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Sample records for apoptosis limits dna

  1. DNA damage and apoptosis in the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis.

    PubMed

    Micić, Milena; Bihari, Nevenka; Jaksić, Zeljko; Müller, Werner E G; Batel, Renato

    2002-04-01

    The effects of known genotoxic substances (4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide, benzo[a]pyrene, teniposide, etoposide, cycloheximide, tributyltin) on human cells (FLC, HL-60) and on mussels were investigated. The correlations between formation of DNA strand breaks and DNA fragmentation characteristic for the process of apoptosis were estimated. Strand breaks induced by 4-nitroquinoline-N-oxide and benzo[a]pyrene did not correlate with DNA fragmentation detected in the process of apoptosis. Induction of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation in HL-60 cells was initiated by teniposide, etoposide and tributyltin, while in the gills of mussels this was detected only with tributyltin. Levels of DNA strand breaks in natural mussel populations, living at locations under the influence of urban and industrial wastes, do not mirror the apoptotic processes. PMID:11939292

  2. Cytosolic DNA triggers mitochondrial apoptosis via DNA damage signaling proteins independently of AIM2 and RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Michael; Wunderlich, Michael; Besch, Robert; Poeck, Hendrik; Willms, Simone; Schwantes, Astrid; Kremer, Melanie; Sutter, Gerd; Endres, Stefan; Schmidt, Andreas; Rothenfusser, Simon

    2012-01-01

    A key host response to limit microbial spread is the induction of cell death when foreign nucleic acids are sensed within infected cells. In mouse macrophages, transfected DNA or infection with modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) can trigger cell death via the absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) inflammasome. In this article, we show that nonmyeloid human cell types lacking a functional AIM2 inflammasome still die in response to cytosolic delivery of different DNAs or infection with MVA. This cell death induced by foreign DNA is independent of caspase-8 and carries features of mitochondrial apoptosis: dependence on BAX, APAF-1, and caspase-9. Although it does not require the IFN pathway known to be triggered by infection with MVA or transfected DNA via polymerase III and retinoid acid-induced gene I-like helicases, it shows a strong dependence on components of the DNA damage signaling pathway: cytosolic delivery of DNA or infection with MVA leads to phosphorylation of p53 (serines 15 and 46) and autophosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM); depleting p53 or ATM with small interfering RNA or inhibiting the ATM/ATM-related kinase family by caffeine strongly reduces apoptosis. Taken together, our findings suggest that a pathway activating DNA damage signaling plays an important independent role in detecting intracellular foreign DNA, thereby complementing the induction of IFN and activation of the AIM2 inflammasome. PMID:22140256

  3. Saccharin consumption increases sperm DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Rahimipour, Marzieh; Talebi, Ali Reza; Anvari, Morteza; Abbasi Sarcheshmeh, Abolghasem; Omidi, Marjan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Saccharin is an artificial non-caloric sweetener that used to sweeten products such as drinks, candies, medicines, and toothpaste, but our bodies cannot metabolize it. Sodium saccharin is considered as an important factor in tumor promotion in male rats but not in humans. Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of saccharin consumption on sperm parameters and apoptosis in adult mice. Materials and Methods: Totally 14 adult male mice were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 served as control fed on basal diet and group 2 or experimental animals received distilled water containing saccharin (0.2% w/v) for 35 days. After that, the left cauda epididymis of each mouse was cut and placed in Ham’s F10. Swimmed-out spermatozoa were used to analyze count, motility, morphology (Pap-staining) and viability (eosin-Y staining). Sperm DNA integrity, as an indicator of apoptosis, was assessed by SCD (sperm chromatin dispersion) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TUNEL) assay. Results: Following saccharin consumption, we had a reduction in sperm motility with respect to control animals (p=0.000). In addition, the sperm count diminished (17.70±1.11 in controls vs. 12.80±2.79 in case group, p=0.003) and the rate of sperm normal morphology decreased from 77.00±6.40 in control animals into 63.85±6.81 in saccharin-treated mice (p=0.001). Also, we saw a statistically significant increase in rates of sperm DNA damage and apoptosis in experimental group when compared to control one (p=0.001, p=0.002 respectively). Conclusion: Saccharin consumption may have negative effects on sperm parameters, and increases the rate of sperm DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in mice. PMID:25031574

  4. FBH1 promotes DNA double-strand breakage and apoptosis in response to DNA replication stress.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yeon-Tae; Rossi, Mario; Cermak, Lukas; Saraf, Anita; Florens, Laurence; Washburn, Michael P; Sung, Patrick; Schildkraut, Carl L; Schildkraut, Carl; Pagano, Michele

    2013-01-21

    Proper resolution of stalled replication forks is essential for genome stability. Purification of FBH1, a UvrD DNA helicase, identified a physical interaction with replication protein A (RPA), the major cellular single-stranded DNA (ssDNA)-binding protein complex. Compared with control cells, FBH1-depleted cells responded to replication stress with considerably fewer double-strand breaks (DSBs), a dramatic reduction in the activation of ATM and DNA-PK and phosphorylation of RPA2 and p53, and a significantly increased rate of survival. A minor decrease in ssDNA levels was also observed. All these phenotypes were rescued by wild-type FBH1, but not a FBH1 mutant lacking helicase activity. FBH1 depletion had no effect on other forms of genotoxic stress in which DSBs form by means that do not require ssDNA intermediates. In response to catastrophic genotoxic stress, apoptosis prevents the persistence and propagation of DNA lesions. Our findings show that FBH1 helicase activity is required for the efficient induction of DSBs and apoptosis specifically in response to DNA replication stress. PMID:23319600

  5. Probing the elastic limit of DNA bending

    PubMed Central

    Le, Tung T.; Kim, Harold D.

    2014-01-01

    Sharp bending of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) plays an essential role in genome structure and function. However, the elastic limit of dsDNA bending remains controversial. Here, we measured the opening rates of small dsDNA loops with contour lengths ranging between 40 and 200 bp using single-molecule Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer. The relationship of loop lifetime to loop size revealed a critical transition in bending stress. Above the critical loop size, the loop lifetime changed with loop size in a manner consistent with elastic bending stress, but below it, became less sensitive to loop size, indicative of softened dsDNA. The critical loop size increased from ∼60 bp to ∼100 bp with the addition of 5 mM magnesium. We show that our result is in quantitative agreement with the kinkable worm-like chain model, and furthermore, can reproduce previously reported looping probabilities of dsDNA over the range between 50 and 200 bp. Our findings shed new light on the energetics of sharply bent dsDNA. PMID:25122748

  6. Toll-like Receptor 9 Can be Activated by Endogenous Mitochondrial DNA to Induce Podocyte Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Wenduona; Xia, Hong; Liang, Yaojun; Ye, Yuting; Lu, Yuqiu; Xu, Xiaodong; Duan, Aiping; He, Jing; Chen, Zhaohong; Wu, Yan; Wang, Xia; Zheng, Chunxia; Liu, Zhihong; Shi, Shaolin

    2016-01-01

    Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) senses bacterial DNA characteristic of unmethylated CpG motifs to induce innate immune response. TLR9 is de novo expressed in podocytes of some patients with glomerular diseases, but its role in podocyte injury remains undetermined. Since TLR9 activates p38 MAPK and NFkB that are known to mediate podocyte apoptosis, we hypothesized that TLR9 induces podocyte apoptosis in glomerular diseases. We treated immortalized podocytes with puromycin aminonucleosides (PAN) and observed podocyte apoptosis, accompanied by TLR9 upregulation. Prevention of TLR9 upregulation by siRNA significantly attenuated NFκB p65 or p38 activity and apoptosis, demonstrating that TLR9 mediates podocyte apoptosis. We next showed that endogenous mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), whose CpG motifs are also unmethylated, is the ligand for TLR9, because PAN induced mtDNA accumulation in endolysosomes where TLR9 is localized, overexpression of endolysosomal DNase 2 attenuated PAN-induced p38 or p65 activity and podocyte apoptosis, and DNase 2 silencing was sufficient to activate p38 or p65 and induce apoptosis. In PAN-treated rats, TLR9 was upregulated in the podocytes, accompanied by increase of apoptosis markers. Thus, de novo expressed TLR9 may utilize endogenous mtDNA as the ligand to facilitate podocyte apoptosis, a novel mechanism underlying podocyte injury in glomerular diseases. PMID:26934958

  7. Zinc protects against ultraviolet A1-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in cultured human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Leccia, M T; Richard, M J; Favier, A; Béani, J C

    1999-09-01

    Ultraviolet A1 (UVA1) radiation generates reactive oxygen species and the oxidative stress is known as a mediator of DNA damage and of apoptosis. We exposed cultured human cutaneous fibroblasts to UVA1 radiation (wavelengths in the 340-450-nm range with emission peak at 365 nm) and, using the alkaline unwinding method, we showed an immediate significant increase of DNA strand breaks in exposed cells. Apoptosis was determined by detecting cytoplasmic nucleosomes (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method) at different time points in fibroblasts exposed to different irradiation doses. In our conditions, UVA1 radiation induced an early (8 h) and a delayed (18 h) apoptosis. Delayed apoptosis increased in a UVA dose-dependent manner. Zinc is an important metal for DNA protection and has been shown to have inhibitory effects on apoptosis. The addition of zinc (6.5 mg/L) as zinc chloride to the culture medium significantly decreased immediate DNA strand breaks in human skin fibroblasts. Moreover, zinc chloride significantly decreased UVA1-induced early and delayed apoptosis. Thus, these data show for the first time in normal cutaneous cultured cells that UVA1 radiation induces apoptosis. This apoptosis is biphasic and appears higher 18 h after the stress. Zinc supplementation can prevent both immediate DNA strand breakage and early and delayed apoptosis, suggesting that this metal could be of interest for skin cell protection against UVA1 irradiation. PMID:10468155

  8. DNA damage and mitochondria dysfunction in cell apoptosis induced by nonthermal air plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, G. J.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, W.; Kim, K. T.

    2010-01-11

    Nonthermal plasma is known to induce animal cell death but the mechanism is not yet clear. Here, cellular and biochemical regulation of cell apoptosis is demonstrated for plasma treated cells. Surface type nonthermal air plasma triggered apoptosis of B16F10 mouse melanoma cancer cells causing DNA damage and mitochondria dysfunction. Plasma treatment activated caspase-3, apoptosis executioner. The plasma treated cells also accumulated gamma-H2A.X, marker for DNA double strand breaks, and p53 tumor suppressor gene as a response to DNA damage. Interestingly, cytochrome C was released from mitochondria and its membrane potential was changed significantly.

  9. DNA damage and mitochondria dysfunction in cell apoptosis induced by nonthermal air plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, G. J.; Kim, W.; Kim, K. T.; Lee, J. K.

    2010-01-01

    Nonthermal plasma is known to induce animal cell death but the mechanism is not yet clear. Here, cellular and biochemical regulation of cell apoptosis is demonstrated for plasma treated cells. Surface type nonthermal air plasma triggered apoptosis of B16F10 mouse melanoma cancer cells causing DNA damage and mitochondria dysfunction. Plasma treatment activated caspase-3, apoptosis executioner. The plasma treated cells also accumulated gamma-H2A.X, marker for DNA double strand breaks, and p53 tumor suppressor gene as a response to DNA damage. Interestingly, cytochrome C was released from mitochondria and its membrane potential was changed significantly.

  10. Denbinobin induces apoptosis by apoptosis-inducing factor releasing and DNA damage in human colorectal cancer HCT-116 cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzu-Hsuan; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Guh, Jih-Hwa; Chen, Chien-Chih; Huang, Yao-Ting; Pai, Hui-Chen; Teng, Che-Ming

    2008-11-01

    Denbinobin is a phenanthraquinone derivative present in the stems of Ephemerantha lonchophylla. We showed that denbinobin induces apoptosis in human colorectal cancer cells (HCT-116) in a concentration-dependent manner. The addition of a pan-caspase inhibitor (zVAD-fmk) did not suppress the denbinobin-induced apoptotic effect, and denbinobin-induced apoptosis was not accompanied by processing of procaspase-3, -6, -7, -9, and -8. However, denbinobin triggered the translocation of the apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria into the nucleus. Small interfering RNA targeting of AIF effectively protected HCT-116 cells against denbinobin-induced apoptosis. Denbinobin treatment also caused DNA damage, activation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene, and upregulation of numerous downstream effectors (p21WAF1/CIP1, Bax, PUMA, and NOXA). A HCT-116 xenograft model demonstrated the in vivo efficacy and low toxicity of denbinobin. Taken together, our findings suggest that denbinobin induces apoptosis of human colorectal cancer HCT-116 cells via DNA damage and an AIF-mediated pathway. These results indicate that denbinobin has potential as a novel anticancer agent. PMID:18607570

  11. Anti-BrdUrd labeling of newly synthesized DNA in HL-60 cells triggered to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zamai, L; Falcieri, E; Gobbi, P; Santi, S; Falconi, M; Marhefka, G; Vitale, M

    1996-12-01

    Apoptosis is an active process that takes place during pre- and postnatal life. It can be viewed as the essential counterpart to cell proliferation, both phenomena being aimed at the maintenance of tissue and organ homeostasis. Because apoptosis often takes place during the S phase of the cell cycle, we describe the spatial and temporal correlation between DNA synthesis and DNA cleavage taking place in the same nucleus at the same time as a result of the action of camptothecin on proliferating HL-60 cells in vitro. The relationship between DNA synthesis and DNA fragmentation was studied at the single-cell level by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) incorporation revealed by flow cytometry, electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy. Most HL-60 cells are triggered to apoptosis during the first hour of treatment with camptothecin, and only cells in early-middle S phase are sensitive to the drug effect, whereas late S phase cells appear insensitive to camptothecin-induced apoptosis. Our data, therefore, reinforce the hypothesis of a DNA strand break threshold that may exist in the cell, beyond which the apoptotic program is activated. Moreover, DNA synthesis activity in the nucleus committed to apoptosis is gradually downregulated; after 6 h of camptothecin treatment, virtually no residual DNA replication activity can be detected in micronuclei. DNA repair does not appear to be involved in bromode-oxyuridine incorporation during the apoptotic process. PMID:8946139

  12. The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos confers its genotoxic effects by inducing DNA damage and cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Diqiu; Huang, Qingchun; Lu, Miaoqing; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Zhichuan; Zong, Mimi; Tao, Liming

    2015-09-01

    The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) is known to induce neurological effects, malformation and micronucleus formation, persistent developmental disorders, and maternal toxicity in rats and mice. The binding of chlorpyrifos with DNA to produce DNA adducts leads to an increasing social concern about the genotoxic risk of CPF in human, but CPF-induced cytotoxicity through DNA damage and cell apoptosis is not well understood. Here, we quantified the cytotoxicity and potential genotoxicity of CPF using the alkaline comet assay, γH2AX foci formation, and the DNA laddering assay in order to detect DNA damage and apoptosis in human HeLa and HEK293 cells in vitro. Drosophila S2 cells were used as a positive control. The alkaline comet assay showed that sublethal concentrations of CPF induced significant concentration-dependent increases in single-strand DNA breaks in the treated cells compared with the control. The percentage of γH2AX-positive HeLa cells revealed that CPF also causes DNA double-strand breaks in a time-dependent manner. Moreover, DNA fragmentation analysis demonstrated that exposure to CPF induced a significant concentration- and time-dependent increase in cell apoptosis. We conclude that CPF is a strongly genotoxic agent that induces DNA damage and cell apoptosis. PMID:26002045

  13. The Role of Mitochondrial DNA in Mediating Alveolar Epithelial Cell Apoptosis and Pulmonary Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok-Jo; Cheresh, Paul; Jablonski, Renea P.; Williams, David B.; Kamp, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Convincing evidence has emerged demonstrating that impairment of mitochondrial function is critically important in regulating alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) programmed cell death (apoptosis) that may contribute to aging-related lung diseases, such as idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and asbestosis (pulmonary fibrosis following asbestos exposure). The mammalian mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes for 13 proteins, including several essential for oxidative phosphorylation. We review the evidence implicating that oxidative stress-induced mtDNA damage promotes AEC apoptosis and pulmonary fibrosis. We focus on the emerging role for AEC mtDNA damage repair by 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) and mitochondrial aconitase (ACO-2) in maintaining mtDNA integrity which is important in preventing AEC apoptosis and asbestos-induced pulmonary fibrosis in a murine model. We then review recent studies linking the sirtuin (SIRT) family members, especially SIRT3, to mitochondrial integrity and mtDNA damage repair and aging. We present a conceptual model of how SIRTs modulate reactive oxygen species (ROS)-driven mitochondrial metabolism that may be important for their tumor suppressor function. The emerging insights into the pathobiology underlying AEC mtDNA damage and apoptosis is suggesting novel therapeutic targets that may prove useful for the management of age-related diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer. PMID:26370974

  14. DNA-PK-mediated phosphorylation of EZH2 regulates the DNA damage-induced apoptosis to maintain T-cell genomic integrity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Sun, H; Wang, J; Wang, H; Meng, L; Xu, C; Jin, M; Wang, B; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhu, T

    2016-01-01

    EZH2 is a histone methyltransferase whose functions in stem cells and tumor cells are well established. Accumulating evidence shows that EZH2 has critical roles in T cells and could be a promising therapeutic target for several immune diseases. To further reveal the novel functions of EZH2 in human T cells, protein co-immunoprecipitation combined mass spectrometry was conducted and several previous unknown EZH2-interacting proteins were identified. Of them, we focused on a DNA damage responsive protein, Ku80, because of the limited knowledge regarding EZH2 in the DNA damage response. Then, we demonstrated that instead of being methylated by EZH2, Ku80 bridges the interaction between the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) complex and EZH2, thus facilitating EZH2 phosphorylation. Moreover, EZH2 histone methyltransferase activity was enhanced when Ku80 was knocked down or DNA-PK activity was inhibited, suggesting DNA-PK-mediated EZH2 phosphorylation impairs EZH2 histone methyltransferase activity. On the other hand, EZH2 inhibition increased the DNA damage level at the late phase of T-cell activation, suggesting EZH2 involved in genomic integrity maintenance. In conclusion, our study is the first to demonstrate that EZH2 is phosphorylated by the DNA damage responsive complex DNA-PK and regulates DNA damage-mediated T-cell apoptosis, which reveals a novel functional crosstalk between epigenetic regulation and genomic integrity. PMID:27468692

  15. DNA-PK-mediated phosphorylation of EZH2 regulates the DNA damage-induced apoptosis to maintain T-cell genomic integrity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Y; Sun, H; Wang, J; Wang, H; Meng, L; Xu, C; Jin, M; Wang, B; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhu, T

    2016-01-01

    EZH2 is a histone methyltransferase whose functions in stem cells and tumor cells are well established. Accumulating evidence shows that EZH2 has critical roles in T cells and could be a promising therapeutic target for several immune diseases. To further reveal the novel functions of EZH2 in human T cells, protein co-immunoprecipitation combined mass spectrometry was conducted and several previous unknown EZH2-interacting proteins were identified. Of them, we focused on a DNA damage responsive protein, Ku80, because of the limited knowledge regarding EZH2 in the DNA damage response. Then, we demonstrated that instead of being methylated by EZH2, Ku80 bridges the interaction between the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) complex and EZH2, thus facilitating EZH2 phosphorylation. Moreover, EZH2 histone methyltransferase activity was enhanced when Ku80 was knocked down or DNA-PK activity was inhibited, suggesting DNA-PK-mediated EZH2 phosphorylation impairs EZH2 histone methyltransferase activity. On the other hand, EZH2 inhibition increased the DNA damage level at the late phase of T-cell activation, suggesting EZH2 involved in genomic integrity maintenance. In conclusion, our study is the first to demonstrate that EZH2 is phosphorylated by the DNA damage responsive complex DNA-PK and regulates DNA damage-mediated T-cell apoptosis, which reveals a novel functional crosstalk between epigenetic regulation and genomic integrity. PMID:27468692

  16. Sophoridinol derivative 05D induces tumor cells apoptosis by topoisomerase1-mediated DNA breakage

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Wuli; Zhang, Caixia; Bi, Chongwen; Ye, Cheng; Song, Danqing; Liu, Xiujun; Shao, Rongguang

    2016-01-01

    Sophoridine is a quinolizidine natural product of Sophora alopecuroides and has been applied for treatment of malignant trophoblastic tumors. Although characterized by low toxicity, the limited-spectrum antitumor activity hinders its further applications. 05D, a derivative of sophoridine, exhibits a better anticancer activity on diverse cancer cells, including solid tumors, and hematologic malignancy. It could inhibit topoisomerase 1 (top1) activity by stabilizing DNA–top1 complex and induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis by promoting DNA single- and double-strand breakage mediated by top1. Also, 05D induced HCT116 cells arrest at G1 phase by inactivating CDK2/CDK4–Rb–E2F and cyclinD1–CDK4–p21 checkpoint signal pathways. 05D suppressed the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) and ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) activation and decreased 53BP level, which contributed to DNA damage repair, suggesting that the novel compound 05D might be helpful to improve the antitumor activity of DNA damaging agent by repressing ATM and ATR activation and 53BP level. In addition, the priorities in molecular traits and druggability, such as a simple structure and formulation for oral administration, further prove 05D to be a promising targeting topoisomerase agent. PMID:27274276

  17. A new way of measuring apoptosis by absolute quantitation of inter-nucleosomally fragmented genomic DNA

    PubMed Central

    Hooker, David J.; Mobarok, Masqura; Anderson, Jenny L.; Rajasuriar, Reena; Gray, Lachlan R.; Ellett, Anne M.; Lewin, Sharon R.; Gorry, Paul R.; Cherry, Catherine L.

    2012-01-01

    Several critical events of apoptosis occur in the cell nucleus, including inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation (apoptotic DNA) and eventual chromatin condensation. The generation of apoptotic DNA has become a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis because it is a late ‘point of no return’ step in both the extrinsic (cell-death receptor) and intrinsic (mitochondrial) apoptotic pathways. Despite investigators observing apoptotic DNA and understanding its decisive role as a marker of apoptosis for over 20 years, measuring it has proved elusive. We have integrated ligation-mediated PCR and qPCR to design a new way of measuring apoptosis, termed ApoqPCR, which generates an absolute value for the amount (picogram) of apoptotic DNA per cell population. ApoqPCR’s advances over current methods include a 1000-fold linear dynamic range yet sensitivity to distinguish subtle low-level changes, measurement with a 3- to 4-log improvement in sample economy, and capacity for archival or longitudinal studies combined with high-throughput capability. We demonstrate ApoqPCR’s utility in both in vitro and in vivo contexts. Considering the fundamental role apoptosis has in vertebrate and invertebrate health, growth and disease, the reliable measurement of apoptotic nucleic acid by ApoqPCR will be of value in cell biology studies in basic and applied science. PMID:22544708

  18. Radiation induced apoptosis and initial DNA damage are inversely related in locally advanced breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background DNA-damage assays, quantifying the initial number of DNA double-strand breaks induced by radiation, have been proposed as a predictive test for radiation-induced toxicity. Determination of radiation-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes by flow cytometry analysis has also been proposed as an approach for predicting normal tissue responses following radiotherapy. The aim of the present study was to explore the association between initial DNA damage, estimated by the number of double-strand breaks induced by a given radiation dose, and the radio-induced apoptosis rates observed. Methods Peripheral blood lymphocytes were taken from 26 consecutive patients with locally advanced breast carcinoma. Radiosensitivity of lymphocytes was quantified as the initial number of DNA double-strand breaks induced per Gy and per DNA unit (200 Mbp). Radio-induced apoptosis at 1, 2 and 8 Gy was measured by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide. Results Radiation-induced apoptosis increased in order to radiation dose and data fitted to a semi logarithmic mathematical model. A positive correlation was found among radio-induced apoptosis values at different radiation doses: 1, 2 and 8 Gy (p < 0.0001 in all cases). Mean DSB/Gy/DNA unit obtained was 1.70 ± 0.83 (range 0.63-4.08; median, 1.46). A statistically significant inverse correlation was found between initial damage to DNA and radio-induced apoptosis at 1 Gy (p = 0.034). A trend toward 2 Gy (p = 0.057) and 8 Gy (p = 0.067) was observed after 24 hours of incubation. Conclusions An inverse association was observed for the first time between these variables, both considered as predictive factors to radiation toxicity. PMID:20868468

  19. Molecular Regulation of DNA Damage-Induced Apoptosis in Neurons of Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiping; Pipino, Jacqueline; Chestnut, Barry; Landek, Melissa A.

    2009-01-01

    Cerebral cortical neuron degeneration occurs in brain disorders manifesting throughout life, but the mechanisms are understood poorly. We used cultured embryonic mouse cortical neurons and an in vivo mouse model to study mechanisms of DNA damaged-induced apoptosis in immature and differentiated neurons. p53 drives apoptosis of immature and differentiated cortical neurons through its rapid and prominent activation stimulated by DNA strand breaks induced by topoisomerase-I and -II inhibition. Blocking p53-DNA transactivation with α-pifithrin protects immature neurons; blocking p53-mitochondrial functions with μ-pifithrin protects differentiated neurons. Mitochondrial death proteins are upregulated in apoptotic immature and differentiated neurons and have nonredundant proapoptotic functions; Bak is more dominant than Bax in differentiated neurons. p53 phosphorylation is mediated by ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase. ATM inactivation is antiapoptotic, particularly in differentiated neurons, whereas inhibition of c-Abl protects immature neurons but not differentiated neurons. Cell death protein expression patterns in mouse forebrain are mostly similar to cultured neurons. DNA damage induces prominent p53 activation and apoptosis in cerebral cortex in vivo. Thus, DNA strand breaks in cortical neurons induce rapid p53-mediated apoptosis through actions of upstream ATM and c-Abl kinases and downstream mitochondrial death proteins. This molecular network operates through variations depending on neuron maturity. PMID:18820287

  20. Choline deficiency increases lymphocyte apoptosis and DNA damage in humans2,3

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Kerry-Ann; Niculescu, Mihai D; Craciunescu, Corneliu N; Fischer, Leslie M; Zeisel, Steven H

    2008-01-01

    Background: Whereas deficiency of the essential nutrient choline is associated with DNA damage and apoptosis in cell and rodent models, it has not been shown in humans. Objective: The objective was to ascertain whether lymphocytes from choline-deficient humans had greater DNA damage and apoptosis than did those from choline-sufficient humans. Design: Fifty-one men and women aged 18–70 y were fed a diet containing the recommended adequate intake of choline (control) for 10 d. They then were fed a choline-deficient diet for up to 42 d before repletion with 138–550 mg choline/d. Blood was collected at the end of each phase, and peripheral lymphocytes were isolated. DNA damage and apoptosis were then assessed by activation of caspase-3, terminal deoxynucleotide transferase–mediated dUTP nick end-labeling, and single-cell gel electrophoresis (COMET) assays. Results: All subjects fed the choline-deficient diet had lymphocyte DNA damage, as assessed by COMET assay, twice that found when they were fed the control diet. The subjects who developed organ dysfunction (liver or muscle) when fed the choline-deficient diet had significantly more apoptotic lymphocytes, as assessed by the activated caspase-3 assay, than when fed the control diet. Conclusions: A choline-deficient diet increased DNA damage in humans. Subjects in whom these diets induced liver or muscle dys-function also had higher rates of apoptosis in their peripheral lymphocytes than did subjects who did not develop organ dysfunction. Assessment of DNA damage and apoptosis in lymphocytes appears to be a clinically useful measure in humans (such as those receiving parenteral nutrition) in whom choline deficiency is suspected. PMID:16825685

  1. Viral Single-Strand DNA Induces p53-Dependent Apoptosis in Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Matthew L.; Fagan, B. Matthew; Dumitru, Raluca; Bower, Jacquelyn J.; Yadav, Swati; Porteus, Matthew H.; Pevny, Larysa H.; Samulski, R. Jude

    2011-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) are primed for rapid apoptosis following mild forms of genotoxic stress. A natural form of such cellular stress occurs in response to recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) single-strand DNA genomes, which exploit the host DNA damage response for replication and genome persistence. Herein, we discovered a unique DNA damage response induced by rAAV transduction specific to pluripotent hESCs. Within hours following rAAV transduction, host DNA damage signaling was elicited as measured by increased gamma-H2AX, ser15-p53 phosphorylation, and subsequent p53-dependent transcriptional activation. Nucleotide incorporation assays demonstrated that rAAV transduced cells accumulated in early S-phase followed by the induction of apoptosis. This lethal signaling sequalae required p53 in a manner independent of transcriptional induction of Puma, Bax and Bcl-2 and was not evident in cells differentiated towards a neural lineage. Consistent with a lethal DNA damage response induced upon rAAV transduction of hESCs, empty AAV protein capsids demonstrated no toxicity. In contrast, DNA microinjections demonstrated that the minimal AAV origin of replication and, in particular, a 40 nucleotide G-rich tetrad repeat sequence, was sufficient for hESC apoptosis. Our data support a model in which rAAV transduction of hESCs induces a p53-dependent lethal response that is elicited by a telomeric sequence within the AAV origin of replication. PMID:22114676

  2. Geraniin down regulates gamma radiation-induced apoptosis by suppressing DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Bing, So Jin; Ha, Danbee; Kim, Min Ju; Park, Eunjin; Ahn, Ginnae; Kim, Dae Seung; Ko, Ryeo Kyeong; Park, Jae Woo; Lee, Nam Ho; Jee, Youngheun

    2013-07-01

    Gamma ray irradiation triggers DNA damage and apoptosis of proliferating stem cells and peripheral immune cells, resulting in the destruction of intestinal crypts and lymphoid system. Geraniin is a natural compound extracts from an aquatic plant Nymphaea tetragona and possesses good antioxidant property. In this study, we demonstrate that geraniin rescues radiosensitive splenocytes and jejunal crypt cells from radiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis. Isolated splenocytes from C57BL/6 mice treated with geraniin were protected against radiation injury of 2 Gy irradiation through the enhancement of the proliferation and attenuation of DNA damage. Also, geraniin inhibited apoptosis in radiosensitive splenocytes by reducing the expression level and immunoreactivity of proapoptotic p53 and Bax and increasing those of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. In mice exposed to radiation, geraniin treatment protected splenocytes and intestinal crypt cells from radiation-induced cell death. Our results suggest that geraniin presents radioprotective effects by regulating DNA damage on splenocytes, exerting immunostimulatory capacities and inhibiting apoptosis of radiosensitive immune cells and jejunal crypt cells. Therefore, geraniin can be a radioprotective agent against γ-irradiation exposure. PMID:23541438

  3. Facilitation of DNA damage-induced apoptosis by endoplasmic reticulum protein mitsugumin23

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Tetsuo; Sasaki, Nozomi; Nishi, Miyuki; Takeshima, Hiroshi

    2010-02-05

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) emanates context-dependent signals, thereby mediating cellular response to a variety of stresses. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms have been enigmatic. To better understand the signaling capacity of the ER, we focused on roles played by mitsugumin23 (MG23), a protein residing predominantly in this organelle. Overexpression of MG23 in human embryonic kidney 293T cells specifically enhanced apoptosis triggered by etoposide, a DNA-damaging anti-cancer drug. Conversely, genetic deletion of MG23 reduced susceptibility of thymocytes to DNA damage-induced apoptosis, which was demonstrated by whole-body irradiation experiments. In this setting, induction of the tumor-suppressor gene p53 was attenuated in MG23-knockout thymocytes as compared with their wild-type counterparts, consistent with the elevated radioresistance. It is therefore suggested that MG23 is an essential component of ER-generated lethal signals provoked upon DNA damage, specifying cell fate under pathophysiological conditions.

  4. Renovascular Hypertension Leads to DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Bone Marrow Cells

    PubMed Central

    Campagnaro, Bianca P.; Tonini, Clarissa L.; Doche, Luciano M.; Nogueira, Breno V.; Vasquez, Elisardo C.

