspar; and the remainder, olivine.

  12. NanoSWARM - A nano-satellite mission to measure particles and fields around the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrick-Bethell, Ian; Russell, Christopher; Pieters, Carle; Weiss, Benjamin; Halekas, Jasper; Poppe, Andrew; Larson, Davin; Lawrence, David; Elphic, Richard; Hayne, Paul; Blakely, Richard; Kim, Khan-Hyuk; Choi, Young-Jun; Jin, Ho; Hemingway, Doug; Nayak, Michael; Puig-Suari, Jordi; Jaroux, Belgacem; Warwick, Steven

    2015-04-01

    The NanoSWARM mission concept uses a fleet of cubesats around the Moon to address a number of open problems in planetary science: 1) The mechanisms of space weathering, 2) The origins of planetary magnetism, 3) The origins, distributions, and migration processes of surface water on airless bodies, and 4) The physics of small-scale magnetospheres. To accomplish these goals, NanoSWARM targets scientifically rich features on the Moon known as swirls. Swirls are high-albedo features correlated with strong magnetic fields and low surface-water. NanoSWARM cubesats will make the first near-surface (<500 m altitude) measurements of solar wind flux and magnetic fields at swirls. NanoSWARM cubesats will also perform low-altitude neutron measurements to provide key constraints on the distribution of polar hydrogen concentrations, which are important volatile sinks in the lunar water cycle. To release its cubesats, NanoSWARM uses a high-heritage mother ship in a low altitude, polar, circular orbit. NanoSWARM's results will have direct applications to the geophysics, volatile distribution, and plasma physics of numerous other bodies, in particular asteroids and the terrestrial planets. The technologies and methods used by NanoSWARM will enable many new cubesat missions in the next decade, and expand the cubesat paradigm into deep space. NanoSWARM will be proposed as a NASA Discovery mission in early 2015.

  13. Rendezvous with Toutatis from the Moon: The Chang'e-2 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Tang, X.; Meng, L.

    2014-07-01

    Chang'e-2 probe was the second lunar probe of China, with the main objectives to demonstrate some key features of the new lunar soft landing technology, and its applications to future exploration missions. After completing the planned mission successfully, Chang'e-2 flew away from the Moon and entered into the interplanetary space. Later, at a distance of 7 million km from the Earth, Chang'e-2 encountered asteroid (4179) Toutatis with a very close fly-by distance and obtained colorful images with a 3-m resolution. Given some surplus velocity increment as well as the promotion of autonomous flight ability and improvement of control, propulsion, and thermal systems in the initial design, Chang'e-2 had the capabilities necessary for escaping from the Moon. By taking advantage of the unique features of the Lagrangian point, the first close fly-by of asteroid Toutatis was realized despite the tight constraints of propellant allocation, spacecraft-Earth communication, and coordination of execution sequences. Chang'e-2 realized the Toutatis flyby with a km-level distance at closest approach. In the absence of direct measurement method, based on the principle of relative navigation and through the use of the sequence of target images, we calculated the rendezvous parameters such as relative distance and image resolution. With the help of these parameters, some fine and new scientific discoveries about the asteroid were obtained by techniques of optical measurements and image processing. Starting with an innovative design, followed by high-fidelity testing and demonstration, elaborative implementation, and optimal usage of residual propellant, Chang'e-2 has for the first time successfully explored the Moon, L2 point and an asteroid, while achieving the purpose of 'faster, better, cheaper'. What Chang'e-2 has accomplished was far beyond our expectations. *J. Huang is the chief designer (PI) of Chang'e-2 probe, planned Chang'e-2's multi-objective and multitasking exploration mission.

  14. Apollo 11 Recovery Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. Shown here is the recovery operation of the capsule in the Pacific Ocean after splashdown. The three astronauts wait in the life raft as a pararescue man closes and secures the capsule hatch. The crew was then air lifted to the prime recovery ship, the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were housed in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF).

  15. The Apollo 11 Prime Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Portrait of the prime crew of the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. From left to right they are: Commander, Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot, Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot, Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. On July 20th 1969 at 4:18 PM, EDT the Lunar Module 'Eagle' landed in a region of the Moon called the Mare Tranquillitatis, also known as the Sea of Tranquillity. After securing his spacecraft, Armstrong radioed back to earth: 'Houston, Tranquility Base here, the Eagle has landed'. At 10:56 p.m. that same evening and witnessed by a worldwide television audience, Neil Armstrong stepped off the 'Eagle's landing pad onto the lunar surface and said: 'That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.' He became the first human to set foot upon the Moon.

  16. Height-to-diameter ratios of moon rocks from analysis of Lunokhod-1 and -2 and Apollo 11-17 panoramas and LROC NAC images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, N. E.; Basilevsky, A. T.

    2014-09-01

    An analysis is performed of 91 panoramic photographs taken by Lunokhod-1 and -2, 17 panoramic images composed of photographs taken by Apollo 11-15 astronauts, and six LROC NAC photographs. The results are used to measure the height-to-visible-diameter ( h/ d) and height-to-maximum-diameter ( h/ D) ratios for lunar rocks at three highland and three mare sites on the Moon. The average h/ d and h/ D for the six sites are found to be indistinguishable at a significance level of 95%. Therefore, our estimates for the average h/ d = 0.6 ± 0.03 and h/ D = 0.54 ± 0.03 on the basis of 445 rocks are applicable for the entire Moon's surface. Rounding off, an h/ D ratio of ?0.5 is suggested for engineering models of the lunar surface. The ratios between the long, medium, and short axes of the lunar rocks are found to be similar to those obtained in high-velocity impact experiments for different materials. It is concluded, therefore, that the degree of penetration of the studied lunar rocks into the regolith is negligible, and micrometeorite abrasion and other factors do not dominate in the evolution of the shape of lunar rocks.

  17. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong Approaches Practice Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, crew members underwent training to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph Neil Armstrong approaches the helicopter he flew to practice landing the Lunar Module (LM) on the Moon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished

  18. Protecting the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, John

    Historically speaking, the Earth's Moon has been subject to a wide variety of protections and cautions associated with space exploration. Early lunar missions (cf., the Ranger series) were initially subjected to sterilization procedures to protect the Moon from biological contamination, and though these were relaxed in later periods (e.g., Surveyor, Apollo), those measures were never entirely abandoned until the mid-1980s. More recent lunar missions (e.g., Clementine, Lunar Prospector, SMART-1) have only been inadvertently concerned with protection of the Moon—Clementine in the attempt to have it leave the vicinity of the Earth entirely, Lunar Prospector in it end-of-mission crash into the lunar south pole (with a resultant outcry by the Navajo population in the US), and SMART-1 because of the keen attention paid by the astronomical community to its end-of-mission location. While operations on the Moon are not constrained by current COSPAR planetary protection restrictions, an increasing interest in the Moon suggests that additional protections should be imposed in the future. For example, if lunar ices exist as a repository of past impact volatiles, then the contamination of lunar ices with non-organically-clean spacecraft and tools presents an initial concern for the potentially lost science, as well as future resource contamination concerns if such ices are found and can be used to as part of a comprehensive life-support strategy for human outposts. Requirements for the protection of this aspect of the lunar environment, as well as others, has been initiated both within COSPAR and by NASA, which (in NPR 8715.6) now requires orbital debris protection for spacecraft in lunar orbit, and prior approval of any future landing (or crashing) sites on the Moon, requiring those to "be chosen (or precluded) with due regard to the planned usage of those sites in future exploration or scientific study and the interests of other spacefaring nations."

  19. Quarantined Apollo 11 Crew Debriefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. The three are seen here at the MSC, still inside the MQF, undergoing their first debriefing on Sunday, August 3, 1969. Behind the glass are (L-R): Edwin Aldrin, Michael Collins, and Neil Armstrong.

  20. Venus, Mars, and the ices on Mercury and the moon: astrobiological implications and proposed mission designs.

    PubMed

    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Dohm, James M; Fairén, Alberto G; Baker, Victor R; Fink, Wolfgang; Strom, Robert G

    2005-12-01

    Venus and Mars likely had liquid water bodies on their surface early in the Solar System history. The surfaces of Venus and Mars are presently not a suitable habitat for life, but reservoirs of liquid water remain in the atmosphere of Venus and the subsurface of Mars, and with it also the possibility of microbial life. Microbial organisms may have adapted to live in these ecological niches by the evolutionary force of directional selection. Missions to our neighboring planets should therefore be planned to explore these potentially life-containing refuges and return samples for analysis. Sample return missions should also include ice samples from Mercury and the Moon, which may contain information about the biogenic material that catalyzed the early evolution of life on Earth (or elsewhere). To obtain such information, science-driven exploration is necessary through varying degrees of mission operation autonomy. A hierarchical mission design is envisioned that includes spaceborne (orbital), atmosphere (airborne), surface (mobile such as rover and stationary such as lander or sensor), and subsurface (e.g., ground-penetrating radar, drilling, etc.) agents working in concert to allow for sufficient mission safety and redundancy, to perform extensive and challenging reconnaissance, and to lead to a thorough search for evidence of life and habitability. PMID:16379531

  1. Second Stage (S-II) Plays Key Role in Apollo missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This photograph of the Saturn V Second Stage (S-II) clearly shows the cluster of five powerful J-2 engines needed to boost the Apollo spacecraft into earth orbit following first stage separation. The towering 363-foot Saturn V was a multi-stage, multi-engine launch vehicle standing taller than the Statue of Liberty. Altogether, the Saturn V engines produced as much power as 85 Hoover Dams.

  2. Project APEX: Advanced Phobos Exploration. Manned mission to the Martian moon Phobos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The manned exploration of Mars is a massive undertaking which requires careful consideration. A mission to the moon of Mars called Phobos as a prelude to manned landings on the Martian surface offers some advantages. One is that the energy requirements, in terms of delta 5, is only slightly higher than going to the Moon's surface. Another is that Phobos is a potential source of water and carbon which could be extracted and processed for life support and cryogenic propellants for use in future missions; thus, Phobos might serve as a base for extended Mars exploration or for exploration of the outer planets. The design of a vehicle for such a mission is the subject of our Aerospace System Design course this year. The materials and equipment needed for the processing plant would be delivered to Phobos in a prior unmanned mission. This study focuses on what it would take to send a crew to Phobos, set up the processing plant for extraction and storage of water and hydrocarbons, conduct scientific experiments, and return safely to Earth. The size, configuration, and subsystems of the vehicle are described in some detail. The spacecraft carries a crew of five and is launched from low Earth orbit in the year 2010. The outbound trajectory to Mars uses a gravitational assisted swing by of Venus and takes eight months to complete. The stay at Phobos is 60 days at which time the crew will be engaged in setting up the processing facility. The crew will then return to Earth orbit after a total mission duration of 656 days. Both stellar and solar observations will be conducted on both legs of the mission. The design of the spacecraft addresses human factors and life science; mission analysis and control; propulsion; power generation and distribution; thermal control; structural analysis; and planetary, solar, and stellar science. A 0.5 g artificial gravity is generated during transit by spinning about the lateral body axis. Nuclear thermal rockets using hydrogen as fuel are selected to reduce total launch mass and to shorten the duration of the mission. The nuclear systems also provide the primary electrical power via dual mode operation. The overall spacecraft length is 110 meters and the total mass departing from low Earth orbit is 900 metric tons.

  3. Project APEX: Advanced Phobos Exploration. Manned mission to the Martian moon Phobos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-04-01

    The manned exploration of Mars is a massive undertaking which requires careful consideration. A mission to the moon of Mars called Phobos as a prelude to manned landings on the Martian surface offers some advantages. One is that the energy requirements, in terms of delta 5, is only slightly higher than going to the Moon's surface. Another is that Phobos is a potential source of water and carbon which could be extracted and processed for life support and cryogenic propellants for use in future missions; thus, Phobos might serve as a base for extended Mars exploration or for exploration of the outer planets. The design of a vehicle for such a mission is the subject of our Aerospace System Design course this year. The materials and equipment needed for the processing plant would be delivered to Phobos in a prior unmanned mission. This study focuses on what it would take to send a crew to Phobos, set up the processing plant for extraction and storage of water and hydrocarbons, conduct scientific experiments, and return safely to Earth. The size, configuration, and subsystems of the vehicle are described in some detail. The spacecraft carries a crew of five and is launched from low Earth orbit in the year 2010. The outbound trajectory to Mars uses a gravitational assisted swing by of Venus and takes eight months to complete. The stay at Phobos is 60 days at which time the crew will be engaged in setting up the processing facility. The crew will then return to Earth orbit after a total mission duration of 656 days. Both stellar and solar observations will be conducted on both legs of the mission. The design of the spacecraft addresses human factors and life science; mission analysis and control; propulsion; power generation and distribution; thermal control; structural analysis; and planetary, solar, and stellar science. A 0.5 g artificial gravity is generated during transit by spinning about the lateral body axis. Nuclear thermal rockets using hydrogen as fuel are selected to reduce total launch mass and to shorten the duration of the mission. The nuclear systems also provide the primary electrical power via dual mode operation. The overall spacecraft length is 110 meters and the total mass departing from low Earth orbit is 900 metric tons.

  4. Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orloff, Richard; Garber, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to provide researchers, students, and space enthusiasts with a comprehensive reference for facts about Project Apollo, America's effort to put humans in the Moon. Research for this work started in 1988, when the author discovered that, despite the number of excellent books that focused on the drama of events that highlighted Apollo, there were none that focused on the drama of the numbers. This book is separated into two parts. The first part contains narratives for the Apollo 1 fire and the 11 flown Apollo missions. Included after each narrative is a series of data tables, followed by a comprehensive timeline of events from just before liftoff to just after crew and spacecraft recovery. The second part contains more than 50 tables. These tables organize much of the data from the narratives in one place so they can be compared among all missions. The tables offer additional data as well. The reader can select a specific mission narrative or specific data table by consulting the Table of Contents.

  5. Apollo 11 Facts Project [EVA Training/Washington, D. C. Tour

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Footage shows the crew of Apollo 11, Commander Neil Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Aldrin Jr., and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, during various pre-mission activities. They are seen training for the extravehicular activity on the surface of the Moon, giving speeches in front of the White House, and during a parade in Houston.

  6. Location in magnetic latitude and local time of the tropical ultraviolet bands seen from Apollo 16.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinsley, B. A.; Christensen, A. B.; Broadt, J. M.; Hammond, C. L., III

    1973-01-01

    Ultraviolet photographs of the earth made from the moon on the Apollo 16 mission showed two bands of emission extending from the evening terminator to the limb. The location in magnetic latitude and local time of these bands is consistent with a mechanism involving radiative recombination of O(+) ions in the F2 region of the ionosphere.

  7. Apollo 12 Astronauts Wave Upon Entering the Mobile Quarantine Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Aboard the recovery ship, USS Hornet, Apollo 12 astronauts wave to the crowd as they enter the mobile quarantine facility. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean after the splashdown of the Command Module capsule. Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 12 crew. The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12 launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. The Saturn V was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard Apollo 12 was a crew of three astronauts: Alan L. Bean, pilot of the Lunar Module (LM), Intrepid; Richard Gordon, pilot of the Command Module (CM), Yankee Clipper; and Spacecraft Commander Charles Conrad. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms while astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples. Apollo 12 safely returned to Earth on November 24, 1969.

  8. New seismic events identified in the Apollo lunar data by application of a Hidden Markov Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapmeyer-Endrun, B.; Hammer, C.

    2015-10-01

    The Apollo astronauts installed seismic stations on the Moon during Apollo missions 11, 12, 14, 15 and 16. The stations consisted of a three-component long- period seismometer (eigenperiod 15 s) and a vertical short-period sensor (eigenperiod 1 s). Until today, the Apollo seismic network provides the only confirmed recordings of seismic events from any extrater-restrial. The recorded event waveforms differ significantly from what had been expected based on Earth data, mainly by their long duration body wave codas caused by strong near-surface scattering and weak attenuation due to lack of fluids. The main lunar event types are deep moonquakes, impacts, and the rare shallow moonquakes.

  9. Orion/MoonRise: A proposed human & robotic sample return mission from the Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkalai, L.; Solish, B.; Elliott, J.; McElrath, T.; Mueller, J.; Parker, J.

    This paper describes a new mission concept called Orion/MoonRise that proposes to return samples from the Lunar far-side South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPAB) using a combination of a robotic Sample Return Vehicle (SRV) based on the MoonRise mission concept developed at National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle currently under development by NASA at Lockheed Martin. The mission concept proposes significant challenges for both robotic and human parts of the mission. Whereas there are many ways to execute this mission concept, one approach is for the Orion and the SRV to launch separately. We assume that the Orion will be staged at the Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 2 (EM-L2) and the SRV at EM-L1. Once both are in place, the SRV descends to the SPAB while the Orion provides critical relay coverage with ground control on Earth. During surface operations, the Orion crew tele-operate the lander sampling system and possibly deploy a sample fetch rover. Once the samples are collected, the Lunar Ascent Vehicle (LAV) launches towards the EM-L2 to rendezvous with Orion. The samples are then brought back to Earth for detailed sample curation and analysis by the scientific community. The Orion/MoonRise mission concept has many strengths worth noting: it provides a very exciting mission to be performed in cis-Lunar space, as a precursor to future human exploration beyond the Earth-Moon System and as a technology demonstration for future sample return from Mars; it implements a mission that is of tremendous value to the planetary science community; it provides an exciting and challenging mission for astronauts to perform and demonstrate in deep-space including remote teleoperations and sample rendezvous and capture; and finally it provides an exciting opportunity for the broad engagement of the general public.

  10. Cylindrical isomorphic mapping applied to invariant manifold dynamics for Earth-Moon Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giancotti, Marco; Pontani, Mauro; Teofilatto, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    Several families of periodic orbits exist in the context of the circular restricted three-body problem. This work studies orbital motion of a spacecraft among these periodic orbits in the Earth-Moon system, using the planar circular restricted three-body problem model. A new cylindrical representation of the spacecraft phase space (i.e., position and velocity) is described, and allows representing periodic orbits and the related invariant manifolds. In the proximity of the libration points, the manifolds form a four-fold surface, if the cylindrical coordinates are employed. Orbits departing from the Earth and transiting toward the Moon correspond to the trajectories located inside this four-fold surface. The isomorphic mapping under consideration is also useful for describing the topology of the invariant manifolds, which exhibit a complex geometrical stretch-and-folding behavior as the associated trajectories reach increasing distances from the libration orbit. Moreover, the cylindrical representation reveals extremely useful for detecting periodic orbits around the primaries and the libration points, as well as the possible existence of heteroclinic connections. These are asymptotic trajectories that are ideally traveled at zero-propellant cost. This circumstance implies the possibility of performing concretely a variety of complex Earth-Moon missions, by combining different types of trajectory arcs belonging to the manifolds. This work studies also the possible application of manifold dynamics to defining a suitable, convenient end-of-life strategy for spacecraft placed in any of the unstable orbits. The final disposal orbit is an externally confined trajectory, never approaching the Earth or the Moon, and can be entered by means of a single velocity impulse (of modest magnitude) along the right unstable manifold that emanates from the Lyapunov orbit at L_2.

  11. Lunar capture orbits, a method of constructing earth moon trajectories and the lunar GAS mission. [Get Away Specials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belbruno, E. A.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described to construct trajectories from the earth to the moon which utilizes the existence of lunar capture orbits and the concept of 'stability boundary'. These orbits are ballistic and represent a new family of trajectories. They go into orbit about the moon from a suitable position about the earth with no required thrusting. This method is applied to a mission being studied at JPL called Lunar GAS (Get Away Special). Other applications are discussed.

  12. Apollo 11 Astronaut Collins Ready For Countdown Demonstration Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 crew member Michael Collins appears calm after suiting up activities for his participation in the countdown demonstration test aboard the Apollo 11 space craft along with astronauts Aldrin and Armstrong. The Apollo 11 mission, the first lunar landing mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  13. Apollo 11 Astronauts In Prayer Within Quarantine Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via a Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was taken to safety aboard the USS Hornet, where they were quartered in a mobile quarantine facility. Shown here is the Apollo 11 crew inside the quarantine facility as prayer is offered by Lt. Commander John Pirrto, USS Hornet Chaplain accompanied by U.S. President Richard Nixon (front right). With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  14. ArcGIS Digitization of Apollo Surface Traverses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, N. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Gladdis, L. R.; Garry, W. B.; Lam, F.; Mest, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Apollo surface activities were documented in extraordinary detail, with every action performed by the astronauts while on the surface recorded either in photo, audio, film, or by written testimony [1]. The samples and in situ measurements the astronauts collected while on the lunar surface have shaped our understanding of the geologic history of the Moon, and the earliest history and evolution of the inner Solar System. As part of an ongoing LASERfunded effort, we are digitizing and georeferencing data from astronaut traverses and spatially associating them to available, co-registered remote sensing data. Here we introduce the products produced so far for Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions.

  15. Electromyographic analysis of skeletal muscle changes arising from 9 days of weightlessness in the Apollo-Soyuz space mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lafevers, E. V.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Hursta, W. N.

    1976-01-01

    Both integration and frequency analyses of the electromyograms from voluntary contractions were performed in one crewman of the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission. Of particular interest were changes in excitability, electrical efficiency, and fatigability. As a result of 9 days of weightlessness, muscle excitability was shown to increase; muscle electrical efficiency was found to decrease in calf muscles and to increase in arm muscles; and fatigability was found to increase significantly, as shown by spectral power shifts into lower frequencies. It was concluded from this study that skeletal muscles are affected by the disuse of weightlessness early in the period of weightlessness, antigravity muscles seem most affected by weightlessness, and exercise may abrogate the weightlessness effect. It was further concluded that electromyography is a sensitive tool for measuring spaceflight muscle effects.

  16. Gravity Fields of the Moon Derived from GRAIL Primary and Extended Mission Data (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, F. G.; Goossens, S. J.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Loomis, B.; Chinn, D. S.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft conducted the mapping of the gravity field of the Moon from March 1, 2012 to May 29, 2012, for the primary mission and from August 30, 2012 to December 14, 2012 for the extended mission and endgame. During both mission phases, the twin spacecraft acquired highly precise Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) intersatellite ranging data and Deep Space Network (DSN) data from altitudes of 2.3 to 98.2 km above the lunar surface. We have processed the GRAIL data using the NASA GSFC GEODYN orbit determination and geodetic parameter estimation program and used the supercomputers of the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) at NASA GSFC to accumulate the SRIF arrays and derive the geopotential solutions. During the extended mission, the spacecraft orbits were maintained at a mean altitude of ~23 km, compared to ~50 km during the primary mission. In addition, from December 7 to December 14, 2012, data were acquired from a mean altitude of 11.5 km. With these data, we have derived solutions in spherical harmonics to degree 900. The new gravity solutions show improved correlations with LOLA-derived topography to very high degree and order and resolve many lunar features in the geopotential with a resolution of less than 15 km. We discuss the methods we used for the processing of the GRAIL data, and evaluate these solutions with respect to the derived power spectra, Bouguer anomalies, and fits with independent data (such as from the low-altitude phase of the Lunar Prospector mission).

  17. Apollo 11 Astronauts Exit Recovery Helicopter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Donned in biological isolation garments, the Apollo 11 crew members, (L-R) Edwin Aldrin, Neil Armstrong (waving), and Michael Collins exit the recovery pick up helicopter to board the U.S.S. Hornet aircraft carrier after splashdown. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). This portable facility served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Werher von Braun.

  18. Flight Operations reunion for the Apollo 11 20th anniversary of the first manned lunar landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The following major areas are presented: (1) the Apollo years; (2) official flight control manning list for Apollo 11; (3) original mission control emblem; (4) foundations of flight control; (5) Apollo-11 20th anniversary program and events; (6) Apollo 11 mission operations team certificate; (7) Apollo 11 mission summary (timeline); and (8) Apollo flight control team photographs and biographies.

  19. Apollo 13 lunar photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. T.; Michlovitz, C. K.; Hug, K.

    1970-01-01

    A data users' note announces the availability of Apollo 13 pictorial data and aids the investigator in the selection of Apollo 13 photographs for study. This note provides guidance in the interpretation of the photographs. The note includes brief descriptions of the Apollo 13 mission objectives, photographic equipment, and photographic coverage and quality. The National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) can provide all forms of the photographs described.

  20. A lander mission to probe subglacial water on Saturn's moon Enceladus for life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinidis, Konstantinos; Flores Martinez, Claudio L.; Dachwald, Bernd; Ohndorf, Andreas; Dykta, Paul; Bowitz, Pascal; Rudolph, Martin; Digel, Ilya; Kowalski, Julia; Voigt, Konstantin; Förstner, Roger

    2015-01-01

    The plumes discovered by the Cassini mission emanating from the south pole of Saturn's moon Enceladus and the unique chemistry found in them have fueled speculations that Enceladus may harbor life. The presumed aquiferous fractures from which the plumes emanate would make a prime target in the search for extraterrestrial life and would be more easily accessible than the moon's subglacial ocean. A lander mission that is equipped with a subsurface maneuverable ice melting probe will be most suitable to assess the existence of life on Enceladus. A lander would have to land at a safe distance away from a plume source and melt its way to the inner wall of the fracture to analyze the plume subsurface liquids before potential biosignatures are degraded or destroyed by exposure to the vacuum of space. A possible approach for the in situ detection of biosignatures in such samples can be based on the hypothesis of universal evolutionary convergence, meaning that the independent and repeated emergence of life and certain adaptive traits is wide-spread throughout the cosmos. We thus present a hypothetical evolutionary trajectory leading towards the emergence of methanogenic chemoautotrophic microorganisms as the baseline for putative biological complexity on Enceladus. To detect their presence, several instruments are proposed that may be taken aboard a future subglacial melting probe. The "Enceladus Explorer" (EnEx) project funded by the German Space Administration (DLR), aims to develop a terrestrial navigation system for a subglacial research probe and eventually test it under realistic conditions in Antarctica using the EnEx-IceMole, a novel maneuverable subsurface ice melting probe for clean sampling and in situ analysis of ice and subglacial liquids. As part of the EnEx project, an initial concept study is foreseen for a lander mission to Enceladus to deploy the IceMole near one of the active water plumes on the moon's South-Polar Terrain, where it will search for signatures of life. The general mission concept is to place the Lander at a safe distance from an active plume. The IceMole would then be deployed to melt its way through the ice crust to an aquiferous fracture at a depth of 100 m or more for an in situ examination for the presence of microorganisms. The driving requirement for the mission is the high energy demand by the IceMole to melt through the cold Enceladan ices. This requirement is met by a nuclear reactor providing 5 kW of electrical power. The nuclear reactor and the IceMole are placed on a pallet lander platform. An Orbiter element is also foreseen, with the main function of acting as a communications relay between Lander and Earth. After launch, the Lander and Orbiter will perform the interplanetary transfer to Saturn together, using the on-board nuclear reactor to power electric thrusters. After Saturn orbit insertion, the Combined Spacecraft will continue using Nuclear Electric Propulsion to reach the orbit of Enceladus. After orbit insertion at Enceladus, the Orbiter will perform a detailed reconnaissance of the South-Polar Terrain. At the end of the reconnaissance phase, the Lander will separate from the Orbiter and an autonomously guided landing sequence will place it near one of the active vapor plumes. Once landed, the IceMole will be deployed and start melting through the ice, while navigating around hazards and towards a target subglacial aquiferous fracture. An initial estimation of the mission's cost is given, as well as recommendations on the further development of enabling technologies. The planetary protection challenges posed by such a mission are also addressed.

  1. Time of Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    In the year 1961, President John F. Kennedy set forth the task that...'This nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely tio Earth'. The decade is over and the task has been accomplished. Project Apollo has been achieved. This video documentary is a tribute to the historical accomplishments of the Apollo program.

  2. Neil Armstrong chats with attendees at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong talks with a former Apollo team member during an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon.

