Note: This page contains sample records for the topic apollo moon mission from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: August 15, 2014.
1

The Apollo Missions and the Chemistry of the Moon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the principle chemical features of the moon obtained by analyzing lunar samples gathered on the Apollo missions. Outlines the general physical features of the moon and presents theories on its origin. (GS)

Pacer, Richard A.; Ehmann, William D.

1975-01-01

2

The Moon: What Have the Apollo Missions Taught Us? Part II: The View from Apollo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes scientific findings resulting from the Apollo missions, including lunar rocks and soil, age determination, and the moon's interior, evolution, and origin. Indicates experiments for future lunar research. (SK)

McKeever, S. W. S.

1980-01-01

3

Apollo: Expeditions to the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an electronic version of an historical NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) publication, written by members of the Apollo program, containing information about the history and accomplishments of NASA's Apollo space program. Beginning with pre-space years and the first man in flight from the USSR, this publication looks into the beginnings of the Apollo space program and the space race between the United States and USSR in the 1950s and 60s. The generation and goals of the Apollo program are covered, as well as the programs that made Apollo possible (Gemini, Mercury, the Saturn V Booster). Details about the development of the spacecraft cover the Lunar Module concept, the beginnings of mission control, selecting astronauts for the Apollo program, problems that occurred, and the historic landing of Apollo 11. Also covered is the Apollo 13 crisis, the contributions Apollo discoveries made to our understanding of the Moon and Solar System, and the legacy of the Apollo program. There is a timeline of key events for Apollo as well as a mission profile highlighting the objectives and goals for the missions.

1975-07-30

4

The Apollo missions.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 and 12 lunar landings are briefly reviewed together with the problems experienced with Apollo 13. As a result of the first two landing missions it became known that parts of the moon are at least four and one-half billion years old. If the moon was once part of the earth, it must have split off very early in its history. Starting with Apollo 16, changes in hardware will result in very significant improvements and capabilities. The landed payload will be increased by over 100%.

Scherer, L. R.

1971-01-01

5

Apollo Manned Missions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site, produced by the Kennedy Space Center, presents the complete history of the Apollo Program, a series of missions which ultimately resulted in manned landings on the Moon. It features sections on mission goals, spacecraft, and summaries of both manned and unmanned missions. Mission summaries describe each flight crew, the conduct of each flight and landing, and accounts of experiments that were conducted and samples taken.

6

Apollo 11 Moon Landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The crowning achievement for the Saturn V rocket came when it launched Apollo 11 astronauts, Neil Armstrong, Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, and Michael Collins, to the Moon in July 1969. In this photograph, astronaut Aldrin takes his first step onto the surface of the Moon.

1969-01-01

7

Apollo to the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Apollo to the Moon is a display at the National Air & Space Museum of the Smithsonian, dedicated to telling the history of human exploration of the moon by the United States. The Web site places the history of space travel within the context of the political environment, including the Cold War. The Space Race with Russia and the beginning of NASA are also discussed in detail, along with the rationale behind Kennedy's decision to pursue human space exploration. Finally, the Web site discusses the information learned from expeditions to the moon and the changing goals for space exploration.

8

NASA-Apollo Missions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website describes all the Apollo missions, including the goals, the spacecraft equipment, the events of the mission, and the outcomes. This website also includes links to information about unmanned Apollo test missions and other information.

Dunbar, Brian

2013-08-23

9

VIPs watch as Apollo 11 Saturn V lifts off for the mission to the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vice President Spiro Agnew and Former President Lyndon Johnson view the liftoff of Apollo 11 from the stands located at the Kennedy Space Center VIP viewing site. The two political figures were at the Kennedy Space Center to witness the launch of the first Manned Lunar Landing mission which took place from Pad 39A at 9:32 a.m. EDT.

1969-01-01

10

Mission Moon!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners work in teams to assess environmental conditions, resources, and scientific relevance of different locations on the Moon using data collected from previous lunar missions. Each team selects the site they believe has the best potential for a future lunar outpost. The teams debate their conclusions and work together to determine which single site to recommend to NASA. This activity takes approximately 1.5 hours, and can be divided into parts. Learners should be familiar with NASA's LRO Mission and the lunar environment through other Explore! To the Moon and Beyond! activities. These activities were developed specifically for use in libraries.

11

Apollo 8, Man Around the Moon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This pamphlet presents a series of photographs depicting the story of the Apollo 8 mission around the moon and includes a brief description as well as quotes from the astronauts. The photographs show scenes of the astronauts training, the Saturn V rocket, pre-flight preparation, blast off, the earth from space, the lunar surface, the earth-based…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

12

Apollo Expeditions to the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo program is described from the planning stages through Apollo 17. The organization of the program is discussed along with the development of the spacecraft and related technology. The objectives and accomplishments of each mission are emphasized along with personal accounts of the major figures involved. Other topics discussed include: ground support systems and astronaut selection.

Cortright, E. M. (editor)

1975-01-01

13

Apollo astronaut supports return to the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nearly 40 years after the Apollo 17 Moon launch on 7 December 1972, former NASA astronaut Harrison Schmitt said there is “no question” that the Moon is still worth going to, “whether you think about the science of the Moon or the resources of the Moon, or its relationship to accelerating our progress toward Mars.” Schmitt, a geologist and the lunar module pilot for that final Apollo mission, was speaking at a 6 December news briefing about lunar science at the AGU Fall Meeting. “By going back to the Moon, you accelerate your ability to go anywhere else,” Schmitt said, because of the ability to gain experience on a solar system body just a 3-day journey from Earth; test new hardware and navigation and communication techniques; and utilize lunar resources such as water, hydrogen, methane, and helium-3. He said lunar missions also would be a way “to develop new generations of people who know how to work in deep space. The people who know how to work [there] are my age, if not older, and we need young people to get that kind of experience.” Schmitt, 77, said that a particularly interesting single location to explore would be the Aitken Basin at the Moon's south pole, where a crater may have reached into the Moon's upper mantle. He also said a longer duration exploration program might be able to explore multiple sites.

Showstack, Randy

2012-12-01

14

Apollo 14 mission to Fra Mauro  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 1971 Apollo 14 Mission to Fra Mauro, a lunar highland area, is highlighted in this video. The mission's primary goal was the collection of lunar rocks and soil samples and lunar exploration. The soil and rock sampling was for the geochronological determination of the Moon's evolution and its comparison with that of Earth. A remote data collection station was

Brian D. Beasley

1991-01-01

15

Apollo 16 mission report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Information is provided on the operational and engineering aspects of the Apollo 16 mission. Customary units of measurement are used in those sections of the report pertaining to spacecraft systems and trajectories. The International System of Units is used in sections pertaining to science activities.

1972-01-01

16

Working on the moon: The Apollo experience  

SciTech Connect

The successful completion of any scientific or engineering project on the Moon will depend, in part, on human ability to do useful work under lunar conditions. In making informed decisions about such things as the use of humans rather than robots for specific tasks, the scheduling of valuable human time, and the design and selection of equipment and tools, good use can be made of the existing experience base. During the six completed landing missions, Apollo lunar surface crews conducted 160 astronaut-hours of extra-vehicular activities (EVAs) and also spent a similar sum of waking hours working in the cramped confines of the Lunar Module. The first three missions were primarily proof-tests of flight hardware and procedures. The ability to land equipment and consumables was very modest but, despite stay times of no more than 32 hours, the crews of Apollos 11, 12, and 14 were able to test their mobility and their capability of doing useful work outside the spacecraft. For the last three missions, thanks to LM modifications which enabled landings with significant amounts of cargo, stay times more than doubled to three days. The crews were able to use Lunar Rovers to conduct extensive local exploration and to travel up to 10 kilometers away from their immediate landing sites. During these final missions, the astronauts spent enough time doing work of sufficient complexity that their experience should be of use in the formulation early-stage lunar base operating plans. 2 refs.

Jones, E.M.

1989-01-01

17

Moon Rock Presented to Smithsonian Institute by Apollo 11 Crew  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 11 astronauts, (left to right) Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Neil A. Armstrong, commander, are showing a two-pound Moon rock to Frank Taylor, director of the Smithsonian Institute in Washington D.C. The rock was picked up from the Moon's surface during the Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) of Aldrin and Armstrong following man's first Moon landing and was was presented to the Institute for display in the Art and Industries Building. The Apollo 11 mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

18

On the Moon with Apollo 15, A Guidebook to Hadley Rille and the Apennine Mountains.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The booklet, published before the Apollo 15 mission, gives a timeline for the mission; describes and illustrates the physiography of the landing site; and describes and illustrates each lunar surface scientific experiment. Separate timelines are included for all traverses (the traverses are the Moon walks and, for Apollo 15, the Moon rides in the…

Simmons, Gene

19

Apollo Lunar Sample Integration into Google Moon: A New Approach to Digitization  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project is part of a larger, LASER-funded 4-year lunar rock photo restoration project by NASA s Acquisition and Curation Office [1]. The objective of this project is to enhance the Apollo mission data already available on Google Moon with information about the lunar samples collected during the Apollo missions. To this end, we have combined rock sample data from various sources, including Curation databases, mission documentation and lunar sample catalogs, with newly available digital photography of rock samples to create a user-friendly, interactive tool for learning about the Apollo Moon samples

Dawson, Melissa D.; Todd, nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary E.

2011-01-01

20

Where No Man Has Gone Before: A History of Apollo Lunar Exploration Missions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an electronic version of an historical NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) publication about the United States Apollo lunar missions. This report discusses the beginning of the Apollo program from the organization of space exploration, the decision to begin Apollo, the progress and planning of the missions, Moon landing site selections, crew selections, the accomplishments of each mission (Apollo 1-17) and issues that arose during the Apollo missions.

Compton, William

1989-01-01

21

Apollo 17: One giant step toward understanding the tectonic evolution of the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Our present understanding of the tectonic history of the Moon has been shaped in large measure by the Apollo Program, and particularly the Apollo 17 Mission. I attempt to summarize some of the interpretations that have emerged since Apollo 17, focusing on some of the problems and uncertainties that remain to stimulate future exploration of the Moon. The topics covered include: (1) Taurus-Littrow Valley; (2) origin of mare ridges; and (3) nature and timing of tectonic rille formation.

Sharpton, Virgil L.

1992-01-01

22

Bonus: Apollo's Amazing Mission and Spin-Offs from Space.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two posters examine the 1969 Apollo moon mission. The first tracks the stages and path of the mission, suggesting that students create their own diagrams or models. The second presents a puzzle that helps student understand how many items developed for the mission are useful to today's everyday life. (SM)

Learning, 1994

1994-01-01

23

Introductory remarks - The Apollo 14 mission.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Description of the Apollo 14 mission within the general context of the entire Apollo program. In the Apollo 14 mission, which ended successfully on Feb. 9, 1971, more time was spent on extravehicular activities than in previous missions. In addition, enlarged propellant tanks permitted a larger payload, and some 42 kilograms of samples were brought back.

Newell, H. E.

1972-01-01

24

Apollo Soyuz, mission evaluation report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo Soyuz mission was the first manned space flight to be conducted jointly by two nations - the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The primary purpose of the mission was to test systems for rendezvous and docking of manned spacecraft that would be suitable for use as a standard international system, and to demonstrate crew transfer between spacecraft. The secondary purpose was to conduct a program of scientific and applications experimentation. With minor modifications, the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft were like those flown on previous missions. However, a new module was built specifically for this mission - the docking module. It served as an airlock for crew transfer and as a structural base for the docking mechanism that interfaced with a similar mechanism on the Soyuz orbital module. The postflight evaluation of the performance of the docking system and docking module, as well as the overall performance of the Apollo spacecraft and experiments is presented. In addition, the mission is evaluated from the viewpoints of the flight crew, ground support operations, and biomedical operations. Descriptions of the docking mechanism, docking module, crew equipment and experiment hardware are given.

1975-01-01

25

Apollo Mission Techniques Lunar Orbit Activities - Part 1a  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This slide presentation reviews the planned sequence of events and the rationale for all lunar missions, and the flight experiences and lessons learned for the lunar orbit activities from a trajectory perspective. Shown are trajectories which include the moon's position at the various stages in the complete trip from launch, to the return and reentry. Included in the presentation are objectives and the sequence of events,for the Apollo 8, and Apollo 10. This is followed by a discussion of Apollo 11, including: the primary mission objective, the sequence of events, and the flight experience. The next mission discussed was Apollo 12. It reviews the objectives, the ground tracking, procedure changes, and the sequence of events. The aborted Apollo 13 mission is reviewed, including the objectives, and the sequence of events. Brief summaries of the flight experiences for Apollo 14-16 are reviewed. The flight sequence of events of Apollo 17 are discussed. In summary each mission consistently performing precision landings required that Apollo lunar orbit activities devote considerable attention to: (1) Improving fidelity of lunar gravity models, (2) Maximizing availability of ground tracking, (3) Minimizing perturbations on the trajectory, (4) Maximizing LM propellant reserves for hover time. Also the use of radial separation maneuvers (1) allows passive re-rendezvous after each rev, but ... (2) sensitive to small dispersions in initial sep direction

Interbartolo, Michael A.

2009-01-01

26

The Moon 35 years after Apollo: What's left to learn?  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the cancellation of the Apollo program after Apollo 17 returned from the Moon in 1972, the focus of NASA switched to other areas of the Solar System. Study of the Moon did continue through analysis of the returned samples and remotely sensed data sets (both orbital and surface), as well as through Earth-based telescopic studies. In the 1990s, new

Clive R. Neal

2009-01-01

27

Apollo scientific exploration of the moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fundamental dichotomy of space exploration, unmanned versus manned projects, is discussed from an historical perspective. The integration of science into Apollo operations is examined with attention given to landing sites, extending the missions, and crew selection. A Science Working Group composed of scientists and Manned Spacecraft Center flight planners was formed in an attempt to produce the most scientific information possible within those operational limits that were considered absolutely inviolable.

Compton, W. D.

1987-01-01

28

Apollo Program Flight Summary Report: Apollo Missions as-201 Through APOLLO 16, Revision 11.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A summary of the Apollo flights from AS-201 through Apollo 16 is presented. The following subjects are discussed for each flight: (1) mission primary objectives, (2) principle objectives of the launch vehicle and spacecraft, (3) secondary objectives of th...

J. K. Holcomb

1972-01-01

29

Apollo 13 Facts [Post Mission Honorary Ceremony  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 13 astronauts, James Lovell, Jr., John Swigert, Jr., and Fred Haise, Jr., are seen during this post mission honorary ceremony, led by President Richard Nixon. Lovell is shown during an interview, answering questions about the mission.

2001-01-01

30

MoonNEXT: A European Mission to the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MoonNEXT is a mission currently being studied, under the direction of the European Space Agency, whose launch is foreseen between 2015 and 2018. MoonNEXT is intended to prepare the way for future exploration activities on the Moon, while addressing key science questions. Exploration Objectives The primary goal for the MoonNEXT mission is to demonstrate autonomous soft precision landing with hazard avoidance; a key capability for future exploration missions. The nominal landing site is at the South Pole of the Moon, at the edge of the Aitken basin and in the region of Shackleton crater, which has been identified as an optimal location for a future human outpost by the NASA lunar architecture team [1]. This landing site selection ensures a valuable contribution by MoonNEXT to the Global Exploration Strategy [2]. MoonNEXT will also prepare for future lunar exploration activities by characterising the environment at the lunar surface. The potentially hazardous radiation environment will me monitored while a dedicated instrument package will investigate the levitation and mobility of lunar dust. Experience on Apollo demonstrated the potentially hazardous effects of dust for surface operations and human activities and so an understanding of these processes is important for the future. Life sciences investigations will be carried out into the effects of the lunar environment (including radiation, gravity and illumination conditions) on a man made ecosystem analogous to future life support systems. In doing so MoonNEXT will demonstrate the first extraterrestrial man made ecosystem and develop valuable expertise for future missions. Geological and geochemical investigations will explore the possibilities for In Situ Resource Utilisation (ISRU), which will be essential for long term human habitation on the Moon and is of particular importance at the proposed landing site, given its potential as a future habitat location. Science Objectives In addition to providing extensive preparation and technology demonstration for future exploration activities MoonNEXT will advance our understanding of the origin, structure and evolution of the Moon. These advances in understanding will come about through a range of geophysical and geochemical investigations. MoonNEXT will also assess the value of the lunar surface as a future site for performing science from the Moon, using radio astronomy as an example. The scientific objectives are: • To study the geophysics of the Moon, in particular the origin, differentiation, internal structure and early geological evolution of the Moon. • To obtain in-situ geochemical data from, within the Aitken Basin, where material from the lower crust and possibly the upper mantle may be found. • To investigate the nature of volatiles implanted into the lunar regolith at the South Pole and identify their species. • To study the environment at the lunar South pole, in particular to measure the radiation environment, the dust flux due to impact ejecta and micrometeoroids, and a possibly the magnetic field. • To study the effect of the lunar environment on biological systems. • To further our understanding of the ULF/VLF background radiation of the universe. • Investigate the electromagnetic environment of the moon at radio wavelengths with the potential to perform astronomical radio observations. Various mission scenarios are currently under study, incorporating options for a lander-only configuration or a lander with the possible addition of a rover. The working experimental payload includes cameras, broad band and short period seismometers, a radiation monitor, instruments to measure dust transport and micrometeoroid fluxes, instruments to provide elemental and mineralogical analyses of surface rocks, a mole for subsurface heat flow and regolith properties measurements, a radio antenna and a package containing a self sustaining biological system to observe the effects of the lunar environment. The addition of a rover, if shown to be feasible, would provide mobility for geochemical measurements, which

Carpenter, J. D.; Koschny, D.; Crawford, I.; Falcke, H.; Kempf, S.; Lognonne, P.; Ricci, C.; Houdou, B.; Pradier, A.

2008-09-01

31

Where No Man Has Gone Before: A History of Apollo Lunar Exploration Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This book is a narrative account of the development of the science program for the Apollo lunar landing missions. It focuses on the interaction between scientific interests and operational considerations in such matters as landing site selection and training of crews, quarantine and back contamination control, and presentation of results from scientific investigations. Scientific exploration of the moon on later flights, Apollo 12 through Apollo 17 is emphasized.

Compton, William David

1988-01-01

32

Apollo program flight summary report: Apollo missions AS-201 through Apollo 16, revision 11  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summary of the Apollo flights from AS-201 through Apollo 16 is presented. The following subjects are discussed for each flight: (1) mission primary objectives, (2) principle objectives of the launch vehicle and spacecraft, (3) secondary objectives of the launch vehicle and spacecraft, (4) unusual features of the mission, (5) general information on the spacecraft and launch vehicle, (6) space vehicle and pre-launch data, and (7) recovery data.

Holcomb, J. K.

1972-01-01

33

Emblem of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the Official emblem of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission which will be flown by Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E. Evans and Harrison H. Schmitt. The insignia is dominated by the image of Apollo, the Greek sun god. Suspended in space behind the head of Apollo is an American eagle of contemporary design, the red bars of the eagle's wing represent the bars in the U.S. flag; the three white stars symbolize the three astronaut crewmen. The background is deep blue space and within it are the Moon, the planet Saturn and a spiral galaxy or nebula. The Moon is partially overlaid by the eagle's wing suggesting that this is a celestial body that man has visited and in that sense conquered. The thrust of the eagle and the gaze of Apollo to the right and toward Saturn and the galaxy is meant to imply that man's goals in space will someday include the planets and perhaps the stars. The colors of the emblem are red, white and blue, the colors of our flag; with the addition of gold, to

1972-01-01

34

Biocore experiment. [Apollo 17 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 17 biological cosmic ray experiment to determine the effect of heavy cosmic ray particles on the brain and eyes is reported. The pocket mouse was selected as the biological specimen for the experiment. The radiation monitors, animal autopsy and animal processing are described, and the radiation effects on the scalp, retina, and viscera are analyzed.

Bailey, O. T.; Benton, E. V.; Cruty, M. R.; Harrison, G. A.; Haymaker, W.; Humason, G.; Leon, H. A.; Lindberg, R. L.; Look, B. C.; Lushbaugh, C. C.

1973-01-01

35

How the Apollo Program Changed the Geology of the Moon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Evaluates the effect of the Apollo program on the geology of the Moon to determine further study problems. Concludes that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration can provide excellent justification for its extension since human beings have the possibility of using the rocks in ways not currently conceived. (CC)

Smith, J. V.; Steele, I. M.

1973-01-01

36

Origin and Evolution of the Moon: Apollo 2000 Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

A descriptive formulation of the stages of lunar evolution as an augmentation of the traditional time-stratigraphic approach [21 enables broadened multidisciplinary discussions of issues related to the Moon and planets. An update of this descriptive formulation [3], integrating Apollo and subsequently acquired data, provides additional perspectives on many of the outstanding issues in lunar science. (Stage 1): Beginning (Pre-Nectarian) -

H. H. Schmitt

1999-01-01

37

After Apollo: Fission Origin of the Moon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents current ideas about the fission process of the Moon, including loss of mass. Saturnian rings, center of the Moon, binary stars, and uniformitarianism. Indicates that planetary formation may be best explained as a destructive, rather than a constructive process. (CC)

O'Keefe, John A.

1973-01-01

38

Apollo 17 mission 5-day report  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A five day report of the Apollo 17 mission is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) sequence of events, (2) extravehicular activities, (3) first, second, and third lunar surface extravehicular activity, (4) transearth extravehicular activity, (5) lunar surface experiments conducted, (6) orbital science activities, (7) spacecraft reentry and recovery.

1972-01-01

39

Two of Apollo 17 crewmen join in commemoration of their lunar landing mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two of the three Apollo 17 crewmen join in commemoration of their historic lunar landing mission of one year ago by presenting the flight controllers in Mission Control Center (MSC) the U.S. flag which flew with them to the Moon. Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, center, Apollo 17 commander, and Harrison H. Schmitt, right, lunar module pilot, are shown with Eugene F. Kranz, who accepted the flag on behalf of all the flight controllers during special ceremonies in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) of MCC during the third manned Skylab mission. Kranz is Chief of the Flight Control Division of the Flight Operations Directorate at JSC.

1973-01-01

40

Astronaut Alan Bean deploys ALSEP during first Apollo 12 EVA on moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Alan L. Bean, Apollo 12 lunar module pilot, deploys components of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) during the first Apollo 12 extravehicular activity (EVA) on the moon. The photo was made by Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Apollo 12 commander, using a 70mm handheld Haselblad camera modified for lunar surface usage.

1969-01-01

41

Apollo 11 mission: Glycol temperature control valve  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis was made of the cause or causes of malfunctions in the glycol temperature control valve during the Apollo 11 mission. The valve was designed to control inlet temperatures at 45 (+ or - 3) F. Test results show malfunctions were caused by a bearing failure on the worm gear shaft in the actuator. It was concluded that no corrective action was needed because an existing procedure allows manual setting of the value at a position which will meet system requirements.

1970-01-01

42

Towards a Selenographic Information System: Apollo 15 Mission Digitization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Apollo missions represent some of the most technically complex and extensively documented explorations ever endeavored by mankind. The surface experiments performed and the lunar samples collected in-situ have helped form our understanding of the Moon's geologic history and the history of our Solar System. Unfortunately, a complication exists in the analysis and accessibility of these large volumes of lunar data and historical Apollo Era documents due to their multiple formats and disconnected web and print locations. Described here is a project to modernize, spatially reference, and link the lunar data into a comprehensive SELENOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SYSTEM, starting with the Apollo 15 mission. Like its terrestrial counter-parts, Geographic Information System (GIS) programs, such as ArcGIS, allow for easy integration, access, analysis, and display of large amounts of spatially-related data. Documentation in this new database includes surface photographs, panoramas, samples and their laboratory studies (major element and rare earth element weight percents), planned and actual vehicle traverses, and field notes. Using high-resolution (<0.25 m/pixel) images from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) the rover (LRV) tracks and astronaut surface activities, along with field sketches from the Apollo 15 Preliminary Science Report (Swann, 1972), were digitized and mapped in ArcMap. Point features were created for each documented sample within the Lunar Sample Compendium (Meyer, 2010) and hyperlinked to the appropriate Compendium file (.PDF) at the stable archive site: http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/compendium.cfm. Historical Apollo Era photographs and assembled panoramas were included as point features at each station that have been hyperlinked to the Apollo Lunar Surface Journal (ALSJ) online image library. The database has been set up to allow for the easy display of spatial variation of select attributes between samples. Attributes of interest that have data from the Compendium added directly into the database include age (Ga), mass, texture, major oxide elements (weight %), and Th and U (ppm). This project will produce an easily accessible and linked database that can offer technical and scientific information in its spatial context. While it is not possible given the enormous amounts of data, and the small allotment of time, to enter and/or link every detail to its map layer, the links that have been made here direct the user to rich, stable archive websites and web-based databases that are easy to navigate. While this project only created a product for the Apollo 15 mission, it is the model for spatially-referencing the other Apollo missions. Such a comprehensive lunar surface-activities database, a Selenographic Information System, will likely prove invaluable for future lunar studies. References: Meyer, C. (2010), The lunar sample compendium, June 2012 to August 2012, http://curator.jsc.nasa.gov/lunar/compendium.cfm, Astromaterials Res. & Exploration Sci., NASA L. B. Johnson Space Cent., Houston, TX. Swann, G. A. (1972), Preliminary geologic investigation of the Apollo 15 landing site, in Apollo 15 Preliminary Science Report, [NASA SP-289], pp. 5-1 - 5-112, NASA Manned Spacecraft Cent., Washington, D.C.

Votava, J. E.; Petro, N. E.

2012-12-01

43

Apollo 13 emblem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the insignia of the Apollo 13 lunar landing mission. Represented in the Apollo 13 emblem is Apollo, the sun god of Greek mythology, symbolizing how the Apollo flights have extended the light of knowledge to all mankind. The Latin phrase Ex Luna, Scientia means 'From the Moon, Knowledge'.

1969-01-01

44

Apollo renaissance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Forty years ago, the Apollo missions brought unprecedented knowledge of the Moon. After a lengthy period of hibernation, the material recovered in the late 1960s and early 1970s is back in the limelight.

2011-02-01

45

Apollo window meteoroid experiment. [including Apollo 17 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo command module heat shield windows were examined for meteoroid impacts to obtain information about (1) the flux of meteoroids with masses of 10 to the -7th g and less, (2) dynamic and physical properties of meteoroids, and (3) correlations with lunar-rock-crater studies. The results of examining Apollo 17, and nine prior Apollo windows are tabulated. The window exposure time, number of impacts, crater diameter, flux, energy, and mass are shown.

Cour-Palais, B. G.

1973-01-01

46

Astronaut David Scott in Mission Control Room during Apollo 11  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut David R. Scott is seated at a console in the Mission Operations Control Room in the Mission Control Center, bldg 30, during the Apollo 11 lunar landing mission. He is watching a television monitor during the lunar surface extravehicular activity in which Astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. participated. Scott is the backup crew commander for the scheduled Apollo 12 lunar landing mission.

1969-01-01

47

View of Mission Control Center during Apollo 13 splashdown  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Overall view of Mission Operations Control Room in Mission Control Center at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) during the ceremonies aboard the U.S.S. Iwo Jima, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 13 mission. Dr. Donald K. Slayton (in black shirt, left of center), Director of Flight Crew Operations at MSC, and Chester M. Lee of the Apollo Program Directorate, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters, shake hands, while Dr. Rocco A. Petrone, Apollo Program Director, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters (standing, near Lee), watches the large screen showing Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., Apollo 13 commander, during the on-board ceremonies. In the foreground, Glynn S. Lunney (extreme left) and Eugene F. Kranz (smoking a cigar), two Apollo 13 Flight Directors, view the activity from their consoles.

1970-01-01

48

Endocrine, electrolyte, and fluid volume changes associated with Apollo missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The endocrine and metabolic results obtained before and after the Apollo missions and the results of the limited in-flight sampling are summarized and discussed. The studies were designed to evaluate the biochemical changes in the returning Apollo crewmembers, and the areas studied included balance of fluids and electrolytes, regulation of calcium metabolism, adaptation to the environment, and regulation of metabolic processes.

Leach, C. S.; Alexander, W. C.; Johnson, P. C.

1975-01-01

49

Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities for Mauna Kea 2012  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rover-based 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) scientific investigations were recently completed at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Scientific investigations, scientific input, and science operations constraints were tested in the context of an existing project and protocols for the field activities designed to help NASA achieve the Vision for Space Exploration. Initial science operations were planned based on a model similar to the operations control of the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER). However, evolution of the operations process occurred as the analog mission progressed. We report here on the preliminary sensor data results, an applicable methodology for developing an optimum science input based on productive engineering and science trades and the science operations approach for an investigation into the valley on the upper slopes of Mauna Kea identified as “ Apollo Valley.”

Graham, L. D.; Morris, R. V.; Graff, T. G.; Yingst, R. A.; ten Kate, I. L.; Glavin, D. P.; Hedlund, M.; Malespin, C. A.; Mumm, E.

50

Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities for Mauna Kea 2012  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Rover-based 2012 Moon and Mars Analog Mission Activities (MMAMA) scientific investigations were recently completed at Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Scientific investigations, scientific input, and science operations constraints were tested in the context of an existing project and protocols for the field activities designed to help NASA achieve the Vision for Space Exploration. Initial science operations were planned based on a model similar to the operations control of the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER). However, evolution of the operations process occurred as the analog mission progressed. We report here on the preliminary sensor data results, an applicable methodology for developing an optimum science input based on productive engineering and science trades discussions and the science operations approach for an investigation into the valley on the upper slopes of Mauna Kea identified as "Apollo Valley".

Graham, Lee D.; Morris, Richard V.; Graff, Trevor G.; Yingst, R. Aileen; tenKate, I. L.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Hedlund, Magnus; Malespin, Charles A.; Mumm, Erik

2012-01-01

51

Plans and objectives of the remaining Apollo missions.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The three remaining Apollo missions will have significantly increased scientific capabilities. These result from increased payload, more time on the surface, improved range, and more sophisticated experiments on the surface and in orbit. Landing sites for the last three missions will be carefully selected to maximize the total scientific return.

Scherer, L. R.

1972-01-01

52

Apollo 15 impact melts, the age of Imbrium, and the Earth-Moon impact cataclysm  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The early impact history of the lunar surface is of critical importance in understanding the evolution of both the primitive Moon and the Earth, as well as the corresponding populations of planetesimals in Earth-crossing orbits. Two endmember hypotheses call for greatly dissimilar impact dynamics. One is a heavy continuous (declining) bombardment from about 4.5 Ga to 3.85 Ga. The other is that an intense but brief bombardment at about 3.85 +/- Ga was responsible for producing the visible lunar landforms and for the common 3.8-3.9 Ga ages of highland rocks. The Apennine Front, the main topographic ring of the Imbrium Basin, was sampled on the Apollo 15 mission. The Apollo 15 impact melts show a diversity of chemical compositions, indicating their origin in at least several different impact events. The few attempts at dating them have generally not produced convincing ages, despite their importance. Thus, we chose to investigate the ages of melt rock samples from the Apennine Front, because of their stratigraphic importance yet lack of previous age definition.

Ryder, Graham; Dalrymple, G. Brent

1992-01-01

53

Rear Steering Inoperative: Apollo 16 Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The inoperative condition of the rear steering system of the lunar roving vehicle (Apollo 16) during the initial drive to the modular equipment stowage assembly was investigated. The front and rear steering systems are described, and the failure analyzed. It is concluded that an open circuit must have occurred either in the hand controller potentiometer or between the potentiometer wiper and the summing node.

1973-01-01

54

Apollo 16 mission: Oxidizer deservicing tank failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An explosive failure of a ground support equipment decontamination unit tank occurred during the postflight deactivation of the oxidizer (nitrogen tetroxide) portion of the Apollo 16 command module reaction control system. A discussion of the significant aspects of the incident and conclusions are included.

1972-01-01

55

Stennis engineer part of LCROSS moon mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Karma Snyder, a project manager at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center, was a senior design engineer on the RL10 liquid rocket engine that powered the Centaur, the upper stage of the rocket used in NASA's Lunar CRater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission in October 2009. Part of the LCROSS mission was to search for water on the moon by striking the lunar surface with a rocket stage, creating a plume of debris that could be analyzed for water ice and vapor. Snyder's work on the RL10 took place from 1995 to 2001 when she was a senior design engineer with Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne. Years later, she sees the project as one of her biggest accomplishments in light of the LCROSS mission. 'It's wonderful to see it come into full service,' she said. 'As one of my co-workers said, the original dream was to get that engine to the moon, and we're finally realizing that dream.'

2009-01-01

56

View of near full Moon photographed by Apollo 13 during transearth journey  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view of a near full Moon was photographed from the Apollo 13 spacecraft during its transearth journey homeward. Though the explosion of the oxygen tank in the Service Module forced the cancellation of the scheduled lunar landing, Apollo 13 made a pass around the Moon prior to returning to Earth. Some of the conspicuous lunar features include the Sea of Crisis, the Sea of Fertility, the Sea of Tranquility, the Sea of Serenity, The Sea of Nector, the Sea of Vapors, the Border Sea, Smyth's Sea, the crater Langenus, and the crater Tsiolkovsky.

1970-01-01

57

Moon manned missions radiation safety analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis is performed on the radiation environment found on the surface of the Moon, and applied to different possible lunar base mission scenarios. An optimization technique has been used to obtain mission scenarios minimizing the astronaut radiation exposure and at the same time controlling the effect of shielding, in terms of mass addition and material choice, as a mission cost driver. The optimization process has been realized through minimization of mass along all phases of a mission scenario, in terms of time frame (dates, transfer time length and trajectory, radiation environment), equipment (vehicles, in terms of shape, volume, onboard material choice, size and structure), location (if in space, on the surface, inside or outside a certain habitats), crew characteristics (number, gender, age, tasks) and performance required (spacecraft and habitat volumes), radiation exposure annual and career limit constraint (from NCRP 132), and implementation of the ALARA principle (shelter from the occurrence of Solar Particle Events). On the lunar surface the most important contribution to radiation exposure is given by background Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) particles, mostly protons, alpha particles, and some heavy ions, and by locally induced particles, mostly neutrons, created by the interaction between GCR and surface material and emerging from below the surface due to backscattering processes. In this environment manned habitats are to host future crews involved in the construction and/or in the utilization of moon based infrastructure. Three different kinds of lunar missions are considered in the analysis, Moon Base Construction Phase, during which astronauts are on the surface just to build an outpost for future resident crews, Moon Base Outpost Phase, during which astronaut crews are resident but continuing exploration and installation activities, and Moon Base Routine Phase, with long-term shifting resident crews. In each scenario various kinds of habitats, from very simple shelters to more complex bases, are considered in full detail (e.g., shape, thickness, materials, etc) with considerations of various shielding strategies. In this first analysis all the shape considered are cylindrical or composed of combination of cylinders. Moreover, a radiation safety analysis of more future possible habitats like lava tubes has been also performed.

Tripathi, R. K.; Wilson, J. W.; de Anlelis, G.; Badavi, F. F.

58

Clementine: An inexpensive mission to the Moon and Geographos  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Clementine Mission, a joint project of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) and NASA, has been planned primarily to test and demonstrate a suite of lightweight sensors and other lightweight spacecraft components under extended exposure to the space environment. Although the primary objective of the mission is to space-qualify sensors for Department of Defense applications, it was recognized in 1990 that such a mission might also be designed to acquire scientific observations of the Moon and of Apollo asteroid (1620) Geographos. This possibility was explored jointly by SDIO and NASA, including representatives from NASA's Discovery Program Science Working Group, in early 1991. Besides the direct return of scientific information, one of the benefits envisioned from a joint venture was the development of lightweight components for possible future use in NASA's Discovery-class spacecraft. In Jan. 1992, SDIO informed NASA of its intent to fly a 'Deep Space Program Science Experiment,' now popularly called Clementine; NASA then formed an advisory science working group to assist in the early development of the mission. The Clementine spacecraft is being assembled at the Naval Research Laboratory, which is also in charge of the overall mission design and mission operations. Support for mission design is being provided by GSFC and by JPL. NASA's Deep Space Network will be utilized in tracking and communicating with the spacecraft. Following a recommendation of the COMPLEX committee of the Space Science Board, NASA will issue an NRA and appoint a formal science team in early 1993. Clementine is a 3-axis stabilized, 200 kg (dry weight) spacecraft that will be launched on a refurbished Titan-2G. One of the goals has been to build two spacecraft, including the sensors, for $100M. Total time elapsed from the decision to proceed to the launch will be two years.

Shoemaker, Eugene M.; Nozette, Stewart

1993-03-01

59

Clementine: An inexpensive mission to the Moon and Geographos  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clementine Mission, a joint project of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) and NASA, has been planned primarily to test and demonstrate a suite of lightweight sensors and other lightweight spacecraft components under extended exposure to the space environment. Although the primary objective of the mission is to space-qualify sensors for Department of Defense applications, it was recognized in 1990 that such a mission might also be designed to acquire scientific observations of the Moon and of Apollo asteroid (1620) Geographos. This possibility was explored jointly by SDIO and NASA, including representatives from NASA's Discovery Program Science Working Group, in early 1991. Besides the direct return of scientific information, one of the benefits envisioned from a joint venture was the development of lightweight components for possible future use in NASA's Discovery-class spacecraft. In Jan. 1992, SDIO informed NASA of its intent to fly a 'Deep Space Program Science Experiment,' now popularly called Clementine; NASA then formed an advisory science working group to assist in the early development of the mission. The Clementine spacecraft is being assembled at the Naval Research Laboratory, which is also in charge of the overall mission design and mission operations. Support for mission design is being provided by GSFC and by JPL. NASA's Deep Space Network will be utilized in tracking and communicating with the spacecraft. Following a recommendation of the COMPLEX committee of the Space Science Board, NASA will issue an NRA and appoint a formal science team in early 1993. Clementine is a 3-axis stabilized, 200 kg (dry weight) spacecraft that will be launched on a refurbished Titan-2G. One of the goals has been to build two spacecraft, including the sensors, for $100M. Total time elapsed from the decision to proceed to the launch will be two years.

Shoemaker, Eugene M.; Nozette, Stewart

1993-01-01

60

MoonRise: A US Robotic Sample-Return Mission to Address Solar System Wide Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MoonRise lunar sample-return mission is currently funded to perform a Phase A Concept Study as part of NASA's New Frontiers Program. Exploration of the great (d = 2500 km) South Pole-Aitken basin has been assigned high priority in several NRC reports. MoonRise would be the first US robotic sample-return mission from another planetary surface. Key strengths of the MoonRise mission include: 1. Most importantly, MoonRise will sample the SPA basin's interior on the Moon's southern far side, instead of the same small region near the center of the near side as all previous (Apollo and Luna) sampling missions. Science objectives for the SPA sample-return mission fall into three main categories: (1) testing the impact cataclysm hypothesis, with its profound implications for the evolution of the Solar System and for life on the Earth at 3.9 Ga; (2) constraining basin-scale impact processes; and (3) constraining how the Moon's interior varies laterally on a global scale, and with depth on a scale of many tens of kilometers; and thus how the lunar crust formed and evolved. 2. MoonRise will greatly enhance scientific return by using a sieving mechanism to concentrate small rock fragments. As an example, for rocks ? mm in size (minimum dimension) and a target regolith of approximately average grain-size distribution, the acquisition yield will be improved by a factor of 50. 3. MoonRise will obtain a total of at least one kilogram of lunar material, including 100 g of bulk, unsieved soil for comparison with remote sensing data. 4. MoonRise will exploit data from LRO, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1, and other recent remote-sensing missions, in particular LRO's Narrow Angle Camera (NAC), to ensure a safe landing by avoidance of areas with abundant boulders, potentially hazardous craters, and/or high slopes mapped from high resolution stereo images.

Jolliff, Bradley; Warren, P. H.; Shearer, C. K.; Alkalai, L.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Huertas, A.; MoonRise Team

2010-10-01

61

Apollo 17  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the Press Kit that was given to the various media outlets that were interested in covering the Apollo 17 mission. It includes information about the moon, lunar science, concentrating on the planned mission. The kit includes information about the flight, and the trajectory, planned orbit insertion maneuvers, the extravehicular mission events, a comparison with the Apollo 16, a map of the lunar surface, and the surface activity, information about the Taurus-Littrow landing site, the planned science experiments, the power source for the experiment package and diagrams of some of the instrumentation that was used to perform the experiments.

Garrett, David

1972-01-01

62

Apollo-Soyuz US-USSR joint mission results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The technical and nontechnical objectives of the Apollo-Soyuz mission are briefly considered. The mission demonstrated that Americans and Russians can work together to perform a very complex operation, including rendezvous in space, docking, and the conduction of joint experiments. Certain difficulties which had to be overcome were partly related to differences concerning the role of the astronaut in the basic alignment and docking procedures for space vehicles. Attention is also given to the experiments conducted during the mission and the approach used to overcome the language barrier.

Bean, A. L.; Evans, R. E.

1975-01-01

63

Managing the Moon Program: Lessons Learned from Project Apollo.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

There have been many detailed historical studies of the process of deciding on and executing the Apollo lunar landing during the 1960s and early 1970s. From the announcement of President John F Kennedy on May 25, 1961, of his decision to land an American ...

1999-01-01

64

ESA SMART-1 Mission to the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SMART-1 is the first of ESA’s Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology. Its objective is to demonstrate Primary Solar Electric Propulsion for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The 370 kg spacecraft is to be launched in summer 2003 as Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger and after a 15 month cruise is to orbit the Moon for 6 months with possible extension. SMART-1 will carry out observations during the cruise and in lunar orbit with a science and technology payload (19 kg total mass): a miniaturised high-resolution camera (AMIE) a near-infrared point-spectrometer (SIR) for lunar mineralogy a very compact X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS) mapping surface elemental composition a Deep Space Communication experiment (KaTE) a radio-science investigations (RSIS) a Laser-Link Experiment an On Board Autonomous Navigation experiment (OBAN) and plasma sensors (SPEDE). SMART-1 will study accretional and bombardment processes that led to the formation of rocky planets and the origin and evolution of the Earth-Moon system. Its science investigations include studies of the chemical composition of the Moon of geophysical processes (volcanism tectonics cratering erosion deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology and the preparation for future lunar and planetary exploration.