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II), which plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of the two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C) Goldblatt hypertension, has been associated with augmented generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in some cells and tissues. In the present study, we evaluated the influence of 2K1C hypertension on oxidative stress, DNA fragmentation, and apoptosis of bone marrow (BM) cells. Two weeks after the renal artery clipping or Sham operation, flow cytometry analysis showed a higher production of superoxide anions (approximately sixfold) and hydrogen peroxide (approximately twofold) in 2K1C hypertensive than in Sham normotensive mice. 2K1C mice also showed an augmented DNA fragmentation (54%) and apoptotic cells (21%). Our data show that the 2K1C renovascular hypertension is characterized by an increased production of ROS, DNA damage, and apoptosis of BM, which is a fundamental source of the cells involved in tissue repair. PMID:23786322

  5. MYCN sensitizes human neuroblastoma to apoptosis by HIPK2 activation through a DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Petroni, Marialaura; Veschi, Veronica; Prodosmo, Andrea; Rinaldo, Cinzia; Massimi, Isabella; Carbonari, Maurizio; Dominici, Carlo; McDowell, Heather P; Rinaldi, Christian; Screpanti, Isabella; Frati, Luigi; Bartolazzi, Armando; Gulino, Alberto; Soddu, Silvia; Giannini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    MYCN amplification occurs in approximately 20% of human neuroblastomas and is associated with early tumor progression and poor outcome, despite intensive multimodal treatment. However, MYCN overexpression also sensitizes neuroblastoma cells to apoptosis. Thus, uncovering the molecular mechanisms linking MYCN to apoptosis might contribute to designing more efficient therapies for MYCN-amplified tumors. Here we show that MYCN-dependent sensitization to apoptosis requires activation of p53 and its phosphorylation at serine 46. The p53(S46) kinase HIPK2 accumulates on MYCN expression, and its depletion by RNA interference impairs p53(S46) phosphorylation and apoptosis. Remarkably, MYCN induces a DNA damage response that accounts for the inhibition of HIPK2 degradation through an ATM- and NBS1-dependent pathway. Prompted by the rare occurrence of p53 mutations and by the broad expression of HIPK2 in our human neuroblastoma series, we evaluated the effects of the p53-reactivating compound Nutlin-3 on this pathway. At variance from other tumor histotypes, in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma, Nutlin-3 further induced HIPK2 accumulation, p53(S46) phosphorylation, and apoptosis, and in combination with clastogenic agents purged virtually the entire cell population. Altogether, our data uncover a novel mechanism linking MYCN to apoptosis that can be triggered by the p53-reactivating compound Nutlin-3, supporting its use in the most difficult-to-treat subset of neuroblastoma. PMID:21173028

  6. Induction of ROS Overload by Alantolactone Prompts Oxidative DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yushuang; Wang, Hongge; Niu, Jiajing; Luo, Manyu; Gou, Yangmei; Miao, Lining; Zou, Zhihua; Cheng, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells typically display higher than normal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may promote cancer development and progression but may also render the cancer cells more vulnerable to further ROS insult. Indeed, many of the current anticancer therapeutics kill cancer cells via induction of oxidative stress, though they target both cancer and normal cells. Recently, alantolactone (ATL), a natural sesquiterpene lactone, has been shown to induce apoptosis by increasing ROS levels specifically in cancer cells; however, the molecular mechanisms linking ROS overproduction to apoptosis remain unclear. Here we show that the ATL-induced ROS overload in human SW480 and SW1116 colorectal cancer cells was followed by a prominent accumulation of cellular oxidized guanine (8-oxoG) and immediate increase in the number of DNA strand breaks, indicating that increased ROS resulted in extensive oxidative DNA damage. Consequently, the G1/S-CDK suppresser CDKN1B (p21) and pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and activated caspase-3 were upregulated, while anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was downregulated, which were followed by cell cycle arrest at G1 and marked apoptosis in ATL-treated cancer but not non-cancer cells. These results suggest that the ATL-induced ROS overload triggers cell death through induction of massive oxidative DNA damage and subsequent activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. PMID:27089328

  7. Induction of ROS Overload by Alantolactone Prompts Oxidative DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yushuang; Wang, Hongge; Niu, Jiajing; Luo, Manyu; Gou, Yangmei; Miao, Lining; Zou, Zhihua; Cheng, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells typically display higher than normal levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which may promote cancer development and progression but may also render the cancer cells more vulnerable to further ROS insult. Indeed, many of the current anticancer therapeutics kill cancer cells via induction of oxidative stress, though they target both cancer and normal cells. Recently, alantolactone (ATL), a natural sesquiterpene lactone, has been shown to induce apoptosis by increasing ROS levels specifically in cancer cells; however, the molecular mechanisms linking ROS overproduction to apoptosis remain unclear. Here we show that the ATL-induced ROS overload in human SW480 and SW1116 colorectal cancer cells was followed by a prominent accumulation of cellular oxidized guanine (8-oxoG) and immediate increase in the number of DNA strand breaks, indicating that increased ROS resulted in extensive oxidative DNA damage. Consequently, the G₁/S-CDK suppresser CDKN1B (p21) and pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and activated caspase-3 were upregulated, while anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was downregulated, which were followed by cell cycle arrest at G₁ and marked apoptosis in ATL-treated cancer but not non-cancer cells. These results suggest that the ATL-induced ROS overload triggers cell death through induction of massive oxidative DNA damage and subsequent activation of the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. PMID:27089328

  8. Rescue of Hippo coactivator YAP1 triggers DNA damage-induced apoptosis in hematological cancers.

    PubMed

    Cottini, Francesca; Hideshima, Teru; Xu, Chunxiao; Sattler, Martin; Dori, Martina; Agnelli, Luca; ten Hacken, Elisa; Bertilaccio, Maria Teresa; Antonini, Elena; Neri, Antonino; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Marcatti, Magda; Richardson, Paul G; Carrasco, Ruben; Kimmelman, Alec C; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Blandino, Giovanni; Kuehl, W Michael; Anderson, Kenneth C; Tonon, Giovanni

    2014-06-01

    Oncogene-induced DNA damage elicits genomic instability in epithelial cancer cells, but apoptosis is blocked through inactivation of the tumor suppressor p53. In hematological cancers, the relevance of ongoing DNA damage and the mechanisms by which apoptosis is suppressed are largely unknown. We found pervasive DNA damage in hematologic malignancies, including multiple myeloma, lymphoma and leukemia, which leads to activation of a p53-independent, proapoptotic network centered on nuclear relocalization of ABL1 kinase. Although nuclear ABL1 triggers cell death through its interaction with the Hippo pathway coactivator YAP1 in normal cells, we show that low YAP1 levels prevent nuclear ABL1-induced apoptosis in these hematologic malignancies. YAP1 is under the control of a serine-threonine kinase, STK4. Notably, genetic inactivation of STK4 restores YAP1 levels, triggering cell death in vitro and in vivo. Our data therefore identify a new synthetic-lethal strategy to selectively target cancer cells presenting with endogenous DNA damage and low YAP1 levels. PMID:24813251

  9. Docosahexaenoic Acid Induces Oxidative DNA Damage and Apoptosis, and Enhances the Chemosensitivity of Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Song, Eun Ah; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    The human diet contains low amounts of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and high amounts of ω-6 PUFAs, which has been reported to contribute to the incidence of cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown that a high consumption of fish oil or ω-3 PUFAs reduced the risk of colon, pancreatic, and endometrial cancers. The ω-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), shows anticancer activity by inducing apoptosis of some human cancer cells without toxicity against normal cells. DHA induces oxidative stress and oxidative DNA adduct formation by depleting intracellular glutathione (GSH) and decreasing the mitochondrial function of cancer cells. Oxidative DNA damage and DNA strand breaks activate DNA damage responses to repair the damaged DNA. However, excessive DNA damage beyond the capacity of the DNA repair processes may initiate apoptotic signaling pathways and cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. DHA shows a variable inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth depending on the cells’ molecular properties and degree of malignancy. It has been shown to affect DNA repair processes including DNA-dependent protein kinases and mismatch repair in cancer cells. Moreover, DHA enhanced the efficacy of anticancer drugs by increasing drug uptake and suppressing survival pathways in cancer cells. In this review, DHA-induced oxidative DNA damage, apoptotic signaling, and enhancement of chemosensitivity in cancer cells will be discussed based on recent studies. PMID:27527148

  10. Docosahexaenoic Acid Induces Oxidative DNA Damage and Apoptosis, and Enhances the Chemosensitivity of Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Eun Ah; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2016-01-01

    The human diet contains low amounts of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and high amounts of ω-6 PUFAs, which has been reported to contribute to the incidence of cancer. Epidemiological studies have shown that a high consumption of fish oil or ω-3 PUFAs reduced the risk of colon, pancreatic, and endometrial cancers. The ω-3 PUFA, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), shows anticancer activity by inducing apoptosis of some human cancer cells without toxicity against normal cells. DHA induces oxidative stress and oxidative DNA adduct formation by depleting intracellular glutathione (GSH) and decreasing the mitochondrial function of cancer cells. Oxidative DNA damage and DNA strand breaks activate DNA damage responses to repair the damaged DNA. However, excessive DNA damage beyond the capacity of the DNA repair processes may initiate apoptotic signaling pathways and cell cycle arrest in cancer cells. DHA shows a variable inhibitory effect on cancer cell growth depending on the cells' molecular properties and degree of malignancy. It has been shown to affect DNA repair processes including DNA-dependent protein kinases and mismatch repair in cancer cells. Moreover, DHA enhanced the efficacy of anticancer drugs by increasing drug uptake and suppressing survival pathways in cancer cells. In this review, DHA-induced oxidative DNA damage, apoptotic signaling, and enhancement of chemosensitivity in cancer cells will be discussed based on recent studies. PMID:27527148

  11. Mitochondrial Telomerase Protects Cancer Cells from Nuclear DNA Damage and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Singhapol, Chatchawan; Pal, Deepali; Czapiewski, Rafal; Porika, Mahendar; Nelson, Glyn; Saretzki, Gabriele C.

    2013-01-01

    Most cancer cells express high levels of telomerase and proliferate indefinitely. In addition to its telomere maintenance function, telomerase also has a pro-survival function resulting in an increased resistance against DNA damage and decreased apoptosis induction. However, the molecular mechanisms for this protective function remain elusive and it is unclear whether it is connected to telomere maintenance or is rather a non-telomeric function of the telomerase protein, TERT. It was shown recently that the protein subunit of telomerase can shuttle from the nucleus to the mitochondria upon oxidative stress where it protects mitochondrial function and decreases intracellular oxidative stress. Here we show that endogenous telomerase (TERT protein) shuttles from the nucleus into mitochondria upon oxidative stress in cancer cells and analyzed the nuclear exclusion patterns of endogenous telomerase after treatment with hydrogen peroxide in different cell lines. Cell populations excluded TERT from the nucleus upon oxidative stress in a heterogeneous fashion. We found a significant correlation between nuclear localization of telomerase and high DNA damage, while cells which excluded telomerase from the nucleus displayed no or very low DNA damage. We modeled nuclear and mitochondrial telomerase using organelle specific localization vectors and confirmed that mitochondrial localization of telomerase protects the nucleus from inflicted DNA damage and apoptosis while, in contrast, nuclear localization of telomerase correlated with higher amounts of DNA damage and apoptosis. It is known that nuclear DNA damage can be caused by mitochondrially generated reactive oxygen species (ROS). We demonstrate here that mitochondrial localization of telomerase specifically prevents nuclear DNA damage by decreasing levels of mitochondrial ROS. We suggest that this decrease of oxidative stress might be a possible cause for high stress resistance of cancer cells and could be especially

  12. Firpronil induced spermotoxicity is associated with oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis in male rats.

    PubMed

    Khan, Saleem; Jan, M H; Kumar, Dhirendra; Telang, A G

    2015-10-01

    The present study is the first to investigate and characterize the fipronil (FPN) induced spermotoxicity in male rats. Male rats were orally given FPN (2.5, 5.0 and 10 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. Epididymal sperms were collected and remaining testis was processed for histopathological evaluation. FPN treatment significantly reduced sperm density, motility, viability and per cent intact acrosome along with concomitant increase in spermatozoa abnormalities. Exposure of FPN caused excessive ROS generation, lipid peroxidation and alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential leading to apoptosis of spermatozoa in dose dependent manner. Higher FPN doses (5 and 10 mg/kg) markedly reduced the DNA integrity of spermatozoa. These data suggest that FPN causes male reproductive toxicity through oxidative stress induced DNA damage and apoptosis of spermatozoa. PMID:26453224

  13. The small molecule calactin induces DNA damage and apoptosis in human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chien-Chih; Lin, Yi-Hsiung; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Wu, Yang-Chang; Chang, Jan-Gowth

    2012-09-01

    We purified calactin from the roots of the Chinese herb Asclepias curassavica L. and analyzed its biologic effects in human leukemia cells. Our results showed that calactin treatment caused DNA damage and resulted in apoptosis. Increased phosphorylation levels of Chk2 and H2AX were observed and were reversed by the DNA damage inhibitor caffeine in calactin-treated cells. In addition, calactin treatment showed that a decrease in the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins Cyclin B1, Cdk1, and Cdc25C was consistent with a G2/M phase arrest. Furthermore, calactin induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation, activation of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9, and PARP cleavage. Pretreatment with the ERK inhibitor PD98059 significantly blocked the loss of viability in calactin-treated cells. It is indicated that calactin-induced apoptosis may occur through an ERK signaling pathway. Our data suggest that calactin is a potential anticancer compound. PMID:22828439

  14. How to limit false positives in environmental DNA and metabarcoding?

    PubMed

    Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric

    2016-05-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) and metabarcoding are boosting our ability to acquire data on species distribution in a variety of ecosystems. Nevertheless, as most of sampling approaches, eDNA is not perfect. It can fail to detect species that are actually present, and even false positives are possible: a species may be apparently detected in areas where it is actually absent. Controlling false positives remains a main challenge for eDNA analyses: in this issue of Molecular Ecology Resources, Lahoz-Monfort et al. () test the performance of multiple statistical modelling approaches to estimate the rate of detection and false positives from eDNA data. Here, we discuss the importance of controlling for false detection from early steps of eDNA analyses (laboratory, bioinformatics), to improve the quality of results and allow an efficient use of the site occupancy-detection modelling (SODM) framework for limiting false presences in eDNA analysis. PMID:27062589

  15. XPD-dependent activation of apoptosis in response to triplex-induced DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik Tiwari, Meetu; Rogers, Faye A.

    2013-01-01

    DNA sequences capable of forming triplexes are prevalent in the human genome and have been found to be intrinsically mutagenic. Consequently, a balance between DNA repair and apoptosis is critical to counteract their effect on genomic integrity. Using triplex-forming oligonucleotides to synthetically create altered helical distortions, we have determined that pro-apoptotic pathways are activated by the formation of triplex structures. Moreover, the TFIIH factor, XPD, occupies a central role in triggering apoptosis in response to triplex-induced DNA strand breaks. Here, we show that triplexes are capable of inducing XPD-independent double strand breaks, which result in the formation of γH2AX foci. XPD was subsequently recruited to the triplex-induced double strand breaks and co-localized with γH2AX at the damage site. Furthermore, phosphorylation of H2AX tyrosine 142 was found to stimulate the signaling pathway of XPD-dependent apoptosis. We suggest that this mechanism may play an active role in minimizing genomic instability induced by naturally occurring noncanonical structures, perhaps protecting against cancer initiation. PMID:23913414

  16. Nitric Oxide Suppresses β-Cell Apoptosis by Inhibiting the DNA Damage Response.

    PubMed

    Oleson, Bryndon J; Broniowska, Katarzyna A; Naatz, Aaron; Hogg, Neil; Tarakanova, Vera L; Corbett, John A

    2016-08-01

    Nitric oxide, produced in pancreatic β cells in response to proinflammatory cytokines, plays a dual role in the regulation of β-cell fate. While nitric oxide induces cellular damage and impairs β-cell function, it also promotes β-cell survival through activation of protective pathways that promote β-cell recovery. In this study, we identify a novel mechanism in which nitric oxide prevents β-cell apoptosis by attenuating the DNA damage response (DDR). Nitric oxide suppresses activation of the DDR (as measured by γH2AX formation and the phosphorylation of KAP1 and p53) in response to multiple genotoxic agents, including camptothecin, H2O2, and nitric oxide itself, despite the presence of DNA damage. While camptothecin and H2O2 both induce DDR activation, nitric oxide suppresses only camptothecin-induced apoptosis and not H2O2-induced necrosis. The ability of nitric oxide to suppress the DDR appears to be selective for pancreatic β cells, as nitric oxide fails to inhibit DDR signaling in macrophages, hepatocytes, and fibroblasts, three additional cell types examined. While originally described as the damaging agent responsible for cytokine-induced β-cell death, these studies identify a novel role for nitric oxide as a protective molecule that promotes β-cell survival by suppressing DDR signaling and attenuating DNA damage-induced apoptosis. PMID:27185882

  17. Mitochondrial DNA Toxicity in Forebrain Neurons Causes Apoptosis, Neurodegeneration, and Impaired Behavior ▿

    PubMed Central

    Lauritzen, Knut H.; Moldestad, Olve; Eide, Lars; Carlsen, Harald; Nesse, Gaute; Storm, Johan F.; Mansuy, Isabelle M.; Bergersen, Linda H.; Klungland, Arne

    2010-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction underlying changes in neurodegenerative diseases is often associated with apoptosis and a progressive loss of neurons, and damage to the mitochondrial genome is proposed to be involved in such pathologies. In the present study we designed a mouse model that allows us to specifically induce mitochondrial DNA toxicity in the forebrain neurons of adult mice. This is achieved by CaMKIIα-regulated inducible expression of a mutated version of the mitochondrial UNG DNA repair enzyme (mutUNG1). This enzyme is capable of removing thymine from the mitochondrial genome. We demonstrate that a continual generation of apyrimidinic sites causes apoptosis and neuronal death. These defects are associated with behavioral alterations characterized by increased locomotor activity, impaired cognitive abilities, and lack of anxietylike responses. In summary, whereas mitochondrial base substitution and deletions previously have been shown to correlate with premature and natural aging, respectively, we show that a high level of apyrimidinic sites lead to mitochondrial DNA cytotoxicity, which causes apoptosis, followed by neurodegeneration. PMID:20065039

  18. ASCIZ regulates lesion-specific Rad51 focus formation and apoptosis after methylating DNA damage.

    PubMed

    McNees, Carolyn J; Conlan, Lindus A; Tenis, Nora; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2005-07-01

    Nuclear Rad51 focus formation is required for homology-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), but its regulation in response to non-DSB lesions is poorly understood. Here we report a novel human SQ/TQ cluster domain-containing protein termed ASCIZ that forms Rad51-containing foci in response to base-modifying DNA methylating agents but not in response to DSB-inducing agents. ASCIZ foci seem to form prior to Rad51 recruitment, and an ASCIZ core domain can concentrate Rad51 in focus-like structures independently of DNA damage. ASCIZ depletion dramatically increases apoptosis after methylating DNA damage and impairs Rad51 focus formation in response to methylating agents but not after ionizing radiation. ASCIZ focus formation and increased apoptosis in ASCIZ-depleted cells depend on the mismatch repair protein MLH1. Interestingly, ASCIZ foci form efficiently during G1 phase, when sister chromatids are unavailable as recombination templates. We propose that ASCIZ acts as a lesion-specific focus scaffold in a Rad51-dependent pathway that resolves cytotoxic repair intermediates, most likely single-stranded DNA gaps, resulting from MLH1-dependent processing of base lesions. PMID:15933716

  19. ASCIZ regulates lesion-specific Rad51 focus formation and apoptosis after methylating DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    McNees, Carolyn J; Conlan, Lindus A; Tenis, Nora; Heierhorst, Jörg

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear Rad51 focus formation is required for homology-directed repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), but its regulation in response to non-DSB lesions is poorly understood. Here we report a novel human SQ/TQ cluster domain-containing protein termed ASCIZ that forms Rad51-containing foci in response to base-modifying DNA methylating agents but not in response to DSB-inducing agents. ASCIZ foci seem to form prior to Rad51 recruitment, and an ASCIZ core domain can concentrate Rad51 in focus-like structures independently of DNA damage. ASCIZ depletion dramatically increases apoptosis after methylating DNA damage and impairs Rad51 focus formation in response to methylating agents but not after ionizing radiation. ASCIZ focus formation and increased apoptosis in ASCIZ-depleted cells depend on the mismatch repair protein MLH1. Interestingly, ASCIZ foci form efficiently during G1 phase, when sister chromatids are unavailable as recombination templates. We propose that ASCIZ acts as a lesion-specific focus scaffold in a Rad51-dependent pathway that resolves cytotoxic repair intermediates, most likely single-stranded DNA gaps, resulting from MLH1-dependent processing of base lesions. PMID:15933716

  20. DNA-PK mediates AKT activation and apoptosis inhibition in clinically acquired platinum resistance.

    PubMed

    Stronach, Euan A; Chen, Michelle; Maginn, Elaina N; Agarwal, Roshan; Mills, Gordon B; Wasan, Harpreet; Gabra, Hani

    2011-11-01

    Clinical resistance to chemotherapy is a frequent event in cancer treatment and is closely linked to poor outcome. High-grade serous (HGS) ovarian cancer is characterized by p53 mutation and high levels of genomic instability. Treatment includes platinum-based chemotherapy and initial response rates are high; however, resistance is frequently acquired, at which point treatment options are largely palliative. Recent data indicate that platinum-resistant clones exist within the sensitive primary tumor at presentation, implying resistant cell selection after treatment with platinum chemotherapy. The AKT pathway is central to cell survival and has been implicated in platinum resistance. Here, we show that platinum exposure induces an AKT-dependent, prosurvival, DNA damage response in clinically platinum-resistant but not platinum-sensitive cells. AKT relocates to the nucleus of resistant cells where it is phosphorylated specifically on S473 by DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), and this activation inhibits cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. Inhibition of DNA-PK or AKT, but not mTORC2, restores platinum sensitivity in a panel of clinically resistant HGS ovarian cancer cell lines: we also demonstrate these effects in other tumor types. Resensitization is associated with prevention of AKT-mediated BAD phosphorylation. Strikingly, in patient-matched sensitive cells, we do not see enhanced apoptosis on combining cisplatin with AKT or DNA-PK inhibition. Insulin-mediated activation of AKT is unaffected by DNA-PK inhibitor treatment, suggesting that this effect is restricted to DNA damage-mediated activation of AKT and that, clinically, DNA-PK inhibition might prevent platinum-induced AKT activation without interfering with normal glucose homeostasis, an unwanted toxicity of direct AKT inhibitors. PMID:22131882

  1. DNA-PK Mediates AKT Activation and Apoptosis Inhibition in Clinically Acquired Platinum Resistance12

    PubMed Central

    Stronach, Euan A; Chen, Michelle; Maginn, Elaina N; Agarwal, Roshan; Mills, Gordon B; Wasan, Harpreet; Gabra, Hani

    2011-01-01

    Clinical resistance to chemotherapy is a frequent event in cancer treatment and is closely linked to poor outcome. High-grade serous (HGS) ovarian cancer is characterized by p53 mutation and high levels of genomic instability. Treatment includes platinum-based chemotherapy and initial response rates are high; however, resistance is frequently acquired, at which point treatment options are largely palliative. Recent data indicate that platinum-resistant clones exist within the sensitive primary tumor at presentation, implying resistant cell selection after treatment with platinum chemotherapy. The AKT pathway is central to cell survival and has been implicated in platinum resistance. Here, we show that platinum exposure induces an AKT-dependent, prosurvival, DNA damage response in clinically platinum-resistant but not platinum-sensitive cells. AKT relocates to the nucleus of resistant cells where it is phosphorylated specifically on S473 by DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), and this activation inhibits cisplatin-mediated apoptosis. Inhibition of DNA-PK or AKT, but not mTORC2, restores platinum sensitivity in a panel of clinically resistant HGS ovarian cancer cell lines: we also demonstrate these effects in other tumor types. Resensitization is associated with prevention of AKT-mediated BAD phosphorylation. Strikingly, in patient-matched sensitive cells, we do not see enhanced apoptosis on combining cisplatin with AKT or DNA-PK inhibition. Insulin-mediated activation of AKT is unaffected by DNA-PK inhibitor treatment, suggesting that this effect is restricted to DNA damage-mediated activation of AKT and that, clinically, DNA-PK inhibition might prevent platinum-induced AKT activation without interfering with normal glucose homeostasis, an unwanted toxicity of direct AKT inhibitors. PMID:22131882

  2. Stress-induced DNA damage biomarkers: applications and limitations

    PubMed Central

    Nikitaki, Zacharenia; Hellweg, Christine E.; Georgakilas, Alexandros G.; Ravanat, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    A variety of environmental stresses like chemicals, UV and ionizing radiation and organism's endogenous processes such as replication stress and metabolism can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) that can attack cellular vital components like DNA, proteins and lipid membranes. Among them, much attention has been focused on DNA since DNA damage plays a role in several biological disorders and aging processes. Thus, DNA damage can be used as a biomarker in a reliable and accurate way to quantify for example radiation exposure and can indicate its possible long term effects and cancer risk. Based on the type of DNA lesions detected one can hypothesize on the most probable mechanisms involved in the formation of these lesions for example in the case of UV and ionizing radiation (e.g., X- or α-, γ-rays, energetic ions, neutrons). In this review we describe the most accepted chemical pathways for DNA damage induction and the different types of DNA lesions, i.e., single, complex DNA lesions etc. that can be used as DNA damage biomarkers. We critically compare DNA damage detection methods and their limitations. In addition, we suggest the use of DNA repair gene products as biomarkes for identification of different types of stresses i.e., radiation, oxidative, or replication stress, based on bioinformatic approaches and meta-analysis of literature data. PMID:26082923

  3. Stress-induced DNA damage biomarkers: applications and limitations.

    PubMed

    Nikitaki, Zacharenia; Hellweg, Christine E; Georgakilas, Alexandros G; Ravanat, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    A variety of environmental stresses like chemicals, UV and ionizing radiation and organism's endogenous processes such as replication stress and metabolism can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) that can attack cellular vital components like DNA, proteins and lipid membranes. Among them, much attention has been focused on DNA since DNA damage plays a role in several biological disorders and aging processes. Thus, DNA damage can be used as a biomarker in a reliable and accurate way to quantify for example radiation exposure and can indicate its possible long term effects and cancer risk. Based on the type of DNA lesions detected one can hypothesize on the most probable mechanisms involved in the formation of these lesions for example in the case of UV and ionizing radiation (e.g., X- or α-, γ-rays, energetic ions, neutrons). In this review we describe the most accepted chemical pathways for DNA damage induction and the different types of DNA lesions, i.e., single, complex DNA lesions etc. that can be used as DNA damage biomarkers. We critically compare DNA damage detection methods and their limitations. In addition, we suggest the use of DNA repair gene products as biomarkes for identification of different types of stresses i.e., radiation, oxidative, or replication stress, based on bioinformatic approaches and meta-analysis of literature data. PMID:26082923

  4. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator Delivery of Quinone Warheads to DNA Triggering Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Kuan-wei; Wang, Huali; Qin, Zhihui; Wijewickrama, Gihani T.; Lu, Meiling; Wang, Zhican; Bolton, Judy L.; Thatcher, Gregory R. J.

    2009-01-01

    Estrogen exposure is a risk factor for breast cancer and estrogen oxidative metabolites have been implicated in chemical carcinogenesis. Oxidation of the catechol metabolite of estrone (4-OHE) and the β-naphthohydroquinone metabolite of equilenin (4-OHEN) gives o-quinones that produce ROS and damage DNA by adduction and oxidation. To differentiate hormonal and chemical carcinogensis pathways in estrogen receptor positive ER(+) cells, catechol or β-naphthohydroquinone warheads were conjugated to the selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) desmethylarzoxifene (DMA). ER binding was retained in the DMA conjugates; both were antiestrogens with submicromolar potency in mammary and endometrial cells. Cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and caspase-3/7 activation were compared in ER(+) and ER(−)MDA-MB-231 cells, and production of ROS was detected using a fluorescent reporter. Comparison was made to DMA, isolated warheads, and a DMA-mustard. Conjugation of warheads to DMA increased cytotoxicity accompanied by induction of apoptosis and activation of caspase-3/7. Activation of caspase-3/7, induction of apoptosis, and cytotoxicity were all increased significantly in ER(+) cells for the DMA conjugates. ROS production was localized in the nucleus for conjugates in ER(+) cells. Observations are compatible with β-naphthohydroquinone and catechol groups being concentrated in the nucleus by ER binding, where oxidation and ROS production result, concomitant with caspase-dependent apoptosis. The results suggest DNA damage induced by catechol estrogen metabolites can be amplified in ER(+) cells independent of hormonal activity. The novel conjugation of quinone warheads to an ER-targeting SERM gives ER-dependent, enhanced apoptosis in mammary cancer cells of potential application in cancer therapy. PMID:19839584

  5. Baculovirus DNA Replication-Specific Expression Factors Trigger Apoptosis and Shutoff of Host Protein Synthesis during Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Kimberly L. W.; Friesen, Paul D.