  3. Human Exploration Mission Capabilities to the Moon, Mars, and Near Earth Asteroids Using ''Bimodal'' NTR Propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley K. Borowski; Leonard A. Dudzinski; Melissa L. McGuire

    2000-06-04

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is one of the leading propulsion options for future human exploration missions because of its high specific impulse (Isp {approx} 850 to 1000 s) and attractive engine thrust-to-weight ratio ({approx} 3 to 10). Because only a minuscule amount of enriched {sup 235}U fuel is consumed in an NRT during the primary propulsion maneuvers of a typical Mars mission, engines configured both for propulsive thrust and modest power generation (referred to as 'bimodal' operation) provide the basis for a robust, power-rich stage with efficient propulsive capture capability at the moon and near-earth asteroids (NEAs), where aerobraking cannot be utilized. A family of modular bimodal NTR (BNTR) space transfer vehicles utilize a common core stage powered by three {approx}15-klb{sub f} engines that produce 50 kW(electric) of total electrical power for crew life support, high data rate communications with Earth, and an active refrigeration system for long-term, zero-boiloff liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) storage. This paper describes details of BNTR engines and designs of vehicles using them for various missions.

  4. Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Vehicle Design Options for Future NASA Missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Mcguire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.

    1995-01-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners/designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a 'dual mode' system capable of generating electrical power for spacecraft environmental systems, communications, and enhanced stage operations (e.g., refrigeration for long-term liquid hydrogen storage). At present the Nuclear Propulsion Office (NPO) is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, single-burn, trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) mission to all propulsive, multiburn, NTR-powered spacecraft supporting a 'split cargo-piloted sprint' Mars mission architecture. Each application results in a particular set of requirements in areas such as the number of engines and their respective thrust levels, restart capability, fuel operating temperature and lifetime, cryofluid storage, and stage size. Two solid core NTR concepts are examined -- one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide 'twisted ribbon' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The NDR and CIS concepts have an established technology database involving significant nuclear testing at or near representative operating conditions. Integrated systems and mission studies indicate that clusters of two to four 15 to 25 klbf NDR or CIS engines are sufficient for most of the lunar and Mars mission scenarios currently under consideration. This paper provides descriptions and performance characteristics for the NDR and CIS concepts, summarizes NASA's First Lunar Outpost and Mars mission scenarios, and describes characteristics for representative cargo and piloted vehicles compatible with a reference 240 t-class heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) and smaller 120 t HLLV option. Attractive performance characteristics and high-leverage technologies associated with both the engine and stage are identified, and supporting parametric sensitivity data is provided. The potential for commonality of engine and stage components to satisfy a broad range of lunar and Mars missions is also discussed.

  5. Apollo/Saturn 5 Postflight Trajectory - SA-513 Skylab 1 Mission. Tracking and Flight Reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The postflight trajectory for the Apollo/Saturn V SA-513 Skylab I flight is presented. An analysis is included of the orbital and powered flight trajectories of the launch vehicle, the orbital trajectory of the spent S-II stage, and the free flight impact trajectory of the expended S-IC stage. Launch vehicle trajectory dependent parameters are provided in earth-fixed launch site, launch vehicle navigation, and geographic polar coordinate systems. The time history of the trajectory parameters for the launch vehicle is presented from guidance reference release to the transfer to ATM control. Tables of significant launch vehicle parameters at engine cutoff, stage separation, and workshop orbit insertion are included. Figures of such parameters as altitude, surface and cross range, and the magnitude of total velocity and acceleration as a function of range time for the powered flight trajectory are given.

  6. Apollo 12: Pinpoint for Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This video, using historical film footage, photography, and computer animation, describes the launch, flight, lunar landing and exploration, and return flight of Apollo 12, one of the manned lunar missions. The astronauts were Charles Conrad, Richard Gordon, and Allen Bean. Thirty-six seconds into the November 14, 1969 launch, the spacecraft was hit by lightning from the thunderstorm surrounding the launch site. In spite of this mishap, the vehicle and astronauts were not harmed and continued with their mission. The Yankee Clipper (command module) docked with the Intrepid (lunar module) and upon reaching the Moon, the Intrepid disconnected during lunar orbit and descended to the Moon's surface to a landing area previously marked by the Surveyor satellite. After lunar surface exploration, soil sample collection, satellite maintenance, and setting up various lunar surface monitoring equipment (a seismometer and two atmospheric monitors), the Intrepid launched back into lunar orbit, docked with the Yankee Clipper, and returned to Earth. There are both B/W and color photography and film footage, which includes the Earth launch, lunar orbit, descent and ascent of Intrepid on the Moon, return flight, atmospheric reentry, and recovery on the Earth, and ground to air and space communication is shown.

  7. Apollo 11 Astronaut Michael Collins Prepares for Weightless Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, astronaut Collins (left) and chief astronaut and director of flight crew operations, Donald K. Slayton, walk away from a T-38 jet plane at Patrick Air Force Base. The two had been flying arcs to give Collins more time under weightless conditions. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished

  8. Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong Performs Ladder Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first Lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training activities to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, Neil Armstrong, donned in his space suit, practices getting back to the first rung of the ladder on the Lunar Module (LM). The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  9. On the Relationship between the Apollo 16 Ancient Regolith Breccias and Feldspathic Fragmental Breccias, and the Composition of the Prebasin Crust in the Central Highlands of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1996-01-01

    Two types of texturally and compositionally similar breccias that consist largely of fragmental debris from meteorite impacts occur at the Apollo 16 lunar site: Feldspathic fragmental breccias (FFBS) and ancient regolith breccias (ARBs). Both types of breccia are composed of a suite of mostly feldspathic components derived from the early crust of the Moon and mafic impact-melt breccias produced during the time of basin formation. The ARBs also contain components, such as agglutinates and glass spherules, indicating that the material of which they are composed occurred at the surface of the Moon as fine-grained regolith prior to lithification of the breccias. These components are absent from the FFBS, suggesting that the FFBs might be the protolith of the ARBS. However, several compositional differences exist between the two types of breccia, making any simple genetic relationship implausible. First, clasts of mafic impact-melt breccia occurring in the FFBs are of a different composition than those in the ARBS. Also the feldspathic "prebasin" components of the FFBs have a lower average Mg/Fe ratio than the corresponding components of the ARBS; the average composition of the plagiociase in the FFBs is more sodic than that of the ARBS; and there are differences in relative abundances of rare earth elements. The two breccia types also have different provenances: the FFBs occur primarily in ejecta from North Ray crater and presumably derive from the Descartes Formation, while the ARBs are restricted to the Cayley plains. Together these observations suggest that although some type of fragmental breccia may have been a precursor to the ARBS, the FFBs of North Ray crater are not a significant component of the ARBs and, by inference, the Cayley plains. The average compositions of the prebasin components of the two types of fragmental breccia are generally similar to the composition of the feldspathic lunar meteorites. With 30-31% Al203, however, they are slightly richer in plagiociase than the most feldspathic lunar meteorites (approximately 29% Al203), implying that the crust of the early central nearside of the Moon contained a higher abundance of highly feldspathic anorthosite than typical lunar highlands, as inferred from the lunar meteorites. The ancient regolith breccias, as well as the current surface regolith ofthe Cayley plains, are more mafic than (1) prebasin regoliths in the Central Highlands and (2) regions of highlands presently distant from nearside basins because they contain a high abundance (approximately 30%) of mafic impact-melt breccias produced during the time of basin formation that is absent from other regoliths.

  10. Apollo 16 regolith breccias and soils - Recorders of exotic component addition to the Descartes region of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Laul, J. C.; Hughes, S. S.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Using the subdivision of Apollo 16 regolith breccias into ancient (about 4 Gyr) and younger samples (McKay et al., 1986), with the present-day soils as a third sample, a petrologic and chemical determination of regolith evolution and exotic component addition at the A-16 site was performed. The modal petrologies and mineral and chemical compositions of the regolith breccias in the region are presented. It is shown that the early regolith was composed of fragments of plutonic rocks, impact melt rocks, and minerals and impact glasses. It is found that KREEP lithologies and impact melts formed early in lunar history. The mare components, mainly orange high-TiO2 glass and green low-TiO2 glass, were added to the site after formation of the ancient breccias and prior to the formation of young breccias. The major change in the regolith since the formation of the young breccias is an increase in maturity represented by the formation of fused soil particles with prolonged exposure to micrometeorite impacts.

  11. The Penn state lunar lion: A university mission to explore the moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Michael V.; Spencer, David B.; Lego, Sara E.; Muncks, John P.

    2014-03-01

    The Penn State Lunar Lion Team plans to send a robotic explorer to the surface of the Moon and, by applying 30 years of technological advancements, win the Google Lunar X Prize. The Google Lunar X Prize aims to showcase the ability of the growing private space industry by having teams pursue the goal of becoming the first private entity to land a spacecraft on another body in the solar system. Through the Team's pursuit of this Prize, Penn State will establish itself as a leader in space exploration. The Lunar Lion Team will win this Prize through the collaboration of faculty and students from multiple disciplines, and the engineering and technical staff at the Penn State Applied Research Lab, as well as strategic collaborations with industry partners. The diversity of technical disciplines required to build a system that can land on the Moon can be found at Penn State. This multidisciplinary project will be not only a means for bringing together personnel from around the University, but also a way to attract faculty and students to these fields. The baseline concept for the Lunar Lion will strictly follow the requirements of the Grand Prize and the Grand Prize only, leading to the simplest possible system for the mission. By achieving the Grand Prize, Penn State will have accomplished what once took the large-scale effort of NASA's early robotic lunar landers or the USSR's space program. While the Bonus Prizes are noteworthy, ensuring their accomplishment will add development and operational risk to the flight system that could jeopardize the Team's ability to win the Grand Prize. The Team will build the simplest spacecraft, with the fewest number of systems and components. This philosophy will shorten the development timeline and result in a robust flight system that is of minimum cost. Wherever possible, the Team will use commercially available products to satisfy the needs of the system. The work of the Team will be efficient systems integration, careful operational planning, and focused mission execution, all with the Grand Prize in mind. By focusing on innovation rather than invention, Penn State will lead the field of competitors and land the next spacecraft on the Moon.

  12. U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Watches Apollo 11 Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon, aboard the U.S.S. Hornet aircraft carrier, used binoculars to watch the Apollo 11 Lunar Mission recovery. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days post mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  13. Water on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendleton, Yvonne

    2015-08-01

    After years of thinking the Moon is dry, we now know there are three ways in which water appears on the Moon today:1) The hypothesized buried deposits of volatiles at the lunar poles were found at Cabeus crater. There are questions about the origin of such volatiles (i.e., in-falling comets & meteorites, migrating surficial OH/H2O, and accumulated release from the interior), but there is no doubt the water is there. This long suspected polar water was the most recent form to be confirmed on the Moon.2) Widespread, thinly- distributed, surficial OH (or H2O) is the most recently formed lunar water, and its discovery was completely unexpected. It occurs across all types of lunar terrain, but is more difficult to detect in the warmer equatorial terrain where thermal emission is strongest. The consensus is that this OH is indeed derived from solar wind H linked to O from the surface silicate rocks. Although pervasive, we don’t know how quickly it forms, nor how mobile it is.3) The amount of water present when the Moon formed is now documented in lunar materials from Apollo samples (preserved in the lunar mantle material found in volcanic glass beads). Sample analyses made during the Apollo days were not sufficiently precise to distinguish between indigenous lunar water and terrestrial contamination. Measurements with modern equipment are not only more precise (both elemental and isotopic), but can be made in a manner to constrain a host of processes (e.g. diffusion, thermal cycling) that have acted on these samples during their residence on the Moon. The mysteries associated with all these ‘water’ forms are being pursued by teams and scientists around the world. The paradigm-shifting work that reported these discoveries in recent years are from: the NASA LCROSS (lunar impact mission) team (2010), M3 team/ on the Indian Chandrayan Mission (2009), and lunar sample chemists (2008). NASA Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, GRAIL, ESA Smart-1, Japanese Kaguya, and other missions have further revolutionized our understanding of the geochemical and geophysical evolution of our neighbor. Ongoing analyses are informing a number of hypotheses and theories about the connection between the Earth and its “wet’” Moon.

  14. Apollo soil mechanics experiment S-200

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. K.; Houston, W. N.; Carrier, W. D., III; Costes, N. C.

    1974-01-01

    The physical and mechanical properties of the unconsolidated lunar surface material samples that were obtained during the Apollo missions were studied. Sources of data useful for deduction of soil information, and methods used to obtained the data are indicated. A model for lunar soil behavior is described which considers soil characteristics, density and porosity, strength, compressibility, and trafficability parameters. Lunar history and processes are considered, and a comparison is made of lunar and terrestrial soil behavior. The impact of the findings on future exploration and development of the moon are discussed, and publications resulting from lunar research by the soil mechanics team members are listed.

  15. Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Stage Technology Options for NASA's Future Human Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.

    1994-07-01

    The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners and designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (Isp ~ 850-1000 seconds) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (~ 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a ``dual mode'' system capable of generating stage electrical power. At present, NASA is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, ``single burn'' trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's ``First Lunar Outpost'' (FLO) mission to all propulsive, ``multi-burn,'' spacecraft supporting a ``split cargo/piloted sprint'' Mars mission architecture. Two ``proven'' solid core NTR concepts are examined -one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application)-derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide ``twisted ribbon'' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Integrated systems and mission study results are used in designing ``aerobraked'' and ``all propulsive'' Mars vehicle concepts which are mass-, and volume-compatible with both a reference 240 metric tonne (t) heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) and a smaller 120 t HLLV option. For the ``aerobraked'' scenario, the 2010 piloted mission determines the size of the expendable trans-Mars injection (TMI) stage which is a growth version of the FLO TLI stage. An ``all-propulsive'' Moon/Mars mission architecture is also described which uses common ``modular'' engine and stage hardware consisting of: (1) clustered 15 thousand pounds force (klbf) NDR or CIS engines; (2) two ``standardized'' liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank sizes; and (3) ``dual mode'' NTR and refrigeration system technologies for long duration missions. The ``modular'' NTR approach can form the basis for a ``faster, safer, and cheaper'' space transportation system for tomorrow's piloted missions to the Moon and Mars.

  16. The Inside of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Roger J.

    2008-09-01

    Fundamental questions remain regarding the lunar interior, e.g.: Why did the Moon apparently cool so early? Why does the Moon have an asymmetric structure (nearside/farside)? What is the thickness of the lunar crust? How much of crustal variability is due to variable melting vs. impact redistribution? How big are impact basins and how deep did they excavate and thermally perturb the mantle? What was the temporal evolution of magmatism and brecciation? Did the mantle overturn subsequent to magma ocean solidification? How laterally heterogeneous is the lunar mantle? Does the Moon have a seismic discontinuity in the mantle? Does the Moon have a core? Does the Moon have a liquid outer core? Did the Moon have a core dynamo? Some of these questions will be at least partially answered in the next several years through new spacecraft investigations such as the GRAIL mission, which will map the lunar gravity field to unprecedented spatial resolution and accuracy. Furthermore, a long-lived, multi-station seismic network is also essential for understanding interior structure. Recent analyses of Apollo seismic data call into question the existence of the mantle discontinuity at 500-km depth, and the thickness of the lunar crust beneath the Apollo 12 and 14 landing sites now has multiple estimates. However, there is still a great deal that can be learned from existing lunar data sets. One productive approach would construct a set of self-consistent models that describe the coupled petrological-thermal evolution of the Moon. Such an investigation involves the high-level marriage of detailed petrological information from samples of the lunar crust and possibly mantle; of models that can predict accurately lunar solidi, liquidi, and equilibrium compositions; and of sophisticated thermal models that accurately incorporate the physics of melting and melt migration.

  17. Passive seismic experiment. [Apollo 17 flight contributions to determining lunar structure by analyzing moonquake and meteoroid impact seismic signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, G. V.; Ewing, M.; Press, F.; Dorman, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Toksoz, N.; Lammlein, D.; Duennebier, F.; Dainty, A.

    1973-01-01

    The network of seismometers installed by the Apollo 17 and other Apollo missions is described. The effects of the impacts of lunar modules and S-4B stages on the lunar surfaces are discussed. The information concerning lunar composition which is obtained by analyzing the seismic signals generated by moonquakes and meteoroid impacts are analyzed. It is concluded that the seismic activity within the moon is extremely low compared to that with the earth. The moon is characterized by a rigid, dynamically inactive outer shell, approximately 1000 kilometers thick, surrounding a core that has markedly different elastic properties.

  18. Project Columbiad: Mission to the Moon. Book 1: Executive Summary. Volume 1: Mission trade studies and requirements. Volume 2: Subsystem trade studies and selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Michael; Denecke, Johan; Garber, Suzanne; Kader, Beth; Liu, Celia; Weintraub, Ben; Cazeau, Patrick; Goetz, John; Haughwout, James; Larson, Erik

    1992-01-01

    In response to the Report of the Advisory Committee on the future of the U.S. Space Program and a request from NASA's Exploration Office, the MIT Hunsaker Aerospace Corporation (HAC) conducted a feasibility study, known as Project Columbiad, on reestablishing human presence on the Moon before the year 2000. The mission criteria established were to transport a four person crew to the lunar surface at any latitude and back to Earth with a 14-28 day stay on the lunar surface. Safety followed by cost of the Columbiad Mission were the top level priorities of HAC. The resulting design has a precursor mission that emplaces the required surface payloads before the piloted mission arrives. Both the precursor and piloted missions require two National Launch System (NLS) launches. Both the precursor and piloted mission have an Earth orbit rendezvous (EOR) with a direct transit to the Moon post-EOR. The piloted mission returns to Earth via a direct transit. Included among the surface payloads preemplaced are a habitat, solar power plant (including fuel cells for the lunar night), lunar rover, and mechanisms used to cover the habitat with regolith (lunar soil) in order to protect the crew members from severe solar flare radiation.

  19. Remembering Apollo 11: The 30th Anniversary Data Archive CD-ROM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cortright, Edgar M. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    On July 20, 1969, the human race accomplished its single greatest technological achievement of all time when a human first set foot on another celestial body. Six hours after landing at 4:17 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (with less than thirty seconds of fuel remaining), Neil A. Armstrong took the "small step" into our greater future when he stepped off the Lunar Module, named Eagle, onto the surface of the Moon, from which he could look up and see Earth in the heavens as no one had done before him. He was shortly joined by Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, and the two astronauts spent twenty-one hours on the lunar surface and returned forty-six pounds of lunar rocks. After their historic walks on the Moon, they successfully docked with Michael Collins, patiently orbiting the cold but no longer lifeless Moon alone in the Command module Columbia. This CR-ROM is intended as a collection of hard to find technical data and other interesting information about the Apollo 11 mission, as well as the apollo program in general. It includes basic overviews, such as a retrospective analysis, an annotated bibliography, and history of the lunar-orbit rendezvous concept. It also contains technical data, such as mission operations reports, press kits, and news references for all of the Apollo missions, the Apollo spacecraft, and the Saturn V launch vehicle. Rounding out this CD-ROM are extensive histories of the lunar Orbiter program (the robotic predecessor to Apollo, biographies of the Apollo astronauts and other key individuals, and interesting audio-visual materials, such as video and audio clips, photo galleries, and blueprint-like diagrams of the Apollo spacecraft.

  20. Apollo experience report: Protection of life and health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wooley, B. C.

    1972-01-01

    The development, implementation, and effectiveness of the Apollo Lunar Quarantine Program and the Flight Crew Health Stabilization Program are discussed as part of the broad program required for the protection of the life and health of U.S. astronauts. Because the goal of the Apollo Program has been the safe transport of men to the moon and back to earth, protection of the astronauts and of the biosphere from potentially harmful lunar contaminants has been required. Also, to ensure mission success, the continuing good health of the astronauts before and during a mission has been necessary. Potential applications of specific aspects of the health and quarantine programs to possible manned missions to other planets are discussed.

  1. What's New on the Moon?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Bevan M.

    This document presents an overview of knowledge gained from the scientific explorations of the moon between 1969 and 1972 in the Apollo Program. Answers are given to questions regarding life on the moon, surface composition of rocks on the moon, the nature of the moon's interior, characteristics of lunar "soil," the age, history and origin of the…

  2. Saturn V Launch Vehicle Lifts Off With Apollo 11 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Saturn V launch vehicle, developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun, lifts off from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida carrying the Apollo 11 spacecraft and crew. The massive rocket hurled the spacecraft into Earth orbit and then onto the trajectory to the Moon. Apollo 11, the first manned lunar mission, launched from KSC on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  3. Apollo 11 Mission Report, Supplement 5: Performance of Lunar Module Reaction Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blevins, D. R.; Jenkins, L. W.

    1971-01-01

    Spacecraft velocity data and crew reports indicated that RCS engine performance was nominal. It is estimated that the RCS engines accumulated a total of 1060 seconds on-time and 12,000 firings during the mission. The quad temperatures ranged from 132 to 232 F during the period when the heaters were active, within predicated ranges. The total propellant consumption from the RCS tanks was about 319 pounds, compared to a predicted value of 253 pounds. An additional 69 pounds of propellant were used from the ascent propulsion system tanks during interconnect feed operations associated with APS lift-off, following periods of rapid propellant usage. The only problems noted were two thrust chamber pressure switch failures on the quad one down-firing engine and on the quad 2 aft-firing engine. Engine performance was nominal on both engines, and the switch failures had no effect on the mission.

  4. Borrow the Moon: The STFC Lunar Samples and Meteorites Loan Scheme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Nick

    2013-01-01

    The Apollo missions brought back 382kg of Moon rock. The financial cost of getting these rocks was historically eye-watering so, understandably, NASA is choosy about who gets to play with them. Many go to scientists for laboratory investigation, but some have been set aside for loan to schools and the public. Luckily, the UK was allowed some,…

  5. Apollo Video Photogrammetry Estimation of Plume Impingement Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Immer, Christopher; Lane, John; Metzger, Philip; Clements, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Each of the six Apollo mission landers touched down at unique sites on the lunar surface. Aside from the Apollo 12 landing site located 180 meters from the Surveyor III lander, plume impingement effects on ground hardware during the landings were largely not an issue. The Constellation Project's planned return to the moon requires numerous landings at the same site. Since the top few centimeters are loosely packed regolith, plume impingement from the lander ejects the granular material at high velocities. With high vacuum conditions on the moon (10 (exp -14) to 10 (epx -12) torr), motion of all particles is completely ballistic. Estimates from damage to the Surveyor III show that the ejected regolith particles to be anywhere 400 m/s to 2500 m/s. It is imperative to understand the physics of plume impingement to safely design landing sites for the Constellation Program.

  6. Apollo experience report: Battery subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trout, J. B.

    1972-01-01

    Experience with the Apollo command service module and lunar module batteries is discussed. Significant hardware development concepts and hardware test results are summarized, and the operational performance of batteries on the Apollo 7 to 13 missions is discussed in terms of performance data, mission constraints, and basic hardware design and capability. Also, the flight performance of the Apollo battery charger is discussed. Inflight data are presented.

  7. Apollo 13 Facts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Footage is seen of the Earth from the Apollo 13 spacecraft as it travels towards the Moon. The crew, James Lovell, Jr., John Swigert, Jr., and Fred Haise, Jr., are shown performing various on-orbit activities. The Lunar Module rendezvous and docking, tunnel repressurization, and S4-B separation are also seen.

  8. Restoration of the Apollo Heat Flow Experiments Metadata

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagihara, S.; Stephens, M. K.; Taylor, P. T.; Williams, D. R.; Hills, H. K.; Nakamura, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Geothermal heat flow probes were deployed on the Apollo 15 and 17 missions as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). At each landing site, the astronauts drilled 2 holes, 10-m apart, and installed a probe in each. The holes were 1- and 1.5-m deep at the Apollo 15 site and 2.5-m deep at the Apollo 17 sites. The probes monitored surface temperature and subsurface temperatures at different depths. At the Apollo 15 site, the monitoring continued from July 1971 to January 1977. At the Apollo 17 site, it did from December 1972 to September 1977. Based on the observations made through December 1974, Marcus Langseth, the principal investigator of the heat flow experiments (HFE), determined the thermal conductivity of the lunar regolith by mathematically modeling how the seasonal temperature fluctuation propagated down through the regolith. He also determined the temperature unaffected by diurnal and seasonal thermal waves of the regolith at different depths, which yielded the geothermal gradient. By multiplying the thermal gradient and the thermal conductivity, Langseth obtained the endogenic heat flow of the Moon as 21 mW/m(exp 2) at Site 15 and 16 mW/m(exp 2) at Site 17.

  9. Apollo: Learning From the Past, For the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabois, Michael R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shares an interesting and unique case study of knowledge capture by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), an ongoing project to recapture and make available the lessons learned from the Apollo lunar landing project so that those working on future projects do not have to "reinvent the wheel". NASA's new Constellation program, the successor to the Space Shuttle program, proposes a return to the Moon using a new generation of vehicles. The Orion Crew Vehicle and the Altair Lunar Lander will use hardware, practices, and techniques descended and derived from Apollo, Shuttle and the International Space Station. However, the new generation of engineers and managers who will be working with Orion and Altair are largely from the decades following Apollo, and are likely not well aware of what was developed in the 1960s. In 2006 a project at NASA's Johnson Space Center was begun to find pertinent Apollo-era documentation and gather it, format it, and present it using modern tools for today's engineers and managers. This "Apollo Mission Familiarization for Constellation Personnel" project is accessible via the web from any NASA center for those interested in learning "how did we do this during Apollo?"

  10. Apollo: Learning From the Past, For the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grabois, Michael R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper shares an interesting and unique case study of knowledge capture by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), an ongoing project to recapture and make available the lessons learned from the Apollo lunar landing project so that those working on future projects do not have to "reinvent the wheel". NASA's new Constellation program, the successor to the Space Shuttle program, proposes a return to the Moon using a new generation of vehicles. The Orion Crew Vehicle and the Altair Lunar Lander will use hardware, practices, and techniques descended and derived from Apollo, Shuttle and the International Space Station. However, the new generation of engineers and managers who will be working with Orion and Altair are largely from the decades following Apollo, and are likely not well aware of what was developed in the 1960s. In 2006 a project at NASA's Johnson Space Center was begun to find pertinent Apollo-era documentation and gather it, format it, and present it using modern tools for today's engineers and managers. This "Apollo Mission Familiarization for Constellation Personnel" project is accessible via the web from any NASA center for those interested in learning "how did we do this during Apollo?"

  11. Apollo: Learning from the past, for the future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabois, Michael R.

    2011-04-01

    This paper shares an interesting and unique case study of knowledge capture by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), an ongoing project to recapture and make available the lessons learned from the Apollo lunar landing project so that those working on future projects do not have to "reinvent the wheel". NASA's new Constellation program, the successor to the Space Shuttle program, proposes a return to the Moon using a new generation of vehicles. The Orion Crew Vehicle and the Altair Lunar Lander will use hardware, practices, and techniques descended and derived from Apollo, Shuttle, and the International Space Station. However, the new generation of engineers and managers who will be working with Orion and Altair are largely from the decades following Apollo, and are likely not well aware of what was developed in the 1960s. In 2006, a project at NASA's Johnson Space Center was started to find pertinent Apollo-era documentation and gather it, format it, and present it using modern tools for today's engineers and managers. This "Apollo Mission Familiarization for Constellation Personnel" project is accessible via the web from any NASA center for those interested in learning answers to the question "how did we do this during Apollo?"

  12. Jim Lovell Recalls Apollo 8 Launch Day - Duration: 71 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    Astronaut Jim Lovell, veteran of two Gemini flights as well as the legendary missions of Apollo 8 and Apollo 13, recalls his thoughts on launch day of Apollo 8 in 1968, when humans first left the E...

  13. Apollo 11 Astronauts Exit Launch Pad Elevator After Countdown Demonstration Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 crew members (left to right) Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, and Michael Collins, wearing space suits, leave the elevator after descending from the top of the launch tower. The three had just completed participation in the countdown demonstration test for the upcoming Apollo 11 mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first lunar landing mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  14. Apollo Lesson Sampler: Apollo 13 Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains a two-part case study of the Apollo 13 accident. The first lesson contains an overview of the electrical system hardware on the Apollo spacecraft, providing a context for the details of the oxygen tank explosion, and the failure chain reconstruction that led to the conditions present at the time of the accident. Given this background, the lesson then covers the tank explosion and immediate damage to the spacecraft, and the immediate response of Mission Control to what they saw. Part 2 of the lesson picks up shortly after the explosion of the oxygen tank on Apollo 13, and discusses how Mission Control gained insight to and understanding of the damage in the aftermath. Impacts to various spacecraft systems are presented, along with Mission Control's reactions and plans for in-flight recovery leading to a successful entry. Finally, post-flight vehicle changes are presented along with the lessons learned.