Foing, Bernard H.; Racca, Giuseppe D.; Marini, Andrea; Grande, Manuel; Huovelin, Juhani; Josset, Jean-Luc; Keller, Horst Uwe; Nathues, Andreas; Koschny, Detlef; Malkki, Ansi

65

MSFC Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount experiment systems mission evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A detailed evaluation is presented of the Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount experiments performance throughout the eight and one-half month Skylab Mission. Descriptions and the objectives of each instrument are included. The anomalies experienced, the causes, and corrective actions taken are discussed. Conclusions, based on evaluation of the performance of each instrument, are presented. Examples of the scientific data obtained, as well as a discussion of the quality and quantity of the data, are presented.

White, A. F., Jr.

1974-01-01

66

Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

2011-01-01

67

Mission description. [major mission events and data collection periods during Apollo 17 lunar exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accomplishments of the Apollo 17 flight are discussed. The scientific objectives included geological surveying and sampling of materials and surface features in a preselected area of the Taurus-Littrow region, deploying and activating surface experiments, and conducting inflight experiments and photographic tasks during lunar orbit and transearth coast. The individual Apollo 17 experiments and photographic tasks are presented in outline form. Charts are developed to show the major mission events and data collection periods correlated to Greenwich Mean Time and ground elapsed time. Maps of the lunar surface ground track envelope for the Apollo 17 orbiting spacecraft for revolutions one to seventy-five is shown.

Baldwin, R. R.

1973-01-01

68

Volatile elements in Apollo 16 samples - Possible evidence for outgassing of the moon.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several Apollo 16 breccias, including one containing goethite, are strikingly enriched in volatile elements such as bromine, cadmium, germanium, antimony, thallium, and zinc. Similar but smaller enrichments are found in all highland soils. It appears that volcanic processes took place in the lunar highlands, involving the release of volatiles including water. The lunar thallium/uranium ratio is .0002 of the cosmic ratio, which suggests that the moon's original water content could not have exceeded the equivalent of a layer 22 meters deep. The cataclastic anorthosites at the Apollo 16 site may represent deep ejecta from the Nectaris basin.

Krahenbuhl, U.; Ganapathy, R.; Morgan, J. W.; Anders, E.

1973-01-01

69

Paleocratering of the Moon: Review of post-Apollo data  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of the dating of lunar samples, we are in a position to utilize the lunar surface as a recorder of environmental conditions in the Earth-Moon neighborhood in the past. Plots of crater density vs rock age at different lunar landing sites can be used to date unexplored lunar provinces. These plots also demonstrate evolution in the population

William K. Hartmann

1972-01-01

70

APOLLO 17 : A symbol for the APOLLO program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

APOLLO 17 : The astonauts intend, as a symbolic gesture, to return a piece of moon-rock to share with countries all around the world. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 17: On the shoulders of Giants'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APPOLO 17 : Sixth and last manned lunar landing mission in the APOLLO series with Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E.Evans, and Harrison H. (Jack) Schmitt. Landed at Taurus-Littrow on Dec 11.,1972. Deployed camera and experiments; performed EVA with lunar roving vehicle. Returned lunar samples. Mission Duration 301hrs 51min 59sec

1974-01-01

71

Estimates of the moon's geometry using lunar orbiter imagery and Apollo laser altimeter data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Selenographic coordinates for about 6000 lunar points identified on the Lunar Orbiter photographs are tabulated and have been combined with those lunar radii derived from the Apollo 15 laser altimeter data. These coordinates were used to derive that triaxial ellipsoid which best fits the moon's irregular surface. Fits were obtaind for different constraints on both the axial orientations and the displacement of the center of the ellipsoid. The semiaxes for the unconstrained ellipsoid were a = 1737.6 km, b = 1735.6 km, and c = 1735.0 km which correspond to a mean radius of about 1736.1 km. These axes were found to be nearly parallel to the moon's principal axes of inertia, and the origin was displaced about 2.0 km from the moon's center of gravity in a direction away from the earth and to the south of the lunar equator.

Jones, R. L.

1973-01-01

72

Direct active measurements of movements of lunar dust: Rocket exhausts and natural effects contaminating and cleansing Apollo hardware on the Moon in 1969  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dust is the Number 1 environmental hazard on the Moon, yet its movements and adhesive properties are little understood. Matchbox-sized, 270-gram Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) measured contrasting effects triggered by rocket exhausts of Lunar Modules (LM) after deployment 17 m and 130 m from Apollo 11 and 12 LMs. Apollo 11 Lunar Seismometer was contaminated, overheated and terminated after 21 days operation. Apollo 12 hardware was splashed with collateral lunar dust during deployment. DDE horizontal solar cell was cleansed of nominally 0.3 mg cm-2 dust by 80% promptly at LM ascent and totally within 7 minutes. A vertical cell facing East was half-cleaned promptly then totally over hundreds of hours. Each cell cooled slightly. For the first time lunar electrostatic adhesive forces on smooth silicon were directly measured by comparison with lunar gravity. Analyses imply this adhesive force weakens as solar angle of incidence decreases. If valid, future lunar astronauts may have greater problems with dust adhesion in the middle half of the day than faced by Apollo missions in early morning. A sunproof shed may provide dust-free working environments on the Moon. Low-cost laboratory tests with DDEs and simulated lunar dust can use DDE benchmark lunar data quickly, optimising theoretical modelling and planning of future lunar expeditions, human and robotic.

O'Brien, Brian

2009-05-01

73

Petrologic constraints on the origin of the Moon: Evidence from Apollo 14  

SciTech Connect

The Fra Mauro breccias at Apollo 14 contain distinctive suites of mare basalts and highland crustal rocks that contrast significantly with equivalent rocks from other Apollo sites. These contrasts imply lateral heterogeneity of the lunar crust and mantle on a regional scale. This heterogeneity may date back to the earliest stages of lunar accretion and differentiation. Current theories requiring a Moon-wide crust of Ferroan Anorthosite are based largely on samples from Apollo 16, where all but a few samples represent the FAN suite. However, at the nearside sites, FAN is either scarce (A-15) or virtually absent (A-12, A-14, A-17). It is suggested that the compositional variations could be accounted for by the acceleration of a large mass of material (e.g., 0.1 to 0.2 moon masses) late in the crystallization history of the magma ocean. Besides adding fresh, primordial material, this would remelt a large pocket of crust and mantle, thereby allowing a second distillation to occur in the resulting magma sea.

Shervais, J.W.; Taylor, L.A.

1984-01-01

74

In Situ Biological Contamination Studies of the Moon: Implications for Planetary Protection and Life Detection Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and ESA have outlined visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic precursor missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moan, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations, including possibly asteroids. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of life. The search for life on objects such as Mars will require careful operations, and that all systems be sufficiently cleaned and sterilized prior to launch to ensure that the scientific integrity of extraterrestrial samples is not jeopardized by terrestrial organic contamination. Under the Committee on Space Research's (COSPAR's) current planetary protection policy for the Moon, no sterilization procedures are required for outbound lunar spacecraft, nor is there a different planetary protection category for human missions, although preliminary C SPAR policy guidelines for human missions to Mars have been developed. Future in situ investigations of a variety of locations on the Moon by highly sensitive instruments designed to search for biologically derived organic compounds would help assess the contamination of the Moon by lunar spacecraft. These studies could also provide valuable "ground truth" data for Mars sample return missions and help define planetary protection requirements for future Mars bound spacecraft carrying life detection experiments. In addition, studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts could provide valuable data to help refine future: Mars surface exploration plans for a human mission to Mars.

Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Lupisella, Mark; Williams, David R.; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.

2010-01-01

75

KSC Launch Complex 34 during Apollo/Saturn Mission 202 pre-launch alert  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Scene at the Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complex 34 during an Apollo/Saturn Mission 202 pre-launch alert. The mission was a step toward qualifying the Apollo Command and Service modules and the uprated Saturn I launch vehicle for manned flight.

1966-01-01

76

Montage of Apollo Crew Patches  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This montage depicts the flight crew patches for the manned Apollo 7 thru Apollo 17 missions. The Apollo 7 through 10 missions were basically manned test flights that paved the way for lunar landing missions. Primary objectives met included the demonstration of the Command Service Module (CSM) crew performance; crew/space vehicle/mission support facilities performance and testing during a manned CSM mission; CSM rendezvous capability; translunar injection demonstration; the first manned Apollo docking, the first Apollo Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA), performance of the first manned flight of the lunar module (LM); the CSM-LM docking in translunar trajectory, LM undocking in lunar orbit, LM staging in lunar orbit, and manned LM-CSM docking in lunar orbit. Apollo 11 through 17 were lunar landing missions with the exception of Apollo 13 which was forced to circle the moon without landing due to an onboard explosion. The craft was,however, able to return to Earth safely. Apollo 11 was the first manned lunar landing mission and performed the first lunar surface EVA. Landing site was the Sea of Tranquility. A message for mankind was delivered, the U.S. flag was planted, experiments were set up and 47 pounds of lunar surface material was collected for analysis back on Earth. Apollo 12, the 2nd manned lunar landing mission landed in the Ocean of Storms and retrieved parts of the unmanned Surveyor 3, which had landed on the Moon in April 1967. The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) was deployed, and 75 pounds of lunar material was gathered. Apollo 14, the 3rd lunar landing mission landed in Fra Mauro. ALSEP and other instruments were deployed, and 94 pounds of lunar materials were gathered, using a hand cart for first time to transport rocks. Apollo 15, the 4th lunar landing mission landed in the Hadley-Apennine region. With the first use of the Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV), the crew was bale to gather 169 pounds of lunar material. Apollo 16, the 5th lunar landing mission, landed in the Descartes Highlands for the first study of highlands area. Selected surface experiments were deployed, the ultraviolet camera/spectrograph was used for first time on the Moon, and the LRV was used for second time for a collection of 213 pounds of lunar material. The Apollo program came to a close with Apollo 17, the 6th and final manned lunar landing mission that landed in the Taurus-Littrow highlands and valley area. This mission hosted the first scientist-astronaut, Schmitt, to land on the Moon. The 6th automated research station was set up, and 243 ponds of lunar material was gathered using the LRV.

1979-01-01

77

Forward Contamination of the Moon and Mars: Implications for Future Life Detection Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and ESA have outlined new visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moon, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of life. The search for life on objects such as Mars will require that all spacecraft and instrumentation be sufficiently cleaned and sterilized prior to launch to ensure that the scientific integrity of extraterrestrial samples is not jeopardized by terrestrial organic contamination. Under COSPAR's current planetary protection policy for the Moon, no sterilization procedures are required for outbound lunar spacecraft. Nonetheless, future in situ investigations of a variety of locations on the Moon by highly sensitive instruments designed to search for biologically derived organic compounds would help assess the contamination of the Moon by lunar spacecraft. These studies could also provide valuable "ground truth" data for Mars sample return missions and help define planetary protection requirements for future Mars bound spacecraft carrying life detection experiments. In addition, studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts could provide valuable data to help refine future Mars surface exploration plans for a human mission to Mars.

Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Lupisella, Mark; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.

2004-01-01

78

Mare glasses from Apollo 17 - Constraints on the moon's bulk composition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two previously unreported varieties of mare volcanic glass have been discovered in Apollo 17 samples. Twenty-three chemical types of volcanic glass have now been analyzed from the six Apollo landing sites. These volcanic glasses, which may be samples of primary magmas derived from the differentiated lunar mantle, define two linear arrays that seem to reflect regional, if not global, regularities among the source regions of these melts. Additional systematics among these glasses have been used to estimate the bulk composition of the moon. The results suggest that the refractory lithophile elements are present at abundances of 1.7 x chondrites. The silicate portion of the moon appears to have a major-element composition similar to a volatile (Si, Na, K)-depleted, earth's upper mantle. The theory involving an earth-fission origin of the moon can be tested further through trace element analyses on the volcanic glasses, and through determination of the N/Ar-36 ratio and noble gas isotopes from primordial lunar gas trapped within vesicles associated with mare volcanic glass.

Delano, J. W.; Lindsley, D. H.

1983-11-01

79

Surface electrical properties experiment. [for Taurus-Littrow region of the moon on Apollo 17  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Surface Electrical Properties Experiment (SEP) was flown to the moon in December 1972 on Apollo 17 and used to explore a portion of the Taurus-Littrow region. SEP used a relatively new technique, termed radio frequency interferometry (RFI). Electromagnetic waves were radiated from two orthogonal, horizontal electric dipole antennas on the surface of the moon at frequencies of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, and 32 Mhz. The field strength of the EM waves was measured as a function of distance with a receiver mounted on the Lunar Roving Vehicle and using three orthogonal, electrically small, loops. The interference pattern produced by the waves that travelled above the moon's surface and those that travelled below the surface was recorded on magnetic tape. The tape was returned to earth for analysis and interpretation. Several reprints, preprints, and an initial draft of the first publication of the SEP results are included. These documents provide a rather complete account of the details of the theory of the RFI technique, of the terrestrial tests of the technique, and of the present state of our interpretation of the Apollo 17 data.

Simmons, G.

1974-01-01

80

Mare glasses from Apollo 17 - Constraints on the moon's bulk composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two previously unreported varieties of mare volcanic glass have been discovered in Apollo 17 samples. Twenty-three chemical types of volcanic glass have now been analyzed from the six Apollo landing sites. These volcanic glasses, which may be samples of primary magmas derived from the differentiated lunar mantle, define two linear arrays that seem to reflect regional, if not global, regularities among the source regions of these melts. Additional systematics among these glasses have been used to estimate the bulk composition of the moon. The results suggest that the refractory lithophile elements are present at abundances of 1.7 x chondrites. The silicate portion of the moon appears to have a major-element composition similar to a volatile (Si, Na, K)-depleted, earth's upper mantle. The theory involving an earth-fission origin of the moon can be tested further through trace element analyses on the volcanic glasses, and through determination of the N/Ar-36 ratio and noble gas isotopes from primordial lunar gas trapped within vesicles associated with mare volcanic glass.

Delano, J. W.; Lindsley, D. H.

1983-01-01

81

MSFC Skylab Apollo Telescope Mount thermal control system mission evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Skylab Saturn Workshop Assembly was designed to expand the knowledge of manned earth orbital operations and accomplish a multitude of scientific experiments. The Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), a module of the Skylab Saturn Workshop Assembly, was the first manned solar observatory to successfully observe, monitor, and record the structure and behavior of the sun outside the earth's atmosphere. The ATM contained eight solar telescopes that recorded solar phenomena in X-ray, ultraviolet, white light, and hydrogen alpha regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. In addition, the ATM contained the Saturn Workshop Assembly's pointing and attitude control system, a data and communication system, and a solar array/rechargeable battery power system. This document presents the overall ATM thermal design philosophy, premission and mission support activity, and the mission thermal evaluation. Emphasis is placed on premission planning and orbital performance with particular attention on problems encountered during the mission. ATM thermal performance was satisfactory throughout the mission. Although several anomalies occurred, no failure was directly attributable to a deficiency in the thermal design.

Hueter, U.

1974-01-01

82

Electromagnetic Sounding of the Moon Using Apollo 16 and Lunokhod 2 Surface Magnetometer Observations (Preliminary Results)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new technique of deep electromagnetic sounding of the Moon using simultaneous magnetic field measurements at two lunar surface sites is described. The method, used with the assumption that deep electrical conductivity is a function only of lunar radius, has the advantage of allowing calculation of the external driving field from two surface site measurements only, and therefore does not require data from a lunar orbiting satellite. A transient response calculation is presented for the example of a magnetic field discontinuity of February 13, 1973, measured simultaneously by Apollo 16 and Lunokhod 2 surface magnetometers.

Vanyan, L. L.; Vnutchokova, T. A.; Fainberg, E. B.; Eroschenko, E. A.; Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Parkin, C. W.

1977-01-01

83

Electromagnetic sounding of the moon using Apollo 16 and Lunokhod 2 surface magnetometer observations /preliminary results/  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A technique of deep electromagnetic sounding of the moon using simultaneous magnetic-field measurements at two lunar surface sites is described. The method, used with the assumption that deep electrical conductivity is a function only of lunar radius, has the advantage of allowing calculation of the external driving field from two surface-site measurements only and therefore does not require data from a lunar orbiting satellite. A transient-response calculation is presented for the example of a magnetic-field discontinuity, measured simultaneously by Apollo 16 and Lunokhod 2 surface magnetometers.

Vanian, L. L.; Vnutchokova, T. A.; Fainberg, E. B.; Eroschenko, E. A.; Dyal, P.; Parkin, C. W.; Daily, W. D.

1977-01-01

84

The Apollo Program and Lunar Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the history of the Vanguard project and the findings in Ranger records and Apollo missions, including lunar topography, gravity anomalies, figure, and chemistry. Presented are speculative remarks on the research of the origin of the Moon. (CC)

Kuiper, Gerard P.

1973-01-01

85

Apollo experience report: Mission planning for lunar module descent and ascent  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The premission planning, the real-time situation, and the postflight analysis for the Apollo 11 lunar descent and ascent are described. A comparison between premission planning and actual results is included. A navigation correction capability, developed from Apollo 11 postflight analysis was used successfully on Apollo 12 to provide the first pinpoint landing. An experience summary, which illustrates typical problems encountered by the mission planners, is also included.

Bennett, F. V.

1972-01-01

86

Return to the Moon: Lunar robotic science missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

There are two important aspects of the Moon and its materials which must be addressed in preparation for a manned return to the Moon and establishment of a lunar base. These involve its geologic science and resource utilization. Knowledge of the Moon forms the basis for interpretations of the planetary science of the terrestrial planets and their satellites; and there are numerous exciting explorations into the geologic science of the Moon to be conducted using orbiter and lander missions. In addition, the rocks and minerals and soils of the Moon will be the basic raw materials for a lunar outpost; and the In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) of lunar materials must be considered in detail before any manned return to the Moon. Both of these fields -- planetary science and resource assessment -- will necessitate the collection of considerable amounts of new data, only obtainable from lunar-orbit remote sensing and robotic landers. For over fifteen years, there have been a considerable number of workshops, meetings, etc. with their subsequent 'white papers' which have detailed plans for a return to the Moon. The Lunar Observer mission, although grandiose, seems to have been too expensive for the austere budgets of the last several years. However, the tens of thousands of man-hours that have gone into 'brainstorming' and production of plans and reports have provided the precursor material for today's missions. It has been only since last year (1991) that realistic optimism for lunar orbiters and soft landers has come forth. Plans are for 1995 and 1996 'Early Robotic Missions' to the Moon, with the collection of data necessary for answering several of the major problems in lunar science, as well as for resource and site evaluation, in preparation for soft landers and a manned-presence on the Moon.

Taylor, Lawrence A.

1992-01-01

87

In Brief: NASA mission to measure Moon's gravity  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA has selected a new mission to measure the Moon's gravity field in unprecedented detail, according to the agency's associate administrator for science, Alan Stern. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), which is part of NASA's Discovery Program series of scientist-led, solar system exploration missions, is scheduled to launch in 2011 following the agency's 2008 launch of the Lunar

Randy Showstack

2007-01-01

88

VOLCAN: a mission to explore Jupiter's volcanic moon Io  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a near-term implementation solution to the exploration of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io. We first start by providing the scientific rationale for a mission to Io, and its alignment within NASA's strategic plan. The instruments selected represent a careful balance between focused scientific goals, and programmatic restrictions imposed by a Discovery-class mission. We discuss the difficulties inherent in

Jaime Esper; Peter Panetta; Patrick Coronado; Marco Concha; Tony Martinez; Steven Scott; John Soldner

2003-01-01

89

Sedimentology of clastic rocks returned from the moon by Apollo 15.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A petrographic study of eleven samples of clastic rock returned from the moon by Apollo 15 suggests that two lithologies are present. The distinction between the two lithologies is based on the glass content of the rock matrices and the morphology of the detrital particles. Group I rocks have abundant, glass-rich, porous matrices and glass particles with morphologies comparable to those of glass particles in the lunar soil. The group I rocks were probably formed by welding or sintering of surficial soil deposits by impact-generated base surges of limited extent. Group II rocks have an essentially mineralic matrix and have an abundance of rounded mineral grains. Sample 15455 is the only Apollo 15 sample assigned to this group. In its general textural features, sample 15455 is comparable with the group II rocks from the Fra Mauro Formation at the Apollo 14 site. Textural features such as shock modification and rounding of mineral grains suggest that this sample is the product of a large-scale impact-generated base surge which possibly resulted from the Imbrian event.

Lindsay, J. F.

1972-01-01

90

In Brief: NASA mission to measure Moon's gravity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA has selected a new mission to measure the Moon's gravity field in unprecedented detail, according to the agency's associate administrator for science, Alan Stern. The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL), which is part of NASA's Discovery Program series of scientist-led, solar system exploration missions, is scheduled to launch in 2011 following the agency's 2008 launch of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. Scientists plan to use gravity field information from GRAIL's two spacecraft to X ray the Moon from crust to core to reveal subsurface structures and, indirectly, the Moon's thermal history. A camera aboard each spacecraft will allow the public to see observations from the satellites. GRAIL ``offers to bring innovative Earth studies techniques to the Moon as a precursor to their possible later use at Mars and other planets,'' Stern said. For more information, visit the Web site: http://discovery.nasa.gov/.

Showstack, Randy

2007-12-01

91

Human exploration: Moon\\/Mars mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the initial launch of the elements of Space Station Freedom in 1992, America and her partners will become permanent residents of space. Establishment of the beginnings of what will become a permanent settlement on the moon is planned for early in the next century. Following that, extension of exploration and settlement to Mars is planned. This paper includes an

Douglas A. Ohandley

1990-01-01

92

Return to the moon - The Lunar Observer mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Lunar Observer mission seeks to understand the moon in its global context. Motivation for this project comes from scientific interest and the need for robotic precursor missions in the proposed Space Exploration Initiative. The multiple roles to be performed by this mission mean that the trajectory design process promises to be quite complex and unique. The choice of launch vehicle, launch opportunity and daily launch window are affected by the selection of the translunar transfer trajectory, as well as the arrival conditions desired at lunar orbit insertion. The length of the mission and the tight lunar orbit control requirements determine the design of the circumlunar portions of the Lunar Observer mission.

Cook, Richard A.; Sergeyevsky, Andrey B.; Belbruno, Edward A.; Sweetser, Theodore H.

1990-01-01

93

NASA's J-2X Engine Builds on the Apollo Program for Lunar Return Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In January 2006, NASA streamlined its U.S. Vision for Space Exploration hardware development approach for replacing the Space Shuttle after it is retired in 2010. The revised CLV upper stage will use the J-2X engine, a derivative of NASA s Apollo Program Saturn V s S-II and S-IVB main propulsion, which will also serve as the Earth Departure Stage (EDS) engine. This paper gives details of how the J- 2X engine effort mitigates risk by building on the Apollo Program and other lessons learned to deliver a human-rated engine that is on an aggressive development schedule, with first demonstration flight in 2010 and human test flights in 2012. It is well documented that propulsion is historically a high-risk area. NASA s risk reduction strategy for the J-2X engine design, development, test, and evaluation is to build upon heritage hardware and apply valuable experience gained from past development efforts. In addition, NASA and its industry partner, Rocketdyne, which originally built the J-2, have tapped into their extensive databases and are applying lessons conveyed firsthand by Apollo-era veterans of America s first round of Moon missions in the 1960s and 1970s. NASA s development approach for the J-2X engine includes early requirements definition and management; designing-in lessons learned from the 5-2 heritage programs; initiating long-lead procurement items before Preliminary Desi& Review; incorporating design features for anticipated EDS requirements; identifying facilities for sea-level and altitude testing; and starting ground support equipment and logistics planning at an early stage. Other risk reduction strategies include utilizing a proven gas generator cycle with recent development experience; utilizing existing turbomachinery ; applying current and recent main combustion chamber (Integrated Powerhead Demonstrator) and channel wall nozzle (COBRA) advances; and performing rigorous development, qualification, and certification testing of the engine system, with a philosophy of "test what you fly, and fly what you test". These and other active risk management strategies are in place to deliver the J-2X engine for LEO and lunar return missions as outlined in the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration.

Snoddy, Jimmy R.

2006-01-01

94

An update on the MoonLite Lunar mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December 2008 the UK BNSC/STFC announced that it would undertake a phase-A study of the proposed 4 penetrator lunar mission, MoonLITE. A status report will be given which includes: a brief science overview; technological assessment (including some results of the first impact trials) and identification of critical areas; organisation and plans for the phase A; longer term plans given a successful phase A; and role of international collaborations. Background: The MoonLITE mission involves implanting 4 penetrators globally spaced at impact speeds of ~300m/s and is aimed for launch in 2014 and operate for 1 year. Each penetrator is designed to come to rest a few metres under the lunar surface to provide a solid emplacement for an effective seismic network and for geochemical and heat flow investigations. Polar emplacement will also allow an exciting ability to characterize the presence of water-ice currently indirectly inferred in the permanently shaded craters. They will also allow investigation of the presence of other volatiles, possibly including organics of astrobiologic interest. MoonLITE can also provide strong support for future human lunar missions including seismic detection of large quakes of surface regions which may dangerous to the construction of lunar habitation or observation facilities; and the possible presence and concentration of water which is important to support future human missions. Potential International Collaboration: The timing of this mission may allow arrangement of coincident impacts of other spacecraft which are at the end of their natural mission lifetime, to provide strong artificial seismic signals to allow probing the deep interior of the Moon. Perhaps no better way to end an otherwise very successful mission ? In addition, the presence of multiple Lunar orbiting spacecraft may allow the possibility of inter-communication between different missions to enhance telemetry rates from the lunar surface and provide mission fault tolerance.

Gowen, R.

2009-04-01

95

Project Apollo Image Gallery  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This image gallery features photos taken throughout the history of NASA's Apollo program, the initiative to put humans on the moon. The collection is organized chronologically by mission and includes both on-board photos, training, spacecraft rollout, control room, launch, and many other images. It is also searchable by keyword.

96

Overview of a Preliminary Destination Mission Concept for a Human Orbital Mission to the Martian Moons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NASA’s Human Spaceflight Architecture Team has been developing a preliminary mission concept to assess how a human orbital mission to the martian moons might be conducted as a follow-on to an asteroid mission and possibly prior to landing on Mars.

Mazanek, D. D.; Abell, P. A.; Antol, J.; Barbee, B. W.; Beaty, D. W.; Bass, D. S.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Coan, D. A.; Colaprete, A.; Daugherty, K. J.; Drake, B. G.; Earle, K. D.; Graham, L. D.; Hembree, R. M.; Hoffman, S. J.; Jefferies, S. A.; Lewis, R.; Lupisella, M. L.; Reeves, D. M.

2012-06-01

97

Benefits and technology readiness for using cryogenic instead of storable propellants for return mission from Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cryogenic requirements are examined for new missions to the moon. A comparison is made with previous moon landings and a technology assessment investigates the new requirements for such missions. All of the material is presented in viewgraph format.

Plachta, David W.

1992-01-01

98

Activity Book. Celebrate Apollo 11.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An activity book helps students learn about the 1969 Apollo 11 mission to the moon as they get a sense of the mission's impact on their lives. The activities enhance understanding of science, math, social studies, and language arts. A teacher's page offers information on books, magazines, computer materials, and special resources. (SM)

Barchert, Linda; And Others

1994-01-01

99

Apollo 11: 20th Anniversary  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 Mission which culminated in the first manned lunar landing on July 20, 1969 is recounted. Historical footage of preparation, takeoff, stage separation, the Eagle Lunar Lander, and the moon walk accompany astronauts Michael Collins, Buzz Aldrin, and Neil Armstrong giving their recollections of the mission.

1989-01-01

100

ESA SMART1 Mission to the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

SMART-1 is the first of ESA's Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology. Its objective is to demonstrate Primary Solar Electric Propulsion for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The 370 kg spacecraft is to be launched in summer 2003 as Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger and after a 15 month cruise is to

Bernard H. Foing; Giuseppe D. Racca; Andrea Marini; Manuel Grande; Juhani Huovelin; Jean-Luc Josset; Horst Uwe Keller; Andreas Nathues; Detlef Koschny; Ansi Malkki

2003-01-01

101

Chariots for Apollo: A History of Manned Lunar Spacecraft  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an electronic version of an historical NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) publication containing information about the history of manned lunar spacecraft up to the Apollo 11 mission which successfully landed on the Moon. This book goes through the beginning of our National Space Policy including issues such as funding, challenges, and planning of the Apollo missions. There are details about contracting for building spacecraft including the command module and lunar module, astronavigation, proposals, adjustments to dates and machinery, problems with certain aspects of the program, and progress throughout the Apollo missions. There is a summary of each mission up through Apollo 11 with the mission launch date, goals, and accomplishments.

Brooks, Courtney; Grimwood, James; Swenson Jr., Loyd

1979-01-01

102

In Situ Biological Contamination Studies of the Moon: Implications for Future Planetary Protection and Life Detection Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA and ESA have outlined visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic precursor missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moon, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and evolution of life. The search for life on objects such as Mars will require that all spacecraft and instrumentation be sufficiently cleaned and sterilized prior to launch to ensure that the scientific integrity of extraterrestrial samples is not jeopardized by terrestrial organic contamination. Under the Committee on Space Research's (COSPAR's) current planetary protection policy for the Moon, no sterilization procedures are required for outbound lunar spacecraft, nor is there yet a planetary protection category for human missions. Future in situ investigations of a variety of locations on the Moon by highly sensitive instruments designed to search for biologically derived organic compounds would help assess the contamination of the Moon by lunar spacecraft. These studies could also provide valuable "ground truth" data for Mars sample return missions and help define planetary protection requirements for future Mars bound spacecraft carrying life detection experiments. In addition, studies of the impact of terrestrial contamination of the lunar surface by the Apollo astronauts could provide valuable data to help refine future Mars surface exploration plans for a human mission to Mars.

Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Lupisella, Mark; Kminek, Gerhard; Rummel, John D.

2010-01-01

103

High Leverage Space Transportation System Technologies for Human Exploration Missions to the Moon and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of returning humans to the Moon by 2004, the 35th anniversary of the Apollo 11 landing, is examined assuming the use of existing launch vehicles (the Space Shuttle and Titan 4B), a near term, advanced technology space transportation system, and extraterrestrial propellant--specifically 'lunar-derived' liquid oxygen or LUNOX. The lunar transportation system (LTS) elements consist of an expendable, nuclear thermal rocket (NTR)-powered translunar injection (TLI) stage and a combination lunar lander/Earth return vehicle (LERV) using cryogenic liquid oxygen and hydrogen (LOX/LH2) chemical propulsion. The 'wet' LERV, carrying a crew of 2, is configured to fit within the Shuttle orbiter cargo bay and requires only modest assembly in low Earth orbit. After Earth orbit rendezvous and docking of the LERV with the Titan 4B-launched NTR TLI stage, the initial mass in low Earth orbit (IMLEO) is approx. 40 t. To maximize mission performance at minimum mass, the LERV carries no return LOX but uses approx. 7 t of LUNOX to 'reoxidize' itself for a 'direct return' flight to Earth followed by an 'Apollo-style' capsule recovery. Without LUNOX, mission capability is constrained and the total LTS mass approaches the combined Shuttle-Titan 4B IMLEO limit of approx. 45 t even with enhanced NTR and chemical engine performance. Key technologies are discussed, lunar mission scenarios described, and LTS vehicle designs and characteristics are presented. Mission versatility provided by using a small 'all LH2' NTR engine or a 'LOX-augmented' derivative, either individually or in clusters, for outer planet robotic orbiter, small Mars cargo, lunar 'commuter', and human Mars exploration class missions is also briefly discussed.

Borowski, Stanley K.; Dudzinski, Leonard A.

1996-01-01

104

Direct active measurements of movements of lunar dust: Rocket exhausts and natural effects contaminating and cleansing Apollo hardware on the Moon in 1969  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dust is the Number 1 environmental hazard on the Moon, yet its movements and adhesive properties are little understood. Matchbox-sized, 270-gram Dust Detector Experiments (DDEs) measured contrasting effects triggered by rocket exhausts of Lunar Modules (LM) after deployment 17 m and 130 m from Apollo 11 and 12 LMs. Apollo 11 Lunar Seismometer was contaminated, overheated and terminated after 21

Brian O'Brien

2009-01-01

105

Science Operations For Esa's Smart-1 Mission To The Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary objective of the European Space Agency's SMART-1 mission to the Moon is to test and validate a new electric propulsion engine for potential use on other larger ESA Cornerstone missions. However, the SMART-1 spacecraft will also carry a number of scientific instruments and experiments for use en-route to and in orbit about the Moon. SMART-1's major operational constraint is that it will be only contacted twice per week. As a result, there will be a stronger emphasis on mid-term planning, and the spacecraft will be operated using a large list of telecommands sent during the communication windows. This approach leads to a higher probability of there being resource and/or instruments conflicts. To eliminate these, two software tools were developed: the Experiment Planning System (EPS), and the Project Test Bed (PTB). These tools will also allow us to predict the lunar coverage of the scien- tific instruments, and to simulate target selections.

Almeida, M.; Foing, B.; Heather, D.; Marini, A.; Lumb, R.; Racca, G.

106

Apollo 16 mission anomaly report no. 10: Rear steering inoperative  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The report by the Apollo 16 crew that the lunar roving vehicle rear steering was inoperative during the initial drive from the vehicle's deployment site was investigated. The malfunction, and the steering system are described. It is concluded that an open circuit occurred either in the hand controller potentiometer or between the potentiometer wiper and the summing node.

1973-01-01

107

Apollo 14 mission report. Supplement 8: Summary of Apollo experiments on launch phase electrical phenomena  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An atmospheric electrical field experiment was conducted during Apollo 14 launch to measure the electrical perturbations produced by the space vehicle. The measurements showed the presence of a much stronger electrical field than was expected, and that the disturbance might be caused by a buildup of electrostatic charges in the launch vehicle engine exhaust clouds, charge buildup of the vehicle itself, or a combination of both. Efforts were also made to establish the origin and carriers of the charge.

1972-01-01

108

Apollo experience report: Evolution of the rendezvous-maneuver plan for the lunar-landing missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The evolution of the nominal rendezvous-maneuver plan for the lunar landing missions is presented along with a summary of the significant development for the lunar module abort and rescue plan. A general discussion of the rendezvous dispersion analysis that was conducted in support of both the nominal and contingency rendezvous planning is included. Emphasis is placed on the technical developments from the early 1960's through the Apollo 15 mission (July to August 1971), but pertinent organizational factors also are discussed briefly. Recommendations for rendezvous planning for future programs relative to Apollo experience also are included.

Alexander, J. D.; Becker, R. W.

1973-01-01

109

The Origin of the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most planetary scientists expected that lunar samples brought to back to Earth by the six Apollo missions would confirm one of three leading hypotheses of the Moon's origin. Instead, the samples left all three explanations unconfirmed, requiring the development of a new hypothesis for how the Moon formed. This video segment shows Apollo 15 astronauts collecting a type of rock (anorthosite) that is thought to represent the original crust of the Moon. This evidence helps explain the origins and relationship between Earth and Moon. The segment is three minutes fifty-seven seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

2011-01-07

110

The Origin of the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Most planetary scientists expected that lunar samples brought to back to Earth by the six Apollo missions would confirm one of three leading hypotheses of the Moon's origin. Instead, the samples left all three explanations unconfirmed, requiring the development of a new hypothesis for how the Moon formed. This video segment shows Apollo 15 astronauts collecting a type of rock (anorthosite) that is thought to represent the original crust of the Moon. This evidence helps explain the origins and relationship between Earth and Moon. The segment is three minutes fifty-seven seconds in length. A background essay and list of discussion questions are also provided.

111

Status of esa smart-1 mission to the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SMART-1 is the first in the programme of ESA’s Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology . Its objective is to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The spacecraft has been readied for launch in spring 2003 as an Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger. After a cruise with primary SEP, the SMART-1 mission is to orbit the Moon for a nominal period of six months, with possible extension. The spacecraft will carry out a complete programme of scientific observations during the cruise and in lunar orbit. SMART-1's science payload, with a total mass of some 19 kg, features many innovative instruments and advanced technologies. A miniaturised high-resolution camera (AMIE) for lunar surface imaging, a near-infrared point-spectrometer (SIR) for lunar mineralogy investigation, and a very compact X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS) with a new type of detector and micro-collimator which will provide fluorescence spectroscopy and imagery of the Moon's surface elemental composition. The payload also includes an experiment (KaTE) aimed at demonstrating deep-space telemetry and telecommand communications in the X and Ka-bands, a radio-science experiment (RSIS), a deep space optical link (Laser-Link Experiment), using the ESA Optical Ground station in Tenerife, and the validation of a system of autonomous navigation SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical (OBAN) based on image processing. SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical composition and evolution of the Moon, of geophysical processes (volcanism, tectonics, cratering, erosion, deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology, and high resolution studies in preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. The mission could address several topics such as the accretional processes that led to the formation of planets, and the origin of the Earth-Moon system.

Foing, B. H.; Racca, G. R.; Marini, A.; SMART-1 Technology Working Team

2003-04-01

112

Moon Express: Lander Capabilities and Initial Payload and Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Moon Express Inc. is developing a common lander design to support the commercial delivery of a wide variety of possible payloads to the lunar surface. Significant recent progress has been made on lander design and configuration and a straw man mission concept has been designed to return significant new scientific and resource utilization data from the first mission. The Moon Express lander is derived from designs tested at NASA Ames Research Center over the past decade. The MX-1 version is designed to deliver 26 kg of payload to the lunar surface, with no global restrictions on landing site. The MX-2 lander can carry a payload of 400 kg and can deliver an upper stage (designed for missions that require Earth-return, such as sample retrieval) or a robotic rover. The Moon Express lander is powered by a specially designed engine capable of being operated in either monoprop or biprop mode. The concept for the first mission is a visit to a regional pyroclastic deposit on the lunar near side. We have focused on the Rima Bode dark mantle deposits (east of crater Copernicus, around 13 N, 4 W). These deposits are mature, having been exposed to solar wind for at least 3 Ga, and have high Ti content, suggesting high concentrations of implanted hydrogen. Smooth areas near the vent suggest that the ash beds are several tens of meters thick. The projected payload includes an imaging system to document the geological setting of the landing area, an APX instrument to provide major element composition of the regolith and a neutron spectrometer to measure the bulk hydrogen composition of the regolith at the landing site. Additionally, inclusion of a next generation laser retroreflector would markedly improve measurements of lunar librations and thus, constrain the dimensions of both the liquid and solid inner cores of the Moon, as well as provide tests of General Relativity. Conops are simple, with measurements of the surface composition commencing immediately upon landing. APX chemical analysis and neutron measurements would be completed within an hour or so. If any propellant remains after landing and a 'hop' to another site was undertaken, we can repeat these analyses at the second site, adding confidence that we have obtained representative measurements. Thus, the scientific goals of the first Moon Express mission are satisfied early and easily in the mission profile. This mission scenario provides significant scientific accomplishment for very little investment in payload and operations. Although minimally configured, the payload has been chosen to provide the most critical ground truth parameters for mapping hydrogen concentrations across the entire lunar surface. As hydrogen is a key element to the development of the Moon, understanding its occurrences in both non-polar and polar environments is critical. This mission achieves significant new scientific accomplishment as well as taking the first steps towards lunar presence and permanence.

Spudis, P.; Richards, R.; Burns, J. O.

2013-12-01

113

Apollo: A Retrospective Analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program to land an American on the Moon and return safely to Earth in the 1960s has been called by some observers a defining event of the twentieth century. Pulitzer Prize-winning historian Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr., even suggested that when Americans two centuries hence study the twentieth century, they will view the Apollo lunar landing as the critical event of the century. While that conclusion might be premature, there can be little doubt but that the flight of Apollo 11 in particular and the overall Apollo program in general was a high point in humanity s quest to explore the universe beyond Earth. Since the completion of Project Apollo more than twenty years ago there have been a plethora of books, studies, reports, and articles about its origin, execution, and meaning. At the time of the twenty-fifth anniversary of the first landing, it is appropriate to reflect on the effort and its place in U.S. and NASA history. This monograph has been written as a means to this end. It presents a short narrative account of Apollo from its origin through its assessment. That is followed by a mission by mission summary of the Apollo flights and concluded by a series of key documents relative to the program reproduced in facsimile. The intent of this monograph is to provide a basic history along with primary documents that may be useful to NASA personnel and others desiring information about Apollo.

Launius, Roger D.

2004-01-01

114

Protolife on the Moon--A Neglected Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fumaroles contain the ingredients for protolife on the earth and on the moon. Early Precambrian lunar fumaroles in shadow probably produced H_2O, HCHO, CO_2, CO, C_2N_2, HC_3N, NH3, COS, CH_4, HCN, S-bearing fluids and other compounds. Fumarolic water could have been more abundant in the early Precambrian on the moon based in part on fugacity data for the Apollo fire fountain beads. Formaldehyde formed "in the spark" on the moon in shadow would not be decomposed. Volcanism by flow charging and/or freezing by charge separation of some fumarolic fluids can readily provide the "spark". Only nanocurrents need be invoked. In shadow on the moon, most fumarolic fluids could be preserved as ices for up to billions of years at 40 Kelvin. Realistically, these ices would be discontinuously interlaminated or admixed with ejecta. Early formed amphiphilic compounds (lipids) probably formed double membraned vesicles. Miller-type reactions could possibly provide hydroxy amino acids, sugars, purines and pyrimidines. Cooling of ammonium cyanide compounds with formaldehyde in lunar shadow is presumed to have created hydrogen cyanide and adenine. Fischer-Tropsch reactions in fumaroles could result in aromatic and basic amino acids and on clay produce ribose. Ribose and adenine react to form adenosine which in turn could combine with soluble polyphosphates found in fumaroles to yield adenosine triphosphate. RNA evolving through intermediate compounds can polymerize even in an ice matrix (Monnard, 2002) as would be expected in lunar shadow. In the laboratory, RNA attached to montmorillonite template particles can be encapsulated within enlarged lipid vesicles or protocells (Hanczyc et al, 2003). Clay associated with RNA enhances the enzymatic activity of RNA (Marco, 1999). On earth, the evolution of the Archaea was dependent on tungsto-enzymes; fumaroles on earth are enriched in tungsten. Fumaroles within a distance of meters, exhibit a wide range of temperatures, pH, Eh, periods of desiccation, condensing agents, clay types, and hydrolytic reactivity. In addition, thermodynamically viable reactions involving hydrogen sulfide and troilite can produce biofilms. If methyl thiols are involved, resulting products include the prebiotic agents of formic and acetic acids. All of these parameters would be enhanced by lunar conditions of (1) lower lunar gravity and (2) surface vacuum. Lower lunar gravity would result in a deeper nucleation of bubbles in a fumarolic system with a slower bubble rise rate enhancing probabilities of reactivities of metabolites. Surface vacuum would result in lower boiling points of prebiotic agents such as formic acid producing temperatures more favorable for the formation of protolife. Assuming volcanism, targets for the search for protolife are discussed.