    2009-01-01

    Apoptosis is an important antivirus defense. To define the poorly understood pathways by which invertebrates respond to viruses by inducing apoptosis, we have identified replication events that trigger apoptosis in baculovirus-infected cells. We used RNA silencing to ablate factors required for multiplication of Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). Transfection with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) complementary to the AcMNPV late expression factors (lefs) that are designated as replicative lefs (lef-1, lef-2, lef-3, lef-11, p143, dnapol, and ie-1/ie-0) blocked virus DNA synthesis and late gene expression in permissive Spodoptera frugiperda cells. dsRNAs specific to designated nonreplicative lefs (lef-8, lef-9, p47, and pp31) blocked late gene expression without affecting virus DNA replication. Thus, both classes of lefs functioned during infection as defined. Silencing the replicative lefs prevented AcMNPV-induced apoptosis of Spodoptera cells, whereas silencing the nonreplicative lefs did not. Thus, the activity of replicative lefs or virus DNA replication is sufficient to trigger apoptosis. Confirming this conclusion, AcMNPV-induced apoptosis was suppressed by silencing the replicative lefs in cells from a divergent species, Drosophila melanogaster. Silencing replicative but not nonreplicative lefs also abrogated AcMNPV-induced shutdown of host protein synthesis, suggesting that virus DNA replication triggers inhibition of host biosynthetic processes and that apoptosis and translational arrest are linked. Our findings suggest that baculovirus DNA replication triggers a host cell response similar to the DNA damage response in vertebrates, which causes translational arrest and apoptosis. Pathways for detecting virus invasion and triggering apoptosis may therefore be conserved between insects and mammals. PMID:19706708

  6. DNA Damage, Cell Cycle Arrest, and Apoptosis Induction Caused by Lead in Human Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yedjou, Clement G.; Tchounwou, Hervey M.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the industrial use of lead has been significantly reduced from paints and ceramic products, caulking, and pipe solder. Despite this progress, lead exposure continues to be a significant public health concern. The main goal of this research was to determine the in vitro mechanisms of lead nitrate [Pb(NO3)2] to induce DNA damage, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest in human leukemia (HL-60) cells. To reach our goal, HL-60 cells were treated with different concentrations of Pb(NO3)2 for 24 h. Live cells and necrotic death cells were measured by the propidium idiode (PI) assay using the cellometer vision. Cell apoptosis was measured by the flow cytometry and DNA laddering. Cell cycle analysis was evaluated by the flow cytometry. The result of the PI demonstrated a significant (p < 0.05) increase of necrotic cell death in Pb(NO3)2-treated cells, indicative of membrane rupture by Pb(NO3)2 compared to the control. Data generated from the comet assay indicated a concentration-dependent increase in DNA damage, showing a significant increase (p < 0.05) in comet tail-length and percentages of DNA cleavage. Data generated from the flow cytometry assessment indicated that Pb(NO3)2 exposure significantly (p < 0.05) increased the proportion of caspase-3 positive cells (apoptotic cells) compared to the control. The flow cytometry assessment also indicated Pb(NO3)2 exposure caused cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 checkpoint. The result of DNA laddering assay showed presence of DNA smear in the agarose gel with little presence of DNA fragments in the treated cells compared to the control. In summary, Pb(NO3)2 inhibits HL-60 cells proliferation by not only inducing DNA damage and cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 checkpoint but also triggering the apoptosis through caspase-3 activation and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation accompanied by secondary necrosis. We believe that our study provides a new insight into the mechanisms of Pb(NO3)2 exposure and its associated adverse health

  7. DNA Damage, Cell Cycle Arrest, and Apoptosis Induction Caused by Lead in Human Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Yedjou, Clement G; Tchounwou, Hervey M; Tchounwou, Paul B

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the industrial use of lead has been significantly reduced from paints and ceramic products, caulking, and pipe solder. Despite this progress, lead exposure continues to be a significant public health concern. The main goal of this research was to determine the in vitro mechanisms of lead nitrate [Pb(NO₃)₂] to induce DNA damage, apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest in human leukemia (HL-60) cells. To reach our goal, HL-60 cells were treated with different concentrations of Pb(NO₃)₂ for 24 h. Live cells and necrotic death cells were measured by the propidium idiode (PI) assay using the cellometer vision. Cell apoptosis was measured by the flow cytometry and DNA laddering. Cell cycle analysis was evaluated by the flow cytometry. The result of the PI demonstrated a significant (p < 0.05) increase of necrotic cell death in Pb(NO₃)₂-treated cells, indicative of membrane rupture by Pb(NO₃)₂ compared to the control. Data generated from the comet assay indicated a concentration-dependent increase in DNA damage, showing a significant increase (p < 0.05) in comet tail-length and percentages of DNA cleavage. Data generated from the flow cytometry assessment indicated that Pb(NO₃)₂ exposure significantly (p < 0.05) increased the proportion of caspase-3 positive cells (apoptotic cells) compared to the control. The flow cytometry assessment also indicated Pb(NO₃)₂ exposure caused cell cycle arrest at the G₀/G₁ checkpoint. The result of DNA laddering assay showed presence of DNA smear in the agarose gel with little presence of DNA fragments in the treated cells compared to the control. In summary, Pb(NO₃)₂ inhibits HL-60 cells proliferation by not only inducing DNA damage and cell cycle arrest at the G₀/G₁ checkpoint but also triggering the apoptosis through caspase-3 activation and nucleosomal DNA fragmentation accompanied by secondary necrosis. We believe that our study provides a new insight into the mechanisms of Pb

  8. Stress-induced DNA Damage biomarkers: Applications and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitaki, Zacharenia; Hellweg, Christine; Georgakilas, Alexandros; Ravanat, Jean-Luc

    2015-06-01

    A variety of environmental stresses like chemicals, UV and ionizing radiation and organism’s endogenous processes like replication stress and metabolism can lead to the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) that can attack cellular vital components like DNA, proteins and lipid membranes. Among them, much attention has been focused on DNA since DNA damages play a role in several biological disorders and aging processes. Thus, DNA damage can be used as a biomarker in a reliable and accurate way to quantify for example radiation exposure and can indicate its possible long term effects and cancer risk. Based on the type of DNA lesions detected one can hypothesize on the most probable mechanisms involved in the formation of these lesions for example in the case of UV and ionizing radiation (e.g. X- or α-, γ-rays, energetic ions, neutrons). In this review we describe the most accepted chemical pathways for DNA damage induction and the different types of DNA lesions, i.e. single, complex DNA lesions etc. that can be used as biomarkers. We critically compare DNA damage detection methods and their limitations. In addition to such DNA damage products, we suggest possible gene inductions that can be used to characterize responses to different types of stresses i.e. radiation, oxidative and replication stress, based on bioinformatic approaches and stringent meta-analysis of literature data.

  9. Evidence that DNA fragmentation in apoptosis is initiated and propagated by single-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Walker, P R; LeBlanc, J; Sikorska, M

    1997-08-01

    Apoptosis is characterised by the degradation of DNA into a specific pattern of high and low molecular weight fragments seen on agarose gels as a distribution of sizes between 50-300 kb and sometimes, but not always, a ladder of smaller oligonucleosomal fragments. Using a 2D pulsed field-conventional agarose gel electrophoresis technique, where the second dimension is run under either normal or denaturing conditions, we show that single-strand breaks are introduced into DNA at the initial stages of fragmentation. Using single-strand specific nuclease probes we further show that the complete fragmentation pattern, including release of small oligonucleosomal fragments can also be generated by a single-strand endonuclease. Three classes of sites where single-strand breaks accumulate were identified. The initial breaks produce a distribution of fragment sizes (50 kb to >1 Mb) similar to those generated by Topoisomerase II inhibitors suggesting that cleavage may commence at sites of attachment of DNA to the nuclear matrix. A second class of rare sites is also cut further reducing the size distribution of the fragments to 50-300 kb. Thirdly, single-strand breaks accumulate at the linker region between nucleosomes eventually causing double-strand scissions which release oligonucleosomes. These observations further define the properties of the endonuclease responsible for DNA fragmentation in apoptosis. PMID:16465272

  10. Novel Coumarin-Containing Aminophosphonatesas Antitumor Agent: Synthesis, Cytotoxicity, DNA-Binding and Apoptosis Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Li, Ya-Jun; Wang, Cai-Yi; Ye, Man-Yi; Yao, Gui-Yang; Wang, Heng-Shan

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel coumarin-containing α-aminophosphonates were synthesized and evaluated for their antitumor activities against Human colorectal (HCT-116), human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (human KB) and human lung adenocarcinoma (MGC-803) cell lines in vitro. Compared with 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (4-MU), most of the derivatives showed an improved antitumor activity. Compound 8j (diethyl 1-(3-(4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-chromen-7-yloxy) propanamido)-1-phenylethyl-Phosphonate), with IC50 value of 8.68 μM against HCT-116 cell lines, was about 12 fold than that of unsubstituted parent compound. The mechanism investigation proved that 8c, 8d, 8f and 8j were achieved through the induction of cell apoptosis by G1 cell-cycle arrest. In addition, the further mechanisms of compound 8j-induced apoptosis in HCT-116 cells demonstrated that compound 8j induced the activations of caspase-9 and caspase-3 for causing cell apoptosis, and altered anti- and pro-apoptotic proteins. DNA-binding experiments suggested that some derivatives bind to DNA through intercalation. The results seem to imply the presence of an important synergistic effect between coumarin and aminophosphonate, which could contribute to the strong chelating properties of aminophosphonate moiety. PMID:26287139

  11. Revisiting DNA damage repair, p53-mediated apoptosis and cisplatin sensitivity in germ cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Francesca; Feldman, Darren R; Barchi, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs), ie, seminomas and nonseminomas, account for 1% to 3% of all neoplasms in men. They are the most common cancer in young white males and are unique in their responsiveness to cisplatin-based chemotherapy. For this reason, TGCTs are considered a model for curative disease. However, up to now, the molecular mechanisms behind this exceptional responsiveness to DNA-damaging agents have remained unclear. A hypersensitive apoptotic response, as well as a reduction in the proficiency to repair cisplatin-induced DNA damage might account for this behavior. In this review, building on recent findings of p53-induced apoptosis and DNA-repair mechanisms in TGCTs, we will discuss the molecular bases that drive tumor sensitivity to cisplatin, emphasizing the new therapeutic approaches proposed to eventually constrain tumor recurrence, and target TGCTs which are unresponsive to standard therapies. PMID:23784838

  12. Ginsenoside-Rg5 induces apoptosis and DNA damage in human cervical cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, LI-DAN; HE, TAO; DU, TING-WEI; FAN, YONG-GANG; CHEN, DIAN-SEN; WANG, YAN

    2015-01-01

    Panax ginseng is traditionally used as a remedy for cancer, inflammation, stress and aging, and ginsenoside-Rg5 is a major bioactive constituent of steamed ginseng. The present study aimed to evaluate whether ginsenoside-Rg5 had any marked cytotoxic, apoptotic or DNA-damaging effects in human cervical cancer cells. Five human cervical cancer cell lines (HeLa, MS751, C33A, Me180 and HT-3) were used to investigate the cytotoxicity of ginsenoside-Rg5 using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Additionally, the effects of ginsenoside-Rg5 on the apoptosis of HeLa and MS751 cells were detected using DNA ladder assays and flow cytometry. DNA damage was assessed in the HeLa and MS751 cells using alkaline comet assays and by detection of γH2AX focus formation. The HeLa and MS751 cells were significantly more sensitive to ginsenoside-Rg5 treatment compared with the C-33A, HT-3 and Me180 cells. As expected, ginsenoside-Rg5 induced significant concentration- and time-dependent increases in apoptosis. In addition, ginsenoside-Rg5 induced significant concentration-dependent increases in the level of DNA damage compared with the negative control. Consistent with the comet assay data, the percentage of γH2AX-positive HeLa and MS751 cells also revealed that ginsenoside-Rg5 caused DNA double-strands to break in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, ginsenoside-Rg5 had marked genotoxic effects in the HeLa and MS751 cells and, thus, demonstrates potential as a genotoxic or cytotoxic drug for the treatment of cervical cancer. PMID:25355274

  13. Novel insights into the apoptosis mechanism of DNA topoisomerase I inhibitor isoliquiritigenin on HCC tumor cell

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ze-xin; Li, Jian; Li, Yan; You, Kun; Xu, Hongwei; Wang, Jianguo

    2015-08-21

    The inhibitory effect of DNA topoisomerase (Top I) by isoliquiritigenin(ISO) were investigated and their interaction mechanism was evaluated using methods including UV–vis absorption, fluorescence, coupled with molecular simulation, and using the MTT method of inhibition rate of HCC tumor cell SNU475 proliferation assay, finally, the interaction of ISO with calf thymus DNA was investigated by melting measurements and molecular docking studies. It was found that isoliquiritigenin reversibly inhibited DNA Top I in a competitive manner with the concentrations of ISO resulting in 50% activity lost (IC{sub 50}) were estimated to be 0.178 ± 0.12 mM. Isoliquiritigenin exhibited a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of Top I through a static quenching procedure. The positive values of enthalpy change and entropy change suggested that the binding of isoliquiritigenin to Top I was driven mainly by hydrophobic interactions. The molecular docking results revealed isoliquiritigenin actually interacted with the primary amino acid residues on the active site of Top I, and the detection results of fluorescence staining and the inhibitory effect on the growth of HCC SUN475 showed that isoliquiritigenin induced the apoptosis cells increased gradually. The interaction of ISO with DNA can cause the denaturation temperature to be increased, which indicated that the stabilization of the DNA helix was increased in the presence of ISO, which indicated that the results provide strong evidence for intercalative binding of ISO with DNA. - Highlights: • ISO reversibly inhibits TOP I activity in an A dose dependent manner. • Hydrophobic interactions play a major role in ISO–TOP I interaction. • ISO has a high affinity close to the active site pocket of TOP I. • The binding of ISO to DNA induces the stability of the structure of DNA.

  14. Early apoptosis of porcine alveolar macrophages limits avian influenza virus replication and pro-inflammatory dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pengxiang; Kuchipudi, Suresh V.; Mellits, Kenneth H.; Sebastian, Sujith; James, Joe; Liu, Jinhua; Shelton, Holly; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2015-01-01

    Pigs are evidently more resistant to avian than swine influenza A viruses, mediated in part through frontline epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages (AM). Although porcine AM (PAM) are crucial in influenza virus control, their mode of control is unclear. To gain insight into the possible role of PAM in the mediation of avian influenza virus resistance, we compared the host effects and replication of two avian (H2N3 and H6N1) and three mammalian (swine H1N1, human H1N1 and pandemic H1N1) influenza viruses in PAM. We found that PAM were readily susceptible to initial infection with all five avian and mammalian influenza viruses but only avian viruses caused early and extensive apoptosis (by 6 h of infection) resulting in reduced virus progeny and moderated pro-inflammation. Full length viral PB1-F2 present only in avian influenza viruses is a virulence factor that targets AM for mitochondrial-associated apoptotic cell death. With the use of reverse genetics on an avian H5N1 virus, we found that full length PB1-F2 contributed to increased apoptosis and pro-inflammation but not to reduced virus replication. Taken together, we propose that early apoptosis of PAM limits the spread of avian influenza viruses and that PB1-F2 could play a contributory role in the process. PMID:26642934

  15. Early apoptosis of porcine alveolar macrophages limits avian influenza virus replication and pro-inflammatory dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pengxiang; Kuchipudi, Suresh V; Mellits, Kenneth H; Sebastian, Sujith; James, Joe; Liu, Jinhua; Shelton, Holly; Chang, Kin-Chow

    2015-01-01

    Pigs are evidently more resistant to avian than swine influenza A viruses, mediated in part through frontline epithelial cells and alveolar macrophages (AM). Although porcine AM (PAM) are crucial in influenza virus control, their mode of control is unclear. To gain insight into the possible role of PAM in the mediation of avian influenza virus resistance, we compared the host effects and replication of two avian (H2N3 and H6N1) and three mammalian (swine H1N1, human H1N1 and pandemic H1N1) influenza viruses in PAM. We found that PAM were readily susceptible to initial infection with all five avian and mammalian influenza viruses but only avian viruses caused early and extensive apoptosis (by 6 h of infection) resulting in reduced virus progeny and moderated pro-inflammation. Full length viral PB1-F2 present only in avian influenza viruses is a virulence factor that targets AM for mitochondrial-associated apoptotic cell death. With the use of reverse genetics on an avian H5N1 virus, we found that full length PB1-F2 contributed to increased apoptosis and pro-inflammation but not to reduced virus replication. Taken together, we propose that early apoptosis of PAM limits the spread of avian influenza viruses and that PB1-F2 could play a contributory role in the process. PMID:26642934

  16. DNA-binding, cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, apoptosis and photocleavage studies of Ru(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    N Deepika; C Shobha Devi; Y Praveen Kumar; K Laxma Reddy; P Venkat Reddy; D Anil Kumar; Surya S Singh; S Satyanarayana

    2016-07-01

    Two Ru(II) complexes [Ru(phen)2bppp](ClO4)2 (1) and [Ru(phen)27-Br-dppz](ClO4)2 (2) [phen=1,10 phenanthroline, 7-Br-dppz=7-fluorodipyrido[3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine, bppp=11-bromo-pyrido[2',3':5,6]pyrazino[2,3-f] [1,10]phenanthroline] have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, ES-MS, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR and IR. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the complexes examined against a panel of cancer cell lines (HeLa, Du145 and A549) by MTT method, both complexes show prominent anticancer activity against various cancer cells. Live cell imaging study and flow cytometric analysis demonstrate that both the complexes 1 and 2 could cross the cell membrane accumulating in the nucleus. Further, flow cytometry experiments showed that the cytotoxic Ru(II) complexes 1 and 2 induced apoptosis of HeLa tumor cell lines. Photo induced DNA cleavage studies have been performed and results indicate that both the complexes efficiently photo cleave pBR322 DNA. The binding properties of two complexes toward CT-DNA were investigated by various optical methods and viscosity measurements. The experimental results suggested that both Ru(II) complexes can intercalate into DNA base pairs. The complexes were docked into DNA-base pairs using the GOLD docking program. PMID:27107334

  17. Synthesis, Cytotoxicity, DNA Binding and Apoptosis of Rhein-Phosphonate Derivatives as Antitumor Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Man-Yi; Yao, Gui-Yang; Wei, Jing-Chen; Pan, Ying-Ming; Liao, Zhi-Xin; Wang, Heng-Shan

    2013-01-01

    Several rhein-phosphonate derivatives (5a–c) were synthesized and evaluated for in vitro cytotoxicity against HepG-2, CNE, Spca-2, Hela and Hct-116 cell lines. Some compounds showed relatively high cytotoxicity. Especially compounds 5b exhibited the strongest cytotoxicity against HepG-2 and Spca-2 cells (IC50 was 8.82 and 9.01 μM), respectively. All the synthesized compounds exhibited low cytotoxicity against HUVEC cells. Further experiments proved that 5b could disturb the cell cycle in HepG-2 cells and induce apoptosis. In addition, the binding properties of a model conjugate 5b to DNA were investigated by methods (UV-Vis, fluorescence, CD spectroscopy). Results indicated that 5b showed moderate ability to interact ct-DNA. PMID:23629673

  18. Investigation on the Origin of Sperm DNA Fragmentation: Role of Apoptosis, Immaturity and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Monica; Tamburrino, Lara; Marchiani, Sara; Cambi, Marta; Olivito, Biagio; Azzari, Chiara; Forti, Gianni; Baldi, Elisabetta

    2015-01-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation (sDF) represents a threat to male fertility, human reproduction and the health of the offspring. The causes of sDF are still unclear, even if apoptosis, oxidative assault and defects in chromatin maturation are hypothesized. Using multicolor flow cytometry and sperm sorting, we challenged the three hypothesized mechanisms by simultaneously evaluating sDF and signs of oxidative damage (8-hydroxy, 2'-deoxyguanosine [8-OHdG] and malondialdehyde [MDA]), apoptosis (caspase activity and cleaved poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase [cPARP]) and sperm immaturity (creatine phosphokinase [CK] and excess of residual histones). Active caspases and c-PARP were concomitant with sDF in a high percentage of spermatozoa (82.6% ± 9.1% and 53.5% ± 16.4%, respectively). Excess of residual histones was significantly higher in DNA-fragmented sperm versus sperm without DNA fragmentation (74.8% ± 17.5% and 37.3% ± 16.6%, respectively, p < 0.005), and largely concomitant with active caspases. Conversely, oxidative damage was scarcely concomitant with sDF in the total sperm population, at variance with live sperm, where 8-OHdG and MDA were clearly associated to sDF. In addition, most live cells with active caspase also showed 8-OHdG, suggesting activation of apoptotic pathways in oxidative-injured live cells. This is the first investigation on the origin of sDF directly evaluating the simultaneous presence of the signs of the hypothesized mechanisms with DNA breaks at the single cell level. The results indicate that the main pathway leading to sperm DNA breaks is a process of apoptosis, likely triggered by an impairment of chromatin maturation in the testis and by oxidative stress during the transit in the male genital tract. These findings are highly relevant for clinical studies on the effects of drugs on sDF and oxidative stress in infertile men and for the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:25786204

  19. Cadmium Chloride Induces DNA Damage and Apoptosis of Human Liver Carcinoma Cells via Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Skipper, Anthony; Sims, Jennifer N.; Yedjou, Clement G.; Tchounwou, Paul B.

    2016-01-01

    Cadmium is a heavy metal that has been shown to cause its toxicity in humans and animals. Many documented studies have shown that cadmium produces various genotoxic effects such as DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations. Ailments such as bone disease, renal damage, and several forms of cancer are attributed to overexposure to cadmium.  Although there have been numerous studies examining the effects of cadmium in animal models and a few case studies involving communities where cadmium contamination has occurred, its molecular mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated. In this research, we hypothesized that oxidative stress plays a key role in cadmium chloride-induced toxicity, DNA damage, and apoptosis of human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells. To test our hypothesis, cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Lipid hydroperoxide content stress was estimated by lipid peroxidation assay. Genotoxic damage was tested by the means of alkaline single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet) assay. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry assessment (Annexin-V/PI assay). The result of MTT assay indicated that cadmium chloride induces toxicity to HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner, showing a 48 hr-LD50 of 3.6 µg/mL. Data generated from lipid peroxidation assay resulted in a significant (p < 0.05) increase of hydroperoxide production, specifically at the highest concentration tested. Data obtained from the Comet assay indicated that cadmium chloride causes DNA damage in HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. A strong concentration-response relationship (p < 0.05) was recorded between annexin V positive cells and cadmium chloride exposure. In summary, these in vitro studies provide clear evidence that cadmium chloride induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, and programmed cell death in human liver carcinoma (HepG2) cells. PMID:26729151

  20. INTRANUCLEAR MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES PROMOTE DNA DAMAGE AND APOPTOSIS INDUCED BY OXYGEN–GLUCOSE DEPRIVATION IN NEURONS

    PubMed Central

    HILL, J. W.; PODDAR, R.; THOMPSON, J. F.; ROSENBERG, G. A.; YANG, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Degradation of the extracellular matrix by elevated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity following ischemia/reperfusion is implicated in blood–brain barrier disruption and neuronal death. In contrast to their characterized extracellular roles, we previously reported that elevated intranuclear MMP-2 and -9 (gelatinase) activity degrades nuclear DNA repair proteins and promotes accumulation of oxidative DNA damage in neurons in rat brain at 3-h reperfusion after ischemic stroke. Here, we report that treatment with a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor significantly reduced neuronal apoptosis in rat ischemic hemispheres at 48-h reperfusion after a 90-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Since extracellular gelatinases in brain tissue are known to be neurotoxic during acute stroke, the contribution of intranuclear MMP-2 and -9 activities in neurons to neuronal apoptosis has been unclear. To confirm and extend our in vivo observations, oxygen–glucose deprivation (OGD), an in vitro model of ischemia/reperfusion, was employed. Primary cortical neurons were subjected to 2-h OGD with reoxygenation. Increased intranuclear gelatinase activity was detected immediately after reoxygenation onset and was maximal at 24 h, while extracellular gelatinase levels remained unchanged. We detected elevated levels of both MMP-2 and -9 in neuronal nuclear extracts and gelatinase activity in neurons co-localized primarily with MMP-2. We found a marked decrease in PARP1, XRCC1, and OGG1, and decreased PARP1 activity. Pretreatment of neurons with selective MMP-2/9 inhibitor II significantly decreased gelatinase activity and downregulation of DNA repair enzymes, decreased accumulation of oxidative DNA damage, and promoted neuronal survival after OGD. Our results confirm the nuclear localization of gelatinases and their nuclear substrates observed in an animal stroke model, further supporting a novel role for intranuclear gelatinase activity in an intrinsic apoptotic pathway in neurons

  1. Bax-induced apoptosis shortens the life span of DNA repair defect Ku70-knockout mice by inducing emphysema.

    PubMed

    Matsuyama, Shigemi; Palmer, James; Bates, Adam; Poventud-Fuentes, Izmarie; Wong, Kelvin; Ngo, Justine; Matsuyama, Mieko

    2016-06-01

    Cells with DNA damage undergo apoptosis or cellular senescence if the damage cannot be repaired. Recent studies highlight that cellular senescence plays a major role in aging. However, age-associated diseases, including emphysema and neurodegenerative disorders, are caused by apoptosis of lung alveolar epithelial cells and neurons, respectively. Therefore, enhanced apoptosis also promotes aging and shortens the life span depending on the cell type. Recently, we reported that ku70(-) (/) (-)bax(-) (/) (-) and ku70(-) (/) (-)bax(+/) (-) mice showed significantly extended life span in comparison with ku70(-) (/) (-)bax(+/+) mice. Ku70 is essential for non-homologous end joining pathway for DNA double strand break repair, and Bax plays an important role in apoptosis. Our study suggests that Bax-induced apoptosis has a significant impact on shortening the life span of ku70(-) (/) (-) mice, which are defective in one of DNA repair pathways. The lung alveolar space gradually enlarges during aging, both in mouse and human, and this age-dependent change results in the decrease of respiration capacity during aging that can lead to emphysema in more severe cases. We found that emphysema occurred in ku70(-) (/) (-) mice at the age of three-months old, and that Bax deficiency was able to suppress it. These results suggest that Bax-mediated apoptosis induces emphysema in ku70(-) (/) (-) mice. We also found that the number of cells, including bronchiolar epithelial cells and type 2 alveolar epithelial cells, shows a higher DNA double strand break damage response in ku70 KO mouse lung than in wild type. Recent studies suggest that non-homologous end joining activity decreases with increased age in mouse and rat model. Together, we hypothesize that the decline of Ku70-dependent DNA repair activity in lung alveolar epithelial cells is one of the causes of age-dependent decline of lung function resulting from excess Bax-mediated apoptosis of lung alveolar epithelial cells (and their

  2. SO(2) inhalation induces protein oxidation, DNA-protein crosslinks and apoptosis in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sang, Nan; Hou, Li; Yun, Yang; Li, Guangke

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies provide evidence for the possible neurotoxicity of SO(2), but little information is available about its mechanisms. In the present study, SO(2) inhalation-induced effects on the protein oxidation, DNA-protein crosslinks and apoptosis in rat hippocampus were studied, by exposing Wistar rats to SO(2) at 14, 28 and 56mg/m(3). The results indicate that the protein carbonyl content, an indicator of protein oxidation, and DNA-protein crosslink coefficient were significantly augmented with concentration-dependent properties. In addition, SO(2) inhalation at all concentrations tested caused the increases of caspase-3 activity and number of TUNEL positive staining neuron and the statistical difference was observed after 28 and 56mg/m(3) exposure, suggesting the occurrence of apoptosis. The results imply that attacking protein, nucleic acids and lipids by free radicals, generated via SO(2) derivatives in vivo, is one of the main mechanisms for SO(2)-induced injuries in central neuronal system. PMID:18722661

  3. In vitro cytotoxicity, apoptosis, DNA-binding, and antioxidant activity studies of ruthenium (II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hong-Liang; Liu, Yun-Jun; Zeng, Cheng-Hui; He, Li-Xin; Wu, Fu-Hai

    2010-05-01

    Two new ligands maip (1) (maip = 2-(3-aminophenyl)imizado[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline), paip (2) (paip = 2-(4-aminophenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline), and their ruthenium (II) complexes [Ru(phen)(2)(maip)](ClO(4))(2) (3) and [Ru(phen)(2)(paip)](ClO(4))(2) (4) (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) have been synthesized and characterized. The cytotoxicity of these compounds was evaluated by MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. The apoptosis assay was carried out with acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining methods. The DNA-binding behaviors of complexes 3 and 4 were investigated by viscosity measurements, thermal denaturation, photocleavage, and spectroscopic methods. The results show that the two complexes intercalate into the base pairs of DNA. In the presence of a complex, apoptosis of BEL-7402 cells was observed. Experiments show that these compounds exhibit antioxidant activity against hydroxyl radicals. PMID:20307189

  4. Multiple functions of p21 in cell cycle, apoptosis and transcriptional regulation after DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Karimian, Ansar; Ahmadi, Yasin; Yousefi, Bahman

    2016-06-01

    An appropriate control over cell cycle progression depends on many factors. Cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 (also known as p21(WAF1/Cip1)) is one of these factors that promote cell cycle arrest in response to a variety of stimuli. The inhibitory effect of P21 on cell cycle progression correlates with its nuclear localization. P21 can be induced by both p53-dependent and p53-independent mechanisms. Some other important functions attributed to p21 include transcriptional regulation, modulation or inhibition of apoptosis. These functions are largely dependent on direct p21/protein interactions and also on p21 subcellular localizations. In addition, p21 can play a role in DNA repair by interacting with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). In this review, we will focus on the multiple functions of p21 in cell cycle regulation, apoptosis and gene transcription after DNA damage and briefly discuss the pathways and factors that have critical roles in p21 expression and activity. PMID:27156098

  5. Acetylation of the p53 DNA binding domain regulates apoptosis induction.

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, Stephen M.; Mellert, Hestia S.; Holbert, Marc A.; Li, Keqin; Marmorstein, Ronen; Lane, William S.; McMahon, Steven B.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY The ability of p53 to induce apoptosis plays an important role in tumor suppression. Here we describe a previously unknown post-translational modification of the DNA-binding domain of p53. This modification, acetylation of lysine 120, occurs rapidly after DNA damage and is catalyzed by the MYST family acetyltransferases hMOF and TIP60. Mutation of lysine 120 to arginine, as occurs in human cancer, debilitates K120 acetylation and diminishes p53-mediated apoptosis without affecting cell-cycle arrest. The K120R mutation selectively blocks the transcription of pro-apoptotic target genes such as BAX and PUMA while the non-apoptotic targets p21 and hMDM2 remain unaffected. Consistent with this, depletion of hMOF and/or TIP60 inhibits the ability of p53 to activate BAX and PUMA transcription. Furthermore, the acetyl-lysine 120 form of p53 specifically accumulates at pro-apoptotic target genes. These data suggest that K120 acetylation may help distinguish the cell cycle arrest and apoptotic functions of p53. PMID:17189187

  6. Dihydrobetulinic Acid Induces Apoptosis in Leishmania donovani by Targeting DNA Topoisomerase I and II: Implications in Antileishmanial Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Arnab Roy; Mandal, Suparna; Goswami, Anindya; Ghosh, Monidipa; Mandal, Labanya; Chakraborty, Debabani; Ganguly, Agneyo; Tripathi, Gayatri; Mukhopadhyay, Sibabrata; Bandyopadhyay, Santu; Majumder, Hemanta K

    2003-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is the second-most dreaded parasitic disease in the modern world, behind malaria. The lack of effective vaccines demand improved chemotherapy along with the development of lead compounds and newer targets. We report here that the pentacyclic triterpenoid, dihydrobetulinic acid (DHBA), is a novel lead compound for antileishmanial therapy. It acts by targeting DNA topoisomerases. DNA topoisomerase I and II activity was studied using relaxation and decatenation assays. Mechanistic studies were based on the decreased mobility of enzyme-bound DNA compared with free DNA and the differential mobility of nicked and supercoiled monomers in 1% agarose gel. Pulsed field gradient gel electrophoresis, confocal microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy were performed to assess cytotoxicity of the compound and ultrastructural damage of the parasite. Apoptosis was studied by the isolation of DNA from DHBA-treated parasites and subsequent electrophoresis in 1% agarose gel. DHBA inhibits growth of Leishmania donovani promastigotes and amastigotes with an IC50 of 2.6 and 4.1 μM respectively. The compound is a dual inhibitor of DNA topoisomerases that fails to induce DNA cleavage and acts by preventing the formation of enzyme-DNA binary complex, ultimately inducing apoptosis. Treatment of infected golden hamsters with the compound markedly reduces (> 92%) parasitic burden, both in spleen and liver. Interestingly, the 17-decarboxylated analogue, dihydrolupeol, does not inhibit DNA topoisomerase I and II, has no effect on parasitic growth, and also fails to induce apoptosis. DHBA is a potent antileishmanial agent that induces apoptosis by primarily targeting DNA topoisomerases. Therefore it is a strong candidate for use in designing new antileishmanial drugs. PMID:12765337

  7. Space-charge-limited current in DNA-surfactant complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, I.-Ching; Lin, Ting-Yu; Hung, Yu-Chueh

    2013-03-01

    In recent years, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) biopolymers have attracted much research attention and been considered as a promising material when being employed in many optoelectronic devices. Since performance of many DNA biopolymer-based devices relies on carrier transport, it is crucial to study the carrier mobility of these DNA-surfactant complexes for practical implement. In this work, we present hole mobility characterization of cetyltrimethylammonium (CTMA)-modified DNA biopolymer by using space-charge-limited current (SCLC) method. Devices were fabricated using a sandwich structure with a buffer layer of MoO3 to enhance hole injection and achieve ohmic contact between the anode and the DNA layer. Current-voltage (I-V) curves of the devices were analyzed. A trap-free SCLC behavior can ultimately be achieved and a quadratic dependence in I-V curve was observed. With increasing electric field, a positive field-dependent mobility was demonstrated. The correlation between mobility and temperature was also investigated and a positive relation was found. The characterization results can be further utilized for DNA-based device design and applications.