  15. Crawford:Apollo legAcy 6.24 A&G December 2012 Vol. 53

    E-print Network

    Crawford, Ian

    to set foot on the Moon with Apollo 11 in July 1969. The history of the Apollo project, and itsCrawford:Apollo legAcy 6.24 A&G · December 2012 · Vol. 53 On the 40th anniversary of the last human expedition to the Moon, Ian Crawford reviews the scientific legacy of the Apollo programme and argues

  16. Space Radiation Hazards on Human Missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend, L.

    2004-12-01

    One of the most significant health risks for humans exploring Earth's moon and Mars is exposure to the harsh space radiation environment. Crews on these exploration missions will be exposed to a complex mixture of very energetic particles. Chronic exposures to the ever-present background galactic cosmic ray (GCR) spectrum consisting of various fluxes of all naturally - occurring chemical elements are combined with infrequent, possibly acute exposures to large fluxes of solar energetic particles, consisting of protons and heavier particles. The GCR environment is primarily a concern for stochastic effects, such as the induction of cancer, with subsequent mortality in many cases, and late deterministic effects, such as cataracts and possible damage to the central nervous system. An acute radiation syndrome response ("radiation sickness") is not possible from the GCR environment since the organ doses are well below levels of concern. Unfortunately, the actual risks of cancer induction and mortality for the very important high-energy heavy ion component of the GCR spectrum are essentially unknown. The sporadic occurrence of extremely large solar energetic particle events, usually associated with intense solar activity, is also a major concern for Lunar and Mars missions because of the possible manifestation of acute effects from the accompanying high doses of such radiations, especially acute radiation syndrome effects such as nausea, emesis, hemorrhaging or possibly even death. Large solar energetic particle events can also contribute significantly to crew risks from cancer mortality. In this presentation an overview of current estimates of critical organ doses and equivalent doses for crews of Lunar and Mars bases and on those on transits between Earth and Mars is presented. Possible methods of mitigating these radiation exposures by shielding, thereby reducing the associated health risks to crews, are also described.

  17. Improvement in the Recovery Accuracy of the Lunar Gravity Field Based on the Future Moon-ILRS Spacecraft Gravity Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Wei; Hsu, Houtse; Zhong, Min; Yun, Meijuan

    2015-07-01

    This study mostly concentrates on the sensitivity analysis regarding the future dedicated Moon-ILRS spacecraft gravity mission. Firstly, the new single and combined analytical error models for the cumulative lunar geoid height impacted by the major error sources comprising the inter-spacecraft range-rate of the interferometric laser ranging system (ILRS), the spacecraft orbital position tracked by the deep space network (DSN) and the non-conservative force of the drag-free control system (DFCS) are developed on the basis of the spacecraft-to-spacecraft tracking in the low-low mode (SST-LL) from the future twin Moon-ILRS spacecraft. Secondly, the correctness of the new single and combined analytical error models is proved according to the compliance of the cumulative lunar geoid height errors among the inter-spacecraft range-rate, orbital position and non-conservative force. Finally, in comparison with the past gravity recovery and interior laboratory (GRAIL) program, the preferred design for the future Moon-ILRS mission is achieved in this paper. We recommend that the future twin Moon-ILRS formation-flying spacecraft had better adopt the new-type space-borne instruments involving the ILRS and DFCS. We demonstrate the compatible accuracy indexes of the key sensors (e.g., 10-9 m/s in the inter-spacecraft range-rate, 1 m in the orbital position and 3 × 10-13 m/s2 in the non-conservative force) and the optimal orbital parameters (e.g., 25-km orbital altitude, 100-km inter-spacecraft range and 1-s sampling interval) in the future Moon-ILRS twin-spacecraft mission.

  18. Lunar Terrain and Albedo Reconstruction from Apollo Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nefian, Ara V.; Kim, Taemin; Broxton, Michael; Moratto, Zach

    2010-01-01

    Generating accurate three dimensional planetary models and albedo maps is becoming increasingly more important as NASA plans more robotics missions to the Moon in the coming years. This paper describes a novel approach for separation of topography and albedo maps from orbital Lunar images. Our method uses an optimal Bayesian correlator to refine the stereo disparity map and generate a set of accurate digital elevation models (DEM). The albedo maps are obtained using a multi-image formation model that relies on the derived DEMs and the Lunar- Lambert reflectance model. The method is demonstrated on a set of high resolution scanned images from the Apollo era missions.

  19. Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Watch Cake Cutting Ceremony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home for 21 days following the mission. In this photograph, the Hornet crew and honor guard snap to attention to begin the official cake cutting ceremony for the Apollo 11 astronauts. Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin are visible in the window of the MQF.

  20. Apollo 11 Astronauts Headed For Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard the craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). Donned in biological isolation garments, the Apollo 11 crew members (front to rear) Armstrong, Collins, and Aldrin leave the pick up helicopter making their way to the MQF. This portable facility served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. With the success of Apollo 11 mission the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  1. The Cassini-Huygens mission includes the Cassini orbiter, which orbits Saturn and its moons for four years, and the Huygens probe,

    E-print Network

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    The Cassini-Huygens mission includes the Cassini orbiter, which orbits Saturn and its moons and photochemistry of Saturn, Titan and other moons,and the nature and history of Saturn's rings. UVIS was built by a Titan IV/B Centaur rocket Launched from Kennedy Space Center in Florida Cruise to Saturn 7 years and 3

  2. Low-thrust trajectory optimization of asteroid sample return mission with multiple revolutions and moon gravity assists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Gao; Jiang, FanHuag; Li, JunFeng

    2015-11-01

    Near-Earth asteroids have gained a lot of interest and the development in low-thrust propulsion technology makes complex deep space exploration missions possible. A mission from low-Earth orbit using low-thrust electric propulsion system to rendezvous with near-Earth asteroid and bring sample back is investigated. By dividing the mission into five segments, the complex mission is solved separately. Then different methods are used to find optimal trajectories for every segment. Multiple revolutions around the Earth and multiple Moon gravity assists are used to decrease the fuel consumption to escape from the Earth. To avoid possible numerical difficulty of indirect methods, a direct method to parameterize the switching moment and direction of thrust vector is proposed. To maximize the mass of sample, optimal control theory and homotopic approach are applied to find the optimal trajectory. Direct methods of finding proper time to brake the spacecraft using Moon gravity assist are also proposed. Practical techniques including both direct and indirect methods are investigated to optimize trajectories for different segments and they can be easily extended to other missions and more precise dynamic model.

  3. Neil Armstrong chats with attendees at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong poses for a photograph with fans who attended the anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon.

  4. Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Greeted by Wives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. On arrival at Ellington Air Force base near the MSC, the crew, still under a 21 day quarantine in the MQF are greeted by their wives. Looking out of the facility are (L-R) Armstrong, Aldrin, and Collins. Wives are (L-R) Pat Collins, Jan Armstrong, and Joan Aldrin.

  5. Lunar Soil Erosion Physics for Landing Rockets on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clegg, Ryan N.; Metzger, Philip T.; Huff, Stephen; Roberson, Luke B.

    2008-01-01

    To develop a lunar outpost, we must understand the blowing of soil during launch and landing of the new Altair Lander. For example, the Apollo 12 Lunar Module landed approximately 165 meters from the deactivated Surveyor Ill spacecraft, scouring its surfaces and creating numerous tiny pits. Based on simulations and video analysis from the Apollo missions, blowing lunar soil particles have velocities up to 2000 m/s at low ejection angles relative to the horizon, reach an apogee higher than the orbiting Command and Service Module, and travel nearly the circumference of the Moon [1-3]. The low ejection angle and high velocity are concerns for the lunar outpost.

  6. JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (juice): AN ESA L-Class Mission Candidate to the Jupiter System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, M. K.; Grasset, O.; Erd, C.; Titov, D.; Bunce, E. J.; Coustenis, A.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A. J.; Drossart, P.; Fletcher, L.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; Van Hoolst, T.

    2012-04-01

    The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. Humankind wonders whether the origin of life is unique to the Earth or if it occurs elsewhere in our Solar System or beyond. To answer this question, even though the mechanisms by which life originated on Earth are not yet clearly understood, one can assume that the necessary conditions involve the simultaneous presence of organic compounds, trace elements, water, energy sources and a relative stability of the environment over time. JUICE will address the question: Are there current habitats elsewhere in the Solar System with the necessary conditions (water, biological essential elements, energy and stability) to sustain life? The spatial extent and evolution of habitable zones within the Solar System are critical elements in the development and sustainment of life, as well as in addressing the question of whether life developed on Earth alone or whether it was developed in other Solar System environments and was then imported to Earth. The focus of JUICE is to characterise the conditions that may have led to the emergence of habitable environments among the Jovian icy satellites, with special emphasis on the three ocean-bearing worlds, Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto. Ganymede is identified for detailed investigation since it provides a natural laboratory for analysis of the nature, evolution and potential habitability of icy worlds in general, but also because of the role it plays within the system of Galilean satellites, and its unique magnetic and plasma interactions with the surrounding Jovian environment. For Europa, where two targeted flybys are planned, the focus will be on the chemistry essential to life, including organic molecules, and on understanding the formation of surface features and the composition of the non water-ice material, leading to the identification and characterisation of candidate sites for future in situ exploration. Furthermore, JUICE will provide the first subsurface observations of this icy moon, including the first determination of the minimal thickness of the icy crust over the most recently active regions. JUICE will determine the characteristics of liquid-water oceans below the icy surfaces of the moons. This will lead to an understanding of the possible sources and cycling of chemical and thermal energy, allow investigation of the evolution and chemical composition of the surfaces and of the subsurface oceans, and enable an evaluation of the processes that have affected the satellites and their environments through time. The study of the diversity of the satellite system will be enhanced with additional information gathered remotely on Io and smaller moons. The mis-sion will also focus on characterising the diversity of processes in the Jupiter system which may be required in order to provide a stable environment at Ganymede, Europa and Callisto on geologic time scales, including gravitational coupling between the Galilean satellites and their long term tidal influence on the system as a whole. Focused stud-ies of Jupiter's atmosphere, and magnetosphere and their interaction with the Galilean satellites will further enhance our understanding of the evolution and dynamics of the Jovian system. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of Jupiter will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. These observations will be attained over a sufficiently long temporal baseline with broad latitudinal coverage to investigate evolving weather systems and the mechanisms of transporting energy, momentum and material between the different layers. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions and their response to the solar wind will be elucidated.

  7. Apollo: A retrospective analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Launius, Roger D.

    1994-01-01

    Since the completion of Project Apollo more than twenty years ago there have been a plethora of books, studies, reports, and articles about its origin, execution, and meaning. At the time of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the first landing, it is appropriate to reflect on the effort and its place in U.S. and NASA history. This monograph has been written as a means to this end. It presents a short narrative account of Apollo from its origin through its assessment. That is followed by a mission by mission summary of the Apollo flights and concluded by a series of key documents relative to the program reproduced in facsimile. The intent of this monograph is to provide a basic history along with primary documents that may be useful to NASA personnel and others desiring information about Apollo.

  8. Lunar seismology - The internal structure of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goins, N. R.; Dainty, A. M.; Toksoz, M. N.

    1981-01-01

    It is pointed out that seismology has provided the most detailed information concerning the structure and state of the earth's interior. Beginning in 1969, seismometers were landed on the moon by the Apollo missions, providing the first opportunity to attempt similar studies on another planetary body. In September 1977 the operation of these instruments was terminated. A description is presented of the internal structure of the moon, as determined from the obtained lunar seismic data. The analysis of the lunar data is approached in a systematic fashion, using appropriate techniques to minimize the number of necessary assumptions, extract the maximum amount of structural information, and determine its reliability. The completed lunar seismic network consists of four stations located at the landing sites of Apollo missions 12, 14, 15, and 16. Attention is given to crustal structure, the structure of the lunar mantle, the attenuating region, and the core.

  9. Apollo 12 Astronauts Peer Out of the Mobile Quarantine Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The smiling Apollo 12 astronauts peer out of the window of the mobile quarantine facility aboard the recovery ship, USS Hornet. Pictured (Left to right) are Spacecraft Commander, Charles Conrad; Command Module (CM) Pilot, Richard Gordon; and Lunar Module (LM) Pilot, Alan L. Bean. The crew were housed in the quarantine facility immediately after the Pacific recovery operation took place. The second manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 12 launched from launch pad 39-A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida on November 14, 1969 via a Saturn V launch vehicle. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. The LM, Intrepid, landed astronauts Conrad and Bean on the lunar surface in what's known as the Ocean of Storms while astronaut Richard Gordon piloted the CM, Yankee Clipper, in a parking orbit around the Moon. Lunar soil activities included the deployment of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP), finding the unmanned Surveyor 3 that landed on the Moon on April 19, 1967, and collecting 75 pounds (34 kilograms) of rock samples. Apollo 12 returned safely to Earth on November 24, 1969.

  10. Apollo lunar sounder experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phillips, R.J.; Adams, G.F.; Brown, W.E., Jr.; Eggleton, R.E.; Jackson, P.; Jordan, R.; Linlor, W.I.; Peeples, W.J.; Porcello, L.J.; Ryu, J.; Schaber, G.; Sill, W.R.; Thompson, T.W.; Ward, S.H.; Zelenka, J.S.

    1973-01-01

    The scientific objectives of the Apollo lunar sounder experiment (ALSE) are (1) mapping of subsurface electrical conductivity structure to infer geological structure, (2) surface profiling to determine lunar topographic variations, (3) surface imaging, and (4) measuring galactic electromagnetic radiation in the lunar environment. The ALSE was a three-frequency, wide-band, coherent radar system operated from lunar orbit during the Apollo 17 mission.

  11. Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Addressed by U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). In this photograph, the U.S.S. Hornet crew looks on as the quarantined Apollo 11 crew is addressed by U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon via microphone and intercom. The president was aboard the recovery vessel awaiting return of the astronauts. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  12. New Views of the Moon: Improved Understanding Through Data Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, B. L.; Gaddis, L. R.; Ryder, G.; Neal, C. R.; Shearer, C. K.; Elphic, R. C.; Johnson, J. R.; Keller, L. P.; Korotev, R. L.; Lawrence, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Understanding the Moon is crucial to future exploration of the solar system.The Moon preserves a record of the first billion years of the Earth-Moon system's history, including evidence of the Moon's origin as accumulated debris from a giant impact into early Earth. Lunar rocks provide evidence of early differentiation and extraction of a crust. Lacking an atmospheric shield, the Moon's regolith retains a record of the activity of solar wind over the past 4 billion years. It also holds a complete record of impact cratering, and analysis of samples has allowed calibration of ages, and thus dating of other planetary surfaces. And because of its proximity to Earth, it's low gravity well, and stable surface, the Moon's resources will be useful both in establishing lunar habitations and as fuel for exploration beyond the Moon. Lunar science has advanced tremendously in the 30 years since the Apollo and Luna missions. We know that the Moon is strongly differentiated, and recent tungsten isotope studies indicate that this differentiation occurred soon after solar system formation. The Moon probably accreted rapidly from debris that formed as a large planetesimal struck the early Earth. Ancient highland rocks provide evidence of early lunar differentiation, and basalts formed by later melting within the mantle reveal it cumulus nature. However, the timing, extent, and depth of differentiation, variations within the mantle, and lateral and vertical variations within the crust can only be surmised from the limited sample suites,gravity studies,and surface geophysics of the Apollo era. Data from the recent Lunar Prospector and Clementine missions permit reassessment of the global characteristics of the Moon and a reexamination of the distribution of elemental components, rock and soil types, and resources, as well as remanent magnetism, gravity field, and global topography New research provides some answers, but also leads to new questions.

  13. Apollo 14 and 16 Active Seismic Experiments, and Apollo 17 Lunar Seismic Profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Seismic refraction experiments were conducted on the moon by Apollo astronauts during missions 14, 16, and 17. Seismic velocities of 104, 108, 92, 114 and 100 m/sec were inferred for the lunar regolith at the Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 landing sites, respectively. These data indicate that fragmentation and comminution caused by meteoroid impacts has produced a layer of remarkably uniform seismic properties moonwide. Brecciation and high porosity are the probable causes of the very low velocities observed in the lunar regolith. Apollo 17 seismic data revealed that the seismic velocity increases very rapidly with depth to 4.7 km/sec at a depth of 1.4 km. Such a large velocity change is suggestive of compositional and textural changes and is compatible with a model of fractured basaltic flows overlying anorthositic breccias. 'Thermal' moonquakes were also detected at the Apollo 17 site, becoming increasingly frequent after sunrise and reaching a maximum at sunset. The source of these quakes could possibly be landsliding.

  14. Orion Navigation Sensitivities to Ground Station Infrastructure for Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getchius, Joel; Kukitschek, Daniel; Crain, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    The Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will replace the Space Shuttle and serve as the next-generation spaceship to carry humans to the International Space Station and back to the Moon for the first time since the Apollo program. As in the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs, the Mission Control Navigation team will utilize radiometric measurements to determine the position and velocity of the CEV. In the case of lunar missions, the ground station infrastructure consisting of approximately twelve stations distributed about the Earth and known as the Apollo Manned Spaceflight Network, no longer exists. Therefore, additional tracking resources will have to be allocated or constructed to support mission operations for Orion lunar missions. This paper examines the sensitivity of Orion navigation for lunar missions to the number and distribution of tracking sites that form the ground station infrastructure.

  15. Operating the Dual-Orbtier GRAIL Mission to Measure the Moon's Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beerer, Joseph G.; Havens, Glen G.

    2012-01-01

    The GRAIL mission is on track to satisfy all prime mission requirements. The performance of the orbiters and payload has been exceptional. Detailed pre-launch operations planning and validation have paid off. Prime mission timeline has been conducted almost exactly as laid out in the mission plan. Flight experience in the prime mission puts the flight team in a good position for completing the challenges of the extended mission where the science payoff is even greater

  16. More Surprises from the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Noah

    2011-01-01

    Even with the naked eye, the dark, extensive plains of the lunar maria can be clearly seen on the surface of the Moon. The maria formed after meteorite impacts created large craters that later filled with lava flows. Mare volcanism is the dominant type of volcanic activity on the Moon and the lavas are made up of basaltic rocks. However, non-mare volcanic deposits, though rare, have been observed on the lunar nearside. The deposits are distinguished from the maria because they are compositionally more evolved rich in silica, potassium and thorium. The deposits are limited in surface extent and it was unknown whether similar non-mare volcanism occurred at all on the Moon s farside. Writing in Nature Geoscience, Jolliff et al. report using Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter images and compositional data to identify the rare occurrence of more compositionally evolved volcanic deposits in an isolated area on the Moon s farside. In the 1960s and 1970s, rock and soil samples were collected by the Apollo and Luna missions, by the USA and USSR respectively. This material represents a geologic treasure trove that continues to provide a wealth of information about the Moon and its evolution, and it was a very small fraction of these samples that gave the first hint that non-mare volcanic activity might have occurred. The samples contained fragments of complex volcanic rocks that were unrelated to the maria basalts. Violent bombardment of the Moon by meteorite impacts has caused significant mixing of the rocks at its surface, so the fragments could have had a source hundreds or thousands of kilometres away. The origin of the fragments was unknown. Several decades later, the Lunar Prospector mission used a gamma-ray spectrometer to map the distribution and abundance of various elements, including thorium, on the Moon s surface. The maps identified a distinct and large area of high thorium concentration, as well as several smaller, but equally peculiar areas of high thorium concentration on the nearside of the Moon (Fig. 1). The rocks that contained high thorium contents also exhibited geomorphological and spectral features that were typical of volcanic deposits, and so the thorium hotspots were thought to represent non-mare volcanism on the nearside of the Moon. A relatively large region with extremely high thorium concentrations - the Compton-Belkovich thorium anomaly - was also identified on the Moon s farside. This thorium hotspot was particularly unusual because it was completely isolated, alone on the farside of the Moon, far from the nearest maria. No high-resolution image data were available for this region, so a definitive interpretation of the source of this isolated anomaly has been impossible.

  17. Apollo 11 Launched Via the Saturn V Rocket-High Angle View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first lunar landing mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle produced a holocaust of flames as it rose from its pad at Launch complex 39. The 363 foot tall, 6,400,000 pound rocket hurled the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit and then placed it on the trajectory to the moon for man's first lunar landing. This high angle view of the launch was provided by a `fisheye' camera mounted on the launch tower. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  18. Apollo 11 Astronauts Headed For Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). Donned in biological isolation garments, the Apollo 11 crew members wave to well wishers as they leave the pick up helicopter making their way to the MQF. This portable facility served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  19. U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Watches Apollo 11 Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (center), aboard the U.S.S. Hornet aircraft carrier, used binoculars to watch the Apollo 11 Lunar Mission Recovery. Standing next to the President is astronaut Frank Borman, Apollo 8 Commander. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days post mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  20. Lunar laser ranging: a continuing legacy of the apollo program.

    PubMed

    Dickey, J O; Bender, P L; Faller, J E; Newhall, X X; Ricklefs, R L; Ries, J G; Shelus, P J; Veillet, C; Whipple, A L; Wiant, J R; Williams, J G; Yoder, C F

    1994-07-22

    On 21 July 1969, during the first manned lunar mission, Apollo 11, the first retroreflector array was placed on the moon, enabling highly accurate measurements of the Earthmoon separation by means of laser ranging. Lunar laser ranging (LLR) turns the Earthmoon system into a laboratory for a broad range of investigations, including astronomy, lunar science, gravitational physics, geodesy, and geodynamics. Contributions from LLR include the three-orders-of-magnitude improvement in accuracy in the lunar ephemeris, a several-orders-of-magnitude improvement in the measurement of the variations in the moon's rotation, and the verification of the principle of equivalence for massive bodies with unprecedented accuracy. Lunar laser ranging analysis has provided measurements of the Earth's precession, the moon's tidal acceleration, and lunar rotational dissipation. These scientific results, current technological developments, and prospects for the future are discussed here. PMID:17781305

  1. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    1/4 scale model of Apollo Heat Shield being prepared for testing. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 356.

  2. Organics in APOLLO Lunar Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, C. C.; Allton, J. H.

    2007-01-01

    One of many unknowns prior to the Apollo landings concerned the possibility of life, its remains, or its organic precursors on the surface of the Moon. While the existence of lunar organisms was considered highly unlikely, a program of biological quarantine and testing for the astronauts, the Apollo Command Modules, and the lunar rock and soil samples, was instituted in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL). No conclusive evidence of lunar organisms, was detected and the quarantine program was ended after Apollo 14. Analyses for organic compounds were also con-ducted. Considerable effort was expended, during lunar surface operations and in the LRL, to minimize and quantify organic contamination. Post-Apollo curatorial operations and cleaning minimize contamination from particulates, oxygen, and water but no longer specifically address organic contamination. The organic compounds measured in Apollo samples are generally consistent with known sources of contamination.

  3. Lunar Surface Reconstruction from Apollo MC Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elaksher, Ahmed F.; Al-Jarrah, Ahmad; Walker, Kyle

    2015-07-01

    The last three Apollo lunar missions (15, 16, and 17) carried an integrated photogrammetric mapping system of a metric camera (MC), a high-resolution panoramic camera, a star camera, and a laser altimeter. Recently images taken by the MC were scanned by Arizona State University (ASU); these images contain valuable information for scientific exploration, engineering analysis, and visualization of the Moon's surface. In this article, we took advantage of the large overlaps, the multi viewing, and the high ground resolution of the images taken by the Apollo MC in generating an accurate and reliable surface of the Moon. We started by computing the relative positions and orientations of the exposure stations through a rigorous photogrammetric bundle adjustment process. We then generated a surface model using a hierarchical correlation-based matching algorithm. The matching algorithm was implemented in a multi-photo scheme and permits the exclusion of obscured pixels. The generated surface model was registered with LOLA topographic data and the comparison between the two surfaces yielded an average absolute difference of 36 m. These results look very promising and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in accounting for depth discontinuities, occlusions, and image-signal noise.

  4. Solar Reflectance Measurements of Apollo Lunar Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foote, E.; Paige, D.; Shepard, M.; Johnson, J.; Grundy, W.; Biggar, S.; Greenhagen, B.; Allen, C.

    2012-09-01

    The moon is the one planetary object from which we have returned samples. The goal of this work is to analyze and understand the solar reflectance of the Moon. Our approach is to compare Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) Diviner orbital solar albedo measurements at the Apollo soil sample sites with laboratory bidirectional reflectance measurements. CAPTEM provided us with five representative lunar soil samples: a typical low albedo mare sample (10084, Apollo 11), a low titanium basaltic sample with impact breccias (12001, Apollo 12), an Apollo 15 sample (15071), a high albedo lunar highlands soil (68810 & 61141, Apollo 16) and an Apollo 17 soil sample (70181). The laboratory and Diviner datasets provide complementary and independent insights into the photometric properties of the lunar surface. We have made the most extensive set of laboratory bidirectional measurements of lunar soil to date and have successfully fit photometric models to the laboratory data.

  5. Interviews with the Apollo lunar surface astronauts in support of planning for EVA systems design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connors, Mary M.; Eppler, Dean B.; Morrow, Daniel G.

    1994-01-01

    Focused interviews were conducted with the Apollo astronauts who landed on the moon. The purpose of these interviews was to help define extravehicular activity (EVA) system requirements for future lunar and planetary missions. Information from the interviews was examined with particular attention to identifying areas of consensus, since some commonality of experience is necessary to aid in the design of advanced systems. Results are presented under the following categories: mission approach; mission structure; suits; portable life support systems; dust control; gloves; automation; information, displays, and controls; rovers and remotes; tools; operations; training; and general comments. Research recommendations are offered, along with supporting information.

  6. The Apollo Archive Explorer Douglas W. Oard

    E-print Network

    Oard, Doug

    record of the Apollo program. The Johnson Space Center oral history project has interviewed a multitudeThe Apollo Archive Explorer Douglas W. Oard College of Information Studies/UMIACS University jmalionek@gmail.com ABSTRACT A system for exploring the rich recorded legacy of the Apollo missions

  7. Re-Assessment of "Water on the Moon" after LCROSS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, Colin T.

    2010-01-01

    The LCROSS Mission has produced information about the possible presence of water in a permanently shaded regions of the Moon. Without the opportunity to have a controlled impact into a sun-lite site on the Moon, the LCROSS information must be carefully evaluated. The Apollo samples have provided a large amount of information on the nature of lunar hydrogen, water and other volatiles and this information must be considered in any interpretation of the observed data from the LCROSS and other lunar missions. Perhaps the volatiles seen by the LRO/LCROSS mission might be identical to lunar volatiles within ordinary lunar equatorial materials. Until the control experiment of having an impactor strike an equatorially site is carried out, caution must be taken when interpreting the results from the LCROSS mission.

  8. Evidence from Apollo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the claims of tabloids and television that the U.S. mission to the moon was faked. Recommends using samples brought back from the moon on the Lunar Sample Disk as instructional material to open a discussion. Makes suggestions for examining lunar rocks. (YDS)

  9. Asteroid Moon Micro-imager Experiment (amie) For Smart-1 Mission, Science Objectives and Devel- Opment Status.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josset, J.-L.; Heather, D.; Dunkin, S.; Roussel, F.; Beauvivre, S.; Kraenhenbuehl, D.; Plancke, P.; Lange-Vin, Y.; Pinet, P.; Chevrel, S.; Cerroni, P.; de Sanctis, M.-C.; Dillelis, A.; Sodnik, Z.; Koschny, D.; Barucci, A.; Hofmann, B.; Josset, M.; Muinonen, K.; Pironnen, J.; Ehrenfreud, P.; Shkuratov, Y.; Shevchenko, V.