Green, J.

115

A mission to Mercury and a mission to the moons of Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two Advanced Design Projects were completed this academic year at Penn State - a mission to the planet Mercury and a mission to the moons of Mars (Phobos and Deimos). At the beginning of the fall semester the students were organized into six groups and given their choice of missions. Once a mission was chosen, the students developed conceptual designs. These designs were then evaluated at the end of the fall semester and combined into two separate mission scenarios. To facilitate the work required for each mission, the class was reorganized in the spring semester by combining groups to form two mission teams. An integration team consisting of two members from each group was formed for each mission team so that communication and exchange of information would be easier among the groups. The types of projects designed by the students evolved from numerous discussions with Penn State faculty and mission planners at the Lewis Research Center Advanced Projects Office. Robotic planetary missions throughout the solar system can be considered valuable precursors to human visits and test beds for innovative technology. For example, by studying the composition of the Martian moons, scientists may be able to determine if their resources may be used or synthesized for consumption during a first human visit.

1993-01-01

116

Apollo 16 mission report. Supplement 2: Service Propulsion system final flight evaluation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 16 Mission was the sixteenth in a series of flights using Apollo flight hardware and included the fifth lunar landing of the Apollo Program. The Apollo 16 Mission utilized CSM 113 which was equipped with SPS Engine S/N 66 (Injector S/N 137). The engine configuration and expected performance characteristics are presented. Since previous flight results of the SPS have consistently shown the existence of a negative mixture ratio shift, SPS Engine S/N 66 was reorificed to increase the mixture ratio for this mission. The propellant unbalance for the two major engine firings is compared with the predicted unbalance. Although the unbalance at the end of the TEI burn is significantly different than the predicted unbalance, the propellant mixture ratio was well within limits. The SPS performed six burns during the mission, with a total burn duration of 575.3 seconds. The ignition time, burn duration and velocity gain for each of the six SPS burns are reported.

Smith, R. J.; Wood, S. C.

1974-01-01

117

Dr. George Mueller Follows the Progress of the Apollo 11 Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dr. George E. Mueller, Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight, NASA, follows the progress of the Apollo 11 mission. This photo was taken on July 16, 1969 in the Launch Control Center at the Spaceport on the morning of the launch.

1969-01-01

118

Nuclear Emulsion Recordings of the Astronauts' Radiation Exposure on the First Lunar Landing Mission APOLLO Xi.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ilford G.5 and K.2 emulsions in radiation packs carried by the astronauts on Apollo XI in their space suits were analyzed for identifying the various components of the radiation field in space and determining the total mission dose. In terms of dose equiv...

H. J. Schaefer J. J. Sullivan

1970-01-01

119

Modified camera selected for use on Apollo 12 lunar landing mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This modified camera, equipped to transmit color television, has been selected for use on the Apollo 12 lunar landing mission. Here, a Westinghouse engineer adjusts the camera before it is placed in a thermal vacuum chamber at Westinghouse Defense and Space Center in Washington, D.C., where the camera was developed and built.

1969-01-01

120

Saturn 5 launch vehicle flight evaluation report-AS-511 Apollo 16 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A postflight analysis of the Apollo 16 mission is presented. The basic objective of the flight evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight problems are identified, their causes are deet determined, and recommendations are made for corrective actions. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. Significant events for all phases of the flight are provide in tabular form.

1972-01-01

121

Apollo Soyuz test project, USA-USSR. [mission plan of spacecraft docking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission plan of the docking of a United States Apollo and a Soviet Union Soyuz spacecraft in Earth orbit to test compatible rendezvous and docking equipment and procedures is presented. Space experiments conducted jointly by the astronauts and cosmonauts during the joint phase of the mission as well as experiments performed solely by the U.S. astronauts and spread over the nine day span of the flight are included. Biographies of the astronauts and cosmonauts are given.

1975-01-01

122

APOLLO 17 : Time...Enemy of the Lunar Investigator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

APOLLO 17 : There's just never enough time to do everything, especially on the moon From the film documentary 'APOLLO 17: On the shoulders of Giants'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APPOLO 17 : Sixth and last manned lunar landing mission in the APOLLO series with Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E.Evans, and Harrison H. (Jack) Schmitt. Landed at Taurus-Littrow on Dec 11.,1972. Deployed camera and experiments; performed EVA with lunar roving vehicle. Returned lunar samples. Mission Duration 301hrs 51min 59sec

1974-01-01

123

Chandrayaan-2: India's First Soft-landing Mission to Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first Indian planetary mission to moon, Chandrayaan-1, launched on 22nd October, 2008 with a suite of Indian and International payloads on board, collected very significant data over its mission duration of close to one year. Important new findings from this mission include, discovery of hydroxyl and water molecule in sunlit lunar surface region around the poles, exposure of large anorthositic blocks confirming the global lunar magma hypothesis, signature of sub surface ice layers in permanently shadowed regions near the lunar north pole, evidence for a new refractory rock type, mapping of reflected lunar neutral atoms and identification of mini-magnetosphere, possible signature of water molecule in lunar exosphere, preserved lava tube that may provide site for future human habitation and radiation dose en-route and around the moon. Chandrayaan-2:, The success of Chandrayaan-1 orbiter mission provided impetus to implement the second approved Indian mission to moon, Chandrayaan-2, with an Orbiter-Lander-Rover configuration. The enhanced capabilities will enable addressing some of the questions raised by the results obtained from the Chandrayaan-1 and other recent lunar missions and also to enhance our understanding of origin and evolution of the moon. The orbiter that will carry payloads to further probe the morphological, mineralogical and chemical properties of the lunar surface material through remote sensing observations in X-ray, visible, infra-red and microwave regions. The Lander-Rover system will enable in-depth studies of a specific lunar location and probe various physical properties of the moon. The Chandrayaan-2 mission will be collaboration between Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) and the Federal Space Agency of Russia. ISRO will be responsible for the Launch Vehicle, the Orbiter and the Rover while the Lander will be provided by Russia. Initial work to realize the different elements of the mission is currently in progress in both countries. Mission Elements:, On board segment of Chandrayaan-2 mission consists of a lunar Orbiter and a lunar Lander-Rover. The orbiter for Chandrayaan-2 mission is similar to that of Chandrayaan-1 from structural and propulsion aspects. Based on a study of various mission management and trajectory options, such as, separation of the Lander-Rover module in Earth Parking Orbit (EPO) or in lunar transfer trajectory (LTT) or in lunar polar orbit (LPO), the option of separating of this module at LTT, after required midcourse corrections, was selected as this offers an optimum mass and overall mission management advantage. The orbiter propulsion system will be used to transfer Orbiter-Lander-Rover composite from EPO to LTT. On reaching LTT, the Lander-Rover module will be separated from the orbiter module. The Lander-Rover and Orbiter modules are configured with individual propulsion and housekeeping systems. The indigenously developed Geostationary Satellite Launch Vehicle GSLV (Mk-II) will be used for this mission. The most critical aspect of its feasibility was an accurate evaluation of the scope for taking a 3200kg lift off mass into EPO. A Lander-Rover mass of 1270kg (including the propellant for soft landing) will provide sufficient margin for such a lift off within the capability of flight proven GSLV (Mk-II) for the EPO. Mission Scenario: ,GSLV (Mk-II) will launch the Lunar Orbiter coupled to the Lunar Lander-Rover into EPO (170 x 16980 km) following which the Orbiter will boost the orbit from EPO to LTT where the two modules will be separated. Both of them will make their independent journey towards moon and reach lunar polar orbit independently. The orbiter module will be initially placed in a circular polar orbit (200km) and the Lander-Rover module descends towards the lunar surface. After landing, a motorized rover with robotic arm and scientific instruments would be released on to the lunar surface. Although the exact landing location is yet to be finalized, a high latitude location is preferred from scientific interest. Multiple communication links involving

Mylswamy, Annadurai; Krishnan, A.; Alex, T. K.; Rama Murali, G. K.

2012-07-01

124

Radioactivity observed in the sodium iodide gamma-ray spectrometer returned on the Apollo 17 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to obtain information on radioactive background induced in the Apollo 15 and 16 gamma-ray spectrometers (7 cm x 7 cm NaI) by particle irradiation during spaceflight, and identical detector was flown and returned to earth on the Apollo 17 mission. The induced radioactivity was monitored both internally and externally from one and a half hours after splashdown. When used in conjunction with a computation scheme for estimating induced activation from calculated trapped proton and cosmic-ray fluences, these results show an important contribution resulting from both thermal and energetic neutrons produced in the heavy spacecraft by cosmic-ray interactions.

Dyer, C. S.; Trombka, J. I.; Schmadebeck, R. L.; Eller, E.; Bielefeld, M. J.; Okelley, G. D.; Eldridge, J. S.; Northcutt, K. J.; Metzger, A. E.; Reedy, R. C.

1975-01-01

125

Radiation exposure and protection for moon and Mars missions  

SciTech Connect

A deep space radiation environment of galactic cosmic rays and energetic particles from solar flares imposes stringent requirements for radiation shielding for both personnel and electronic equipment at a moon base or on a Mars expedition. Current Los Alamos capabilities for calculating the effect of such shielding are described, and extensions and validation needed before actual manned deep space missions are launched are outlined. The biological effects of exposure to cosmic-ray ions and to low doses of radiation at low dose rates are poorly understood. Recent Los Alamos work on mutation effects in cells, DNA repair processes, and the analysis of chromosomal aberrations promises to increase our understanding of the basic processes, to provide methods to screen for radiation sensitivity, and to provide advanced dosimetry equipment for space missions.

MacFarlane, R.E.; Prael, R.E.; Strottman, D.D.; Strniste, G.F.; Feldman, W.C.

1991-04-01

126

Training Space Surgeons for Missions to the Moon and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Over a period of 4 years, several working groups reviewed the provisions for medical care in low earth orbit and for future flights such as to the Moon and Mars. More than 60 medical experts representing a wide variety of clinical backgrounds participated in the working groups. They concluded that NASA medical training for long-duration missions, while critical to success, is currently aimed at short-term skill retention. They noted that several studies have shown that skills and knowledge deteriorate rapidly in the absence of adequate sustainment training. American Heart Association studies have shown that typically less than twenty-five percent of learned skills remain after 6 to 8 months. In addition to identifying the current training deficiencies, the working groups identified additional skill and knowledge sets required for missions to the Moon and Mars and curricula were developed to address inadequacies. Space medicine care providers may be categorized into 4 types based on health care responsibilities and level of education required. The first 2 types are currently recognized positions within the flight crew: crew medical officers and astronaut-physician. The crew medical officer (CMO), a non-medically trained astronaut crewmember, is given limited emergency medical technician-like training to provide medical care on orbit. Many of hidher duties are carried out under the direction of a ground-based flight surgeon in mission control. Second is the astronaut- physician whose primary focus is on mission specialist duties and training, and who has very limited ability to maintain medical proficiency. Two new categories are recommended to complete the 4 types of care providers primarily to address the needs of those who will travel to the Moon and Mars. Physician astronaut - a physician, who in addition to being a mission specialist, will be required to maintain and enhance hidher medical proficiency while serving as an astronaut. Space surgeon - a physician astronaut given special training to address the unique health care requirements envisioned for expeditions such as those to Mars.

Pool, S. L.; McSwain, N.

2004-01-01

127

Lost moon, saved lives: using the movie Apollo 13 as a video primer in behavioral skills for simulation trainees and instructors.  

PubMed

Behavioral skills such as effective communication, teamwork, and leadership are critically important to successful outcomes in patient care, especially in resuscitation situations where correct decisions must be made rapidly. However, historically, these important skills have rarely been specifically addressed in learning programs directed at healthcare professionals. Not only have most healthcare professionals had little or no formal education and training in applying behavioral skills to their patient care activities but also many of those serving as instructors and content experts for training programs have few resources available that clearly illustrate what these skills are and how they may be used in the context of real clinical situations. This represents a serious shortcoming in the education and training of healthcare professionals and stands in distinct contrast to other industries.Aerospace, similar to other high-consequence industries, has a long history of the use of simulation to improve human performance and reduce risk: astronauts and the engineers in Mission Control spend hundreds of hours in simulated flight in preparation for every mission. The value of time spent in the simulator was clearly illustrated during the flight of Apollo 13, the third mission to land men on the moon. The Apollo 13 crew had to overcome a number of life-threatening technical and medical problems, and it was their simulation-based training that allowed them to display the teamwork, ingenuity, and determination needed to return to earth safely.The movie Apollo 13 depicts in a highly realistic manner the events that occurred during the flight, including the actions of the crew in space and those in Mission Control in Houston. Three scenes from this movie are described in this article; each serves as a useful example for healthcare professionals of the importance of simulation-based learning and the application of behavioral skills to successful resolution of crises. This article is meant to serve as a guide as to how this movie and other similar media may be used for facilitated group or independent learning, providing appropriate context and clear examples of key points to be discussed. PMID:21330813

Halamek, Louis P

2010-10-01

128

Small satellite survey mission to the second Earth moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents an innovative space mission devoted to the survey of the small Earth companion asteroid by means of nano platforms. Also known as the second Earth moon, Cruithne, is the target identified for the mission. Both the trajectory to reach the target and a preliminary spacecraft budget are here detailed. The idea is to exploit high efficient ion thrusters to reduce the propellant mass fraction in such a high total impulse mission (of the order of 1e6 Ns). This approach allows for a 100 kg class spacecraft with a very small Earth escape energy (5 km2/s2) to reach the destination in about 320 days. The 31% propellant mass fraction allows for a payload mass fraction of the order of 8% and this is sufficient to embark on such a small spacecraft a couple of nano-satellites deployed once at the target to carry out a complete survey of the asteroid. Two 2U Cubesats are here considered as representative payload, but also other scientific payloads or different platforms might be considered according with the specific mission needs. The small spacecraft used to transfer these to the target guarantees the manoeuvre capabilities during the interplanetary journey, the protection against radiations along the path and the telecommunication relay functions for the data transmission with Earth stations. The approach outlined in the paper offers reliable solutions to the main issues associated with a deep space nano-satellite mission thus allowing the exploitation of distant targets by means of these tiny spacecraft. The study presents an innovative general strategy for the NEO observation and Cruithne is chosen as test bench. This target, however, mainly for its relevant inclination, requires a relatively large propellant mass fraction that can be reduced if low inclination asteroids are of interest. This might increase the payload mass fraction (e.g. additional Cubesats and/or additional scientific payloads on the main bus) for the same 100 kg class mission.

Pergola, P.

2013-11-01

129

Explore the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Moon is probably not humankind's final frontier. However, more than 30 years after the completion of the last lunar mission, the Apollo landings still stand out as six of the most ambitious and heroic voyages in exploration history. This interactive feature provides panoramic views of each of the six Apollo landing sites and offers a hint of what astronauts faced on the surface of the Moon. The VR images can be panned horizontally and vertically, and still images are also provided. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

2011-04-22

130

Overview of a Preliminary Destination Mission Concept for a Human Orbital Mission to the Martial Moons  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Human Spaceflight Architecture Team (HAT) has been developing a preliminary Destination Mission Concept (DMC) to assess how a human orbital mission to one or both of the Martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, might be conducted as a follow-on to a human mission to a near-Earth asteroid (NEA) and as a possible preliminary step prior to a human landing on Mars. The HAT Mars-Phobos-Deimos (MPD) mission also permits the teleoperation of robotic systems by the crew while in the Mars system. The DMC development activity provides an initial effort to identify the science and exploration objectives and investigate the capabilities and operations concepts required for a human orbital mission to the Mars system. In addition, the MPD Team identified potential synergistic opportunities via prior exploration of other destinations currently under consideration.

Mazanek, D. D.; Abell, P. A.; Antol, J.; Barbee, B. W.; Beaty, D. W.; Bass, D. S.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Coan, D. A.; Colaprete, A.; Daugherty, K. J.; Drake, B. G.; Earle, K. D.; Graham, L. D.; Hembree, R. M.; Hoffman, S. J.; Jefferies, S. A.; Lupisella, M. L.; Reeves, David M.

2012-01-01

131

Apollo Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes the scientific activities of the Apollo program, including findings from analyses of the returned lunar sample. Descriptions are made concerning the possible origin of the moon and the formation of the lunar surface. (CC)

Biggar, G. M.

1973-01-01

132

Report of the Terrestrial Bodies Science Working Group. Volume 4: The moon. [lunar polar orbiter mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A rationale for furture exploration of the moon is given. Topics discussed include the objectives of the lunar polar orbiter mission, the mission profile, and general characteristics of the spacraft to be used.

Haskin, L. A.; Duke, M. B.; Hubbard, N.; Johnson, T. V.; Malin, M. C.; Minear, J.

1977-01-01

133

Contributions of the Clementine mission to our understanding of the processes and history of the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Clementine mission will provide us with an abundance of information about lunar surface morphology, topography, and composition, and it will permit us to infer the history of the Moon and the processes that have shaped that history. This information can be used to address fundamental questions in lunar science and allow us to make significant advances towards deciphering the complex story of the Moon. The Clementine mission will also permit a first-order global assessment of the resources of the Moon and provide a strategic base of knowledge upon which future robotic and human missions to the Moon can build.

Spudis, Paul D.; Lucey, Paul G.

1993-01-01

134

The Effects of Lunar Dust on EVA Systems During the Apollo Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission documents from the six Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface have been studied in order to catalog the effects of lunar dust on Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) systems, primarily the Apollo surface space suit. It was found that the effects could be sorted into nine categories: vision obscuration, false instrument readings, dust coating and contamination, loss of traction, clogging of mechanisms, abrasion, thermal control problems, seal failures, and inhalation and irritation. Although simple dust mitigation measures were sufficient to mitigate some of the problems (i.e., loss of traction) it was found that these measures were ineffective to mitigate many of the more serious problems (i.e., clogging, abrasion, diminished heat rejection). The severity of the dust problems were consistently underestimated by ground tests, indicating a need to develop better simulation facilities and procedures.

Gaier, James R.

2007-01-01

135

The Effects of Lunar Dust on EVA Systems During the Apollo Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mission documents from the six Apollo missions that landed on the lunar surface have been studied in order to catalog the effects of lunar dust on Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) systems, primarily the Apollo surface space suit. It was found that the effects could be sorted into nine categories: vision obscuration, false instrument readings, dust coating and contamination, loss of traction, clogging of mechanisms, abrasion, thermal control problems, seal failures, and inhalation and irritation. Although simple dust mitigation measures were sufficient to mitigate some of the problems (i.e., loss of traction) it was found that these measures were ineffective to mitigate many of the more serious problems (i.e., clogging, abrasion, diminished heat rejection). The severity of the dust problems were consistently underestimated by ground tests, indicating a need to develop better simulation facilities and procedures.

Gaier, James R.

2005-01-01

136

Saturn 5 launch vehicle flight evaluation report-AS-509 Apollo 14 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A postflight analysis of the Apollo 14 flight is presented. The basic objective of the flight evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight failures are identified, their causes are determined and corrective actions are recommended. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. The significant events for all phases of the flight are analyzed.

1971-01-01

137

Saturn 5 Launch Vehicle Flight Evaluation Report-AS-512 Apollo 17 Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An evaluation of the launch vehicle and lunar roving vehicle performance for the Apollo 17 flight is presented. The objective of the evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight problems are identified, their causes are determined, and recommendations are made for corrective action. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. The significant events for all phases of the flight are analyzed.

1973-01-01

138

Crew of the first manned Apollo mission practice water egress procedures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Prime crew for the first manned Apollo mission relax in a life raft during water egress training in the Gulf of Mexico with a full scale boilerplate model of their spacecraft. Left to right, are Astronauts Roger B. Chaffee, pilot, Virgil I. Grissom, command pilot, and Edward H. White II (facing camera), senior pilot. In background is the 'Duchess', a yacht owned by La Porte businessman Paul Barkley and provided by him as a press boat for newsmen covering the training.

1966-01-01

139

Recovered Apollo-Era Saturn V F-1 Engines Arrive at Cape Canaveral  

NASA Video Gallery

Two F-1 engines that powered the first stage of the Saturn V rockets that lifted NASAâ??s Apollo missions to the moon were recovered from the Atlantic Ocean March 20, 2013 by Jeff Bezos, the founde...

140

APOLLO 8: Birth of a Machine (Pt 2/2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Part 2 of the clip 'Birth of a machine'. This clip reveals the origins of the major components of the mission. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 8:'Debrief': part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) APOLLO 8: First manned Saturn V flight with Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr., and william A. Anders. First manned lunar orbit mission; provided a close-up look at the moon during 10 lunar orbits. Mission Duration 147hrs 0m 42s

1974-01-01

141

Apollo 17: At Taurus Littrow  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A summation, with color illustrations, is presented on the Apollo 17 mission. The height, weight, and thrust specifications are given on the launch vehicle. Presentations are given on: the night launch; earth to moon ascent; separation and descent; EVA, the sixth lunar surface expedition; ascent from Taurus-Littrow; the America to Challenger rendezvous; return, reentry, and recovery; the scientific results of the mission; background information on the astronauts; and the future projects.

Anderton, D. A.

1973-01-01

142

Code-Name: Spider, Flight of Apollo 9.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Apollo 9, an earth orbiting mission during which the Lunar Module was first tested in space flight in preparation for the eventual moon landing missions, is the subject of this pamphlet. Many color photographs and diagrams of the Lunar Module and flight activities are included with a brief description of the mission. (PR)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

143

Global Elemental Maps of the Moon Using Gamma Rays Measured by the Kaguya (SELENE) Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kaguya spacecraft was in a circular polar lunar orbit from 17 October 2007 until 10 June 2009 as part of JAXA's SELENE lunar exploration program. Among the 13 instruments, an advanced gamma-ray spectrometer (GRS) studied the distributions of many elements. The gamma rays were from the decay of the naturally-radioactive elements K, Th, and U and from cosmic-ray interactions with H, O, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Fe, and other elements. They are emitted from the top few tens of centimeters of the lunar surface. The main detector of the GRS was high-purity germanium, which was surrounded by bismuth germanate and plastic scintillators to reduce backgrounds. Gamma-ray spectra were sent to the Earth every 17 seconds (1 degree of the lunar surface) with energies from 0-12 MeV. These spectra were adjusted to a standard gain and then summed over many lunar regions. Background spectra were also determined. Over 200 gamma rays have been observed, with most being backgrounds but many being from the lunar surface, an order more gamma rays than from any previous lunar GRS missions. Elemental results have been determined for K, Th, and U. Results for K and Th are consistent with those from the GRS on Apollo and Lunar Prospector. The first lunar global maps for U have been determined. These 3 elements show strong correlations among themselves, which implies that the Moon is homogeneous in these elements over the entire Moon. Their elemental ratios agree well with those measured in lunar samples and meteorites. Preliminary maps for Fe are consistent with earlier maps. Other elements, including O, Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, are being mapped, and their distributions vary over the lunar surface and appear consistent with previous lunar elemental results. This work was supported by JAXA, NASA, and CNRS, France.

Reedy, Robert C.; Hasebe, N.; Yamashita, N.; Karouji, Y.; Kobayashi, S.; Hareyama, M.; Hayatsu, K.; Okudaira, O.; Kobayashi, M.; d'Uston, C.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.; Forni, O.; Diez, B.; Kim, K.

2009-09-01

144

Constraints on the formation age and evolution of the Moon from 142Nd-143Nd systematics of Apollo 12 basalts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon likely formed as a result of a giant impact between proto-Earth and another large body. The timing of this event and the subsequent lunar differentiation timescales are actively debated. New high-precision Nd isotope data of Apollo mare basalts are used to evaluate the Low-Ti, High-Ti and KREEP mantle source reservoirs within the context of lunar formation and evolution. The resulting models are assessed using both reported 146Sm half-lives (68 and 103 Myr). The linear relationship defined by 142Nd-143Nd systematics does not represent multi-component mixing and is interpreted as an isochron recording a mantle closure age for the Sm-Nd system in the Moon. Using a chondritic source model with present day ?142Nd of -7.3, the mare basalt mantle source reservoirs closed at 4.45-09+10 Ga (t Sm146=68 Myr) or 4.39-14+16 Ga (t Sm146=103 Myr). In a superchondritic, 2-stage evolution model with present day ?Nd142 of 0, mantle source closure ages are constrained to 4.41-08+10 (t Sm146=68 Myr) or 4.34-14+15 Ga (t Sm146=103 Myr). The lunar mantle source reservoir closure ages <4.5 Ga may be reconciled by 3 potential scenarios. First, the Moon formed later than currently favored models indicate, such that the lunar mantle closure age is near or at the time of lunar formation. Second, the Moon formed ca. 4.55 to 4.47 Ga and small amounts of residual melts were sustained within a crystallizing lunar magma ocean (LMO) for up to ca. 200 Myr from tidal heating or asymmetric LMO evolution. Third, the LMO crystallized rapidly after early Moon formation. Thus the Sm-Nd mantle closure age represents a later resetting of isotope systematics. This may have resulted from a global wide remelting event. While current Earth-Moon formation constraints cannot exclusively advocate or dismiss any of these models, the fact that U-Pb ages and Hf isotopes for Jack Hills zircons from Australia are best explained by an Earth that re-equilibrated at 4.4 Ga or earlier following the Moon-forming impact, does not favor a later forming Moon. If magma oceans crystallize in a few million years as currently advocated, then a global resetting, possibly by a large impact at 4.40 to 4.34 Ga, such as that which formed the South Pole Aitken Basin, best explains the late mantle closure age for the coupled Sm-Nd isotope systematics presented here.

McLeod, Claire L.; Brandon, Alan D.; Armytage, Rosalind M. G.

2014-06-01

145

LAPIS - LAnder Package Impacting a Seismometer - A Proposal for a Semi-Hard Lander Mission to the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With an increased interest on the moon within the last years, at least with several missions in orbit or under development (SELENE/Japan, Chang'e/China, Chandrayaan/India and others), there is a strong demand within the German science community to participate in this initiative, building-up a national competence regarding lunar exploration. For this purpose, a Phase-0 analysis for a small lunar semi-hard landing scenario has been performed at DLR to foster future lunar exploration missions. This study's scope was to work out a more detailed insight into the design drivers and challenges and their impact on mass and cost budgets for such a mission. LAPIS has been dedicated to the investigation of the seismic activities of the moon, additionally to some other geophysical in-situ measurements at the lunar surface. In fact, the current status of the knowledge and understanding of lunar seismic activities leads to a range of open questions which have not been answered so far by the various Apollo missions in the past and could now possibly be answered by the studied LAPIS mission. Among these are the properties of the lunar core, the origin of deep and shallow moonquakes and the occurrence of micro-meteoroids. Therefore, as proposed first for LAPIS on the LEO mission, a payload of a short period micro-seismometer, based on European and American predevelopments, has been suggested. A staged mission scenario will be described, using a 2-module spacecraft with a propulsion part and a landing part, the so called LAPIS-PROP and LAPIS-LAND. In this scenario, the LAPIS-PROP module will do the cruise, until the spacecraft reaches an altitude of 100 m above the moon, after which the landing module will separate and continue to the actual semi-hard landing, which is based on deformable structures. Further technical details, e.g. considering the subsystem technologies, have been addressed within the performed study. These especially critical and uniquely challenging issues, such as the structural damping of the landing impact, the communication subsystem and the thermal subsystem have been investigated to some extent and will be described further. The described study will analyze in a unique way the technology, which is necessary to realize such a rather unconventional mission scenario, which will furthermore to a great extent contribute to the current knowledge on seismic activities on the moon.

Lange, C.

2009-04-01

146

Moon-Mars Analogue Mission (EuroMoonMars 1 at the Mars Desert Research Station)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) is situated in an analogue habitat-based Martian environment, designed for missions to determine the knowledge and equipment necessary for successful future planetary exploration. For this purpose, a crew of six people worked and lived together in a closed-system environment. They performed habitability experiments within the dwelling and conducted Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) for two weeks (20 Feb to 6 Mar 2010) and were guided externally by mission support, called "Earth" within the simulation. Crew 91, an international, mixed-gender, and multidisciplinary group, has completed several studies during the first mission of the EuroMoonMars campaign. The crew is composed of an Italian designer and human factors specialist, a Dutch geologist, an American physicist, and three French aerospace engineering students from Ecole de l'Air, all with ages between 21 and 31. Each crewmember worked on personal research and fulfilled a unique role within the group: commander, executive officer, engineer, health and safety officer, scientist, and journalist. The expedition focused on human factors, performance, communication, health and safety pro-tocols, and EVA procedures. The engineers' projects aimed to improve rover manoeuvrability, far-field communication, and data exchanges between the base and the rover or astronaut. The crew physicist evaluated dust control methods inside and outside the habitat. The geologist tested planetary geological sampling procedures. The crew designer investigated performance and overall habitability in the context of the Mars Habitability Experiment from the Extreme-Design group. During the mission the crew also participated in the Food Study and in the Ethospace study, managed by external groups. The poster will present crew dynamics, scientific results and daily schedule from a Human Factors perspective. Main co-sponsors and collaborators: ILEWG, ESA ESTEC, NASA Ames, Ecole de l'Air, SKOR, Extreme-Design, Universit` di Torino, MMS TU-Berlin, Space Florida, DAAD, Uni-a versity of Utrecht, The Mars Society.

Lia Schlacht, Irene; Voute, Sara; Irwin, Stacy; Foing, Bernard H.; Stoker, Carol R.; Westenberg, Artemis

147

The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to improve crew health and performance for future exploration missions and lunar surface operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduction: Medical requirements for the future crew exploration vehicle (CEV), lunar surface access module (LSAM), advanced extravehicular activity (EVA) suits, and Lunar habitat are currently being developed within the exploration architecture. While much is known about the vehicle and lunar surface activities during Apollo, relatively little is known about whether the hardware, systems, or environment impacted crew health or performance during these missions. Also, inherent to the proposed aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations impacting crew health and/or performance during a lunar mission. The goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with various working groups participating in the exploration effort. Methods: A review of medical operations during Apollo missions 7-17 was conducted. Ten categories of hardware, systems, or crew factors were identified during preliminary data review generating 655 data records which were captured in an Access® database. The preliminary review resulted in 285 questions. The questions were posed to surviving Apollo crewmembers using mail, face-to-face meetings, phone communications, or online interactions. Results: Fourteen of 22 surviving Apollo astronauts (64%) participated in the project. This effort yielded 107 recommendations for future vehicles, habitats, EVA suits, and lunar surface operations. Conclusions: To date, the Apollo Medical Operations recommendations are being incorporated into the exploration mission architecture at various levels and a centralized database has been developed. The Apollo crewmember's input has proved to be an invaluable resource. We will continue soliciting input from this group as we continue to evolve and refine requirements for the future exploration missions.

Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Novak, Joseph D.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Josef; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

148

Integrated Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Mission Operations Design Implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in support of human crews. The challenges of human Mars missions, including roundtrip communications time delays of 6 to 40 minutes, interplanetary transit times of many months, and the need to manage lifecycle costs, will require the evolution of a new mission operations paradigm far less dependent on real-time monitoring and response by an Earthbound operations team. Robotic systems and automation will augment human capability, increase human safety by providing means to perform many tasks without requiring immediate human presence, and enable the transfer of traditional mission control tasks from the ground to crews. Developing and validating the new paradigm and its associated infrastructure may place requirements on operations design for nearer-term lunar missions. The authors, representing both the human and robotic mission operations communities, assess human lunar and Mars mission challenges, and consider how human-robot operations may be integrated to enable efficient joint operations, with the eventual emergence of a unified exploration operations culture.

Korth, David; LeBlanc, Troy; Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young

2006-01-01

149

Integrated Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Mission Operations Design Implications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in support of human crews. The challenges of human Mars missions, including roundtrip communications time delays of 6 to 40 minutes, interplanetary transit times of many months, and the need to manage lifecycle costs, will require the evolution of a new mission operations paradigm far less dependent on real-time monitoring and response by an Earthbound operations team. Robotic systems and automation will augment human capability, increase human safety by providing means to perform many tasks without requiring immediate human presence, and enable the transfer of traditional mission control tasks from the ground to crews. Developing and validating the new paradigm and its associated infrastructure may place requirements on operations design for nearer-term lunar missions. The authors, representing both the human and robotic mission operations communities, assess human lunar and Mars mission challenges, and consider how human-robot operations may be integrated to enable efficient joint operations, with the eventual emergence of a unified exploration operations culture.

Mishkin, Andrew; Lee, Young; Korth, David; LeBlanc, Troy

2007-01-01

150

Early Impacts on the Moon: Crystallization Ages of Apollo 16 Melt Breccias  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A better understanding of the early impact history of the terrestrial planets has been identified one of the highest priority science goals for solar system exploration. Crystallization ages of impact melt breccias from the Apollo 16 site in the central nearside lunar highlands show a pronounced clustering of ages from 3.75-3.95 Ga, with several impact events being recognized by the association of textural groups and distinct ages. Here we present new geochemical and petrologic data for Apollo 16 crystalline breccia 67955 that document a much older impact event with an age of 4.2 Ga.

Norman, M. D.; Shih, C.-Y.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Taylor, L. A.

2007-01-01

151

Apollo 15 surface science summary.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 15 mission was the fourth manned lunar landing and the northernmost location yet visited. The landing site on the southeastern edge of the Imbrium Basin afforded the opportunity of studying several unique lunar features, the Apennine Mountains, Hadley Rille, and the Imbrium Basin fill. Detailed geological study of the data returned from the mission provided new insight into the structure and history of the Basin. A third Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package was deployed during the mission containing seven experiments: Passive Seismometer (PSE), Heat Flow (HFE), Surface Magnetometer (LSM), Suprathermal Ion Detector (SIDE), Cold Cathode Gauge (CCGE), Solar Wind Spectrometer (SWS), and a Dust Detector. We have been able to triangulate on the sources of moonquakes and to observe simultaneous nighttime and daytime changes in the moon's magnetic field, solar wind flux, and the neutral and ionized components of the moon's tenuous atmosphere.

Beattie, D. A.; Hanley, J. B.

1972-01-01

152

Pulmonary function evaluation during the Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous experience during Apollo postflight exercise testing indicated no major changes in pulmonary function. Pulmonary function has been studied in detail following exposure to hypoxic and hyperoxic normal gravity environments, but no previous study has reported on men exposed to an environment that was both normoxic at 258 torr total pressure and at null gravity as encountered in Skylab. Forced vital capacity (FVC) was measured during the preflight and postflight periods of the Skylab 2 mission. Inflight measurements of vital capacity (VC) were obtained during the last 2 weeks of the second manned mission (Skylab 3). More detailed pulmonary function screening was accomplished during the Skylab 4 mission. The primary measurements made during Skylab 4 testing included residual volume determination (RV), closing volume (CV), VC, FVC and its derivatives. In addition, VC was measured in flight at regular intervals during the Skylab 4 mission. Vital capacity was decreased slightly (-10%) in flight in all Skylab 4 crewmen. No major preflight-to-postflight changes were observed. The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) crewmen were studied using equipment and procedures similar to those employed during Skylab 4. Postflight evaluation of the ASTP crewmen was complicated by their inadvertent exposure to nitrogen tetroxide gas fumes upon reentry.

Sawin, C. F.; Nicogossian, A. E.; Rummel, J. A.; Michel, E. L.

1976-01-01

153

On the Moon with Apollo 16. A Guidebook to the Descartes Region.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Apollo 16 guidebook describes and illustrates (with artist concepts) the physical appearance of the lunar region visited. Maps show the planned traverses (trips on the lunar surface via Lunar Rover); the plans for scientific experiments are described in depth; and timelines for all activities are included. A section on "The Crew" is…

Simmons, Gene

154

Apollo Experience Report: The Role of Flight Mission Rules in Mission Preparation and Conduct.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The development of flight mission rules from the mission development phase through the detailed mission-planning phase and through the testing and training phase is analyzed. The procedure for review of the rules and the coordination requirements for miss...

L. W. Keyser

1974-01-01

155

APOLLO 8: Birth of a Machine (pt 1/2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This clip shows the launch of APOLLO 8: The 'Birth of a Machine' and begins to reveal the origin of its components. From the film documentary 'APOLLO 8:'Debrief'': part of a documentary series made in the early 70's on the APOLLO missions, and narrated by Burgess Meredith. (Actual date created is not known at this time) First manned Saturn V flight with Frank Borman, James A. Lovell, Jr.,and william A. Anders. First manned lunar orbit mission; provided a close-up look at the moon during 10 lunar orbits. Mission Duration 147hrs. 0 min. 42s.

1974-01-01

156

Apollo 11 Facts Project [Pre-Launch Activities and Launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The crewmembers of Apollo 11, Commander Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., are seen during various stages of preparation for the launch of Apollo 11, including suitup, breakfast, and boarding the spacecraft. They are also seen during mission training, including preparation for extravehicular activity on the surface of the Moon. The launch of Apollo 11 is shown. The ground support crew is also seen as they wait for the spacecraft to approach the Moon.

1994-01-01

157

MoonKAM - Education and Public Outreach for NASA's GRAIL Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In September 2011, NASA's Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission will launch twin spacecraft in tandem orbits around the Moon to measure its gravity in unprecedented detail. The mission will answer key questions about the Moon's internal structure and give scientists a better understanding of how our solar system formed. The spacecraft will send back information during a three-month “science phase” of the mission from March through May of 2012. As the GRAIL satellites orbit the Moon gathering scientific data, they will also be taking images of the lunar surface. Each satellite will carry four cameras dedicated to MoonKAM (Moon Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students), GRAIL’s signature Education and Public Outreach (E/PO) program. Middle-school students across the country will be able to request and analyze photos of craters, highlands, maria and other lunar features. The MoonKAM images and supporting educational materials will be available for public access on the MoonKAM website, www.GRAILMoonKAM.com. During the MoonKAM mission, we estimate that approximately 4000 middle schools nationwide will take over 20,000 lunar images. An essential part of the MoonKAM E/PO effort is Student Collaboration. Over the course of our E/PO effort, from FY 2009 through 2013, the Student Collaboration Team, UCSD undergraduate students will work directly with GRAIL scientists and engineers to build and operate the system that links middle school classrooms nationwide to the MoonKAM cameras on the GRAIL satellites. We estimate GRAIL MoonKAM will engage approximately 100 undergraduates students over the duration of this effort, giving them direct hands-on experience with a NASA mission and thereby contributing to the development of the STEM workforce.

Flammer, K. R.; Ride, S.

2010-12-01

158

JUpiter ICy Moons Explorer (JUICE): The ESA L1 Mission to the Jupiter System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Jupiter Icy Moons Explorer (JUICE) mission has recently been selected by ESA as the first large mission within the Cosmic Visions 2015-2025 plan. We will introduce the mission that is being developed to thoroughly explore the Jupiter system with focus on the largest satellite, Ganymede.

Dougherty, M. K.; Grasset, O.; Erd, C.; Titov, D.; Bunce, E.; Coustenis, A.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A.; Drossart, P.; Fletcher, L.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; Van Hoolst, T.

2012-10-01

159

JUICE (JUpiter ICy moon Explorer): a European-led mission to the Jupiter system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The former ESA-NASA EJSM-Laplace mission is being reformulated by ESA as a European-led single spacecraft mission to the Jovian system. The concept has been recently renamed JUICE (JUpiter ICy moon Explorer). The new mission is based on the design of the Jupiter Ganymede Orbiter (JGO) - the ESA flight element of EJSM-Laplace.

Dougherty, M. K.; Grasset, O.; Bunce, E.; Coustenis, A.; Titov, D. V.; Erd, C.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A. J.; Coradini, A.; Drossart, P.; Fletcher, L.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; van Hoolst, T.; Lebreton, J.-P.

2011-10-01

160

Mission and technology assessment of human exploration to the Moon and Mars  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive study has been undertaken by Spar Aerospace of a mission for human exploration to the moon and beyond based on the current U.S. Space Exploration Initiative. It offers a generalized scenario suitable for a range of missions and provides a basis for technology requirements and technology drivers assessment. A set of ten generalized mission phases with sub-level definition

Moses Wong

1990-01-01

161

Data user's note: Apollo 15 lunar photography  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Brief descriptions are given of the Apollo 15 mission objectives, photographic equipment, and photographic coverage and quality. The lunar photographic tasks were: (1) ultraviolet photography of the earth and moon; (2) photography of the gegenschein from lunar orbit; (3) service module orbital photographic tasks; and (4) command module photographic tasks.

Cameron, W. S.; Niksch, M. A. (editor)

1972-01-01

162

Saturn 5 launch vehicle flight evaluation report, AS-510, Apollo 15 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A postflight analysis of the Apollo 15 flight is presented. The performance of the launch vehicle, spacecraft, and lunar roving vehicle are discussed. The objective of the evaluation is to acquire, reduce, analyze, and report on flight data to the extent required to assure future mission success and vehicle reliability. Actual flight problems are identified, their causes are determined, and recommendations are made for corrective actions. Summaries of launch operations and spacecraft performance are included. Significant events for all phases of the flight are tabulated.