  8. Inhibition of DNA topoisomerase I activity and induction of apoptosis by thiazacridine derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Barros, Francisco W.A.; Bezerra, Daniel P.; Ferreira, Paulo M.P.; Cavalcanti, Bruno C.; Silva, Teresinha G.; Pitta, Marina G.R.; Lima, Maria do C.A. de; Galdino, Suely L.; Pitta, Ivan da R.; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V.; Moraes, Manoel O.; Burbano, Rommel R.; Guecheva, Temenouga N.; Henriques, João A.P.; Pessoa, Cláudia

    2013-04-01

    Thiazacridine derivatives (ATZD) are a novel class of cytotoxic agents that combine an acridine and thiazolidine nucleus. In this study, the cytotoxic action of four ATZD were tested in human colon carcinoma HCT-8 cells: (5Z)-5-acridin-9-ylmethylene-3-(4-methylbenzyl)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione — AC-4; (5ZE)-5-acridin-9-ylmethylene-3-(4-bromo-benzyl)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione — AC-7; (5Z)-5-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-3-(4-chloro-benzyl) -1,3-thiazolidine-2,4-dione — AC-10; and (5ZE)-5-(acridin-9-ylmethylene)-3-(4-fluoro-benzyl)-1,3-thiazolidine-2, 4-dione — AC-23. All of the ATZD tested reduced the proliferation of HCT-8 cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. There were significant increases in internucleosomal DNA fragmentation without affecting membrane integrity. For morphological analyses, hematoxylin–eosin and acridine orange/ethidium bromide were used to stain HCT-8 cells treated with ATZD, which presented the typical hallmarks of apoptosis. ATZD also induced mitochondrial depolarisation and phosphatidylserine exposure and increased the activation of caspases 3/7 in HCT-8 cells, suggesting that this apoptotic cell death was caspase-dependent. In an assay using Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants with defects in DNA topoisomerases 1 and 3, the ATZD showed enhanced activity, suggesting an interaction between ATZD and DNA topoisomerase enzyme activity. In addition, ATZD inhibited DNA topoisomerase I action in a cell-free system. Interestingly, these ATZD did not cause genotoxicity or inhibit the telomerase activity in human lymphocyte cultures at the experimental levels tested. In conclusion, the ATZD inhibited the DNA topoisomerase I activity and induced tumour cell death through apoptotic pathways. - Highlights: ► Thiazacridine derivatives induce mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic cell death. ► Thiazacridine derivatives inhibit DNA topoisomerase I action. ► Thiazacridine derivatives failed to cause genotoxicity on human lymphocytes.

  9. DNA Damage Signaling Assessed in Individual Cells in Relation to the Cell Cycle Phase and Induction of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Zhao, Hong; Halicka, H. Dorota; Rybak, Paulina; Dobrucki, Jurek; Wlodkowic, Donald

    2012-01-01

    Reviewed are the phosphorylation events reporting activation of protein kinases and the key substrates critical for the DNA damage signaling (DDS). These DDS events are detected immunocytochemically using phospho-specific Abs; flow cytometry or image-assisted cytometry provide the means to quantitatively assess them on a cell by cell basis. The multiparameter analysis of the data is used to correlate these events with each other and relate to the cell cycle phase, DNA replication and induction of apoptosis. Expression of γH2AX as a possible marker of induction of DNA double strand breaks is the most widely studied event of DDS. Reviewed are applications of this multiparameter approach to investigate constitutive DDS reporting DNA damage by endogenous oxidants byproducts of oxidative phosphorylation. Also reviewed are its applications to detect and explore mechanisms of DDS induced by variety of exogenous agents targeting DNA such as exogenous oxidants, ionizing radiation, radiomimetic drugs, UV light, DNA topoisomerase I and II inhibitors, DNA crosslinking drugs and variety of environmental genotoxins. Analysis of DDS induced by these agents provides often a wealth of information about mechanism of induction and the type of DNA damage (lesion) and is reviewed in the context of cell cycle phase specificity, DNA replication, and induction of apoptosis or cell senescence. Critically assessed is interpretation of the data as to whether the observed DDS events report induction of a particular type of DNA lesion. PMID:23137030

  10. The cleavage of nuclear DNA into high molecular weight DNA fragments occurs not only during apoptosis but also accompanies changes in functional activity of the nonapoptotic cells.

    PubMed

    Solov'yan, V T; Andreev, I O; Kolotova, T Y; Pogribniy, P V; Tarnavsky, D T; Kunakh, V A

    1997-08-25

    In this paper we demonstrate that apoptosis in primary culture of murine thymocytes and in continuously growing human cells is associated with the progressive disintegration of nuclear DNA into high molecular weight (HMW)-DNA fragments of about 50-150 kb. We also show that the formation of similarly sized HMW-DNA fragments takes place in the same cells in the absence of apoptotic inducers. Unlike an apoptotic fragmentation of nuclear DNA, the formation of HMW-DNA fragments in nonapoptotic cells is rapidly induced, has no correlation with the cell death, and is not associated with the development of oligonucleosomal "ladder" or apoptotic changes in nuclear morphology. The disintegration of DNA into HMW-fragments is also observed in nuclei isolated from healthy, nonapoptosizing tissues of various eukaryotes. We show that the formation of HMW-DNA fragments in the absence of apoptotic inducers is strongly dependent on the ionic detergents, is responsive to the topoisomerase II-specific poison, teniposide, and is completely reversible under conditions that favor topoisomerase II-dependent rejoining reaction. Also, we demonstrate that the formation of HMW-DNA fragments in continuously growing cell lines caused either by serum deprivation or monolayer establishment is of a transient nature and rapidly reverses to the control level following serum addition or dilution of monolayer. The results suggest that the cleavage of nuclear DNA into HMW-DNA fragments is associated not only with apoptosis but also accompanies changes in functional activity of nonapoptotic cells. PMID:9281361

  11. The antileishmanial drug miltefosine (Impavido(®)) causes oxidation of DNA bases, apoptosis, and necrosis in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Castelo Branco, Patrícia Valéria; Soares, Rossy-Eric Pereira; de Jesus, Luís Cláudio Lima; Moreira, Vanessa Ribeiro; Alves, Hugo José; de Castro Belfort, Marta Regina; Silva, Vera Lucia Maciel; Ferreira Pereira, Silma Regina

    2016-08-01

    Miltefosine was developed to treat skin cancer; further studies showed that the drug also has activity against Leishmania. Miltefosine is the first oral agent for treating leishmaniasis. However, its mechanism of action is not completely understood. We have evaluated the induction of DNA damage by miltefosine. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity (comet assay) tests were performed on human leukocytes exposed to the drug in vitro. Apoptosis and necrosis were also evaluated. In vivo tests were conducted in Swiss male mice (Mus musculus) treated orally with miltefosine. Oxidation of DNA bases in peripheral blood cells was measured using the comet assay followed by digestion with formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG), which removes oxidized guanine bases. The micronucleus test was performed on bone marrow erythrocytes. Miltefosine caused DNA damage, apoptosis, and necrosis in vitro. Mice treated with miltefosine showed an increase in the DNA damage score, which was further increased following FPG digestion. The micronucleus test was also positive. PMID:27476333

  12. Ambient UV-B exposure reduces the binding of ofloxacin with bacterial DNA gyrase and induces DNA damage mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jyoti; Dwivedi, Ashish; Mujtaba, Syed Faiz; Singh, Krishna P; Pal, Manish Kumar; Chopra, Deepti; Goyal, Shruti; Srivastav, Ajeet K; Dubey, Divya; Gupta, Shailendra K; Haldar, Chandana; Ray, Ratan Singh

    2016-04-01

    Ofloxacin (OFLX) is a broad spectrum antibiotic, which generates photo-products under sunlight exposure. Previous studies have failed to explain the attenuated anti-bacterial activity of OFLX. The study was extended to explore the unknown molecular mechanism of photogenotoxicity on human skin cell line (HaCaT) under environmental UV-B irradiation. Photochemically OFLX generates ROS and caused 2'-dGuO photodegradation. We have addressed the binding affinity of OFLX and its photo-products against DNA gyrase. Significant free radical generation such as (1)O2, O2(•-) and (•)OH reduces antioxidants and demonstrated the ROS mediated OFLX phototoxicity. However, the formation of micronuclei and CPDs showed photogenotoxic potential of OFLX. OFLX induced cell cycle arrest in sub-G1 peak. OFLX triggers apoptosis via permeabilization of mitochondrial membrane with the downregulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and caspase-3 whereas, upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax and Cyto-C proteins. Our study illustrated that binding affinity of OFLX photo-products with DNA gyrase was mainly responsible for the attenuated antimicrobial activity. It was proved through molecular docking study. Thus, study suggests that sunlight exposure should avoid by drug users especially during peak hours for their safety from photosensitivity. Clinicians may guide patients regarding the safer use of photosensitive drugs during treatment. PMID:26812543

  13. Chk1 and p21 Cooperate to Prevent Apoptosis during DNA Replication Fork StressD⃞

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Rene; Meuth, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Cells respond to DNA replication stress by triggering cell cycle checkpoints, repair, or death. To understand the role of the DNA damage response pathways in determining whether cells survive replication stress or become committed to death, we examined the effect of loss of these pathways on cellular response to agents that slow or arrest DNA synthesis. We show that replication inhibitors such as excess thymidine, hydroxyurea, and camptothecin are normally poor inducers of apoptosis. However, these agents become potent inducers of death in S-phase cells upon small interfering RNA-mediated depletion of the checkpoint kinase Chk1. This death response is independent of p53 and Chk2. p21-deficient cells, on the other hand, produce a more robust apoptotic response upon Chk1 depletion. p21 is normally induced only late after thymidine treatment. In Chk1-depleted cells p21 induction occurs earlier and does not require p53. Thus, Chk1 plays a primary role in the protection of cells from death induced by replication fork stress, whereas p21 mediates through its role in regulating entry into S phase. These findings are of potential importance to cancer therapy because we demonstrate that the efficacy of clinically relevant agents can be enhanced by manipulation of these signaling pathways. PMID:16280359

  14. Nucleotide Excision Repair Factor XPC Enhances DNA Damage-Induced Apoptosis by Downregulating the Antiapoptotic Short Isoform of Caspase-2

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi-En; Han, Chunhua; Zhang, Bo; Sabapathy, Kanaga; Wani, Altaf A.

    2012-01-01

    XPC protein is a critical DNA damage recognition factor in nucleotide excision repair (NER) for which genetic deficiency confers a predisposition to cancer. In this study we demonstrate that XPC has a function that is independent of its canonical function in DNA repair, potentially altering the interpretation of how XPC deficiency leads to heightened cancer susceptibility. XPC enhances apoptosis induced by DNA damage in a p53 nullizygous background, acting downstream of mitochondrial permeabilization and upstream of caspase-9 activation in the DNA damage-induced apoptosis cascade. We found that deficiency in XPC upregulated production of the short isoform of caspase-2 (casp-2S). This upregulation occurred at both protein and mRNA levels through repression of the caspase-2 promoter by XPC protein. Targeted RNAi-mediated downregulation of casp-2S enhanced UV-induced apoptosis as well as activation of caspase-9 and caspase-6 in XPC-deficient cells, but not in XPC-proficient cells. In addition, XPC overexpression in various p53-deficient cancer cells resistant to cisplatin improved their sensitivity to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Given that casp-2S functions as an anti-apoptotic protein, our findings suggest that XPC enhances DNA damage-induced apoptosis through inhibition of casp-2S transcription. Together, these findings offer a mechanistic foundation to overcome the resistance of highly prevalent p53-deficient tumors to cell death induced by DNA-damaging therapeutic agents, by targeting strategies that inhibit the expression or function of casp-2S. PMID:22174370

  15. Endogenous c-Myc is essential for p53-induced apoptosis in response to DNA damage in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Phesse, T J; Myant, K B; Cole, A M; Ridgway, R A; Pearson, H; Muncan, V; van den Brink, G R; Vousden, K H; Sears, R; Vassilev, L T; Clarke, A R; Sansom, O J

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that C-MYC may be an excellent therapeutic cancer target and a number of new agents targeting C-MYC are in preclinical development. Given most therapeutic regimes would combine C-MYC inhibition with genotoxic damage, it is important to assess the importance of C-MYC function for DNA damage signalling in vivo. In this study, we have conditionally deleted the c-Myc gene in the adult murine intestine and investigated the apoptotic response of intestinal enterocytes to DNA damage. Remarkably, c-Myc deletion completely abrogated the immediate wave of apoptosis following both ionizing irradiation and cisplatin treatment, recapitulating the phenotype of p53 deficiency in the intestine. Consistent with this, c-Myc-deficient intestinal enterocytes did not upregulate p53. Mechanistically, this was linked to an upregulation of the E3 Ubiquitin ligase Mdm2, which targets p53 for degradation in c-Myc-deficient intestinal enterocytes. Further, low level overexpression of c-Myc, which does not impact on basal levels of apoptosis, elicited sustained apoptosis in response to DNA damage, suggesting c-Myc activity acts as a crucial cell survival rheostat following DNA damage. We also identify the importance of MYC during DNA damage-induced apoptosis in several other tissues, including the thymus and spleen, using systemic deletion of c-Myc throughout the adult mouse. Together, we have elucidated for the first time in vivo an essential role for endogenous c-Myc in signalling DNA damage-induced apoptosis through the control of the p53 tumour suppressor protein. PMID:24583641

  16. Endogenous c-Myc is essential for p53-induced apoptosis in response to DNA damage in vivo.

    PubMed

    Phesse, T J; Myant, K B; Cole, A M; Ridgway, R A; Pearson, H; Muncan, V; van den Brink, G R; Vousden, K H; Sears, R; Vassilev, L T; Clarke, A R; Sansom, O J

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have suggested that C-MYC may be an excellent therapeutic cancer target and a number of new agents targeting C-MYC are in preclinical development. Given most therapeutic regimes would combine C-MYC inhibition with genotoxic damage, it is important to assess the importance of C-MYC function for DNA damage signalling in vivo. In this study, we have conditionally deleted the c-Myc gene in the adult murine intestine and investigated the apoptotic response of intestinal enterocytes to DNA damage. Remarkably, c-Myc deletion completely abrogated the immediate wave of apoptosis following both ionizing irradiation and cisplatin treatment, recapitulating the phenotype of p53 deficiency in the intestine. Consistent with this, c-Myc-deficient intestinal enterocytes did not upregulate p53. Mechanistically, this was linked to an upregulation of the E3 Ubiquitin ligase Mdm2, which targets p53 for degradation in c-Myc-deficient intestinal enterocytes. Further, low level overexpression of c-Myc, which does not impact on basal levels of apoptosis, elicited sustained apoptosis in response to DNA damage, suggesting c-Myc activity acts as a crucial cell survival rheostat following DNA damage. We also identify the importance of MYC during DNA damage-induced apoptosis in several other tissues, including the thymus and spleen, using systemic deletion of c-Myc throughout the adult mouse. Together, we have elucidated for the first time in vivo an essential role for endogenous c-Myc in signalling DNA damage-induced apoptosis through the control of the p53 tumour suppressor protein. PMID:24583641

  17. Preferential sites of early DNA cleavage in apoptosis and the pathway of nuclear damage.

    PubMed

    Krystosek, A

    1999-04-01

    We have tested the specific hypothesis that the pathway of nuclear collapse in apoptosis is governed by the early attack on active chromatin at spatially restricted nuclear sites. Cell death in PC12 pheochromocytoma cells deprived of serum growth factors, in HL-60 leukemic cells treated with inhibitors of protein or RNA biosynthesis, and in U937 histiocytic lymphoma cells exposed to the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha showed a common mechanism in the targeting of DNA for degradation. An incorporation assay with labeled nucleotide revealed an early selective nicking in peripheral nuclear chromatin with concomitant diminution in the amount of immunoreactive lamin B protein. This was followed by a phase of more extensive cleavages, continued nuclear protein loss, chromatin collapse, and fragmentation of nuclei. The spatial restriction of early cleavages is similar to the nicking obtained by the application of exogenous DNase I to fixed nuclei of normal cells and to that obtained in the activation of the endogenous endonuclease of liver nuclei by Ca2+. These similarities suggest that, in apoptosis, activation of an endonuclease preferentially recognizing a specific chromatin configuration, such as that of active (DNase I-sensitive) genes, underlies the early spatial demarcation of cleavages. PMID:10219626

  18. The effects of aging and neurodegeneration on apoptosis-associated DNA fragmentation and the benefits of nicotinamide.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, S K; Adams, J D

    1997-01-01

    In this work, the tertiary butylhydroperoxide- (t-BuOOH) treated mouse was used as a model to study the oxidative stress that is associated with various neurodegenerative diseases. DNA was found to be an early target of t-BuOOH attack. Necrosis was associated with extensive DNA fragmentation that occurred in almost all regions of the brain within 20 min following intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of 109.7 mg/kg t-BuOOH. Apoptosis was associated with high levels of DNA fragmentation that was observed at 48 h after icv administration of 21.9 mg/kg t-BuOOH. Susceptibility to DNA damage was found to be age-dependent, since 24-mo-old mice exhibited consistently higher and more pervasive DNA damage than 8 mo-old-mice. Extensive DNA damage was seen in various brain regions in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and with both Alzheimer and Parkinson disease (AD-PD). These results directly implicate DNA damage in neurodegeneration. The DNA fragmentation ob-served can lead to both apoptosis and necrosis, as suggested by gel electrophoresis. Nicotinamide, a precursor of NAD in the brain, was able to prevent DNA fragmentation induced by low-dose t-BuOOH, when coadministered with the toxin. PMID:9437658

  19. Characterization of HIFU ablation using DNA fragmentation labeling as apoptosis stain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anquez, Jeremie; Corréas, Jean-Michel; Pau, Bernard; Lacoste, François; Yon, Sylvain

    2012-11-01

    The goal of this work was to compare modalities to precisely quantify the extent of thermally induced lesions: gross pathology vs. histopathology vs. devascularization. Liver areas of 14 rabbits were targeted with HIFU and RF ablations in an acute study. Contrast enhanced computorized tomography (CE-CT) scan images were acquired two hours after HIFU and RF treatment to obtain the devascularized volumes of the livers. The animals were then euthanized and deep frozen. The livers were sliced and each slice was photographed and stacked yielding a volume of gross pathology. The volume VGP of the HIFU lesions were derived. The area AGP of the lesions were computed on a particular slice. The lesions were segmented as hypo intense (devascularized) regions on CE-CT images and their volumes VC were computed. The ratios VC/VGP were computed for all the HIFU lesions on all the 14 subjects with a mean value of 1.2. Histology was performed on the livers using Hematoxyline Eosine Staining (HES) and DNA Fragmentation labeling (TUNEL® technology) which characterizes apoptosis. Apoptotic regions of area AT were segmented on the images stained by TUNEL®. No necrosis was identified on the HES data. While TUNEL® did not mark the cores of the RF lesions as apoptotic, the periphery of HIFU and RF lesions was always recognized with TUNEL® as apoptotic. The ratio AGP/AT was computed. The mean value was 0.95 and 0.25 for HIFU and RF lesions respectively. These findings show that the devascularized territory seen on CE-CT scan coincide with the coagulated territories seen with gross pathology. Those actually correspond to cells in apoptosis. It is confirmed that HES stain does not show necrosis 2 hours after thermal ablation. TUNEL® technology for DNA fragmentation labeling appears as a useful marker for thermally induced acute lesions in the liver.

  20. Quercetin, a Natural Flavonoid Interacts with DNA, Arrests Cell Cycle and Causes Tumor Regression by Activating Mitochondrial Pathway of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shikha; Somasagara, Ranganatha R.; Hegde, Mahesh; Nishana, Mayilaadumveettil; Tadi, Satish Kumar; Srivastava, Mrinal; Choudhary, Bibha; Raghavan, Sathees C.

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring compounds are considered as attractive candidates for cancer treatment and prevention. Quercetin and ellagic acid are naturally occurring flavonoids abundantly seen in several fruits and vegetables. In the present study, we evaluate and compare antitumor efficacies of quercetin and ellagic acid in animal models and cancer cell lines in a comprehensive manner. We found that quercetin induced cytotoxicity in leukemic cells in a dose-dependent manner, while ellagic acid showed only limited toxicity. Besides leukemic cells, quercetin also induced cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells, however, its effect on normal cells was limited or none. Further, quercetin caused S phase arrest during cell cycle progression in tested cancer cells. Quercetin induced tumor regression in mice at a concentration 3-fold lower than ellagic acid. Importantly, administration of quercetin lead to ~5 fold increase in the life span in tumor bearing mice compared to that of untreated controls. Further, we found that quercetin interacts with DNA directly, and could be one of the mechanisms for inducing apoptosis in both, cancer cell lines and tumor tissues by activating the intrinsic pathway. Thus, our data suggests that quercetin can be further explored for its potential to be used in cancer therapeutics and combination therapy. PMID:27068577

  1. PI3K/AKT mediated p53 down-regulation participates in CpG DNA inhibition of spontaneous B cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongxin; Zhen, Huiling; Mei, Yunqing; Wang, Yongwu; Feng, Jing; Xu, Shuchang; Fu, Xiaoying

    2009-06-01

    The unmethylated CpG DNA can prevent spontaneous apoptosis of B cells. However, the precise mechanisms by which CpG DNA blocks apoptosis remain unclear. In this study, we showed B cell apoptosis was significantly inhibited by addition of CpG DNA. Treatment of CpG DNA could reduce the expression of caspase 3, increase IAP and Bcl-xL expressions, and inhibit p53 protein expression which level was increased in B cell spontaneous apoptosis at 24 h. AKT kinase activity was increased with the incubation of CpG DNA. The wortmannin and Ly294002 could abrogate the protection of B cell from apoptosis by CpG DNA. The up-regulations of Bcl-xL and IAP by CpG DNA were not inhibited when blocking PI3K by specific inhibitor Ly294002, while the inhibition of p53 by CpG DNA could be blocked by Ly294002. These results demonstrated that the inhibition of spontaneous B cell apoptosis by CpG DNA was correlated to up-regulation of Bcl-xL, IAP and down-regulation of p53 and caspase 3. CpG DNA inhibition of p53 is mediated through PI3K/AKT signaling. PMID:19567200

  2. PI3K/AKT Mediated P53 Down-Regulation Participates in CpG DNA Inhibition of Spontaneous B Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yongxin; Zhen, Huiling; Mei, Yunqing; Wang, Yongwu; Feng, Jing; Xu, Shuchang; Fu, Xiaoying

    2009-01-01

    The unmethylated CpG DNA can prevent spontaneous apoptosis of B cells. However, the precise mechanisms by which CpG DNA blocks apoptosis remain unclear. In this study, we showed B cell apoptosis was significantly inhibited by addition of CpG DNA. Treatment of CpG DNA could reduce the expression of caspase 3, increase IAP and Bcl-xL expressions, and inhibit p53 protein expression which level was increased in B cell spontaneous apoptosis at 24 h. AKT kinase activity was increased with the incubation of CpG DNA. The wortmannin and Ly294002 could abrogate the protection of B cell from apoptosis by CpG DNA. The up-regulations of Bcl-xL and IAP by CpG DNA were not inhibited when blocking PI3K by specific inhibitor Ly294002, while the inhibition of p53 by CpG DNA could be blocked by Ly294002. These results demonstrated that the inhibition of spontaneous B cell apoptosis by CpG DNA was correlated to up-regulation of Bcl-xL, IAP and down-regulation of p53 and caspase 3. CpG DNA inhibition of p53 is mediated through PI3K/AKT signaling. PMID:19567200

  3. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor zebularine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, Wei; Zhou, Wei; Yu, Hong-gang; Luo, He-Sheng; Shen, Lei

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zebularine inhibited cell growth of gastric cancer in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zebularine promoted apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumorigenicity was inhibited by zebularine. -- Abstract: DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor zebularine has been reported to potentiate the anti-tumor effect by reactivating the expression of tumor suppressor genes and apoptosis-related genes in various malignant cells. However, the apoptotic signaling pathway in gastric cancer cells induced by zebularine is not well understood. In the study, the effects of zebularine on the growth and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells were investigated by MTT assay, Hoechst assay, Western blot analysis, flow cytometric analysis of annexin V-FITC/PI staining, and TUNEL assay. Zebularine was an effective inhibitor of human gastric cancer cells proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The effects were dose dependent. A zebularine concentration of 50 {mu}M accounted for the inhibition of cell proliferation of 67% at 48 h. The treatment with zebularine upregulated Bax, and decreased Bcl-2 protein. Caspase-3 was activated, suggesting that the apoptosis is mediated by mitochondrial pathways. Moreover, zebularine injection successfully inhibited the tumor growth via apoptosis induction which was demonstrated by TUNEL assay in xenograft tumor mouse model. These results demonstrated that zebularine induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells via mitochondrial pathways, and zebularine might become a therapeutic approach for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  4. Myricetin induces apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum stress and DNA double-strand breaks in human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    XU, YE; XIE, QI; WU, SHAOHUA; YI, DAN; YU, YANG; LIU, SHIBING; LI, SONGYAN; LI, ZHIXIN

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying myricetin-induced cancer cell apoptosis remain to be elucidated. Certain previous studies have shown that myricetin induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Apoptosis, however, can also be induced by other classical pathways, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The aim of the present study was to assess whether these two apoptotic pathways are involved in myricetin-induced cell death in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. The results revealed that treatment with myricetin inhibited viability of SKOV3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Myricetin induced nuclear chromatin condensation and fragmentation, and also upregulated the protein levels of active caspase 3 in a time-dependent manner. In addition, myricetin upregulated ER stress-associated proteins, glucose-regulated protein-78 and C/EBP homologous protein in SKOV3 cells. Phosphorylation of H2AX, a marker of DNA DSBs, was revealed to be upregulated in myricetin-treated cells. The data indicated that myricetin induces DNA DSBs and ER stress, which leads to apoptosis in SKOV3 cells. PMID:26782830

  5. Function of high-mobility group A proteins in the DNA damage signaling for the induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Fujikane, Ryosuke; Komori, Kayoko; Sekiguchi, Mutsuo; Hidaka, Masumi

    2016-01-01

    O(6)-Methylguanine produced in DNA can pair with thymine during DNA replication, thus leading to a G-to-A transition mutation. To prevent such outcomes, cells harboring O(6)-methylguanine-containing mispair undergo apoptosis that requires the function of mismatch repair (MMR) protein complex. To identify the genes involved in the induction of apoptosis, we performed gene-trap mutagenesis and isolated a clone of mouse cells exhibiting an increased resistance to the killing effect of an alkylating agent, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). The mutant carries an insertion in the Hmga2 gene, which belongs to a gene family encoding the high-mobility group A non-histone chromatin proteins. To elucidate the function of HMGA proteins in the apoptosis pathway, we introduced siRNAs for HMGA1 and/or HMGA2 into human HeLa MR cells defective in O(6)-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. HMGA1- and HMGA2-single knockdown cells showed an increased resistance to MNU, and HMGA1/HMGA2-double knockdown cells exhibited further increased tolerance compared to the control. The phosphorylation of ATR and CHK1, the appearance of a sub-G1 population, and caspase-9 activation were suppressed in the knockdown cells, although the formation of mismatch recognition complex was unaffected. These results suggest that HMGA family proteins function at the step following the damage recognition in the process of apoptosis triggered by O(6)-methylguanine. PMID:27538817

  6. Function of high-mobility group A proteins in the DNA damage signaling for the induction of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Fujikane, Ryosuke; Komori, Kayoko; Sekiguchi, Mutsuo; Hidaka, Masumi

    2016-01-01

    O6-Methylguanine produced in DNA can pair with thymine during DNA replication, thus leading to a G-to-A transition mutation. To prevent such outcomes, cells harboring O6-methylguanine-containing mispair undergo apoptosis that requires the function of mismatch repair (MMR) protein complex. To identify the genes involved in the induction of apoptosis, we performed gene-trap mutagenesis and isolated a clone of mouse cells exhibiting an increased resistance to the killing effect of an alkylating agent, N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU). The mutant carries an insertion in the Hmga2 gene, which belongs to a gene family encoding the high-mobility group A non-histone chromatin proteins. To elucidate the function of HMGA proteins in the apoptosis pathway, we introduced siRNAs for HMGA1 and/or HMGA2 into human HeLa MR cells defective in O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. HMGA1- and HMGA2-single knockdown cells showed an increased resistance to MNU, and HMGA1/HMGA2-double knockdown cells exhibited further increased tolerance compared to the control. The phosphorylation of ATR and CHK1, the appearance of a sub-G1 population, and caspase-9 activation were suppressed in the knockdown cells, although the formation of mismatch recognition complex was unaffected. These results suggest that HMGA family proteins function at the step following the damage recognition in the process of apoptosis triggered by O6-methylguanine. PMID:27538817

  7. Histone H1 Limits DNA Methylation in Neurospora crassa

    PubMed Central

    Seymour, Michael; Ji, Lexiang; Santos, Alex M.; Kamei, Masayuki; Sasaki, Takahiko; Basenko, Evelina Y.; Schmitz, Robert J.; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Lewis, Zachary A.

    2016-01-01

    Histone H1 variants, known as linker histones, are essential chromatin components in higher eukaryotes, yet compared to the core histones relatively little is known about their in vivo functions. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa encodes a single H1 protein that is not essential for viability. To investigate the role of N. crassa H1, we constructed a functional FLAG-tagged H1 fusion protein and performed genomic and molecular analyses. Cell fractionation experiments showed that H1-3XFLAG is a chromatin binding protein. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation combined with sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed that H1-3XFLAG is globally enriched throughout the genome with a subtle preference for promoters of expressed genes. In mammals, the stoichiometry of H1 impacts nucleosome repeat length. To determine if H1 impacts nucleosome occupancy or nucleosome positioning in N. crassa, we performed micrococcal nuclease digestion in the wild-type and the ΔhH1 strain followed by sequencing (MNase-seq). Deletion of hH1 did not significantly impact nucleosome positioning or nucleosome occupancy. Analysis of DNA methylation by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (MethylC-seq) revealed a modest but global increase in DNA methylation in the ΔhH1 mutant. Together, these data suggest that H1 acts as a nonspecific chromatin binding protein that can limit accessibility of the DNA methylation machinery in N. crassa. PMID:27172195

  8. Histone H1 Limits DNA Methylation in Neurospora crassa.

    PubMed

    Seymour, Michael; Ji, Lexiang; Santos, Alex M; Kamei, Masayuki; Sasaki, Takahiko; Basenko, Evelina Y; Schmitz, Robert J; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Lewis, Zachary A

    2016-01-01

    Histone H1 variants, known as linker histones, are essential chromatin components in higher eukaryotes, yet compared to the core histones relatively little is known about their in vivo functions. The filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa encodes a single H1 protein that is not essential for viability. To investigate the role of N. crassa H1, we constructed a functional FLAG-tagged H1 fusion protein and performed genomic and molecular analyses. Cell fractionation experiments showed that H1-3XFLAG is a chromatin binding protein. Chromatin-immunoprecipitation combined with sequencing (ChIP-seq) revealed that H1-3XFLAG is globally enriched throughout the genome with a subtle preference for promoters of expressed genes. In mammals, the stoichiometry of H1 impacts nucleosome repeat length. To determine if H1 impacts nucleosome occupancy or nucleosome positioning in N. crassa, we performed micrococcal nuclease digestion in the wild-type and the [Formula: see text]hH1 strain followed by sequencing (MNase-seq). Deletion of hH1 did not significantly impact nucleosome positioning or nucleosome occupancy. Analysis of DNA methylation by whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (MethylC-seq) revealed a modest but global increase in DNA methylation in the [Formula: see text]hH1 mutant. Together, these data suggest that H1 acts as a nonspecific chromatin binding protein that can limit accessibility of the DNA methylation machinery in N. crassa. PMID:27172195

  9. Clusterin and DNA repair: a new function in cancer for a key player in apoptosis and cell cycle control.

    PubMed

    Shannan, B; Seifert, M; Boothman, D A; Tilgen, W; Reichrath, J

    2006-09-01

    The glycoprotein clusterin (CLU), has two known isoforms generated in human cells. A nuclear form of CLU protein (nCLU) is pro-apoptotic, while a secretory form (sCLU) is pro-survival. Both forms are implicated in various cell functions, including DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, and apoptotic cell death. CLU expression has been associated with tumorigenesis and the progression of various malignancies. In response to DNA damage, cell survival can be enhanced by activation of DNA repair mechanisms, while simultaneously stimulating energy-expensive cell cycle checkpoints that delay the cell cycle progression to allow more time for DNA repair. This review summarizes our current understanding of the role of clusterin in DNA repair, apoptosis, and cell cycle control and the relevance. PMID:17048076

  10. MDM2-regulated degradation of HIPK2 prevents p53Ser46 phosphorylation and DNA damage-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Rinaldo, Cinzia; Prodosmo, Andrea; Mancini, Francesca; Iacovelli, Stefano; Sacchi, Ada; Moretti, Fabiola; Soddu, Silvia

    2007-03-01

    In response to DNA damage, p53 induces either cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis by differential transcription of several target genes and through transcription-independent apoptotic functions. p53 phosphorylation at Ser46 by HIPK2 is one determinant of the outcome because it takes place only upon severe, nonrepairable DNA damage that irreversibly drives cells to apoptosis. Here, we show that p53 represses its proapoptotic activator HIPK2 via MDM2-mediated degradation, whereas a degradation-resistant HIPK2 mutant has increased apoptotic activity. Upon cytostatic, nonsevere DNA damage, inhibition of HIPK2 degradation is sufficient to induce p53Ser46 phosphorylation and apoptosis, converting growth-arresting stimuli to apoptotic ones. These findings establish HIPK2 as an MDM2 target and support a model in which, upon nonsevere DNA damage, p53 represses its own phosphorylation at Ser46 due to HIPK2 degradation, supporting the notion that the cell-cycle-arresting functions of p53 include active inhibition of the apoptotic ones. PMID:17349959

  11. RESCUE OF HIPPO CO-ACTIVATOR YAP1 TRIGGERS DNA DAMAGE-INDUCED APOPTOSIS IN HEMATOLOGICAL CANCERS

    PubMed Central

    Cottini, Francesca; Hideshima, Teru; Xu, Chunxiao; Sattler, Martin; Dori, Martina; Agnelli, Luca; Hacken, Elisa ten; Bertilaccio, Maria Teresa; Antonini, Elena; Neri, Antonino; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Marcatti, Magda; Richardson, Paul G.; Carrasco, Ruben; Kimmelman, Alec C.; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Blandino, Giovanni; Kuehl, W. Michael; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Tonon, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Oncogene–induced DNA damage elicits genomic instability in epithelial cancer cells, but apoptosis is blocked through inactivation of the tumor suppressor p53. In hematological cancers, the relevance of ongoing DNA damage and mechanisms by which apoptosis is suppressed are largely unknown. We found pervasive DNA damage in hematologic malignancies including multiple myeloma, lymphoma and leukemia, which leads to activation of a p53–independent, pro-apoptotic network centered on nuclear relocalization of ABL1 kinase. Although nuclear ABL1 triggers cell death through its interaction with the Hippo pathway co–activator YAP1 in normal cells, we show that low YAP1 levels prevent nuclear ABL1–induced apoptosis in these hematologic malignancies. YAP1 is under the control of a serine–threonine kinase, STK4. Importantly, genetic inactivation of STK4 restores YAP1 levels, triggering cell death in vitro and in vivo. Our data therefore identify a novel synthetic–lethal strategy to selectively target cancer cells presenting with endogenous DNA damage and low YAP1 levels. PMID:24813251

  12. DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells cause loss of the early embryo in mice exposed to carbon disulfide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bingzhen; Shen, Chunzi; Yang, Liu; Li, Chunhui; Yi, Anji; Wang, Zhiping

    2013-12-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS{sub 2}) may lead to spontaneous abortion and very early pregnancy loss in women exposed in the workplace, but the mechanism remains unclear. We designed an animal model in which gestating Kunming strain mice were exposed to CS{sub 2} via i.p. on gestational day 4 (GD4). We found that the number of implanted blastocysts on GD8 was significantly reduced by each dose of 0.1 LD{sub 50} (157.85 mg/kg), 0.2 LD{sub 50} (315.7 mg/kg) and 0.4 LD{sub 50} (631.4 mg/kg). In addition, both the level of DNA damage and apoptosis rates of endometrial cells on GD4.5 were increased, showed definite dose–response relationships, and inversely related to the number of implanted blastocysts. The expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bax and caspase-3 genes in the uterine tissues on GD4.5 were up-regulated, while the expressions of mRNA and protein for the Bcl-2 gene were dose-dependently down-regulated. Our results indicated that DNA damage and apoptosis of endometrial cells were important reasons for the loss of implanted blastocysts induced by CS{sub 2}. - Highlights: • We built an animal model of CS2 exposure during blastocyst implantation. • Endometrial cells were used in the comet assay to detect DNA damage. • CS2 exposure caused DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis. • DNA damage and endometrial cell apoptosis were responsible for embryo loss.