    The Asteroid Moon micro-Imager Experiment (AMIE), which will be on board the first ESA SMART-1 mission to the Moon (launch foreseen late 2002), is an imaging sys- tem with scientific, technical and public outreach oriented objectives. The science objectives are to imagine the Lunar South Pole (Aitken basin), permanent shadow areas (ice deposit), eternal light (crater rims), ancient Lunar Non- mare volcanism, local spectro-photometry and physical state of the lunar surface, and to map high latitudes regions (south) mainly at far side (Fig. 1). The technical objectives are to perform a laser-link experiment (detection of laser beam emitted by ESA Tenerife ground station), flight demonstration of new technologies, navigation aid (feasi- bility study), and on-board autonomy investigations. Figure 3: AMIE camera (< 0.5 kg) For better interpretation of the future imagery of the Moon by the instrument, laboratory measurements have been carried out by CSEM in Tampere (Finland), with support of the Observatory of Helsinki. The experimental set-up is composed of an optical system to image samples in verti- cal position, a light source and a photodiode to verify the stability of the incident flux. The optical system is com- posed of a lens to insure good focusing on the samples (focus with the camera is at distance > 100m) and a mirror to image downwards. The samples used were anorthosite from northern Finland, basalt from Antarctis, meteorites and other lunar analog materials. A spectralon panel has also been used to have flat fields references. The samples were imaged with dif- Figure 1: SMART-1 camera imaging the Moon (simulated view) ferent phase angles. Figure 4 shows images obtained with In order to have spectral information of the surface of the basalt and olivine samples, with different integration times Moon, the camera is equipped with a set of filters (Fig. 2), in order to have information in all areas. introduced between the CCD and the teleobjective. Bandpass-filter No Filter, 750 nm (1) AR coating (3) Bandpass-filter 915 nm (2) Longpass-filter 960 nm (4) Band- Band- Figure 4: Basalt and Olivine sample ­ entire image (left) and passfilter passfilter 915 nm 750 nm visible part () (6) (7) Bandpass- More than 150 images were acquired during this validation filter 847 nm (5) campaign and analysis of this data will give precious in- formation about the instrument ability to image the south Figure 2: AMIE Filters in front of the detector pole of our satellite, with the ambition of renewing our vision of the Moon.

  10. Declaring the Republic of the Moon - Some artistic strategies for re-imagining the Moon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Frenais., R.

    2014-04-01

    Sooner or later, humans are going back to the Moonwhether to mine it, to rehearse for a Mars mission or to just live there. But how will human activity there reflect what has happened on Earth since the last moon mission, to reflect the diversity and political and social changes that have happened since? Can artists imagine what it would be like to live on the Moon? Artists are already taking part in many scientific endeavours, becoming involved in emerging fields such as synthetic bioloogy, nanotechology, ecological remediation and enthusiastically participating in citizen science. There are already artists in Antarctica. It should be inevitable that artists will sooner or later accompany the next visit by humans to the Moon. But why wait? Artists are already imagining how it would be to live on the Moon, whether in their imaginations or though rehearsals in lunar analogues. In the recent exhibition 'Republic of the Moon' a number of visionary strategies were employed, from the use of earth-moon-earth 'moonbouncing' (Katie Paterson) to the breeding and imprinting of real geese as imagined astronauts. (Agnes Meyer-Brandis). The Outer Space Treaty and the (unsigned) Moon treaty were re-analysed and debates and even small demonstrations were organised protesting (or demanding) the industrial exploitation of the Moon. Fortuitously, China's Chang-e mission landed during the exhibition and the life and death of the rover Jade Rabbit brought a real life drama to the Republic of the Moon. There have been other artistic interventions into lunar exploration, including Aleksandra Mir's First Woman on the Moon, Alicia Framis's Moonlife project and of course the historic inclusion of two artistic artefacts into the Apollo missions, Monument to the Fallen Astronaut (still on the Moon) and the Moon Museum, reportedly inserted by an engineer into the leg of the Lunar Exploration Module. With the worldwide race by the Global Lunar X Prize teams to land a rover independently of any to fly in the government agency by the end of 2015 there must surely be a possibility for a real art project near future. In the meantime artists will keep working to re-imagine the Moon using whatever strategies they can find.

  11. Spacecraft Conceptual Design Compared to the Apollo Lunar Lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, C.; Bowie, J.; Rust, R.; Lenius, J.; Anderson, M.; Connolly, J.

    2011-01-01

    Future human exploration of the Moon will require an optimized spacecraft design with each sub-system achieving the required minimum capability and maintaining high reliability. The objective of this study was to trade capability with reliability and minimize mass for the lunar lander spacecraft. The NASA parametric concept for a 3-person vehicle to the lunar surface with a 30% mass margin totaled was considerably heavier than the Apollo 15 Lunar Module "as flown" mass of 16.4 metric tons. The additional mass was attributed to mission requirements and system design choices that were made to meet the realities of modern spaceflight. The parametric tool used to size the current concept, Envision, accounts for primary and secondary mass requirements. For example, adding an astronaut increases the mass requirements for suits, water, food, oxygen, as well as, the increase in volume. The environmental control sub-systems becomes heavier with the increased requirements and more structure was needed to support the additional mass. There was also an increase in propellant usage. For comparison, an "Apollo-like" vehicle was created by removing these additional requirements. Utilizing the Envision parametric mass calculation tool and a quantitative reliability estimation tool designed by Valador Inc., it was determined that with today?s current technology a Lunar Module (LM) with Apollo capability could be built with less mass and similar reliability. The reliability of this new lander was compared to Apollo Lunar Module utilizing the same methodology, adjusting for mission timeline changes as well as component differences. Interestingly, the parametric concept's overall estimated risk for loss of mission (LOM) and loss of crew (LOC) did not significantly improve when compared to Apollo.

  12. Rb-Sr ages of igneous rocks from the Apollo 14 mission and the age of the Fra Mauro formation.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1971-01-01

    Internal Rb-Sr isochrons were determined on four basaltic rocks and on a basaltic clast from a breccia from the Fra Mauro landing site. An internal isochron was determined for rock 12004 and yielded a value in agreement with previous results for basaltic rocks from the Apollo 12 site. The crystallization ages for Apollo 14 basalts are only 0.2 to 0.3 AE older than were found for mare basalts from the Sea of Tranquility. Assuming these leucocratic igneous rocks to be representative of the Fra Mauro site, it follows that there were major igneous processes active in these regions, and presumably throughout the highlands, at times only slightly preceding the periods at which the maria were last flooded.

  13. On the fundamental importance of the social psychology of research as a basic paradigm for the philosophy of science: A philosophical case study of the psychology of the Apollo moon scientists

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitroff, I. I.

    1972-01-01

    A combined philosophical and social psychological study of over 40 of the Apollo moon Scientists reveals that the Orthodox or Received View of Scientific Theories is found wanting in several respects: (1) observations are not theory-free; (2) scientific observations are not directly observable; and (3) observations are no less problematic than theories. The study also raises some severe criticisms of distinction between the context of discovery and the context of justification. Not only does this distinction fail to describe the actual practice of science but even more important it has the dangerous effect of excluding some of the strongest lines of evidence which could most effectively challenge the distinction. The distinction is harmful of efforts to found interdisciplinary theories and philosophies of science.

  14. Exploration of the Moon to Enable Lunar and Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Moon represents an enabling Solar System exploration asset because of its proximity, resources, and size. Its location has facilitated robotic missions from 5 different space agencies this century. The proximity of the Moon has stimulated commercial space activity, which is critical for sustainable space exploration. Since 2000, a new view of the Moon is coming into focus, which is very different from that of the 20th century. The documented presence of volatiles on the lunar surface, coupled with mature ilmenite-rich regolith locations, represent known resources that could be used for life support on the lunar surface for extended human stays, as well as fuel for robotic and human exploration deeper into the Solar System. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to explore the terrestrial planets and Solar System processes. For example, it is an end-member in terrestrial planetary body differentiation. Ever since the return of the first lunar samples by Apollo 11, the magma ocean concept was developed and has been applied to both Earth and Mars. Because of the small size of the Moon, planetary differentiation was halted at an early (primary?) stage. However, we still know very little about the lunar interior, despite the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments, and to understand the structure of the Moon will require establishing a global lunar geophysical network, something Apollo did not achieve. Also, constraining the impact chronology of the Moon allows the surfaces of other terrestrial planets to be dated and the cratering history of the inner Solar System to be constrained. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to study space weathering of airless bodies. It is apparent, then, that human and robotic missions to the Moon will enable both science and exploration. For example, the next step in resource exploration is prospecting on the surface those deposits identified from orbit to understand the yield that can be expected. Such prospecting will also address important science questions by determining the form of lunar surface volatiles. Science missions to examine the lunar interior and space weathering will also inform exploration systems with regard to the locations of large moonquakes and the radiation environment. Such examples highlight the Moon as an enabling Solar System science and exploration asset.

  15. Apollo Project - LOLA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Test subject sitting at the controls: Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) From Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966. 'A typical mission would start with the first cart positioned on model 1 for the translunar approach and orbit establishment. After starting the descent, the second cart is readied on model 2 and, at the proper time, when superposition occurs, the pilot's scene is switched from model 1 to model 2. then cart 1 is moved to and readied on model 3. The procedure continues until an altitude of 150 feet is obtained. The cabin of the LM vehicle has four windows which represent a 45 degree field of view. The projection screens in front of each window represent 65 degrees which allows limited head motion before the edges of the display can be seen. The lunar scene is presented to the pilot by rear projection on the screens with four Schmidt television projectors. The attitude orientation of the vehicle is represented by changing the lunar scene through the portholes determined by the scan pattern of four orthicons. The stars are front projected onto the upper three screens with a four-axis starfield generation (starball) mounted over the cabin and there is a separate starball for the low window. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379.

  16. Apollo 11 Commander Armstrong Presents President With Commemorative Plaque

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    On June 4, 1974, 5 years after the successful Apollo 11 lunar landing mission, commander Neil Armstrong (right) presented a plaque to U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (left) on behalf of all people who had taken part in the space program. In making the presentation, Armstrong said 'Mr. President, you have proclaimed this week to be United States Space week in conjunction with the fifth anniversary of our first successful landing on the Moon. It is my privilege to represent my colleagues, the crewmen of projects Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and Skylab, and the men and women of NASA, and the hundreds of thousands of Americans from across the land who contributed so mightily to the success of our efforts in space in presenting this plaque which bears the names of each individual who has had the privilege of representing this country' in a space flight. The presentation was made at the California white house in San Clemente.

  17. Was Project Management Life Really Better in Apollo?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation discusses the question of "Was Project Management Life Really Better in Apollo?" Was money really flowing freely all through Apollo? Are we wallowing in nostalgia and comparing current circumstances to a managerial time which did not exist? This talk discusses these and other questions as background for you as today s project managers. There are slides showing the timelines from before the speech that Kennedy gave promising to land a man on the moon, to the early 60's, when the manned space center prepared the preliminary lunar landing mission design, an NASA organization chart from 1970, various photos of the rockets, and the astronauts are presented. The next slides discuss the budgets from the 1960's to the early 1970's. Also the results of a survey of 62 managers, who were asked "What problems pose the greatest obstacles to successful project performance?"

  18. Workshop on New Views of the Moon: Integrated Remotely Sensed, Geophysical, and Sample Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolliff, Brad L. (Editor); Ryder, Graham (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    It has been more than 25 years since Apollo 17 returned the last of the Apollo lunar samples. Since then, a vast amount of data has been obtained from the study of rocks and soils from the Apollo and Luna sample collections and, more recently, on a set of about a dozen lunar meteorites collected on Earth. Based on direct studies of the samples, many constraints have been established for the age, early differentiation, crust and mantle structure, and subsequent impact modification of the Moon. In addition, geophysical experiments at the surface, as well as remote sensing from orbit and Earth-based telescopic studies, have provided additional datasets about the Moon that constrain the nature of its surface and internal structure. Some might be tempted to say that we know all there is to know about the Moon and that it is time to move on from this simple satellite to more complex objects. However, the ongoing Lunar Prospector mission and the highly successful Clementine mission have provided important clues to the real geological complexity of the Moon, and have shown us that we still do not yet adequately understand the geologic history of Earth's companion. These missions, like Galileo during its lunar flyby, are providing global information viewed through new kinds of windows, and providing a fresh context for models of lunar origin, evolution, and resources, and perhaps even some grist for new questions and new hypotheses. The probable detection and characterization of water ice at the poles, the extreme concentration of Th and other radioactive elements in the Procellarum-Imbrium-Frigon's resurfaced areas of the nearside of the Moon, and the high-resolution gravity modeling enabled by these missions are examples of the kinds of exciting new results that must be integrated with the extant body of knowledge based on sample studies, in situ experiments, and remote-sensing missions to bring about the best possible understanding of the Moon and its history.

  19. Apollo gastrointestinal analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, B. L.; Huang, C. T. L.

    1975-01-01

    Fecal bile acid patterns for the Apollo 17 flight were studied to determine the cause of diarrhea on the mission. The fecal sterol analysis gave no indication of an infectious diarrhea, or specific, or nonspecific etiology occurring during the entire flight. It is assumed that the gastrointestinal problems encountered are the consequences of altered physiology, perhaps secondary to physical or emotional stress of flight.

  20. The case for planetary sample return missions - Origin and evolution of the moon and its environment

    SciTech Connect

    Ryder, G.; Spudis, P.D.; Taylor, G.J. USGS, Flagstaff, AZ New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque )

    1989-11-01

    The most important questions concerning the origin and evolution of the moon and its environment are reviewed, and the ways that studying lunar samples could help answer them, are discussed. Recommendations are made about methods for obtaining samples and the best lunar sites for obtaining them using simple, unmanned sample returners. Lunar geologic field sites that require intensive field work with human interaction are also considered. 16 refs.

  1. Geochemical Exploration of the Moon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Isidore

    1984-01-01

    Provides information based on explorations of the Apollo program about the geochemistry of the moon and its importance in developing an understanding of formation/evolution of the solar system. Includes description and some results of orbital remote sensing, lunar x-ray experiments, gamma-ray experiments, alpha-particle experiments, and the Apollo

  2. Apollo 11 Astronaut Aldrin Carries Equipment on Lunar Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The first manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 11, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon, while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon in the Sea of Tranquility. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew set up experiments, collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth, planted the U.S. Flag, and left a message for all mankind. In this photograph, Aldrin walks past some rocks, easily carrying scientific equipment experiements, which would have been to heavy too carry on Earth. The two packages made up the Early Apollo Scientific Experiment Package (EASEP) on Apollo 11. On the left is the Passive Seismic Experiment Package (PSEP) and on the right is the Laser Ranging Retroreflector (LRRR).

  3. Moon - Western Near Side

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This image of the crescent moon was obtained by the Galileo Solid State imaging system on December 8 at 5 a.m. PST as the Galileo spacecraft neared the Earth. The image was taken through a green filter and shows the western part of the lunar nearside. The smallest features visible are 8 kilometers (5 miles) in size. Major features visible include the dark plains of Mare Imbrium in the upper part of the image, the bright crater Copernicus (100 km, 60 miles in diameter) in the central part, and the heavily cratered lunar highlands in the bottom of the image. The landing sides of the Apollo 12, 14 and 15 missions lie within the central part of the image. Samples returned from these sites will be used to calibrate this and accompanying images taken in different colors, which will extend the knowledge of the spectral and compositional properties of the nearside of the moon, seen from Earth, to the lunar far side.

  4. General human health issues for Moon and Mars missions: Results from the HUMEX study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, Gerda; Comet, Bernard

    The general health issues considered in two scenarios of human long-term exploratory missions, which include a mission to a lunar base and a mission to Mars, have been analysed. Based on statistical data from occupational and normal population groups of Western countries, the following safety objectives have been chosen: individual risk of death by illness (=natural death) during the mission shall be <2 × 10-3/year, that by injury (=accidental death) <4 × 10-4/year, and that from all causes, including spacecraft failure (taken from most exposed professions) <3 × 10-2/year. Using the classical reliability requirements for human space missions, reliability objectives have been set for each mission scenario, resulting in values compatible with the mission safety objectives. The main results are as follows: (i) based of the probability of occurrence of diseases and injuries and on the constraints imposed by exploratory mission scenarios, the crew shall have a full autonomy in terms of medical and surgical diagnostics and care means and competency; (ii) the control of the toxic and biological risks in a confined environment for a so long exposure shall be carefully analyzed and the technical solutions shall master these risks; (iii) the state of the art shows that bone loss during the long stay in weightlessness, especially during missions to Mars, remains an unacceptable risk. Solutions to control and to prevent this risk shall be developed; (iv) the control of human physical capacity impairment under weightlessness shall be optimised. A roadmap in the field of health care has been elaborated for a future European participation strategy towards human exploratory missions taking into account preparatory activities, such as analogue situations and ISS opportunities, and potential terrestrial applications and benefits.

  5. APOLLO 13: The Spirit that Built America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 13: Nixon commends the crew of APOLLO 13 From the film documentary 'APOLLO 13: 'Houston, We've got a problem'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 13 : Third manned lunar landing attempt with James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred w. Haise, Jr. Pressure lost in SM oxygen system; mission aborted; LM used for life support. Mission Duration 142hrs 54mins 41sec

  6. Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Addressed by U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days. Here, U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon gets a good laugh at something being said by Astronaut Collins (center) as astronauts Armstrong (left), and Aldrin (right) listen. The president was aboard the recovery vessel awaiting return of the astronauts. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  7. Apollo 11 Astronauts Wave on Their Way to Mobile Quarantine Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via a Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place after splash down in the Pacific Ocean. Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was taken to safety aboard the USS Hornet, where they were quartered in a mobile quarantine facility. Here the astronauts are shown waving as they enter the quarantine facility. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  8. NASA Administrator Paine and U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Await Apollo 11 Splashdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Dr. Thomas Paine, NASA administrator (left) and U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon wait aboard the recovery ship, the U.S.S. Hornet, for splashdown of the Apollo 11 in the Pacific Ocean. Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man crew. The crew was taken to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  9. Apollo 11 Astronaut Armstrong Arrives at the Flight Crew Training Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Neil Armstrong walks to the flight crew training building at the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, one week before the nation's first lunar landing mission. The Apollo 11 mission launched from KSC via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  10. Apollo 11 Astronaut Collins Arrives at the Flight Crew Training Building

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins carries his coffee with him as he arrives at the flight crew training building of the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, one week before the nation's first lunar landing mission. The Apollo 11 mission launched from KSC via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  11. Restoration of APOLLO Data by the NSSDC and PDS Lunar Data Node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Guinness, Edward A.; Taylor, Patrick T.; McBride, Marie J.

    2012-01-01

    The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Packages (ALSEPs), suites of instruments deployed by the Apollo 12. 14, 15, 16 and 17 astronauts on the lunar surface, still represent the only in-situ measurements of the Moon's environment taken over long time periods, Much of these data are housed at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at Goddard Space Flight Center but are in forms that are not readily usable, such as microfilm, hardcopy, and magnetic tapes with older, obsolete formats. The Lunar Data Node (LDN) has been formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node to put relevant, scientifically important Apollo data into accessible digital form for use by researchers and mission planners. The LDN has prioritized the restoration of these data based on their scientific and engineering value and the level of effort required. We will report on progress made and plans for future data restorations.

  12. Launching to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.

    2007-01-01

    America is returning to the Moon in preparation for the first human footprint on Mars, guided by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. This presentation will discuss NASA's mission today, the reasons for returning to the Moon and going to Mars, and how NASA will accomplish that mission. The primary goals of the Vision for Space Exploration are to finish the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed to return people to the Moon and go to Mars. Unlike the Apollo program of the 1960s, this phase of exploration will be a journey, not a race. In 1966, the NASA's budget was 4 percent of federal spending. Today, with 6/10 of 1 percent of the budget, NASA must incrementally develop the vehicles, infrastructure, technology, and organization to accomplish this goal. Fortunately, our knowledge and experience are greater than they were 40 years ago. NASA's goal is a return to the Moon by 2020. The Moon is the first step to America's exploration of Mars. Many questions about the Moon's history and how its history is linked to that of Earth remain even after the brief Apollo explorations of the 1960s and 1970s. This new venture will carry more explorers to more diverse landing sites with more capable tools and equipment. The Moon also will serve as a training ground in several respects before embarking on the longer, more perilous trip to Mars. The journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the Lunar Surface Access Module. The architecture for the lunar missions will use one launch to ferry the crew into orbit on the Ares I and a second launch to orbit the lunar lander and the Earth Departure Stage to send the lander and crew vehicle to the Moon. In order to reach the Moon and Mars within a lifetime and within budget, NASA is building on proven hardware and decades of experience derived from the Apollo Saturn, Space Shuttle, and contemporary commercial launch vehicle programs. Less than one year after the Exploration Launch Projects Office was formed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, engineers are testing engine components, firing test rocket motors, refining vehicle designs in wind tunnel tests, and building hardware for the first flight test of Ares I, scheduled for spring 2009. The Vision for Exploration will require this nation to develop tools, machines, materials, and processes never before invented, technologies and capabilities that can be turned over to the private sector to benefit nearly all aspects of life on Earth. This new pioneering venture, as did the Apollo Program before it, will contribute to America's economic leadership, national security, and technological global competitiveness and serve as an inspiration for all its citizens.

  13. Apollo lunar surface experiments package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The ALSEP program status and monthly progress are reported. Environmental and quality control tests and test results are described. Details are given on the Apollo 17 Array E, and the lunar seismic profiling, ejecta and meteorites, mass spectrometer, surface gravimeter, and heat flow experiments. Monitoring of the four ALSEP systems on the moon is also described.

  14. Apollo 11 Astronauts Share Laughs With U.S. President Nixon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). Here the quarantined Apollo 11 crew members (l to r) Armstrong, Collins, and Aldrin, and U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon share laughs over a comment made by fellow astronaut Frank Borman, Apollo 8 commander. The president was aboard the recovery vessel awaiting return of the astronauts. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  15. Return to the Moon: The Great Basin Lunar Sample Return Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, C.

    2000-01-01

    In cooperation with NASA's Solar System Exploration Subcommittee and its working groups, JPL is investigating the feasibility of planetary science missions proposed for launch toward the end of the next decade.

  16. High-resolution local gravity model of the south pole of the Moon from GRAIL extended mission data

    PubMed Central

    Goossens, Sander; Sabaka, Terence J; Nicholas, Joseph B; Lemoine, Frank G; Rowlands, David D; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A; Smith, David E; Zuber, Maria T

    2014-01-01

    We estimated a high-resolution local gravity field model over the south pole of the Moon using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory's extended mission. Our solution consists of adjustments with respect to a global model expressed in spherical harmonics. The adjustments are expressed as gridded gravity anomalies with a resolution of 1/6° by 1/6° (equivalent to that of a degree and order 1080 model in spherical harmonics), covering a cap over the south pole with a radius of 40°. The gravity anomalies have been estimated from a short-arc analysis using only Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data over the area of interest. We apply a neighbor-smoothing constraint to our solution. Our local model removes striping present in the global model; it reduces the misfit to the KBRR data and improves correlations with topography to higher degrees than current global models. Key Points We present a high-resolution gravity model of the south pole of the Moon Improved correlations with topography to higher degrees than global models Improved fits to the data and reduced striping that is present in global models PMID:26074637

  17. TYCHO: Demonstrator and operational satellite mission to Earth-Moon-Libration point EML-4 for communication relay provision as a service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornig, Andreas; Homeister, Maren

    2015-03-01

    In the current wake of mission plans to the Moon and to Earth-Moon Libration points (EML) by several agencies and organizations, TYCHO identifies the key role of telecommunication provision for the future path of lunar exploration. It demonstrates an interesting extension to existing communication methods to the Moon and beyond by combining innovative technology with a next frontier location and the commercial space communication sector. It is evident that all communication systems will rely on direct communication to Earth ground stations. In case of EML-2 missions around HALO orbits or bases on the far side of the Moon, it has to be extended by communication links via relay stations. The innovative approach is that TYCHO provides this relay communication to those out-of-sight lunar missions as a service. TYCHO will establish a new infrastructure for future missions and even create a new market for add-on relay services. The TMA-0 satellite is TYCHO's first phase and a proposed demonstrator mission to the Earth-Moon Libration point EML-4. It demonstrates relay services needed for automated exploratory and manned missions (Moon bases) on the rim (>90°E and >90°W) and far side surface, to lunar orbits and even to EML-2 halo orbits (satellites and space stations). Its main advantage is the permanent availability of communication coverage. This will provide full access to scientific and telemetry data and furthermore to crucial medical monitoring and safety. The communication subsystem is a platform for conventional communication but also a test-bed for optical communication with high data-rate LASER links to serve the future needs of manned bases and periodic burst data-transfer from lunar poles. The operational TMA-1 satellite is a stand-alone mission integrated into existing space communication networks to provide open communication service to external lunar missions. Therefore the long-time stable libration points EML-4 and -5 are selected to guarantee an operation time of up to 10 years. It also enables measurements of the libration point environment with the scientific payloads. This includes sensors for space dust, solar and cosmic radiation activity for satellite lifetime estimation and lunar crew protection by providing early-warning systems. The paper describes the mission concept and the pre-design of the demonstrator satellite according to the operational mission requirements, advantages and benefits of this service. The concept was awarded with the Space Generation Advisory Council and OHB Scholarship in 2011 and the concept study is conducted at the Institute of Space Systems (IRS) [1] of the University of Stuttgart and OHB-System, Bremen [2].

  18. First-order feasibility analysis of a space suit radiator concept based on estimation of water mass sublimation using Apollo mission data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metts, Jonathan G.; Klaus, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal control of a space suit during extravehicular activity (EVA) is typically accomplished by sublimating water to provide system cooling. Spacecraft, on the other hand, primarily rely on radiators to dissipate heat. Integrating a radiator into a space suit has been proposed as an alternative design that does not require mass consumption for heat transfer. While providing cooling without water loss offers potential benefits for EVA application, it is not currently practical to rely on a directional, fixed-emissivity radiator to maintain thermal equilibrium of a spacesuit where the radiator orientation, environmental temperature, and crew member metabolic heat load fluctuate unpredictably. One approach that might make this feasible, however, is the use of electrochromic devices that are capable of infrared emissivity modulation and can be actively controlled across the entire suit surface to regulate net heat flux for the system. Integrating these devices onto the irregular, compliant space suit material requires that they be fabricated on a flexible substrate, such as Kapton film. An initial assessment of whether or not this candidate technology presents a feasible design option was conducted by first characterizing the mass of water loss from sublimation that could theoretically be saved if an electrochromic suit radiator was employed for thermal control. This is particularly important for lunar surface exploration, where the expense of transporting water from Earth is excessive, but the technology is potentially beneficial for other space missions as well. In order to define a baseline for this analysis by comparison to actual data, historical documents from the Apollo missions were mined for comprehensive, detailed metabolic data from each lunar surface outing, and related data from NASA's more recent "Advanced Lunar Walkback" tests were also analyzed. This metabolic database was then used to validate estimates for sublimator water consumption during surface EVAs, and solar elevation angles were added to predict the performance of an electrochromic space suit radiator under Apollo conditions. Then, using these actual data sets, the hypothetical water mass savings that would be expected had this technology been employed were calculated. The results indicate that electrochromic suit radiators would have reduced sublimator water consumption by 69.0% across the entire Apollo program, for a total mass savings of 68.5 kg to the lunar surface. Further analysis is needed to determine the net impact as a function of the complete system, taking into account both suit components and consumable mass, but the water mass reduction found in this study suggests a favorable system trade is likely.

  19. From the Earth to the Moon! FRS 112, Princeton University!

    E-print Network

    Stengel, Robert F.

    From the Earth to the Moon! FRS 112, Princeton University! Robert Stengel" ·! Science of travel to the moon" !! the political and social forces that shaped the Apollo program" !! details to the Moon." 5.# Jules Verne, From the Earth to the Moon and Round the Moon." 6.# Walter McDougall, ...The

  20. High-resolution Local Gravity Model of the South Pole of the Moon from GRAIL Extended Mission Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goossens, Sander Johannes; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Rowlands, David D.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.

    2014-01-01

    We estimated a high-resolution local gravity field model over the south pole of the Moon using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory's extended mission. Our solution consists of adjustments with respect to a global model expressed in spherical harmonics. The adjustments are expressed as gridded gravity anomalies with a resolution of 1/6deg by 1/6deg (equivalent to that of a degree and order 1080 model in spherical harmonics), covering a cap over the south pole with a radius of 40deg. The gravity anomalies have been estimated from a short-arc analysis using only Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data over the area of interest. We apply a neighbor-smoothing constraint to our solution. Our local model removes striping present in the global model; it reduces the misfit to the KBRR data and improves correlations with topography to higher degrees than current global models.