1971-01-01

163

Postflight analysis of the EVCS-LM communications link for the Apollo 15 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Data from the Apollo 15 mission were used to compare the actual performance of the EVCS to LM communications link with the preflight performance predictions. Based on the results of the analysis, the following conclusions were made: (1) The radio transmission loss data show good correlation with predictions during periods when the radio line of sight was obscured. (2) The technique of predicting shadow losses due to obstacles in the radio line of sight provides a good estimate of the actual shadowing loss. (3) When the transmitter was on an upslope, the radio transmission loss approached the free space loss values as the line of sight to the LM was regained.

Royston, C. L., Jr.; Eggers, D. S.

1972-01-01

164

Mini-SAR: An Imaging Radar for the Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The debate on the presence of ice at the poles of the Moon continues. We will fly a small imaging radar on the Indian Chandrayaan mission to the Moon, to be launched in September, 2007. Mini-SAR will map the scattering properties of the lunar poles, determining the presence and extent of polar ice.

Spudis, Paul D.; Bussey, Ben; Lichtenberg, Chris; Marinelli, Bill; Nozette, Stewart

2005-01-01

165

Origin of the moon: New data from old rocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Knowledge of the moon is reviewed, particularly that obtained from Apollo 11 and 12 samples, to provide a framework for the geological results from the Apollo 15 mission. The three main theories that have resulted from the Apollo data are briefly discussed, and a review of modern lunar exploration is presented. The knowledge acquired from the Apollo missions is summarized and includes: (1) The rocks of the maria are from 3.3 to 3.7 billion years old, and the highlands are probably 4.6 billion years old. (2) Only small moonquakes are detected, and these appear related to tidal stresses produced by moon swings in its orbit. (3) The moon has a very weak magnetic field. (4) The moon was once hot enough to melt its interior.

French, B. M.

1972-01-01

166

Results of the Mini-SAR Imaging Radar, Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mini-SAR imaging radar on India's Chandrayaan-1 mission mapped more than 90% of both poles of the Moon. Scattering properties suggest that water ice is present in some permanently shadowed craters near the north pole.

P. D. Spudis; D. B. J. Bussey; B. Butler; L. Carter; M. Chakraborty; J. Gillis-Davis; J. Goswami; E. Heggy; R. Kirk; C. Neish; S. Nozette; W. Patterson; M. Robinson; R. K. Raney; T. Thompson; B. J. Thomson; E. Ustinov

2010-01-01

167

Astronaut David Scott simulates use of Apollo 15 Lunar Surface Drill at KSC  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut David R. Scott, commander of the Apollo 15 lunar landing mission, simulates use of the Apollo 15 Lunar Surface Drill (ALSD) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. Scott's fellow moon-exploring crewman, Astronaut James Irwin, can be seen in the background near Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) trainer.

1971-01-01

168

Geology of Earth's Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

First, researchers at the University of California, San Diego discuss the importance of studying earthquakes on the moon, also known as moonquakes, and the Apollo Lunar Seismic Experiment (1). Users can discover the problems scientists must deal with when collecting the moon's seismic data. The students at Case Western Reserve University created the second website to address three missions the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) has planned between now and 2010, including a mission to the moon (2). Visitors can learn about the Lunar-A probe that will be used to photograph the surface of the moon, "monitor moonquakes, measure temperature, and study the internal structure." Next, the Planetary Data Service (PDS) at the USGS offers users four datasets that they can use to create an image of a chosen area of the moon (3). Each dataset can be viewed as a basic clickable map; a clickable map where users can specify size, resolution, and projection; or an advanced version where visitors can select areas by center latitude and longitude. The fourth site, produced by Robert Wickman at the University of North Dakota, presents a map of the volcanoes on the moon and compares their characteristics with those on earth (4). Students can learn how the gravitational forces on the Moon affect the lava flows. Next, Professor Jeff Ryan at the University of South Florida at Tampa supplies fantastic images and descriptive text of the lunar rocks obtained by the Apollo missions (5). Visitors can find links to images of meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and Apollo landings as well. At the Science Channel website, students and educators can find a video clip discussing the geologic studies on the moon along with videos about planets (6). Users can learn about how studying moon rocks help scientists better understand the formation of the earth. Next, the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum presents its research of "lunar topography, cratering and impacts basins, tectonics, lava flows, and regolith properties" (7). Visitors can find summaries of the characteristics of the moon and the main findings since the 1950s. Lastly, the USGS Astrogeology Research Program provides archived lunar images and data collected between 1965 and 1992 by Apollo, Lunar Orbiter, Galileo, and Zond 8 missions (8). While the data is a little old, students and educators can still find valuable materials about the moon's topography, chemical composition, and geology.

169

Prospecting for in situ resources on the Moon and Mars using wheel-based sensors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Apollo and Russian missions during 1970s were reviewed to rediscover the type and distribution of minerals on the Moon. This study revealed that the Moon has a restricted set of minerals when compared with the Earth. Results from lunar minerals brought back to Earth, indicate that the Moon lacks water, hydroxyl ions, and carbon based minerals. This mineral set

M. G. Buehler; R. C. Anderson; S. Seshadri; M. G. Schaap

2005-01-01

170

Stationkeeping of the First Earth-Moon Libration Orbiters: The ARTEMIS Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Libration point orbits near collinear locations are inherently unstable and must be controlled. For Acceleration Reconnection and Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) Earth-Moon Lissajous orbit operations, stationkeeping is challenging because of short time scales, large orbital eccentricity of the secondary, and solar gravitational and radiation pressure perturbations. ARTEMIS is the first NASA mission continuously controlled at both Earth-Moon L1 and L2 locations and uses a balance of optimization, spacecraft implementation and constraints, and multi-body dynamics. Stationkeeping results are compared to pre-mission research including mode directions.

Folta, David; Woodard, Mark; Cosgrove, D.

2011-01-01

171

PDS Lunar Data Node Restoration of Apollo In-Situ Surface Data  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo missions between 1969 and 1972 deployed scientific instruments on the Moon's surface which made in-situ measurements of the lunar environment. Apollo II had the short-term Early Apollo Surface Experiments Package (EASEP) and Apollos 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 each set up an Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP). Each ALSEP package contained a different suite of instruments which took measurements and radioed the results back to Earth over periods from 5 to 7 years until they were turned off on 30 September 1977. To this day the ALSEP data remain the only long-term in-situ information on the Moon's surface environment. The Lunar Data Node (LDN) has been formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node to put relevant, scientifically important Apollo data into accessible digital form for use by researchers and mission planners. We will report on progress made since last year and plans for future data restorations.

Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Guinness, Edward A.; Lowman, Paul D.; Taylor, Patrick T.

2010-01-01

172

Human Spaceflight - The Moon and Mars  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Visitors to this site will learn about NASA's manned and unmanned explorations of the Moon and Mars. Topics include the history of the Apollo program, robotic missions to Mars, and future visions for space exploration. The document "Vision for Space Eploration," which describes a timeline and major realignment of NASA's resources and efforts for manned and unmanned missions to the Moon and elsewhere, is available at this site.

173

The Apollo Program: Apollo 15  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Smithsonian website hosts a number of webpages on the Apollo missions, whose objective was to map and investigate the lunar surface. There is a webpage for five Earth and lunar orbiter missions and a webpage for each lunar landing mission. Each page has numerous links to images and further information. This website is one of a series from the National Air and Space Museum on NASA's Apollo program.

2012-08-01

174

Proposal for revisions of the United Nations Moon Treaty  

Microsoft Academic Search

During this new 2010-decade, it will be imperative to reconsider the effectiveness of the current United Nations (U.N.) Moon Treaty (c.1979). Amendments are necessary to underline the mandatory human stewardship of this fragile planetary body of our Solar System, indispensible to life on Earth. After the very successful Apollo and Luna missions to the Moon (ending in 1976), which brought

Vera Fernandes; Neyda Abreu; J. Fritz; Martin Knapmeyer; Lisa Smeenk; Inge Ten Kate; Monica Trüninger

2010-01-01

175

Mission to the Moon: Europe's Priorities for the Scientific Exploration and Utilisation of the Moon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study to determine Europe's potential role in the future exploration and utilization of the Moon is presented. To establish the scientific justifications the Lunar Study Steering Group (LSSG) was established reflecting all scientific disciplines benefit...

B. Battrick C. Barron

1992-01-01

176

A proposed space mission around the Moon to measure the Moon Radio-Quiet Zone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a series of papers published since 2000 mainly in Acta Astronautica the senior author Maccone dealt with the advantages of the Farside of the Moon for future utilization Clearly the Moon Farside is free from RFI Radio Frequency Interference produced in larger and larger amounts by the increasing human exploitation of radio technologies That author suggested that crater Daedalus located at the center of the Farside was the best possible location to build up in the future one or more radiotelescopes or phased arrays to achieve the maximum sensitivity in radioastronomical and SETI searches Also a radio-quiet region of space above the Farside of the Moon exists and is called the Quiet Cone The Quiet Cone actual size however is largely unknown since it depends on the orbits of radio-emitting satellites around the Earth that are themselves largely unknown due to the military involvements In addition diffraction of electromagnetic waves grazing the surface of the Moon causes further changes in the geometrical shape of the Quiet Cone This riddle can be solved only by direct measurements of the radio attenuation above the Farside of the Moon performed by satellites orbiting the Moon itself In this paper we propose to let one or more low cost radiometers be put into orbit around the Moon to measure the RFI attenuation at different frequencies and altitudes above the Moon The opportunity of adding more payload s such as an ion detector and or a temperature sensor is evaluated also In this regard we present in this paper the experience gained by

Antonietti, N.; Pagana, G.; Pluchino, S.; Maccone, C.

177

Planetary Protection for future missions to Europa and other icy moons: the more things change  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA maintains a planetary protection policy regarding contamination of extraterrestrial bodies by terrestrial microorganisms and organic compounds, and sets limits intended to minimize or prevent contamination resulting from spaceflight missions. Europa continues to be a high priority target for astrobiological investigations, and other icy moons of the outer planets are becoming increasingly interesting as data are returned from current missions.

C. A. Conley; M. Race

2007-01-01

178

The HADES mission concept - astrobiological survey of Jupiter's icy moon Europa  

Microsoft Academic Search

The HADES Europa mission concept aims to provide a framework for an astrobiological in-depth investigation of the Jupiter moon Europa, relying on existing technologies and feasibility. This mission study proposes a system consisting of an orbiter, lander and cryobot as a platform for detailed exploration of Europa. While the orbiter will investigate the presence of a liquid ocean and characterize

Thomas Böttcher; Liliane Huber; Lucille Le Corre; Johannes Leitner; David McCarthy; Ricky Nilsson; Carlos Teixeira; Sergi Vaquer Araujo; Rebecca C. Wilson; Fatah Adjali; Martin Altenburg; Giacomo Briani; Peter Buchas; Aurélie Le Postollec; Teresa Meier

2009-01-01

179

Space Radiation a Potential Show Stopper in Missions to Moon and Mars and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space\\/ long duration missions is `the show stopper' for NASA's vision of missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. The key to the success of human exploration and development of space is protecting astronauts, habitat and electronics against the hazards of severe space radiation environment. Accurate risk assessments critically depend on

Ram Tripathi

2007-01-01

180

LIRAS mission for lunar exploration by microwave interferometric radiometer: Moon's subsurface characterization, emission model and numerical simulator  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The "Lunar Interferometric Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis" (LIRAS) mission is promoted by the Italian Space Agency and is currently in feasibility phase. LIRAS' satellite will orbit around the Moon at a height of 100 km, with a revisiting time period lower than 1 lunar month and will be equipped with: a synthetic aperture radiometer for subsurface sounding purposes, working at 1 and 3 GHz, and a real aperture radiometer for near-surface probing, working at 12 and 24 GHz. The L-band payload, representing a novel concept for lunar exploration, is designed as a Y-shaped thinned array with three arms less than 2.5 m long. The main LIRAS objectives are high-resolution mapping and vertical sounding of the Moon subsurface by applying the advantages of the antenna aperture synthesis technique to a multi-frequency microwave passive payload. The mission is specifically designed to achieve spatial resolutions less than 10 km at surface and to retrieve thermo-morphological properties of the Moon subsurface within 5 m of depth. Among LIRAS products are: lunar near-surface brightness temperature, subsurface brightness temperature gross profile, subsurface regolith thickness, density and average thermal conductivity, detection index of possible subsurface discontinuities (e.g. ice presence). The following study involves the preliminary design of the LIRAS payload and the electromagnetic and thermal characterization of the lunar subsoil through the implementation of a simulator for reproducing the LIRAS measurements in response to observations of the Moon surface and subsurface layers. Lunar physical data, collected after the Apollo missions, and LIRAS instrument parameters are taken as input for the abovementioned simulator, called "LIRAS End-to-end Performance Simulator" (LEPS) and obtained by adapting the SMOS End-to-end Performance Simulator to the different instrumental, orbital, and geophysical LIRAS characteristics. LEPS completely simulates the behavior of the satellite when it becomes operational providing the extrapolation of lunar brightness temperature maps in both Antenna frame (the cosine domain) and on the Moon surface and allowing an accurate analysis of the instrument performance. The Moon stratigraphy is reproduced in LEPS environment through three scenarios: a macro-layer of regolith; two subsequent macro-layers of regolith and rock; three subsequent macro-layers of regolith, ice and rock, respectively. These scenarios are studied using an incoherent approach, taking into account the interaction between the upwelling and downwelling radiation contributions from each layer to model the resulting brightness temperature at the surface level. It has been considered that the radiative behavior of the Moon varies over time, depending on solar illumination conditions, and it is also function of the material properties, layer thickness and specific position on the lunar crust; moreover it has been examined its variation with frequency, observation angle, and polarization. Using the proposed emission model it has been possible to derive a digital thermal model in the microwave frequency of the Moon, allowing in-depth analysis of the lunar soil consistency; this collected information could be related with a lunar digital elevation model in order to achieve global coverage information on topological aspects. The main results of the study will be presented at the conference.

Pompili, Sara; Silvio Marzano, Frank; Di Carlofelice, Alessandro; Montopoli, Mario; Talone, Marco; Crapolicchio, Raffaele; L'Abbate, Michelangelo; Varchetta, Silvio; Tognolatti, Piero

2013-04-01

181

Exploring the Moon at the Microscale: Analysis of Apollo Samples with the Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI), similar to a geologist’s handlens, creates multispectral, microscale reflectance images of geological samples, in which each image pixel is comprised of a VNIR spectrum. This enables the discrimination of a wide variety of rock-forming minerals, especially Fe- and Mg-bearing phases, within a microtextural framework. The MMI composite images provide crucial geologic and contextual information: 1) for the in-situ analysis of rocks and soils to support hypothesis-driven, field-based exploration; 2) to guide sub-sampling of geologic materials for return to laboratories on Earth; and 3) in support of astronaut investigations during EVAs, or in a lunar base laboratory. To assess the value of the MMI as a tool for lunar exploration, we used a field-portable, tripod-mounted version of the MMI to image 18 lunar rocks and four soils, from a reference suite spanning the full compositional range found in the Apollo collection, housed in the Lunar Experiment Laboratory at NASA’s Johnson Space Center. The MMI composite images faithfully resolved the microtextural features of samples, while the application of ENVI-based spectral end-member mapping faithfully revealed the distribution of Fe-bearing mineral phases (olivine, pyroxene and magnetite), along with plagioclase feldspars within samples, over a broad range of lithologies and grain sizes (figure 1). The MMI composite images also revealed secondary mineral phases, glasses, and effects of space weathering in samples, where present. Our MMI-based petrogenetic interpretations compared favorably with thin section-based descriptions published in the literature, revealing the value of MMI images for astronaut and rover-mediated lunar exploration. We present our latest results from these analyses and their application to future lunar exploration. Figure 1. Multispectral images of Apollo sample 14321,88. Left: R = 635 nm; G = 525 nm; B = 470 nm. Right: R = 1450 nm; G = 975 nm; B = 525 nm. Field of view: 40 mm x 32 mm (62.5 ?m/pixel). Images are 2% histogram stretched. The addition of near-infrared bands enabled the distinction of different rock-forming minerals on the basis of spectral differences.

Nunez, J. I.; Farmer, J. D.; Sellar, R. G.; Allen, C.

2009-12-01

182

Moon: Possible Nature of the Body That Produced the Imbrian Basin, from the Composition of Apollo 14 Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Soils from the Apollo 14 site contain nearly three times as much meteoritic material as soils from the Apollo 11, Apollo 12, and Luna 16 sites. Part of this material consists of the ubiquitous micrometeorite component, of primitive (carbonaceous-chondrite-like) composition. The remainder, seen most conspicuously in coarse glass and norite fragments, has a decidedly fractionated composition, with volatile elements less

R. Ganapathy; J. C. Laul; J. W. Morgan; E. Anders

1972-01-01

183

Mission requirements CSM-111/DM-2 Apollo/Soyuz test project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test systems are developed for rendezvous and docking of manned spacecraft and stations that are suitable for use as a standard international system. This includes the rendezvous and docking of Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft, and crew transfer. The conduct of the mission will include: (1) testing of compatible rendezvous systems in orbit; (2) testing of universal docking assemblies; (3) verifying the techniques for transfer of cosmonauts and astronauts; (4) performing certain activities by U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. crews in joint flight; and (5) gaining of experience in conducting joint flights by U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. spacecraft, including, in case of necessity, rendering aid in emergency situations.

Blackmer, S. M.

1974-01-01

184

Measurements of heavy solar wind and higher energy solar particles during the Apollo 17 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The lunar surface cosmic ray experiment, consisting of sets of mica, glass, plastic, and metal foil detectors, was successfully deployed on the Apollo 17 mission. One set of detectors was exposed directly to sunlight and another set was placed in shade. Preliminary scanning of the mica detectors shows the expected registration of heavy solar wind ions in the sample exposed directly to the sun. The initial results indicate a depletion of very-heavy solar wind ions. The effect is probably not real but is caused by scanning inefficiencies. Despite the lack of any pronounced solar activity, energetic heavy particles with energies extending to 1 MeV/nucleon were observed. Equal track densities of approximately 6000 tracks/cm sq 0.5 microns in length were measured in mica samples exposed in both sunlight and shade.

Walker, R. M.; Zinner, E.; Maurette, M.

1973-01-01

185

The Clementine Mission to the Moon: Scientific Overview  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the course of 71 days in lunar orbit, from 19 February to 3 May 1994, the Clementine spacecraft acquired just under two million digital images of the moon at visible and infrared wavelengths. These data are enabling the global mapping of the rock types of the lunar crust and the first detailed investigation of the geology of the lunar

Stewart Nozette; I. T. Lewis; C. L. Lichtenberg; D. M. Horan; E. Malaret; E. M. Shoemaker; J. H. Resnick; C. J. Rollins; D. N. Baker; J. E. Blamont; B. J. Buratti; C. M. Pieters; M. E. Davies; M. S. Robinson; E. M. Eliason; B. M. Jakosky; T. C. Sorenson; R. W. Vorder Bruegge; P. G. Lucey; M. A. Massie; H. S. Park; A. S. McEwen; R. E. Priest; R. A. Reisse; R. A. Simpson; D. E. Smith; R. W. Vorder Breugge; M. T. Zuber

1994-01-01

186

Mission Activity Planning for Humans and Robots on the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A series of studies is conducted to develop a systematic approach to optimizing, both in terms of the distribution and scheduling of tasks, scenarios in which astronauts and robots accomplish a group of activities on the Moon, given an objective function (OF) and specific resources and constraints. An automated planning tool is developed as a key element of this optimization system.

Weisbin, C.; Shelton, K.; Lincoln, W.; Elfes, A.; Smith, J.H.; Mrozinski, J.; Hua, H.; Adumitroaie, V.; Silberg, R.

2008-01-01

187

Apollo 17 mission Report. Supplement 6: Calibration results for gamma ray spectrometer sodium iodide crystal  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A major difficulty in medium energy gamma-ray remote sensing spectroscopy and astronomy measurements was the high rate of unwanted background resulting from the following major sources: (1) prompt secondary gamma-rays produced by cosmic-ray interactions in satellite materials; (2) direct charged-particle counts; (3) radioactivity induced in the detector materials by cosmic-ray and trapped protons; (4) radioactivity induced in detector materials by the planetary (e.g., earth or moon) albedo neutron flux; (5) radioactivity induced in the detector materials by the interaction of secondary neutrons produced throughout the spacecraft by cosmic-ray and trapped proton interactions; (6) radioactivity induced in spacecraft materials by the mechanisms outlined in 3, 4, and 5; and (7) natural radioactivity in spacecraft and detector materials. The purpose of this experiment was to obtain information on effects 3, 4, and 5, and from this information start developing calculational methods for predicting the background induced in the crystal detector in order to correct the Apollo gamma-ray spectrometer data for this interference.

Dyer, C.; Trombka, J. I.

1975-01-01

188

Moon  

article title:  MISR Views the Moon     View Larger Image On ... instruments to look at deep space and the waxing gibbous Moon. The purpose of this acrobatic feat is to assist in the calibration of ...

2013-04-19

189

Lunar surface radioactivity - Preliminary results of the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 gamma-ray spectrometer experiments.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Gamma-ray spectrometers on the Apollo 15 and Apollo 16 missions have been used to map the moon's radioactivity over 20 percent of its surface. The highest levels of natural radioactivity are found in Mare Imbrium and Oceanus Procellarum with contrastingly lower enhancements in the eastern maria. The ratio of potassium to uranium is higher on the far side than on the near side, although it is everywhere lower than commonly found on the earth.

Metzger, A. E.; Trombka, J. I.; Peterson, L. E.; Reedy, R. C.; Arnold, J. R.

1973-01-01

190

Data relay for Earth, Moon and Mars missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

ESA is setting up the future sustainable European Data Relay mission in geostationary orbit. An outline of the driving user needs, the key system trade off and associated technological challenges as well as the overall partnership strategy with the commercial stakeholders is being described. In frame of the European activities for human exploration a mission concept for an early data

Manfred Wittig

2009-01-01

191

A solar electric propulsion mission to the Moon and beyond  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technological development of solar electric propulsion has advanced significantly over the last several years. Mission planners are now seriously examining which missions would benefit most from solar electric propulsion. NASA's Solar System Exploration Division is cofunding with the Advanced Concepts and Technology Division both ground and space qualification tests of components for electric propulsion systems. In response to the

C.T. Russell; J. Abshire; M. A'Hearn; J. Arnold; R. C. Elphic; J. Head; C. Pieters; M. Hickman; D. Palac; C. Kluever; A. Konopliv; A. Metzger; J. Sercel; T. McCord; R. J. Phillips; W. Purdy; R. Rosenthal; M. Sykes

1996-01-01

192

Clementine: An inexpensive mission to the Moon and Geographos  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Clementine Mission, a joint project of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) and NASA, has been planned primarily to test and demonstrate a suite of lightweight sensors and other lightweight spacecraft components under extended exposure to the space environment. Although the primary objective of the mission is to space-qualify sensors for Department of Defense applications, it was recognized in

Eugene M. Shoemaker; Stewart Nozette

1993-01-01

193

Apollo 11 Facts [Post Flight Press Conference]. Part 1 of 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 11 Commander Neil Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Aldrin, Jr., and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins are seen during this post-mission conference, where they give details about the mission, concentrating on their activities on the Moon. They then answer questions from the audience. The second part of this conference is seen on 'Apollo 11 Facts: Post Flight Press Conference, Part 2 of 2' (internal ID 2001181396).

1994-01-01

194

APOLLO 10 ASTRONAUT ENTERS LUNAR MODULE SIMULATOR  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 10 lunar module pilot Eugene A. Cernan prepares to enter the lunar module simulator at the Flight Crew Training Building at the NASA Spaceport. Cernan, Apollo 10 commander Thomas P. Stafford and John W. Young, command module pilot, are to be launched May 18 on the Apollo 10 mission, a dress rehearsal for a lunar landing later this summer. Cernan and Stafford are to detach the lunar module and drop to within 10 miles of the moon's surface before rejoining Young in the command/service module. Looking on as Cernan puts on his soft helmet is Snoopy, the lovable cartoon mutt whose name will be the lunar module code name during the Apollo 10 flight. The command/service module is to bear the code name Charlie Brown.

1969-01-01

195

Human-Robotic Missions to the Moon and Mars: Operations Design Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

For most of the history of space exploration, human and robotic programs have been independent, and have responded to distinct requirements. The NASA Vision for Space Exploration calls for the return of humans to the Moon, and the eventual human exploration of Mars; the complexity of this range of missions will require an unprecedented use of automation and robotics in

A. Mishkin; Young Lee; D. Korth; T. LeBlanc

2007-01-01

196

The Mini-SAR Imaging Radar on the Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mini-SAR is an imaging radar instrument on the Indian Chandrayaan-1 mission to the Moon. It will map both lunar poles, revealing terrain in permanently dark areas and characterizing the backscattering properties of these areas, looking for evidence of ice.

P. D. Spudis; D. B. J. Bussey; B. Butler; L. Carter; J. Gillis-Davis; J. Goswami; E. Heggy; R. Kirk; T. Misra; S. Nozette; M. S. Robinson; R. K. Raney; B. Thomson; E. Ustinov

2009-01-01

197

Mini-SAR: An Imaging Radar for the Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

We will fly a small imaging radar on the Indian Chandrayaan mission to the Moon, to be launched in September, 2007. Mini-SAR will map the scattering properties of the lunar poles, determining the presence and extent of polar ice.

P. D. Spudis; D. B. J. Bussey; C. Lichtenberg; B. Marinelli; S. Nozette

2005-01-01

198

In Situ Biological Contamination Studies of the Moon: Implications for Planetary Protection and Life Detection Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA and ESA have outlined visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic precursor missions to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moon, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations, including possibly asteroids. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin and

Daniel P. Glavin; Jason P. Dworkin; Mark Lupisella; David R. Williams; Gerhard Kminek; John D. Rummel

2010-01-01

199

New findings expand Apollo observations of lunar atmosphere  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In December 1972 the astronauts of Apollo 17—the last manned mission to the moon—deployed the Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment (LACE), a spectrometer designed to measure and characterize the thin lunar atmosphere. Forty years later, Stern et al built upon those initial measurements, providing the first remotely sensed measurement of the Moon's gaseous environment from lunar orbit. Using the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project's (LAMP) far ultraviolet spectrograph aboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, the authors determined the atmospheric concentration of helium.

Schultz, Colin

2012-08-01

200

Lunar Laser Ranging: A Continuing Legacy of the Apollo Program  

Microsoft Academic Search

On 21 July 1969, during the first manned lunar mission, Apollo 11, the first retroreflector array was placed on the moon, enabling highly accurate measurements of the Earthmoon separation by means of laser ranging. Lunar laser ranging (LLR) turns the Earthmoon system into a laboratory for a broad range of investigations, including astronomy, lunar science, gravitational physics, geodesy, and geodynamics.

J. O. Dickey; P. L. Bender; J. E. Faller; X. X. Newhall; R. L. Ricklefs; J. G. Ries; P. J. Shelus; C. Veillet; A. L. Whipple; J. R. Wiant; J. G. Williams; C. F. Yoder

1994-01-01

201

Status of esa smart-1 mission to the moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

SMART-1 is the first in the programme of ESA's Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology . Its objective is to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The spacecraft has been readied for launch in spring 2003 as an Ariane-5 auxiliary passenger. After a cruise

B. H. Foing; G. R. Racca; A. Marini; Smart

2003-01-01

202

An Overview of the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) Mission, Environments, and Materials Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Congress authorized NASA's Prometheus Project in February 2003, with the first Prometheus mission slated to explore the icy moons of Jupiter with the following main objectives: (1) Develop a nuclear reactor that would provide unprecedented levels of power and show that it could be processed safely and operated reliably in space for long-duration. (2) Explore the three icy moons of Jupiter -- Callisto, Ganymede, and Europa -- and return science data that would meet the scientific goals as set forth in the Decadal Survey Report of the National Academy of Sciences.

Edwards, Dave

2012-01-01

203

Robotic precursor missions to the moon and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Office of Exploration has determined that both the global and the more focused data sets required for the engineering development of manned lunar and Martian exploration systems call for the running of robotic precursor missions. Accounts are presented of the nature of such robotic precursor efforts, which must conduct (1) resource characterization and location, (2) site selection, and (3) fundamental scientific data acquisition tasks. Attention is given to the configurations and instrument suites of prospective robotic lander designs.

Smith, William L.

1993-01-01

204

Dignitaries Await Apollo 11 Lift Off  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

From the right, NASA administrator, Dr. Thomas O. Paine talks with U.S. Vice President Spiro T. Agnew while awaiting the launch of Saturn V (AS-506) that carried the Apollo 11 spacecraft to the Moon for man's historic first landing on the lunar surface. At center is astronaut William Anders, a member of the first crew to orbit the moon during the Apollo 8 mission. At left is Lee B. James, director of Program Management at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) where the Saturn V was developed. The craft lifted off from launch pad 39 at Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC) on July 16, 1969. The moon bound crew included astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (M) pilot. The mission finalized with splashdown in the Pacific Ocean on July 24, 1969. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

205

Moon-Mars Analogue Mission (EuroMoonMars 1 at the Mars Desert Research Station)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Mars Desert Research Station (MDRS) is situated in an analogue habitat-based Martian environment, designed for missions to determine the knowledge and equipment necessary for successful future planetary exploration. For this purpose, a crew of six people worked and lived together in a closed-system environment. They performed habitability experiments within the dwelling and conducted Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVAs) for two weeks

Irene Lia Schlacht; Sara Voute; Stacy Irwin; Bernard H. Foing; Carol R. Stoker; Artemis Westenberg

2010-01-01

206

The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions and Lunar Surface Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Medical requirements for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits and Lunar habitat are currently being developed. Crews returning to the lunar surface will construct the lunar habitat and conduct scientific research. Inherent in aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. Physiological responses to and the operational environment of short forays during the Apollo lunar missions were studied and documented. Little is known about the operational environment in which crews will live and work and the hardware that will be used for long-duration lunar surface operations.Additional information is needed regarding productivity and the events that affect crew function such as a compressed timeline. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations that had impact to crew health and/or performance. The operationally oriented goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new exploration vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with the multiple entities at NASA and abroad participating in the exploration effort.

Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Joseph; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.; Novak, Joseph D.

2007-01-01

207

The Apollo Medical Operations Project: Recommendations to Improve Crew Health and Performance for Future Exploration Missions and Lunar Surface Operations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Medical requirements for the future Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM), advanced Extravehicular Activity (EVA) suits and Lunar habitat are currently being developed. Crews returning to the lunar surface will construct the lunar habitat and conduct scientific research. Inherent in aggressive surface activities is the potential risk of injury to crewmembers. Physiological responses and the operational environment for short forays during the Apollo lunar missions were studied and documented. Little is known about the operational environment in which crews will live and work and the hardware will be used for long-duration lunar surface operations. Additional information is needed regarding productivity and the events that affect crew function such as a compressed timeline. The Space Medicine Division at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) requested a study in December 2005 to identify Apollo mission issues relevant to medical operations that had impact to crew health and/or performance. The operationally oriented goals of this project were to develop or modify medical requirements for new exploration vehicles and habitats, create a centralized database for future access, and share relevant Apollo information with the multiple entities at NASA and abroad participating in the exploration effort.

Scheuring, Richard A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Jones, Jeffrey A.; Novak, Joseph D.; Polk, James D.; Gillis, David B.; Schmid, Josef; Duncan, James M.; Davis, Jeffrey R.

2007-01-01

208

The Status of Radiation Estimates for Human Missions to the Moon and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronaut exposure to ionizing radiation will be a primary concern for missions to the moon and Mars and may become a limiting factor for long duration missions Methodologies for evaluating this risk in terms of radiation protection quantities are described Environment models vehicle habitat shielding models and transport codes are discussed Here the environmental models include solar particle event SPE and time dependant galactic cosmic ray GCR models for free space as well as lunar and Martian surface SPE and GCR models which are altitude and surface material dependant Exposures are calculated for sample missions Since radiation limits for missions beyond low Earth orbit LEO have not yet been defined these exposures are compared to current LEO limits Possible exploration mission limits are also discussed

Clowdsley, M.; Wilson, J.; Deangelis, G.

209

NASA Officials in MCC to decide whether to land Apollo 16 or cancel landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Officials gather around a console in the Mission Operations Control Room (MOCR) in the Mission Control Center (MCC) prior to the making of a decision whether to land Apollo 16 on the moon or to abort the landing. Seated, left to right, are Dr. Christopher C. Kraft Jr., Director of the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC), and Brig. Gen. James A. McDivitt (USAF), Manager, Apollo Spacecraft Program Office, MSC; and standing, left to right, are Dr. Rocco A. Petrone, Apollo Program Director, Office Manned Space Flight (OMSF), NASA HQ.; Capt. John K. Holcolmb (U.S. Navy, Ret.), Director of Apollo Operations, OMSF; Sigurd A. Sjoberg, Deputy Director, MSC; Capt. Chester M. Lee (U.S. Navy, Ret.), Apollo Mission Director, OMSF; Dale D. Myers, NASA Associate Administrator for Manned Space Flight; and Dr. George M. Low, NASA Deputy Administrator.

1972-01-01

210

Radiation protection for human missions to the Moon and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Radiation protection assessments are performed for advanced Lunar and Mars manned missions. The Langley cosmic ray transport code and the nucleon transport code are used to quantify the transport and attenuation of galactic cosmic rays and solar proton flares through various shielding media. Galactic cosmic radiation at solar maximum and minimum, as well as various flare scenarios are considered. Propagation data for water, aluminum, liquid hydrogen, lithium hydride, lead, and lunar and Martian regolith (soil) are included. Shield thickness and shield mass estimates required to maintain incurred doses below 30 day and annual limits (as set for Space Station Freedom and used as a guide for space exploration) are determined for simple geometry transfer vehicles. On the surface of Mars, dose estimates are presented for crews with their only protection being the carbon dioxide atmosphere and for crews protected by shielding provided by Martian regolith for a candidate habitat.

Simonsen, Lisa C.; Nealy, John E.

1991-01-01

211

Radiation protection for human missions to the Moon and Mars  

SciTech Connect

Radiation protection assessments are performed for advanced Lunar and Mars manned missions. The Langley cosmic ray transport code and the nucleon transport code are used to quantify the transport and attenuation of galactic cosmic rays and solar proton flares through various shielding media. Galactic cosmic radiation at solar maximum and minimum, as well as various flare scenarios are considered. Propagation data for water, aluminum, liquid hydrogen, lithium hydride, lead, and lunar and Martian regolith (soil) are included. Shield thickness and shield mass estimates required to maintain incurred doses below 30 day and annual limits (as set for Space Station Freedom and used as a guide for space exploration) are determined for simple geometry transfer vehicles. On the surface of Mars, dose estimates are presented for crews with their only protection being the carbon dioxide atmosphere and for crews protected by shielding provided by Martian regolith for a candidate habitat.

Simonsen, L.C.; Nealy, J.E.

1991-02-01

212

Cryogenic Fluid Management Technology for Moon and Mars Missions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In support of the U.S. Space Exploration Policy, focused cryogenic fluid management technology efforts are underway within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Under the auspices of the Exploration Technology Development Program, cryogenic fluid management technology efforts are being conducted by the Cryogenic Fluid Management Project. Cryogenic Fluid Management Project objectives are to develop storage, transfer, and handling technologies for cryogens to support high performance demands of lunar, and ultimately, Mars missions in the application areas of propulsion, surface systems, and Earth-based ground operations. The targeted use of cryogens and cryogenic technologies for these application areas is anticipated to significantly reduce propellant launch mass and required on-orbit margins, to reduce and even eliminate storage tank boil-off losses for long term missions, to economize ground pad storage and transfer operations, and to expand operational and architectural operations at destination. This paper organizes Cryogenic Fluid Management Project technology efforts according to Exploration Architecture target areas, and discusses the scope of trade studies, analytical modeling, and test efforts presently underway, as well as future plans, to address those target areas. The target areas are: liquid methane/liquid oxygen for propelling the Altair Lander Ascent Stage, liquid hydrogen/liquid oxygen for propelling the Altair Lander Descent Stage and Ares V Earth Departure Stage, liquefaction, zero boil-off, and propellant scavenging for Lunar Surface Systems, cold helium and zero boil-off technologies for Earth-Based Ground Operations, and architecture definition studies for long term storage and on-orbit transfer and pressurization of LH2, cryogenic Mars landing and ascent vehicles, and cryogenic production via in situ resource utilization on Mars.

Doherty, Michael P.; Gaby, Joseph D.; Salerno, Louis J.; Sutherlin, Steven G.

2010-01-01

213

The Lunar Potential Determination Using Apollo-Era Data and Modern Measurements and Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the Apollo era the electric potential of the Moon has been a subject of interest and debate. Deployed by three Apollo missions, Apollo 12, Apollo 14 and Apollo 15, the Suprathermal Ion Detector Experiment (SIDE) determined the sunlit lunar surface potential to be about +10 Volts using the energy spectra of lunar ionospheric thermal ions accelerated toward the Moon. More recently, the Lunar Prospector (LP) Electron Reflectometer used electron distributions to infer negative lunar surface potentials, primarily in shadow. We will present initial results from a study to combine lunar surface potential measurements from both SIDE and the LP/Electron Reflectometer to calibrate an advanced model of lunar surface charging which includes effects from the plasma environment, photoemission, secondaries ejected by ion impact onto the lunar surface, and the lunar wake created downstream by the solar wind-lunar interaction.

Collier, Michael R.; Farrell, William M.; Espley, Jared; Webb, Phillip; Stubbs, Timothy J.; Webb, Phillip; Hills, H. Kent; Delory, Greg

2008-01-01

214

Investigating at the Moon With new Eyes: The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Camera (LROC)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Camera (LROC) H. Hiesinger (1,2), M.S. Robinson (3), A.S. McEwen (4), E.P. Turtle (4), E.M. Eliason (4), B.L. Jolliff (5), M.C. Malin (6), and P.C. Thomas (7) (1) Brown Univ., Dept. of Geological Sciences, Providence RI 02912, Harald_Hiesinger@brown.edu, (2) Westfaelische Wilhelms-University, (3) Northwestern Univ., (4) LPL, Univ. of Arizona, (5) Washington Univ., (6) Malin Space Science Systems, (7) Cornell Univ. The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission is scheduled for launch in October 2008 as a first step to return humans to the Moon by 2018. The main goals of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera (LROC) are to: 1) assess meter and smaller- scale features for safety analyses for potential lunar landing sites near polar resources, and elsewhere on the Moon; and 2) acquire multi-temporal images of the poles to characterize the polar illumination environment (100 m scale), identifying regions of permanent shadow and permanent or near permanent illumination over a full lunar year. In addition, LROC will return six high-value datasets such as 1) meter-scale maps of regions of permanent or near permanent illumination of polar massifs; 2) high resolution topography through stereogrammetric and photometric stereo analyses for potential landing sites; 3) a global multispectral map in 7 wavelengths (300-680 nm) to characterize lunar resources, in particular ilmenite; 4) a global 100-m/pixel basemap with incidence angles (60-80 degree) favorable for morphologic interpretations; 5) images of a variety of geologic units at sub-meter resolution to investigate physical properties and regolith variability; and 6) meter-scale coverage overlapping with Apollo Panoramic images (1-2 m/pixel) to document the number of small impacts since 1971-1972, to estimate hazards for future surface operations. LROC consists of two narrow-angle cameras (NACs) which will provide 0.5-m scale panchromatic images over a 5-km swath, a wide-angle camera (WAC) to acquire images at about 100 m/pixel in seven color bands over a 100-km swath, and a common Sequence and Compressor System (SCS). Each NAC has a 700-mm-focal-length optic that images onto a 5000-pixel CCD line-array, providing a cross-track field-of-view (FOV) of 2.86 degree. The NAC readout noise is better than 100 e- , and the data are sampled at 12 bits. Its internal buffer holds 256 MB of uncompressed data, enough for a full-swath image 25-km long or a 2x2 binned image 100-km long. The WAC has two 6-mm- focal-length lenses imaging onto the same 1000 x 1000 pixel, electronically shuttered CCD area-array, one imaging in the visible/near IR, and the other in the UV. Each has a cross-track FOV of 90 degree. From the nominal 50-km orbit, the WAC will have a resolution of 100 m/pixel in the visible, and a swath width of ˜100 km. The seven-band color capability of the WAC is achieved by color filters mounted directly 1 over the detector, providing different sections of the CCD with different filters [1]. The readout noise is less than 40 e- , and, as with the NAC, pixel values are digitized to 12-bits and may be subsequently converted to 8-bit values. The total mass of the LROC system is about 12 kg; the total LROC power consumption averages at 22 W (30 W peak). Assuming a downlink with lossless compression, LRO will produce a total of 20 TeraBytes (TB) of raw data. Production of higher-level data products will result in a total of 70 TB for Planetary Data System (PDS) archiving, 100 times larger than any previous missions. [1] Malin et al., JGR, 106, 17651-17672, 2001. 2

Hiesinger, H.; Robinson, M. S.; McEwen, A. S.; Turtle, E. P.; Eliason, E. M.; Jolliff, B. L.; Malin, M. C.; Thomas, P. C.

215

Apollo 11 Lunar Message For Mankind- Reproduction  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Millions of people on Earth watched via television as a message for all mankind was delivered to the Mare Tranquilitatis (Sea of Tranquility) region of the Moon during the historic Apollo 11 mission, where it still remains today. This photograph is a reproduction of the commemorative plaque that was attached to the leg of the Lunar Module (LM), Eagle, engraved with the following words: 'Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon July, 1969 A.D. We came in peace for all of mankind.' It bears the signatures of the Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot along with the signature of the U.S. President Richard M. Nixon. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

216

Navigation Design and Analysis for the Orion Earth-Moon Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper details the design of the cislunar optical navigation system being proposed for the Orion Earth-Moon (EM) missions. In particular, it presents the mathematics of the navigation filter. The unmodeled accelerations and their characterization are detailed. It also presents the analysis that has been performed to understand the performance of the proposed system, with particular attention paid to entry flight path angle constraints and the delta-V performance.