  13. Silymarin Protects Epidermal Keratinocytes from Ultraviolet Radiation-Induced Apoptosis and DNA Damage by Nucleotide Excision Repair Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Katiyar, Santosh K.; Mantena, Sudheer K.; Meeran, Syed M.

    2011-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a well recognized epidemiologic risk factor for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. This observation has been linked to the accumulation of UVB radiation-induced DNA lesions in cells, and that finally lead to the development of skin cancers. Earlier, we have shown that topical treatment of skin with silymarin, a plant flavanoid from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), inhibits photocarcinogenesis in mice; however it is less understood whether chemopreventive effect of silymarin is mediated through the repair of DNA lesions in skin cells and that protect the cells from apoptosis. Here, we show that treatment of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) with silymarin blocks UVB-induced apoptosis of NHEK in vitro. Silymarin reduces the amount of UVB radiation-induced DNA damage as demonstrated by reduced amounts of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and as measured by comet assay, and that ultimately may lead to reduced apoptosis of NHEK. The reduction of UV radiation-induced DNA damage by silymarin appears to be related with induction of nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes, because UV radiation-induced apoptosis was not blocked by silymarin in NER-deficient human fibroblasts. Cytostaining and dot-blot analysis revealed that silymarin repaired UV-induced CPDs in NER-proficient fibroblasts from a healthy individual but did not repair UV-induced CPD-positive cells in NER-deficient fibroblasts from patients suffering from xeroderma pigmentosum complementation-A disease. Similarly, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that silymarin did not reduce the number of UVB-induced sunburn/apoptotic cells in the skin of NER-deficient mice, but reduced the number of sunburn cells in their wild-type counterparts. Together, these results suggest that silymarin exert the capacity to reduce UV radiation-induced DNA damage and, thus, prevent the harmful effects of UV radiation on the genomic stability of epidermal cells. PMID:21731736

  14. Silymarin protects epidermal keratinocytes from ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis and DNA damage by nucleotide excision repair mechanism.

    PubMed

    Katiyar, Santosh K; Mantena, Sudheer K; Meeran, Syed M

    2011-01-01

    Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a well recognized epidemiologic risk factor for melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancers. This observation has been linked to the accumulation of UVB radiation-induced DNA lesions in cells, and that finally lead to the development of skin cancers. Earlier, we have shown that topical treatment of skin with silymarin, a plant flavanoid from milk thistle (Silybum marianum), inhibits photocarcinogenesis in mice; however it is less understood whether chemopreventive effect of silymarin is mediated through the repair of DNA lesions in skin cells and that protect the cells from apoptosis. Here, we show that treatment of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) with silymarin blocks UVB-induced apoptosis of NHEK in vitro. Silymarin reduces the amount of UVB radiation-induced DNA damage as demonstrated by reduced amounts of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and as measured by comet assay, and that ultimately may lead to reduced apoptosis of NHEK. The reduction of UV radiation-induced DNA damage by silymarin appears to be related with induction of nucleotide excision repair (NER) genes, because UV radiation-induced apoptosis was not blocked by silymarin in NER-deficient human fibroblasts. Cytostaining and dot-blot analysis revealed that silymarin repaired UV-induced CPDs in NER-proficient fibroblasts from a healthy individual but did not repair UV-induced CPD-positive cells in NER-deficient fibroblasts from patients suffering from xeroderma pigmentosum complementation-A disease. Similarly, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that silymarin did not reduce the number of UVB-induced sunburn/apoptotic cells in the skin of NER-deficient mice, but reduced the number of sunburn cells in their wild-type counterparts. Together, these results suggest that silymarin exert the capacity to reduce UV radiation-induced DNA damage and, thus, prevent the harmful effects of UV radiation on the genomic stability of epidermal cells. PMID:21731736

  15. Interdependence of DNA mismatch repair proteins MLH1 and MSH2 in apoptosis in human colorectal carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hassen, Samar; Ali, Akhtar A; Kilaparty, Surya P; Al-Anbaky, Qudes A; Majeed, Waqar; Boman, Bruce M; Fields, Jeremy Z; Ali, Nawab

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system consists of a number of proteins that play important roles in repair of base pair mismatch mutations and in maintenance of genomic integrity. A defect in this system can cause genetic instability, which can lead to carcinogenesis. For instance, a germline mutation in one of the mismatch repair proteins, especially MLH1 or MSH2, is responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. These MMR proteins also play an important role in the induction of apoptosis. Accordingly, altered expression of or a defect in MLH1 or MSH2 may confer resistance to anti-cancer drugs used in chemotherapy. We hypothesized that the ability of these two MMR proteins to regulate apoptosis are interdependent. Moreover, a defect in either one may confer resistance to chemotherapy by an inability to trigger apoptosis. To this end, we studied three cell lines-SW480, LoVo, and HTC116. These cell lines were selected based on their differential expression of MLH1 and MSH2 proteins. SW480 expresses both MLH1 and MSH2; LoVo expresses only MLH1 but not MSH2; HCT116 expresses only MSH2 but not MLH1 protein. MTT assays, a measure of cytotoxicity, showed that there were different cytotoxic effects of an anti-cancer drug, etoposide, on these cell lines, effects that were correlated with the MMR status of the cells. Cells that are deficient in MLH1 protein (HCT116 cells) were resistant to the drug. Cells that express both MLH1 and MSH2 proteins (SW480 cells) showed caspase-3 cleavage, an indicator of apoptosis. Cells that lack MLH1 (HCT116 cells) did not show any caspase-3 cleavage. Expression of full-length MLH1 protein was decreased in MMR proficient (SW480) cells during apoptosis; it remained unchanged in cells that lack MSH2 (LoVo cells). The expression of MSH2 protein remained unchanged during apoptosis both in MMR proficient (SW480) and deficient (HCT116) cells. Studies on translocation of MLH1 protein from nucleus to cytosolic fraction, an

  16. Hydroxychavicol, a betel leaf component, inhibits prostate cancer through ROS-driven DNA damage and apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Yang, Chunhua; Mukkavilli, Rao; Paranjpe, Rutugandha; Brahmbhatt, Meera; Pannu, Vaishali; Cheng, Alice; Reid, Michelle D.; Aneja, Ritu

    2014-10-01

    Dietary phytochemicals are excellent ROS-modulating agents and have been shown to effectively enhance ROS levels beyond toxic threshold in cancer cells to ensure their selective killing while leaving normal cells unscathed. Here we demonstrate that hydroxychavicol (HC), extracted and purified from Piper betel leaves, significantly inhibits growth and proliferation via ROS generation in human prostate cancer, PC-3 cells. HC perturbed cell-cycle kinetics and progression, reduced clonogenicity and mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to activation of several pro-apoptotic molecules. In addition, HC treatment elicited a novel autophagic response as evidenced by the appearance of acidic vesicular organelles and increased expression of autophagic markers, LC3-IIb and beclin-1. Interestingly, quenching of ROS with tiron, an antioxidant, offered significant protection against HC-induced inhibition of cell growth and down regulation of caspase-3, suggesting the crucial role of ROS in mediating cell death. The collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by HC further revealed the link between ROS generation and induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Our data showed remarkable inhibition of prostate tumor xenografts by ∼ 72% upon daily oral administration of 150 mg/kg bw HC by quantitative tumor volume measurements and non-invasive real-time bioluminescent imaging. HC was well-tolerated at this dosing level without any observable toxicity. This is the first report to demonstrate the anti-prostate cancer efficacy of HC in vitro and in vivo, which is perhaps attributable to its selective prooxidant activity to eliminate cancer cells thus providing compelling grounds for future preclinical studies to validate its potential usefulness for prostate cancer management. - Highlights: • HC perturbs cell-cycle progression by induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). • HC mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to

  17. Arsenic trioxide promotes mitochondrial DNA mutation and cell apoptosis in primary APL cells and NB4 cell line.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ran; Zhou, Jin; Sui, Meng; Li, ZhiYong; Feng, GuoSheng; Yang, BaoFeng

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells. The NB4 cell line was treated with 2.0 micromol/L As(2)O(3) in vitro, and the primary APL cells were treated with 2.0 micromol/L As(2)O(3) in vitro and 0.16 mg kg(-1) d(-1) As(2)O(3) in vivo. The mitochondrial DNA of all the cells above was amplified by PCR, directly sequenced and analyzed by Sequence Navigatore and Factura software. The apoptosis rates were assayed by flow cytometry. Mitochondrial DNA mutation in the D-loop region was found in NB4 and APL cells before As(2)O(3) use, but the mutation spots were remarkably increased after As(2)O(3) treatment, which was positively correlated to the rates of cellular apoptosis, the correlation coefficient: r (NB4-As2O3)=0.973818, and r (APL-As2O3)=0.934703. The mutation types include transition, transversion, codon insertion or deletion, and the mutation spots in all samples were not constant and regular. It is revealed that As(2)O(3) aggravates mtDNA mutation in the D-loop region of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells both in vitro and in vivo. Mitochondrial DNA might be one of the targets of As(2)O(3) in APL treatment. PMID:20596959

  18. Measurement of DNA damage and apoptosis in Molt-4 cells after in vitro exposure to radiofrequency radiation.

    PubMed

    Hook, Graham J; Zhang, Peng; Lagroye, I; Li, Li; Higashikubo, Ryuji; Moros, Eduardo G; Straube, William L; Pickard, William F; Baty, Jack D; Roti Roti, Joseph L

    2004-02-01

    To determine whether exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation can induce DNA damage or apoptosis, Molt-4 T lymphoblastoid cells were exposed with RF fields at frequencies and modulations of the type used by wireless communication devices. Four types of frequency/modulation forms were studied: 847.74 MHz code-division multiple-access (CDMA), 835.62 MHz frequency-division multiple-access (FDMA), 813.56 MHz iDEN(R) (iDEN), and 836.55 MHz time-division multiple-access (TDMA). Exponentially growing cells were exposed to RF radiation for periods up to 24 h using a radial transmission line (RTL) exposure system. The specific absorption rates used were 3.2 W/kg for CDMA and FDMA, 2.4 or 24 mW/kg for iDEN, and 2.6 or 26 mW/kg for TDMA. The temperature in the RTLs was maintained at 37 degrees C +/- 0.3 degrees C. DNA damage was measured using the single-cell gel electrophoresis assay. The annexin V affinity assay was used to detect apoptosis. No statistically significant difference in the level of DNA damage or apoptosis was observed between sham-treated cells and cells exposed to RF radiation for any frequency, modulation or exposure time. Our results show that exposure of Molt-4 cells to CDMA, FDMA, iDEN or TDMA modulated RF radiation does not induce alterations in level of DNA damage or induce apoptosis. PMID:14731070

  19. Proton beam radiation induces DNA damage and cell apoptosis in glioma stem cells through reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Alan Mitteer, R.; Wang, Yanling; Shah, Jennifer; Gordon, Sherika; Fager, Marcus; Butter, Param-Puneet; Jun Kim, Hyun; Guardiola-Salmeron, Consuelo; Carabe-Fernandez, Alejandro; Fan, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is among the most lethal of human malignancies. Most GBM tumors are refractory to cytotoxic therapies. Glioma stem cells (GSCs) significantly contribute to GBM progression and post-treatment tumor relapse, therefore serving as a key therapeutic target; however, GSCs are resistant to conventional radiation therapy. Proton therapy is one of the newer cancer treatment modalities and its effects on GSCs function remain unclear. Here, by utilizing patient-derived GSCs, we show that proton radiation generates greater cytotoxicity in GSCs than x-ray photon radiation. Compared with photon radiation, proton beam irradiation induces more single and double strand DNA breaks, less H2AX phosphorylation, increased Chk2 phosphorylation, and reduced cell cycle recovery from G2 arrest, leading to caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage, and cell apoptosis. Furthermore, proton radiation generates a large quantity of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is required for DNA damage, cell cycle redistribution, apoptosis, and cytotoxicity. Together, these findings indicate that proton radiation has a higher efficacy in treating GSCs than photon radiation. Our data reveal a ROS-dependent mechanism by which proton radiation induces DNA damage and cell apoptosis in GSCs. Thus, proton therapy may be more efficient than conventional x-ray photon therapy for eliminating GSCs in GBM patients. PMID:26354413

  20. Repression of BIRC5/Survivin by FOXO3/FKHRL1 Sensitizes Human Neuroblastoma Cells to DNA Damage-induced Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Hagenbuchner, Judith; Unterkircher, Thomas; Sachsenmaier, Nora; Seifarth, Christoph; Böck, Günther; Porto, Verena; Geiger, Kathrin; Ausserlechner, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)–protein kinase B (PKB) pathway regulates survival and chemotherapy resistance of neuronal cells, and its deregulation in neuroblastoma (NB) tumors predicts an adverse clinical outcome. Here, we show that inhibition of PI3K-PKB signaling in human NB cells induces nuclear translocation of FOXO3/FKHRL1, represses the prosurvival protein BIRC5/Survivin, and sensitizes to DNA-damaging agents. To specifically address whether FKHRL1 contributes to Survivin regulation, we introduced a 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen-regulated FKHRL1(A3)ERtm allele into NB cells. Conditional FKHRL1 activation repressed Survivin transcription and protein expression. Transgenic Survivin exerted a significant antiapoptotic effect and prevented the accumulation of Bim and Bax at mitochondria, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential as well as the release of cytochrome c during FKHRL1-induced apoptosis. In concordance, Survivin knockdown by retroviral short hairpin RNA technology accelerated FKHRL1-induced apoptosis. Low-dose activation of FKHRL1 sensitized to the DNA-damaging agents doxorubicin and etoposide, whereas the overexpression of Survivin diminished FKHRL1 sensitization to these drugs. These results suggest that repression of Survivin by FKHRL1 facilitates FKHRL1-induced apoptosis and sensitizes to cell death induced by DNA-damaging agents, which supports the central role of PI3K-PKB-FKHRL1 signaling in drug resistance of human NB. PMID:19211844

  1. Reduced ultraviolet-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human skin with topical application of a photolyase-containing DNA repair enzyme cream: clues to skin cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Berardesca, Enzo; Bertona, Marco; Altabas, Karmela; Altabas, Velimir; Emanuele, Enzo

    2012-02-01

    The exposure of human skin to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) results in the formation of DNA photolesions that give rise to photoaging, mutations, cell death and the onset of carcinogenic events. Photolyase (EC 4.1.99.3) is a DNA repair enzyme that reverses damage caused by exposure to UVR. We sought to investigate whether addition of photolyase enhances the protection provided by a traditional sunscreen (SS), by reducing the in vivo formation of cyclobutane-type pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and UVR-induced apoptosis in human skin. Ten volunteers (Fitzpatrick skin type II) were exposed to solar-simulated (ss) UVR at a three times minimal erythema dose for 4 consecutive days. Thirty minutes prior to each exposure, the test materials [vehicle, SS (sun protection factor 50) alone, and SS plus photolyase from Anacystis nidulans] were applied topically to three different sites. One additional site was left untreated and one received ssUVR only. Biopsy specimens were taken 72 h after the last irradiation. The amount of CPDs and the extent of apoptosis were measured by ELISA. Photolyase plus SS was superior to SS alone in reducing both the formation of CPDs and apoptotic cell death (both P<0.001). In conclusion, the addition of photolyase to a traditional SS contributes significantly to the prevention of UVR-induced DNA damage and apoptosis when applied topically to human skin. PMID:22086236

  2. Low-Dose Methylmercury-Induced Apoptosis and Mitochondrial DNA Mutation in Human Embryonic Neural Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Mengling; Zhao, Lina; Wu, Qing; Wu, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a long-lasting organic pollutant primarily found in the aquatic environment. The developing brain is particularly sensitive to MeHg due to reduced proliferation of neural stem cell. Although several mechanisms of MeHg-induced apoptosis have been defined in culture models, it remains unclear whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation is involved in the toxic effect of MeHg, especially in the neural progenitor cells. In the present study, the ReNcell CX cell, a human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) line, was exposed to nanomolar concentrations of MeHg (≤50 nM). We found that MeHg altered mitochondrial metabolic function and induced apoptosis. In addition, we observed that MeHg induced ROS production in a dose-dependent manner in hNPCs cells, which was associated with significantly increased expressions of ND1, Cytb, and ATP6. To elucidate the mechanism underlying MeHg toxicity on mitochondrial function, we examined the ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential in MeHg-treated hNPCs. Our study showed that MeHg exposure led to decreased ATP content and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, which failed to match the expansion in mtDNA copy number, suggesting impaired mtDNA. Collectively, these results demonstrated that MeHg induced toxicity in hNPCs through altering mitochondrial function and inducing oxidative damage to mtDNA. PMID:27525052

  3. Low-Dose Methylmercury-Induced Apoptosis and Mitochondrial DNA Mutation in Human Embryonic Neural Progenitor Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinjin; Yan, Mengling; Zhao, Lina; Wu, Qing; Wu, Chunhua; Chang, Xiuli; Zhou, Zhijun

    2016-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a long-lasting organic pollutant primarily found in the aquatic environment. The developing brain is particularly sensitive to MeHg due to reduced proliferation of neural stem cell. Although several mechanisms of MeHg-induced apoptosis have been defined in culture models, it remains unclear whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutation is involved in the toxic effect of MeHg, especially in the neural progenitor cells. In the present study, the ReNcell CX cell, a human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) line, was exposed to nanomolar concentrations of MeHg (≤50 nM). We found that MeHg altered mitochondrial metabolic function and induced apoptosis. In addition, we observed that MeHg induced ROS production in a dose-dependent manner in hNPCs cells, which was associated with significantly increased expressions of ND1, Cytb, and ATP6. To elucidate the mechanism underlying MeHg toxicity on mitochondrial function, we examined the ATP content and mitochondrial membrane potential in MeHg-treated hNPCs. Our study showed that MeHg exposure led to decreased ATP content and reduced mitochondrial membrane potential, which failed to match the expansion in mtDNA copy number, suggesting impaired mtDNA. Collectively, these results demonstrated that MeHg induced toxicity in hNPCs through altering mitochondrial function and inducing oxidative damage to mtDNA. PMID:27525052

  4. The human papilloma virus 16E6 gene sensitizes human mammary epithelial cells to apoptosis induced by DNA damage.

    PubMed Central

    Xu, C; Meikrantz, W; Schlegel, R; Sager, R

    1995-01-01

    Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is a normal physiological process, which could in principle be manipulated to play an important role in cancer therapy. The key importance of p53 expression in the apoptotic response to DNA-damaging agents has been stressed because mutant or deleted p53 is so common in most kinds of cancer. An important strategy, therefore, is to find ways to induce apoptosis in the absence of wild-type p53. In this paper, we compare apoptosis in normal human mammary epithelial cells, in cells immortalized with human papilloma virus (HPV), and in mammary carcinoma cell lines expressing wild-type p53, mutant p53, or no p53 protein. Apoptosis was induced with mitomycin C (MMC), a DNA cross-linking and damaging agent, or with staurosporine (SSP), a protein kinase inhibitor. The normal and HPV-transfected cells responded more strongly to SSP than did the tumor cells. After exposure to MMC, cells expressing wild-type p53 underwent extensive apoptosis, whereas cells carrying mutated p53 responded weakly. Primary breast cancer cell lines null for p53 protein were resistant to MMC. In contrast, two HPV immortalized cell lines in which p53 protein was destroyed by E6-modulated ubiquitinylation were highly sensitive to apoptosis induced by MMC. Neither p53 mRNA nor protein was induced in the HPV immortalized cells after MMC treatment, although p53 protein was elevated by MMC in cells with wild-type p53. Importantly, MMC induced p21 mRNA but not p21 protein expression in the HPV immortalized cells. Thus, HPV 16E6 can sensitize mammary epithelial cells to MMC-induced apoptosis via a p53- and p21-independent pathway. We propose that the HPV 16E6 protein modulates ubiquitin-mediated degradation not only of p53 but also of p21 and perhaps other proteins involved in apoptosis. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:7644500

  5. Preventing Damage Limitation: Targeting DNA-PKcs and DNA Double-Strand Break Repair Pathways for Ovarian Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dungl, Daniela A.; Maginn, Elaina N.; Stronach, Euan A.

    2015-01-01

    Platinum-based chemotherapy is the cornerstone of ovarian cancer treatment, and its efficacy is dependent on the generation of DNA damage, with subsequent induction of apoptosis. Inappropriate or aberrant activation of the DNA damage response network is associated with resistance to platinum, and defects in DNA repair pathways play critical roles in determining patient response to chemotherapy. In ovarian cancer, tumor cell defects in homologous recombination – a repair pathway activated in response to double-strand DNA breaks (DSB) – are most commonly associated with platinum-sensitive disease. However, despite initial sensitivity, the emergence of resistance is frequent. Here, we review strategies for directly interfering with DNA repair pathways, with particular focus on direct inhibition of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), another DSB repair pathway. DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is a core component of NHEJ and it has shown considerable promise as a chemosensitization target in numerous cancer types, including ovarian cancer where it functions to promote platinum-induced survival signaling, via AKT activation. The development of pharmacological inhibitors of DNA-PKcs is on-going, and clinic-ready agents offer real hope to patients with chemoresistant disease. PMID:26579492

  6. Hydroxychavicol, a betel leaf component, inhibits prostate cancer through ROS-driven DNA damage and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Gundala, Sushma Reddy; Yang, Chunhua; Mukkavilli, Rao; Paranjpe, Rutugandha; Brahmbhatt, Meera; Pannu, Vaishali; Cheng, Alice; Reid, Michelle D.; Aneja, Ritu

    2015-01-01

    Dietary phytochemicals are excellent ROS-modulating agents and have been shown to effectively enhance ROS levels beyond toxic threshold in cancer cells to ensure their selective killing while leaving normal cells unscathed. Here we demonstrate that hydroxychavicol (HC), extracted and purified from Piper betel leaves, significantly inhibits growth and proliferation via ROS generation in human prostate cancer, PC-3 cells. HC perturbed cell-cycle kinetics and progression, reduced clonogenicity and mediated cytotoxicity by ROS-induced DNA damage leading to activation of several pro-apoptotic molecules. In addition, HC treatment elicited a novel autophagic response as evidenced by the appearance of acidic vesicular organelles and increased expression of autophagic markers, LC3-IIb and beclin-1. Interestingly, quenching of ROS with tiron, an antioxidant, offered significant protection against HC-induced inhibition of cell growth and down regulation of caspase-3, suggesting the crucial role of ROS in mediating cell death. The collapse of mitochondrial transmembrane potential by HC further revealed the link between ROS generation and induction of caspase-mediated apoptosis in PC-3 cells. Our data showed remarkable inhibition of prostate tumor xenografts by ~72% upon daily oral administration of 150 mg/kg bw HC by quantitative tumor volume measurements and non-invasive real-time bioluminescent imaging. HC was well-tolerated at this dosing level without any observable toxicity. This is the first report to demonstrate the anti-prostate efficacy of HC in vitro and in vivo, which is perhaps attributable to its selective prooxidant activity to eliminate cancer cells thus providing compelling grounds for future preclinical studies to validate its potential usefulness for prostate cancer management. PMID:25064160

  7. The downregulation of the RNA-binding protein Staufen2 in response to DNA damage promotes apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Trépanier, Véronique; Beaujois, Remy; Viranaicken, Wildriss; Drobetsky, Elliot; DesGroseillers, Luc

    2016-05-01

    Staufen2 (Stau2) is an RNA-binding protein involved in cell fate decision by controlling several facets of mRNA processing including localization, splicing, translation and stability. Herein we report that exposure to DNA-damaging agents that generate replicative stress such as camptothecin (CPT), 5-fluoro-uracil (5FU) and ultraviolet radiation (UVC) causes downregulation of Stau2 in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. In contrast, other agents such as doxorubicin and ionizing radiation had no effect on Stau2 expression. Consistently, Stau2 expression is regulated by the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) signaling pathway but not by the DNA-PK or ataxia telangiectasia mutated/checkpoint kinase 2 pathways. Stau2 downregulation is initiated at the level of transcription, independently of apoptosis induction. Promoter analysis identified a short 198 bp region which is necessary and sufficient for both basal and CPT-regulated Stau2 expression. The E2F1 transcription factor regulates Stau2 in untreated cells, an effect that is abolished by CPT treatment due to E2F1 displacement from the promoter. Strikingly, Stau2 downregulation enhances levels of DNA damage and promotes apoptosis in CPT-treated cells. Taken together our results suggest that Stau2 is an anti-apoptotic protein that could be involved in DNA replication and/or maintenance of genome integrity and that its expression is regulated by E2F1 via the ATR signaling pathway. PMID:26843428

  8. The DNA methylation inhibitor induces telomere dysfunction and apoptosis of leukemia cells that is attenuated by telomerase over-expression

    PubMed Central

    de Jonge, Nick; Björkholm, Magnus; Xu, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTIs) such as 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) have been used for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other malignancies. Although inhibiting global/gene-specific DNA methylation is widely accepted as a key mechanism behind DNMTI anti-tumor activity, other mechanisms are likely involved in DNMTI's action. Because telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) plays key roles in cancer through telomere elongation and telomere lengthening-independent activities, and TERT has been shown to confer chemo- or radio-resistance to cancer cells, we determine whether DNMTIs affect telomere function and whether TERT/telomerase interferes with their anti-cancer efficacy. We showed that 5-AZA induced DNA damage and telomere dysfunction in AML cell lines by demonstrating the presence of 53-BP1 foci and the co-localization of 53-BP1 foci with telomere signals, respectively. Telomere dysfunction was coupled with diminished TERT expression, shorter telomere and apoptosis in 5-AZA-treated cells. However, 5-AZA treatment did not lead to changes in the methylation status of subtelomere regions. Down-regulation of TERT expression similarly occurred in primary leukemic cells derived from AML patients exposed to 5-AZA. TERT over-expression significantly attenuated 5-AZA-mediated DNA damage, telomere dysfunction and apoptosis of AML cells. Collectively, 5-AZA mediates the down-regulation of TERT expression, and induces telomere dysfunction, which consequently exerts an anti-tumor activity. PMID:25682873

  9. The downregulation of the RNA-binding protein Staufen2 in response to DNA damage promotes apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xin; Trépanier, Véronique; Beaujois, Remy; Viranaicken, Wildriss; Drobetsky, Elliot; DesGroseillers, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Staufen2 (Stau2) is an RNA-binding protein involved in cell fate decision by controlling several facets of mRNA processing including localization, splicing, translation and stability. Herein we report that exposure to DNA-damaging agents that generate replicative stress such as camptothecin (CPT), 5-fluoro-uracil (5FU) and ultraviolet radiation (UVC) causes downregulation of Stau2 in HCT116 colorectal cancer cells. In contrast, other agents such as doxorubicin and ionizing radiation had no effect on Stau2 expression. Consistently, Stau2 expression is regulated by the ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR) signaling pathway but not by the DNA-PK or ataxia telangiectasia mutated/checkpoint kinase 2 pathways. Stau2 downregulation is initiated at the level of transcription, independently of apoptosis induction. Promoter analysis identified a short 198 bp region which is necessary and sufficient for both basal and CPT-regulated Stau2 expression. The E2F1 transcription factor regulates Stau2 in untreated cells, an effect that is abolished by CPT treatment due to E2F1 displacement from the promoter. Strikingly, Stau2 downregulation enhances levels of DNA damage and promotes apoptosis in CPT-treated cells. Taken together our results suggest that Stau2 is an anti-apoptotic protein that could be involved in DNA replication and/or maintenance of genome integrity and that its expression is regulated by E2F1 via the ATR signaling pathway. PMID:26843428

  10. The DNA methylation inhibitor induces telomere dysfunction and apoptosis of leukemia cells that is attenuated by telomerase over-expression.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolu; Li, Bingnan; de Jonge, Nick; Björkholm, Magnus; Xu, Dawei

    2015-03-10

    DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTIs) such as 5-azacytidine (5-AZA) have been used for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and other malignancies. Although inhibiting global/gene-specific DNA methylation is widely accepted as a key mechanism behind DNMTI anti-tumor activity, other mechanisms are likely involved in DNMTI's action. Because telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) plays key roles in cancer through telomere elongation and telomere lengthening-independent activities, and TERT has been shown to confer chemo- or radio-resistance to cancer cells, we determine whether DNMTIs affect telomere function and whether TERT/telomerase interferes with their anti-cancer efficacy. We showed that 5-AZA induced DNA damage and telomere dysfunction in AML cell lines by demonstrating the presence of 53-BP1 foci and the co-localization of 53-BP1 foci with telomere signals, respectively. Telomere dysfunction was coupled with diminished TERT expression, shorter telomere and apoptosis in 5-AZA-treated cells. However, 5-AZA treatment did not lead to changes in the methylation status of subtelomere regions. Down-regulation of TERT expression similarly occurred in primary leukemic cells derived from AML patients exposed to 5-AZA. TERT over-expression significantly attenuated 5-AZA-mediated DNA damage, telomere dysfunction and apoptosis of AML cells. Collectively, 5-AZA mediates the down-regulation of TERT expression, and induces telomere dysfunction, which consequently exerts an anti-tumor activity. PMID:25682873

  11. Knockdown of prolactin receptors in a pancreatic beta cell line: effects on DNA synthesis, apoptosis, and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Ramamani; Fleenor, Don; Freemark, Michael

    2014-08-01

    Prolactin (PRL) and placental lactogen stimulate beta cell replication and insulin production in vitro and in vivo. The molecular mechanisms by which lactogens promote beta cell expansion are unclear. We treated rat insulinoma cells with a PRL receptor (PRLR) siRNA to determine if PRLR signaling is required for beta cell DNA synthesis and cell survival and to identify beta cell cycle genes whose expression depends upon lactogen action. Effects of PRLR knockdown were compared with those of PRL treatment. PRLR knockdown (-80 %) reduced DNA synthesis, increased apoptosis, and inhibited expression of cyclins D2 and B2, IRS-2, Tph1, and the anti-apoptotic protein PTTG1; p21 and BCL6 mRNAs increased. Conversely, PRL treatment increased DNA synthesis, reduced apoptosis, and enhanced expression of A, B and D2 cyclins, CDK1, IRS-2, FoxM1, BCLxL, and PTTG1; BCL6 declined. PRLR signaling is required for DNA synthesis and survival of rat insulinoma cells. The effects of lactogens are mediated by down-regulation of cell cycle inhibitors (BCL6, p21) and induction of A, B, and D2 cyclins, IRS-2, Tph1, FoxM1, and the anti-apoptotic proteins BCLxL and PTTG1. PMID:24114406

  12. Extensive RPA2 hyperphosphorylation promotes apoptosis in response to DNA replication stress in CHK1 inhibited cells.