  1. Tektite glass in apollo 12 sample.

    PubMed

    O'keefe, J A

    1970-06-01

    The glassy portion of lunar sample 12013 from Apollo 12 is chemically more like some tektites from Java than like any terrestrial igneous rock. It satisfies all the chemical criteria for a tektite. Tektites are relatively recent and acid rocks, whereas the moon is chiefly ancient and basaltic; hence, tektites are probably ejected volcanically, rather than by impact, from the moon. PMID:17843588

  2. Lunar plant biology--a review of the Apollo era.

    PubMed

    Ferl, Robert J; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2010-04-01

    Recent plans for human return to the Moon have significantly elevated scientific interest in the lunar environment with emphasis on the science to be done in preparation for the return and while on the lunar surface. Since the return to the Moon is envisioned as a dedicated and potentially longer-term commitment to lunar exploration, questions of the lunar environment and particularly its impact on biology and biological systems have become a significant part of the lunar science discussion. Plants are integral to the discussion of biology on the Moon. Plants are envisioned as important components of advanced habitats and fundamental components of advanced life-support systems. Moreover, plants are sophisticated multicellular eukaryotic life-forms with highly orchestrated developmental processes, well-characterized signal transduction pathways, and exceedingly fine-tuned responses to their environments. Therefore, plants represent key test organisms for understanding the biological impact of the lunar environment on terrestrial life-forms. Indeed, plants were among the initial and primary organisms that were exposed to returned lunar regolith from the Apollo lunar missions. This review discusses the original experiments involving plants in association with the Apollo samples, with the intent of understanding those studies within the context of the first lunar exploration program and drawing from those experiments the data to inform the studies critical within the next lunar exploration science agenda. PMID:20446867

  3. Recovery and Restoration of Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) Data by the NSSDC and the PDS Lunar Data Node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. R.; Hills, H. K.; Guinness, E. A.; Taylor, P. T.; McBride, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Astronauts on the Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17 missions deployed long-lived (5 to 8 years) automated instrument suites on the Moon, the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Packages (ALSEP). The instruments were all turned off in September of 1977, but long before this the Apollo program and most of its funding had been abruptly cancelled. One result of this sudden cancellation was the loss of resources to properly archive these experiment data. Much of the data, particularly from the later years, were lost or saved in obsolete or difficult to access formats, and not properly documented. None of the surface data archived at National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) were in a form which could be easily archived with the Planetary Data System (PDS). The Lunar Data Project was started at NSSDC in order to recover and restore Apollo data into usable, well-documented digital formats. The PDS Lunar Data Node was established at NSSDC under the auspices of the PDS Geosciences Node to produce validated PDS data sets from the restored data. Six ALSEP data sets are archived at PDS: Apollo 12 and 15 Solar Wind Spectrometer 28-sec and hourly averages, and Apollo 14 and 15 Cold Cathode Ion Gage plots. (Other surface data, from the Apollo 17 Traverse Gravimeter and the Apollo 15 and 16 Penetrometer Soil Mechanics Experiments, have also been restored and are archived with PDS.) Apollo 14 and 15 Dust Detector data and Apollo 15 and 17 Heat Flow data have been restored and gone through a PDS review. They are now undergoing lien resolution. We are currently recovering data and restoring Apollo 12, 14, and 15 Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment, Apollo 14 Charged Particle Lunar Environment Experiment, Apollo 17 Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment, and Apollo 17 Lunar Ejecta and Meteorite data. Lunar Surface Magnetometer data from Apollo 15 and 16 are being restored by another group led by Peter Chi at U.C.L.A. We are also restoring, in conjunction with Yosio Nakamura (University of Texas), the ALSEP Housekeeping (Word 33) data which contain information on instrument status, temperature, power, and other parameters which are important to the interpretation of much of the instrument data. Raw data telemetry exist for the ALSEPs from March 1976 until turnoff in September 1977. Efforts are underway, led by Seiichi Nagihara (Texas Tech University), to recover more of this telemetry, stored on what are known as the ARCSAV tapes. A small number of these tapes have been recovered from the National Records Center and are being read. We report on progress and future work planned for the ALSEP data restorations.

  4. First Apollo 11 Lunar Samples Arrive at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. This photograph was taken as the mission's first loaded sample return container arrived at Ellington Air Force Base by air from the Pacific recovery area. The rock box was immediately taken to the Lunar Receiving Laboratory at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) in Houston, Texas. Happily posing for the photograph with the rock container are (L-R) Richard S. Johnston (back), special assistant to the MSC Director; George M. Low, MSC Apollo Spacecraft Program manager; George S. Trimble (back), MSC Deputy Director; Lt. General Samuel C. Phillips, Apollo Program Director, Office of Manned Spaceflight at NASA headquarters; Eugene G. Edmonds, MSC Photographic Technology Laboratory; Dr. Thomas O. Paine, NASA Administrator; and Dr. Robert R. Gilruth, MSC Director.

  5. COMPASS Final Report: Saturn Moons Orbiter Using Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP): Flagship Class Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.

    2011-01-01

    The COllaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team was approached by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) In-Space Project to perform a design session to develop Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) Spacecraft Conceptual Designs (with cost, risk, and reliability) for missions of three different classes: New Frontier s Class Centaur Orbiter (with Trojan flyby), Flagship, and Discovery. The designs will allow trading of current and future propulsion systems. The results will directly support technology development decisions. The results of the Flagship mission design are reported in this document

  6. Designing remote operations strategies to optimize science mission goals: Lessons learned from the Moon Mars Analog Mission Activities Mauna Kea 2012 field test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yingst, R. A.; Russell, P.; ten Kate, I. L.; Noble, S.; Graff, T.; Graham, L. D.; Eppler, D.

    2015-08-01

    The Moon Mars Analog Mission Activities Mauna Kea 2012 (MMAMA 2012) field campaign aimed to assess how effectively an integrated science and engineering rover team operating on a 24-h planning cycle facilitates high-fidelity science products. The science driver of this field campaign was to determine the origin of a glacially-derived deposit: was the deposit the result of (1) glacial outwash from meltwater; or (2) the result of an ice dam breach at the head of the valley? Lessons learned from MMAMA 2012 science operations include: (1) current rover science operations scenarios tested in this environment provide adequate data to yield accurate derivative products such as geologic maps; (2) instrumentation should be selected based on both engineering and science goals; and chosen during, rather than after, mission definition; and (3) paralleling the tactical and strategic science processes provides significant efficiencies that impact science return. The MER-model concept of operations utilized, in which rover operators were sufficiently facile with science intent to alter traverse and sampling plans during plan execution, increased science efficiency, gave the Science Backroom time to develop mature hypotheses and science rationales, and partially alleviated the problem of data flow being greater than the processing speed of the scientists.

  7. Apollo 13 creativity: in-the-box innovation.

    PubMed

    King, M J

    1997-01-01

    A study of the Apollo 13 mission, based on the themes showcased in the acclaimed 1995 film, reveals the grace under pressure that is the condition of optimal creativity. "Apollo 13 Creativity" is a cultural and creative problem-solving appreciation of the thinking style that made the Apollo mission succeed: creativity under severe limitations. Although creativity is often considered a "luxury good," of concern mainly for personal enrichment, the arts, and performance improvement, in life-or-death situations it is the critical pathway not only to success but to survival. In this case. the original plan for a moon landing had to be transformed within a matter of hours into a return to earth. By precluding failure as an option at the outset, both space and ground crews were forced to adopt a new perspective on their resources and options to solve for a successful landing. This now-classic problem provides a range of principles for creative practice and motivation applicable in any situation. The extreme situation makes these points dramatically. PMID:11541760

  8. Food and Nutrition for the Moon Base: What we have Learned in 45 Years of Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen; Kloeris, Vickie; Perchonok, Michele; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott M.

    2006-01-01

    The United States has a new human space flight mission to return to the Moon, this time to establish an outpost to continue research there and develop our ability to send humans to Mars and bring them back in good health. The Apollo missions were the first human expeditions to the Moon. Only 2 crew members landed on the lunar surface on each Apollo mission, and they spent a maximum of 72 hours there. Future trips will have at least 4 crew members, and the initial trips will include several days of surface activity. Eventually, these short (sortie) missions will extend to longer lunar surface times, on the order of weeks. Thus, the challenges of meeting the food and nutritional needs of crew members at a lunar outpost will be significantly different from those during the early Apollo missions. The U.S. has had humans in space beginning in 1961 with increasing lengths of time in space flight. Throughout these flights, the areas of particular concern for nutrition are body mass, bone health, and radiation protection. The development and refinement of the food systems over the last 30 years are discussed, as well as the plans for both the sortie and lunar. The articles briefly review what we know today about food and nutrition for space travelers and relate this knowledge to our planned human flights back to the Moon.

  9. Astronauts Stafford and Brand at controls of Apollo Command Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Two American ASTP crewmen, Astronauts Thomas P. Stafford (foreground) and Vance D. Brand are seen at the controls of the Apollo Command Module during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) docking in Earth orbit mission.

  10. Astronaut Vance Brand at controls of Apollo Command Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Astronaut Vance D. Brand, command module pilot of the American ASTP crew, is seen at the controls of the Apollo Command Module during the joint U.S.-USSR Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) docking in Earth orbit mission.

  11. Apollo 15 30-day failure and anomaly listing report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The significant anomalies that occurred during the Apollo 15 mission are discussed. The five major areas are command and service modules, lunar module, scientific instrument module experiments, Apollo lunar surface experiment package and associated equipment, and government furnished equipment.

  12. Apollo 11 Astronauts In Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched aboard the Marshall Space light Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. The surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours. Once the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth, the LM redocked with the CM for the crew's return to Earth. Following splash down in the Pacific Ocean, Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). Pictured (L-R) are astronauts Armstrong, Collins, and Aldrin smiling through the window of the MQF.

  13. Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronaut Aldrin Speaks With Wife Joan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. On arrival at Ellington Air Force base near the MSC, the crew, still under a 21 day quarantine in the MQF, were greeted by their wives. Pictured here is Joan Aldrin, wife of Buzz Aldrin, speaking with her husband via telephone patch.

  14. Apollo 11 Launched Via Saturn V Rocket - High Angle View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle produced a holocaust of flames as it rose from its pad at Launch complex 39. The 363 foot tall, 6,400,000 pound rocket hurled the spacecraft into Earth parking orbit and then placed it on the trajectory to the moon. This high angle view of the launch was provided by a `fisheye' camera mounted on the launch tower. The Saturn V was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard the spacecraft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  15. Apollo 11 Quarantine Facility Prepared for Loading Onto Jet Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. In this photo taken at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, the inhabited MQF is prepared for loading into an Air Force C-141 jet transport for the flight back to Ellington Air Force Base Texas and then on to the MSC.

  16. Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Address by Hawaiian Governor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days. The recovery vessel docked in Pearl Harbor Hawaii, where the occupied MQF was transferred for transport to the to NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. In this photo the quarantined astronauts are addressed by Hawaiian Governor John Burns upon their arrival at Pearl Harbor.

  17. Apollo 11 Occupied Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) Moved For Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. The occupied MQF was unloaded from the U.S.S. Hornet in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. In this photo, the facility is moved from the Hornet's dock enroute to Hickam Field where it was loaded aboard an Air Force C-141 jet transport for the flight back to Ellington Air Force Base Texas, and then on to the MSC.

  18. Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Loaded Onto Trailer For Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home for 21 days. In this photo taken at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, the quarantined housing facility is being lowered from the U.S.S. Hornet, onto a trailer for transport to Hickam Field. From there, it was loaded aboard an Air Force C-141 jet and flown back to Ellington Air Force Base Texas, and then on to the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas.

  19. Earth to Moon Transfer: Direct vs Via Libration Points (L1, L2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Condon, Gerald L.; Wilson, Samuel W.

    2004-01-01

    For some three decades, the Apollo-style mission has served as a proven baseline technique for transporting flight crews to the Moon and back with expendable hardware. This approach provides an optimal design for expeditionary missions, emphasizing operational flexibility in terms of safely returning the crew in the event of a hardware failure. However, its application is limited essentially to low-latitude lunar sites, and it leaves much to be desired as a model for exploratory and evolutionary programs that employ reusable space-based hardware. This study compares the performance requirements for a lunar orbit rendezvous mission type with one using the cislunar libration point (L1) as a stopover and staging point for access to arbitrary sites on the lunar surface. For selected constraints and mission objectives, it contrasts the relative uniformity of performance cost when the L1 staging point is used with the wide variation of cost for the Apollo-style lunar orbit rendezvous.

  20. General Human Health Issues For Moon And Mars Missions: Results From The HUMEX Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horneck, G.; Comet, B.

    Human exploratory missions, such as the establishment of a permanently inhabited lunar base and/or human visits to Mars will add a new dimension to human space flight, concerning the distance of travel, the radiation environment, the gravity lev-els, the duration of the mission, and the level of confinement and isolation the crew will be exposed to. This will raise the significance of several health issues. Besides spaceflight specific risks, such as radiation health, gravity related effects and psy-chological issues, general health issues need to be considered. These individual risks of illness, injury or death are based on general human health statistics. The duration of the mission is the main factor in these considerations. These risk estimations are the base which have to supplemented by the risks related specifically to the nature of the expedition under consideration. Crew health and performance have to be secured during transfer flights, during lunar or Mars surface exploration, including EVAs, and upon return to Earth, as defined within the constraints of safety objectives and mass restrictions of the mission. Within the ESA Study on the Survivability and Adaptation of Humans to Long-Duration Interplanetary and Planetary Environments (so called HUMEX study), we have critically assessed the human responses, limits and needs with regard to the environments of interplanetary and planetary missions. Based on various scenarios, the crew health risks have been evaluated. The main results are as follows: (i) The state of the art shows that bone loss during the long stay in weightlessness, especially during missions to Mars, remains an unacceptable risk. Solutions to control and to prevent this risk shall be developed. (ii) The control of human physical capacity impairment under weightlessness shall be optimized. (iii) Based of the probability of occurrence of diseases and injuries and on the con-straints imposed by exploratory mission scenarios, the crew shall have a full auton-omy in terms of medical and surgical diagnostics and care means and competency. (iv) The control of the toxic and biological risks in a confined environment for a so long exposure shall be carefully analyzed and the technical solutions shall master these risks. A roadmap in the field of health care has been elaborated for a future European participation strategy towards human exploratory missions taking into account preparatory activities, such as analogue situations and ISS opportunities, European positioning and potential terrestrial applications and benefits. References: Horneck G. , R. Facius, M. Reichert, P. Rettberg, W. Seboldt, D. Man-zey, B. Comet, A. Maillet, H. Preiss, L. Schauer, C.G. Dussap, L. Poughon, A. Belyavin, G. Reitz, C. Baumstark-Khan, R. Gerzer (2003) HUMEX, a Study on the Survivability and Adaptation of Humans to Long-Duration Exploratory Missions, ESA SP-1264

  1. Complex Indigenous Organic Matter Embedded in Apollo 17 Volcanic Black Glass Surface Deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, S. J.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; Rahman, Z.; Gonzalez, C.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.

    2013-01-01

    Papers presented at the first Lunar Science Conference [1] and those published in the subsequent Science Moon Issue [2] reported the C content of Apollo II soils, breccias, and igneous rocks as rang-ing from approx.50 to 250 parts per million (ppm). Later Fegley & Swindle [3] summarized the C content of bulk soils from all the Apollo missions as ranging from 2.5 (Apollo 15) to 280 ppm (Apollo 16) with an overall average of 124+/- 45 ppm. These values are unexpectedly low given that multiple processes should have contributed (and in some cases continue to contribute) to the lunar C inventory. These include exogenous accretion of cometary and asteroidal dust, solar wind implantation, and synthesis of C-bearing species during early lunar volcanism. We estimate the contribution of C from exogenous sources alone is approx.500 ppm, which is approx.4x greater than the reported average. While the assessm ent of indigenous organic matter (OM) in returned lunar samples was one of the primary scientific goals of the Apollo program, extensive analysis of Apollo samples yielded no evidence of any significant indigenous organic species. Furthermore, with such low concentrations of OM reported, the importance of discriminating indigenous OM from terrestrial contamination (e.g., lunar module exhaust, sample processing and handling) became a formidable task. After more than 40 years, with the exception of CH4 [5-7], the presence of indigenous lunar organics still remains a subject of considerable debate. We report for the first time the identification of arguably indigenous OM present within surface deposits of black glass grains collected on the rim of Shorty crater during the Apollo 17 mission by astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt.

  2. Apollo experience report: Television system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coan, P. P.

    1973-01-01

    The progress of the Apollo television systems from the early definition of requirements through the development and inflight use of color television hardware is presented. Television systems that have been used during the Apollo Program are discussed, beginning with a description of the specifications for each system. The document describes the technical approach taken for the development of each system and discusses the prototype and engineering hardware built to test the system itself and to perform the testing to verify compatibility with the spacecraft systems. Problems that occurred during the design and development phase are described. Finally, the flight hardware, operational characteristics, and performance during several Apollo missions are described, and specific recommendations for the remaining Apollo flights and future space missions are made.

  3. APOLLO 10: Simulated Lunar Gravity Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Training for APOLLO 10. The astronauts train in a simulated microgravity environment - underwater and in the air - to familiarise them with the effect of lunar gravity. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 10: 'Green Light for a Lunar Landing''. Part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) APOLLO 10: Manned lunar orbital flight with Thomas P Stafford, John W. Young, and Eugene A. Cernan to test all aspects of an actual manned lunar landing except the landing. Mission Duration 192hrs 3mins 23 sec

  4. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Cable system which supports the test subject on the Reduced Gravity Walking Simulator. The purpose of this simulator was to study the subject while walking, jumping or running. Researchers conducted studies of various factors such as fatigue limit, energy expenditure, and speed of locomotion. A.W. Vigil described the purpose of the simulator as follows: 'When the astronauts land on the moon they will be in an unfamiliar environment involving, particularly, a gravitational field only one-sixth as strong as on earth. A novel method of simulating lunar gravity has been developed and is supported by a puppet-type suspension system at the end of a long pendulum. A floor is provided at the proper angle so that one-sixth of the subject's weight is supported by the floor with the remainder being supported by the suspension system. This simulator allows almost complete freedom in vertical translation and pitch and is considered to be a very realistic simulation of the lunar walking problem. For this problem this simulator suffers only slightly from the restrictions in lateral movement it puts on the test subject. This is not considered a strong disadvantage for ordinary walking problems since most of the motions do, in fact, occur in the vertical plane. However, this simulation technique would be severely restrictive if applied to the study of the extra-vehicular locomotion problem, for example, because in this situation complete six degrees of freedom are rather necessary. This technique, in effect, automatically introduces a two-axis attitude stabilization system into the problem. The technique could, however, be used in preliminary studies of extra-vehicular locomotion where, for example, it might be assumed that one axis of the attitude control system on the astronaut maneuvering unit may have failed.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995); A.W. Vigil, 'Discussion of Existing and Planned Simulators for Space Research,' Paper presented at Conference on the Role of Simulation in Space Technology,' Blacksburg, VA, August 17-21, 1964.

  5. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronaut Walt Cunningham on the Reduced Gravity Walking Simulator located at the Lunar Landing Facility. The purpose of this simulator was to study the subject while walking, jumping or running. Researchers conducted studies of various factors such as fatigue limit, energy expenditure, and speed of locomotion. A.W. Vigil described the purpose of the simulator in his paper 'Discussion of Existing and Planned Simulators for Space Research,' 'When the astronauts land on the moon they will be in an unfamiliar environment involving, particularly, a gravitational field only one-sixth as strong as on earth. A novel method of simulating lunar gravity has been developed and is supported by a puppet-type suspension system at the end of a long pendulum. A floor is provided at the proper angle so that one-sixth of the subject's weight is supported by the floor with the remainder being supported by the suspension system. This simulator allows almost complete freedom in vertical translation and pitch and is considered to be a very realistic simulation of the lunar walking problem. For this problem this simulator suffers only slightly from the restrictions in lateral movement it puts on the test subject. This is not considered a strong disadvantage for ordinary walking problems since most of the motions do, in fact, occur in the vertical plane. However, this simulation technique would be severely restrictive if applied to the study of the extra-vehicular locomotion problem, for example, because in this situation complete six degrees of freedom are rather necessary. This technique, in effect, automatically introduces a two-axis attitude stabilization system into the problem. The technique could, however, be used in preliminary studies of extra-vehicular locomotion where, for example, it might be assumed that one axis of the attitude control system on the astronaut maneuvering unit may have failed.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 377; A.W. Vigil, 'Discussion of Existing and Planned Simulators for Space Research,' Paper presented at Conference on the Role of Simulation in Space Technology,' Blacksburg, VA, August 17-21, 1964.

  6. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Test subject wearing the pressurized 'space' suit for the Reduced Gravity Walking Simulator located at the Lunar Landing Facility. The purpose of this simulator was to study the subject while walking, jumping or running. Researchers conducted studies of various factors such as fatigue limit, energy expenditure, and speed of locomotion. A.W. Vigil described the purpose of the simulator in his paper 'Discussion of Existing and Planned Simulators for Space Research,' 'When the astronauts land on the moon they will be in an unfamiliar environment involving, particularly, a gravitational field only one-sixth as strong as on earth. A novel method of simulating lunar gravity has been developed and is supported by a puppet-type suspension system at the end of a long pendulum. A floor is provided at the proper angle so that one-sixth of the subject's weight is supported by the floor with the remainder being supported by the suspension system. This simulator allows almost complete freedom in vertical translation and pitch and is considered to be a very realistic simulation of the lunar walking problem. For this problem this simulator suffers only slightly from the restrictions in lateral movement it puts on the test subject. This is not considered a strong disadvantage for ordinary walking problems since most of the motions do, in fact, occur in the vertical plane. However, this simulation technique would be severely restrictive if applied to the study of the extra-vehicular locomotion problem, for example, because in this situation complete six degrees of freedom are rather necessary. This technique, in effect, automatically introduces a two-axis attitude stabilization system into the problem. The technique could, however, be used in preliminary studies of extra-vehicular locomotion where, for example, it might be assumed that one axis of the attitude control system on the astronaut maneuvering unit may have failed.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 377; A.W. Vigil, 'Discussion of Existing and Planned Simulators for Space Research,' Paper presented at Conference on the Role of Simulation in Space Technology,' Blacksburg, VA, August 17-21, 1964.

  7. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    Reduced Gravity Walking Simulator located in the hanger at Langley Research Center. The initial version of this simulator was located inside the hanger. Later a larger version would be located at the Lunar Landing Facility. The purpose of this simulator was to study the subject while walking, jumping or running. Researchers conducted studies of various factors such as fatigue limit, energy expenditure, and speed of locomotion. A.W. Vigil wrote in his paper 'Discussion of Existing and Planned Simulators for Space Research,' 'When the astronauts land on the moon they will be in an unfamiliar environment involving, particularly, a gravitational field only one-sixth as strong as on earth. A novel method of simulating lunar gravity has been developed and is supported by a puppet-type suspension system at the end of a long pendulum. A floor is provided at the proper angle so that one-sixth of the subject's weight is supported by the floor with the remainder being supported by the suspension system. This simulator allows almost complete freedom in vertical translation and pitch and is considered to be a very realistic simulation of the lunar walking problem. For this problem this simulator suffers only slightly from the restrictions in lateral movement it puts on the test subject. This is not considered a strong disadvantage for ordinary walking problems since most of the motions do, in fact, occur in the vertical plane. However, this simulation technique would be severely restrictive if applied to the study of the extra-vehicular locomotion problem, for example, because in this situation complete six degrees of freedom are rather necessary. This technique, in effect, automatically introduces a two-axis attitude stabilization system into the problem. The technique could, however, be used in preliminary studies of extra-vehicular locomotion where, for example, it might be assumed that one axis of the attitude control system on the astronaut maneuvering unit may have failed.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 377; A.W. Vigil, 'Discussion of Existing and Planned Simulators for Space Research,' Paper presented at Conference on the Role of Simulation in Space Technology,' Blacksburg, VA, August 17-21, 1964.

  8. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Special 'space' suit for the Reduced Gravity Walking Simulator located at the Lunar Landing Facility. The purpose of this simulator was to study the subject while walking, jumping or running. Researchers conducted studies of various factors such as fatigue limit, energy expenditure, and speed of locomotion. A.W. Vigil described the purpose of the simulator in his paper 'Discussion of Existing and Planned Simulators for Space Research,' 'When the astronauts land on the moon they will be in an unfamiliar environment involving, particularly, a gravitational field only one-sixth as strong as on earth. A novel method of simulating lunar gravity has been developed and is supported by a puppet-type suspension system at the end of a long pendulum. A floor is provided at the proper angle so that one-sixth of the subject's weight is supported by the floor with the remainder being supported by the suspension system. This simulator allows almost complete freedom in vertical translation and pitch and is considered to be a very realistic simulation of the lunar walking problem. For this problem this simulator suffers only slightly from the restrictions in lateral movement it puts on the test subject. This is not considered a strong disadvantage for ordinary walking problems since most of the motions do, in fact, occur in the vertical plane. However, this simulation technique would be severely restrictive if applied to the study of the extra-vehicular locomotion problem, for example, because in this situation complete six degrees of freedom are rather necessary. This technique, in effect, automatically introduces a two-axis attitude stabilization system into the problem. The technique could, however, be used in preliminary studies of extra-vehicular locomotion where, for example, it might be assumed that one axis of the attitude control system on the astronaut maneuvering unit may have failed.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 377; A.W. Vigil, 'Discussion of Existing and Planned Simulators for Space Research,' Paper presented at Conference on the Role of Simulation in Space Technology,' Blacksburg, VA, August 17-21, 1964.

  9. Generating of an electric potential on the Moon by Cosmic rays and Solar Wind?

    E-print Network

    Simon, M J

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that the Moon develops an electric potential originating from the impinging particles on the Moon from cosmic rays and solar wind. The investigation includes all experimental data of the flux of charged particle for energies higher than 865 eV available from Apollo missions, satellites and balloon experiments in publications or from the Internet in 2008. A fictive electric potential of the Moon was calculated if the Moon material is an isolator for the Moon solar side and lee side,if the Moon material is a conductor for the whole Moon surface, and if the Moon is located in the geomagnetic tail of the Earth. The calculation for these four cases results in positive electric potentials of the Moon of 1789 V, 261 MV, 1789 V, and 96 MV. This is originated from the unequal distribution of positive and negative charges in the plasma of the cosmic rays and solar wind impinging on the Moon. As the cosmic rays arrive from deep space, these findings would imply a charge imbalance in the co...

  10. What happened to the moon? A lunar history mission using neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Breitkreutz, H.; Li, X.; Burfeindt, J.; Bernhardt, H. G.; Hoffmann, P.; Trieloff, M.; Schwarz, W. H.; Hopp, J.; Jessberger, E. K.; Hiesinger, H.

    2011-07-01

    The ages of lunar rocks can be determined using the {sup 40}Ar -{sup 39}Ar technique that can be used in-situ on the moon if a neutron source, a noble gas mass spectrometer and a gas extraction and purification system are brought to the lunar surface. A possible instrument for such a task is ISAGE, which combines a strong {sup 252}Cf neutron source and a compact spectrometer for in-situ dating of e.g. the South Pole Aitken impact basin or the potentially very young basalts south of the Aristachus Plateau. In this paper, the design of the neutron source will be discussed. The source is assumed to be a hollow sphere surrounded by a reflector, a geometry that provides a very homogeneous flux at the irradiation position inside the sphere. The optimal source geometry depending on the experimental conditions, the costs of transportation for the reflector and the costs of the source itself are calculated. A minimum {sup 252}Cf mass of 1.5 mg is determined. (authors)

  11. NASA Exploration Launch Projects Systems Engineering Approach for Astronaut Missions to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumbacher, Daniel L.