DSouza, Christopher; Zanetti, Renato

2014-01-01

217

In Situ Biological Contamination Studies of the Moon: Implications for Planetary Protection and Life Detection Missions  

Microsoft Academic Search

NASA and ESA have outlined visions for solar system exploration that will include a series of lunar robotic precursor missions\\u000a to prepare for, and support a human return to the Moon, and future human exploration of Mars and other destinations, including\\u000a possibly asteroids. One of the guiding principles for exploration is to pursue compelling scientific questions about the origin\\u000a and

Daniel P. GlavinJason; Jason P. Dworkin; Mark Lupisella; David R. Williams; Gerhard Kminek; John D. Rummel

2010-01-01

218

Explore the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

See what it is like to walk on the Moon by viewing this collection of QuickTime images from NOVA Online. Stunning 360-degree panoramas from each of the six successful Apollo Moon landings are featured.

Foundation, Wgbh E.

2005-12-17

219

NASA honors Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise Jr.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 13 astronaut and Biloxi native Fred Haise Jr. smiles during a Dec. 2 ceremony at Gorenflo Elementary School in Biloxi honoring his space career. During the ceremony, Haise was presented with NASA's Ambassador of Exploration Award (an encased moon rock). He subsequently presented the moon rock to Gorenflo officials for display at the school. Haise is best known as one of three astronauts who nursed a crippled Apollo 13 spacecraft back to Earth during a perilous 1970 mission. Although he was unable to walk on the moon as planned for that mission, Haise ended his astronaut career having logged 142 hours and 54 minutes in space. During the ceremony, he praised all those who contributed to the space program.

2009-01-01

220

Fast Calculation of Abort Return Trajectories for Manned Missions to the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to support the anytime abort requirements of a manned mission to the Moon, the vehicle abort capabilities for the translunar and circumlunar phases of the mission must be studied. Depending on the location of the abort maneuver, the maximum return time to Earth and the available propellant, two different kinds of return trajectories can be calculated: direct and fly-by. This paper presents a new method to compute these return trajectories in a deterministic and fast way without using numerical optimizers. Since no simplifications of the gravity model are required, the resulting trajectories are very accurate and can be used for both mission design and operations. This technique has been extensively used to evaluate the abort capabilities of the Orion/Altair vehicles in the Constellation program for the translunar phase of the mission.

Senent, Juan S.

2010-01-01

221

Interpretation of various radiation backgrounds observed in the gamma-ray spectrometer experiments carried on the Apollo missions and implications for diffuse gamma-ray measurements  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Since the report of a preliminary analysis of cosmic gamma-ray measurements made during the Apollo 15 mission, an improved calculation of the spallation activation contribution has been made including the effects of short-lived spallation fragments, which can extend the correction to 15 MeV. In addition, a difference between Apollo 15 and 16 data enables an electron bremsstrahlung contribution to be calculated. A high level of activation observed in a crystal returned on Apollo 17 indicates a background contribution from secondary neutrons. These calculations and observations enable an improved extraction of spurious components and suggest important improvements for future detectors.

Dyer, C. S.; Trombka, J. I.; Metzger, A. E.; Seltzer, S. M.; Bielefeld, M. J.; Evans, L. G.

1975-01-01

222

The ESA SMART-1 Mission to the Moon: Goals and Science  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

SMART-1 is the first in the programme of ESA's Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology . Its objective is to demonstrate Solar Electric Primary Propulsion (SEP) for future Cornerstones (such as Bepi-Colombo) and to test new technologies for spacecraft and instruments. The project aims to have the spacecraft ready in October 2002 for launch as an Ariane-5 auxiliary payload. After a cruise with primary SEP, the SMART-1 mission is to orbit the Moon for a nominal period of six months, with possible extension. The spacecraft will carry out a complete programme of scientific observations during the cruise and in lunar orbit. SMART-1's science payload, with a total mass of some 15 kg, features many innovative instruments and advanced technologies. A miniaturised high-resolution camera (AMIE) for lunar surface imaging, a near-infrared point-spectrometer (SIR) for lunar mineralogy investigation, and a very compact X-ray spectrometer (D-CIXS) with a new type of detector and micro-collimator which will provide fluorescence spectroscopy and imagery of the Moon's surface elemental composition. The payload also includes an experiment (KaTE) aimed at demonstrating deep-space telemetry and telecommand communications in the X and Ka-bands, a radio-science experiment (RSIS), a deep space optical link (Laser-Link Experiment), using the ESA Optical Ground station in Tenerife, and the validation of a system of autonomous navigation SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemical (OBAN) based on image processing. SMART-1 lunar science investigations include studies of the chemica composition and evolution of the Moon, of geophysical processes (volcanism, tectonics, cratering, erosion, deposition of ices and volatiles) for comparative planetology, and high resolution studies in preparation for future steps of lunar exploration. The mission could address several topics such as the accretional processes that led to the formation of planets, and the origin of the Earth-Moon system.

Foing, B. H.; Racca, G. R.; SMART-1 Science and Technology Working Team

2000-10-01

223

Comparison of the magnetic properties of glass from Luna 20 with similar properties of glass from the Apollo missions  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Magnetic susceptibility measurements have been made on four glass spherules and fragments from the Luna 20 fines; two at 300??K and two from 300??K to 4??K. From these data the magnetic susceptibility extrapolated to infinite field, the magnetization at low fields and also the saturation magnetization at high fields, the Curie constant, the Weiss temperature, and the temperature-independent susceptibility were determined. Using a model previously proposed for the Apollo specimens, the Curie constant of the antiferromagnetic inclusions and a zero field splitting parameter were calculated for the same specimens. The data show the relatively low concentration of iron in all forms in these specimens. In addition, the Weiss temperature is lower than that measured for the Apollo specimens, and can be attributed almost entirely to the ligand field distortion about the Fe2+ ions in the glassy phase. The data further suggest that the Luna 20 specimens cooled more slowly than those of the Apollo missions, and that some of the antiferromagnetic inclusions in the glass may have crystallized from the glass during cooling. ?? 1973.

Senftle, F. E.; Thorpe, A. N.; Alexander, C. C.; Briggs, C. L.

1973-01-01

224

Earth From Space - Apollo 17  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

View of the Earth as seen by the Apollo 17 crew traveling toward the moon. This translunar coast photograph extends from the Meditierranean Sea area to the Antarctica south polar ice cap. This is the first time the Apollo trajectory made it possible to photograph the south polar ice cap. Note the heavy cloud cover in the southern hamisphere. Almost the entire coastline of Africa is clearly visible. The Arabian Penninsula can be seen at the northeastern edge of Africa. The large island off the coast of Africa is the Malagasy Republic. The Asian mainland is on the horizon toward the northeast. The Gulf of Oman and the Red Sea can be seen. Astronauts on this mission were: Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E. Evans, and Harrison H. Schmidt.

1972-01-01

225

Reporters Interview Family of Apollo 11 Astronaut Neil Armstrong  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Newsmen talked with the wife and sons of Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong after the successful launch of Apollo 11 on its trajectory to the moon. The Apollo 11 mission, the first lunar landing mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

226

A 660 D&O Gravitational Field of the Moon from the GRAIL Primary Mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has completed its primary three-month tour that resulted in a gravitational field of 660 degree-and-order or equivalent surface resolution of 8 km. The primary measurement for the gravity field is the inter-spacecraft K-Band Range Rate (KBRR) measurement derived from dual spacecraft one-way range. Direct Doppler tracking at X-band from the Deep Space Network for Ebb and Flow supplemented The KBRR. Advanced system calibrations and measurement timing have resulted in unprecedented data quality of better than 0.1 microns/sec. The gravity field solution shows an error spectrum with several orders of magnitude improvement for all wavelengths when compared to previous missions. Nearly uniform correlations with topography exist through higher harmonic degrees and are a good measure of field integrity. The results of the mission satisfy the scientific objectives of determining the structure of the lunar interior from crust to core and advancing the understanding of the thermal evolution of the Moon. They also directly address the mission's investigations that include mapping the structure of the crust and lithosphere, understanding the Moon's asymmetric thermal evolution, determining the subsurface structure of impact basins and the origin of mascons, ascertaining the temporal evolution of the crustal brecciation and magmatism, constrain deep interior structure from tides, and place limits on the size of a possible solid inner core.

Yuan, Dah-Ning; Konopliv, Alex; Asmar, Sami; Park, Ryan; Williams, James; Watkins, Michael; Fahnestock, Eugene; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Paik, Meegyeong; Strekalov, Dmitry; Harvey, Nate; Zuber, Maria; Smith, David

2013-04-01

227

Apollo Soyuz  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The mission, background, and spacecraft of the Apollo Soyuz Test Project are summarized. Scientific experiments onboard the spacecraft are reviewed, along with reentry procedures. A small biography of each of the five astronauts (U.S. and Russian) is also presented.

Froehlich, W.

1978-01-01

228

Lunar Lander project: A study on future manned missions to the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This project is based on designing a small lunar probe which will conduct research relating to future manned missions to the moon. The basic design calls for two experiments to be run. The first of these experiments is an enclosed environment section which will be exposed to solar radiation while on the moon. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the effect of radiation on an enclosed environment and how different shielding materials can be used to moderate this effect. The eight compartments will have the following covering materials: glass, polarized glass, plexiglass, polyurethane, and boron impregnated versions of the polyurethane and plexiglass. The enclosed atmosphere will be sampled by a mass spectrometer to determine elemental breakdown of its primary constituents. This is needed so that an accurate atmospheric processing system can be designed for a manned mission. The second experiment is a seismic study of the moon. A small penetrating probe will be shot into the lunar surface and data will be collected onboard the lander by an electronic seismograph which will store the data in the data storage unit for retrieval and transmission once every twenty-three hours. The project is designed to last ten years with possible extended life for an additional nine years at which point power requirements prevent proper functioning of the various systems.

1966-01-01

229

Risk Assessment of Bone Fracture During Space Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of a traumatic bone fracture in space is a concern due to the observed decrease in astronaut bone mineral density (BMD) during spaceflight and because of the physical demands of the mission. The Bone Fracture Risk Module (BFxRM) was developed to quantify the probability of fracture at the femoral neck and lumbar spine during space exploration missions. The BFxRM is scenario-based, providing predictions for specific activities or events during a particular space mission. The key elements of the BFxRM are the mission parameters, the biomechanical loading models, the bone loss and fracture models and the incidence rate of the activity or event. Uncertainties in the model parameters arise due to variations within the population and unknowns associated with the effects of the space environment. Consequently, parameter distributions were used in Monte Carlo simulations to obtain an estimate of fracture probability under real mission scenarios. The model predicts an increase in the probability of fracture as the mission length increases and fracture is more likely in the higher gravitational field of Mars than on the moon. The resulting probability predictions and sensitivity analyses of the BFxRM can be used as an engineering tool for mission operation and resource planning in order to mitigate the risk of bone fracture in space.

Lewandowski, Beth E.; Myers, Jerry G.; Nelson, Emily S.; Licatta, Angelo; Griffin, Devon

2007-01-01

230

Risk Assessment of Bone Fracture During Space Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of a traumatic bone fracture in space is a concern due to the observed decrease in astronaut bone mineral density (BMD) during spaceflight and because of the physical demands of the mission. The Bone Fracture Risk Module (BFxRM) was developed to quantify the probability of fracture at the femoral neck and lumbar spine during space exploration missions. The BFxRM is scenario-based, providing predictions for specific activities or events during a particular space mission. The key elements of the BFxRM are the mission parameters, the biomechanical loading models, the bone loss and fracture models and the incidence rate of the activity or event. Uncertainties in the model parameters arise due to variations within the population and unknowns associated with the effects of the space environment. Consequently, parameter distributions were used in Monte Carlo simulations to obtain an estimate of fracture probability under real mission scenarios. The model predicts an increase in the probability of fracture as the mission length increases and fracture is more likely in the higher gravitational field of Mars than on the moon. The resulting probability predictions and sensitivity analyses of the BFxRM can be used as an engineering tool for mission operation and resource planning in order to mitigate the risk of bone fracture in space.

Lewandowski, Beth E.; Myers, Jerry G.; Nelson, Emily S.; Griffin, Devon

2008-01-01

231

Moon Pie  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Learners will work in teams to apply their knowledge about the Moon, its environment, and the LRO mission to match responses to Moon questions. With the correct responses, they build a picture of the Moon. This activity is part of Explore! To the Moon and Beyond! - a resource developed specifically for use in libraries.

232

Thin section of rock brought back to earth by Apollo 12 mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An idea of the mineralogy and texture of a lunar sample can be achieved by use of color microphotos. This thin section is Apollo 12 lunar sample number 12057.27, under polarized light. The lavender minerals are pyrexene; the black mineral is ilmenite; the white and brown, feldspar; and the remainder, olivine.

1970-01-01

233

Lunar seismology - The internal structure of the moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is pointed out that seismology has provided the most detailed information concerning the structure and state of the earth's interior. Beginning in 1969, seismometers were landed on the moon by the Apollo missions, providing the first opportunity to attempt similar studies on another planetary body. In September 1977 the operation of these instruments was terminated. A description is presented

N. R. Goins; A. M. Dainty; M. N. Toksoz

1981-01-01

234

Galileo on the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Galileo used thought experiments to test many assumptions, including the notion that heavy objects fall more quickly than lighter objects when they are dropped. Lacking access to either a vacuum chamber or a planetary body that has no atmosphere, he nevertheless correctly predicted that all falling objects would accelerate at the same rate in the absence of air resistance. In this video segment astronaut David Scott re-creates the famous experiment, which supported Galileo's prediction, on the Apollo 15 mission to the Moon. The segment is forty-seven seconds in length. A background essay and discussion questions are included.

235

APOLLO 17 : The Final Splashdown  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

APOLLO 17 returns safely to Earth, bringing to an end the APOLLO series of lunar missions From the film documentary 'APOLLO 17: On the shoulders of Giants'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APPOLO 17 : Sixth and last manned lunar landing mission in the APOLLO series with Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E.Evans, and Harrison H. (Jack) Schmitt. Landed at Taurus-Littrow on Dec 11.,1972. Deployed camera and experiments; performed EVA with lunar roving vehicle. Returned lunar samples. Mission Duration 301hrs 51min 59sec

1974-01-01

236

A trade study on radiation exposure for a crewed mission to the jovian moon callisto  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In support of the NASA Revolutionary Aerospace Systems Concepts (RASC) Human Outer Planet Exploration (HOPE) activity goal to investigate the technology required for future crewed missions to the outer solar system, a trade study for a mission to the Jovian moon Callisto was performed. Three different mission scenarios were developed, each with a different propulsion method, resulting in different mission durations. Nuclear thermal, nuclear electric, and fusion propulsion systems were considered. While the three mission scenarios were different in several ways including trajectory, spacecraft configuration, and whether or not an initial vessel was used to deliver supplies, each scenario included a crewed trip to Callisto beginning in late 2044 or early 2045 and a short surface stay, 29 to 120 days. For each scenario, the crew radiation exposure was evaluated. The radiation analysis for this trade study is described here. The effects of trip duration on the exposure levels are discussed as well as the advantages of avoiding solar minimum, i.e. the time in the solar cycle when the solar wind is at its minimum and interplanetary galactic cosmic ray (GCR) radiation is at its maximum. The benefits of choosing shielding material containing hydrogen and the possibility of using the hydrogen fuel tanks to shield the crew quarters are also discussed.

Nealy, J. E.; Clowdsley, M. S.; Wilson, J. W.; de Angelis, G.; Anderson, B. M.; Krizan, S. A.; Troutman, P. A.; Stillwagon, F. H.; Adams, R. B.; Borowski, S. K.

237

Venus, Mars, and the ices on Mercury and the moon: astrobiological implications and proposed mission designs.  

PubMed

Venus and Mars likely had liquid water bodies on their surface early in the Solar System history. The surfaces of Venus and Mars are presently not a suitable habitat for life, but reservoirs of liquid water remain in the atmosphere of Venus and the subsurface of Mars, and with it also the possibility of microbial life. Microbial organisms may have adapted to live in these ecological niches by the evolutionary force of directional selection. Missions to our neighboring planets should therefore be planned to explore these potentially life-containing refuges and return samples for analysis. Sample return missions should also include ice samples from Mercury and the Moon, which may contain information about the biogenic material that catalyzed the early evolution of life on Earth (or elsewhere). To obtain such information, science-driven exploration is necessary through varying degrees of mission operation autonomy. A hierarchical mission design is envisioned that includes spaceborne (orbital), atmosphere (airborne), surface (mobile such as rover and stationary such as lander or sensor), and subsurface (e.g., ground-penetrating radar, drilling, etc.) agents working in concert to allow for sufficient mission safety and redundancy, to perform extensive and challenging reconnaissance, and to lead to a thorough search for evidence of life and habitability. PMID:16379531

Schulze-Makuch, Dirk; Dohm, James M; Fairén, Alberto G; Baker, Victor R; Fink, Wolfgang; Strom, Robert G

2005-12-01

238

Agnew and Johnson Watch Apollo 11 Lift Off  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Amidst a crowd of other onlookers, U.S. Vice President Spiro T. Agnew (right) and former U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson watch the Saturn V vehicle roar skyward carrying the Apollo 11 manned spacecraft into the vast regions of space. On a trajectory to the Moon, the craft lifted off from launch pad 39 at Kennedy Space Flight Center (KSC) on July 16, 1969. The moon bound crew included astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The mission finalized with splashdown on July 24, 1969. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Werher von Braun.

1969-01-01

239

Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The purpose of this work is to provide researchers, students, and space enthusiasts with a comprehensive reference for facts about Project Apollo, America's effort to put humans in the Moon. Research for this work started in 1988, when the author discovered that, despite the number of excellent books that focused on the drama of events that highlighted Apollo, there were none that focused on the drama of the numbers. This book is separated into two parts. The first part contains narratives for the Apollo 1 fire and the 11 flown Apollo missions. Included after each narrative is a series of data tables, followed by a comprehensive timeline of events from just before liftoff to just after crew and spacecraft recovery. The second part contains more than 50 tables. These tables organize much of the data from the narratives in one place so they can be compared among all missions. The tables offer additional data as well. The reader can select a specific mission narrative or specific data table by consulting the Table of Contents.

Orloff, Richard; Garber, Stephen (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

240

Apollo 11 Facts Project [EVA Training/Washington, D. C. Tour  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Footage shows the crew of Apollo 11, Commander Neil Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Aldrin Jr., and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, during various pre-mission activities. They are seen training for the extravehicular activity on the surface of the Moon, giving speeches in front of the White House, and during a parade in Houston.

1994-01-01

241

APOLLO 17  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Vice President Spiro T. Agnew congratulates launch team personnel in the control room about fifteen minutes after Apollo 17 astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E. Evans and Harrison H. Schmitt were successfully launched from the Kennedy Space Center on the first leg of their launch to the Moon. At the Vice President's right is George Low, Deputy NASA Administrator; Dr. James C. Fletcher, NASA Administrator is standing behind the Vice President; Walter J. Kapryan, center, Director of Kennedy Space Center Launch Operations; and Dr. Hans F. Gruene, extreme right, Director of Kennedy Space Center Launch Vehicle Operations. Liftoff was recorded at 12:35 a.m. EST December 7, 1972.

1972-01-01

242

Orion/MoonRise: A proposed human & robotic sample return mission from the Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes a new mission concept called Orion/MoonRise that proposes to return samples from the Lunar far-side South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPAB) using a combination of a robotic Sample Return Vehicle (SRV) based on the MoonRise mission concept developed at National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle currently under development by NASA at Lockheed Martin. The mission concept proposes significant challenges for both robotic and human parts of the mission. Whereas there are many ways to execute this mission concept, one approach is for the Orion and the SRV to launch separately. We assume that the Orion will be staged at the Earth-Moon Lagrange Point 2 (EM-L2) and the SRV at EM-L1. Once both are in place, the SRV descends to the SPAB while the Orion provides critical relay coverage with ground control on Earth. During surface operations, the Orion crew tele-operate the lander sampling system and possibly deploy a sample fetch rover. Once the samples are collected, the Lunar Ascent Vehicle (LAV) launches towards the EM-L2 to rendezvous with Orion. The samples are then brought back to Earth for detailed sample curation and analysis by the scientific community. The Orion/MoonRise mission concept has many strengths worth noting: it provides a very exciting mission to be performed in cis-Lunar space, as a precursor to future human exploration beyond the Earth-Moon System and as a technology demonstration for future sample return from Mars; it implements a mission that is of tremendous value to the planetary science community; it provides an exciting and challenging mission for astronauts to perform and demonstrate in deep-space including remote teleoperations and sample rendezvous and capture; and finally it provides an exciting opportunity for the broad engagement of the general public.

Alkalai, L.; Solish, B.; Elliott, J.; McElrath, T.; Mueller, J.; Parker, J.

243

Apollo 11 Artist Concept- Translunar Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. These sketches illustrate four events of the Apollo 11 spacecraft and crew enroute to the Moon. Panels housing the LM were jettisoned and the CM turned 180 degrees in the transposition maneuver. The CM docked with the LM and extracted it from the third stage instrument unit of the Saturn V launch vehicle. Astronauts performed navigation checks enroute to the moon. The service propulsion system was fired to slow the spacecraft and permitted it to enter lunar orbit.

1969-01-01

244

ArcGIS Digitization of Apollo Surface Traverses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo surface activities were documented in extraordinary detail, with every action performed by the astronauts while on the surface recorded either in photo, audio, film, or by written testimony [1]. The samples and in situ measurements the astronauts collected while on the lunar surface have shaped our understanding of the geologic history of the Moon, and the earliest history and evolution of the inner Solar System. As part of an ongoing LASERfunded effort, we are digitizing and georeferencing data from astronaut traverses and spatially associating them to available, co-registered remote sensing data. Here we introduce the products produced so far for Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions.

Petro, N. E.; Bleacher, J. E.; Gladdis, L. R.; Garry, W. B.; Lam, F.; Mest, S. C.

2012-01-01

245

Space Radiation a Potential Show Stopper in Missions to Moon and Mars and beyond  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Exposure from the hazards of severe space radiation in deep space/ long duration missions is `the show stopper' for NASA's vision of missions to Moon, Mars and beyond. The key to the success of human exploration and development of space is protecting astronauts, habitat and electronics against the hazards of severe space radiation environment. Accurate risk assessments critically depend on the accuracy of the input information about the interaction of ions with materials, electronics and tissues. This is further augmented by nonexistence of in vivo or in vitro data or studies about continuous long duration exposure of radiation to tissues. Due to paucity of the huge amount of needed experimental input data about the interaction of radiation, it is imperative to develop reliable accurate models of nuclear reactions and structures that form the basic input ingredients. State-of-the-art nuclear cross sections models have been developed at the NASA Langley Research center. The vital role and importance of nuclear physics for space missions would be discussed and a few examples would be presented for space missions.

Tripathi, Ram

2007-04-01

246

Apollo 11 Artist Concept- Launch and Translunar Injection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. These sketches illustrate four of the early steps in the first manned lunar landing mission. The series begins with insertion of astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, and Michael Collins in the Apollo Command Module (CM). They checked out spacecraft systems and prepared for the launch. After two revolutions in Earth orbit, the Saturn V third stage reignited to place them into the translunar trajectory.

1969-01-01

247

Gravity Fields of the Moon Derived from GRAIL Primary and Extended Mission Data (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft conducted the mapping of the gravity field of the Moon from March 1, 2012 to May 29, 2012, for the primary mission and from August 30, 2012 to December 14, 2012 for the extended mission and endgame. During both mission phases, the twin spacecraft acquired highly precise Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) intersatellite ranging data and Deep Space Network (DSN) data from altitudes of 2.3 to 98.2 km above the lunar surface. We have processed the GRAIL data using the NASA GSFC GEODYN orbit determination and geodetic parameter estimation program and used the supercomputers of the NASA Center for Climate Simulation (NCCS) at NASA GSFC to accumulate the SRIF arrays and derive the geopotential solutions. During the extended mission, the spacecraft orbits were maintained at a mean altitude of ~23 km, compared to ~50 km during the primary mission. In addition, from December 7 to December 14, 2012, data were acquired from a mean altitude of 11.5 km. With these data, we have derived solutions in spherical harmonics to degree 900. The new gravity solutions show improved correlations with LOLA-derived topography to very high degree and order and resolve many lunar features in the geopotential with a resolution of less than 15 km. We discuss the methods we used for the processing of the GRAIL data, and evaluate these solutions with respect to the derived power spectra, Bouguer anomalies, and fits with independent data (such as from the low-altitude phase of the Lunar Prospector mission).

Lemoine, F. G.; Goossens, S. J.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Loomis, B.; Chinn, D. S.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

2013-12-01

248

Apollo 11 Astronauts Exit Recovery Helicopter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Donned in biological isolation garments, the Apollo 11 crew members, (L-R) Edwin Aldrin, Neil Armstrong (waving), and Michael Collins exit the recovery pick up helicopter to board the U.S.S. Hornet aircraft carrier after splashdown. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF). This portable facility served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Werher von Braun.

1969-01-01

249

Neil Armstrong chats with attendees at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong talks with a former Apollo team member during an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon.

1999-01-01

250

Flight Operations reunion for the Apollo 11 20th anniversary of the first manned lunar landing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The following major areas are presented: (1) the Apollo years; (2) official flight control manning list for Apollo 11; (3) original mission control emblem; (4) foundations of flight control; (5) Apollo-11 20th anniversary program and events; (6) Apollo 11 mission operations team certificate; (7) Apollo 11 mission summary (timeline); and (8) Apollo flight control team photographs and biographies.

1989-01-01

251

Human Exploration Mission Capabilities to the Moon, Mars, and Near Earth Asteroids Using ''Bimodal'' NTR Propulsion  

SciTech Connect

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) is one of the leading propulsion options for future human exploration missions because of its high specific impulse (Isp {approx} 850 to 1000 s) and attractive engine thrust-to-weight ratio ({approx} 3 to 10). Because only a minuscule amount of enriched {sup 235}U fuel is consumed in an NRT during the primary propulsion maneuvers of a typical Mars mission, engines configured both for propulsive thrust and modest power generation (referred to as 'bimodal' operation) provide the basis for a robust, power-rich stage with efficient propulsive capture capability at the moon and near-earth asteroids (NEAs), where aerobraking cannot be utilized. A family of modular bimodal NTR (BNTR) space transfer vehicles utilize a common core stage powered by three {approx}15-klb{sub f} engines that produce 50 kW(electric) of total electrical power for crew life support, high data rate communications with Earth, and an active refrigeration system for long-term, zero-boiloff liquid hydrogen (LH{sub 2}) storage. This paper describes details of BNTR engines and designs of vehicles using them for various missions.

Stanley K. Borowski; Leonard A. Dudzinski; Melissa L. McGuire

2000-06-04

252

MAJIS, the Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer, designed for the future ESA/JUICE mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer (MAJIS) is the VIS-IR spectral mapper selected for JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer), the first Large-class mission in the ESA Cosmic Vision Programme. Scheduled for a launch in 2022, JUICE will perform a comprehensive exploration of the Jovian system thanks to several flybys of Callisto, Ganymede and Europa, before finally entering orbit around Ganymede. During these phases, MAJIS will acquire hyperspectral data necessary to unveil and map the surface composition of different geologic units of the satellites. Transfers between successive satellites' flybys shall be devoted to remote observations of Jupiter's atmosphere and auroras. MAJIS' instrument design relies on a 75 mm pupil, f/3.2 aperture TMA telescope matching two Czerny-Turner imaging spectrometers. A dichroic element is used to split the beam between the two spectral channels. The VIS-NIR spectral channel covers the 0.4-1.9 ?m range with a sampling of 2.3 nm/band. The IR channel works in the 1.5-5.7 ?m range with a 6.6 nm/band sampling. The entire optical structure is passively cooled at cryogenic temperature

Piccioni, Giuseppe; Langevin, Yves; Filacchione, Gianrico; Poulet, Francois; Tosi, Federico; Eng, Pascal; Dumesnil, Cydalise; Zambelli, Massimo; Saggin, Bortolino; Fonti, Sergio; Grassi, Davide; Altieri, Francesca

2014-05-01

253

Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Vehicle Design Options for Future NASA Missions to the Moon and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners/designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a 'dual mode' system capable of generating electrical power for spacecraft environmental systems, communications, and enhanced stage operations (e.g., refrigeration for long-term liquid hydrogen storage). At present the Nuclear Propulsion Office (NPO) is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, single-burn, trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) mission to all propulsive, multiburn, NTR-powered spacecraft supporting a 'split cargo-piloted sprint' Mars mission architecture. Each application results in a particular set of requirements in areas such as the number of engines and their respective thrust levels, restart capability, fuel operating temperature and lifetime, cryofluid storage, and stage size. Two solid core NTR concepts are examined -- one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide 'twisted ribbon' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The NDR and CIS concepts have an established technology database involving significant nuclear testing at or near representative operating conditions. Integrated systems and mission studies indicate that clusters of two to four 15 to 25 klbf NDR or CIS engines are sufficient for most of the lunar and Mars mission scenarios currently under consideration. This paper provides descriptions and performance characteristics for the NDR and CIS concepts, summarizes NASA's First Lunar Outpost and Mars mission scenarios, and describes characteristics for representative cargo and piloted vehicles compatible with a reference 240 t-class heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) and smaller 120 t HLLV option. Attractive performance characteristics and high-leverage technologies associated with both the engine and stage are identified, and supporting parametric sensitivity data is provided. The potential for commonality of engine and stage components to satisfy a broad range of lunar and Mars missions is also discussed.

Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; Mcguire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.

1995-01-01

254

Nuclear Thermal Rocket/vehicle design options for future NASA missions to the Moon and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners/designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (approximately 850-1000 s) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (approximately 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a 'dual mode' system capable of generating electrical power for spacecraft environmental systems, communications, and enhanced stage operations (e.g., refrigeration for long-term liquid hydrogen storage). At present the Nuclear Propulsion Office (NPO) is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, single-burn, trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's First Lunar Outpost (FLO) mission to all propulsive, multiburn, NTR-powered spacecraft supporting a 'split cargo-piloted sprint' Mars mission architecture. Each application results in a particular set of requirements in areas such as the number of engines and their respective thrust levels, restart capability, fuel operating temperature and lifetime, cryofluid storage, and stage size. Two solid core NTR concepts are examined -- one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide 'twisted ribbon' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The NDR and CIS concepts have an established technology database involving significant nuclear testing at or near representative operating conditions. Integrated systems and mission studies indicate that clusters of two to four 15 to 25 klbf NDR or CIS engines are sufficient for most of the lunar and Mars mission scenarios currently under consideration. This paper provides descriptions and performance characteristics for the NDR and CIS concepts, summarizes NASA's First Lunar Outpost and Mars mission scenarios, and describes characteristics for representative cargo and piloted vehicles compatible with a reference 240 t-class heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) and smaller 120 t HLLV option. Attractive performance characteristics and high-leverage technologies associated with both the engine and stage are identified, and supporting parametric sensitivity data is provided. The potential for commonality of engine and stage components to satisfy a broad range of lunar and Mars missions is also discussed.

Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.

1995-09-01

255

Lunar Nautics: Designing a Mission to Live and Work on the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This unit features 40 activities that challenge students to assume the roles of workers at Lunar Nautics Space Systems, Inc., a fictional aerospace company specializing in mission management, lunar habitat and exploration design, and scientific research. The guide includes information to teach the basics on Newton's Laws of Motion, rocket design, microgravity, and the moon. Students design, test and analyze a model lunar lander, a robot, and a soda bottle rocket. They also build edible models, a solar oven to cook hot dogs, and a microgravity sled while underwater. Educators can use this guide in a variety of formats such as week-long day camps, after-school programs, a classroom unit or as supporting curriculum.

256

Apollo 16 mission anomaly report no. 1: Oxidizer deservicing tank failure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The command module reaction control system is emptied of all remaining propellant using ground support equipment designed to provide an acid/base neutralization of the propellant in both the liquid and gaseous phases so that it may be disposed of safely. During the deactivation operation of the oxidizer from the Apollo 16 command module on 7 May 1972, the scrubber tank of the decontamination unit exploded, destroying the ground support equipment unit and damaging the building that housed the operation. Only minor injuries were received by the personnel in the area and the command module was not damaged. Test results show that the failure was caused by an insufficient quantity of neutralizer for the quantity of oxidizer. This insufficiency lead to exothermic nitration-type reactions which produced large quantities of gas at a very high rate and failed the decontamination tank.

1972-01-01

257

Apollo 15 Proves Galileo Correct  

NASA Video Gallery

At the end of the last Apollo 15 moon walk, Commander David Scott held out a geologic hammer and a feather and dropped them at the same time. Because they were essentially in a vacuum, there was no...

258

The D-CIXS X-ray spectrometer on the SMART1 mission to the Moon—First results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The SMART-1 mission has recently arrived at the Moon. Its payload includes D-CIXS, a compact X-ray spectrometer. SMART-1 is a technology evaluation mission, and D-CIXS is the first of a new generation of planetary X-ray spectrometers. Novel technologies enable new capabilities for measuring the fluorescent yield of a planetary surface or atmosphere which is illuminated by solar X-rays. During the

M. Grande; B. J. Kellett; C. Howe; C. H. Perry; B. Swinyard; S. Dunkin; J. Huovelin; L. Alha; L. C. D’Uston; S. Maurice; O. Gasnault; S. Couturier-Doux; S. Barabash; K. H. Joy; I. A. Crawford; D. Lawrence; V. Fernandes; I. Casanova; M. Wieczorek; N. Thomas; U. Mall; B. Foing; D. Hughes; H. Alleyne; S. Russell; M. Grady; R. Lundin; D. Baker; C. D. Murray; J. Guest; A. Christou

2007-01-01

259

On the Relationship between the Apollo 16 Ancient Regolith Breccias and Feldspathic Fragmental Breccias, and the Composition of the Prebasin Crust in the Central Highlands of the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two types of texturally and compositionally similar breccias that consist largely of fragmental debris from meteorite impacts occur at the Apollo 16 lunar site: Feldspathic fragmental breccias (FFBS) and ancient regolith breccias (ARBs). Both types of breccia are composed of a suite of mostly feldspathic components derived from the early crust of the Moon and mafic impact-melt breccias produced during the time of basin formation. The ARBs also contain components, such as agglutinates and glass spherules, indicating that the material of which they are composed occurred at the surface of the Moon as fine-grained regolith prior to lithification of the breccias. These components are absent from the FFBS, suggesting that the FFBs might be the protolith of the ARBS. However, several compositional differences exist between the two types of breccia, making any simple genetic relationship implausible. First, clasts of mafic impact-melt breccia occurring in the FFBs are of a different composition than those in the ARBS. Also the feldspathic "prebasin" components of the FFBs have a lower average Mg/Fe ratio than the corresponding components of the ARBS; the average composition of the plagiociase in the FFBs is more sodic than that of the ARBS; and there are differences in relative abundances of rare earth elements. The two breccia types also have different provenances: the FFBs occur primarily in ejecta from North Ray crater and presumably derive from the Descartes Formation, while the ARBs are restricted to the Cayley plains. Together these observations suggest that although some type of fragmental breccia may have been a precursor to the ARBS, the FFBs of North Ray crater are not a significant component of the ARBs and, by inference, the Cayley plains. The average compositions of the prebasin components of the two types of fragmental breccia are generally similar to the composition of the feldspathic lunar meteorites. With 30-31% Al203, however, they are slightly richer in plagiociase than the most feldspathic lunar meteorites (approximately 29% Al203), implying that the crust of the early central nearside of the Moon contained a higher abundance of highly feldspathic anorthosite than typical lunar highlands, as inferred from the lunar meteorites. The ancient regolith breccias, as well as the current surface regolith ofthe Cayley plains, are more mafic than (1) prebasin regoliths in the Central Highlands and (2) regions of highlands presently distant from nearside basins because they contain a high abundance (approximately 30%) of mafic impact-melt breccias produced during the time of basin formation that is absent from other regoliths.

Korotev, Randy L.

1996-01-01

260

The Penn state lunar lion: A university mission to explore the moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Penn State Lunar Lion Team plans to send a robotic explorer to the surface of the Moon and, by applying 30 years of technological advancements, win the Google Lunar X Prize. The Google Lunar X Prize aims to showcase the ability of the growing private space industry by having teams pursue the goal of becoming the first private entity to land a spacecraft on another body in the solar system. Through the Team's pursuit of this Prize, Penn State will establish itself as a leader in space exploration. The Lunar Lion Team will win this Prize through the collaboration of faculty and students from multiple disciplines, and the engineering and technical staff at the Penn State Applied Research Lab, as well as strategic collaborations with industry partners. The diversity of technical disciplines required to build a system that can land on the Moon can be found at Penn State. This multidisciplinary project will be not only a means for bringing together personnel from around the University, but also a way to attract faculty and students to these fields. The baseline concept for the Lunar Lion will strictly follow the requirements of the Grand Prize and the Grand Prize only, leading to the simplest possible system for the mission. By achieving the Grand Prize, Penn State will have accomplished what once took the large-scale effort of NASA's early robotic lunar landers or the USSR's space program. While the Bonus Prizes are noteworthy, ensuring their accomplishment will add development and operational risk to the flight system that could jeopardize the Team's ability to win the Grand Prize. The Team will build the simplest spacecraft, with the fewest number of systems and components. This philosophy will shorten the development timeline and result in a robust flight system that is of minimum cost. Wherever possible, the Team will use commercially available products to satisfy the needs of the system. The work of the Team will be efficient systems integration, careful operational planning, and focused mission execution, all with the Grand Prize in mind. By focusing on innovation rather than invention, Penn State will lead the field of competitors and land the next spacecraft on the Moon.

Paul, Michael V.; Spencer, David B.; Lego, Sara E.; Muncks, John P.

2014-03-01

261

Apollo 16 regolith breccias and soils - Recorders of exotic component addition to the Descartes region of the moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using the subdivision of Apollo 16 regolith breccias into ancient (about 4 Gyr) and younger samples (McKay et al., 1986), with the present-day soils as a third sample, a petrologic and chemical determination of regolith evolution and exotic component addition at the A-16 site was performed. The modal petrologies and mineral and chemical compositions of the regolith breccias in the region are presented. It is shown that the early regolith was composed of fragments of plutonic rocks, impact melt rocks, and minerals and impact glasses. It is found that KREEP lithologies and impact melts formed early in lunar history. The mare components, mainly orange high-TiO2 glass and green low-TiO2 glass, were added to the site after formation of the ancient breccias and prior to the formation of young breccias. The major change in the regolith since the formation of the young breccias is an increase in maturity represented by the formation of fused soil particles with prolonged exposure to micrometeorite impacts.

Simon, S. B.; Papike, J. J.; Laul, J. C.; Hughes, S. S.; Schmitt, R. A.

1988-01-01

262

U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Watches Apollo 11 Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon, aboard the U.S.S. Hornet aircraft carrier, used binoculars to watch the Apollo 11 Lunar Mission recovery. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days post mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

263

Apollo soil mechanics experiment S-200  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The physical and mechanical properties of the unconsolidated lunar surface material samples that were obtained during the Apollo missions were studied. Sources of data useful for deduction of soil information, and methods used to obtained the data are indicated. A model for lunar soil behavior is described which considers soil characteristics, density and porosity, strength, compressibility, and trafficability parameters. Lunar history and processes are considered, and a comparison is made of lunar and terrestrial soil behavior. The impact of the findings on future exploration and development of the moon are discussed, and publications resulting from lunar research by the soil mechanics team members are listed.

Mitchell, J. K.; Houston, W. N.; Carrier, W. D., III; Costes, N. C.

1974-01-01

264

The interaction of the Galilean moons with their space environment: Lessons learnt from previous missions and prospects for JUICE  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Galilean moons of Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto are embedded within the magnetospheric plasma that aproximately corotates with Jupiter. The physical processes revealed in the regions of space surrounding them are remarkably diverse. The Galilean moons, with their exospheres, are conductive bodies. As they move through the Jovian magnetic field, they create a specific current system. This electrodynamical coupling is not stationary. Part of the electromagnetic energy is converted into kinetic energy of accelerated particles, with the formation of particular auroral features. Ganymede, the unique magnetized moon to date, possesses its own mini-magnetosphere that is coupled to Jupiter's giant magnetosphere. This interaction is powerful enough to create an intense auroral footpoint at Jupiter. The coupling with Europa is apparently much less powerful, even if it seems able to generate intense waves. By contrast, Callisto is the most quiet. The parameters that determine the strength of the coupling, the way magnetic fields are distorted and large-scale fluctuations are generated, are unknown, as are the details of the interaction itself. I will first review some of the multi-instrument observations obtained in the vicinity of the Galilean moons by the NASA/Galileo mission that contribute to our current understanding of the moon-magnetosphere interactions. I will then discuss how the ESA/JUICE mission to be launched in 2022 will provide a thorough investigation of these unique planetary bodies in all their complexity.

André, N.

2012-12-01

265

SUDA: A Dust Mass Spectrometer for compositional surface mapping for the JUICE mission to the Galilean moons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a dust mass spectrometer to measure the composition of ballistic dust particles populating the thin exospheres that were detected around each of the Galilean moons. Since these grains are direct samples from the moons' icy surfaces, unique composition data will be obtained that will help to define and constrain the geological activities on and below the moons' surface. The proposed instrument will make a vital contribution to ESA's planned JUICE mission and provide key answers to its main scientific questions about the surface composition, habitability, the icy crust, and exchange processes with the deeper interior of the Jovian icy moons Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. The SUrface Dust Aanalyser (SUDA) is a time-of-flight, reflectron-type impact mass spectrometer, opti-mised for a high mass resolution which only weakly depends on the impact location. The small size (268×250×171 mm3), low mass (< 4 kg) and large sen-sitive area (220 cm2) makes the instrument well suited for the challenging demands of the JUICE mission to the Galilean moons Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. A full-size prototype SUDA instrument was built in order to demonstrate its performance through calibra-tion experiments at the Heidelberg dust accelerator with a variety of cosmo-chemically relevant dust ana-logues. The effective mass resolution of m/?m of 150-200 is achieved for mass range of interest m = 1-150.