    PubMed

    Zuazua-Villar, Pedro; Ganesh, Anil; Phear, Geraldine; Gagou, Mary E; Meuth, Mark

    2015-11-16

    The replication protein A (RPA)-ssDNA complex formed at arrested replication forks recruits key proteins to activate the ATR-CHK1 signalling cascade. When CHK1 is inhibited during DNA replication stress, RPA2 is extensively hyperphosphorylated. Here, we investigated the role of RPA2 hyperphosphorylation in the fate of cells when CHK1 is inhibited. We show that proteins normally involved in DNA repair (RAD51) or control of RPA phosphorylation (the PP4 protein phosphatase complex) are not recruited to the genome after treatment with CHK1 and DNA synthesis inhibitors. This is not due to RPA2 hyperphosphorylation as suppression of this response does not restore loading suggesting that recruitment requires active CHK1. To determine whether RPA2 hyperphosphorylation protects stalled forks from collapse or induction of apoptosis in CHK1 inhibited cells during replication stress, cells expressing RPA2 genes mutated at key phosphorylation sites were characterized. Mutant RPA2 rescued cells from RPA2 depletion and reduced the level of apoptosis induced by treatment with CHK1 and replication inhibitors however the incidence of double strand breaks was not affected. Our data indicate that RPA2 hyperphosphorylation promotes cell death during replication stress when CHK1 function is compromised but does not appear to be essential for replication fork integrity. PMID:26271993

  13. Inhibition of autophagy enhances DNA damage-induced apoptosis by disrupting CHK1-dependent S phase arrest

    SciTech Connect

    Liou, Jong-Shian; Wu, Yi-Chen; Yen, Wen-Yen; Tang, Yu-Shuan; Kakadiya, Rajesh B.; Su, Tsann-Long; Yih, Ling-Huei

    2014-08-01

    DNA damage has been shown to induce autophagy, but the role of autophagy in the DNA damage response and cell fate is not fully understood. BO-1012, a bifunctional alkylating derivative of 3a-aza-cyclopenta[a]indene, is a potent DNA interstrand cross-linking agent with anticancer activity. In this study, BO-1012 was found to reduce DNA synthesis, inhibit S phase progression, and induce phosphorylation of histone H2AX on serine 139 (γH2AX) exclusively in S phase cells. Both CHK1 and CHK2 were phosphorylated in response to BO-1012 treatment, but only depletion of CHK1, but not CHK2, impaired BO-1012-induced S phase arrest and facilitated the entry of γH2AX-positive cells into G2 phase. CHK1 depletion also significantly enhanced BO-1012-induced cell death and apoptosis. These results indicate that BO-1012-induced S phase arrest is a CHK1-dependent pro-survival response. BO-1012 also resulted in marked induction of acidic vesicular organelle (AVO) formation and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) processing and redistribution, features characteristic of autophagy. Depletion of ATG7 or co-treatment of cells with BO-1012 and either 3-methyladenine or bafilomycin A1, two inhibitors of autophagy, not only reduced CHK1 phosphorylation and disrupted S phase arrest, but also increased cleavage of caspase-9 and PARP, and cell death. These results suggest that cells initiate S phase arrest and autophagy as pro-survival responses to BO-1012-induced DNA damage, and that suppression of autophagy enhances BO-1012-induced apoptosis via disruption of CHK1-dependent S phase arrest. - Highlights: • Autophagy inhibitors enhanced the cytotoxicity of a DNA alkylating agent, BO-1012. • BO-1012-induced S phase arrest was a CHK1-dependent pro-survival response. • Autophagy inhibition enhanced BO-1012 cytotoxicity via disrupting the S phase arrest.

  14. Arsenic trioxide induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, and mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in human leukemia (HL-60) cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which accounts for approximately 10% of all acute myloid leukemia cases. It is a blood cancer that is formed by chromosomal mutation. Each year in the United States, APL affects about 1,500 patients of all age groups and causes approximately 1.2% of cancer deaths. Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been used successfully for treatment of APL patients, and both induction and consolidated therapy have resulted in complete remission. Recently published studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that ATO pharmacology as an anti-leukemic drug is associated with cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in leukemia cells. Methods In the present study, we further investigated the detailed molecular mechanism of ATO-mediated intrinsic pathway of apoptosis; using HL-60 cells as a test model. Oxidative stress was assessed by spectrophotometric measurements of MDA and GSH levels while genotoxicity was determined by single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay). Apoptosis pathway was analyzed by Western blot analysis of Bax, Bcl2 and caspase 3 expression, as well as immunocytochemistry and confocal imaging of Bax and Cyt c translocation and mitochondrial membrane potential depolarization. Results ATO significantly (p < 0.05) induces oxidative stress, DNA damage, and caspase 3 activityin HL-60 cells in a dose-dependent manner. It also activated the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis by significantly modulating (p < 0.05) the expression and translocation of apoptotic molecules and decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential in leukemia cells. Conclusion Taken together, our research demonstrated that ATO induces mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis in HL-60 cells. This apoptotic signaling is modulated via oxidative stress, DNA damage, and change in mitochondrial membrane potential, translocation and upregulation of apoptotic proteins leading programmed cell death. PMID:24887205

  15. Vinca alkaloids cause aberrant ROS-mediated JNK activation, Mcl-1 downregulation, DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis in lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Wei-Hsin; Luo, Sheng-Jei; Chen, Chia-Ling; Cheng, Jai-Hong; Hsieh, Chia-Yuan; Wang, Chi-Yun; Huang, Wei-Ching; Su, Wu-Chou; Lin, Chiou-Feng

    2012-05-01

    Vinca alkaloids are clinically used to inhibit the growth of malignancy by interfering with microtubule polymerization. The purpose of this study was to identify the molecular mechanisms underlying growth inhibition as well as apoptosis in vinca alkaloid-treated lung adenocarcinoma cells. Consistent with nocodazole, treatment with vinorelbine (VNR) caused mitotic prometaphase arrest in a time-dependent manner, accompanied by cell apoptosis, dependent on both dose and time. VNR sequentially induced mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) loss and caspase-dependent apoptosis following myeloid cell leukemia (Mcl) 1 downregulation. Prolonged activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) was required for vinca alkaloid- and nocodazole-induced apoptosis but not cell cycle arrest. Vinca alkaloids and nocodazole caused glutathione/reactive oxygen species (ROS) imbalance, and inhibiting ROS prevented prolonged JNK activation, decreased Mcl-1 levels, MTP loss, and apoptosis. Notably, cell size and granularity were enlarged in stimulated cells; unexpectedly, many ROS-producing mitochondria were accumulated followed by aberrant JNK-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Unlike cisplatin, which causes DNA damage in each phase of the cell cycle, VNR and nocodazole induced aberrant JNK-regulated DNA damage in prometaphase; however, inhibiting ATM (ataxia telangiectasia, mutated) and ATR (ATM and Rad3-related) did not reverse mitotic arrest or apoptosis. These results demonstrate an essential role of ROS in vinca alkaloid-induced aberrant JNK-mediated Mcl-1 downregulation and DNA damage followed by mitochondrial dysfunction-related apoptosis but not mitotic arrest. PMID:22285910

  16. Folding complex DNA nanostructures from limited sets of reusable sequences

    PubMed Central

    Niekamp, Stefan; Blumer, Katy; Nafisi, Parsa M.; Tsui, Kathy; Garbutt, John; Douglas, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Scalable production of DNA nanostructures remains a substantial obstacle to realizing new applications of DNA nanotechnology. Typical DNA nanostructures comprise hundreds of DNA oligonucleotide strands, where each unique strand requires a separate synthesis step. New design methods that reduce the strand count for a given shape while maintaining overall size and complexity would be highly beneficial for efficiently producing DNA nanostructures. Here, we report a method for folding a custom template strand by binding individual staple sequences to multiple locations on the template. We built several nanostructures for well-controlled testing of various design rules, and demonstrate folding of a 6-kb template by as few as 10 unique strand sequences binding to 10 ± 2 locations on the template strand. PMID:27036861

  17. Antioxidative Dietary Compounds Modulate Gene Expression Associated with Apoptosis, DNA Repair, Inhibition of Cell Proliferation and Migration

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Likui; Gao, Shijuan; Jiang, Wei; Luo, Cheng; Xu, Maonian; Bohlin, Lars; Rosendahl, Markus; Huang, Wenlin

    2014-01-01

    Many dietary compounds are known to have health benefits owing to their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties. To determine the molecular mechanism of these food-derived compounds, we analyzed their effect on various genes related to cell apoptosis, DNA damage and repair, oxidation and inflammation using in vitro cell culture assays. This review further tests the hypothesis proposed previously that downstream products of COX-2 (cyclooxygenase-2) called electrophilic oxo-derivatives induce antioxidant responsive elements (ARE), which leads to cell proliferation under antioxidative conditions. Our findings support this hypothesis and show that cell proliferation was inhibited when COX-2 was down-regulated by polyphenols and polysaccharides. Flattened macrophage morphology was also observed following the induction of cytokine production by polysaccharides extracted from viili, a traditional Nordic fermented dairy product. Coix lacryma-jobi (coix) polysaccharides were found to reduce mitochondrial membrane potential and induce caspase-3- and 9-mediated apoptosis. In contrast, polyphenols from blueberries were involved in the ultraviolet-activated p53/Gadd45/MDM2 DNA repair system by restoring the cell membrane potential. Inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 by saponin extracts of ginsenoside (Ginsen) and Gynostemma and inhibition of S100A4 by coix polysaccharides inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. These observations suggest that antioxidants and changes in cell membrane potential are the major driving forces that transfer signals through the cell membrane into the cytosol and nucleus, triggering gene expression, changes in cell proliferation and the induction of apoptosis or DNA repair. PMID:25226533

  18. Ochratoxin A: induction of (oxidative) DNA damage, cytotoxicity and apoptosis in mammalian cell lines and primary cells.

    PubMed

    Kamp, Hennicke G; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Schlatter, Josef; Würth, Kirsten; Janzowski, Christine

    2005-01-31

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) is a nephrotoxic/-carcinogenic mycotoxin, produced by several Aspergillus- and Penicillium-strains. Humans are exposed to OTA via food contamination, a causal relationship of OTA to human endemic Balkan nephropathy is still under debate. Since DNA-adducts of OTA or its metabolites could not be identified unambiguously, its carcinogenic effectiveness might be related to secondary effects, such as oxidative cell damage or cell proliferation. In this study, OTA mediated induction of (oxidative) DNA damage, cytotoxicity (necrosis, growth inhibition, apoptosis) and modulation of glutathione were investigated in cell lines (V79, CV-1) and primary rat kidney cells. After 24 h incubation, viability of V79 cells was strongly decreased by OTA concentrations >2.5 micromol/L, whereas CV-1 cells were clearly less sensitive. Strong growth inhibition occurred in both cell lines (IC(50) approximately 2 micromol/L). Apoptosis, detected with an immunochemical test and with flow cytometry, was induced by >1 micromol/L OTA. Oxidative DNA damage, detected by comet assay after additional treatment with repair enzymes, was induced in all cell systems already at five-fold lower concentrations. Glutathione in CV-1 cells was depleted after 1 h incubation (>100 micromol/L). In contrast, an increase was measured after 24 h incubation (>0.5 micromol/L). In conclusion, OTA induces oxidative DNA damage at low, not yet cytotoxic concentrations. Oxidative DNA damage might initiate cell transformation eventually in connection with proliferative response following cytotoxic cell death. Both events might represent pivotal factors in the chain of cellular events leading into nephro-carcinogenicity of OTA. PMID:15588931

  19. Copper complexes based on chiral Schiff-base ligands: DNA/BSA binding ability, DNA cleavage activity, cytotoxicity and mechanism of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xue-Quan; Li, Yang; Zhang, Dong-Yan; Nie, Yan; Li, Zong-Jin; Gu, Wen; Liu, Xin; Tian, Jin-Lei; Yan, Shi-Ping

    2016-05-23

    Four copper(II) complexes with chiral Schiff-base ligands, [Cu(R-L(1))2]·EtOAc (1) and [Cu(S-L(1))2]·EtOAc (2), [Cu(R-L(2))2]·EtOAc (3) and [Cu(S-L(2))2]·EtOAc (4), (R/S-HL(1) = (R/S)-(1-naththyl)-salicylaldimine, R/S-HL(2) = (R/S)-(1-naththyl)-3-methoxysalicylaldimine, EtOAc = ethyl acetate) were synthesized to serve as artificial nucleases and anticancer drugs. All complexes and R/S-HL(1) ligands were structurally characterized by X-ray crystallography. The interaction of these complexes with CT-DNA was researched via several spectroscopy methods, which indicates that complexes bind to CT-DNA by moderate intercalation binding mode. Moreover, DNA cleavage experiments revealed that the complexes exhibited remarkable DNA cleavage activities in the presence of H2O2via the generation of hydroxyl radical. Particularly, complex 4 also could nick DNA with the production of (1)O2. And all complexes exhibited excellent cytotoxicity to MDA-MB-231, A549 and Hela human cancer cells in micromole magnitude. Furthermore, complex 4 exhibited comparable cytotoxic effect to cisplatin against the proliferation of MDA-MB-231 and A549 cancer cells, as well as showed better anticancer ability to the three cancer cells than the other complexes. The results of cell cycle analysis indicated that complexes 3-4 could induce G2/M phase cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, MDA-MB-231 cells treated with 3 and 4 were subjected to apoptosis and death by generation of ROS and the activation of caspase-3. Interestingly, the chiral complexes 3 and 4 may induce cell apoptosis through extrinsic and mitochondrial intrinsic pathway, respectively. PMID:26994692

  20. DNA damage, apoptosis and cell cycle changes induced by fluoride in rat oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    He, Ling-Fei; Chen, Jian-Gang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To study the effect of fluoride on oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis as well as cell cycle of rat oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes. METHODS: Ten male SD rats weighing 80~120 g were randomly divided into control group and fluoride group, 5 animals each group. The animals in fluoride group had free access to deionized water containing 150 mg/L sodium fluoride (NaF). The animals in control group were given distilled water. Four weeks later, the animals were killed. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) in oral mucosa and liver were measured by Fenton reaction, lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA), was detected by thiobarbituric acid (TBA) reaction, reduced glutathione (GSH) was assayed by dithionitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) reaction. DNA damage in oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes was determined by single cell gel (SCG) electrophoresis or comet assay. Apoptosis and cell cycle in oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes were detected by flow cytometry. RESULTS: The contents of ROS and MDA in oral mucosa and liver tissue of fluoride group were significantly higher than those of control group (P < 0.01), but the level of GSH was markedly decreased (P < 0.01). The contents of ROS, MDA and GSH were (134.73 ± 12.63) U/mg protein, (1.48 ± 0.13) mmol/mg protein and (76.38 ± 6.71) mmol/mg protein in oral mucosa respectively, and (143.45 ±11.76) U/mg protein, (1.44 ± 0.12) mmol/mg protein and (78.83 ± 7.72) mmol/mg protein in liver tissue respectively. The DNA damage rate in fluoride group was 50.20% in oral mucosal cells and 44.80% in hepatocytes, higher than those in the control group (P < 0.01). The apoptosis rate in oral mucosal cells was (13.63 ± 1.81) % in fluoride group, and (12.76 ± 1.67) % in hepatocytes, higher than those in control group. Excess fluoride could differently lower the number of oral mucosal cells and hepatocytes at G0/G1 and S G2/M phases (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Excess fluoride can induce

  1. Analogs of the novel phytohormone, strigolactone, trigger apoptosis and synergize with PARP inhibitors by inducing DNA damage and inhibiting DNA repair

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Colin P.; Wang, Victor S.; Lapier, Jennifer; Schlarbaum, Jamie P.; Dayani, Yaron; Artuso, Emma; Prandi, Cristina; Koltai, Hinanit; Agama, Keli; Pommier, Yves; Chen, Yu; Tricoli, Lucas; LaRocque, Jeannine R.; Albanese, Christopher; Yarden, Ronit I.

    2016-01-01

    Strigolactones are a novel class of plant hormones produced in roots that regulate shoot and root development. We previously reported that strigolactone analogs (SLs) induce G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth of human breast cancer xenografts in mice. SLs had no significant influences on non-transformed cells. Here we report for the first time that SLs induce DNA damage in the form of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and activate the DNA damage response signaling by inducing phosphorylation of ATM, ATR and DNA-PKcs and co-localization of the DNA damage signaling protein, 53BP1, with γH2AX nuclear foci. We further report that in addition to DSBs induction, SLs simultaneously impair DSBs repair, mostly homology-directed repair (HDR) and to a lesser extent non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). In response to SLs, RAD51, the homologous DSB repair protein, is ubiquitinated and targeted for proteasomal degradation and it fails to co-localize with γH2AX foci. Interestingly, SLs synergize with DNA damaging agents-based therapeutics. The combination of PARP inhibitors and SLs showed an especially potent synergy, but only in BRCA1-proficient cells. No synergy was observed between SLs and PARP inhibitors in BRCA1-deficient cells, supporting a role for SLs in HDR impairment. Together, our data suggest that SLs increase genome instability and cell death by a unique mechanism of inducing DNA damage and inhibiting DNA repair. PMID:26910887

  2. Analogs of the novel phytohormone, strigolactone, trigger apoptosis and synergize with PARP inhibitors by inducing DNA damage and inhibiting DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Croglio, Michael P; Haake, Jefferson M; Ryan, Colin P; Wang, Victor S; Lapier, Jennifer; Schlarbaum, Jamie P; Dayani, Yaron; Artuso, Emma; Prandi, Cristina; Koltai, Hinanit; Agama, Keli; Pommier, Yves; Chen, Yu; Tricoli, Lucas; LaRocque, Jeannine R; Albanese, Christopher; Yarden, Ronit I

    2016-03-22

    Strigolactones are a novel class of plant hormones produced in roots that regulate shoot and root development. We previously reported that strigolactone analogs (SLs) induce G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in a variety of human cancer cells and inhibit tumor growth of human breast cancer xenografts in mice. SLs had no significant influences on non-transformed cells. Here we report for the first time that SLs induce DNA damage in the form of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and activate the DNA damage response signaling by inducing phosphorylation of ATM, ATR and DNA-PKcs and co-localization of the DNA damage signaling protein, 53BP1, with γH2AX nuclear foci. We further report that in addition to DSBs induction, SLs simultaneously impair DSBs repair, mostly homology-directed repair (HDR) and to a lesser extent non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). In response to SLs, RAD51, the homologous DSB repair protein, is ubiquitinated and targeted for proteasomal degradation and it fails to co-localize with γH2AX foci. Interestingly, SLs synergize with DNA damaging agents-based therapeutics. The combination of PARP inhibitors and SLs showed an especially potent synergy, but only in BRCA1-proficient cells. No synergy was observed between SLs and PARP inhibitors in BRCA1-deficient cells, supporting a role for SLs in HDR impairment. Together, our data suggest that SLs increase genome instability and cell death by a unique mechanism of inducing DNA damage and inhibiting DNA repair. PMID:26910887

  3. Poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of Apoptosis Antagonizing Transcription Factor Involved in Hydroquinone-Induced DNA Damage Response.

    PubMed

    Ling, Xiao Xuan; Liu, Jia Xian; Yun, Lin; DU, Yu Jun; Chen, Shao Qian; Chen, Jia Long; Tang, Huan Wen; Liu, Lin Hua

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanism of DNA damage induced by hydroquinone (HQ) remains unclear. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) usually works as a DNA damage sensor, and hence, it is possible that PARP-1 is involved in the DNA damage response induced by HQ. In TK6 cells treated with HQ, PARP activity as well as the expression of apoptosis antagonizing transcription factor (AATF), PARP-1, and phosphorylated H2AX (γ-H2AX) were maximum at 0.5 h, 6 h, 3 h, and 3 h, respectively. To explore the detailed mechanisms underlying the prompt DNA repair reaction, the above indicators were investigated in PARP-1-silenced cells. PARP activity and expression of AATF and PARP-1 decreased to 36%, 32%, and 33%, respectively, in the cells; however, γ-H2AX expression increased to 265%. Co-immunoprecipitation (co-IP) assays were employed to determine whether PARP-1 and AATF formed protein complexes. The interaction between these proteins together with the results from IP assays and confocal microscopy indicated that poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation (PARylation) regulated AATF expression. In conclusion, PARP-1 was involved in the DNA damage repair induced by HQ via increasing the accumulation of AATF through PARylation. PMID:26822515

  4. The content of DNA and RNA in microparticles released by Jurkat and HL-60 cells undergoing in vitro apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, Charles F.; Pisetsky, David S.

    2009-03-10

    Microparticles are small membrane-bound vesicles that are released from apoptotic cells during blebbing. These particles contain DNA and RNA and display important functional activities, including immune system activation. Furthermore, nucleic acids inside the particle can be analyzed as biomarkers in a variety of disease states. To elucidate the nature of microparticle nucleic acids, DNA and RNA released in microparticles from the Jurkat T and HL-60 promyelocytic cell lines undergoing apoptosis in vitro were studied. Microparticles were isolated from culture media by differential centrifugation and characterized by flow cytometry and molecular approaches. In these particles, DNA showed laddering by gel electrophoresis and was present in a form that allowed direct binding by a monoclonal anti-DNA antibody, suggesting antigen accessibility even without fixation. Analysis of RNA by gel electrophoresis showed intact 18s and 28s ribosomal RNA bands, although lower molecular bands consistent with 28s ribosomal RNA degradation products were also present. Particles also contained messenger RNA as shown by RT-PCR amplification of sequences for {beta}-actin and GAPDH. In addition, gel electrophoresis showed the presence of low molecular weight RNA in the size range of microRNA. Together, these results indicate that microparticles from apoptotic Jurkat and HL-60 cells contain diverse nucleic acid species, indicating translocation of both nuclear and cytoplasmic DNA and RNA as particle release occurs during death.

  5. Chk2 regulates transcription-independent p53-mediated apoptosis in response to DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Chen; Shimizu, Shigeomi; Tsujimoto, Yoshihide; Motoyama, Noboru . E-mail: motoyama@nils.go.jp

    2005-07-29

    The tumor suppressor protein p53 plays a central role in the induction of apoptosis in response to genotoxic stress. The protein kinase Chk2 is an important regulator of p53 function in mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation (IR). Cells derived from Chk2-deficient mice are resistant to the induction of apoptosis by IR, and this resistance has been thought to be a result of the defective transcriptional activation of p53 target genes. It was recently shown, however, that p53 itself and histone H1.2 translocate to mitochondria and thereby induces apoptosis in a transcription-independent manner in response to IR. We have now examined whether Chk2 also regulates the transcription-independent induction of apoptosis by p53 and histone H1.2. The reduced ability of IR to induce p53 stabilization in Chk2-deficient thymocytes was associated with a marked impairment of p53 and histone H1 translocation to mitochondria. These results suggest that Chk2 regulates the transcription-independent mechanism of p53-mediated apoptosis by inducing stabilization of p53 in response to IR.

  6. Understanding the Limitations of Circulating Cell Free Fetal DNA: An Example of Two Unique Cases.

    PubMed

    Clark-Ganheart, Cecily A; Iqbal, Sara N; Brown, Donna L; Black, Susan; Fries, Melissa H

    2014-05-01

    Circulating cell free fetal DNA (cffDNA) is an effective screening modality for fetal aneuploidy. We report two cases of false positive results. The first case involves a female, with self-reported Down syndrome. CffDNA returned positive for trisomy 18 leading to a maternal diagnosis of mosaicism chromosome 18 with normal fetal karyotype. The second case involves a patient with an anomalous fetal ultrasound and cffDNA positive for trisomy 13. Amniocentesis demonstrated a chromosome 8p duplication/deletion. False positive cffDNA may arise in clinical scenarios where diagnostic testing is clearly indicated. Practitioners should recognize the limitations of cffDNA. PMID:25298847

  7. Ternary copper(II) complexes with amino acid chains and heterocyclic bases: DNA binding, cytotoxic and cell apoptosis induction properties.

    PubMed

    Ma, Tieliang; Xu, Jun; Wang, Yuan; Yu, Hao; Yang, Yong; Liu, Yang; Ding, Weiliang; Zhu, Wenjiao; Chen, Ruhua; Ge, Zhijun; Tan, Yongfei; Jia, Lei; Zhu, Taofeng

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, chemotherapy is a common means of oncology. However, it is difficult to find excellent chemotherapy drugs. Here we reported three new ternary copper(II) complexes which have potential chemotherapy characteristics with reduced Schiff base ligand and heterocyclic bases (TBHP), [Cu(phen)(TBHP)]H2O (1), [Cu(dpz)(TBHP)]H2O (2) and [Cu(dppz)(TBHP)]H2O (3) (phen=1,10-phenanthroline, dpz=dipyrido [3,2:2',3'-f]quinoxaline, dppz=dipyrido [3,2-a:2',3'-c]phenazine, H2TBHP=2-(3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzylamino)-2-benzyl-acetic acid). The DNA-binding properties of the complexes were investigated by spectrometric titrations, ethidium bromide displacement experiments and viscosity measurements. The results indicated that the three complexes, especially the complex 13, can strongly bind to calf-thymus DNA (CT-DNA). The intrinsic binding constants Kb of the ternary copper(II) complexes with CT-DNA were 1.37×10(5), 1.81×10(5) and 3.21×10(5) for 1, 2 and 3 respectively. Comparative cytotoxic activities of the copper(II) complexes were also determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The results showed that the ternary copper(II) complexes had significant cytotoxic activity against the human lung cancer (A549), human esophageal cancer (Eca109) and human gastric cancer (SGC7901) cell lines. Cell apoptosis were detected by AnnexinV/PI flow cytometry and by Western blotting with the protein expression of p53, Bax and Bcl-2. All the three copper complexes can effectively induce apoptosis of the three human tumor cells. PMID:25555321

  8. Berberine in combination with cisplatin suppresses breast cancer cell growth through induction of DNA breaks and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuwan; Jing, Zuolei; Li, Yan; Mao, Weifeng

    2016-07-01

    Berberine (BBR) is an isoquinoline alkaloid extracted from medicinal plants such as Hydrastis canadensis, Berberis aristata and Coptis chinensis. BBR displays a number of beneficial roles in the treatment of various types of cancers, yet the precise mechanisms of its action remain unclear. Cisplatin is an effective cancer chemotherapeutic agent and functions by generating DNA damage, promoting DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis; however, its efficacy is challenged by the resistance of tumor cells in clinical application. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of BBR in combination with cisplatin on human breast cancer cells. MTT assay showed that BBR inhibited breast cancer MCF-7 cell growth with a 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 52.178±1.593 µM and the IC50 value of cisplatin was 49.541±1.618 µM, while in combination with 26 µM BBR, the IC50 value of cisplatin was 5.759±0.76 µM. BBR sensitized the MCF-7 cells to cisplatin in a time- and dose-dependent manner. After treatment of BBR and cisplatin, the cellular pro-apoptotic capase-3 and cleaved capspase-3 and caspase-9 were upregulated and the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 was downregulated. Importantly, BBR restrained the expression of cellular PCNA, and immunofluoresence analysis of γH2AX showed that BBR increased the DNA damages induced by cisplatin. Taken together, the results demonstrated that BBR sensitized MCF-7 cells to cisplatin through induction of DNA breaks and caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. PMID:27177238

  9. Inhibition of autophagy enhances effects of PF-04691502 on apoptosis and DNA damage of lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fei, Hong-Rong; Tian, Hua-; Zhou, Xiao-Lei; Yang, Ming-Feng; Sun, Bao-Liang; Yang, Xiao-Yi; Jiao, Peng-; Wang, Feng-Ze

    2016-09-01

    Autophagy modulation has been considered as a potential therapeutic strategy for lung diseases. The PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway may be one of the main targets for regulation of autophagy. We previously reported that a PI3K/mTOR dual inhibitor PF-04691502 suppressed hepatoma cells growth in vitro. However, it is still unclear whether PF-04691502 induces autophagy and its roles in DNA damage and cell death in human lung cancer cells. In this study, we investigate the effects of PF-04691502 on the autophagy and its correlation with cell apoptosis and DNA damage in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines. PF-04691502 efficiently inhibited the phosphorylation of Akt and showed dose-dependent cytotoxicity in A549 and H1299 cells. PF-04691502 also triggered apoptosis and the cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP. Phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX), a hallmark of DNA damage response, was dramatically induced by PF-04691502 treatment. By exposure to PF-04691502, A549 cells acquired a senescent-like phenotype with an increase in the level of β-galactosidase. Furthermore, PF-04691502 enhanced the expression of LC3-II in a concentration-dependent manner. More interestingly, effects of PF-04691502 on toxicity and DNA damage were remarkably increased by co-treatment with an autophagy inhibitor, chloroquine (CQ), in human lung cancer cells. These data suggest that a strategy of blocking autophagy to enhance the activity of PI3K/mTOR inhibitors warrants further attention in treatment of NSCLC cells. PMID:27378731

  10. Crocin Effects on Human Myeloma Cells Regarding Intracellular Redox State, DNA Fragmentation, and Apoptosis or Necrosis Profile

    PubMed Central

    Rezaee, Ramin; Jamialahmadi, Khadijeh; Riahi Zanjani, Bamdad; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Abnous, Khalil; Zamani Taghizadeh Rabe, Shahrzad; Tabasi, Nafiseh; Zali, Marjan; Rezaee, Marjan; Amin, Bahareh; Karimi, Gholamreza

    2014-01-01

    Background: Well-documented studies reported several pharmacological properties for crocin, the active compound of Crocus sativus, such as its antitumor, radical scavenging, antidepressant, and memory-enhancing effects. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the possible cytotoxic activity of crocin on B lymphocytes in human myeloma (U266 cell line) after 24- and 48-hour treatment. Materials and Methods: For this purpose, cell viability was determined by the colorimetric MTT assay and cell death pattern was evaluated using Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide (PI) apoptosis detection kit. ROS (reactive oxygen species) production and DNA fragmentation were assessed using 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) kit and PI staining, respectively. Results: The highest concentration of crocin significantly decreased ROS production after 48 hours of treatment. However, crocin had no effect on the expression level of HSP (Heat shock protein). Additionally, its administration caused a mild decline in cell viability and a mild increase in the population of DNA fragmented cells as well as apoptosis. Conclusions: In our study, no prominent effect was seen; therefore, in order to have a better perspective of crocin activity against cancerous cell lines, further studies are highly recommended. PMID:25625054