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration directs NASA to design and develop a new generation of safe, reliable, and cost-effective transportation systems to hlfill the Nation s strategic goals and objectives. These launch vehicles will provide the capability for astronauts to conduct scientific exploration that yields new knowledge from the unique vantage point of space. American leadership in opening new fi-ontiers will improve the quality of life on Earth for generations to come. The Exploration Launch Projects office is responsible for delivering the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) that will loft the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into low-Earth orbit (LEO) early next decade, and for the heavy lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) that will deliver the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) to LEO for astronaut return trips to the Moon by 2020 in preparation for the eventual first human footprint on Mars. Crew travel to the International Space Station will be made available as soon possible after the Space Shuttle retires in 2010.

  12. The Chemist's Moon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, James R.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes chemical information about the lunar surface on the basis of experiments performed in orbit and analyses of lunar soil and rocks. Indicates that the Apollo program completes chemical mapping of about 20 percent of the Moon with 80 percent remaining to be solved in the future. (CC)

  13. Neil Armstrong chats with attendees at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong is the center of attention at the anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon. He appeared at the banquet with other former astronauts Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan, Walt Cunningham and others.

  14. Apollo 11 Crew Boards U.S.S. Hornet Aircraft Carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. Shown here are the three astronauts (L-R) Aldrin, Armstrong, and Collins leaving the recovery helicopter aboard the U.S.S. Hornet after their splashdown in the Pacific Ocean. Wearing biological isolation garments donned before leaving the spacecraft, the three went directly into the Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) on the aircraft carrier. The MQF served as their home for 21 days following the mission. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  15. Selection and characterization of landing sites for the upcoming Russian robotic missions to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marov, Mikhail Ya.; Head, James; Bazilevskiy, Alexander; Dolgopolov, Vladimir

    Russian missions Luna-Glob, Luna-Resource and Luna-Grunt are considered to be a sequence of landers aimed, in particular, to study physical conditions at the lunar poles, lunar volatiles both in situ and delivered to Earth laboratories, opportunities for utilization of lunar resources and to perform technological experiments for future lunar exploration [Zelenyi et al.,2013, 2014]. The first of these missions, tentatively planned for 2016, along with partial accomplishment of these tasks, is also devoted to test new-generation technologies for soft landing. The second one (~2018) addresses most of the mentioned tasks. The major task of the third mission is cryogenic sample return from the polar area. The potential landing sites had to accommodate the 15x30 km landing ellipses and be within 70-85N, 30W-60E and 70-85S, 0-60E [Basilevsky et al., 2013]. In these regions a search based on analysis of LOLA altimetry, LROC NAC and WAC images and Mini-RF data led to finding several spots with rather smooth surfaces which then were tested by the LEND team [Mitrofanov 2011, 2012] to see if they show signatures of enrichment in H/H2O. At the next stage of the studies a floor of the 95-km crater Boguslavsky was studied. The H2O content here is not high, but this place is convenient for the test of the new soft landing technologies. These morphometric studies rely mostly on the data acquired by instruments of the U.S. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and their availability and usage were significantly facilitated through the Brown-Vernadsky/SSERVI interaction.

  16. A new look at lunar soil collected from the sea of tranquility during the Apollo 11 mission.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Carol; Greenberg, Gary; Kiely, Christopher J

    2011-02-01

    Complementary state-of-the-art optical, scanning electron, and X-ray microscopy techniques have been used to study the morphology of Apollo 11 lunar soil particles (10084-47). The combination of innovative lighting geometries with image processing of a through focal series of images has allowed us to obtain a unique collection of high-resolution light micrographs of these fascinating particles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) stereo-pair imaging has been exploited to illustrate some of the unique morphological properties of lunar regolith. In addition, for the first time, X-ray micrographs with submicron resolution have been taken of individual particles using X-ray ultramicroscopy (XuM). This SEM-based technique lends itself readily to the imaging of pores, cracks, and inclusions and allows the internal structure of an entire particle to be viewed. Rotational SEM and XuM movies have also been constructed from a series of images collected at sequential angles through 360°. These offer a new and insightful view of these complex particles providing size, shape, and spatial information on many of their internal features. PMID:21087545

  17. Science Goals of MAJIS, the Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer, selected for the ESA/JUICE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langevin, Yves; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Filacchione, Gianrico; Poulet, Francois; Eng, Pascal; Tosi, Federico; Majis Team

    2014-05-01

    The Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer (MAJIS) is the VIS-IR spectral mapper selected for the JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer) L-class mission by ESA. Launched in 2022, JUICE will perform 35 targeted flybys of Galilean satellites (Callisto: 20; Ganymede: 13; Europa: 2) from January 2030 to September 2032, then a 9 months orbital phase around Ganymede. This comprehensive tour will make it possible to perform in-depth investigations of the atmosphere of Jupiter (including at high latitudes during a sequence of inclined orbits in mid-tour), Io, small satellites, rings and dust in the Jupiter system. Spectral imaging in the visible and near-IR ranges is a key technique for characterizing the composition of both surfaces and atmospheres. MAJIS will provide spectral imaging observations of the Jupiter system with an unprecedented coverage, spatial resolution (0.125 mrad, e.g. 62.5 m / pixel for Ganymede on a 500 km altitude orbit and 125 km / pixel for Jupiter from the orbit of Ganymede) and spectral resolution (1280 spectral channels from 0.4 µm to 5.7 µm), adressing major science goals of JUICE: - Determination of the icy, mineral and organic composition of the surface of satellites - Relationship between composition and geological processes - Detection of volatiles, relationship with cryovolcanic activity and exobiology - Interaction of surfaces with the environment, characterization of exospheres - Time evolution of hot spots on Io (40 distant encounters, down to 50 km/pixel) - Exospheres of Galilean satellites, relationship with the surface and the environment - Compositional relationship between small satellites and rings - Stratospheric and thermospheric structure of the atmosphere of Jupiter - Composition and general circulation of the atmosphere of Jupiter, clouds, hot spots - Minor constituents (water, hydrocarbon chemistry) - Vertical mixing in the stratosphere of Jupiter - Observations of Auroral emissions During the initial stages of the study phase, specific scenarios are investigated so as to best use spacecraft capabilities for science during critical mission phases such as the 500 km circular orbit arount Ganymede, the Europa flybys and the high inclination orbits. A large mass storage capability is foreseen, which is particularly useful for MAJIS given its large data output during satellite flybys and time evolution sequences for Jupiter. There will be limitations due to downlink, but the present allocation will already make it possible to obtain extensive coverage as well as many opportunities for HR observations by MAJIS.

  18. Seismology of the moon and implications on internal structure, origin and evolution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewing, M.; Latham, G.; Dorman, J.; Press, F.; Sutton, G.; Meissner, R.; Duennebier, F.; Nakamura, Y.; Kovach, R.

    1971-01-01

    The objective of the passive seismic experiment is to measure vibrations of the lunar surface produced by all natural and artificial sources of seismic energy and to use these data to deduce the internal structure and constitution of the moon and the nature of tectonic processes which may be active within the moon. Lunar seismic signals are discussed together with the sources of these signals, and aspects of lunar structure and dynamics. Seismic signals from approximately 250 natural events and from two man-made impacts have been recorded during seven months of operation of the two seismic stations installed during Apollo missions 11 and 12.

  19. Nickel for your thoughts: urey and the origin of the moon.

    PubMed

    Brush, S G

    1982-09-01

    The theories of Harold C. Urey (1893-1981) on the origin of the moon are discussed in relation to earlier ideas, especially George Howard Darwin's fission hypothesis. Urey's espousal of the idea that the moon had been captured by the earth and has preserved information about the earliest history of the solar system led him to advocate a manned lunar landing. Results from the Apollo missions, in particular the deficiency of siderophile elements in the lunar crust, led him to abandon the capture selenogony and tentatively adopt the fission hypothesis. PMID:17747939

  20. Continued Analysis and Restoration of Apollo DTREM Instrument Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, M. J.; Williams, D. R.; Hills, H. K.

    2013-12-01

    During the years of 1969 to 1972, NASA sent 12 men to walk on the surface of the Moon. On each mission, on the first lunar extra vehicular activity, the astronauts deployed the Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP) (Apollo 11) or the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) (Apollo 12 - 17). The EASEP was a short-lived package that operated for a few months while the ALSEP contained scientific instruments to collect data on the lunar environment long after the astronauts had left the lunar surface. Part of the package on Apollo 11, 12, 14 and 15 was the Dust, Radiation, Thermal, Engineering Measurement (DTREM), also known as the Lunar Dust Detector. The DTREM was a small fiberglass box that had 3 thermometers and 3 solar cells. The output from the solar cells was used to determine the degradation of the cells from dust, temperature, and radiation on the lunar surface. Over a period of 5-7 years, the DTREM instruments collected data and returned them to Earth through the ALSEP central station housekeeping (Word 33) telemetry stream. The data were in the form of raw digitized telemetry files. The only translated and calibrated data from the instrument that existed were 38 reels of computer printout images archived at the National Space Science Data Center. As part of the lunar data restoration effort, the raw telemetry files from the communications stream have been translated and recalibrated, using the archived microfilm record to determine the correct values in terms of temperature and voltage output. Once they have been properly archived by the Lunar Data Node of the Planetary Data System (PDS) the data sets will be released to the scientific community. The DTREM instrument collected data every 54 seconds for 6 years on the Apollo 14 and 15 missions. The immense size of the data set required that a process be created to convert the raw telemetry fires autonomously. Therefore, we have recreated a digital version of the data from Apollo 14 and 15 that includes time, temperature, and uncalibrated and calibrated solar cell output. The digital version of the data allows modern analytical techniques to be performed with computers which were unavailable in the 1970's. We have also extended the available data to the turn-off in 1977. This makes it easier to determine solar cell degradation and to study the effects of dust and temperature vs. radiation. In the future, we plan to examine effects of the August, 1972 solar-proton event on the solar cells, and to look at other sources of solar cell degradation.

  1. Dunes on Saturn’s moon Titan as revealed by the Cassini Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radebaugh, Jani

    2013-12-01

    Dunes on Titan, a dominant landform comprising at least 15% of the surface, represent the end product of many physical processes acting in alien conditions. Winds in a nitrogen-rich atmosphere with Earth-like pressure transport sand that is likely to have been derived from complex organics produced in the atmosphere. These sands then accumulate into large, planet-encircling sand seas concentrated near the equator. Dunes on Titan are predominantly linear and similar in size and form to the large linear dunes of the Namib, Arabian and Saharan sand seas. They likely formed from wide bimodal winds and appear to undergo average sand transport to the east. Their singular form across the satellite indicates Titan’s dunes may be highly mature, and may reside in a condition of stability that permitted their growth and evolution over long time scales. The dunes are among the youngest surface features, as even river channels do not cut through them. However, reorganization time scales of large linear dunes on Titan are likely tens of thousands of years. Thus, Titan’s dune forms may be long-lived and yet be actively undergoing sand transport. This work is a summary of research on dunes on Titan after the Cassini Prime and Equinox Missions (2004-2010) and now during the Solstice Mission (to end in 2017). It discusses results of Cassini data analysis and modeling of conditions on Titan and it draws comparisons with observations and models of linear dune formation and evolution on Earth.

  2. Abort Options for Human Missions to Earth-Moon Halo Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jesick, Mark C.

    2013-01-01

    Abort trajectories are optimized for human halo orbit missions about the translunar libration point (L2), with an emphasis on the use of free return trajectories. Optimal transfers from outbound free returns to L2 halo orbits are numerically optimized in the four-body ephemeris model. Circumlunar free returns are used for direct transfers, and cislunar free returns are used in combination with lunar gravity assists to reduce propulsive requirements. Trends in orbit insertion cost and flight time are documented across the southern L2 halo family as a function of halo orbit position and free return flight time. It is determined that the maximum amplitude southern halo incurs the lowest orbit insertion cost for direct transfers but the maximum cost for lunar gravity assist transfers. The minimum amplitude halo is the most expensive destination for direct transfers but the least expensive for lunar gravity assist transfers. The on-orbit abort costs for three halos are computed as a function of abort time and return time. Finally, an architecture analysis is performed to determine launch and on-orbit vehicle requirements for halo orbit missions.

  3. Apollo 9 Splashdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 9 Command Module 'Gumdrop', with astronauts James A. McDivitt, David R. Scott, and Russell L. Schweickart aboard, splashes down in the Atlantic recovery area to conclude a successful ten-day, Earth orbital mission. Splashdown occurred at 12:00:53 p.m. (EST), March 13, 1969, only 4.5 nautical miles from the prime recovery ship, U.S.S. Guadalcanal.

  4. Rare earth element selenochemistry of immiscible liquids and zircon at Apollo 14 - An ion probe study of evolved rocks on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Gregory A.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Crozaz, Ghislaine

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of trace-element analyses of three lunar zircons. The major-element and REE compositions were determined using electron microprobes, and a correction was made for zircon for Zr-Si-O molecular interferences in the La to Pr mass region. The three zircons were found to exhibit similar REE abundances and patterns. Results of the analyses confirm earlier studies (Hess et al., 1975; Watson, 1976; Neal and Taylor, 1989) on the partitioning behavior of trace elements in immiscible liquid-liquid pairs. The results also support the postulated importance of silicate liquid immiscibility in the differentiation of the upper mantle and crust of the moon.

  5. U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Arrives Aboard U.S.S. Hornet for Apollo 11 Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (center), is saluted by the honor guard of flight deck crewmen when he arrives aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 11 mission, to watch recovery operations and welcome the astronauts home. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days following the mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun.

  6. Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Addressed by U.S. President Nixon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted by helicopter and taken to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). Shown here are the Apollo 11 crew members (L to R) Neil Armstrong, Michael Collins, and Edwin Aldrin inside the MQF as U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon speaks to them via intercom. The president was aboard the recovery vessel awaiting return of the astronauts. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  7. Navigation of the GRAIL Spacecraft Pair Through the Extended Mission at the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodson, Troy D.; Antreasian, Peter G.; Bhat, Ram S.; Chung, Min-Kun; Criddle, Kevin E.; Hatch, Sara J.; Jefferson, David C.; Lau, Eunice L.; Roncoli, Ralph B.; Ryne, Mark S.; Sweetser, Theodore H.; You, Tung-Han; Young, Brian T.; Wong, Mau C.; Kangas, Julie A.; Wen, Hui Ying

    2013-01-01

    The GRAIL extended mission (XM) dramatically expands the scope of GRAIL's gravity science investigation by flying the pair of spacecraft at the lowest orbit the flight team can safely support. From the perspective of the Navigation team, the low orbit altitude introduces new challenges. At this lower altitude, navigation is more sensitive to higher-order terms of the gravity field so that orbit determination solutions are more difficult and there is less certainty of achieving maneuver targets. This paper reports on the strategy and performance of the Navigation system for GRAIL's XM. On a weekly basis, the Navigation team provided reference trajectory updates, designed three maneuvers, and reconstructed the execution of those maneuvers. In all, the XM involved 55 planned maneuvers; five were canceled. The results of the Navigation team's efforts, in terms of maintaining the reference-trajectory targets, satisfying requirements, and achieving desired separation distances, are assessed.

  8. Mineralization on the moon? Theoretical considerations of Apollo 16 'rusty rocks', sulfide replacement in 67016, and surface-correlated volatiles on lunar volcanic glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colson, Russell O.

    1992-01-01

    Theoretical considerations of vapor-rock interactions in the lunar environment are a useful supplement to petrologic studies of mineralization or alteration in rocks from the moon. They also provide insights into the potential for the existence of more extensive mineralization on the moon than is found in the limited sample set. Discussed in this paper are the coexistence and textural association in 66095 of the phases lawrencite, troilite, schreibersite, iron metal, and sphalerite; the replacement of olivine in certain clasts of 67016 by troilite and enstatite; and the existence of Zn + S deposits on the surfaces of volcanic glass beads. Particular attention is given in each case to whether the observed mineralization implies that metals, as well as S, P, or Cl, have been mobilized in the vapor. Vapor species that might mobilize metals in the absence of H2O are considered. Most importantly, the suggestion is made that in the dry lunar environment carbonyl species may be important carriers of S and metals. The implications of this possibility are discussed.

  9. NASA Administrator Dan Goldin greets Neil Armstrong at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible, former Apollo astronaut Neil A. Armstrong (left) shakes the hand of Judy Goldin (center), wife of NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin (right). The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Among the guests at the banquet were former Apollo astronauts are Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch of the first moon landing; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17 and was the last man to walk on the moon; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7.

  10. Lunar Module Eagle Upon Descent to the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Carrying astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., the Lunar Module (LM) 'Eagle' was the first crewed vehicle to land on the Moon. The LM landed on the moon's surface on July 20, 1969 in the region known as Mare Tranquilitatis (the Sea of Tranquility). The LM is shown here making its descent to the lunar surface, while Astronaut Collins piloted the Command Module in a parking orbit around the Moon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from The Kennedy Space Center, Florida aboard a Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The 3-man crew aboard the flight consisted of Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface. As he stepped off the LM, Armstrong proclaimed, 'That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind'. He was followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, describing the lunar surface as Magnificent desolation. The crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material which was returned to Earth for analysis. The surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. von Braun.

  11. 3D Lunar Terrain Reconstruction from Apollo Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broxton, Michael J.; Nefian, Ara V.; Moratto, Zachary; Kim, Taemin; Lundy, Michael; Segal, Alkeksandr V.

    2009-01-01

    Generating accurate three dimensional planetary models is becoming increasingly important as NASA plans manned missions to return to the Moon in the next decade. This paper describes a 3D surface reconstruction system called the Ames Stereo Pipeline that is designed to produce such models automatically by processing orbital stereo imagery. We discuss two important core aspects of this system: (1) refinement of satellite station positions and pose estimates through least squares bundle adjustment; and (2) a stochastic plane fitting algorithm that generalizes the Lucas-Kanade method for optimal matching between stereo pair images.. These techniques allow us to automatically produce seamless, highly accurate digital elevation models from multiple stereo image pairs while significantly reducing the influence of image noise. Our technique is demonstrated on a set of 71 high resolution scanned images from the Apollo 15 mission

  12. Compositional Variation in Apollo 16 Impact-Melt Breccias and Inferences for the Geology and Bombardment History of the Central Highlands of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotev, Randy L.

    1994-01-01

    High-precision data for the concentrations of a number of lithophile and siderophile elements were obtained on multiple subsamples from 109 impact-melt rocks and breccias (mostly crystalline) from the Apollo 16 site. Compositions of nearly all Apollo 16 melt rocks fall on one of two trends of increasing Sm concentration with increasing Sc concentration. The Eastern trend (lower Sm/Sc, Mg/Fe, and Sm/Yb ratios) consists of compositional groups 3 and 4 of previous classification schemes. These melt rocks are feldspathic, poor in incompatible and siderophile elements, and appear to have provenance in the Descartes formation to the east of the site. The Western trend (higher Sm/Sc. Mg/Fe, and Sm/ Yb ratios) consists of compositional groups 1 and 2. These relatively mafic, KREEP-bearing breccias are a major component (approx.35%) of the Cayley plains west of the site and are unusual, compared to otherwise similar melt breccias from other sites, in having high concentrations of Fe-Ni metal ( 1-2 %). The metal is the carrier of the low-Ir/Au (approx. 0.3 x chondritic) siderophile-element signature that is characteristic of the Apollo 16 site. Four compositionally distinct groups (1M, 1F, 2DB, and 2NR) of Western-trend melt breccias occur that are each represented by at least six samples. Compositional group 1 or previous classification schemes (the 'poikilitic' or 'LKFM' melt breccias) can be subdivided into two groups. Group 1M (represented by six samples, including 60315) is characterized by lower Al2O3 concentrations, higher MgO and alkali concentrations, and higher Mg/Fe and Cr/Sc ratios than group 1F (represented by fifteen samples, including 65015). Group 1M also has siderophile-element concentrations averaging about twice those of group lF and Ir/Au and Ir/Ni ratios that are even lower than those of other Western-trend melt rocks (Ir/Au = 0.24 +/- 0.03. CI-normalized). At the mafic extreme of group 2 ('VHA' melt breccias), the melt lithology occurring as clasts in feldspathic fragmental breccias from North Ray crater (group 2NR) is compositionally distinct from the melt lithology ofdimict breccias from the Cayley plains (group 2DB) in having higher concentrations of Sc, Cr, and heavy rare earth elements and lower concentrations of siderophile elements. The distinct siderophile-element signature (high absolute abundances, low Ir/Au ratio) suggest that the four groups ofmafic melt breccia are all somehow related. Ratios ofsome lithophile elements also suggest that they are more closely related to each other than then, are to melt breccias from other Apoll sites. However, none of the breccia compositions can be related to any of the others by any simple process of igneous fractionation or mixing involving common lunar materials. Thus, the origin of the four groups of mafic melt breccia is enigmatic. If they were produced in only one or two impacts, then a mechanism exists for generating regimes of impact-melt breccia in a single impact that are substantially different from each other in composition. For various reasons, including the problem of delivering large volumes of four different types of melt to the Apollo 16 site, it is unlikely that any of these breccias were produced in basin-forming impacts. If they were produced in as many as four crater-forming impacts, then the unusual siderophile-element signature is difficult to explain. Possible explanations are (1) the four groups of melt breccia all contain metal from a single, earlier impact, (2) they were each formed by related metal-rich meteoroids, or (3) some common postimpact process has resulted in metal of similar composition in each of four melt pools. Within a compositional group, most intrasample and intersample variation in lithophile element concentrations is caused by differences among samples in the proportion of a component of normative anorthosite or noritic anorthosite. In most cases, this compositional variation probably reflects variation in clast abundance. For group 2DB (and probably 2NR), differences in abundance of a component of ferroan anorthosit

  13. APOLLO 13: The crew beats the odds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 13: The world holds its breath as the astronauts try to survive the final moments of their voyage From the film documentary 'APOLLO 13: 'Houston, We've got a problem'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 13 : Third manned lunar landing attempt with James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred w. Haise, Jr. Pressure lost in SM oxygen system; mission aborted; LM used for life support. Mission Duration 142hrs 54mins 41sec

  14. APOLLO 13: The Crew Makes Emergency Repairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 13: Support on the ground design emergency equipment for the crew of Aquarius, and then radio instructions From the film documentary 'APOLLO 13: 'Houston, We've got a problem'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 13 : Third manned lunar landing attempt with James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred w. Haise, Jr. Pressure lost in SM oxygen system; mission aborted; LM used for life support. Mission Duration 142hrs 54mins 41sec

  15. APOLLO 13: A News Bulletin from ABC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    APOLLO 13: ABC breaks the news of a mishap aboard the spacecraft From the film documentary 'APOLLO 13: 'Houston, We've got a problem'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APOLO 13 : Third manned lunar landing attempt with James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Pressure lost in SM oxygen system; mission aborted; LM used for life support. Mission Duration 142hrs 54mins 41sec

  16. Apollo Field Geology: 45 Years of Digesting Rocks, Field Data, and Future Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    2012-12-01

    Twelve Apollo astronauts participated in the Lunar Field Geological Experiment, overseen by Gene Shoemaker, Gordon Swann, and Bill Muehlberger and their Co-Investigators. In conjunction with geologists and engineers of the Geological Survey and NASA, this team planned, trained and executed the first extraterrestrial field geological investigation. As a result, astronaut sample selection, observations, photo-documentation and experiment deployment underpin 45 years of laboratory analyses and interpretation by thousands of lunar and planetary scientists. --Current hypotheses related to the origin, evolution and nature of the Moon would be far different had Apollo geological explorations not occurred, even assuming that all robotic missions flown before and since Apollo were flown. *Would we have recognized lunar meteorites without the broad suite of Apollo samples to guide us? If we eventually had properly identified such meteorites, would their chemistry and age data give us the same detailed insights about the origin and evolution of the Moon without the highly specific field documentation of samples collected by the astronauts? *Would we recognize that the early history of the Earth and Mars up to 3.8 billion years ago, including the development of life's precursors, was a period of the prolonged violence due to impacts of asteroids and comets? Would we have realized that clay minerals, produced by the alteration of impact-generated glass and debris, would have been dominant components and potential templates for complex organic molecules in the terrestrial and Martian environments? *Would we fully understand the surface environments of asteroids and young terrestrial planets without the detailed dissection and analysis of Apollo's lunar regolith samples? *Would the Moon's near-surface environment, and its mantle and core structure, be as well defined as they are without the ground-truth provided by Apollo samples and the equipment carefully emplaced there by the Apollo astronauts? *Would we finally be having an observation-based debate about testable hypotheses related to the origin of the Moon without the pristine samples of volatile-rich, orange and green pyroclastic glass? *Would we know of the three potential sources of lunar water-ice in permanent shadow, namely, comets, solar wind, and primordial water, without Apollo's samples of the regolith and pristine pyroclastic glasses? *Would we know the extent of the distributed resources of the Moon, including solar Helium-3, without regolith samples from six sites on the Moon? *Without the broad spectrum of Apollo samples, many other questions about the Moon would still be open or unasked. --Future lunar and planetary geological exploration should focus both on expanding science related to the history of the Earth and other planets and on preparations for permanent human settlement. In optimizing that exploration, an enhanced partnership between field activities undertaken by humans and robots should be developed. Robotic precursor and post-cursor support of planning, equipment deployment, and systematic data-gathering can add significantly to the normal returns provided by the insights of trained and experienced field geologists. They should do what humans do best, that is, react instantaneously and with perspicacity to new situations, discoveries and challenges.

  17. The scientific rationale for the C1XS X-ray spectrometer on India's Chandrayaan-1 mission to the moon

    E-print Network

    Wieczorek, Mark

    reserved. 1. Introduction The primary scientific importance of the Moon arises from the fact that it has to the moon I.A. Crawford a,Ã, K.H. Joya,b,c , B.J. Kellett b , M. Grande d , M. Anand c,e , N. Bhandari f , A Accepted 1 December 2008 Available online 24 December 2008 Keywords: Moon Lunar science X-ray spectroscopy

  18. Elemental mapping of the moon using gamma rays : past, present, and future /

    SciTech Connect

    Reedy, R. C.

    2001-01-01

    The energies and intensities of gamma rays From a planetary surface can be used to infer the elemental composition of an object with no or a thin atmosphere. The Apollo gamma-ray spectrometers in 1972 and 1973 produced many of the results for the distribution of elements in the Moon that are now generally well accepted. Lunar Prospector in 1998 and 1999 globally mapped the Moon with gamma rays and neutrons. Both missions used spectrometers with poor energy resolution ({approx}8-10%). The Japanese plan to send a high-resolution germanium gamma-ray spectrometer to the Moon in about 2004 on their SELENE mission. However, little has been done since the 1970s on the models used to unfold planetary gamma-ray spectra. More work needs to be done on understanding what to expect in future gamma-ray spectra and how to unfold such data.

  19. The Impact of Apollo-Era Microbiology on Human Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, T. F; Castro, V. A.; Bruce, R. J.; Pierson, D. L.

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota of crewmembers and the spacecraft environment contributes significant risk to crew health during space flight missions. NASA reduces microbial risk with various mitigation methods that originated during the Apollo Program and continued to evolve through subsequent programs: Skylab, Shuttle, and International Space Station (ISS). A quarantine of the crew and lunar surface samples, within the Lunar Receiving Laboratory following return from the Moon, was used to prevent contamination with unknown extraterrestrial organisms. The quarantine durations for the crew and lunar samples were 21 days and 50 days, respectively. A series of infections among Apollo crewmembers resulted in a quarantine before launch to limit exposure to infectious organisms. This Health Stabilization Program isolated the crew for 21 days before flight and was effective in reducing crew illness. After the program developed water recovery hardware for Apollo spacecraft, the 1967 National Academy of Science Space Science Board recommended the monitoring of potable water. NASA implemented acceptability limits of 10 colony forming units (CFU) per mL and the absence of viable E. coli, anaerobes, yeasts, and molds in three separate 150 mL aliquots. Microbiological investigations of the crew and spacecraft environment were conducted during the Apollo program, including the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project and Skylab. Subsequent space programs implemented microbial screening of the crew for pathogens and acceptability limits on spacecraft surfaces and air. Microbiology risk mitigation methods have evolved since the Apollo program. NASA cancelled the quarantine of the crew after return from the lunar surface, reduced the duration of the Health Stabilization Program; and implemented acceptability limits for spacecraft surfaces and air. While microbial risks were not a main focus of the early Mercury and Gemini programs, the extended duration of Apollo flights resulted in the increased scrutiny of impact of the space flight environment on crew health. The lessons learned during that era of space flight continue to impact microbiology risk mitigation in space programs today.