Kempf, S.; Briois, C.; Cottin, H.; Engrand, C.; Gruen, E.; Hand, K. P.; Henkel, H.; Horanyi, M.; Lankton, M. R.; Lebreton, J.; Postberg, F.; Schmidt, J.; Srama, R.; Sternovsky, Z.; Thissen, R.; Tobie, G.; Szopa, C.; Zolotov, M. Y.

2012-12-01

266

What's New on the Moon?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This document presents an overview of knowledge gained from the scientific explorations of the moon between 1969 and 1972 in the Apollo Program. Answers are given to questions regarding life on the moon, surface composition of rocks on the moon, the nature of the moon's interior, characteristics of lunar "soil," the age, history and origin of the…

French, Bevan M.

267

Man in the Moon Remembers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Uses animation and exciting film footage from the apollo moon landings to depict the history of the moon. Our animated narrator is the man in the moon himself, and he traces the moon's geological history from its creation to our detailed exploration of it...

1994-01-01

268

Nuclear Thermal Rocket/Stage Technology Options for NASA's Future Human Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) provides a unique propulsion capability to planners and designers of future human exploration missions to the Moon and Mars. In addition to its high specific impulse (Isp ~ 850-1000 seconds) and engine thrust-to-weight ratio (~ 3-10), the NTR can also be configured as a ``dual mode'' system capable of generating stage electrical power. At present, NASA is examining a variety of mission applications for the NTR ranging from an expendable, ``single burn'' trans-lunar injection (TLI) stage for NASA's ``First Lunar Outpost'' (FLO) mission to all propulsive, ``multi-burn,'' spacecraft supporting a ``split cargo/piloted sprint'' Mars mission architecture. Two ``proven'' solid core NTR concepts are examined -one based on NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application)-derivative reactor (NDR) technology, and a second concept which utilizes a ternary carbide ``twisted ribbon'' fuel form developed by the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Integrated systems and mission study results are used in designing ``aerobraked'' and ``all propulsive'' Mars vehicle concepts which are mass-, and volume-compatible with both a reference 240 metric tonne (t) heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) and a smaller 120 t HLLV option. For the ``aerobraked'' scenario, the 2010 piloted mission determines the size of the expendable trans-Mars injection (TMI) stage which is a growth version of the FLO TLI stage. An ``all-propulsive'' Moon/Mars mission architecture is also described which uses common ``modular'' engine and stage hardware consisting of: (1) clustered 15 thousand pounds force (klbf) NDR or CIS engines; (2) two ``standardized'' liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank sizes; and (3) ``dual mode'' NTR and refrigeration system technologies for long duration missions. The ``modular'' NTR approach can form the basis for a ``faster, safer, and cheaper'' space transportation system for tomorrow's piloted missions to the Moon and Mars.

Borowski, Stanley K.; Corban, Robert R.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Beke, Erik G.

1994-07-01

269

Stationkeeping of the First Earth-Moon Libration Orbiters: The ARTEMIS Mission.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Libration point orbits near collinear locations are inherently unstable and must be controlled. For Acceleration Reconnection and Turbulence and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) Earth-Moon Lissajous orbit operations, statio...

D. Cosgrove D. Folta M. Woodard

2011-01-01

270

SUDA: A Dust Mass Spectrometer for Surface Mapping for the JUICE Mission to the Galilean Moons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a mass spectrometer to measure the composition of the dust exospheres of the Galilean moons. Since the grains are samples from the moons' surfaces, unique information is obtained about the geological activities on and below the crust.

Kempf, S.; Briois, C.; Cottin, H.; Engrand, C.; Grün, E.; Hand, K.; Henkel, H.; Horanyi, M.; Lankton, M.; Lebreton, J.-P.; Postberg, F.; Schmidt, J.; Srama, R.; Sternovsky, Z.; Thissen, R.; Tobie, G.; Szopa, C.; Zolotov, M.

2012-10-01

271

The first precise global gravity and topography of the Moon by KAGUYA (SELENE) mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Japanese lunar mission KAGUYA (SELENE) was launched on September 14th, 2007 and continued its operation by June 11th, 2009. KAGUYA had two subsatellites (OKINA and OUNA) for gravity measurements. The gravity field, which is obtained by radio tracking of spacecraft, is a fundamental quantity for the study of the internal structure and the evolution of the Moon. However, the previous lunar gravity models are in lack of direct observations of the farside gravity. Synchronous rotation of the Moon with its orbit inhibits a direct link between a ground tracking station and a lunar-orbiting spacecraft over the farside. Using 4-way Doppler tracking with relay satellite OKINA, KAGUYA obtained the first precise gravity field of the lunar far-side [1]. Multi-frequency differential VLBI observation using subsatellites OKINA and OUNA improved the accuracy of gravity, through precise determination of OKINA's orbit. Current gravity field model SGM100h has much less error on the farside in comparison with previous models. The gravity field will be improved using differential VLBI data between OKINA and OUNA. Laser altimeter (LALT) on board KAGUYA obtained the first precise global topography of the Moon with range accuracy of 5m [2]. Range data exceeded 20 million by the end of the mission. In the polar regions where laser altimeter on board CLEMENTINE did not observe, LALT clarified topographic features including permanently shadowed areas. Distribution of solar illumination rates was also estimated at elevated areas [3]. The amplitude of the power spectrum of topography spherical harmonics is larger than that of the previous model at L¿30 [2]. We have better correlation of spherical harmonics coefficients between gravity and topography than the previous model [1]. Gravity signatures of far-side impact basins are mostly explained by topography except for the central high. Extended density anomalies such as "mascons" are not observed in the farside, suggesting the difference of thermal condition between the nearside and the farside. Probably the farside interior have cooled more rapidly than the nearside interior. Combined with topography data, we estimate Bouguer anomaly and the crustal thickness variation of the Moon [4]. The region with the thinnest crust is Mare Moscoviense in the far side. Bouguer anomaly does not change largely both within South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA) and within far-side highland terrain (FHT). This would imply relatively smooth crust-mantle boundary there. SPA is also characterized by the admittance spectra. Although the crustal thickness of SPA is much thinner than that FHT, the elastic thicknesses of both zones are not so different on the basis of the admittance. SPA area would be elastically supported by a part of upper mantle. References: [1] Namiki, N. et al.(2009) Science 323, 900, [2] Araki, H. et al. (2009) Science 323, 892. [3] Noda et al. (2008) GRL, 35, doi:10.1029/2008GL035692 [4] Ishihara, Y. et al.(2009) GRL, 36, L19202, doi:10.1029/2009GL039708.

Sasaki, Sho; Sasaki, Sho; Namiki, Noriyuki; Hanada, Hideo; Araki, Hiroshi; Iwata, Takahiro; Noda, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Koji; Kawano, Nobuyuki; Kikuchi, Fuyuhiko; Liu, Quinhui; Goossens, Sander; Ishihara, Yoshi-Aki; Harada, Yuji; Tsuruta, Seiitsu; Tazawa, Seiichi; Asari, Kazuyoshi; Ishikawa, Toshiaki; Oberst, Juergen; Lemoine, Frank; Shum, C. K.

272

Project Columbiad: Mission to the Moon. Book 1: Executive Summary. Volume 1: Mission trade studies and requirements. Volume 2: Subsystem trade studies and selection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In response to the Report of the Advisory Committee on the future of the U.S. Space Program and a request from NASA's Exploration Office, the MIT Hunsaker Aerospace Corporation (HAC) conducted a feasibility study, known as Project Columbiad, on reestablishing human presence on the Moon before the year 2000. The mission criteria established were to transport a four person crew to the lunar surface at any latitude and back to Earth with a 14-28 day stay on the lunar surface. Safety followed by cost of the Columbiad Mission were the top level priorities of HAC. The resulting design has a precursor mission that emplaces the required surface payloads before the piloted mission arrives. Both the precursor and piloted missions require two National Launch System (NLS) launches. Both the precursor and piloted mission have an Earth orbit rendezvous (EOR) with a direct transit to the Moon post-EOR. The piloted mission returns to Earth via a direct transit. Included among the surface payloads preemplaced are a habitat, solar power plant (including fuel cells for the lunar night), lunar rover, and mechanisms used to cover the habitat with regolith (lunar soil) in order to protect the crew members from severe solar flare radiation.

Clarke, Michael; Denecke, Johan; Garber, Suzanne; Kader, Beth; Liu, Celia; Weintraub, Ben; Cazeau, Patrick; Goetz, John; Haughwout, James; Larson, Erik

1992-01-01

273

The Moon's Formation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How did the Moon form? The most favored theory - a cataclysmic impact on our planet - that has dominated scientific thinking for over a quarter of a century has always had its critics. But the final piece of the puzzle may just be in place. This radio broadcast considers new research that could offer the complete picture into the events that led to the creation of our moon. Analysis of moon rocks following the Apollo missions added weight to a newly emerging theory that a Mars-sized body in the early days of the solar system crashed into the young Earth, melting its crust and that from the resulting shattered remains, the Moon emerged. This broadcast examines new computer simulations of events and reveals startling new evidence from a researcher who believes that this Mars-sized body hid in a seemingly impossible, but increasingly likely location a mere 150 million kilometers from the orbit of Earth for millions of years, until it was set on an inevitable collision course with the Earth. If the theory is correct, it could provide far reaching proof that the universe is full of hidden areas where life might flourish. The broadcast is 30 minutes in length.

274

Remembering Apollo 11: The 30th Anniversary Data Archive CD-ROM  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On July 20, 1969, the human race accomplished its single greatest technological achievement of all time when a human first set foot on another celestial body. Six hours after landing at 4:17 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (with less than thirty seconds of fuel remaining), Neil A. Armstrong took the "small step" into our greater future when he stepped off the Lunar Module, named Eagle, onto the surface of the Moon, from which he could look up and see Earth in the heavens as no one had done before him. He was shortly joined by Edwin "Buzz" Aldrin, and the two astronauts spent twenty-one hours on the lunar surface and returned forty-six pounds of lunar rocks. After their historic walks on the Moon, they successfully docked with Michael Collins, patiently orbiting the cold but no longer lifeless Moon alone in the Command module Columbia. This CR-ROM is intended as a collection of hard to find technical data and other interesting information about the Apollo 11 mission, as well as the apollo program in general. It includes basic overviews, such as a retrospective analysis, an annotated bibliography, and history of the lunar-orbit rendezvous concept. It also contains technical data, such as mission operations reports, press kits, and news references for all of the Apollo missions, the Apollo spacecraft, and the Saturn V launch vehicle. Rounding out this CD-ROM are extensive histories of the lunar Orbiter program (the robotic predecessor to Apollo, biographies of the Apollo astronauts and other key individuals, and interesting audio-visual materials, such as video and audio clips, photo galleries, and blueprint-like diagrams of the Apollo spacecraft.

Cortright, Edgar M. (Editor)

1999-01-01

275

Insignia for the Apollo program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The insignia for the Apollo program is a disk circumscribed by a band displaying the words Apollo and NASA. The center disc bears a large letter 'A' with the constellation Orion positioned so its three central stars form the bar of the letter. To the right is a sphere of the earth, with a sphere of the moon in the upper left portion of the center disc. The face on the moon represents the mythical god, Apollo. A double trajectory passes behind both spheres and through the central stars.

1966-01-01

276

Exploration planning in the context of human exploration and development of the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is widely believed that the next step beyond low Earth orbit in attaining the United States' stated goal of 'Expanding human presence beyond the Earth' should be to reestablish a lunar capability, building on the Apollo program, and preparing the way for eventual human missions to Mars. The Moon offers important questions in planetary and Earth science, can provide

Michael B. Duke; Donald A. Morrison

1993-01-01

277

Electrostatic and Gravitational Transport of Lunar Dust in the Airless Atmosphere of the Moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since its formation about 4.6 billion years ago, the surface of the moon has become covered with a thick layer of fine dust which has been preserved in a pristine, ultrahigh vacuum condition without any atmosphere-related changes of its physical properties and chemical compositions. The lunar surface has no atmosphere. Yet, Apollo and surveyor missions observed there is an atmospheric

M. K. Mazumder; R. Sharma; A. S. Biris; S. Trigwell; M. N. Horenstein; M. M. Abbas

2008-01-01

278

Apollo experience report: Protection of life and health  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The development, implementation, and effectiveness of the Apollo Lunar Quarantine Program and the Flight Crew Health Stabilization Program are discussed as part of the broad program required for the protection of the life and health of U.S. astronauts. Because the goal of the Apollo Program has been the safe transport of men to the moon and back to earth, protection of the astronauts and of the biosphere from potentially harmful lunar contaminants has been required. Also, to ensure mission success, the continuing good health of the astronauts before and during a mission has been necessary. Potential applications of specific aspects of the health and quarantine programs to possible manned missions to other planets are discussed.

Wooley, B. C.

1972-01-01

279

Apollo Landing Sites  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about the siting and geology of the six Apollo lunar landings. Learners use latitude and longitude to identify potential landing sites and study the geology of lunar samples collected from those sites. This activity is in Unit 2 of the "Exploring the Moon" teacherâs guide and is designed for use especially, but not exclusively, with the Lunar Sample Disk program.

280

Apollo 13 Facts  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Footage is seen of the Earth from the Apollo 13 spacecraft as it travels towards the Moon. The crew, James Lovell, Jr., John Swigert, Jr., and Fred Haise, Jr., are shown performing various on-orbit activities. The Lunar Module rendezvous and docking, tunnel repressurization, and S4-B separation are also seen.

2001-01-01

281

Apollo Video Photogrammetry Estimation of Plume Impingement Effects  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Each of the six Apollo mission landers touched down at unique sites on the lunar surface. Aside from the Apollo 12 landing site located 180 meters from the Surveyor III lander, plume impingement effects on ground hardware during the landings were largely not an issue. The Constellation Project's planned return to the moon requires numerous landings at the same site. Since the top few centimeters are loosely packed regolith, plume impingement from the lander ejects the granular material at high velocities. With high vacuum conditions on the moon (10 (exp -14) to 10 (epx -12) torr), motion of all particles is completely ballistic. Estimates from damage to the Surveyor III show that the ejected regolith particles to be anywhere 400 m/s to 2500 m/s. It is imperative to understand the physics of plume impingement to safely design landing sites for the Constellation Program.

Immer, Christopher; Lane, John; Metzger, Philip; Clements, Sandra

2008-01-01

282

Apollo: Learning from the past, for the future  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper shares an interesting and unique case study of knowledge capture by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), an ongoing project to recapture and make available the lessons learned from the Apollo lunar landing project so that those working on future projects do not have to "reinvent the wheel". NASA's new Constellation program, the successor to the Space Shuttle program, proposes a return to the Moon using a new generation of vehicles. The Orion Crew Vehicle and the Altair Lunar Lander will use hardware, practices, and techniques descended and derived from Apollo, Shuttle, and the International Space Station. However, the new generation of engineers and managers who will be working with Orion and Altair are largely from the decades following Apollo, and are likely not well aware of what was developed in the 1960s. In 2006, a project at NASA's Johnson Space Center was started to find pertinent Apollo-era documentation and gather it, format it, and present it using modern tools for today's engineers and managers. This "Apollo Mission Familiarization for Constellation Personnel" project is accessible via the web from any NASA center for those interested in learning answers to the question "how did we do this during Apollo?"

Grabois, Michael R.

2011-04-01

283

Apollo Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of Model 1 used in the LOLA simulator. This was a twenty-foot sphere which simulated for the astronauts what the surface of the moon would look like from 200 miles up. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote: 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

1964-01-01

284

Apollo Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of Model 1 used in the LOLA simulator. This was a twenty-foot sphere which simulated for the astronauts what the surface of the moon would look like from 200 miles up. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

1963-01-01

285

Apollo 11 Astronauts Exit Launch Pad Elevator After Countdown Demonstration Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Apollo 11 crew members (left to right) Neil Armstrong, Edwin Aldrin, and Michael Collins, wearing space suits, leave the elevator after descending from the top of the launch tower. The three had just completed participation in the countdown demonstration test for the upcoming Apollo 11 mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first lunar landing mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

286

Apollo 15 Lunar eclipse views  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the lunar eclipse that occured during the Apollo 15 lunar landing mission, Astronaut Alfred M. Worden, command module (CM) pilot, used a 35mm Nikon camera to obtain a series of photographs while the moon was entering and exiting the earth's umbra. This task was an attempt to measure by photographic photometry the amount of scattered light reaching the moon. The first view (l-r) is a four-second exposure which was taken at the moment when the moon had just entered the umbra; the second is a 15-second exposure taken two minutes after entry; the third, a 30-second exposure three minutes after entry; and the fourth is a 60-second exposure four minutes after entry. The background star field is clearly evident. The spacecrafrt was in full sunlight when these photographs were taken, and it was pointed almost directly away from the sun so that the windows and a close-in portion of the camera's line-of-sight were in shadow.

1971-01-01

287

Apollo experience report: Battery subsystem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experience with the Apollo command service module and lunar module batteries is discussed. Significant hardware development concepts and hardware test results are summarized, and the operational performance of batteries on the Apollo 7 to 13 missions is discussed in terms of performance data, mission constraints, and basic hardware design and capability. Also, the flight performance of the Apollo battery charger is discussed. Inflight data are presented.

Trout, J. B.

1972-01-01

288

Gene Cernan speaks at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo program team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible, former Apollo astronaut Gene Cernan relates a humorous comment while Wally Schirra (background) gestures behind him. Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17, was the last man to walk on the moon; Schirra flew on Apollo 7. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Other guests at the banquet were former Apollo astronauts are Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch of the first moon landing, and Walt Cunningham, who also flew on Apollo 7.

1999-01-01

289

NASA Administrator Dan Goldin speaks at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin (right) addresses the audience at the Apollo 11 anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex, with seating under an unused Saturn V rocket like those that powered the Apollo launches . This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Among the guests at the banquet were former Apollo astronauts are Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch of the first moon landing; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17 and was the last man to walk on the moon; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7.

1999-01-01

290

Neil Armstrong chats with attendees at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong poses for a photograph with fans who attended the anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon.

1999-01-01

291

The scientific rationale for the C1XS X-ray spectrometer on India's Chandrayaan-1 mission to the moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The UK-built Chandrayaan-1 X-ray Spectrometer (C1XS) will fly as an ESA instrument on India's Chandrayaan-1 mission to the Moon, launched in October 2008. C1XS builds on experience gained with the earlier D-CIXS instrument on SMART-1, but will be a scientifically much more capable instrument. Here we describe the scientific objectives of this instrument, which include mapping the abundances of the

I. A. Crawford; K. H. Joy; B. J. Kellett; M. Grande; M. Anand; N. Bhandari; A. C. Cook; L. d’Uston; V. A. Fernandes; O. Gasnault; J. Goswami; C. J. Howe; J. Huovelin; D. Koschny; D. J. Lawrence; B. J. Maddison; S. Maurice; S. Narendranath; C. Pieters; T. Okada; D. A. Rothery; S. S. Russell; P. Sreekumar; B. Swinyard; M. Wieczorek; M. Wilding

2009-01-01

292

Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Watch Cake Cutting Ceremony  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home for 21 days following the mission. In this photograph, the Hornet crew and honor guard snap to attention to begin the official cake cutting ceremony for the Apollo 11 astronauts. Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin are visible in the window of the MQF.

1969-01-01

293

JUpiter ICy moons Explorer (juice): AN ESA L-Class Mission Candidate to the Jupiter System  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The overarching theme for JUICE is: The emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants. Humankind wonders whether the origin of life is unique to the Earth or if it occurs elsewhere in our Solar System or beyond. To answer this question, even though the mechanisms by which life originated on Earth are not yet clearly understood, one can assume that the necessary conditions involve the simultaneous presence of organic compounds, trace elements, water, energy sources and a relative stability of the environment over time. JUICE will address the question: Are there current habitats elsewhere in the Solar System with the necessary conditions (water, biological essential elements, energy and stability) to sustain life? The spatial extent and evolution of habitable zones within the Solar System are critical elements in the development and sustainment of life, as well as in addressing the question of whether life developed on Earth alone or whether it was developed in other Solar System environments and was then imported to Earth. The focus of JUICE is to characterise the conditions that may have led to the emergence of habitable environments among the Jovian icy satellites, with special emphasis on the three ocean-bearing worlds, Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto. Ganymede is identified for detailed investigation since it provides a natural laboratory for analysis of the nature, evolution and potential habitability of icy worlds in general, but also because of the role it plays within the system of Galilean satellites, and its unique magnetic and plasma interactions with the surrounding Jovian environment. For Europa, where two targeted flybys are planned, the focus will be on the chemistry essential to life, including organic molecules, and on understanding the formation of surface features and the composition of the non water-ice material, leading to the identification and characterisation of candidate sites for future in situ exploration. Furthermore, JUICE will provide the first subsurface observations of this icy moon, including the first determination of the minimal thickness of the icy crust over the most recently active regions. JUICE will determine the characteristics of liquid-water oceans below the icy surfaces of the moons. This will lead to an understanding of the possible sources and cycling of chemical and thermal energy, allow investigation of the evolution and chemical composition of the surfaces and of the subsurface oceans, and enable an evaluation of the processes that have affected the satellites and their environments through time. The study of the diversity of the satellite system will be enhanced with additional information gathered remotely on Io and smaller moons. The mis-sion will also focus on characterising the diversity of processes in the Jupiter system which may be required in order to provide a stable environment at Ganymede, Europa and Callisto on geologic time scales, including gravitational coupling between the Galilean satellites and their long term tidal influence on the system as a whole. Focused stud-ies of Jupiter's atmosphere, and magnetosphere and their interaction with the Galilean satellites will further enhance our understanding of the evolution and dynamics of the Jovian system. The circulation, meteorology, chemistry and structure of Jupiter will be studied from the cloud tops to the thermosphere. These observations will be attained over a sufficiently long temporal baseline with broad latitudinal coverage to investigate evolving weather systems and the mechanisms of transporting energy, momentum and material between the different layers. The focus in Jupiter's magnetosphere will include an investigation of the three dimensional properties of the magnetodisc and in-depth study of the coupling processes within the magnetosphere, ionosphere and thermosphere. Aurora and radio emissions and their response to the solar wind will be elucidated.

Dougherty, M. K.; Grasset, O.; Erd, C.; Titov, D.; Bunce, E. J.; Coustenis, A.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A. J.; Drossart, P.; Fletcher, L.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; Van Hoolst, T.

2012-04-01

294

Adrenocortical responses of the Apollo 17 crew members  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Changes in adrenal activity of the three Apollo 17 crew members were studied during the 12.55-day mission and during selected post-recovery days. Aldosterone excretion was normal early and elevated later in the mission, probably causing a loss in total body exchangeable potassium. There was decreased 17-hydroxycorticosteroid excretion only during the early mission days for the two moon landers and throughout the mission for the other astronaut. Cortisol excretion was elevated on physically stressful mission days. At recovery, plasma ACTH was elevated without a similar increase in plasma cortisol. Angiotensin I activity was elevated at recovery in only one crewman. This crewman was the only one with a decreased extracellular fluid volume. These results indicate that the mission and its activities affect adrenal function of the crewmen.

Leach, C. S.; Rambaut, P. C.; Johnson, P. C.

1974-01-01

295

New Views of the Moon: Improved Understanding Through Data Integration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding the Moon is crucial to future exploration of the solar system.The Moon preserves a record of the first billion years of the Earth-Moon system's history, including evidence of the Moon's origin as accumulated debris from a giant impact into early Earth. Lunar rocks provide evidence of early differentiation and extraction of a crust. Lacking an atmospheric shield, the Moon's regolith retains a record of the activity of solar wind over the past 4 billion years. It also holds a complete record of impact cratering, and analysis of samples has allowed calibration of ages, and thus dating of other planetary surfaces. And because of its proximity to Earth, it's low gravity well, and stable surface, the Moon's resources will be useful both in establishing lunar habitations and as fuel for exploration beyond the Moon. Lunar science has advanced tremendously in the 30 years since the Apollo and Luna missions. We know that the Moon is strongly differentiated, and recent tungsten isotope studies indicate that this differentiation occurred soon after solar system formation. The Moon probably accreted rapidly from debris that formed as a large planetesimal struck the early Earth. Ancient highland rocks provide evidence of early lunar differentiation, and basalts formed by later melting within the mantle reveal it cumulus nature. However, the timing, extent, and depth of differentiation, variations within the mantle, and lateral and vertical variations within the crust can only be surmised from the limited sample suites,gravity studies,and surface geophysics of the Apollo era. Data from the recent Lunar Prospector and Clementine missions permit reassessment of the global characteristics of the Moon and a reexamination of the distribution of elemental components, rock and soil types, and resources, as well as remanent magnetism, gravity field, and global topography New research provides some answers, but also leads to new questions.

Jolliff, B. L.; Gaddis, L. R.; Ryder, G.; Neal, C. R.; Shearer, C. K.; Elphic, R. C.; Johnson, J. R.; Keller, L. P.; Korotev, R. L.; Lawrence, D. J.

2000-01-01

296

Moon Tune  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a lesson about NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO). Learners will sing about the LRO mission to the Moon, learn that craters on the Moon may harbor water ice, and they discover how LRO is searching for this and other resources needed to build future lunar outposts. This is a good introductory activity. This activity is part of Explore! To the Moon and Beyond! - a resource developed specifically for use in libraries.

297

Moon: Old and New  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This video presents the moon as studied by man for more than 20 centuries. It reviews the history of lunar studies before the first moon landing, the major things learned since Apollo 11, and closes with a resume of lunar investigations scientists would like to undertake in the future.

1970-01-01

298

External Resource: Moon Mining  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity encourages the use of process skills and an understanding of the idea that many things were learned from the rock samples that the astronauts brought back with them from the moon during NASA's Apollo flights to the moon. The activity simula

1900-01-01

299

The Apollo docking system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo docking system is the means by which the Apollo command and service modules and the lunar module are connected and disconnected during a lunar-landing mission. The system incorporates a CSM probe assembly that mates with a drogue assembly on the LM. Twelve automatic latches mounted on the CSM docking ring provide for structural integrity between the vehicles and for tunnel sealing during crew transfer. A functional description of the flight hardware and the alternate concepts that were evaluated to determine the system best suited to Apollo requirements are presented.

Bloom, K. A.; Campbell, G. E.

1971-01-01

300

Apollo light flash investigations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The visual phenomenon of light flashes resulting from high energy, heavy cosmic rays penetrating the command module structure and crewmembers' eyes is investigated. Light flash events observed during dedicated sessions on Apollo 15, 16, 17 are described along with a Monte Carlo simulation of the exposure of an astronaut to cosmic radiation during a mission. Results of the Apollo Light Flash Moving Emulsion Detector experiment developed for Apollo 16 and 17 to obtain a direct record of incident cosmic ray particles are correlated with crewmembers' reports of light flashes.

Osborne, W. Z.; Pinsky, L. S.; Bailey, J. V.

1975-01-01

301

APOLLO 17 POST LAUNCH  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Launch personnel within Firing Room 1 of the Launch Control Center listen to remarks by Vice President Spiro T. Agnew about 15 minutes following the successful lunar liftoff of Apollo 17 astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E. Evans and Harrison Schmitt at 12:35 am EST December 7, 1972. The Vice President headed a list of dignitaries who watched the start of NASA's sixth and final manned lunar landing mission in the Apollo program.

1972-01-01

302

Apollo Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of the track which runs in front of Model 3: Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'The model system is designed so that a television camera is mounted on a camera boom on each transport cart and each cart system is shared by two models. The cart's travel along the tracks represents longitudinal motion along the plane of a nominal orbit, vertical travel of the camera boom represents latitude on out-of-plane travel, and horizontal travel of the camera boom represents altitude changes.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

1963-01-01

303

Apollo Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White further described LOLA in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

1964-01-01

304

Apollo Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White described the simulator as follows: 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

1965-01-01

305

Apollo Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of Model 2 used in the LOLA simulator: Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

1963-01-01

306

Apollo Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Track, Model 2 and Model 1, the 20-foot sphere. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) From Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966. 'The model system is designed so that a television camera is mounted on a camera boom on each transport cart and each cart system is shared by two models. The cart's travel along the tracks represents longitudinal motion along the plane of a nominal orbit, vertical travel of the camera boom represents latitude on out-of-plane travel, and horizontal travel of the camera boom represents altitude changes.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379.

1963-01-01

307

Apollo Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Construction of the track which runs in front of Model 2. Technicians work on Model 1, the 20-foot sphere. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White wrote in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'The model system is designed so that a television camera is mounted on a camera boom on each transport cart and each cart system is shared by two models. The cart's travel along the tracks represents longitudinal motion along the plane of a nominal orbit, vertical travel of the camera boom represents latitude on out-of-plane travel, and horizontal travel of the camera boom represents altitude changes.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

1963-01-01

308

Apollo Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White further described LOLA in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379; From Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

1964-01-01

309

NASA Administrator Dan Goldin speaks at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin addresses the audience at the Apollo 11 anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Among the guests at the banquet were former Apollo astronauts are Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin who flew on Apollo 11, the launch of the first moon landing; Gene Cernan, who flew on Apollo 10 and 17 and was the last man to walk on the moon; and Walt Cunningham, who flew on Apollo 7.

1999-01-01

310

Gravity Assist from Jupiter'S Moons for Jupiter-Orbiting Space Missions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report describes results of an investigation of the propellant economies of using the gravitational attraction of Jupiter's four large moons to effect the transfer of a spacecraft into orbit around that planet. Use of a simplified model to approximate...

R. W. Longman

1968-01-01

311

Planning for the Future, a Look from Apollo to the Present  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future missions out of low Earth orbit, returning to the moon and Mars, will be some of the most complicated endeavors ever attempted by mankind. It will require the wealth of nations and the dedicated efforts of thousand of individuals working in a concerted effort to take man to the moon, Mars and beyond. These missions will require new equipment and new approaches to optimize our limited resources and time in space. This daily planning and optimization which currently is being performed by scores of people in MCC Houston and around the world will need to adapt to the challenges faced far from Earth. By studying the processes, methodologies, and tools employed from Apollo, Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and other programs such as NEEMO, we can learn from the past to plan for the future. This paper will explore the planning process used from Apollo onward and will discuss their relevancy in future applications.

Segrera, David

2008-01-01

312

U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon Watches Apollo 11 Recovery  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon (center), aboard the U.S.S. Hornet aircraft carrier, used binoculars to watch the Apollo 11 Lunar Mission Recovery. Standing next to the President is astronaut Frank Borman, Apollo 8 Commander. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days post mission. The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. The Saturn V vehicle was developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under the direction of Dr. Wernher von Braun. Aboard were Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

313

Soil mechanics. [characteristics of lunar soil from Apollo 17 flight lunar landing site  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The soil mechanics experiment on the Apollo 17 mission to the Taurus-Littrow area of the moon is discussed. The objectives of the experiment were to determine the physical characteristics and mechanical properties of the lunar soil at the surface and subsurface in lateral directions. Data obtained on the lunar surface in conjunction with observations of returned samples of lunar soil are used to determine in-place density and porosity profiles and to determine strength characteristics on local and regional scales.

Mitchell, J. K.; Carrier, W. D., III; Costes, N. C.; Houston, W. N.; Scott, R. F.; Hovland, H. J.

1973-01-01

314

General human health issues for Moon and Mars missions: Results from the HUMEX study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general health issues considered in two scenarios of human long-term exploratory missions, which include a mission to a lunar base and a mission to Mars, have been analysed. Based on statistical data from occupational and normal population groups of Western countries, the following safety objectives have been chosen: individual risk of death by illness (=natural death) during the mission

Gerda Horneck; Bernard Comet

2006-01-01

315

The ESA SMART1 mission to the Moon with solar electric propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

SMART-1 is planned to be the first Small Mission for Advanced Research in Technology of the ESA Scientific Programme Horizons 2000 for a launch at the end of 2001. The mission is dedicated to the testing of new technologies for preparing future cornerstone missions, using Solar Electrical Propulsion in Deep Space. The mission operational lifetime includes a 6–17 months cruise

B. H. Foing; G. R. Racca

1999-01-01

316

The ESA SMART1 Mission to the Moon with Solar Electric Propulsion  

Microsoft Academic Search

SMART-1 is planned to be the first Small Mission for Advanced Research in Technology of the ESA Scientific Programme Horizons 2000 for a launch at the end of 2001. The mission is dedicated to the testing of new technologies for preparing future cornerstone missions, using Solar Electrical Propulsion in Deep Space. The mission operational lifetime includes a 6-17 months cruise

B. H. Foing; G. R. Racca

1999-01-01

317

Earthrise - Apollo 8  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This view of the rising Earth greeted the Apollo 8 astronauts as they came from behind the Moon after the lunar orbit insertion burn. Earth is about five degrees above the horizon in the photo. The unnamed surface features in the foreground are near the eastern limb of the Moon as viewed from Earth. The lunar horizon is approximately 780 kilometers from the spacecraft. Width of the photographed area at the horizon is about 175 km (109 miles). On the Earth 386,000 km (240,000 miles) away, the sunset terminator bisects Africa.

Nasa

318

Organics in APOLLO Lunar Samples  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

One of many unknowns prior to the Apollo landings concerned the possibility of life, its remains, or its organic precursors on the surface of the Moon. While the existence of lunar organisms was considered highly unlikely, a program of biological quarantine and testing for the astronauts, the Apollo Command Modules, and the lunar rock and soil samples, was instituted in the Lunar Receiving Laboratory (LRL). No conclusive evidence of lunar organisms, was detected and the quarantine program was ended after Apollo 14. Analyses for organic compounds were also con-ducted. Considerable effort was expended, during lunar surface operations and in the LRL, to minimize and quantify organic contamination. Post-Apollo curatorial operations and cleaning minimize contamination from particulates, oxygen, and water but no longer specifically address organic contamination. The organic compounds measured in Apollo samples are generally consistent with known sources of contamination.

Allen, C. C.; Allton, J. H.

2007-01-01

319

Apollo 11 -- 30th Anniversary  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

July 20, 1999 marks the 30th Anniversary of the Apollo 11 moon landing and the historic first steps by humans on the surface of another planet. In celebration, the National Air and Space Museum, Newseum, NASA, National Space Society and Artrain hosted a variety of activities in Washington, D.C. and on the internet. The site features a set of exhibitions: "Milestones of Flight," "Lunar Exploration Vehicles," "Apollo to the Moon," and the "Space Race." Additionally links to different collections, resources and activities, and past anniversary events are provided.

2009-04-02

320

Mineralization on the moon? Theoretical considerations of Apollo 16 'rusty rocks', sulfide replacement in 67016, and surface-correlated volatiles on lunar volcanic glass  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical considerations of vapor-rock interactions in the lunar environment are a useful supplement to petrologic studies of mineralization or alteration in rocks from the moon. They also provide insights into the potential for the existence of more extensive mineralization on the moon than is found in the limited sample set. Discussed in this paper are the coexistence and textural association

Russell O. Colson

1992-01-01

321

Asteroid Moon Micro-imager Experiment (amie) For Smart-1 Mission, Science Objectives and Devel- Opment Status.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Asteroid Moon micro-Imager Experiment (AMIE), which will be on board the first ESA SMART-1 mission to the Moon (launch foreseen late 2002), is an imaging sys- tem with scientific, technical and public outreach oriented objectives. The science objectives are to imagine the Lunar South Pole (Aitken basin), permanent shadow areas (ice deposit), eternal light (crater rims), ancient Lunar Non- mare volcanism, local spectro-photometry and physical state of the lunar surface, and to map high latitudes regions (south) mainly at far side (Fig. 1). The technical objectives are to perform a laser-link experiment (detection of laser beam emitted by ESA Tenerife ground station), flight demonstration of new technologies, navigation aid (feasi- bility study), and on-board autonomy investigations. Figure 3: AMIE camera (< 0.5 kg) For better interpretation of the future imagery of the Moon by the instrument, laboratory measurements have been carried out by CSEM in Tampere (Finland), with support of the Observatory of Helsinki. The experimental set-up is composed of an optical system to image samples in verti- cal position, a light source and a photodiode to verify the stability of the incident flux. The optical system is com- posed of a lens to insure good focusing on the samples (focus with the camera is at distance > 100m) and a mirror to image downwards. The samples used were anorthosite from northern Finland, basalt from Antarctis, meteorites and other lunar analog materials. A spectralon panel has also been used to have flat fields references. The samples were imaged with dif- Figure 1: SMART-1 camera imaging the Moon (simulated view) ferent phase angles. Figure 4 shows images obtained with In order to have spectral information of the surface of the basalt and olivine samples, with different integration times Moon, the camera is equipped with a set of filters (Fig. 2), in order to have information in all areas. introduced between the CCD and the teleobjective. Bandpass-filter No Filter, 750 nm (1) AR coating (3) Bandpass-filter 915 nm (2) Longpass-filter 960 nm (4) Band- Band- Figure 4: Basalt and Olivine sample ­ entire image (left) and passfilter passfilter 915 nm 750 nm visible part () (6) (7) Bandpass- More than 150 images were acquired during this validation filter 847 nm (5) campaign and analysis of this data will give precious in- formation about the instrument ability to image the south Figure 2: AMIE Filters in front of the detector pole of our satellite, with the ambition of renewing our vision of the Moon.

Josset, J.-L.; Heather, D.; Dunkin, S.; Roussel, F.; Beauvivre, S.; Kraenhenbuehl, D.; Plancke, P.; Lange-Vin, Y.; Pinet, P.; Chevrel, S.; Cerroni, P.; de Sanctis, M.-C.; Dillelis, A.; Sodnik, Z.; Koschny, D.; Barucci, A.; Hofmann, B.; Josset, M.; Muinonen, K.; Pironnen, J.; Ehrenfreud, P.; Shkuratov, Y.; Shevchenko, V.

322

The remanent magnetic field of the moon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of the moon's remanent magnetic field near the Apollo landing sites and from lunar orbit with the Apollo subsatellites are reviewed. Contour maps are presented for the intensity of the radial, eastward, and northward components of the remanent field as measured with Apollo subsatellite magnetometers at altitudes of 10 to 170 km. Attempts to fit the subsatellite measurements to

P. J. Coleman Jr.; C. T. Russell

1977-01-01

323

Evidence from Apollo.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the claims of tabloids and television that the U.S. mission to the moon was faked. Recommends using samples brought back from the moon on the Lunar Sample Disk as instructional material to open a discussion. Makes suggestions for examining lunar rocks. (YDS)

Lowman, Paul D., Jr.

2001-01-01

324

Re-Assessment of "Water on the Moon" after LCROSS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The LCROSS Mission has produced information about the possible presence of water in a permanently shaded regions of the Moon. Without the opportunity to have a controlled impact into a sun-lite site on the Moon, the LCROSS information must be carefully evaluated. The Apollo samples have provided a large amount of information on the nature of lunar hydrogen, water and other volatiles and this information must be considered in any interpretation of the observed data from the LCROSS and other lunar missions. Perhaps the volatiles seen by the LRO/LCROSS mission might be identical to lunar volatiles within ordinary lunar equatorial materials. Until the control experiment of having an impactor strike an equatorially site is carried out, caution must be taken when interpreting the results from the LCROSS mission.

Gibson, Everett K.; Pillinger, Colin T.

2010-01-01

325

What Neil & Buzz Left on the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site describes the one Apollo experiment still functioning--the corner mirrors that Apollo astronauts placed on the moon to reflect laser pulses from Earth back to Earth. Monitoring these pulses makes the precise measurement of the distance to the Moon possible.

2008-08-05

326

PATHFINDING AND V-INFININTY LEVERAGING FOR PLANETARY MOON TOUR MISSIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The well established technique of V-infinity levera ging is applied to the phase- fixed planetary moon tour problem, and a global ana lysis of the related design space is performed using an automated pathfinding t echnique. Resonance hopping transfers between two circular, coplanar mo ons of a common planet are designed using series of alternating V-infinity lev eraging maneuvers and

Adam T. Brinckerhoff; Ryan P. Russell

327

Using the New Views of the Moon Initiative to Define Future Missions: The Lunar Seismic Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The New Views of the Moon initiative is unprecedented in the history of lunar research because it has integrated remotely sensed and sample data in its approach to synthesizing lunar research over the last 30+ years. The integration of remotely sensed and sample data has clearly demonstrated what we know and, maybe more importantly, what we don't know about the

C. R. Neal

2002-01-01

328

On the fundamental importance of the social psychology of research as a basic paradigm for the philosophy of science: A philosophical case study of the psychology of the Apollo moon scientists  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A combined philosophical and social psychological study of over 40 of the Apollo moon Scientists reveals that the Orthodox or Received View of Scientific Theories is found wanting in several respects: (1) observations are not theory-free; (2) scientific observations are not directly observable; and (3) observations are no less problematic than theories. The study also raises some severe criticisms of distinction between the context of discovery and the context of justification. Not only does this distinction fail to describe the actual practice of science but even more important it has the dangerous effect of excluding some of the strongest lines of evidence which could most effectively challenge the distinction. The distinction is harmful of efforts to found interdisciplinary theories and philosophies of science.

Mitroff, I. I.

1972-01-01

329

Spacecraft Conceptual Design Compared to the Apollo Lunar Lander  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Future human exploration of the Moon will require an optimized spacecraft design with each sub-system achieving the required minimum capability and maintaining high reliability. The objective of this study was to trade capability with reliability and minimize mass for the lunar lander spacecraft. The NASA parametric concept for a 3-person vehicle to the lunar surface with a 30% mass margin totaled was considerably heavier than the Apollo 15 Lunar Module "as flown" mass of 16.4 metric tons. The additional mass was attributed to mission requirements and system design choices that were made to meet the realities of modern spaceflight. The parametric tool used to size the current concept, Envision, accounts for primary and secondary mass requirements. For example, adding an astronaut increases the mass requirements for suits, water, food, oxygen, as well as, the increase in volume. The environmental control sub-systems becomes heavier with the increased requirements and more structure was needed to support the additional mass. There was also an increase in propellant usage. For comparison, an "Apollo-like" vehicle was created by removing these additional requirements. Utilizing the Envision parametric mass calculation tool and a quantitative reliability estimation tool designed by Valador Inc., it was determined that with today?s current technology a Lunar Module (LM) with Apollo capability could be built with less mass and similar reliability. The reliability of this new lander was compared to Apollo Lunar Module utilizing the same methodology, adjusting for mission timeline changes as well as component differences. Interestingly, the parametric concept's overall estimated risk for loss of mission (LOM) and loss of crew (LOC) did not significantly improve when compared to Apollo.