  11. The antihypertensive drug hydralazine activates the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis and causes DNA damage in leukemic T cells

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Magaña, María J.; Martínez-Aguilar, Rocío; Lucendo, Estefanía; Campillo-Davo, Diana; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Ruiz-Ruiz, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic therapies have emerged as promising anticancer approaches, since epigenetic modifications play a major role in tumor initiation and progression. Hydralazine, an approved vasodilator and antihypertensive drug, has been recently shown to act as a DNA methylation inhibitor. Even though hydralazine is already tested in clinical cancer trials, its mechanism of antitumor action remains undefined. Here, we show that hydralazine induced caspase-dependent apoptotic cell death in human p53-mutant leukemic T cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that hydralazine triggered the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis by inducing Bak activation and loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Hydralazine treatment further resulted in the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, whereas a superoxide dismutase mimetic inhibited hydralazine-induced cell death. Interestingly, caspase-9-deficient Jurkat cells or Bcl-2- and Bcl-xL-overexpressing cells were strongly resistant to hydralazine treatment, thereby demonstrating the dependence of hydralazine-induced apoptosis on the mitochondrial death pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrate that hydralazine treatment triggered DNA damage which might contribute to its antitumor effect. PMID:26942461

  12. Nickel-Refining Fumes Induced DNA Damage and Apoptosis of NIH/3T3 Cells via Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue; Wang, Sheng-Yuan; Jia, Li; Zhang, Lin; Ba, Jing-Chong; Han, Dan; Yu, Cui-Ping; Wu, Yong-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Although there have been numerous studies examining the toxicity and carcinogenicity of nickel compounds in humans and animals, its molecular mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated. In our research, NIH/3T3 cells were exposed to nickel-refining fumes at the concentrations of 0, 6.25, 12.50, 25, 50 and 100 μg/mL for 24 h. Cell viability, cell apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, the level of glutathione (GSH), activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) level were detected. The exposure of NIH/3T3 cells to nickel-refining fumes significantly reduced cell viability and induced cell apoptotic death in a dose-dependent manner. Nickel-refining fumes significantly increased ROS levels and induced DNA damage. Nickel-refining fumes may induce the changes in the state of ROS, which may eventually initiate oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis of NIH/3T3 cells. PMID:27347984

  13. Assessment of extent of apoptosis and DNA defragmentation in chilled semen of stallions during the breeding season.

    PubMed

    Krakowski, L; Obara, J; Wąchocka, A; Piech, T; Bartoszek, P; Kostro, K; Tatara, M R

    2013-10-01

    The objective of the study was to assess apoptosis and DNA defragmentation in equine semen diluted and chilled to +4°C. Semen was collected from nine fertile stallions, including four Arabian thoroughbreds and five coldbloods. Examinations were carried out immediately after semen collection (0) and at five storage times (24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h). The basic semen evaluation was performed in terms of volume, sperm concentration, viable sperm percentage, progressive motility and morphology. Using flow cytometry, DNA defragmentation and cell membrane integrity of spermatozoa were determined. The results of basic tests did not demonstrate significant differences amongst stallions, except for progressive sperm motility, which was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the semen of Arabian stallions. In the semen of the same stallions, a significant decrease in the percentage of alive spermatozoa was observed at 72, 96 and 120 h of storage, whereas a significant increase in the number of spermatozoa with DNA defragmentation was found after 24 h storage. In the semen of coldblood stallions, significantly reduced live spermatozoa percentage was observed at 96 and 120 h, while increased DNA defragmentation was observed at 48 h. These findings demonstrated that the semen of Arabian stallions chilled to +4°C retained original characteristics until 24 h of storage, whereas in coldbloods, these were preserved up to 48 h of storage. PMID:23531092

  14. Methacryloxylethyl Cetyl Ammonium Chloride Induces DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Human Dental Pulp Cells via Generation of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yang; Ma, Sai; Wang, Yirong; Li, Jing; Shan, Lequn; Sun, Jinlong; Chen, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    The polymerizable antibacterial monomer methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB) has provided an effective strategy to combat dental caries. However, the application of such material raises the question about the biological safety and the question remains open. The mechanism of this toxic action, however, is not yet clearly understood. The present study aims at providing novel insight into the possible causal link between cellular oxidative stress and DNA damage, as well as apoptosis in human dental pulp cells exposed to DMAE-CB. The enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of glutathione, as well as differential changes in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in DMAE-CB-treated cells indicated oxidative stress. By using substances that can alter GSH synthesis, we found that GSH was the key component in the regulation of cell response towards oxidative stress induced by DMAE-CB. The increase in oxidative stress-sensitive 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content, formation of γ-H2AX and cell cycle G1 phase arrest indicated that DNA damage occurred as a result of the interaction between DNA base and ROS beyond the capacities of antioxidant mechanisms in cells exposed to DMAE-CB. Such oxidative DNA damage thus triggers the activation of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) signaling, the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, and destruction of mitochondrial morphology and function. PMID:27143955

  15. Modulation of DNA methylation levels sensitizes doxorubicin-resistant breast adenocarcinoma cells to radiation-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Luzhna, Lidia; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2010-02-05

    Chemoresistant tumors often fail to respond to other cytotoxic treatments such as radiation therapy. The mechanisms of chemo- and radiotherapy cross resistance are not fully understood and are believed to be epigenetic in nature. We hypothesize that MCF-7 cells and their doxorubicin-resistant variant MCF-7/DOX cells may exhibit different responses to ionizing radiation due to their dissimilar epigenetic status. Similar to previous studies, we found that MCF-7/DOX cells harbor much lower levels of global DNA methylation than MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, we found that MCF-7/DOX cells had lower background apoptosis levels and were less responsive to radiation than MCF-7 cells. Decreased radiation responsiveness correlated to significant global DNA hypomethylation in MCF-7/DOX cells. Here, for the first time, we show that the radiation resistance of MCF-7/DOX cells can be reversed by an epigenetic treatment - the application of methyl-donor SAM. SAM-mediated reversal of DNA methylation led to elevated radiation sensitivity in MCF-7/DOX cells. Contrarily, application of SAM on the radiation sensitive and higher methylated MCF-7 cells resulted in a decrease in their radiation responsiveness. This data suggests that a fine balance of DNA methylation is needed to insure proper radiation and drug responsiveness.

  16. Methacryloxylethyl Cetyl Ammonium Chloride Induces DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Human Dental Pulp Cells via Generation of Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yang; Ma, Sai; Wang, Yirong; Li, Jing; Shan, Lequn; Sun, Jinlong; Chen, Jihua

    2016-01-01

    The polymerizable antibacterial monomer methacryloxylethyl cetyl ammonium chloride (DMAE-CB) has provided an effective strategy to combat dental caries. However, the application of such material raises the question about the biological safety and the question remains open. The mechanism of this toxic action, however, is not yet clearly understood. The present study aims at providing novel insight into the possible causal link between cellular oxidative stress and DNA damage, as well as apoptosis in human dental pulp cells exposed to DMAE-CB. The enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of glutathione, as well as differential changes in activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in DMAE-CB-treated cells indicated oxidative stress. By using substances that can alter GSH synthesis, we found that GSH was the key component in the regulation of cell response towards oxidative stress induced by DMAE-CB. The increase in oxidative stress-sensitive 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content, formation of γ-H2AX and cell cycle G1 phase arrest indicated that DNA damage occurred as a result of the interaction between DNA base and ROS beyond the capacities of antioxidant mechanisms in cells exposed to DMAE-CB. Such oxidative DNA damage thus triggers the activation of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) signaling, the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, and destruction of mitochondrial morphology and function. PMID:27143955

  17. Regulation of DNA glycosylases and their role in limiting disease

    PubMed Central

    SAMPATH, HARINI; MCCULLOUGH, AMANDA K.; LLOYD, R. STEPHEN

    2016-01-01

    This review will present a current understanding of mechanisms for the initiation of base excision repair (BER) of oxidatively-induced DNA damage and the biological consequences of deficiencies in these enzymes in mouse model systems and human populations. PMID:22300253

  18. Studies of ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes on cytotoxicity in vitro, apoptosis, DNA-binding and antioxidant activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hong-Liang; Liu, Yun-Jun; Zeng, Cheng-Hui; Yao, Jun-Hua; Liang, Zhen-Hua; Li, Zheng-Zheng; Wu, Fu-Hai

    2010-03-01

    Two new ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complexes [Ru(dmb) 2(maip)](ClO 4) 21 (maip = 2-(3-aminophenyl)imizado[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline and [Ru(dmb) 2(maip)](ClO 4) 22 (paip = 2-(4-aminophenyl)imidazo[4,5-f][1,10]phenanthroline, dmb = 4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine) have been synthesized and characterized. The DNA-binding behaviors of complexes 1 and 2 were studied by viscosity measurements, thermal denaturation, photocleavage, absorption titration and luminescence spectra. The results show that the two complexes intercalate between the base pairs of DNA. The DNA-binding constants Kb for complexes 1 and 2 were determined to be 1.12 ± 0.11 × 10 5 M -1 ( s = 2.17) and 3.46 ± 0.59 × 10 5 M -1 ( s = 2.11) M -1. The studies on the mechanism of photocleavage demonstrate that superoxide anion radical (O 2rad - ) and singlet oxygen ( 1O 2) may play an important role. The cytotoxicity of these complexes has been evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The IC 50 values are 19.21, 33.15, 38.57 and 21.15 for complex 1 and 41.77, 123.58, 255.44 and 49.11 for complex 2 against BEL-7402, C-6, HepG-2 and MCF-7 cell lines, respectively. The apoptosis assay was carried out with acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB) staining methods and the results indicate that complexes can induce the apoptosis of BEL-7402 cells. The experiments on antioxidant activity show these complexes exhibit good antioxidant activity against hydroxyl radical (OH rad ).

  19. DNA damage and DNA damage response in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells following exposure to 2-nitrobenzanthrone and 3-nitrobenzanthrone: role in apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Oya, Elisabeth; Ovrevik, Johan; Arlt, Volker M; Nagy, Eszter; Phillips, David H; Holme, Jørn A

    2011-11-01

    Nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) are mutagenic and carcinogenic environmental pollutants found in diesel exhaust and on urban air pollution particles. In the present study, human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells were exposed to 2-nitrobenzanthrone (2-NBA) and 3-nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA). DNA damage responses were compared to those observed after exposure to 1-nitropyrene (1-NP) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). Examination by microscopy revealed that 3-NBA was the most potent toxic compound while weaker responses were observed with 1-NP and B[a]P. Most interestingly, 2-NBA did not induce cell death or any other stress-related responses. 3-NBA induced a typical apoptotic cell death judged by nuclear condensation and little plasma membrane damage as well as cleavage of caspase 3 and poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Exposure to 3-NBA resulted in an accumulation of cells in S-phase, and further analysis by Western blotting, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry revealed that 3-NBA induced a DNA damage response characterized by phosphorylation of ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated), checkpoint kinase (Chk) 2/Chk1, H2AX and p53. The p53 inhibitor pifithrin-α inhibited 3-NBA-induced apoptosis while small effects were seen using pifithrin-μ, suggesting that 3-NBA-induced cell death is a result of transcriptional activation of p53. In conclusion, 3-NBA is a potent inducer of apoptosis, which seemed to be triggered by the DNA damage response. Furthermore, a change of the nitro-group to the second position (i.e. 2-NBA) dramatically changed the cellular reactivity of the compound. PMID:21715570

  20. Simulated Microgravity Promotes Cell Apoptosis Through Suppressing Uev1A/TICAM/TRAF/NF-κB-Regulated Anti-Apoptosis and p53/PCNA- and ATM/ATR-Chk1/2-Controlled DNA-Damage Response Pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Tuo; Tang, Xin; Umeshappa, Channakeshava Sokke; Ma, Hong; Gao, Haijun; Deng, Yulin; Freywald, Andrew; Xiang, Jim

    2016-09-01

    Microgravity has been known to induce cell death. However, its underlying mechanism is less studied. In this study, BL6-10 melanoma cells were cultured in flasks under simulated microgravity (SMG). We examined cell apoptosis, and assessed expression of genes associated with apoptosis and genes regulating apoptosis in cells under SMG. We demonstrate that SMG induces cell morphological changes and microtubule alterations by confocal microscopy, and enhances apoptosis by flow cytometry, which was associated with up- and down-regulation of pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic genes, respectively. Moreover, up- and down-regulation of pro-apoptotic (Caspases 3, 7, 8) and anti-apoptotic (Bcl2 and Bnip3) molecules was confirmed by Western blotting analysis. Western blot analysis also indicates that SMG causes inhibition of an apoptosis suppressor, pNF-κB-p65, which is complemented by the predominant localization of NF-κB-p65 in the cytoplasm. SMG also reduces expression of molecules regulating the NF-κB pathway including Uev1A, TICAM, TRAF2, and TRAF6. Interestingly, 10 DNA repair genes are down-regulated in cells exposed to SMG, among which down-regulation of Parp, Ercc8, Rad23, Rad51, and Ku70 was confirmed by Western blotting analysis. In addition, we demonstrate a significant inhibition of molecules involved in the DNA-damage response, such as p53, PCNA, ATM/ATR, and Chk1/2. Taken together, our work reveals that SMG promotes the apoptotic response through a combined modulation of the Uev1A/TICAM/TRAF/NF-κB-regulated apoptosis and the p53/PCNA- and ATM/ATR-Chk1/2-controlled DNA-damage response pathways. Thus, our investigation provides novel information, which may help us to determine the cause of negative alterations in human physiology occurring at spaceflight environment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2138-2148, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26887372

  1. Protection from palmitate-induced mitochondrial DNA damage prevents from mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and impaired insulin signaling in rat L6 skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yuzefovych, Larysa V; Solodushko, Viktoriya A; Wilson, Glenn L; Rachek, Lyudmila I

    2012-01-01

    Saturated free fatty acids have been implicated in the increase of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, and insulin resistance seen in type 2 diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine whether palmitate-induced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage contributed to increased oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, impaired insulin signaling, and reduced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells. Adenoviral vectors were used to deliver the DNA repair enzyme human 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase/(apurinic/apyrimidinic) lyase (hOGG1) to mitochondria in L6 myotubes. After palmitate exposure, we evaluated mtDNA damage, mitochondrial function, production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, apoptosis, insulin signaling pathways, and glucose uptake. Protection of mtDNA from palmitate-induced damage by overexpression of hOGG1 targeted to mitochondria significantly diminished palmitate-induced mitochondrial superoxide production, restored the decline in ATP levels, reduced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) kinase, prevented cells from entering apoptosis, increased insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of serine-threonine kinase (Akt) (Ser473) and tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1, and thereby enhanced glucose transporter 4 translocation to plasma membrane, and restored insulin signaling. Addition of a specific inhibitor of JNK mimicked the effect of mitochondrial overexpression of hOGG1 and partially restored insulin sensitivity, thus confirming the involvement of mtDNA damage and subsequent increase of oxidative stress and JNK activation in insulin signaling in L6 myotubes. Our results are the first to report that mtDNA damage is the proximal cause in palmitate-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired insulin signaling and provide strong evidence that targeting DNA repair enzymes into mitochondria in skeletal muscles could be a potential therapeutic treatment for insulin resistance. PMID:22128025

  2. Segregation of relaxed replicated dimers when DNA ligase and DNA polymerase I are limited during oriC-specific DNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    Munson, B R; Maier, P G; Greene, R S

    1989-01-01

    An in vitro Escherichia coli oriC-specific DNA replication system was used to investigate the DNA replication pathways of oriC plasmids. When this system was perturbed by the DNA ligase inhibitor nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), alterations occurred in the initiation of DNA synthesis and processing of intermediates and DNA products. Addition of high concentrations of NMN soon after initiation resulted in the accumulation of open circular dimers (OC-OC). These dimers were decatenated to open circular monomers (form II or OC), which were then processed to closed circular supercoiled monomers (form I or CC) products. After a delay, limited ligation of the interlinked dimers (OC-OC to CC-OC and CC-CC) also occurred. Similar results were obtained with replication protein extracts from polA mutants. The presence of NMN before any initiation events took place prolonged the existence of nicked template DNA and promoted, without a lag period, limited incorporation into form II molecules. This DNA synthesis was nonspecific with respect to oriC, as judged by DnaA protein dependence, and presumably occurred at nicks in the template DNA. These results are consistent with oriC-specific initiation requiring closed supercoiled molecules dependent on DNA ligase activity. The results also show that decatenation of dimers occurs readily on nicked dimer and represents an efficient pathway for processing replication intermediates in vitro. Images PMID:2544556

  3. Polychlorinated Biphenyl Quinone Metabolite Promotes p53-Dependent DNA Damage Checkpoint Activation, S-Phase Cycle Arrest and Extrinsic Apoptosis in Human Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiufang; Li, Lingrui; Shi, Qiong; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; Fu, Juanli; Su, Chuanyang; Xia, Xiaomin; Song, Erqun; Song, Yang

    2015-11-16

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a group of persistent organic pollutants. The toxic behavior and mechanism of PCBs individuals and congeners have been extensively investigated. However, there is only limited information on their metabolites. Our previous studies have shown that a synthetic PCB metabolite, PCB29-pQ, causes oxidative damage with the evidence of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and mitochondrial-derived intrinsic apoptosis. Here, we investigate the effects of PCB29-pQ on DNA damage checkpoint activation, cell cycle arrest, and death receptor-related extrinsic apoptosis in human liver hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. Our results illustrate that PCB29-pQ increases the S-phase cell population by down-regulating cyclins A/D1/E, cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK 2/4/6), and cell division cycle 25A (CDC25A) and up-regulating p21/p27 protein expressions. PCB29-pQ also induces apoptosis via the up-regulation of Fas/FasL and the activation of caspase 8/3. Moreover, p53 plays a pivotal role in PCB29-pQ-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via the activation of ATM/Chk2 and ATR/Chk1 checkpoints. Cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death were attenuated by the pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC). Taken together, these results demonstrate that PCB29-pQ induces oxidative stress and promotes p53-dependent DNA damage checkpoint activation, S-phase cycle arrest, and extrinsic apoptosis in HepG2 cells. PMID:26451628

  4. Cerium Oxide Nanoparticles Induced Toxicity in Human Lung Cells: Role of ROS Mediated DNA Damage and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Alok K.

    2014-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NPs) have promising industrial and biomedical applications. In spite of their applications, the toxicity of these NPs in biological/physiological environment is a major concern. Present study aimed to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the toxicity of CeO2 NPs on lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. After internalization, CeO2 NPs caused significant cytotoxicity and morphological changes in A549 cells. Further, the cell death was found to be apoptotic as shown by loss in mitochondrial membrane potential and increase in annexin-V positive cells and confirmed by immunoblot analysis of BAX, BCl-2, Cyt C, AIF, caspase-3, and caspase-9. A significant increase in oxidative DNA damage was found which was confirmed by phosphorylation of p53 gene and presence of cleaved poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). This damage could be attributed to increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with concomitant decrease in antioxidant “glutathione (GSH)” level. DNA damage and cell death were attenuated by the application of ROS and apoptosis inhibitors N-acetyl-L- cysteine (NAC) and Z-DEVD-fmk, respectively. Our study concludes that ROS mediated DNA damage and cell cycle arrest play a major role in CeO2 NPs induced apoptotic cell death in A549 cells. Apart from beneficial applications, these NPs also impart potential harmful effects which should be properly evaluated prior to their use. PMID:24987704

  5. DNA damage and induction of apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells by a new dinuclear bis(triazacyclonane) copper complex.

    PubMed

    Montagner, Diego; Gandin, Valentina; Marzano, Cristina; Erxleben, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The dinuclear copper(II) complex [Cu2{bcmp(-H)}(μ-OH)](NO3)2·H2O (1, bcmp=2,6-bis(1,4,7-triazacyclonon-1-ylmethyl)-4-methylphenol) has been synthesized and characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, potentiometric titration and cyclovoltammetry. The X-ray structure of the analogous perchlorate salt [Cu2{bcmp(-H)}(μ-OH)](ClO4)2·2.5H2O (2) was determined. Cytotoxicity studies showed very promising activity of 1 against various pancreatic tumor cell lines with IC50 values comparable or even lower than those of cisplatin. The Cu complex displayed low toxicity against a human non-tumor cell line (HEK 293) demonstrating selectivity for cancer cells. 1 converts supercoiled pUC19 plasmid DNA into the nicked form at micromolar concentrations in the absence of added reductants. A detailed kinetic study on the hydrolysis of the DNA model bis(2,4-dinitrophenyl) phosphate (BDNPP) has been performed. 1 hydrolyses BDNPP with a second order rate constant of 0.047 M s(-1) at pH 8 and 40 °C. Finally, single cell electrophoresis (comet assay) and fluorescence microscopy analysis showed that 1 interacts with cellular DNA and induces apoptotic cell death of Capan-1 pancreatic cancer cells. Western blotting analysis indicated that the Cu complex activates the p53 dependent pathway of apoptosis. PMID:25660211

  6. LZ-106, a novel analog of enoxacin, inducing apoptosis via activation of ROS-dependent DNA damage response in NSCLCs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lin; Yuan, Yinan; Fu, Chengyu; Xu, Xuefen; Zhou, Jieying; Wang, Shuhao; Kong, Lingyi; Li, Zhiyu; Guo, Qinglong; Wei, Libin

    2016-06-01

    Lung cancer, especially non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), plays the leading role in cancer which is closely related to a myriad of fatal results. Unfortunately, current molecular mechanisms and clinical treatment of NSCLC still remain to be explored despite the fact that intensive investigations have been carried out in the last two decades. Recently, growing attention to finding exploitable sources of anticancer agents is refocused on quinolone compounds, an antibiotic with a long period of clinic application, for their remarkable cell-killing activity against not only bacteria, but eukaryotes as well. In this study, we found LZ-106, an analog of enoxacin, exhibiting potent inhibitory effects on NSCLC in both cultured cells and xenograft mouse model. We identified apoptosis-inducing action of LZ-106 in NSCLC cells through the mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress apoptotic pathways via Annexin-V/PI double-staining assay, membrane potential detection, calcium level detection and the expression analysis of the key apoptotic proteins. Through comet assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection, the expression analysis of DNA damage response (DDR) marker γ-H2AX and other DDR-related proteins, we also demonstrated that LZ-106 notably induced ROS overproduction and DDR. Interestingly, additional evidence in our findings revealed that DDR and apoptosis could be alleviated in the presence of ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), indicating ROS-dependent DDR involvement in LZ-106-induced apoptosis. Thus our data not only offered a new therapeutic candidate for NSCLC, but also put new insights into the pharmacological research of quinolones. PMID:27012423

  7. Expression of DNA damage checkpoint 53BP1 is correlated with prognosis, cell proliferation and apoptosis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Jianping; Huang, Ai; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Tao; Ma, Hong

    2015-01-01

    53BP1, an important mediator of DNA damage checkpoint, plays an essential role in maintaining the cell genome stability, and the aberrant expression of 53BP1 was found to contribute to tumor occurrence and development. In this study, we explored the clinical significance of 53BP1 expression in colorectal cancer and investigated the effects of 53BP1 expression on tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis and its possible mechanisms. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to detect the expression of 53BP1 in 95 cases of tumor tissues. After establishment of shRNA-mediated knockdown stable HCT-116 cell lines, cell proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle distribution were detected by MTT and flow cytometry, and expression of up-and down-steam related proteins as γ-H2AX, CHK2 and P53 were tested by Western blot. 53BP1 intensity was found to be associated with tumor location (P < 0.05), and the low expression of 53BP1 revealed decreased survival time compared with high expression in subgroups as male, tumor size > 5 cm, tumor located at right side, T stage as T3-T4, N0, clinical stage as I-II (P < 0.05). In vitro, shRNA-mediated loss of 53BP1 obviously inhibited HCT-116 tumor cell apoptosis, promoted cell proliferation and increased accumulation of cells in S phase. Meanwhile, the expression of γ-H2AX, CHK2 and P53 was significantly reduced (P < 0.05). Our findings suggest 53BP1 may serve as a candidate biomarker for predicting prognosis and disease development in colorectal cancer. PMID:26261485

  8. Nucleotide excision repair deficiency increases levels of acrolein-derived cyclic DNA adduct and sensitizes cells to apoptosis induced by docosahexaenoic acid and acrolein.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jishen; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Xuan, Zhuoli; Dyba, Marcin; Fu, Ying; Sen, Supti; Berry, Deborah; Creswell, Karen; Hu, Jiaxi; Roy, Rabindra; Chung, Fung-Lung

    2016-07-01

    The acrolein derived cyclic 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine adduct (Acr-dG), formed primarily from ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) under oxidative conditions, while proven to be mutagenic, is potentially involved in DHA-induced apoptosis. The latter may contribute to the chemopreventive effects of DHA. Previous studies have shown that the levels of Acr-dG are correlated with apoptosis induction in HT29 cells treated with DHA. Because Acr-dG is shown to be repaired by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, to further investigate the role of Acr-dG in apoptosis, in this study, NER-deficient XPA and its isogenic NER-proficient XAN1 cells were treated with DHA. The Acr-dG levels and apoptosis were sharply increased in XPA cells, but not in XAN1 cells when treated with 125μM of DHA. Because DHA can induce formation of various DNA damage, to specifically investigate the role of Acr-dG in apoptosis induction, we treated XPA knockdown HCT116+ch3 cells with acrolein. The levels of both Acr-dG and apoptosis induction increased significantly in the XPA knockdown cells. These results clearly demonstrate that NER deficiency induces higher levels of Acr-dG in cells treated with DHA or acrolein and sensitizes cells to undergo apoptosis in a correlative manner. Collectively, these results support that Acr-dG, a ubiquitously formed mutagenic oxidative DNA adduct, plays a role in DHA-induced apoptosis and suggest that it could serve as a biomarker for the cancer preventive effects of DHA. PMID:27036235

  9. PTH1-34 blocks radiation-induced osteoblast apoptosis by enhancing DNA repair through canonical Wnt pathway.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Abhishek; Lin, Tiao; Zhu, Ji; Tong, Wei; Huo, Yanying; Jia, Haoruo; Zhang, Yejia; Liu, X Sherry; Cengel, Keith; Xia, Bing; Qin, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Focal radiotherapy for cancer patients has detrimental effects on bones within the radiation field and the primary clinical signs of bone damage include the loss of functional osteoblasts. We reported previously that daily injection of parathyroid hormone (PTH, 1-34) alleviates radiation-induced osteopenia in a preclinical radiotherapy model by improving osteoblast survival. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms, we irradiated osteoblastic UMR 106-01 cells and calvarial organ culture and demonstrated an anti-apoptosis effect of PTH1-34 on these cultures. Inhibitor assay indicated that PTH exerts its radioprotective action mainly through protein kinase A/β-catenin pathway. γ-H2AX foci staining and comet assay revealed that PTH efficiently promotes the repair of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in irradiated osteoblasts via activating the β-catenin pathway. Interestingly, Wnt3a alone also blocked cell death and accelerated DNA repair in primary osteoprogenitors, osteoblastic and osteocytic cells after radiation through the canonical signaling. Further investigations revealed that both Wnt3a and PTH increase the amount of Ku70, a core protein for initiating the assembly of DSB repair machinery, in osteoblasts after radiation. Moreover, down-regulation of Ku70 by siRNA abrogated the prosurvival effect of PTH and Wnt3a on irradiated osteoblasts. In summary, our results identify a novel role of PTH and canonical Wnt signaling in regulating DSB repair machinery and apoptosis in osteoblasts and shed light on using PTH1-34 or Wnt agonist as possible therapy for radiation-induced osteoporosis. PMID:25336648

  10. Puerarin protects the rat liver against oxidative stress-mediated DNA damage and apoptosis induced by lead.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chan-Min; Ma, Jie-Qiong; Sun, Yun-Zhi

    2012-09-01

    Puerarin (PU), a natural flavonoid, has been reported to have many benefits and medicinal properties. In this study, we valuated the protective effect of puerarin against lead-induced oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis in rat liver. A total of forty male Wistar rats (8-week-old) was divided into 4 groups: control group; lead-treated group (500 mg Pb/l as the only drinking fluid); lead+puerarin treated group (500 mg Pb/l as the only drinking fluid plus 400 mg PU/kg bwt intra-gastrically once daily); and puerarin-treated group (400 mg PU/kg bwt intra-gastrically once daily). The experimental period was lasted for 75 successive days. Our data showed that puerarin significantly effectively improved the lead-induced histology changes in rat liver and decreased the serum ALT and AST activities in lead-treated rats. Puerarin markedly restored Cu/Zn-SOD, CAT and GPx activities and the GSH/GSSG ratio in the liver of lead-treated rat. Furthermore, the increase of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine induced by lead was effectively suppressed by puerarin. The enhanced caspase-3 activity in the rat liver induced by lead was also inhibited by puerarin. TUNEL assay showed that lead-induced apoptosis in rat liver was significantly inhibited by puerarin, which might be attributed to its antioxidant property. In conclusion, these results suggested that puerarin could protect the rat liver against lead-induced injury by reducing ROS production, renewing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and decreasing DNA oxidative damage. PMID:21146379

  11. DNA polymerase eta undergoes alternative splicing, protects against UV sensitivity and apoptosis, and suppresses Mre11-dependent recombination.