  20. Exploring the Moon: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Earth and Space Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educational guide concerns exploring the moon. Activities are divided into three units: Pre-Apollo, Learning from Apollo, and The Future. These correspond, at least roughly, to exercises that can be done before the Lunar Sample Disk (available from NASA) arrives to the school (Pre-Apollo), while it is there (Learning from Apollo), and after…

  1. APOLLO 9 : Who's in charge of Spider & Gumdrop?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Introduces the crew of the APOLLO 9 mission. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 9: The Duet of Spider & Gumdrop': part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) Mission: APOLLO 9: Earth orbital flight with James A. McDivitt, David R. Scott, and Russell Schweickart. First flight of the Lunar Module. Performed rendezvous, docking and E.V.A..Mission Duration 241hrs 0m 54s.

  2. Apollo 15 Proves Galileo Correct - Duration: 48 seconds.

    NASA Video Gallery

    At the end of the last Apollo 15 moon walk, Commander David Scott held out a geologic hammer and a feather and dropped them at the same time. Because they were essentially in a vacuum, there was no...

  3. A new time dependent model for the Moon radiation environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelis, G.; Badavi, F. F.; Clem, J. M.; Blattnig, S. R.; Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.

    In view of manned missions targeted to the Moon for which radiation exposure is one of the greatest challenges to be tackled it is of fundamental importance to have available a tool which allows the determination of the particle flux and spectra at any time and at any point of the lunar surface With this goal in mind a new model of the Moon s radiation environment due to Galactic Cosmic Rays GCR and Solar Particle Events SPE has been developed Primary particles reach the lunar surface and are transported all throughout the subsurface layers with backscattering patterns taken into account The surface itself has been modeled as regolith and bedrock with composition taken from the results of the instruments flown on the Apollo missions namely on the Apollo 12 from the Oceanus Procellarum landing site Subsurface environments like lava tubes have been considered in the analysis Particle transport has been performed with both deterministic and Monte Carlo codes with an adaptation for planetary surface geometry Results are given in terms of fluxes doses and LET for most kinds of particles namely protons neutrons alpha particles heavy ions pions and muons for various soil and rock compositions The spectra will be compared with the data from unmanned lunar orbiter missions in the near future

  4. Apollo 11 Facts Project [On-Orbit Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Footage is shown of the crew of Apollo 11 (Commander Neil Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Aldrin Jr., and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins) inside the spacecraft as they fly from the Earth to the Moon. A scene shows the entire Earth as seen from Apollo.

  5. Long-Lasting Science Returns from the Apollo Heat Flow Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagihara, S.; Taylor, P. T.; Williams, D. R.; Zacny, K.; Hedlund, M.; Nakamura, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The Apollo astronauts deployed geothermal heat flow instruments at landing sites 15 and 17 as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEP) in July 1971 and December 1972, respectively. These instruments continuously transmitted data to the Earth until September 1977. Four decades later, the data from the two Apollo sites remain the only set of in-situ heat flow measurements obtained on an extra-terrestrial body. Researchers continue to extract additional knowledge from this dataset by utilizing new analytical techniques and by synthesizing it with data from more recent lunar orbital missions such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. In addition, lessons learned from the Apollo experiments help contemporary researchers in designing heat flow instruments for future missions to the Moon and other planetary bodies. For example, the data from both Apollo sites showed gradual warming trends in the subsurface from 1971 to 1977. The cause of this warming has been debated in recent years. It may have resulted from fluctuation in insolation associated with the 18.6-year-cycle precession of the Moon, or sudden changes in surface thermal environment/properties resulting from the installation of the instruments and the astronauts' activities. These types of reanalyses of the Apollo data have lead a panel of scientists to recommend that a heat flow probe carried on a future lunar mission reach 3 m into the subsurface, approx 0.6 m deeper than the depths reached by the Apollo 17 experiment. This presentation describes the authors current efforts for (1) restoring a part of the Apollo heat flow data that were left unprocessed by the original investigators and (2) designing a compact heat flow instrument for future robotic missions to the Moon. First, at the conclusion of the ALSEP program in 1977, heat flow data obtained at the two Apollo sites after December 1974 were left unprocessed and not properly archived through NASA. In the following decades, heat flow data from January 1975 through February 1976, as well as the metadata necessary for processing the data (the data reduction algorithm, instrument calibration data, etc.), were somehow lost. In 2010, we located 450 original master archival tapes of unprocessed data from all the ALSEP instruments for a period of April through June 1975 at the Washington National Records Center. We are currently extracting the heat flow data packets from these tapes and processing them. Second, on future lunar missions, heat flow probes will likely be deployed by a network of small robotic landers, as recommended by the latest Decadal Survey of the National Academy of Science. In such a scenario, the heat flow probe must be a compact system, and that precludes use of heavy excavation equipment such as a rotary drill for reaching the 3-m target depth. The new heat flow system under development uses a pneumatically driven penetrator. It utilizes a stem that winds out of a reel and pushes its conical tip into the regolith. Simultaneously, gas jets, emitted from the cone tip, loosen and blow away the soil. Lab experiments have demonstrated its effectiveness in lunar vacuum.

  6. The Moon as a Test Body for General Relativity and New Gravitational Theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, Manuele; March, Riccardo; Bellettini, Giovanni; Dell'Agnello, S.; Delle Monache, G. O.; Currie, D. G.; Martini, M.; Lops, C.; Garattini, M.; March, R.; Bellettini, G.; Tauraso, R.; Battat, J. B.; Bianco, G.; Murphy, T. W., Jr.; Coradini, A.; Boni, A.; Cantone, C.; Maiello, M.; Porcelli, L.; Berardi, S.; Intaglietta, N.

    Since 1969 Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to the Apollo Cube Corner Reflector (CCR) arrays has supplied several significant tests of General Relativity (GR): it has evaluated the Geodetic Precession, probed the weak and strong equivalence principle, determined the PPN parameter , addressed the time change of G and 1/r2 deviations. We show that the Moon equipped with retroreflectors can be used effectively to test new gravitational theories beyond GR, like spacetime torsion (developed by some of the authors) and the unified braneworld theory by G. Dvali et al. LLR has also provided important information on the composition and origin of the Moon through measurement of its rotations and tides. Future robotic lunar missions, like the proposed International Lunar Network (ILN) will greatly expand this broad scientific program.Initially, the Apollo arrays contributed a negligible portion of the LLR error budget. Nowadays, the ranging accuracy of ground stations has improved by more than two orders of magnitude: the new APOLLO station at Apache Point, USA, is capable of mm-level range measurements; MRLO, at the ASI Space Geodesy Center in Matera, Italy, has re-started LR operations. Now, because of lunar librations, the Apollo arrays dominate the LLR error budget, which is a few cm. The University of Maryland, Principal Investigator for the Apollo arrays, and INFN-LNF are proposing an innovative CCR array design that will reduce the error contribution of LLR payloads by more than two orders of magnitude, down to tens of microns. This is the goal of the MoonLIGHT technological experiment of INFN (Moon Laser Instrumentation for General relativity High-Accuracy Tests) and of the SCF, the CCR space test facility at LNF. We have also proposed the precursor test of the MoonLIGHT payload on the ASI lunar orbiter mission MAGIA (A. Coradini PI), which concluded its Phase A Study in 2009. In our new array design the main challenges are: 1) address the thermal and optical effects of the absorption of solar radiation within the CCR; reduce the heat transfer from the hot housing and from the rapid temperature changes of the regolith to the CCR; 2) define a method of emplacing the CCR package on the surface such that it is stable over the lunar day/ night cycle; 3) adapt the design to the type of robotic mission (lander only or lander plus rover) and site. In the framework of robotic mission to the lunar surface we are also studying synergies of our payload with drilling, seismometers, local imaging and transponders (which can measure lunar librations and tides independently of LLR).

  7. Apollo Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Lunar Orbiter's 'Typical Flight sequence of Events' turned out to be quite typical indeed, as all five spacecraft performed exactly as planned. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 340.

  8. The Apollo 8 Lunar Module (LM) pilot, William Anders, suits up for launch. The first manned Apollo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Apollo 8 Lunar Module (LM) pilot, William Anders, suits up for launch. The first manned Apollo mission launched aboard the Saturn V and first manned Apollo craft to enter lunar orbit, the SA-503, Apollo 8 mission lift off occurred on December 21, 1968 and returned safely to Earth on December 27, 1968. Aboard were Anders and fellow astronauts James Lovell, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Frank Borman, commander. The mission achieved operational experience and tested the Apollo command module systems, including communications, tracking, and life-support, in cis-lunar space and lunar orbit, and allowed evaluation of crew performance on a lunar orbiting mission. The crew photographed the lunar surface, both far side and near side, obtaining information on topography and landmarks as well as other scientific information necessary for future Apollo landings. All systems operated within allowable parameters and all objectives of the mission were achieved.

  9. Food and nutrition studies for Apollo 16

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, M. C., Jr.; Rambaut, P. C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.; Rapp, R. M.; Wheeler, H. O.

    1972-01-01

    A study has been conducted on nutrient intake and absorption during the Apollo 16 mission. Results indicate that inflight intakes of all essential nutrients were adequate and that absorption of these materials occurred normally.

  10. Apollo Telescope Mount of Skylab: an overview.

    PubMed

    Tousey, R

    1977-04-01

    This introductory paper describes Skylab and the course of events that led to this complex space project. In particular it covers the Apollo Telescope Mount and its instruments and the method of operation of the ATM mission. PMID:20168601

  11. Apollo 13 Facts [Post Flight Press Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Apollo 13 astronauts, James Lovell, Jr., John Swigert, Jr., and Fred Haise, Jr., are seen during this post flight press conference. They describe their mission and answer questions from the audience.

  12. Astronaut Michael Collins inside Apollo Command Module mockup in training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Michael Collins, command module pilot of the Apollo 11 flight, is seen inside an Apollo Command Module (CM) mockup in bldg 5 practicing procedures with the Apollo docking mechanism in preparation for the scheduled Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Collins is at the CM's docking tunnel which provides passageway to and from the Lunar Module following docking, and after removal of the tunnel hatches, docking probe and drogue.

  13. Apollo 13 Guidance, Navigation, and Control Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2009-01-01

    Combustion and rupture of a liquid oxygen tank during the Apollo 13 mission provides lessons and insights for future spacecraft designers and operations personnel who may never, during their careers, have participated in saving a vehicle and crew during a spacecraft emergency. Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) challenges were the reestablishment of attitude control after the oxygen tank incident, re-establishment of a free return trajectory, resolution of a ground tracking conflict between the LM and the Saturn V S-IVB stage, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) alignments, maneuvering to burn attitudes, attitude control during burns, and performing manual GNC tasks with most vehicle systems powered down. Debris illuminated by the Sun and gaseous venting from the Service Module (SM) complicated crew attempts to identify stars and prevented execution of nominal IMU alignment procedures. Sightings on the Sun, Moon, and Earth were used instead. Near continuous communications with Mission Control enabled the crew to quickly perform time critical procedures. Overcoming these challenges required the modification of existing contingency procedures.

  14. John F. Kennedy, Jr., speaks to the media at KSC's HBO premiere 'From the Earth to the Moon.'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    John F. Kennedy, Jr., editor-in-chief of George Magazine, speaks with members of the national media at the Home Box Office (HBO) and Imagine Entertainment premiere of the 12-part miniseries 'From the Earth to the Moon' at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The series was filmed in part on location at KSC and dramatizes the human aspects of NASA's efforts to launch Americans to the Moon. The miniseries highlights NASA's Apollo program and the events leading up to and including the six successful missions to the Moon. A special 500-seat theater was constructed next to the Apollo/Saturn V Center for the KSC premiere showing. Speakers at the event included KSC Director Roy Bridges (at right); Jeff Bewkes, chairman and CEO for HBO; and John F. Kennedy, Jr. Also attending the event, which featured the episode entitled '1968,' were Buzz Aldrin, Apollo 11 astronaut, and Al Worden, Apollo 15 astronaut. The original miniseries event, created for HBO by actor Tom Hanks and Imagine Entertainment, will premiere on HBO beginning April 5, 1998.

  15. John F. Kennedy, Jr., speaks to invited guests at KSC's HBO premiere 'From the Earth to the Moon.'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    John F. Kennedy, Jr., editor-in-chief of George Magazine, greets invited guests at the Home Box Office (HBO) and Imagine Entertainment premiere of the 12-part miniseries 'From the Earth to the Moon' at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The series was filmed in part on location at KSC and dramatizes the human aspects of NASA's efforts to launch Americans to the Moon. The miniseries highlights NASA's Apollo program and the events leading up to and including the six successful missions to the Moon. A special 500- seat theater was constructed next to the Apollo/Saturn V Center for the KSC premiere showing. Speakers at the event included KSC Director Roy Bridges (at right); Jeff Bewkes, chairman and CEO for HBO; and John F. Kennedy, Jr. Also attending the event, which featured the episode entitled '1968,' were Buzz Aldrin, Apollo 11 astronaut, and Al Worden, Apollo 15 astronaut. The original miniseries event, created for HBO by actor Tom Hanks and Imagine Entertainment, will premiere on HBO beginning April 5, 1998.

  16. The Apollo Lunar Sample Image Collection: Digital Archiving and Online Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, Nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary E.; Stefanov, William L.; Garcia, Patricia A.

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of the Apollo Program was to land human beings on the Moon and bring them safely back to Earth. This goal was achieved during six missions - Apollo 11, 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 - that took place between 1969 and 1972. Among the many noteworthy engineering and scientific accomplishments of these missions, perhaps the most important in terms of scientific impact was the return of 382 kg (842 lb.) of lunar rocks, core samples, pebbles, sand, and dust from the lunar surface to Earth. Returned samples were curated at JSC (then known as the Manned Spacecraft Center) and, as part of the original processing, high-quality photographs were taken of each sample. The top, bottom, and sides of each rock sample were photographed, along with 16 stereo image pairs taken at 45-degree intervals. Photographs were also taken whenever a sample was subdivided and when thin sections were made. This collection of lunar sample images consists of roughly 36,000 photographs; all six Apollo missions are represented.

  17. Apollo 15 at Hadley Base.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This publication highlights the mission of Apollo 15 and includes many detailed black and white and color photographs taken near the lunar Apennine Mountains and the mile-wide, meandering Hadley Rille. Some of the photographs are full page (9 by 12 inch) reproductions. (Author/PR)

  18. Apollo 11 Lunar Science Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Wendell

    1970-01-01

    Report of a conference called to discuss the findings of 142 scientists from their investigations of samples of lunar rock and soil brought back by the Apollo 11 mission. Significant findings reported include the age and composition of the lunar samples, and the absence of water and organic matter. Much discussed was the origin and structure of…

  19. Plasma thyroxine changes of the Apollo crewmen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheinfeld, M.; Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.

    1975-01-01

    Blood drawn from Apollo crew members prior to the mission, at recovery, and postmission, was used to examine the effect Apollo mission activities have on thyroid hormone levels. At recovery, statistically significant increases in thyroxine and the free thyroxine index were found. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased. No change of statistical significance was found in the T3 binding percentage, total serum proteins, and albumin. We conclude that Apollo activities and environment caused the postmission increase in plasma thyroxine. The prolonged postmission decreases in serum cholesterol may be one result of the increased thyroxine activity.

  20. Apollo Program Summary Report: Synopsis of the Apollo Program Activities and Technology for Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Overall program activities and the technology developed to accomplish lunar exploration are discussed. A summary of the flights conducted over an 11-year period is presented along with specific aspects of the overall program, including lunar science, vehicle development and performance, lunar module development program, spacecraft development testing, flight crew summary, mission operations, biomedical data, spacecraft manufacturing and testing, launch site facilities, equipment, and prelaunch operations, and the lunar receiving laboratory. Appendixes provide data on each of the Apollo missions, mission type designations, spacecraft weights, records achieved by Apollo crewmen, vehicle histories, and a listing of anomalous hardware conditions noted during each flight beginning with Apollo 4.

  1. Apollo 13 Crew Returns Home

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This photograph shows Apollo 13 astronauts Fred Haise, John Swigert, and James Lovell aboard the recovery ship, USS Iwo Jima after safely touching down in the Pacific Ocean at the end of their ill-fated mission. The mission was aborted after 56 hours of flight, 205,000 miles from Earth, when an oxygen tank in the service module exploded. The command module, Odyssey, brought the three astronauts back home safely.

  2. Forecasting Proximal Femur and Wrist Fracture Caused by a Fall to the Side during Space Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Beth E.; Myers, Jerry G.; Sulkowski, C.; Ruehl, K.; Licata, A.

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of bone fracture in space is a concern due to the negative impact it could have on a mission. The Bone Fracture Risk Module (BFxRM) developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center is a statistical simulation that quantifies the probability of bone fracture at specific skeletal locations for particular activities or events during space exploration missions. This paper reports fracture probability predictions for the proximal femur and wrist resulting from a fall to the side during an extravehicular activity (EVA) on specific days of lunar and Martian exploration missions. The risk of fracture at the proximal femur on any given day of the mission is small and fairly constant, although it is slightly greater towards the end of the mission, due to a reduction in proximal femur bone mineral density (BMD). The risk of wrist fracture is greater than the risk of hip fracture and there is an increased risk on Mars since it has a higher gravitational environment than the moon. The BFxRM can be used to help manage the risk of bone fracture in space as an engineering tool that is used during mission operation and resource planning.

  3. Where no flag has gone before: Political and technical aspects of placing a flag on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platoff, Anne M.

    1993-01-01

    The flag on the Moon represents an important event in vexillological history. The political and technical aspects of placing a flag on the Moon, focusing on the first Moon landing, is examined. During their historic extravehicular activity, the Apollo 11 crew planted the flag of the United States on the lunar surface. This flag-raising was strictly a symbolic activity, as the United Nations Treaty on Outer Space precluded any territorial claim. Nevertheless, there were domestic and international debates over the appropriateness of the event. Congress amended the agency's appropriations bill to prevent the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from placing flags of other nations, or those of international associations, on the Moon during missions funded solely by the United States. Like any activity in space exploration, the Apollo flag-raising also provided NASA engineers with an interesting technical challenge. They designed a flagpole with a horizontal bar allowing the flag to 'fly' without the benefit of wind to overcome the effects of the Moon's lack of an atmosphere. Other factors considered in the design were weight, heat resistance, and ease of assembly by astronauts whose space suits restricted their range of movement and ability to grasp items. As NASA plans a return to the Moon and an expedition to Mars, we will likely see flags continue to go 'where no flag has gone before'.

  4. The Apollo Program and Amino Acids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sidney W.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the determination of hydrolyzable amino acid precursors and a group of six amino acids in the returned lunar samples of the Apollo programs. Indicates that molecular evolution is arrested at the precursor stage on the Moon because of lack of water. (CC)

  5. APOLLO 11 COMMANDER NEIL ARMSTRONG IN SIMULATOR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Apollo 11 commander Neil Armstrong is going through flight training in the lunar module simulator situated in the flight crew training building at KSC. Armstrong will pilot the lunar module to a moon landing on July 20, following launch from KSC on July 16.

  6. Neil Armstrong On The Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, Apollo ll mission commander, at the modular equipment storage assembly (MESA) of the Lunar Module 'Eagle' on the historic first extravehicular activity (EVA) on the lunar surface. Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. took the photograph with a Hasselblad 70mm camera. Most photos from the Apollo 11 mission show Buzz Aldrin. This is one of only a few that show Neil Armstrong (some of these are blurry).

  7. Lunar Orbiter I - Moon & Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    First view of the earth and moon from space. Published in: Spaceflight Revolution: Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, by James R. Hansen. NASA History Series. NASA SP ; 4308. p ii. Caption: 'The picture of the century was this first view of the earth from space. Lunar Orbiter I took the photo on 23 August 1966 on its 16th orbit just before it passed behind the moon. The photo also provided a spectacular dimensional view of the lunar surface.'

  8. The use of deep moonquakes for constraining the internal structure of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, R. C.; Garcia, R.; Johnson, C. L.; Knapmeyer, M.; Lognonne, P.; Nakamura, Y.; Schmerr, N. C.

    2010-12-01

    The installation of seismometers on the Moon’s surface during the Apollo era provided a wealth of information that transformed our understanding of lunar formation and evolution. Seismic events detected by the nearside network were used to constrain the structure of the Moon’s crust and mantle down to a depth of about 1000 km. The presence of an attenuating region in the deepest interior has been inferred from the paucity of farside events, as well as other indirect geophysical measurements. Recent re-analyses of the Apollo data have tentatively identified this region as a lunar core, although its properties are not yet constrained. Here we present new modeling in support of seismic missions that plan to build upon the knowledge of the Moon’s interior gathered by Apollo. Of the many types of Apollo events, deep moonquakes were the most numerous. They were found to originate in distinct nearside clusters, at depths between approximately 700 and 1200 km. Each cluster produced its own unique waveform, occurring with both monthly and 6-year periodicity as dictated by the lunar orbit. We predict that these clusters are still active today. By taking advantage of this periodicity we are therefore able to project the times of their occurrence into the future. Thus planned missions can rely on these events as known seismic sources. For most seismic methods used to determine structure, recorded events must be located. Traditional event-location techniques require a minimum of four stations. Due to cost constraints, new missions may not be able to deploy that many. Fortunately, future landers will be able to operate in a virtual network with the Apollo instruments, as deep moonquake source locations are already constrained. We have devised a method in which individual events can be linked to a known cluster using the observed S-P arrival time differences and azimuth to only two stations. Events can be further identified using each cluster’s unique occurrence time signature. As we expect future seismometers to be able to identify deep moonquakes, we can determine the ideal landing sites to detect the Moon’s core. Although current works have made progress in the recognition of core-reflected phases in the Apollo data, such phases typically arrive in the coda of the main P and S arrivals, hampering their identification on individual seismograms. We thus focus on the detection of PKP, a seismic compression wave that travels through the Moon’s core. Our method takes into account the predicted ray density, arrival amplitudes, and level of seismicity from the known distribution of deep moonquakes. At large epicentral distances, PKP is predicted as a first arrival, and hence should be easily identifiable on future seismograms. This method can be adapted to any core-interacting phase.

  9. Epic Moon: a history of lunar exploration in the age of the telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheehan, William P.; Dobbins, Thomas A.

    As early as 1609 Galileo's first telescope showed the Moon to be another world. The Moon has thus been the object of intense study not only since the 1960s but for at least the previous three and a half centuries. The first "race to the Moon" was not undertaken by American astronauts and Soviet cosmonauts but by German and British selenographers in the nineteenth century, who mapped lunar detail so painstakingly that by 1878 - the year Julius Schmidt of the Athens Observatory published his great Moon map. In part, the reason for the long preoccupation with lunar surface details lay in the fact that the mapping of the Moon provided a form of therapy for astronomically inclined obsessive personalities. In part, too, it lay in the partiality of selenographers for the project - first systematically pursued by Johann Schroeter at the end of the eighteenth century - of discovering evidence of minor changes in the lunar surface. What became a Promethean quest for changes - veils, clouds, landslips, eruptions - was initially tied in with the theory that the lunar surface features had been formed by volcanic eruptions; however, it curiously survived the demise of the volcanic theory and still shows intermittent gasps of life in the largely amateur-driven search for transient lunar phenomena, or TLP. The long era of pre-Apollo lunar studies is a fascinating subject that has never been told in detail. Though there was a lapse of interest in the Moon in the immediate post-Apollo era, there has been a recent "return to the Moon" with the successful Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions. There is also growing evidence of a return of amateur observers to the Moon as an object worthy of their attentions. This is understandable inasmuch as the Moon remains the most accessible planetary realm; it is, moreover, the only alien world open to geological prospecting from the eyepiece of the backyard telescope. In that sense, this book is - like the Moon itself - both timely and timeless. The story of mankind's endless fascination with the world of the Moon and the gallery of interesting characters who pursued the details of the lunar surface with often strange intensity is a modern-day epic. Many of the stories recounted for the first time here will still be recounted generations hence, when the Apollo explorations may seem a mere interlude in what has actually been a more sustained and more significant era of endeavour. It is possible that the names of Schroeter, Beer and Mädler, Webb and Schmidt may prove to be as memorable as those of Armstrong, Aldrin, Cernan and Schmitt.

  10. A new lunar high-Ti basalt type defined from clasts in Apollo 16 breccia 60639

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fagan, A. L.; Neal, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the detailed examination of three basalt clasts from Apollo 16 breccia 60639 that represent a new variant of high-Ti basalt returned from the Moon by the Apollo 16 mission. Mineral chemistry and whole-rock analyses were conducted on aliquots from three clasts (breccia matrix, basalt, and basalt + breccia matrix). The basalt clasts, which are not overtly porphyritic, contain compositionally zoned pyroxene, olivine, and plagioclase crystals that represent the evolution of the magma during crystallization; ilmenite does not exhibit major-element compositional zoning within individual crystals. Mineral compositions are distinct between the basalt and breccia matrix lithologies. In addition, whole-rock analyses identify clear compositional differences between the basalt and breccia matrix lithologies in both major and trace element concentrations. The composition of the mixed lithology aliquots (i.e., basalt + breccia matrix) do not indicate simple two component mixing (i.e., compositions are not intermediate to the basalt and breccia end-members); this apparent incongruity can be accounted for by adding ?19-40% plagioclase to an amalgamation of the average basalt and individual breccia clast compositions via impact mixing. Whole-rock analyses are consistent with previous analyses of one 60639 basalt clast, which were interpreted to indicate chemical similarity with Apollo 11 and 17 basalts. However, both major and trace elements suggest that the 60639 basalt clasts examined here have compositions that are distinct from Apollo 11 and 17 high-Ti basalts. Although the 60639 basalt clasts have similar characteristics to a variety of previously identified basalt types, the more extensive whole-rock analyses reported here indicate that they represent a type of Apollo high-Ti basalt heretofore unrecognized in the Apollo and lunar meteorite collections. By placing these new analyses in the context of other mare basalt compositions, a petrogenetic model for the basalts found in breccia 60639 is presented.

  11. Apollo video photogrammetry estimation of plume impingement effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Immer, Christopher; Lane, John; Metzger, Philip; Clements, Sandra

    2011-07-01

    Future missions to the Moon may require numerous landings at the same site. Since the top few centimeters are loosely packed regolith, plume impingement from the Lander ejects the granular material at high velocities. Much work is needed to understand the physics of plume impingement during landing to protect hardware surrounding the landing sites. While mostly qualitative in nature, the Apollo Lunar Module landing videos can provide a wealth of quantitative information using modern photogrammetry techniques. The authors have used the digitized videos to quantify plume impingement effects of the landing exhaust on the lunar surface. The dust ejection angle from the plume is estimated at 1°-3°. The lofted particle density is estimated at 10 8-10 13 particles/m 3. Additionally, evidence for ejection of large 10-15 cm sized objects and a dependence of ejection angle on thrust are presented. Further work is ongoing to continue quantitative analysis of the landing videos.

  12. Astronaut Eugene Cernan eating a meal aboard Apollo 17 spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A fellow crewman took this photograph of Astronaut Eugene A. Cernan, Apollo 17 mission commander, eating a meal under the weightless conditions of space during the final lunar landing mission in the Apollo program. Cernan appears to be eating chocolate pudding.

  13. K and U systematics and average concentrations on the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schonfeld, E.

    1974-01-01

    The K-U, Th-U, and Th-Al systematics for lunar samples from the Apollo 11-17 missions and the Luna 16 and 20 missions are summarized. With few exceptions (granitic portion of 12013 and the Apollo 17 mare basalts) the Th/U ratio is 3.8 plus or minus 0.2. The K/U ratio for lunar samples is about 2600 and is distinctly different from the K/U ratio found in terrestrial samples and in the majority of meteorites. The K-U systematics are similar to the K-La, K-Sm, K-Ba, and K-Zr systematics, suggesting that the moon accreted approximately homogeneously. Based on a model the moon contains an average abundance of about 80 ppb U, about 200 ppm K, and about 7 times chondritic abundances for all the refractory elements such as Al, Ca, Ti, Zr, Ba, Sr, and REE. The Th-Al systematics of many lunar highland rocks are dominated by the presence of the rock-type KREEP.