Young, C.; Bowie, J.; Rust, R.; Lenius, J.; Anderson, M.; Connolly, J.

2011-01-01

330

Workshop on New Views of the Moon: Integrated Remotely Sensed, Geophysical, and Sample Datasets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It has been more than 25 years since Apollo 17 returned the last of the Apollo lunar samples. Since then, a vast amount of data has been obtained from the study of rocks and soils from the Apollo and Luna sample collections and, more recently, on a set of about a dozen lunar meteorites collected on Earth. Based on direct studies of the samples, many constraints have been established for the age, early differentiation, crust and mantle structure, and subsequent impact modification of the Moon. In addition, geophysical experiments at the surface, as well as remote sensing from orbit and Earth-based telescopic studies, have provided additional datasets about the Moon that constrain the nature of its surface and internal structure. Some might be tempted to say that we know all there is to know about the Moon and that it is time to move on from this simple satellite to more complex objects. However, the ongoing Lunar Prospector mission and the highly successful Clementine mission have provided important clues to the real geological complexity of the Moon, and have shown us that we still do not yet adequately understand the geologic history of Earth's companion. These missions, like Galileo during its lunar flyby, are providing global information viewed through new kinds of windows, and providing a fresh context for models of lunar origin, evolution, and resources, and perhaps even some grist for new questions and new hypotheses. The probable detection and characterization of water ice at the poles, the extreme concentration of Th and other radioactive elements in the Procellarum-Imbrium-Frigon's resurfaced areas of the nearside of the Moon, and the high-resolution gravity modeling enabled by these missions are examples of the kinds of exciting new results that must be integrated with the extant body of knowledge based on sample studies, in situ experiments, and remote-sensing missions to bring about the best possible understanding of the Moon and its history.

Jolliff, Brad L. (Editor); Ryder, Graham (Editor)

1998-01-01

331

Apollo Project - LOLA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Test subject sitting at the controls: Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) From Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966. 'A typical mission would start with the first cart positioned on model 1 for the translunar approach and orbit establishment. After starting the descent, the second cart is readied on model 2 and, at the proper time, when superposition occurs, the pilot's scene is switched from model 1 to model 2. then cart 1 is moved to and readied on model 3. The procedure continues until an altitude of 150 feet is obtained. The cabin of the LM vehicle has four windows which represent a 45 degree field of view. The projection screens in front of each window represent 65 degrees which allows limited head motion before the edges of the display can be seen. The lunar scene is presented to the pilot by rear projection on the screens with four Schmidt television projectors. The attitude orientation of the vehicle is represented by changing the lunar scene through the portholes determined by the scan pattern of four orthicons. The stars are front projected onto the upper three screens with a four-axis starfield generation (starball) mounted over the cabin and there is a separate starball for the low window. Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution: NASA Langley Research Center From Sputnik to Apollo, (Washington: NASA, 1995), p. 379.

1970-01-01

332

Geochemical Exploration of the Moon.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides information based on explorations of the Apollo program about the geochemistry of the moon and its importance in developing an understanding of formation/evolution of the solar system. Includes description and some results of orbital remote sensing, lunar x-ray experiments, gamma-ray experiments, alpha-particle experiments, and the Apollo

Adler, Isidore

1984-01-01

333

Apollo Project - Lunar Orbiter  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Lunar Orbiter press conference at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A mockup of the solar-powered spacecraft (called the 'Two-Eyed Robot') is shown on the right. It was built by Boeing for the NASA Langley Research Center. From Edgar M. Cortright, 'Scouting the Moon' in Apollo Expeditions to the Moon: 'It was in its photo system that Orbiter was most unconventional. Other spacecraft took TV images and sent them back to Earth as electrical signals. Orbiter took photographs, developed them on board, and then scanned them with a special photoelectric system--a method that, for all its complications and limitations, could produce images of exceptional quality. One Orbiter camera could resolve details as small as 3 feet from an altitude of 30 nautical miles. A sample complication exacted by this performance: because slow film had to be used (because of risk of radiation fogging), slow shutter speeds were also needed. This meant that, to prevent blurring from spacecraft motion, a velocity-height sensor had to insure that the film was moved a tiny, precise, and compensatory amount during the instant of exposure.' Published in Edgar M. Cortright, 'Scouting the Moon, ' in Apollo Expeditions to the Moon, ed. Edgar M. Cortright, (Washington: NASA SP-350, 1975), p. 93.

1966-01-01

334

Habitability of the giant icy moons: current knowledge and future insights from the JUICE mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large satellites of gas giants, at orbits beyond the snow-line, such as Jupiter or Saturn, can contain a large amount of water (almost 45% in mass). Hydrospheres are extremely thick, ~600 km for Ganymede and Callisto, and may possess liquid layers below the icy crust. Thus, the Galilean satellites provide a conceptual basis within which new theories for understanding habitability can be constructed. Measurements from the Voyager and Galileo spacecraft revealed the potential of these satellites in this context. The JUpiter Icy moons Explorer (JUICE) will greatly enhance our understanding of their potential habitability. It is known, even at Earth where life mostly depends on solar energy, that habitats exist deep in the oceans in eternal darkness feeding on chemical energy. Aqueous layers are suspected below the icy crusts of the moons, which possess similar physical characteristics than Earth's deep oceans. Since they are certainly very stable through time, and because complex chemistry and energy sources may be available, life may have originated within such subsurface habitats despite the hostile surface conditions. Liquid water reservoirs have been proposed on Ganymede, Europa and Callisto from geophysical models, based on Galileo observations. These oceans that are covered by ice shells exist independently of the input of stellar energy, and are located well outside the conventional habitable zone of the Sun. Considering the pressure range encountered within the icy moons, four different scenarios can be defined. These result from varying thicknesses of the water ice layers and the liquid ocean with respect to the silicate floor (Figure 1). Case 2 in Figure 1 is highly probable for the largest moons (Ganymede and Callisto), while case 3 is more probable for Europa and smaller icy moons if they host liquid reservoirs such as has been discovered at Enceladus. Europa's ocean is unique because it may be in contact with the rock layer. This substrate may be geologically active and affected by hydrothermal processes, similar to the terrestrial sea floor. This may enhance habitability conditions since the rock layer could release chemical elements and energy to the surrounding water ocean. Differentiation of the rock could be responsible for the presence of salts and other essential elements in the ocean, and produce the low albedo terrains seen on the surface. An estimation of the minimal thickness of the icy crust over the most active regions of Europa is among the measurement goals of JUICE and this will provide important constraints on the subsurface structure of the moon. On the larger icy moons, Ganymede and Callisto, where internal pressures are sufficient to allow for the formation of high pressure ice phases, the existence of an ocean suggests that it should be enclosed between thick ice layers. Chemical and energy exchanges between the rocky layer and the ocean, which are so important for habitability, cannot be ruled out but would imply efficient transport processes through the thick high pressure icy layer. Such processes are indeed possible but not as clearcut as the exchanges that can be envisaged for Europa. Icy and liquid layers are probably not solely constituted of pure H2O. Many other compounds such as salts, or CO2 have been observed on the surfaces and may emerge from the deep interiors of the moons. Volatiles, organics and minerals solidified from the aqueous cryo-magmas, could be detected remotely from an orbiting spacecraft. Analysis of these materials will give great insight to the physico-chemistry and composition of the deep environments. But such organic matter and other surface compounds will experience a different radiation environment at Europa than at Ganymede (due to the difference in radial distance from Jupiter) and thus may suffer different alteration processes, influencing their detection on the surface. Measurements from terrains on both Europa and Ganymede will allow a comparison of different radiation doses and terrain ages from similar materials. JUICE will address key areas that eme

Grasset, O.; Prieto-Ballesteros, O.; Titov, D.; Erd, C.; Bunce, E.; Coustenis, A.; Blanc, M.; Coates, A.; Fletcher, L.; van Hoolst, T.; Hussmann, H.; Jaumann, R.; Krupp, N.; Tortora, P.; Tosi, F.; Wielders, A.

2012-09-01

335

The case for planetary sample return missions - Origin and evolution of the moon and its environment  

SciTech Connect

The most important questions concerning the origin and evolution of the moon and its environment are reviewed, and the ways that studying lunar samples could help answer them, are discussed. Recommendations are made about methods for obtaining samples and the best lunar sites for obtaining them using simple, unmanned sample returners. Lunar geologic field sites that require intensive field work with human interaction are also considered. 16 refs.

Ryder, G.; Spudis, P.D.; Taylor, G.J. (Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX (USA) USGS, Flagstaff, AZ (USA) New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque (USA))

1989-11-01

336

NSSDC Photo Gallery Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This NASA photo archive contains images of the moon from different spacecraft missions, including Clementine, Galileo, and the Hubble. The page also links to information about each craft and the moon.

2010-04-16

337

Apollo gastrointestinal analysis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fecal bile acid patterns for the Apollo 17 flight were studied to determine the cause of diarrhea on the mission. The fecal sterol analysis gave no indication of an infectious diarrhea, or specific, or nonspecific etiology occurring during the entire flight. It is assumed that the gastrointestinal problems encountered are the consequences of altered physiology, perhaps secondary to physical or emotional stress of flight.

Nichols, B. L.; Huang, C. T. L.

1975-01-01

338

Launching to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

America is returning to the Moon in preparation for the first human footprint on Mars, guided by the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration. This presentation will discuss NASA's mission today, the reasons for returning to the Moon and going to Mars, and how NASA will accomplish that mission. The primary goals of the Vision for Space Exploration are to finish the International Space Station, retire the Space Shuttle, and build the new spacecraft needed to return people to the Moon and go to Mars. Unlike the Apollo program of the 1960s, this phase of exploration will be a journey, not a race. In 1966, the NASA's budget was 4 percent of federal spending. Today, with 6/10 of 1 percent of the budget, NASA must incrementally develop the vehicles, infrastructure, technology, and organization to accomplish this goal. Fortunately, our knowledge and experience are greater than they were 40 years ago. NASA's goal is a return to the Moon by 2020. The Moon is the first step to America's exploration of Mars. Many questions about the Moon's history and how its history is linked to that of Earth remain even after the brief Apollo explorations of the 1960s and 1970s. This new venture will carry more explorers to more diverse landing sites with more capable tools and equipment. The Moon also will serve as a training ground in several respects before embarking on the longer, more perilous trip to Mars. The journeys to the Moon and Mars will require a variety of vehicles, including the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle, the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle, the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, and the Lunar Surface Access Module. The architecture for the lunar missions will use one launch to ferry the crew into orbit on the Ares I and a second launch to orbit the lunar lander and the Earth Departure Stage to send the lander and crew vehicle to the Moon. In order to reach the Moon and Mars within a lifetime and within budget, NASA is building on proven hardware and decades of experience derived from the Apollo Saturn, Space Shuttle, and contemporary commercial launch vehicle programs. Less than one year after the Exploration Launch Projects Office was formed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, engineers are testing engine components, firing test rocket motors, refining vehicle designs in wind tunnel tests, and building hardware for the first flight test of Ares I, scheduled for spring 2009. The Vision for Exploration will require this nation to develop tools, machines, materials, and processes never before invented, technologies and capabilities that can be turned over to the private sector to benefit nearly all aspects of life on Earth. This new pioneering venture, as did the Apollo Program before it, will contribute to America's economic leadership, national security, and technological global competitiveness and serve as an inspiration for all its citizens.

Sumrall, John P.

2007-01-01

339

General Human Health Issues For Moon And Mars Missions: Results From The HUMEX Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human exploratory missions, such as the establishment of a permanently inhabited lunar base and\\/or human visits to Mars will add a new dimension to human space flight, concerning the distance of travel, the radiation environment, the gravity lev-els, the duration of the mission, and the level of confinement and isolation the crew will be exposed to. This will raise the

G. Horneck; B. Comet

2004-01-01

340

Apollo 11 Astronaut Collins Arrives at the Flight Crew Training Building  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this photograph, Apollo 11 astronaut Michael Collins carries his coffee with him as he arrives at the flight crew training building of the NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida, one week before the nation's first lunar landing mission. The Apollo 11 mission launched from KSC via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1968-01-01

341

Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Addressed by U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) for 21 days. Here, U.S. President Richard Milhous Nixon gets a good laugh at something being said by Astronaut Collins (center) as astronauts Armstrong (left), and Aldrin (right) listen. The president was aboard the recovery vessel awaiting return of the astronauts. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

342

Restoration of APOLLO Data by the NSSDC and PDS Lunar Data Node  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Packages (ALSEPs), suites of instruments deployed by the Apollo 12. 14, 15, 16 and 17 astronauts on the lunar surface, still represent the only in-situ measurements of the Moon's environment taken over long time periods, Much of these data are housed at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) at Goddard Space Flight Center but are in forms that are not readily usable, such as microfilm, hardcopy, and magnetic tapes with older, obsolete formats. The Lunar Data Node (LDN) has been formed under the auspices of the Planetary Data System (PDS) Geosciences Node to put relevant, scientifically important Apollo data into accessible digital form for use by researchers and mission planners. The LDN has prioritized the restoration of these data based on their scientific and engineering value and the level of effort required. We will report on progress made and plans for future data restorations.

Williams, David R.; Hills, H. Kent; Guinness, Edward A.; Taylor, Patrick T.; McBride, Marie J.

2012-01-01

343

Apollo particles and fields subsatellite magnetometer experiment. [with Apollo 15 subsatellite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The results of the Apollo 15 subsatellite magnetometer experiment are reported. The magnetometer is described including the operation, and specifications. Orbit plots presented are altitude versus time, selenographic longitude versus latitude, and the ecliptic projection of the earth-moon system. The lunar magnetic field, solar wind interaction with the moon, the transfer function of the moon, and the plasma sheet interaction with the moon are discussed.

Coleman, P. J., Jr.; Russell, C. T.; Schubert, G.

1974-01-01

344

General human health issues for Moon and Mars missions: Results from the HUMEX study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The general health issues considered in two scenarios of human long-term exploratory missions, which include a mission to a lunar base and a mission to Mars, have been analysed. Based on statistical data from occupational and normal population groups of Western countries, the following safety objectives have been chosen: individual risk of death by illness (=natural death) during the mission shall be <2 × 10-3/year, that by injury (=accidental death) <4 × 10-4/year, and that from all causes, including spacecraft failure (taken from most exposed professions) <3 × 10-2/year. Using the classical reliability requirements for human space missions, reliability objectives have been set for each mission scenario, resulting in values compatible with the mission safety objectives. The main results are as follows: (i) based of the probability of occurrence of diseases and injuries and on the constraints imposed by exploratory mission scenarios, the crew shall have a full autonomy in terms of medical and surgical diagnostics and care means and competency; (ii) the control of the toxic and biological risks in a confined environment for a so long exposure shall be carefully analyzed and the technical solutions shall master these risks; (iii) the state of the art shows that bone loss during the long stay in weightlessness, especially during missions to Mars, remains an unacceptable risk. Solutions to control and to prevent this risk shall be developed; (iv) the control of human physical capacity impairment under weightlessness shall be optimised. A roadmap in the field of health care has been elaborated for a future European participation strategy towards human exploratory missions taking into account preparatory activities, such as analogue situations and ISS opportunities, and potential terrestrial applications and benefits.

Horneck, Gerda; Comet, Bernard

345

Apollo Project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Artists used paintbrushes and airbrushes to recreate the lunar surface on each of the four models comprising the LOLA simulator. Project LOLA or Lunar Orbit and Landing Approach was a simulator built at Langley to study problems related to landing on the lunar surface. It was a complex project that cost nearly $2 million dollars. James Hansen wrote: 'This simulator was designed to provide a pilot with a detailed visual encounter with the lunar surface; the machine consisted primarily of a cockpit, a closed-circuit TV system, and four large murals or scale models representing portions of the lunar surface as seen from various altitudes. The pilot in the cockpit moved along a track past these murals which would accustom him to the visual cues for controlling a spacecraft in the vicinity of the moon. Unfortunately, such a simulation--although great fun and quite aesthetic--was not helpful because flight in lunar orbit posed no special problems other than the rendezvous with the LEM, which the device did not simulate. Not long after the end of Apollo, the expensive machine was dismantled.' (p. 379) Ellis J. White further described LOLA in his paper 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' 'Model 1 is a 20-foot-diameter sphere mounted on a rotating base and is scaled 1 in. = 9 miles. Models 2,3, and 4 are approximately 15x40 feet scaled sections of model 1. Model 4 is a scaled-up section of the Crater Alphonsus and the scale is 1 in. = 200 feet. All models are in full relief except the sphere.' Published in James R. Hansen, Spaceflight Revolution, NASA SP-4308, p. 379; Ellis J. White, 'Discussion of Three Typical Langley Research Center Simulation Programs,' Paper presented at the Eastern Simulation Council (EAI's Princeton Computation Center), Princeton, NJ, October 20, 1966.

1964-01-01

346

The Apollo lunar sounder radar system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objectives of the Apollo 17 Lunar Sounder Experiment (ALSE) were to detect subsurface geologic structures, to generate a continuous lunar profile, and to image the moon a radar wavelengths. The first objective is generally impossible on Earth, but is possible on the moon because of the very low EM attenuation found in lunar rocks. A three-wavelength synthetic-aperture radar (SAR)

LEONARD J. PORCELLO; R. L. Jordan; JERRY S. ZELENKA; GARY F. ADAMS; ROGER J. PHILLIPS; WALTER E. BROWN; S. H. Ward; P. L. Jackson

1974-01-01

347

Remote sensing and photogrammetric studies: Part B: calibration of radar data from apollo 17 and other mission results  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A large quantity of data on backscattered polarized and depolarized radar echoes from the Moon has been collected from Earth at 3.8-cm wavelength (ref. 33-23). Depolarized echoes are particularly interesting because theory indicates that relatively strong depolarized echoes can be caused by the following factors.

Moore, H. J.; Zisk, S. H.

1973-01-01

348

First-order feasibility analysis of a space suit radiator concept based on estimation of water mass sublimation using Apollo mission data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal control of a space suit during extravehicular activity (EVA) is typically accomplished by sublimating water to provide system cooling. Spacecraft, on the other hand, primarily rely on radiators to dissipate heat. Integrating a radiator into a space suit has been proposed as an alternative design that does not require mass consumption for heat transfer. While providing cooling without water loss offers potential benefits for EVA application, it is not currently practical to rely on a directional, fixed-emissivity radiator to maintain thermal equilibrium of a spacesuit where the radiator orientation, environmental temperature, and crew member metabolic heat load fluctuate unpredictably. One approach that might make this feasible, however, is the use of electrochromic devices that are capable of infrared emissivity modulation and can be actively controlled across the entire suit surface to regulate net heat flux for the system. Integrating these devices onto the irregular, compliant space suit material requires that they be fabricated on a flexible substrate, such as Kapton film. An initial assessment of whether or not this candidate technology presents a feasible design option was conducted by first characterizing the mass of water loss from sublimation that could theoretically be saved if an electrochromic suit radiator was employed for thermal control. This is particularly important for lunar surface exploration, where the expense of transporting water from Earth is excessive, but the technology is potentially beneficial for other space missions as well. In order to define a baseline for this analysis by comparison to actual data, historical documents from the Apollo missions were mined for comprehensive, detailed metabolic data from each lunar surface outing, and related data from NASA's more recent "Advanced Lunar Walkback" tests were also analyzed. This metabolic database was then used to validate estimates for sublimator water consumption during surface EVAs, and solar elevation angles were added to predict the performance of an electrochromic space suit radiator under Apollo conditions. Then, using these actual data sets, the hypothetical water mass savings that would be expected had this technology been employed were calculated. The results indicate that electrochromic suit radiators would have reduced sublimator water consumption by 69.0% across the entire Apollo program, for a total mass savings of 68.5 kg to the lunar surface. Further analysis is needed to determine the net impact as a function of the complete system, taking into account both suit components and consumable mass, but the water mass reduction found in this study suggests a favorable system trade is likely.

Metts, Jonathan G.; Klaus, David M.

2012-01-01

349

Heterogeneous distribution of water in the Moon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Initial analyses of lunar samples returned by the Apollo missions indicated that the Moon was essentially devoid of water. However, improved analytical techniques have revealed that pyroclastic glass beads in Apollo samples contain measurable amounts of water. Taking into account volatile loss during eruption of the glass beads onto the surface, the pre-eruption magma could have contained water on the order of 100 ppm by weight, concentrations that are similar to the mantle sources of mid-ocean ridge basalts on Earth. Lava flows from vast basaltic plains -- the lunar maria -- also contain appreciable amounts of water, as shown by analyses of apatite in mare basalt samples. In contrast, apatite in most non-mare rocks contains much less water than the mare basalts and glass beads. The hydrogen isotopic composition of lunar samples is relatively similar to that of the Earth's interior, but the deuterium to hydrogen ratios obtained from lunar samples seem to have a larger range than found in Earth's mantle. Thus, measurements of water concentration and hydrogen isotopic composition suggest that water is heterogeneously distributed in the Moon and varies in isotopic composition. The variability in the Moon's water may reflect heterogeneity in accretion processes, redistribution during differentiation or later additions by volatile-rich impactors.

Robinson, Katharine L.; Taylor, G. Jeffrey

2014-06-01

350

Apollo 14 food system.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The program for improving foods for use during space flights consists of introducing new foods and food-handling techniques on each successive manned space flight. Because of this continuing improvement program, the Apollo 14 food system was the most advanced and sophisticated food system to be used in the U.S. space program. The food system used during the Apollo 14 mission and recent space-food-system advances are described and discussed in regard to their usefulness for future manned space flights.

Smith, M. C., Jr.; Huber, C. S.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.

1971-01-01

351

Gravity field of the Moon from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission.  

PubMed

Spacecraft-to-spacecraft tracking observations from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) have been used to construct a gravitational field of the Moon to spherical harmonic degree and order 420. The GRAIL field reveals features not previously resolved, including tectonic structures, volcanic landforms, basin rings, crater central peaks, and numerous simple craters. From degrees 80 through 300, over 98% of the gravitational signature is associated with topography, a result that reflects the preservation of crater relief in highly fractured crust. The remaining 2% represents fine details of subsurface structure not previously resolved. GRAIL elucidates the role of impact bombardment in homogenizing the distribution of shallow density anomalies on terrestrial planetary bodies. PMID:23223395

Zuber, Maria T; Smith, David E; Watkins, Michael M; Asmar, Sami W; Konopliv, Alexander S; Lemoine, Frank G; Melosh, H Jay; Neumann, Gregory A; Phillips, Roger J; Solomon, Sean C; Wieczorek, Mark A; Williams, James G; Goossens, Sander J; Kruizinga, Gerhard; Mazarico, Erwan; Park, Ryan S; Yuan, Dah-Ning

2013-02-01

352

Exploring the Moon Educator Guide  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This educator's guide with activities promotes problem solving, communication skills and teamwork. Topics include lunar geology and regolith, distance to the moon, Apollo landing sites, and life support systems. Some of the activities involve the Lunar Sample Disk, a set of samples of lunar rocks and regolith embedded in a 15-cm diameter plastic disk. Disks are sent via registered mail to educators for one- to two-week loan periods. The package also includes the book 'Exploring the Moon', an annotated slide set of lunar images, and a collection of color photographs and descriptions of the six samples. The activities are divided into three units: Pre-Apollo, Learning from Apollo, and the Future. These correspond roughly to exercises that can be done before the Lunar Sample Disk arrives (Pre-Apollo), while it is there (Learning from Apollo), and after it has been returned (The Future).

353

COMPASS Final Report: Saturn Moons Orbiter Using Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP): Flagship Class Mission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The COllaborative Modeling and Parametric Assessment of Space Systems (COMPASS) team was approached by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) In-Space Project to perform a design session to develop Radioisotope Electric Propulsion (REP) Spacecraft Conceptual Designs (with cost, risk, and reliability) for missions of three different classes: New Frontier s Class Centaur Orbiter (with Trojan flyby), Flagship, and Discovery. The designs will allow trading of current and future propulsion systems. The results will directly support technology development decisions. The results of the Flagship mission design are reported in this document

Oleson, Steven R.; McGuire, Melissa L.

2011-01-01

354

Food and Nutrition for the Moon Base: What we have Learned in 45 Years of Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The United States has a new human space flight mission to return to the Moon, this time to establish an outpost to continue research there and develop our ability to send humans to Mars and bring them back in good health. The Apollo missions were the first human expeditions to the Moon. Only 2 crew members landed on the lunar surface on each Apollo mission, and they spent a maximum of 72 hours there. Future trips will have at least 4 crew members, and the initial trips will include several days of surface activity. Eventually, these short (sortie) missions will extend to longer lunar surface times, on the order of weeks. Thus, the challenges of meeting the food and nutritional needs of crew members at a lunar outpost will be significantly different from those during the early Apollo missions. The U.S. has had humans in space beginning in 1961 with increasing lengths of time in space flight. Throughout these flights, the areas of particular concern for nutrition are body mass, bone health, and radiation protection. The development and refinement of the food systems over the last 30 years are discussed, as well as the plans for both the sortie and lunar. The articles briefly review what we know today about food and nutrition for space travelers and relate this knowledge to our planned human flights back to the Moon.

Lane, Helen; Kloeris, Vickie; Perchonok, Michele; Zwart, Sara; Smith, Scott M.

2006-01-01

355

Apollo 13 creativity: in-the-box innovation.  

PubMed

A study of the Apollo 13 mission, based on the themes showcased in the acclaimed 1995 film, reveals the grace under pressure that is the condition of optimal creativity. "Apollo 13 Creativity" is a cultural and creative problem-solving appreciation of the thinking style that made the Apollo mission succeed: creativity under severe limitations. Although creativity is often considered a "luxury good," of concern mainly for personal enrichment, the arts, and performance improvement, in life-or-death situations it is the critical pathway not only to success but to survival. In this case. the original plan for a moon landing had to be transformed within a matter of hours into a return to earth. By precluding failure as an option at the outset, both space and ground crews were forced to adopt a new perspective on their resources and options to solve for a successful landing. This now-classic problem provides a range of principles for creative practice and motivation applicable in any situation. The extreme situation makes these points dramatically. PMID:11541760

King, M J

1997-01-01

356

Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronaut Aldrin Speaks With Wife Joan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home until they reached the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Houston, Texas. On arrival at Ellington Air Force base near the MSC, the crew, still under a 21 day quarantine in the MQF, were greeted by their wives. Pictured here is Joan Aldrin, wife of Buzz Aldrin, speaking with her husband via telephone patch.

1969-01-01

357

Local Gravity Field Determination On The Moon Using GRAIL Extended Mission Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) spacecraft were launched on September 10, 2011, and conducted their primary mapping mission from March 1 until May 29, 2012 at an average altitude of 50 km. GRAIL's extended mission commenced on August 30 and was completed on December 14, 2012. The average altitude during the extended mission was 23 km above lunar surface. Both primary and extended mission data have been processed at NASA/GSFC using the GEODYN software, resulting in high-resolution (degree and order 900 in spherical harmonics) gravity field models of high accuracy. However, especially during low-altitude passes, Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data residuals are still well above noise level. Here, we focus on methods to determine local gravity adjustments from KBRR data. We represent gravity in the area of interest as gravity anomaly adjustments with respect to the background spherical harmonics model. We use KBRR data only over the area of interest, and we then perform short-arc orbit determination. Our areas of focus are mainly the Mare Orientale area, where GRAIL achieved its lowest altitude above the lunar surface towards the end of the mission, and the south pole area, where naturally there is a confluence of orbit tracks. We investigate different grids and different smoothing constraints used in the estimation of the anomalies, numerical differentiation with respect to time of the KBRR data to localize its sensitivity further, and we evaluate the solutions in terms of Bouguer anomaly signatures, KBRR data fit, and correlations with local topography.

Goossens, S. J.; Lemoine, F. G.; Sabaka, T. J.; Nicholas, J. B.; Mazarico, E.; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

2013-12-01

358

General Human Health Issues For Moon And Mars Missions: Results From The HUMEX Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Human exploratory missions, such as the establishment of a permanently inhabited lunar base and/or human visits to Mars will add a new dimension to human space flight, concerning the distance of travel, the radiation environment, the gravity lev-els, the duration of the mission, and the level of confinement and isolation the crew will be exposed to. This will raise the significance of several health issues. Besides spaceflight specific risks, such as radiation health, gravity related effects and psy-chological issues, general health issues need to be considered. These individual risks of illness, injury or death are based on general human health statistics. The duration of the mission is the main factor in these considerations. These risk estimations are the base which have to supplemented by the risks related specifically to the nature of the expedition under consideration. Crew health and performance have to be secured during transfer flights, during lunar or Mars surface exploration, including EVAs, and upon return to Earth, as defined within the constraints of safety objectives and mass restrictions of the mission. Within the ESA Study on the Survivability and Adaptation of Humans to Long-Duration Interplanetary and Planetary Environments (so called HUMEX study), we have critically assessed the human responses, limits and needs with regard to the environments of interplanetary and planetary missions. Based on various scenarios, the crew health risks have been evaluated. The main results are as follows: (i) The state of the art shows that bone loss during the long stay in weightlessness, especially during missions to Mars, remains an unacceptable risk. Solutions to control and to prevent this risk shall be developed. (ii) The control of human physical capacity impairment under weightlessness shall be optimized. (iii) Based of the probability of occurrence of diseases and injuries and on the con-straints imposed by exploratory mission scenarios, the crew shall have a full auton-omy in terms of medical and surgical diagnostics and care means and competency. (iv) The control of the toxic and biological risks in a confined environment for a so long exposure shall be carefully analyzed and the technical solutions shall master these risks. A roadmap in the field of health care has been elaborated for a future European participation strategy towards human exploratory missions taking into account preparatory activities, such as analogue situations and ISS opportunities, European positioning and potential terrestrial applications and benefits. References: Horneck G. , R. Facius, M. Reichert, P. Rettberg, W. Seboldt, D. Man-zey, B. Comet, A. Maillet, H. Preiss, L. Schauer, C.G. Dussap, L. Poughon, A. Belyavin, G. Reitz, C. Baumstark-Khan, R. Gerzer (2003) HUMEX, a Study on the Survivability and Adaptation of Humans to Long-Duration Exploratory Missions, ESA SP-1264

Horneck, G.; Comet, B.

359

Earth to Moon Transfer: Direct vs Via Libration Points (L1, L2)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For some three decades, the Apollo-style mission has served as a proven baseline technique for transporting flight crews to the Moon and back with expendable hardware. This approach provides an optimal design for expeditionary missions, emphasizing operational flexibility in terms of safely returning the crew in the event of a hardware failure. However, its application is limited essentially to low-latitude lunar sites, and it leaves much to be desired as a model for exploratory and evolutionary programs that employ reusable space-based hardware. This study compares the performance requirements for a lunar orbit rendezvous mission type with one using the cislunar libration point (L1) as a stopover and staging point for access to arbitrary sites on the lunar surface. For selected constraints and mission objectives, it contrasts the relative uniformity of performance cost when the L1 staging point is used with the wide variation of cost for the Apollo-style lunar orbit rendezvous.

Condon, Gerald L.; Wilson, Samuel W.

2004-01-01

360

Complex Indigenous Organic Matter Embedded in Apollo 17 Volcanic Black Glass Surface Deposits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Papers presented at the first Lunar Science Conference [1] and those published in the subsequent Science Moon Issue [2] reported the C content of Apollo II soils, breccias, and igneous rocks as rang-ing from approx.50 to 250 parts per million (ppm). Later Fegley & Swindle [3] summarized the C content of bulk soils from all the Apollo missions as ranging from 2.5 (Apollo 15) to 280 ppm (Apollo 16) with an overall average of 124+/- 45 ppm. These values are unexpectedly low given that multiple processes should have contributed (and in some cases continue to contribute) to the lunar C inventory. These include exogenous accretion of cometary and asteroidal dust, solar wind implantation, and synthesis of C-bearing species during early lunar volcanism. We estimate the contribution of C from exogenous sources alone is approx.500 ppm, which is approx.4x greater than the reported average. While the assessm ent of indigenous organic matter (OM) in returned lunar samples was one of the primary scientific goals of the Apollo program, extensive analysis of Apollo samples yielded no evidence of any significant indigenous organic species. Furthermore, with such low concentrations of OM reported, the importance of discriminating indigenous OM from terrestrial contamination (e.g., lunar module exhaust, sample processing and handling) became a formidable task. After more than 40 years, with the exception of CH4 [5-7], the presence of indigenous lunar organics still remains a subject of considerable debate. We report for the first time the identification of arguably indigenous OM present within surface deposits of black glass grains collected on the rim of Shorty crater during the Apollo 17 mission by astronauts Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt.

Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, S. J.; Ross, D. K.; Le, L.; Rahman, Z.; Gonzalez, C.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.

2013-01-01

361

The Chemist's Moon  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes chemical information about the lunar surface on the basis of experiments performed in orbit and analyses of lunar soil and rocks. Indicates that the Apollo program completes chemical mapping of about 20 percent of the Moon with 80 percent remaining to be solved in the future. (CC)

Arnold, James R.

1973-01-01

362

Exploring the Moon  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This teacher's guide provides background information about the moon, its geological history, and progress in lunar science from before, during, and after the Apollo program. A set of activities is provided to demonstrate such concepts as scale models, proportional relationships, rock and mineral identification, and lunar geography.

363

Comparison of the chemistry of moon and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical composition of the moon, derived from the study of lunar samples from various Apollo missions, is compared to that of Mars, derived from data of the Viking X-ray fluorescence experiments and from the compositions of SNC meteorites, which are now assumed to have originated from Mars's mantle. Results show that the chemical composition of Mars differs considerably from that of earth and moon. Compared with earth, the moon is depleted in volatile and moderately volatile elements, but, relative to C1-abundances, the lunar mantle shows the same depletion of Cr and Mn as does the earth's mantle. On the other hand, these elements are not depleted in the Martian mantle and the silicate phase of eucrite parent body.

Dreibus, G.; Wanke, H.

364

Neil Armstrong chats with attendees at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Former Apollo 11 astronaut Neil A. Armstrong is the center of attention at the anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon. He appeared at the banquet with other former astronauts Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Gene Cernan, Walt Cunningham and others.

1999-01-01

365

Apollo 13 Launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The third marned lunar landing mission, Apollo 13 (SA-508), with three astronauts: Mission commander James A. Lovell Jr., Lunar Module pilot Fred W. Haise Jr., and Command Module pilot John L. Swigert Jr., lifted off from the Kennedy Space Center launch complex 39A on April 11, 1970. The mission was aborted after 56 hours of flight, 205,000 miles from Earth, when an oxygen tank in the service module exploded. The Command Module, Odyssey, carrying the three astronauts, safely splashed down in the Pacific Ocean at 1:08 p.m. EST, April 17, 1970.

1970-01-01

366

Low energy neutral atom imaging on the Moon with the SARA instrument aboard Chandrayaan-1 mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA) experiment that will be flown on the first Indian lunar\\u000a mission Chandrayaan-1. The SARA is a low energy neutral atom (LENA) imaging mass spectrometer, which will perform remote sensing\\u000a of the lunar surface via detection of neutral atoms in the energy range from 10 eV to 3 keV from a

Anil Bhardwaj; Stas Barabash; Yoshifumi Futaana; Yoichi Kazama; Kazushi Asamura; David McCann; R. Sridharan; Mats Holmstrom; Peter Wurz; Rickard Lundin

2005-01-01

367

NASA Exploration Launch Projects Systems Engineering Approach for Astronaut Missions to the Moon, Mars, and Beyond  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The U.S. Vision for Space Exploration directs NASA to design and develop a new generation of safe, reliable, and cost-effective transportation systems to hlfill the Nation s strategic goals and objectives. These launch vehicles will provide the capability for astronauts to conduct scientific exploration that yields new knowledge from the unique vantage point of space. American leadership in opening new fi-ontiers will improve the quality of life on Earth for generations to come. The Exploration Launch Projects office is responsible for delivering the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) that will loft the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) into low-Earth orbit (LEO) early next decade, and for the heavy lift Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) that will deliver the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) to LEO for astronaut return trips to the Moon by 2020 in preparation for the eventual first human footprint on Mars. Crew travel to the International Space Station will be made available as soon possible after the Space Shuttle retires in 2010.

Cook, Stephen A.; Dumbacher, Daniel L.

2006-01-01

368

What happened to the moon? A lunar history mission using neutrons  

SciTech Connect

The ages of lunar rocks can be determined using the {sup 40}Ar -{sup 39}Ar technique that can be used in-situ on the moon if a neutron source, a noble gas mass spectrometer and a gas extraction and purification system are brought to the lunar surface. A possible instrument for such a task is ISAGE, which combines a strong {sup 252}Cf neutron source and a compact spectrometer for in-situ dating of e.g. the South Pole Aitken impact basin or the potentially very young basalts south of the Aristachus Plateau. In this paper, the design of the neutron source will be discussed. The source is assumed to be a hollow sphere surrounded by a reflector, a geometry that provides a very homogeneous flux at the irradiation position inside the sphere. The optimal source geometry depending on the experimental conditions, the costs of transportation for the reflector and the costs of the source itself are calculated. A minimum {sup 252}Cf mass of 1.5 mg is determined. (authors)

Breitkreutz, H.; Li, X. [Forschungs-Neutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz, FRM II, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Burfeindt, J.; Bernhardt, H. G.; Hoffmann, P. [Kayser-Threde GmbH, Wolfratshauser Str. 48, D-81379 Muenchen (Germany); Trieloff, M.; Schwarz, W. H.; Hopp, J. [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Jessberger, E. K.; Hiesinger, H. [Institut fuer Planetologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, D-48149 Muenster (Germany)

2011-07-01

369

Wernher von Braun Takes a Close Look at Apollo 15 Launch  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During the Apollo 15 launch activities in the launch control center's firing room 1 at Kennedy Space Center, Dr. Wernher von Braun, NASA's Deputy Associate Administrator for planning, takes a closer look at the launch pad through binoculars. The fifth manned lunar landing mission, Apollo 15 (SA-510), carrying a crew of three astronauts: Mission commander David R. Scott, Lunar Module pilot James B. Irwin, and Command Module pilot Alfred M. Worden Jr., lifted off on July 26, 1971. Astronauts Scott and Irwin were the first to use a wheeled surface vehicle, the Lunar Roving Vehicle, or the Rover, which was designed and developed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, and built by the Boeing Company. Astronauts spent 13 days, nearly 67 hours, on the Moon's surface to inspect a wide variety of its geological features.

1971-01-01

370

Apollo 11 Crew Boards U.S.S. Hornet Aircraft Carrier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. Shown here are the three astronauts (L-R) Aldrin, Armstrong, and Collins leaving the recovery helicopter aboard the U.S.S. Hornet after their splashdown in the Pacific Ocean. Wearing biological isolation garments donned before leaving the spacecraft, the three went directly into the Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) on the aircraft carrier. The MQF served as their home for 21 days following the mission. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

1969-01-01

371

Nickel for your thoughts: urey and the origin of the moon.  

PubMed

The theories of Harold C. Urey (1893-1981) on the origin of the moon are discussed in relation to earlier ideas, especially George Howard Darwin's fission hypothesis. Urey's espousal of the idea that the moon had been captured by the earth and has preserved information about the earliest history of the solar system led him to advocate a manned lunar landing. Results from the Apollo missions, in particular the deficiency of siderophile elements in the lunar crust, led him to abandon the capture selenogony and tentatively adopt the fission hypothesis. PMID:17747939

Brush, S G

1982-09-01

372

Science Goals of MAJIS, the Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer, selected for the ESA/JUICE mission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moons And Jupiter Imaging Spectrometer (MAJIS) is the VIS-IR spectral mapper selected for the JUICE (Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer) L-class mission by ESA. Launched in 2022, JUICE will perform 35 targeted flybys of Galilean satellites (Callisto: 20; Ganymede: 13; Europa: 2) from January 2030 to September 2032, then a 9 months orbital phase around Ganymede. This comprehensive tour will make it possible to perform in-depth investigations of the atmosphere of Jupiter (including at high latitudes during a sequence of inclined orbits in mid-tour), Io, small satellites, rings and dust in the Jupiter system. Spectral imaging in the visible and near-IR ranges is a key technique for characterizing the composition of both surfaces and atmospheres. MAJIS will provide spectral imaging observations of the Jupiter system with an unprecedented coverage, spatial resolution (0.125 mrad, e.g. 62.5 m / pixel for Ganymede on a 500 km altitude orbit and 125 km / pixel for Jupiter from the orbit of Ganymede) and spectral resolution (1280 spectral channels from 0.4 µm to 5.7 µm), adressing major science goals of JUICE: - Determination of the icy, mineral and organic composition of the surface of satellites - Relationship between composition and geological processes - Detection of volatiles, relationship with cryovolcanic activity and exobiology - Interaction of surfaces with the environment, characterization of exospheres - Time evolution of hot spots on Io (40 distant encounters, down to 50 km/pixel) - Exospheres of Galilean satellites, relationship with the surface and the environment - Compositional relationship between small satellites and rings - Stratospheric and thermospheric structure of the atmosphere of Jupiter - Composition and general circulation of the atmosphere of Jupiter, clouds, hot spots - Minor constituents (water, hydrocarbon chemistry) - Vertical mixing in the stratosphere of Jupiter - Observations of Auroral emissions During the initial stages of the study phase, specific scenarios are investigated so as to best use spacecraft capabilities for science during critical mission phases such as the 500 km circular orbit arount Ganymede, the Europa flybys and the high inclination orbits. A large mass storage capability is foreseen, which is particularly useful for MAJIS given its large data output during satellite flybys and time evolution sequences for Jupiter. There will be limitations due to downlink, but the present allocation will already make it possible to obtain extensive coverage as well as many opportunities for HR observations by MAJIS.