  14. The Use of Deep Moonquakes for Constraining the Internal Structure of the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee; Garcia, Raphael; Johnson, Catherine; Knapmeyer, Martin; Lognonne, Philippe; Nakamura, Yosio; Schmerr, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The installation of seismometers on the Moon s surface during the Apollo era provided a wealth of information that transformed our understanding of lunar formation and evolution. Seismic events detected by the nearside network were used to constrain the structure of the Moon s crust and mantle down to a depth of about 1000 km. The presence of an attenuating region in the deepest interior has been inferred from the paucity of farside events, as well as other indirect geophysical measurements. Recent re-analyses of the Apollo data have tentatively identified this region as a lunar core, although its properties are not yet constrained. Here we present new modeling in support of seismic missions that plan to build upon the knowledge of the Moon s interior gathered by Apollo. We have devised a method in which individual events can be linked to a known cluster using the observed S-P arrival time differences and azimuth to only two stations. Events can be further identified using each cluster's unique occurrence time signature

  15. Development of the J-2X Engine for the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle: Building on the Apollo Program for Lunar Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, WIlliam

    2007-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Vision for Space Exploration has directed NASA to develop two new launch vehicles for sending humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. In January 2006, NASA streamlined its hardware development approach for replacing the Space Shuttle after it is retired in 2010. Benefits of this approach include reduced programmatic and technical risks and the potential to return to the Moon by 2020 by developing the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) propulsion elements now, with full extensibility to future Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) lunar systems. The Constellation Program selected the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne J-2X engine to power the Ares I Upper Stage Element and the Ares V Earth Departure Stage (EDS). This decision was reached during the Exploration Systems Architecture Study and confirmed after the Exploration Launch Projects Office performed a variety of risk analyses, commonality assessments, and trade studies. This paper narrates the evolution of that decision; describes the performance capabilities expected of the J-2X design, including potential commonality challenges and opportunities between the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles; and provides a current status of J-2X design, development, and hardware testing activities. This paper also explains how the J-2X engine effort mitigates risk by testing existing engine hardware and designs; building on the Apollo Program (1961 to 1975), the Space Shuttle Program (1972 to 2010); and consulting with Apollo era experts to derive other lessons learned to deliver a human-rated engine that is on an aggressive development schedule, with its first demonstration flight in 2012.

  16. Apollo 12, A New Vista for Lunar Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Man's second lunar landing, Apollo 12, provided a wealth of scientific information about the moon. The deployment of the magnetometer, seismometer, and ionosphere detector, and other activities on the lunar surface are described. A number of color photographs show the astronauts setting up equipment on the moon as well as close-ups of the lunar…

  17. Apollo 11 Facts Project [On-Orbit Lunar Module Checkout

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Footage is shown of the crew of Apollo 11 (Commander Neil Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Aldrin Jr., and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins) inside the spacecraft as they fly from the Earth to the Moon. The Moon is seen in its entirety and in close detail. Aldrin gives a brief demonstration on how the astronauts eat in space.

  18. Evolution of the moon: The 1974 model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    Investigations are reported of Apollo and Luna explorations which have brought about the understanding of the moon and its structure. It is shown that with this knowledge of the moon, a better understanding is presented of the earth's origin, structure and composition.

  19. What's new on the moon. II. [impact on understanding solar system evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, B. M.

    1977-01-01

    Apollo missions and returned lunar samples have provided new information about the moon, the earth, the sun, and the universe. Analyses show that all the planets were formed by the rapid accumulation of small bodies into larger ones about 4.6 billion years ago. The existence of simple molecules formed by reactions between the soil particles and atoms of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen that have come from the sun, suggests that the basic ingredients for life are common in the universe. The ratio of hydrogen to helium in the solar wind reaching the moon is found to be 20 to 1, whereas the earth-based measurements show this ratio to be 10 to 1. Although the moon does not have any magnetic field at the present, the analyses revealed the existence of such a field three billion years ago. The understanding of the reasons for the disappearance of this field is vital for understanding planetary magnetic fields. The determination of the chemical composition of the whole moon, the explanation of the moon's observed asymmetry, and the understanding of the nature of moon's interior will have to be achieved by future, possibly unmanned, missions.

  20. From Mercury to Apollo: astronaut Alan Shepard reflects on life support and other space issues [interview by Winston Huff].

    PubMed

    Shepard, A

    1995-01-01

    Alan Shepard was one of the original Mercury astronauts. He became the first American in space on May 5, 1961, in the Freedom 7 capsule, during a 15 minute suborbital trip reaching 115 miles altitude and 302 miles down the Atlantic tracking range. Grounded by an inner ear problem, he served as Chief of the Astronaut Office for several years. After an operation to correct the problem, he commanded the Apollo 14 moon mission in 1971. He retired as a Rear Admiral in 1974. Here, Alan Shepard offers his views on life support comedies and tragedies, going back to the moon, future drivers of the manned space flight program, the benefits of the space program, joint NASA and Russia missions, how his NASA experience affected his personal life, and the profitability of working with NASA. PMID:11538588

  1. Rb-Sr-analyses of apollo 16 melt rocks and a new age estimate for the imbrium basin: lunar basin chronology and the early heavy bombardment of the moon

    SciTech Connect

    Deutsch, A.; Stoeffler, D.

    1987-07-01

    Rb-Sr-model ages on 7 impact glass-bombs and internal Rb-Sr isochrons for two crystalline impact melt rocks from the Apollo 16 collection have been determined. The post-Cayley glass-bombs with model ages between 4.75 +- 0.45 AE and 3.97 +- 0.08 AE can be classified according to their calculated single stage (/sup 87/Rb/sup 86/Sr)/sub I/-ratios: 67728, 67946, and 67627.8 point to a KREEP-free precursor terrain - the Descartes highlands; whereas 63566, 67567, 67627.10 and 67629 are derived from the more heterogeneous Cayley plains. The very feldspar-rich impact melt rock 65795, which is compositionally similar to the group of feldspathic microporphyritic melt breccias (FM-suite), yields a crystallization age of 3.81 +- 0.04 AE (2sigma; lambda/sup 87/Rb = 1.42/sup -11/ yr/sup -1/) and I/sub Sr/ of .69929 +- 3. The authors suggest that the Imbrium basin and the related Fra Mauro and Cayley formations were formed 3.77 +- 0.02 AE ago and could be even as young as 3.75 AE. As a consequence, they adopt 3.92 +- 0.03 AE, 3.87 +- 0.03 AE, and 3.84 +- 0.04 AE as ages for the Nectaris, Serenitatis, and Crisium basins, respectively, in agreement with the relative crater densities measured on the ejecta blankets of these basins. The proposed age sequence leads to an average formation interval for the observed 12-13 Nectarian basins of 7 to 14 m.y. leaving approx. 30 pre-Nectarian basins of unknown age. These facts suggest that there is no late terminal lunar cataclysm in the sense of a culmination of the lunar impact rate at approx. 3.8 AE ago. Rather, the observations are compatible with a steeply and steadily decreasing flux of impactors in the sense of an early heavy bombardment which started at the time of the moon's accretion and terminated around 3.75 AE ago.

  2. Re-examination of Apollo 17 LSPE data with respect to new LRO coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czeluschke, Alexandra; Knapmeyer, Martin; Oberst, Jürgen; Haase, Isabel

    2014-05-01

    We examine the existing Apollo 17 Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment (LSPE) data with respect to new coordinates obtained through the combined use of lunar surface photography and high-resolution Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) data. The LSPE of Apollo 17 was used to explore the subsurface structure of the Moon. For the analysis of such seismic data sets it is necessary to have the exact positions of all used equipment, such as geophones and seismic sources. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission launched on June 18, 2009. The LROC mapped the surface of the Moon from orbit, at a maximum resolution of 50 cm/pixel (20 inch/pixel), and therefore allows us a detailed mapping of the Apollo landing sites and a reconstruction of the geometry of the seismic network used. In addition, we re-examined the surface photography taken by the astronauts during the extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Astronauts documented the deployment of equipment by using calibrated Hasselblad Electric Data Cameras by taking single shots with prominent features in the background or by taking a series of panoramic images while driving in the area of the deployed equipment. By combined analysis of both high-resolution LROC orthoimages and Apollo surface images we determined geometrically accurate lunar-fixed ME-coordinates (Mean-Earth/Polar Axis) of the Apollo landing sites and equipment. We find significant point deflections ranging from 1m up to 10m between previously published coordinates and the new LROC supported values for geophone and seismic source locations. Consequently, we are now in progress to re-evaluate the data from the Apollo 17 Profiling Experiment with the new obtained coordinates, in order to obtain improved models concerning layering and seismic velocity structure of the lunar subsurface. Progress in this effort will be reported at the conference. This study is supported by the Helmholtz Alliance "Robotic Exploration of Extreme Environments - ROBEX". The ROBEX alliance aims to develop a new seismic experiment concept that can be conducted autonomously by robotic rovers on the Moon.

  3. Preparing to return to the Moon: Lessons from science-driven analogue missions to the Mistastin Lake impact structure, Canada, a unique lunar analogue site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinski, G. R.; Barfoot, T.; Chanou, A.; Daly, M. G.; Francis, R.; Hodges, K. V.; Jolliff, B. L.; Mader, M. M.; McCullough, E. M.; Moores, J. E.; Pickersgill, A.; Pontefract, A.; Preston, L.; Shankar, B.; Singleton, A.; Sylvester, P.; Tornabene, L. L.; Young, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Impact cratering is the dominant geological process on the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and the moons of Mars - the objectives for the new Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute (SSERVI). Led by members of the Canadian Lunar Research Network (CLRN), funded by the Canadian Space Agency, and with participants from the U.S., we carried out a series of analogue missions on Earth in order to prepare and train for future potential robotic and human sample return missions. Critically, these analogue missions were driven by the paradigm that operational and technical objectives are conducted while conducting new science and addressing real overarching scientific objectives. An overarching operational goal was to assess the utility of a robotic field reconnaissance mission as a precursor to a human sortie sample return mission. Here, we focus on the results and lessons learned from a robotic precursor mission and follow on human-robotic mission to the Mistastin Lake impact structure in Labrador, northern Canada (55°53'N; 63°18'W). The Mistastin structure was chosen because it represents an exceptional analogue for lunar craters. This site includes both an anorthositic target, a central uplift, well-preserved impact melt rocks - mostly derived from melting anorthosite - and is (or was) relatively unexplored. This crater formed ~36 million years ago and has a diameter of ~28 km. The scientific goals for these analogue missions were to further our understanding of impact chronology, shock processes, impact ejecta and potential resources within impact craters. By combining these goals in an analogue mission campaign key scientific requirements for a robotic precursor were determined. From the outset, these analogue missions were formulated and executed like an actual space mission. Sites of interest were chosen using remote sensing imagery without a priori knowledge of the site through a rigorous site selection process. The first deployment occurred in August and September 2010 and involved simulated robotic surveying of selected 'landing sites' at the Mistastin structure. The second deployment took place at the same location in 2011, which included simulated astronaut surface operations with, and without, the aid of a robotic assistant. A mission control team, based at the University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, 1,900 km from the field site, oversaw operations. Our study showed the value of precursor reconnaissance missions in providing surface geology visualization at resolutions and from viewpoints not achievable from orbit, including high-resolution surface imagery on the scale of 10s of metres to kilometres. Indeed, data collected during the robotic precursor mission led to the formulation of a hypothesis that a large impact melt outcrop - named Discovery Hill - represents an impact melt pond in the terraced region of the crater, analogous to similar ponds of melt documented around the rim of well-preserved lunar craters such as Tycho. Further discoveries, that will be highlight here, include documentation of ejecta deposits for the first time at Mistastin, quantification of shock in anorthosites, and refined age estimates for the Mistastin impact event.

  4. APOLLO II

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, R.; Mondot, J.; Stankovski, Z.; Cossic, A.; Zmijarevic, I.

    1988-11-01

    APOLLO II is a new, multigroup transport code under development at the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique. The code has a modular structure and uses sophisticated software for data structuralization, dynamic memory management, data storage, and user macrolanguage. This paper gives an overview of the main methods used in the code for (a) multidimensional collision probability calculations, (b) leakage calculations, and (c) homogenization procedures. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the potential of the modular structure of the code and the novel multilevel flat-flux representation used in the calculation of the collision probabilities.

  5. Apollo 11 Astronauts In Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched aboard the Saturn V launch vehicle from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. The surface exploration was concluded in 2½ hours. Once the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth, the LM redocked with the CM for the crew's return to Earth. Following splash down in the Pacific Ocean, Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). Astronaut Collins took this snapshot of astronauts Armstrong (center) and Aldrin inside of the MQF.

  6. Influence of the lunar ambience on dynamic surface hydration on sunlit regions of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Califorrniaa, E.

    2015-03-01

    The accepted paradigm of a dry Moon has been upset by the recent detection of a wet Moon. EPOXI, NASA's extended mission for the Deep Impact spacecraft, observed and quantified dynamic surface hydration on sunlit regions of the Moon by infrared spectrometry in separate flybys. MIP CHACE, released from ISRO's Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft, detected H2O by mass spectrometry in orbit in the sunlit lunar ambience at a partial pressure exceeding Apollo inferences by over two orders of magnitude. Here it is shown CHACE and EPOXI are mutually supportive, suggesting the order of magnitude reported by CHACE is correct. With this confirmation in mind, it is shown the CHACE data imply H2O in the lunar ambience impinges upon near equatorial surfaces at an annual average of ?400 g m-2 yr-1 by cursory estimate.

  7. Prospecting for In Situ Resources on the Moon and Mars Using Wheel-Based Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buehler, Martin G.; Anderson, Robert C.; Seshadri, Suresh; Schaap, Marcel G.

    2005-01-01

    The Apollo and Russian missions during 1970's were reviewed to rediscover the type and distribution of minerals on the Moon. This study revealed that the Moon is a relatively barren place in mineral content when compared with the Earth. Results from the Lunar minerals brought back to Earth, indicate that the Moon lacks water, hydroxyl ions, and carbon based minerals. Our approach to prospecting utilizes a vehicle with sensors embedded in a wheel that allow measurements while the vehicle is in motion. Once a change in soil composition is detected, decision making software stops the vehicle and analytical instruments perform a more definitive analysis of the soil. The focus of this paper is to describe the instrumentation and data from the wheel-based sensors.

  8. Impact origin of the Moon

    SciTech Connect

    Slattery, W.L.

    1998-12-31

    A few years after the Apollo flights to the Moon, it became clear that all of the existing theories on the origin of the Moon would not satisfy the growing body of constraints which appeared with the data gathered by the Apollo flights. About the same time, researchers began to realize that the inner (terrestrial) planets were not born quietly -- all had evidences of impacts on their surfaces. This fact reinforced the idea that the planets had formed by the accumulation of planetesimals. Since the Earth`s moon is unique among the terrestrial planets, a few researchers realized that perhaps the Moon originated in a singular event; an event that was quite probable, but not so probable that one would expect all the terrestrial planets to have a large moon. And thus was born the idea that a giant impact formed the Moon. Impacts would be common in the early solar system; perhaps a really large impact of two almost fully formed planets of disparate sizes would lead to material orbiting the proto-earth, a proto-moon. This idea remained to be tested. Using a relatively new, but robust, method of doing the hydrodynamics of the collision (Smoothed-Particle Hydrodynamics), the author and his colleagues (W. Benz, Univ. of Arizona, and A.G.W. Cameron, Harvard College Obs.) did a large number of collision simulations on a supercomputer. The author found two major scenarios which would result in the formation of the Moon. The first was direct formation; a moon-sized object is boosted into orbit by gravitational torques. The second is when the orbiting material forms a disk, which, with subsequent evolution can form the Moon. In either case the physical and chemical properties of the newly formed Moon would very neatly satisfy the physical and chemical constraints of the current Moon. Also, in both scenarios the surface of the Earth would be quite hot after the collision. This aspect remains to be explored.

  9. Apollo 17 preliminary science report. [Apollo 17 investigation of Taurus-Littrow lunar region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    An analysis of the Apollo 17 flight is presented in the form of a preliminary science report. The subjects discussed are: (1) Apollo 17 site selection, (2) mission description, (3) geological investigation of landing site, (4) lunar experiments, (5) visual flight flash phenomenon, (6) volcanic studies, (7) mare ridges and related studies, (8) remote sensing and photogrammetric studies, and (9) astronomical photography. Extensive photographic data are included for all phases of the mission.

  10. The Moon and Its Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urey, Harold C.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the origin of the Moon on the basis of the Apollo expeditions as an accumulated gas sphere at its very beginning and, later, a satellite captured by the Earth. Indicates that the model would be substantially believable if further observations should be proved to exist as estimated. (CC)

  11. Development of the J-2X Engine for the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle and the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle: Building on the Apollo Program for Lunar Return Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, Jim

    2006-01-01

    The United States (U.S.) Vision for Space Exploration directs NASA to develop two new launch vehicles for sending humans to the Moon, Mars, and beyond. In January 2006, NASA streamlined its hardware development approach for replacing the Space Shuttle after it is retired in 2010. Benefits of this approach include reduced programmatic and technical risks and the potential to return to the Moon by 2020, by developing the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) propulsion elements now, with full extensibility to future Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) lunar systems. This decision was reached after the Exploration Launch Projects Office performed a variety of risk analyses, commonality assessments, and trade studies. The Constellation Program selected the Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne J-2X engine to power the Ares I Upper Stage Element and the Ares V Earth Departure Stage. This paper narrates the evolution of that decision; describes the performance capabilities expected of the J-2X design, including potential commonality challenges and opportunities between the Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles; and provides a current status of J-2X design, development, and hardware testing activities. This paper also explains how the J-2X engine effort mitigates risk by building on the Apollo Program and other lessons lived to deliver a human-rated engine that is on an aggressive development schedule, with its first demonstration flight in 2012.

  12. Field Exploration Science for a Return to the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, H. H.; Helper, M. A.; Muehlbberger, W.; Snoke, A. W.

    2006-12-01

    Apollo field exploration science, and subsequent analysis, and interpretation of its findings and collected samples, underpin our current understanding of the origin and history of the Moon. That understanding, in turn, continues to provide new and important insights into the early histories of the Earth and other bodies in the solar system, particularly during the period that life formed and began to evolve on Earth and possibly on Mars. Those early explorations also have disclosed significant and potentially commercially viable lunar resources that might help satisfy future demand for both terrestrial energy alternatives and space consumables. Lunar sortie missions as part of the Vision for Space Exploration provide an opportunity to continue and expand the human geological, geochemical and geophysical exploration of the Moon. Specific objectives of future field exploration science include: (1) Testing of the consensus "giant impact" hypothesis for the origin of the Moon by further investigation of materials that may augment understanding of the chondritic geochemistry of the lower lunar mantle; (2) Testing of the consensus impact "cataclysm" hypothesis by obtaining absolute ages on large lunar basins of relative ages older than the 3.8-3.9 Ga mascon basins dated by Apollo 15 and 17; (3) Calibration of the end of large impacts in the inner solar system; (4) Global delineation of the internal structure of the Moon; (5) Global sampling and field investigations that extend the data necessary to remotely correlate major lunar geological and geochemical units; (6) Definition of the depositional history of polar volatiles - cometary, solar wind, or otherwise; (7) Determine the recoverable in situ concentrations and distribution of potential volatile resources; and (8) Acquisition of information and samples related to relatively less site-specific aspects of lunar geological processes. Planning for renewed field exploration of the Moon depends largely on the selection, training and use of sortie crews; the selection of landing sites; and the adopted operational approach to sortie extravehicular activity (EVA). The equipment necessary for successful exploration consists of that required for sampling, sample documentation, communications, mobility, and position knowledge. Other types of active geophysical. geochemical and petrographic equipment, if available, could clearly enhance the scientific and operational return of extended exploration over that possible during Apollo missions. Equipment to increase the efficiency of exploration should include the following, helmet-mounted, systems: (1) voice activated or automatic, electronic, stereo photo-documentation camera that is photometrically and geometrically fully calibrated; (2) automatic position and elevation determination system; and (3) laser-ranging device, aligned with the stereo camera axis. Heads-up displays and controls on the helmet, activated and selected by voice, should be available for control and use of this equipment.

  13. APOLLO 9: What in Space are Spider & Gumdrop?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Describes Spider and Gumdrop and the purpose of the mission From the film documentary 'APOLLO 9: The Duet of Spider & Gumdrop': part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) Mission: APOLLO 9: Earth orbital flight with James A. McDivitt, David R. Scott, and Russell Schweickart. First flight of the Lunar Module. Performed rendezvous, docking and E.V.A..Mission Duration 241hrs 0m 54s.

  14. Proposal for revisions of the United Nations Moon Treaty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Vera; Abreu, Neyda; Fritz, J.; Knapmeyer, Martin; Smeenk, Lisa; Ten Kate, Inge; Trüninger, Monica

    During this new 2010-decade, it will be imperative to reconsider the effectiveness of the current United Nations (U.N.) Moon Treaty (c.1979). Amendments are necessary to underline the mandatory human stewardship of this fragile planetary body of our Solar System, indispensible to life on Earth. After the very successful Apollo and Luna missions to the Moon (ending in 1976), which brought a wide array of data (samples, surface and orbital experiments), the Moon lost its exploratory attraction in favor of other programs, such as the International Space Station and potential human exploration of Mars. However, since the mid-90's, the enthusiasm for the Moon has been revived, which resulted in several space agencies worldwide (NASA, ESA, ISRO, JAXA, and the Chinese Space Agency) having made great efforts to re-start ex-ploratory and scientific campaigns even though budgetary changes may delay the process. As a result, a wide array of peoples and their interests are put together in each mission planned to reach the Moon (e.g., orbiters and landers). Up to now, mission plans focus on technical requirements and the desires of scientists and engineers, but hardly any other aspects. Field specialists on issues regarding the social, economic, political, cultural, ethical and environmen-tal impacts of Moon exploration and colonization have had little to no involvement in current and past lunar missions. However, these fields would provide different and essential points of view regarding the planning of lunar missions. Moreover, recent documents written by the scientific community, such as "The Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon: Final Re-port" Committee on the Scientific Context for Exploration of the Moon, National Research Council (2007), or the recent (summer 2009) White Papers for the National Research Council Planetary Science Decadal Survey 2011-2020, do not seem to leave space for a multidisciplinary approach regarding the future lunar exploration either. More than 30 years have passed since the Moon Treaty (c. 1979) was elaborated, and since then technology and science have evolved leading to the need to change the requirements. As stated in the Moon Treaty, the State par-ties who had signed the Treaty meet every 5 and 10 years to revise the Treaty and suggest the necessary ratifications and amendments. The present version of the Moon Treaty, however, does not demonstrate ratifications that take into consideration environmental protection and preservation. For this, it is here suggested, that both the Antarctica Treaty (c. 1959), and more importantly, the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty (c. 1991) are to be used as references for future documents that will be drawn pertaining the Moon. The Antarctica Treaty is currently one of the world's most successful international agreements and has evolved through time as needs and awareness require. The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty reflects concerns regarding the impact of humans on the fragile environment of that continent. This concern is equally critical as new stages of lunar exploration unfold and the effects of such activity are progressively assessed. The key aspects of the Antarctic Protocol applicable to the Moon Treaty are: (1) a ban on commercial mineral resource activity, (2) careful waste disposal management, and (3) protection of areas of par-ticular scientific, environmental, and historical value. These measures should be implemented to prevent irreparable damage of the pristine lunar environment while permitting scientific, educational, and touristic uses and encouraging continued commitment to exploration of the Moon and other planetary bodies irrespective of exploration being robotic or human. A num-ber of other documents that establish an Environmental Code of Conduct for certain areas within the Antarctic continent (e.g., Management Plan for the Antarctic Specially Managed Area No.2, the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Southern Victoria Land) will also be instrumental in improving the current

  15. Space food systems - Mercury through Apollo.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, N. G.; Smith, M. C.

    1972-01-01

    Major achievements which characterized the development of food systems used by American astronauts in manned space flight are reviewed throughout a period spanning the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs up to and including the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. Lists of food types are accompanied by information on packaging, storage, preparation, consumption, and quality of particular products. Experience gained from development efforts for the Manned Orbiting Laboratory Program is also discussed.

  16. Apollo 12 ropy glasses revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentworth, S. J.; Mckay, D. S.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Basu, A.; Martinez, R. R.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.

    1994-01-01

    We analyzed ropy glasses from Apollo 12 soils 12032 and 12033 by a variety of techniques including SEM/EDX, electron microprobe analysis, INAA, and Ar-39-Ar-40 age dating. The ropy glasses have potassium rare earth elements phosphorous (KREEP)-like compositions different from those of local Apollo 12 mare soils; it is likely that the ropy glasses are of exotic origin. Mixing calculations indicate that the ropy glasses formed from a liquid enriched in KREEP and that the ropy glass liquid also contained a significant amount of mare material. The presence of solar Ar and a trace of regolith-derived glass within the ropy glasses are evidence that the ropy glasses contain a small regolith component. Anorthosite and crystalline breccia (KREEP) clasts occur in some ropy glasses. We also found within these glasses clasts of felsite (fine-grained granitic fragments) very similar in texture and composition to the larger Apollo 12 felsites, which have a Ar-39-Ar-40 degassing age of 800 +/- 15 Ma. Measurements of 39-Ar-40-Ar in 12032 ropy glass indicate that it was degassed at the same time as the large felsite although the ropy glass was not completely degassed. The ropy glasses and felsites, therefore, probably came from the same source. Most early investigators suggested that the Apollo 12 ropy glasses were part of the ejecta deposited at the Apollo 12 site from the Copernicus impact. Our new data reinforce this model. If these ropy glasses are from Copernicus, they provide new clues to the nature of the target material at the Copernicus site, a part of the Moon that has not been sampled directly.

  17. Apollo 12 ropy glasses revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Lindstrom, D. J.; Basu, A.; Martinez, R. R.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.

    1994-05-01

    We analyzed ropy glasses from Apollo 12 soils 12032 and 12033 by a variety of techniques including SEM/EDX, electron microprobe analysis, INAA, and Ar-39-Ar-40 age dating. The ropy glasses have potassium rare earth elements phosphorous (KREEP)-like compositions different from those of local Apollo 12 mare soils; it is likely that the ropy glasses are of exotic origin. Mixing calculations indicate that the ropy glasses formed from a liquid enriched in KREEP and that the ropy glass liquid also contained a significant amount of mare material. The presence of solar Ar and a trace of regolith-derived glass within the ropy glasses are evidence that the ropy glasses contain a small regolith component. Anorthosite and crystalline breccia (KREEP) clasts occur in some ropy glasses. We also found within these glasses clasts of felsite (fine-grained granitic fragments) very similar in texture and composition to the larger Apollo 12 felsites, which have a Ar-39-Ar-40 degassing age of 800 +/- 15 Ma. Measurements of 39-Ar-40-Ar in 12032 ropy glass indicate that it was degassed at the same time as the large felsite although the ropy glass was not completely degassed. The ropy glasses and felsites, therefore, probably came from the same source. Most early investigators suggested that the Apollo 12 ropy glasses were part of the ejecta deposited at the Apollo 12 site from the Copernicus impact. Our new data reinforce this model. If these ropy glasses are from Copernicus, they provide new clues to the nature of the target material at the Copernicus site, a part of the Moon that has not been sampled directly.

  18. Former astronauts Armstrong and Cernan talk at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo program team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible, former Apollo astronauts Neil Armstrong (left) and Gene Cernan talk about their experiences. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Other guests at the banquet were astronauts Wally Schirra, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin and Walt Cunningham. Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon; Gene Cernan was the last.

  19. Neil Armstrong gets round of applaus at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong stands to a round of applause after being introduced at the anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon. He appeared at the banquet with other former astronauts Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan, Walt Cunningham and others.

  20. Apollo Lunar Sample Photograph Digitization Project Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todd, N. S.; Lofgren, G. E.

    2012-01-01

    This is an update of the progress of a 4-year data restoration project effort funded by the LASER program to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images and undertaken by the Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC [1]. The project is currently in its last year of funding. We also provide an update on the derived products that make use of the digitized photos including the Lunar Sample Catalog and Photo Database[2], Apollo Sample data files for GoogleMoon[3].