Langevin, Yves; Piccioni, Giuseppe; Filacchione, Gianrico; Poulet, Francois; Eng, Pascal; Tosi, Federico; Majis Team

2014-05-01

373

Apollo-Soyuz test project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Experiments proposed for the Apollo-Soyuz space mission are discussed. Data focus of space processing and manufacturing, earth surveys, and life sciences. Special efforts were made to test the compatibility of the rendezvous and docking systems for manned spacecraft. Mission planning programs, personnel training, and spacecraft modifications for both spacecraft are included.

1975-01-01

374

Probing gravity with the proposed MAGIA and ILN lunar missions.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MAGIA (Missione Altimetrica Gravimetrica GeochImica Lunare) is a mission approved by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) for Phase A study. Using a single large-diameter laser retroreflector, a large laser retroreflector array and an atomic clock onboard MAGIA, we propose to perform several fundamental physics and absolute positioning metrology experiments: VESPUCCI, an improved test of the gravitational redshift in the Earth-Moon system predicted by General Relativity; MoonLIGHT-P, a precursor test of a second generation Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) payload for precision gravity Network (ILN). Future ILN geodetic nodes equipped with MoonLIGHT and the Apollo/Lunokhod retroreflectors will become the first realization of the International Moon Reference Frame (IMRF), the lunar analog of the ITRF (International Terrestrial Reference Frame).

Garattini, M.; Lops, C.; Dell'Agnello, S.; Boni, A.; Berardi, S.; Cantone, C.; Delle Monache, G. O.; Intaglietta, N.; Maiello, M.; Martini, M.; Patrizi, G.; Porcelli, L.; Tibuzzi, M.; Currie, D. G.; Vittori, R.; Bianco, G.; Murphy, T.; Coradini, A.; Dionisio, C.; March, R.; Bellettini, G.; Tauraso, R.

375

Abort Options for Human Missions to Earth-Moon Halo Orbits  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Abort trajectories are optimized for human halo orbit missions about the translunar libration point (L2), with an emphasis on the use of free return trajectories. Optimal transfers from outbound free returns to L2 halo orbits are numerically optimized in the four-body ephemeris model. Circumlunar free returns are used for direct transfers, and cislunar free returns are used in combination with lunar gravity assists to reduce propulsive requirements. Trends in orbit insertion cost and flight time are documented across the southern L2 halo family as a function of halo orbit position and free return flight time. It is determined that the maximum amplitude southern halo incurs the lowest orbit insertion cost for direct transfers but the maximum cost for lunar gravity assist transfers. The minimum amplitude halo is the most expensive destination for direct transfers but the least expensive for lunar gravity assist transfers. The on-orbit abort costs for three halos are computed as a function of abort time and return time. Finally, an architecture analysis is performed to determine launch and on-orbit vehicle requirements for halo orbit missions.

Jesick, Mark C.

2013-01-01

376

Mineralization on the moon? Theoretical considerations of Apollo 16 'rusty rocks', sulfide replacement in 67016, and surface-correlated volatiles on lunar volcanic glass  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theoretical considerations of vapor-rock interactions in the lunar environment are a useful supplement to petrologic studies of mineralization or alteration in rocks from the moon. They also provide insights into the potential for the existence of more extensive mineralization on the moon than is found in the limited sample set. Discussed in this paper are the coexistence and textural association in 66095 of the phases lawrencite, troilite, schreibersite, iron metal, and sphalerite; the replacement of olivine in certain clasts of 67016 by troilite and enstatite; and the existence of Zn + S deposits on the surfaces of volcanic glass beads. Particular attention is given in each case to whether the observed mineralization implies that metals, as well as S, P, or Cl, have been mobilized in the vapor. Vapor species that might mobilize metals in the absence of H2O are considered. Most importantly, the suggestion is made that in the dry lunar environment carbonyl species may be important carriers of S and metals. The implications of this possibility are discussed.

Colson, Russell O.

1992-01-01

377

The ‘Apollo 13’ of macroeconomic policy: the ‘successful failure’ of the UK quantitative easing anti-crisis monetary mission  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article appraises the recent UK quantitative easing (QE) monetary experiment. From March 2009 to February 2010, the Bank of England spent £200 billion on gilts and corporate bonds. This experiment represents, as a proportion of GDP, the most ambitious monetary policy ‘mission’ in history. Using several indicators to examine the impact of QE, our analysis leads to a conclusion

Glauco De Vita; Andrew Abbott

2011-01-01

378

Exploring the Moon: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Earth and Space Sciences.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This educational guide concerns exploring the moon. Activities are divided into three units: Pre-Apollo, Learning from Apollo, and The Future. These correspond, at least roughly, to exercises that can be done before the Lunar Sample Disk (available from NASA) arrives to the school (Pre-Apollo), while it is there (Learning from Apollo), and after…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

379

Remote Sensing of Surface Electric Potential on the Moon: A New Technique Using ENAs for Future Missions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electric potential at lunar surface provides essential information for understanding fundamental science and environment of the Moon, which directly impacts on future lunar exploration. Here we present a new technique of remote sensing of surface electric potential at the Moon [4]. The technique relies on the energy spectra of the energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) backscattered from the Moon. We applied this technique to the existing dataset of ENAs, and created the first 2-D image of the electric potential distribution near a magnetic anomaly. The result revealed that the magnetized area provides a preferable landing site of the Moon, while strong surface potential exists.

Futaana, Y.; Barabash, S.; Wieser, M.

2013-09-01

380

The Impact of Apollo-Era Microbiology on Human Space Flight  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The microbiota of crewmembers and the spacecraft environment contributes significant risk to crew health during space flight missions. NASA reduces microbial risk with various mitigation methods that originated during the Apollo Program and continued to evolve through subsequent programs: Skylab, Shuttle, and International Space Station (ISS). A quarantine of the crew and lunar surface samples, within the Lunar Receiving Laboratory following return from the Moon, was used to prevent contamination with unknown extraterrestrial organisms. The quarantine durations for the crew and lunar samples were 21 days and 50 days, respectively. A series of infections among Apollo crewmembers resulted in a quarantine before launch to limit exposure to infectious organisms. This Health Stabilization Program isolated the crew for 21 days before flight and was effective in reducing crew illness. After the program developed water recovery hardware for Apollo spacecraft, the 1967 National Academy of Science Space Science Board recommended the monitoring of potable water. NASA implemented acceptability limits of 10 colony forming units (CFU) per mL and the absence of viable E. coli, anaerobes, yeasts, and molds in three separate 150 mL aliquots. Microbiological investigations of the crew and spacecraft environment were conducted during the Apollo program, including the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project and Skylab. Subsequent space programs implemented microbial screening of the crew for pathogens and acceptability limits on spacecraft surfaces and air. Microbiology risk mitigation methods have evolved since the Apollo program. NASA cancelled the quarantine of the crew after return from the lunar surface, reduced the duration of the Health Stabilization Program; and implemented acceptability limits for spacecraft surfaces and air. While microbial risks were not a main focus of the early Mercury and Gemini programs, the extended duration of Apollo flights resulted in the increased scrutiny of impact of the space flight environment on crew health. The lessons learned during that era of space flight continue to impact microbiology risk mitigation in space programs today.

Elliott, T. F; Castro, V. A.; Bruce, R. J.; Pierson, D. L.

2014-01-01

381

Summary of scientific results: Apollo 14  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements and observations on the Apollo 14 lunar landing site indicated differences in rock compositions as compared with rocks from earlier Apollo missions; isotopes of nobel gases yielded lower exposure values for the rocks. Passive seismic experiments detected more natural seismic events that corresponded to meteoroid impact and moonquakes. The presence of argon was detected in the solar wind experiment.

P. K. Chapman; A. J. Calio; M. G. Simmons

1974-01-01

382

The Apollo Lunar Module, a Retrospective  

Microsoft Academic Search

While much has already been written about the Apollo program, the passage of time has sharpened our view of some of the lessons learned. Apollo was the result of a political imperative. The responsibility for the program was given to an open, civilian agency, NASA. The Lunar Orbit Rendezvous mission mode was selected after bitter debate. The Grumman LM contract

Joseph G. Gavin Jr.

2002-01-01

383

Astronauts Mitchell and Shepard during first Apollo 14 EVA  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Astronaut Edgar D. Mitchell, lunar module pilot, operates the Active Seismic Experiment's thumper during the first Apollo 14 extravehicular activity (EVA-1) on the Moon. Astronaut Alan B. Shepard Jr., commander, walks near deployed components of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) in the background. This photograph was taken by an automatic 16mm camera mounted on the Apollo lunar hand tool carrier aboard the Modularized Equipment Transporter (MET).

1971-01-01

384

Introduction. [accomplishments of Apollo 17 flight during lunar exploration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The accomplishments of the Apollo 17 flight are briefly described. The characteristics of the Taurus-Littrow region landing site are analyzed. The experiments conducted to analyze the composition of the lunar surface are reported. The extent to which the results of the Apollo 17 experiments confirmed theories concerning lunar seismology, thermal characteristics, presence of radioactive materials, and origin of the moon is developed.

Calio, A. J.

1973-01-01

385

Apollo 11 Facts Project [On-Orbit Activities  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Footage is shown of the crew of Apollo 11 (Commander Neil Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Aldrin Jr., and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins) inside the spacecraft as they fly from the Earth to the Moon. A scene shows the entire Earth as seen from Apollo.

1994-01-01

386

Case study of magmatic differentiation trends on the Moon based on lunar meteorite Northwest Africa 773 and comparison with Apollo 15 quartz monzodiorite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyroxene and feldspar compositions indicate that most clasts from the Northwest Africa 773 (NWA 773) lunar meteorite breccia crystallized from a common very low-Ti (VLT) mare basalt parental magma on the Moon. An olivine cumulate (OC), with low-Ca and high-Ca pyroxenes and plagioclase feldspar formed during early stages of crystallization, followed by pyroxene gabbro, which is characterized by zoned pyroxene (Fe# = molar Fe/(Fe + Mg) × 100 from ˜35 to 90; Ti# = molar Ti/(Ti + Cr) × 100 from ˜20 to 99) and feldspar (˜An90-95Ab05-10 to An80-85Ab10-16). Late stage lithologies include alkali-poor symplectite consisting of fayalite, hedenbergitic pyroxene and silica, and alkaline-phase-ferroan clasts characterized by K-rich glass and/or K,Ba-feldspar with fayalite and/or pyroxene. Igneous silica only occurs with the alkaline-phase-ferroan clasts. This sequence of clasts represents stages of magmatic evolution along a ferroan-titanian trend characterized by correlated Fe# and Ti# in pyroxene, and a wide range of increase in Fe# and Ti# prior to crystallization of igneous silica.

Fagan, Timothy J.; Kashima, Daiju; Wakabayashi, Yuki; Suginohara, Akiko

2014-05-01

387

Apollo 17 Heat Flow and Convection Experiments: Final Data Analyses Results.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A group of experiments called the Apollo 17 heat flow and convection (HFC) experiments was conducted, aboard the Apollo 17 spacecraft while in translunar coast on the way to the moon. These experiments together with the HFC experiments flown on Apollo 14 ...

T. C. Bannister P. G. Grodzka L. W. Spradley S. V. Bourgeois R. O. Hedden

1973-01-01

388

Deep Space Network Support of the Manned Space Flight Network for APOLLO, Volume 3.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Deep Space Network (DSN) activities in support of Project Apollo during the period of 1971 and 1972 are reported. Beginning with the Apollo 14 mission and concluding with the Apollo 17 mission, the narrative includes, (1) a mission description, (2) th...

R. B. Hartley

1974-01-01

389

The Moon as a Test Body for General Relativity and New Gravitational Theories  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since 1969 Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to the Apollo Cube Corner Reflector (CCR) arrays has supplied several significant tests of General Relativity (GR): it has evaluated the Geodetic Precession, probed the weak and strong equivalence principle, determined the PPN parameter , addressed the time change of G and 1/r2 deviations. We show that the Moon equipped with retroreflectors can be used effectively to test new gravitational theories beyond GR, like spacetime torsion (developed by some of the authors) and the unified braneworld theory by G. Dvali et al. LLR has also provided important information on the composition and origin of the Moon through measurement of its rotations and tides. Future robotic lunar missions, like the proposed International Lunar Network (ILN) will greatly expand this broad scientific program.Initially, the Apollo arrays contributed a negligible portion of the LLR error budget. Nowadays, the ranging accuracy of ground stations has improved by more than two orders of magnitude: the new APOLLO station at Apache Point, USA, is capable of mm-level range measurements; MRLO, at the ASI Space Geodesy Center in Matera, Italy, has re-started LR operations. Now, because of lunar librations, the Apollo arrays dominate the LLR error budget, which is a few cm. The University of Maryland, Principal Investigator for the Apollo arrays, and INFN-LNF are proposing an innovative CCR array design that will reduce the error contribution of LLR payloads by more than two orders of magnitude, down to tens of microns. This is the goal of the MoonLIGHT technological experiment of INFN (Moon Laser Instrumentation for General relativity High-Accuracy Tests) and of the SCF, the CCR space test facility at LNF. We have also proposed the precursor test of the MoonLIGHT payload on the ASI lunar orbiter mission MAGIA (A. Coradini PI), which concluded its Phase A Study in 2009. In our new array design the main challenges are: 1) address the thermal and optical effects of the absorption of solar radiation within the CCR; reduce the heat transfer from the hot housing and from the rapid temperature changes of the regolith to the CCR; 2) define a method of emplacing the CCR package on the surface such that it is stable over the lunar day/ night cycle; 3) adapt the design to the type of robotic mission (lander only or lander plus rover) and site. In the framework of robotic mission to the lunar surface we are also studying synergies of our payload with drilling, seismometers, local imaging and transponders (which can measure lunar librations and tides independently of LLR).

Martini, Manuele; March, Riccardo; Bellettini, Giovanni; Dell'Agnello, S.; Delle Monache, G. O.; Currie, D. G.; Martini, M.; Lops, C.; Garattini, M.; March, R.; Bellettini, G.; Tauraso, R.; Battat, J. B.; Bianco, G.; Murphy, T. W., Jr.; Coradini, A.; Boni, A.; Cantone, C.; Maiello, M.; Porcelli, L.; Berardi, S.; Intaglietta, N.

390

Long-Lasting Science Returns from the Apollo Heat Flow Experiments  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo astronauts deployed geothermal heat flow instruments at landing sites 15 and 17 as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEP) in July 1971 and December 1972, respectively. These instruments continuously transmitted data to the Earth until September 1977. Four decades later, the data from the two Apollo sites remain the only set of in-situ heat flow measurements obtained on an extra-terrestrial body. Researchers continue to extract additional knowledge from this dataset by utilizing new analytical techniques and by synthesizing it with data from more recent lunar orbital missions such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. In addition, lessons learned from the Apollo experiments help contemporary researchers in designing heat flow instruments for future missions to the Moon and other planetary bodies. For example, the data from both Apollo sites showed gradual warming trends in the subsurface from 1971 to 1977. The cause of this warming has been debated in recent years. It may have resulted from fluctuation in insolation associated with the 18.6-year-cycle precession of the Moon, or sudden changes in surface thermal environment/properties resulting from the installation of the instruments and the astronauts' activities. These types of reanalyses of the Apollo data have lead a panel of scientists to recommend that a heat flow probe carried on a future lunar mission reach 3 m into the subsurface, approx 0.6 m deeper than the depths reached by the Apollo 17 experiment. This presentation describes the authors current efforts for (1) restoring a part of the Apollo heat flow data that were left unprocessed by the original investigators and (2) designing a compact heat flow instrument for future robotic missions to the Moon. First, at the conclusion of the ALSEP program in 1977, heat flow data obtained at the two Apollo sites after December 1974 were left unprocessed and not properly archived through NASA. In the following decades, heat flow data from January 1975 through February 1976, as well as the metadata necessary for processing the data (the data reduction algorithm, instrument calibration data, etc.), were somehow lost. In 2010, we located 450 original master archival tapes of unprocessed data from all the ALSEP instruments for a period of April through June 1975 at the Washington National Records Center. We are currently extracting the heat flow data packets from these tapes and processing them. Second, on future lunar missions, heat flow probes will likely be deployed by a network of small robotic landers, as recommended by the latest Decadal Survey of the National Academy of Science. In such a scenario, the heat flow probe must be a compact system, and that precludes use of heavy excavation equipment such as a rotary drill for reaching the 3-m target depth. The new heat flow system under development uses a pneumatically driven penetrator. It utilizes a stem that winds out of a reel and pushes its conical tip into the regolith. Simultaneously, gas jets, emitted from the cone tip, loosen and blow away the soil. Lab experiments have demonstrated its effectiveness in lunar vacuum.

Nagihara, S.; Taylor, P. T.; Williams, D. R.; Zacny, K.; Hedlund, M.; Nakamura, Y.

2012-01-01

391

Long-lasting Science Returns from the Apollo Heat Flow Experiments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Apollo astronauts deployed geothermal heat flow instruments at landing sites 15 and 17 as part of the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEP) in July 1971 and December 1972, respectively. These instruments continuously transmitted data to the Earth until September 1977. Four decades later, the data from the two Apollo sites remain the only set of in-situ heat flow measurements obtained on an extra-terrestrial body. Researchers continue to extract additional knowledge from this dataset by utilizing new analytical techniques and by synthesizing it with data from more recent lunar orbital missions such as the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter. In addition, lessons learned from the Apollo experiments help contemporary researchers in designing heat flow instruments for future missions to the Moon and other planetary bodies. For example, the data from both Apollo sites showed gradual warming trends in the subsurface from 1971 to 1977. The cause of this warming has been debated in recent years. It may have resulted from fluctuation in insolation associated with the 18.6-year-cycle precession of the Moon, or sudden changes in surface thermal environment/properties resulting from the installation of the instruments and the astronauts' activities. These types of re-analyses of the Apollo data have lead a panel of scientists to recommend that a heat flow probe carried on a future lunar mission reach 3 m into the subsurface, ~0.6 m deeper than the depths reached by the Apollo 17 experiment. This presentation describes the authors' current efforts for (1) restoring a part of the Apollo heat flow data that were left unprocessed by the original investigators and (2) designing a compact heat flow instrument for future robotic missions to the Moon. First, at the conclusion of the ALSEP program in 1977, heat flow data obtained at the two Apollo sites after December 1974 were left unprocessed and not properly archived through NASA. In the following decades, heat flow data from January 1975 through February 1976, as well as the metadata necessary for processing the data (the data reduction algorithm, instrument calibration data, etc.), were somehow lost. In 2010, we located 450 original master archival tapes of unprocessed data from all the ALSEP instruments for a period of April through June 1975 at the Washington National Records Center. We are currently extracting the heat flow data packets from these tapes and processing them. Second, on future lunar missions, heat flow probes will likely be deployed by a network of small robotic landers, as recommended by the latest Decadal Survey of the National Academy of Science. In such a scenario, the heat flow probe must be a compact system, and that precludes use of heavy excavation equipment such as a rotary drill for reaching the 3-m target depth. The new heat flow system under development uses a pneumatically driven penetrator. It utilizes a stem that winds out of a reel and pushes its conical tip into the regolith. Simultaneously, gas jets, emitted from the cone tip, loosen and blow away the soil. Lab experiments have demonstrated its effectiveness in lunar vacuum.

Nagihara, S.; Taylor, P. T.; Williams, D. R.; Zacny, K.; Hedlund, M.; Nakamura, Y.

2012-12-01

392

John F. Kennedy, Jr., speaks to the media at KSC's HBO premiere 'From the Earth to the Moon.'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

John F. Kennedy, Jr., editor-in-chief of George Magazine, speaks with members of the national media at the Home Box Office (HBO) and Imagine Entertainment premiere of the 12-part miniseries 'From the Earth to the Moon' at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The series was filmed in part on location at KSC and dramatizes the human aspects of NASA's efforts to launch Americans to the Moon. The miniseries highlights NASA's Apollo program and the events leading up to and including the six successful missions to the Moon. A special 500-seat theater was constructed next to the Apollo/Saturn V Center for the KSC premiere showing. Speakers at the event included KSC Director Roy Bridges (at right); Jeff Bewkes, chairman and CEO for HBO; and John F. Kennedy, Jr. Also attending the event, which featured the episode entitled '1968,' were Buzz Aldrin, Apollo 11 astronaut, and Al Worden, Apollo 15 astronaut. The original miniseries event, created for HBO by actor Tom Hanks and Imagine Entertainment, will premiere on HBO beginning April 5, 1998.

1998-01-01

393

John F. Kennedy, Jr., speaks to invited guests at KSC's HBO premiere 'From the Earth to the Moon.'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

John F. Kennedy, Jr., editor-in-chief of George Magazine, greets invited guests at the Home Box Office (HBO) and Imagine Entertainment premiere of the 12-part miniseries 'From the Earth to the Moon' at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). The series was filmed in part on location at KSC and dramatizes the human aspects of NASA's efforts to launch Americans to the Moon. The miniseries highlights NASA's Apollo program and the events leading up to and including the six successful missions to the Moon. A special 500- seat theater was constructed next to the Apollo/Saturn V Center for the KSC premiere showing. Speakers at the event included KSC Director Roy Bridges (at right); Jeff Bewkes, chairman and CEO for HBO; and John F. Kennedy, Jr. Also attending the event, which featured the episode entitled '1968,' were Buzz Aldrin, Apollo 11 astronaut, and Al Worden, Apollo 15 astronaut. The original miniseries event, created for HBO by actor Tom Hanks and Imagine Entertainment, will premiere on HBO beginning April 5, 1998.

1998-01-01

394

Apollo 13 Facts [Post Flight Press Conference  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Apollo 13 astronauts, James Lovell, Jr., John Swigert, Jr., and Fred Haise, Jr., are seen during this post flight press conference. They describe their mission and answer questions from the audience.

2001-01-01

395

Moon Rise, Moon Set.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Points out the potential of the moon as a rich teaching resource for subject areas like astronomy, physics, and biology. Presents historical, scientific, technological, and interesting facts about the moon. Includes suggestions for maximizing student interest and learning about the moon. (YDS)

Redman, Christine

2001-01-01

396

Analysis of extraterrestrial matter returned by spacecrafts : Apollo, Luna, Genesis and Stardust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The analysis of ET matter returned by space missions started with the Apollo and Luna missions and allowed exceptional insight into planetary formation processes as well as composition of the solar system including the Sun. Having ET samples in the lab permits elemental and isotopic analysis at a precision that is, and will be, impossible to attain by direct spacecraft measurements. This is the case for instance of rock dating, a key measurement to understand the early history of the solar system. The Apollo missions returned 380 Kg of rocks and soil from the Moon. Since then, only two missions have returned ET samples from space, Genesis (NASA discovery program) which sampled solar wind ions during 27 months, and Stardust (also NASA discovery program) which returned cometary grains sampled in the tail of comet Wild2/P. The amount of sample recovered by these missions is of the order of the microgram or less, 12 orders of magnitude less than the Apollo missions. This difference is likely to be a constant of the next sample return missions and scientists have to develop instruments able to analyse such extremely limited samples, like laser ablation coupled with mass spectrometry, electron and ion probes, synchrotron radiation etc. The science community has also to work in the framework of consortia where the aim of each group is integrated in a suite of analytical protocols that respect as far as possible the integrity of the samples. These sample return missions are nevertheless essential to explore the composition of the solar system, its heterogeneity, and processes having shaped it 4.5 Ga ago. They also allow the science community to develop a know-how that will be essential for the analysis of samples returned from Mars in, we hope, the not so far future.

Marty, B.; Zimmermann, L.; Burnard, P.

2008-09-01

397

Dusty Plasma Effects on the surfaces of the Moon and Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After a long break following the Apollo missions, the Moon is likely to become again the target of in situ investigations, serving as our gateway to land people on Mars. Although a layer of fine dust had been predicted for the moon, dust "storms" were not anticipated because of the absence of an atmosphere. The Lunar Ejecta and Meteorite (LEAM) experiment detectors deployed by Apollo 17 showed, unexpectedly, that most impacts were due to lunar dust levitated and transported electrostatically. There are significant technical challenges related to the mitigation of dust hazards for humans and instruments. For example, dust clinging to space suits became a nuisance for the astronauts returning to their habitats on the Moon. The surface of Mars represent a very different environment, where charging is likely to occur due to wind-entrained dust collisions, in addition to possible UV charging. These effects are likely to results in electrostatic discharges and possibly interfere with surface instrumentation and human activities. In this talk we will review our current theoretical models for dusty plasma effects on the Moon and Mars, and also summarize ongoing laboratory efforts to verify these models. These experiments address dust charging, electrostatic levitation and transport on the Moon, and also the possible electrification and discharges that might occur on Mars. We will conclude with a summary of the outstanding issues to be addressed by in situ measurements and the possible instrumentation for these investigations.

Horanyi, M.; Colwell, J. E.; Robertson, S. H.

2004-12-01

398

Developing Lunar Landing Vehicle Display Requirements Through Content Analysis of Apollo Lunar Landing Voice Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The lengthy period since the Apollo landings limits present-day engineers attempts to draw from the experiences of veteran Apollo engineers and astronauts in the design of a new lunar lander. To circumvent these limitations, content analyses were performed on the voice transcripts of the Apollo lunar landing missions. The analyses highlighted numerous inefficiencies in the design of the Apollo Lunar

Cristin A. Smith; Mary L. Cummings; Liang Sim

2008-01-01

399

Apollo 13 Guidance, Navigation, and Control Challenges  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combustion and rupture of a liquid oxygen tank during the Apollo 13 mission provides lessons and insights for future spacecraft designers and operations personnel who may never, during their careers, have participated in saving a vehicle and crew during a spacecraft emergency. Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) challenges were the reestablishment of attitude control after the oxygen tank incident, re-establishment of a free return trajectory, resolution of a ground tracking conflict between the LM and the Saturn V S-IVB stage, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) alignments, maneuvering to burn attitudes, attitude control during burns, and performing manual GNC tasks with most vehicle systems powered down. Debris illuminated by the Sun and gaseous venting from the Service Module (SM) complicated crew attempts to identify stars and prevented execution of nominal IMU alignment procedures. Sightings on the Sun, Moon, and Earth were used instead. Near continuous communications with Mission Control enabled the crew to quickly perform time critical procedures. Overcoming these challenges required the modification of existing contingency procedures.

Goodman, John L.

2009-01-01

400

Celebrated Moon Rocks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Need for Lunar Samples and Simulants: Where Engineering and Science Meet sums up one of the sessions attracting attention at the annual meeting of the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group (LEAG), held November 16-19, 2009 in Houston, Texas. Speakers addressed the question of how the Apollo lunar samples can be used to facilitate NASA's return to the Moon while preserving the collection for scientific investigation. Here is a summary of the LEAG presentations of Dr. Gary Lofgren, Lunar Curator at the NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, and Dr. Meenakshi (Mini) Wadhwa, Professor at Arizona State University and Chair of NASA's advisory committee called CAPTEM (Curation and Analysis Planning Team for Extraterrestrial Materials). Lofgren gave a status report of the collection of rocks and regolith returned to Earth by the Apollo astronauts from six different landing sites on the Moon in 1969-1972. Wadhwa explained the role of CAPTEM in lunar sample allocation.

Martel, L. M. V.

2009-12-01

401

Center Director Bridges speaks at Apollo 11 anniversary banquet.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

At an anniversary banquet honoring the Apollo program team, the people who made the entire lunar landing program possible, Center Director Roy D. Bridges offers remarks. The banquet was held in the Apollo/Saturn V Center, part of the KSC Visitor Complex. This is the 30th anniversary of the Apollo 11 launch and moon landing, July 16 and July 20, 1969. Among the guests at the banquet were astronauts Neil Armstrong, Edwin 'Buzz' Aldrin, Wally Schirra, Gene Cernan and Walt Cunningham. Neil Armstrong was the first man to walk on the moon; Gene Cernan was the last.

1999-01-01

402

Age of an Apollo 15 mare basalt - Lunar crust and mantle evolution.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An internal Rb-Sr isochron for the large basalt boulder 15555 returned from the edge of Hadley rille by the Apollo 15 mission yields an age 3.32 (plus or minus 0.06) b.y. and an initial Sr-88/Sr-86, I = 0.69934 plus or minus 5. This age and I value fall well within the range obtained for the Apollo 12 basalts from the Ocean of Storms and may indicate that extensive lava flows occurred at 3.3 b.y. over widespread areas of the moon. The Sr composition of the anorthosite 15415 is as low as that of plagioclase extracted from the Apollo 11 low K rocks. The initial Sr composition of 15415 for an assumed age of 3.3 to 4.6 b.y. is extremely primitive and provides further evidence for an extremely short formation interval of a nonchondritic moon with respect to an origin in time defined by BABI.

Wasserburg, G. J.; Papanastassiou, D. A.

1971-01-01

403

Where no flag has gone before: Political and technical aspects of placing a flag on the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The flag on the Moon represents an important event in vexillological history. The political and technical aspects of placing a flag on the Moon, focusing on the first Moon landing, is examined. During their historic extravehicular activity, the Apollo 11 crew planted the flag of the United States on the lunar surface. This flag-raising was strictly a symbolic activity, as the United Nations Treaty on Outer Space precluded any territorial claim. Nevertheless, there were domestic and international debates over the appropriateness of the event. Congress amended the agency's appropriations bill to prevent the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) from placing flags of other nations, or those of international associations, on the Moon during missions funded solely by the United States. Like any activity in space exploration, the Apollo flag-raising also provided NASA engineers with an interesting technical challenge. They designed a flagpole with a horizontal bar allowing the flag to 'fly' without the benefit of wind to overcome the effects of the Moon's lack of an atmosphere. Other factors considered in the design were weight, heat resistance, and ease of assembly by astronauts whose space suits restricted their range of movement and ability to grasp items. As NASA plans a return to the Moon and an expedition to Mars, we will likely see flags continue to go 'where no flag has gone before'.

Platoff, Anne M.

1993-01-01

404

Apollo 14 and Apollo 16 heavy-particle dosimetry experiments.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Doses of heavy particles at positions inside the command modules of Apollo missions 8, 12, 14, and 16 correlate well with the calculated effects of solar modulation of the primary cosmic radiation. Differences in doses at different stowage positions indicate that the redistribution of mass within the spacecraft could enhance safety from the biological damage that would otherwise be expected on manned, deep-space missions.

Fleischer, R. L.; Hart, H. R., Jr.; Comstock, G. M.; Carter, M.; Renshaw, A.; Hardy, A.

1973-01-01

405

Apollo 15 at Hadley Base.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This publication highlights the mission of Apollo 15 and includes many detailed black and white and color photographs taken near the lunar Apennine Mountains and the mile-wide, meandering Hadley Rille. Some of the photographs are full page (9 by 12 inch) reproductions. (Author/PR)

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

406

Apollo 11 Lunar Science Conference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Report of a conference called to discuss the findings of 142 scientists from their investigations of samples of lunar rock and soil brought back by the Apollo 11 mission. Significant findings reported include the age and composition of the lunar samples, and the absence of water and organic matter. Much discussed was the origin and structure of…

Cochran, Wendell

1970-01-01

407

Robotic Lunar Precursors to Apollo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In four short years (1964-1968) lunar science boomed, driven by NASA's three series of small robotic spacecraft: Ranger, Surveyor and Lunar Orbiter. These started their programmatic lives as remote laboratories, then were repurposed as "precursors" to the Apollo missions.

Bugos, G. E.; Boyd, J. W.

2008-07-01

408

Apollo experience report: Consumables budgeting  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The procedures and techniques used in predicting the consumables usage for the Apollo mission are discussed. Because of the many interfaces and influences on the consumables system, it is impractical to document all facets of consumables budgeting; therefore, information in this report is limited to the major contributions to the formulation of a consumables budget.

Nelson, D. A.

1973-01-01

409

Plasma thyroxine changes of the Apollo crewmen  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Blood drawn from Apollo crew members prior to the mission, at recovery, and postmission, was used to examine the effect Apollo mission activities have on thyroid hormone levels. At recovery, statistically significant increases in thyroxine and the free thyroxine index were found. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were decreased. No change of statistical significance was found in the T3 binding percentage, total serum proteins, and albumin. We conclude that Apollo activities and environment caused the postmission increase in plasma thyroxine. The prolonged postmission decreases in serum cholesterol may be one result of the increased thyroxine activity.

Sheinfeld, M.; Leach, C. S.; Johnson, P. C.

1975-01-01

410

Infant Moon: Moon Mix!  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners investigate the Moon's infancy and model how an ocean of molten rock (magma) helped shape the Moon that we see today. Learners create a simple model of this process by mixing household items of different densities in a bottle and allowing to them to settle into separate layers. Learners decide which materials make the best model for the infant Moon. Learners may examine a type of Earth rock (named anorthosite) that is also found on the Moon and that would have been shaped by the processes explored here. This activity station is part of a sequence of stations that can be set up to help learners trace the Moon's 4.5-billion-year history from "infancy" to the imagined future. Learners tie together major events in the Moon's geologic history as a series of comic panels in their Marvel Moon comic books.

Institute, Lunar A.

2010-01-01

411

Forecasting Proximal Femur and Wrist Fracture Caused by a Fall to the Side during Space Exploration Missions to the Moon and Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The possibility of bone fracture in space is a concern due to the negative impact it could have on a mission. The Bone Fracture Risk Module (BFxRM) developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center is a statistical simulation that quantifies the probability of bone fracture at specific skeletal locations for particular activities or events during space exploration missions. This paper reports fracture probability predictions for the proximal femur and wrist resulting from a fall to the side during an extravehicular activity (EVA) on specific days of lunar and Martian exploration missions. The risk of fracture at the proximal femur on any given day of the mission is small and fairly constant, although it is slightly greater towards the end of the mission, due to a reduction in proximal femur bone mineral density (BMD). The risk of wrist fracture is greater than the risk of hip fracture and there is an increased risk on Mars since it has a higher gravitational environment than the moon. The BFxRM can be used to help manage the risk of bone fracture in space as an engineering tool that is used during mission operation and resource planning.

Lewandowski, Beth E.; Myers, Jerry G.; Sulkowski, C.; Ruehl, K.; Licata, A.

2008-01-01

412

Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of this work is to provide researchers, students, and space enthusiasts with a comprehensive reference for facts about Project Apollo, America's effort to put humans in the Moon. Research for this work started in 1988, when the author discover...

R. Orloff

2000-01-01

413

The Apollo Program and Amino Acids  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the determination of hydrolyzable amino acid precursors and a group of six amino acids in the returned lunar samples of the Apollo programs. Indicates that molecular evolution is arrested at the precursor stage on the Moon because of lack of water. (CC)

Fox, Sidney W.

1973-01-01

414

Elementary Analysis of Translunar Apollo Orbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geometrical parameters of the translunar Apollo orbit are derived from elementary equations relating to elliptical and hyperbolic orbits in an inverse-square force field. The simplification is to divide the problem into an elliptical orbit in the region where the earth's attraction dominates and a hyperbolic orbit (referred to a moving coordinate system attached to the moon) in the region where

R. W. Christy; M. R. Mayhugh

1969-01-01

415

The moon: a new platform for terrestrial climate research  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The 20th century global warming is well documented in the instrumental record. Still under heated debate are the influences of natural forcing such as changes in solar radiation, and anthropogenic forcing such as the increase of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere due to industrialization. Of fundamental importance to our ability to predict future climate change is to separate the contributions of the two factors. The Moon is an ideal laboratory to focus on the solar forcing. There are no complications due to human activities or an atmosphere in the lunar climate system. Important hints may already exist in NASA's historical data archive. As a result of the Apollo Heat Flow Experiment, surface and subsurface temperatures of the Moon were measured with instruments emplaced in situ by astronauts. Temperatures from the surface down to about 2.4 meters in the regolith were continuously monitored over a period of several years at the Apollo 15 and 17 landing sites. Temperature at lunar surface is determined primarily by the radiation it receives from the Sun. The change of the temperature on the Moon's surface is a faithful reflection of the solar radiation imposed on Earth's climate system. A revisit of the Apollo lunar regolith temperature data can serve as a first step towards engaging the Moon in the investigation of terrestrial climate change. The upcoming Japanese lunar penetrator mission Lunar-A may provide a new opportunity to apply the concept of Moon-borne solar irradiance research. Lunar-A is designed to study the lunar interior using seismometers and heat-flow probes. Two penetrators, each embedded with 18 temperature sensors with an expected lifetime of 1 year, will be deployed onto the lunar surface in 2005. The regolith temperature series from the two Lunar-A penetrators will overlap the radiation series from the satellite mission Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE). The SORCE spacecraft was launched on January 25, 2003 and has a mission life of 6 years. A comparison of the Lunar-A regolith temperature series and the spacecraft-borne solar irradiance series will allow for inter- validation and calibration.

Huang, S.

416

Determination of Cratering Rates in the Earth-Moon System by Lunar Spherules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the primary goals of the Apollo missions was to provide information about the crater production rate on the moon, and hence on the Earth. Before the Apollo missions relative ages of different surfaces could be calculated by comparing the number of craters of a given size on the different surfaces. By returning samples from different lunar surfaces for radiometric dating, it became possible to attach absolute ages to different surfaces and to re-construct the cratering history of the early solar system. Our primary goal is to provide data about the crater production rates within the last 3 Gyr, although the method we propose will determine relative rates only, not absolute rates. We will do this by 40Ar/39Ar dating glass spherules from random craters. Initially we will measure the ages of 30 to 40 lunar spherules; ultimately we would like to obtain the ages of several hundred to a thousand or more.

Culler, T. S.; Muller, R. A.; Renne, P.

1996-03-01

417

Apollo 12, A New Vista for Lunar Science.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Man's second lunar landing, Apollo 12, provided a wealth of scientific information about the moon. The deployment of the magnetometer, seismometer, and ionosphere detector, and other activities on the lunar surface are described. A number of color photographs show the astronauts setting up equipment on the moon as well as close-ups of the lunar…

National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

418

Apollo 11 Facts Project [On-Orbit Lunar Module Checkout  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Footage is shown of the crew of Apollo 11 (Commander Neil Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Aldrin Jr., and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins) inside the spacecraft as they fly from the Earth to the Moon. The Moon is seen in its entirety and in close detail. Aldrin gives a brief demonstration on how the astronauts eat in space.

1994-01-01

419

The Apollo lightcraft project  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The detailed design of a small beam-powered trans-atmospheric vehicle, 'The Apollo Lightcraft,' was selected as the project for the design course. The vehicle has a lift-off gross weight of about six (6) metric tons and the capability to transport 500 kg of payload (five people plus spacesuits) to low Earth orbit. Beam power was limited to 10 gigawatts. The principal goal of this project is to reduce the low-Earth-orbit payload delivery cost by at least three orders of magnitude below the space shuttle orbiter--in the post 2020 era. The completely reusable, single-stage-to-orbit, shuttle craft will take off and land vertically, and have a reentry heat shield integrated with its lower surface--much like the Apollo command module. At the appropriate points along the launch trajectory, the combined cycle propulsion system will transition through three or four air breathing modes, and finally a pure rocket mode for orbital insertion. As with any revolutionary flight vehicle, engine development must proceed first. Hence, the objective for the spring semester propulsion course was to design and perform a detailed theoretical analysis on an advanced combined-cycle engine suitable for the Apollo Light craft. The analysis indicated that three air breathing cycles will be adequate for the mission, and that the ram jet cycle is unnecessary.

1987-01-01

420

APOLLO 17 : 'Rover' gets some Rough and Ready Repair  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

APOLLO 17 : Some tough roving neccesitates rough and ready repairs From the film documentary 'APOLLO 17: On the shoulders of Giants'', part of a documentary series on the APOLLO missions made in the early '70's and narrated by Burgess Meredith. APPOLO 17 : Sixth and last manned lunar landing mission in the APOLLO series with Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E.Evans, and Harrison H. (Jack) Schmitt. Landed at Taurus-Littrow on Dec 11.,1972. Deployed camera and experiments; performed EVA with lunar roving vehicle. Returned lunar samples. Mission Duration 301hrs 51min 59sec

1974-01-01

421

The Use of Deep Moonquakes for Constraining the Internal Structure of the Moon  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The installation of seismometers on the Moon s surface during the Apollo era provided a wealth of information that transformed our understanding of lunar formation and evolution. Seismic events detected by the nearside network were used to constrain the structure of the Moon s crust and mantle down to a depth of about 1000 km. The presence of an attenuating region in the deepest interior has been inferred from the paucity of farside events, as well as other indirect geophysical measurements. Recent re-analyses of the Apollo data have tentatively identified this region as a lunar core, although its properties are not yet constrained. Here we present new modeling in support of seismic missions that plan to build upon the knowledge of the Moon s interior gathered by Apollo. We have devised a method in which individual events can be linked to a known cluster using the observed S-P arrival time differences and azimuth to only two stations. Events can be further identified using each cluster's unique occurrence time signature

Weber, Renee; Garcia, Raphael; Johnson, Catherine; Knapmeyer, Martin; Lognonne, Philippe; Nakamura, Yosio; Schmerr, Nick

2010-01-01

422

A half-century of terrestrial analog studies: From craters on the Moon to searching for life on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Terrestrial analogs to the Moon and Mars have been used to advance knowledge in planetary science for over a half-century. They are useful in studies of comparative geology of the terrestrial planets and rocky moons, in astronaut training and testing of exploration technologies, and in developing hypotheses and exploration strategies in astrobiology. In fact, the use of terrestrial analogs can be traced back to the origins of comparative geology and astrobiology, and to the early phases of the Apollo astronaut program. Terrestrial analog studies feature prominently throughout the history of both NASA and the USGS' Astrogeology Research Program. In light of current international plans for a return missions to the Moon, and eventually to send sample return and manned missions to Mars, as well as the recent creation of various analog research and development programs, this historical perspective is timely.

Léveillé, Richard

2010-03-01

423