    PubMed

    Thakur, M; Wernick, M; Collins, C; Limoli, C L; Crowley, E; Cleaver, J E

    2001-11-01

    Polymerase eta (pol eta) is a low-fidelity DNA polymerase that is the product of the gene, POLH, associated with the human XP variant disorder in which there is an extremely high level of solar-induced skin carcinogenesis. The complete human genomic sequence spans about 40 kb containing 10 coding exons and a cDNA of 2.14 kb; exon I is untranslated and is 6 kb upstream from the first coding exon. Using bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs), the gene was mapped to human chromosome band 6p21 and mouse band 17D. The gene is expressed in most tissues, except for very low or undetectable levels in peripheral lymphocytes, fetal spleen, and adult muscle; exon II, however, is frequently spliced out in normal cells and in almost half the transcripts in the testis and fetal liver. Expression of POLH in a multicopy episomal vector proved nonviable, suggesting that overexpression is toxic. Expression from chromosomally integrated linear copies using either an EF1-alpha or CMV promoter was functional, resulting in cell lines with low or high levels of pol eta protein, respectively. Point mutations in the center of the gene and in a C-terminal cysteine and deletion of exon II resulted in inactivation, but addition of a terminal 3 amino acid C-terminal tag, or an N- or C-terminal green fluorescent protein, had no effect on function. A low level of expression of pol eta eliminated hMre11 recombination and partially restored UV survival, but did not prevent UV-induced apoptosis, which required higher levels of expression. Polymerase eta is therefore involved in S-phase checkpoint and signal transduction pathways that lead to arrest in S, apoptosis, and recombination. In normal cells, the predominant mechanism of replication of UV damage involves pol eta-dependent bypass, and Mre11-dependent recombination that acts is a secondary, backup mechanism when cells are severely depleted of pol eta. PMID:11579462

  12. DNA damage and apoptosis induction by the pesticide Mancozeb in rat cells: Involvement of the oxidative mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Calviello, Gabriella . E-mail: g.calviello@rm.unicatt.it; Piccioni, Elisabetta; Boninsegna, Alma; Tedesco, Beatrice; Maggiano, Nicola; Serini, Simona; Wolf, Federica I.; Palozza, Paola

    2006-03-01

    The DNA damaging and proapoptotic effects of Mancozeb, a widely used fungicide of the ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate (EBDC) group, were studied in RAT-1 fibroblasts cultured in vitro and in peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMC) isolated from Wistar rats. After 1 h exposition to Mancozeb (up to 500 ng/ml), cells produced a dose-dependent induction in DNA single strand break (SSB) formation, measured by single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Concomitantly, a concentration-dependent increase in the levels of the oxidative markers of DNA oxidation, the DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were observed, suggesting a prooxidant action of Mancozeb. PBMC were less responsive than fibroblasts to the oxidative insult carried out by Mancozeb, as shown by the lower increase in the levels of ROS, 8-OHdG adducts and SSB measured in these cells after exposure to the pesticide. A 4-h treatment with Mancozeb induced also apoptosis in both PBMC and RAT-1 cells, even though leukocytes were less sensitive than fibroblasts to the proapoptotic action. This effect was dose-dependent and was inhibited by the action of the antioxidant {alpha}-tocopherol. The proapoptotic effect was accompanied by the altered expression of several proteins involved in the regulation of apoptosis, such as the prosurvival protein BCL-2 and the proapoptotic protein c-MYC. Exposition of cells to higher concentrations of Mancozeb or for longer periods (>4 h) caused post-apoptotic, necrotic alterations in cell membrane integrity. The data herein presented demonstrate the oxidative effect of Mancozeb and suggest that its prooxidant action may be involved in the proapoptotic effect exerted by this compound in rat cells. It appears possible that the observed oxidative and genotoxic damage may be involved in the pathogenesis of various pathologies associated with the chronic exposition to Mancozeb, including cancer. On the other hand, the proapoptotic effect of

  13. Promyelocytic leukemia protein interacts with the apoptosis-associated speck-like protein to limit inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Jennifer K; Becker, Christine E; Bourke, Nollaig M; Corr, Sinead C; Connolly, Dympna J; Quinn, Susan R; Pandolfi, Paolo P; Mansell, Ashley; O'Neill, Luke A J

    2014-03-01

    The apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase-activating recruitment domain (ASC) is an essential component of several inflammasomes, multiprotein complexes that regulate caspase-1 activation and inflammation. We report here an interaction between promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) and ASC. We observed enhanced formation of ASC dimers in PML-deficient macrophages. These macrophages also display enhanced levels of ASC in the cytosol. Furthermore, IL-1β production was markedly enhanced in these macrophages in response to both NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome activation and following bone marrow-derived macrophage infection with herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and Salmonella typhimurium. Collectively, our data indicate that PML limits ASC function, retaining ASC in the nucleus. PMID:24407287

  14. Campomanesia adamantium extract induces DNA damage, apoptosis, and affects cyclophosphamide metabolism.

    PubMed

    Martello, M D; David, N; Matuo, R; Carvalho, P C; Navarro, S D; Monreal, A C D; Cunha-Laura, A L; Cardoso, C A L; Kassuya, C A L; Oliveira, R J

    2016-01-01

    Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess.) O. Berg. is originally from Brazil. Its leaves and fruits have medicinal properties such as anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal and antiseptic properties. However, the mutagenic potential of this species has been reported in few studies. This study describes the mutagenic/antimutagenic, splenic phagocytic, and apoptotic activities of C. adamantium hydroethanolic extract with or without cyclophosphamide in Swiss mice. The animals orally received the hydroethanolic extract at doses of 30, 100, or 300 mg/kg with or without 100 mg/kg cyclophosphamide. Mutagenesis was evaluated by performing the micronucleus assay after treatment for 24, 48, and 72 h, while splenic phagocytic and apoptotic effects were investigated after 72 h. Short-term exposure of 30 and 100 mg/kg extract induced mild clastogenic/aneugenic effects and increased splenic phagocytosis and apoptosis in the liver, spleen, and kidneys. When the extract was administered in combination with cyclophosphamide, micronucleus frequency and apoptosis reduced. Extract components might affect cyclophosphamide metabolism, which possibly leads to increased clearance of this chemotherapeutic agent. C. adamantium showed mutagenic activity and it may decrease the effectiveness of drugs with metabolic pathways similar to those associated with cyclophosphamide. Thus, caution should be exercised while consuming these extracts, especially when received in combination with other drugs. PMID:27173259

  15. Silver nanoparticles synthesized from Adenium obesum leaf extract induced DNA damage, apoptosis and autophagy via generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Farah, Mohammad Abul; Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Chen, Shen-Ming; Li, Ying; Al-Hemaid, Fahad Mohammad; Abou-Tarboush, Faisal Mohammad; Al-Anazi, Khalid Mashay; Lee, Joongku

    2016-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are an important class of nanomaterial used for a wide range of industrial and biomedical applications. Adenium obesum is a plant of the family Apocynaceae that is rich in toxic cardiac glycosides; however, there is scarce information on the anticancer potential of its AgNPs. We herein report the novel biosynthesis of AgNPs using aqueous leaf extract of A. obesum (AOAgNPs). The synthesis of AOAgNPs was monitored by color change and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (425 nm). It was further characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The FTIR spectra for the AOAgNPs indicated the presence of terpenoids, long chain fatty acids, secondary amide derivatives and proteins that could be responsible for the reduction and capping of the formed AOAgNPs. X-ray diffraction confirmed the crystallinity of the AgNPs. The TEM images revealed mostly spherical particles in the size range of 10-30 nm. The biological properties of novel AOAgNPs were investigated on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Cell viability was determined by the MTT assay. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage, induction of apoptosis and autophagy were assessed. A dose-dependent decrease in the cell viability was observed. The IC50 value was calculated as 217 μg/ml. Both qualitative and quantitative evaluation confirmed about a 2.5 fold increase in the generation of ROS at the highest concentration of 150 μg/ml. A significant (p<0.05) increase in the DNA damage evaluated by comet assay was evident. Flow cytometry revealed an increase in the apoptotic cells (24%) in the AOAgNPs treated group compared to the control. Acridine orange staining of acidic vesicles in exposed cells confirmed the induction of autophagy. These findings suggest that AOAgNPs increased the level of ROS resulting in heightened the DNA damage, apoptosis and autophagy in MCF-7 cells. PMID:26852099

  16. Nucleocytoplasmic Translocation of UBXN2A Is Required for Apoptosis during DNA Damage Stresses in Colon Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Abdullah, Ammara; Sane, Sanam; Freeling, Jessica L; Wang, Hongmin; Zhang, Dong; Rezvani, Khosrow

    2015-01-01

    The subcellular localization, expression level, and activity of anti-cancer proteins alter in response to intrinsic and extrinsic cellular stresses to reverse tumor progression. The purpose of this study is to determine whether UBXN2A, an activator of the p53 tumor suppressor protein, has different subcellular compartmentalization in response to the stress of DNA damage. We measured trafficking of the UBXN2A protein in response to two different DNA damage stresses, UVB irradiation and the genotoxic agent Etoposide, in colon cancer cell lines. Using a cytosol-nuclear fractionation technique followed by western blot and immunofluorescence staining, we monitored and quantitated UBXN2A and p53 proteins as well as p53's downstream apoptotic pathway. We showed that the anti-cancer protein UBXN2A acts in the early phase of cell response to two different DNA damage stresses, being induced to translocate into the cytoplasm in a dose- and time-dependent manner. UVB-induced cytoplasmic UBXN2A binds to mortalin-2 (mot-2), a known oncoprotein in colon tumors. UVB-dependent upregulation of UBXN2A in the cytoplasm decreases p53 binding to mot-2 and activates apoptotic events in colon cancer cells. In contrast, the shRNA-mediated depletion of UBXN2A leads to significant reduction in apoptosis in colon cancer cells exposed to UVB and Etoposide. Leptomycin B (LMB), which was able to block UBXN2A nuclear export following Etoposide treatment, sustained p53-mot-2 interaction and had partially antagonistic effects with Etoposide on cell apoptosis. The present study shows that nucleocytoplasmic translocation of UBXN2A in response to stresses is necessary for its anti-cancer function in the cytoplasm. In addition, LMB-dependent suppression of UBXN2A's translocation to the cytoplasm upon stress allows the presence of an active mot-2 oncoprotein in the cytoplasm, resulting in p53 sequestration as well as activation of other mot-2-dependent growth promoting pathways. PMID:26516353

  17. Mitochondrial DNA deletions sensitize cells to apoptosis at low heteroplasmy levels

    SciTech Connect

    Schoeler, S.; Szibor, R.; Gellerich, F.N.; Wartmann, T.; Mawrin, C.; Dietzmann, K.; Kirches, E. . E-mail: elmar.kirches@medizin.uni-magdeburg.de

    2005-06-24

    A heterogeneous group of multisystem disorders affecting various tissues and often including neuromuscular symptoms is caused by mutations of the mitochondrial genome, which codes 13 polypeptides of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes and 22 tRNA genes needed for their translation. Since the link between OXPHOS dysfunction and clinical phenotype remains enigmatic in many diseases, a possible role of enhanced apoptosis is discussed besides bioenergetic crisis of affected cells. We analyzed the proapoptotic impact of the mitochondrial 5 kb common deletion (CD), affecting five tRNA genes, in transmitochondrial cybrid cell lines and found a slightly enhanced sensitivity to exogenous oxidative stress (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and a pronounced sensitization against death receptor stimulation (TRAIL) at a rather low CD heteroplasmy level of 22%. Mitochondrial deletions confer enhanced susceptibility against proapoptotic signals to proliferating cells, which might explain the elimination of deletions from hematopoietic stem cells.

  18. Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells activate the survival protein Akt in cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells that limits apoptosis and necrosis during hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Henning, Robert J; Dennis, Steve; Sawmiller, Darrell; Hunter, Lorynn; Sanberg, Paul; Miller, Leslie

    2012-06-01

    We have previously reported that human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (HUCBC), which contain hematopoietic, mesenchymal, and endothelial stem cells, can significantly reduce acute myocardial infarction size. To determine the mechanism whereby HUCBC increase myocyte and vascular endothelial cell survival, we treated cardiac myocytes and coronary artery endothelial cells in separate experiments with HUCBC plus culture media or culture media alone and subjected the cells to 24 h of hypoxia or normoxia. We then determined in myocytes and endothelial cells activation of the cell survival protein Akt by Western blots. We also determined in these cells apoptosis by annexin V staining and necrosis by propidium iodide staining. Thereafter, we inhibited with API, a specific and sensitive Akt inhibitor, Akt activation in myocytes and endothelial cells cultured with HUCBC during hypoxia and determined cell apoptosis and necrosis. In cells cultured without HUCBC, hypoxia only slightly activated Akt. Moreover, hypoxia increased myocyte apoptosis by ≥ 226% and necrosis by 58% in comparison with myocytes in normoxia. Hypoxic treatment of endothelial cells without HUCBC increased apoptosis by 94% and necrosis by 59%. In contrast, hypoxia did not significantly affect HUCBC. Moreover, in myocyte + HUCBC cultures in hypoxia, HUCBC induced a ≥ 135% increase in myocyte phospho-Akt. Akt activation decreased myocyte apoptosis by 76% and necrosis by 35%. In endothelial cells, HUCBC increased phospho-Akt by 116%. HUCBC also decreased endothelial cell apoptosis by 58% and necrosis by 42%. Inhibition of Akt with API in myocytes and endothelial cells cultured with HUCBC during hypoxia nearly totally prevented the HUCBC-induced decrease in apoptosis and necrosis. We conclude that HUCBC can significantly decrease hypoxia-induced myocyte and endothelial cell apoptosis and necrosis by activating Akt in these cells and in this manner HUCBC can limit myocardial ischemia and injury. PMID

  19. p53 mutations and human papillomavirus DNA in oral squamous cell carcinoma: correlation with apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Koh, J. Y.; Cho, N. P.; Kong, G.; Lee, J. D.; Yoon, K.

    1998-01-01

    Forty-two oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) were analysed for p53 mutations and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to examine the prevalency of these factors and correlation with apoptotic index (AI; number of apoptotic cells per 100 tumour cells) of the tumour tissue. In polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-Southern blot analysis, HPV DNAs were detected from 22 out of 42 SCCs (52%) with predominance of HPV-16 (68%). p53 mutations in exons 5-8, screened by nested PCR-single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis, were observed in 16 of 42 tumours (38%). The state of the p53 gene did not show any correlation with HPV infection. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL) method was used for detection of apoptotic cells. The mean AI was 2.35, ranging from 0.31 to 6.63. SCCs associated with p53 mutation had significantly lower AI than those without p53 mutation (P < 0.01), whereas no difference in AI was found between SCCs with and without HPV infection. The results of this study confirmed that HPV infection and/or p53 mutations are implicated, but are not mutually exclusive events, in carcinogenesis of oral SCC and also showed that decrease in apoptosis is more closely related to p53 mutation than HPV infection. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9703282

  20. Phthalate exposure in association with serum hormone levels, sperm DNA damage and spermatozoa apoptosis: A cross-sectional study in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Xin; Zeng, Qiang; Sun, Yang; You, Ling; Wang, Peng; Li, Min; Yang, Pan; Li, Jin; Huang, Zhen; Wang, Cheng; Li, Shuai; Dan, Yang; Li, Yu-Feng; Lu, Wen-Qing

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to phthalates has been demonstrated to cause reproductive toxicity in animals, but evidence of the association between phthalates and markers of male reproductive function have been inconsistent in human studies. Here we examined whether environmental exposure to phthalates contributes to altered reproductive hormone levels, sperm DNA damage and spermatozoa apoptosis in a Chinese population. From March to June 2013, repeated urine samples collected from male partners of couples attending an infertility clinic in Wuhan, China were analyzed for 8 phthalate metabolites. Associations of the urinary phthalate metabolites with serum hormone levels (n=483), sperm DNA damage parameters (n=509) and spermatozoa apoptosis measures (n=467) were assessed using multivariable linear regression models. After adjusting for potential confounders, mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), a metabolite of di-(2-ethylhexyl)-phthalate (DEHP), was inversely associated with serum levels of estradiol, total testosterone (T) and free T (all P for trend<0.05). Additionally, we found positive dose-response relationships between the percentage of DEHP metabolites excreted as MEHP (%MEHP) and percentages of tail DNA (P for trend<0.05) and between three metabolites of DEHP [MEHP, mono(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (MEHHP) and mono(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (MEOHP)] and percentages of Annexin V+/PI- spermatozoa (all P for trend<0.05). Our findings strengthen the emerging evidence that exposure to DEHP may alter hormone levels, disrupt sperm DNA integrity and induce spermatozoa apoptosis. PMID:26654563

  1. Evaluation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and dna-repair genes as potential biomarkers for ethanol-induced cns alterations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) lead to alterations in central nervous system (CNS) architecture along with impaired learning and memory. Previous work from our group and that of others suggests that one mechanism underlying these changes is alteration of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA-repair in neural stem cells (NSCs) produced as a consequence of ethanol-induced effects on the expression of genes related to p53-signaling. This study tests the hypothesis that changes in the expression of p53-signaling genes represent biomarkers of ethanol abuse which can be identified in the peripheral blood of rat drinking models and human AUD subjects and posits that specific changes may be correlated with differences in neuropsychological measures and CNS structure. Results Remarkably, microarray analysis of 350 genes related to p53-signaling in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) of binge-drinking rats revealed 190 genes that were significantly altered after correcting for multiple testing. Moreover, 40 of these genes overlapped with those that we had previously observed to be changed in ethanol-exposed mouse NSCs. Expression changes in nine of these genes were tested for independent confirmation by a custom QuantiGene Plex (QGP) assay for a subset of p53-signaling genes, where a consistent trend for decreased expression of mitosis-related genes was observed. One mitosis-related gene (Pttg1) was also changed in human lymphoblasts cultured with ethanol. In PBLs of human AUD subjects seven p53-signaling genes were changed compared with non-drinking controls. Correlation and principal components analysis were then used to identify significant relationships between the expression of these seven genes and a set of medical, demographic, neuropsychological and neuroimaging measures that distinguished AUD and control subjects. Two genes (Ercc1 and Mcm5) showed a highly significant correlation with AUD-induced decreases in the volume of the left parietal supramarginal

  2. [Cell-free DNA fragments increase transcription in human mesenchymal stem cells, activate TLR-dependent signal pathway and supress apoptosis].

    PubMed

    Kostiuk, S V; Malinovskaia, E M; Ermakov, A V; Smirnova, T D; Kameneva, L V; Chvartatskaia, O V; Loseva, P A; Ershova, E S; Liubchenko, L N; Veĭko, N N

    2012-01-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are now widely adopted in regenerative medicine. However, many questions on the role of different signaling pathways in the regulation of stem cell (SC) functional activity within the organism remain unaswered. In damaged regions the level of cell death increases and DNA fragments from dead cells (cell-free DNA, cfDNA) are accumulated in blood. We showed that in adipose-derived MSCs exposed in vitro to cfDNA fragments the transcription level increased (the total amount of cellular RNA and the rRNA amount rose). GC-rich CfDNA fragments (GC-DNA) activated the TLR9-dependent signal pathway: the expression of TLR9 and of TLR9-signaling pathway adapter--MyD88--was up-regulated. AT-rich DNA fragments did not increase the TLR9 expression, though, the MyD88 expression level rose. So we suggest that AT-DNA acts via some other receptors that nevertheless activate MyD88-dependent signalling in MSCs. We also showed that cfDNA fragments decreased the activity of caspase, an apoptotic enzyme. So, ctDNA can significantly influence the functional activity ofMSC by activating TLR9- and MyD88-dependent signal pathways and lowering the apoptosis level. PMID:23350199

  3. AID to overcome the limitations of genomic information by introducing somatic DNA alterations

    PubMed Central

    Honjo, Tasuku; Muramatsu, Masamichi; Nagaoka, Hitoshi; Kinoshita, Kazuo; Shinkura, Reiko

    2006-01-01

    The immune system has adopted somatic DNA alterations to overcome the limitations of the genomic information. Activation induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is an essential enzyme to regulate class switch recombination (CSR), somatic hypermutation (SHM) and gene conversion (GC) of the immunoglobulin gene. AID is known to be required for DNA cleavage of S regions in CSR and V regions in SHM. However, its molecular mechanism is a focus of extensive debate. RNA editing hypothesis postulates that AID edits yet unknown mRNA, to generate specific endonucleases for CSR and SHM. By contrast, DNA deamination hypothesis assumes that AID deaminates cytosine in DNA, followed by DNA cleavage by base excision repair enzymes. We summarize the basic knowledge for molecular mechanisms for CSR and SHM and then discuss the importance of AID not only in the immune regulation but also in the genome instability. PMID:25873751

  4. DAZL limits pluripotency, differentiation, and apoptosis in developing primordial germ cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsu-Hsin; Welling, Maaike; Bloch, Donald B; Muñoz, Javier; Mientjes, Edwin; Chen, Xinjie; Tramp, Cody; Wu, Jie; Yabuuchi, Akiko; Chou, Yu-Fen; Buecker, Christa; Krainer, Adrian; Willemsen, Rob; Heck, Albert J; Geijsen, Niels

    2014-11-11

    The scarcity of primordial germ cells (PGCs) in the developing mammalian embryo hampers robust biochemical analysis of the processes that underlie early germ cell formation. Here, we demonstrate that DAZL, a germ cell-specific RNA binding protein, is a robust PGC marker during in vitro germ cell development. Using Dazl-GFP reporter ESCs, we demonstrate that DAZL plays a central role in a large mRNA/protein interactive network that blocks the translation of core pluripotency factors, including Sox2 and Sall4, as well as of Suz12, a polycomb family member required for differentiation of pluripotent cells. Thus, DAZL limits both pluripotency and somatic differentiation in nascent PGCs. In addition, we observed that DAZL associates with mRNAs of key Caspases and similarly inhibits their translation. This elegant fail-safe mechanism ensures that, whereas loss of DAZL results in prolonged expression of pluripotency factors, teratoma formation is avoided due to the concomitant activation of the apoptotic cascade. PMID:25418731

  5. Switching from single-stranded to double-stranded DNA limits the unwinding processivity of ring-shaped T7 DNA helicase

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Yong-Joo; Rajagopal, Vaishnavi; Patel, Smita S.

    2013-01-01

    Phage T7 helicase unwinds double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) by encircling one strand while excluding the complementary strand from its central channel. When T7 helicase translocates on single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), it has kilobase processivity; yet, it is unable to processively unwind linear dsDNA, even 60 base-pairs long. Particularly, the GC-rich dsDNAs are unwound with lower amplitudes under single-turnover conditions. Here, we provide evidence that T7 helicase switches from ssDNA to dsDNA during DNA unwinding. The switching propensity is higher when dsDNA is GC-rich or when the 3′-overhang of forked DNA is <15 bases. Once helicase encircles dsDNA, it travels along dsDNA and dissociates from the end of linear DNA without strand separation, which explains the low unwinding amplitude of these substrates. Trapping the displaced strand with ssDNA binding protein or changing its composition to morpholino oligomer that does not interact with helicase increases the unwinding amplitude. We conclude that the displaced strand must be continuously excluded and kept away from the central channel for processive DNA unwinding. The finding that T7 helicase can switch from ssDNA to dsDNA binding mode during unwinding provides new insights into ways of limiting DNA unwinding and triggering fork regression when stalled forks need to be restarted. PMID:23446275

  6. Sperm chromatin condensation, DNA integrity, and apoptosis in men with spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Ali Reza; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Vahidi, Serajodin; Ghasemzadeh, Jalal; Tabibnejad, Nasim

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the effect of cord injury on (1) sperm parameters and (2) DNA chromatin status. Design Case–control study. Setting Data were collected from men referred to Research and Clinical Center for Infertility, Yazd, Iran. Participants Thirty infertile men with the presence of any level of spinal cord injury (SCI) were compared with 30 healthy donors with definite fertility and normal sperm parameters. Interventions Not applicable. Outcome measures Sperm chromatin integrity was assessed using aniline blue (AB), chromomycin A3 (CMA3), toluidine blue (TB), and acridine orange (AO) assays. The rate of apoptotic spermatozoa was evaluated with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) staining. Results Sperm concentration, motility, and morphology in men with SCI were significantly decreased compared with control group (P < 0.05). In addition, with regard to cytochemical staining and TUNEL test, the rate of reacted spermatozoa was increased significantly in SCI group when compared with the controls (P < 0.05). The majority of AB, TB, AO, and CMA3-reacted spermatozoa were higher than the “cut-off” value in men with SCI, as were the number of apoptotic spermatozoa stained with TUNEL. Conclusion Results showed that SCI disturbs sperm parameters, nuclear maturity, and DNA integrity of spermatozoa. Therefore, the production of spermatozoa with less condensed chromatin and more apoptotic rate increases after cord injury and this may be one possible cause of infertility following SCI. PMID:23809529

  7. Protein kinase Cδ regulates vaccinia-related kinase 1 in DNA damage–induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Park, Choon-Ho; Choi, Bo-Hwa; Jeong, Min-Woo; Kim, Sangjune; Kim, Wanil; Song, Yun Seon; Kim, Kyong-Tai

    2011-01-01

    Vaccinia-related kinase 1 (VRK1) is a novel serine/threonine kinase that plays an important role in cell proliferation. However, little is known about the upstream regulators of VRK1 activity. Here we provide evidence for a role of protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ) in the regulation of murine VRK1. We show that PKCδ interacts with VRK1, phosphorylates the Ser-355 residue in the putative regulatory region, and negatively regulates its kinase activity in vitro. Intriguingly, PKCδ-induced cell death was facilitated by phosphorylation of VRK1 when cells were exposed to a DNA-damaging agent. In addition, p53 played a critical role in the regulation of DNA damage–induced cell death accompanied by PKCδ-mediated modulation of VRK1. In p53-deficient cells, PKCδ-mediated phosphorylation of VRK1 had no effect on cell viability. However, cells overexpressing p53 exhibited significant reduction of cell viability when cotransfected with both VRK1 and PKCδ. Taken together, these results indicate that PKCδ regulates phosphorylation and down-regulation of VRK1, thereby contributing to cell cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death in a p53-dependent manner. PMID:21346188

  8. Transcriptional profiling of breast cancer cells in response to mevinolin: Evidence of cell cycle arrest, DNA degradation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Ali M; Aboul-Soud, Mourad A M; Han, Junkyu; Al-Sheikh, Yazeed A; Al-Abd, Ahmed M; El-Shemy, Hany A

    2016-05-01

    The merging of high-throughput gene expression techniques, such as microarray, in the screening of natural products as anticancer agents, is considered the optimal solution for gaining a better understanding of the intervention mechanism. Red yeast rice (RYR), a Chinese dietary product, contains a mixture of hypocholesterolemia agents such as statins. Typically, statins have this effect via the inhibition of HMG‑CoA reductase, the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. Recently, statins have been shown to exhibit various beneficial antineoplastic properties through the disruption of tumor angiogenesis and metastatic processes. Mevinolin (MVN) is a member of statins and is abundantly present in RYR. Early experimental trials suggested that the mixed apoptotic/necrotic cell death pathway is activated in response to MVN exposure. In the current study, the cytotoxic profile of MVN was evaluated against MCF‑7, a breast cancer‑derived cell line. The obtained results indicated that MVN‑induced cytotoxicity is multi‑factorial involving several regulatory pathways in the cytotoxic effects of MVN on breast cancer cell lines. In addition, MVN‑induced transcript abundance profiles inferred from microarrays showed significant changes in some key cell processes. The changes were predicted to induce cell cycle arrest and reactive oxygen species generation but inhibit DNA repair and cell proliferation. This MVN‑mediated multi‑factorial stress triggered specific programmed cell death (apoptosis) and DNA degradation responses in breast cancer cells. Taken together, the observed MVN‑induced effects underscore the potential of this ubiquitous natural compound as a selective anticancer activity, with broad safety margins and low cost compared to benchmarked traditional synthetic chemotherapeutic agents. Additionally, the data support further pre‑clinical and clinical evaluations of MVN as a novel strategy to combat breast cancer and overcome drug resistance

  9. Transcriptional profiling of breast cancer cells in response to mevinolin: Evidence of cell cycle arrest, DNA degradation and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    MAHMOUD, ALI M.; ABOUL-SOUD, MOURAD A.M.; HAN, JUNKYU; AL-SHEIKH, YAZEED A.; AL-ABD, AHMED M.; EL-SHEMY, HANY A.

    2016-01-01

    The merging of high-throughput gene expression techniques, such as microarray, in the screening of natural products as anticancer agents, is considered the optimal solution for gaining a better understanding of the intervention mechanism. Red yeast rice (RYR), a Chinese dietary product, contains a mixture of hypocholesterolemia agents such as statins. Typically, statins have this effect via the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase, the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. Recently, statins have been shown to exhibit various beneficial antineoplastic properties through the disruption of tumor angiogenesis and metastatic processes. Mevinolin (MVN) is a member of statins and is abundantly present in RYR. Early experimental trials suggested that the mixed apoptotic/necrotic cell death pathway is activated in response to MVN exposure. In the current study, the cytotoxic profile of MVN was evaluated against MCF-7, a breast cancer-derived cell line. The obtained results indicated that MVN-induced cytotoxicity is multi-factorial involving several regulatory pathways in the cytotoxic effects of MVN on breast cancer cell lines. In addition, MVN-induced transcript abundance profiles inferred from microarrays showed significant changes in some key cell processes. The changes were predicted to induce cell cycle arrest and reactive oxygen species generation but inhibit DNA repair and cell proliferation. This MVN-mediated multi-factorial stress triggered specific programmed cell death (apoptosis) and DNA degradation responses in breast cancer cells. Taken together, the observed MVN-induced effects underscore the potential of this ubiquitous natural compound as a selective anticancer activity, with broad safety margins and low cost compared to benchmarked traditional synthetic chemotherapeutic agents. Additionally, the data support further pre-clinical and clinical evaluations of MVN as a novel strategy to combat breast cancer and overcome drug resistance. PMID:26983896

  10. DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4) mediates methamphetamine-induced autophagy and apoptosis through mTOR signaling pathway in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Wang, Bin; Chen, Ling; Cai, Dunpeng; Li, Bing; Chen, Chuanxiang; Huang, Enping; Liu, Chao; Lin, Zhoumeng; Xie, Wei-Bing; Wang, Huijun

    2016-03-15

    Methamphetamine (METH) is an amphetamine-like psychostimulant that is commonly abused. Previous studies have shown that METH can induce damages to the nervous system and recent studies suggest that METH can also cause adverse and potentially lethal effects on the cardiovascular system. Recently, we demonstrated that DNA damage-inducible transcript 4 (DDIT4) regulates METH-induced neurotoxicity. However, the role of DDIT4 in METH-induced cardiotoxicity remains unknown. We hypothesized that DDIT4 may mediate METH-induced autophagy and apoptosis in cardiomyocytes. To test the hypothesis, we examined DDIT4 protein expression in cardiomyocytes and in heart tissues of rats exposed to METH with Western blotting. We also determined the effects on METH-induced autophagy and apoptosis after silencing DDIT4 expression with synthetic siRNA with or without pretreatment of a mTOR inhibitor rapamycin in cardiomyocytes using Western blot analysis, fluorescence microscopy and TUNEL staining. Our results showed that METH exposure increased DDIT4 expression and decreased phosphorylation of mTOR that was accompanied with increased autophagy and apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. These effects were normalized after silencing DDIT4. On the other hand, rapamycin promoted METH-induced autophagy and apoptosis in DDIT4 knockdown cardiomyocytes. These results suggest that DDIT4 mediates METH-induced autophagy and apoptosis through mTOR signaling pathway in cardiomyocytes. PMID:26825372

  11. RXRα ablation in epidermal keratinocytes enhances UV radiation induced DNA damage, apoptosis, and proliferation of keratinocytes and melanocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhixing; Coleman, Daniel J.; Bajaj, Gaurav; Liang, Xiaobo; Ganguli-Indra, Gitali; Indra, Arup Kumar

    2011-01-01

    We show here that keratinocytic nuclear receptor Retinoid X Receptor α (RXRα) regulates mouse keratinocyte and melanocyte homeostasis following acute ultraviolet radiation (UVR). Keratinocytic RXRα has a protective role on UVR-induced keratinocyte and melanocyte proliferation/differentiation, oxidative stress mediated DNA damage and cellular apoptosis. We discovered that keratinocytic RXRα in a cell autonomous manner regulate mitogenic growth responses in skin epidermis via secretion of hbEGF, GMCSF, IL1-α and COX2, and activation of MAPK pathways. We identified altered expression of several keratinocyte-derived mitogenic paracrine growth factors such as ET-1, HGF, α–MSH, SCF and FGF2 in skin of mice lacking RXRα in epidermal keratinocytes (RXRαep−/− mice), which in a non-cell autonomous manner modulated melanocyte proliferation and activation after UVR. RXRαep−/− mouse represents a unique animal model where UVR induces melanocyte proliferation/activation in both epidermis and dermis. Considered together, our results suggest that RXR antagonists, together with inhibitors of cell proliferation can be effective to prevent solar UV radiation induced photo-carcinogenesis. PMID:20944655

  12. Phytometabolite Dehydroleucodine Induces Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis, and DNA Damage in Human Astrocytoma Cells through p73/p53 Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Bailon-Moscoso, Natalia; González-Arévalo, Gabriela; Velásquez-Rojas, Gabriela; Malagon, Omar; Vidari, Giovanni; Zentella-Dehesa, Alejandro; Ratovitski, Edward A.; Ostrosky-Wegman, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence supports the idea that secondary metabolites obtained from medicinal plants (phytometabolites) may be important contributors in the development of new chemotherapeutic agents to reduce the occurrence or recurrence of cancer. Our study focused on Dehydroleucodine (DhL), a sesquiterpene found in the provinces of Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe. In this study, we showed that DhL displayed cytostatic and cytotoxic activities on the human cerebral astrocytoma D384 cell line. With lactone isolated from Gynoxys verrucosa Wedd, a medicinal plant from Ecuador, we found that DhL induced cell death in D384 cells by triggering cell cycle arrest and inducing apoptosis and DNA damage. We further found that the cell death resulted in the increased expression of CDKN1A and BAX proteins. A marked induction of the levels of total TP73 and phosphorylated TP53, TP73, and γ-H2AX proteins was observed in D384 cells exposed to DhL, but no increase in total TP53 levels was detected. Overall these studies demonstrated the marked effect of DhL on the diminished survival of human astrocytoma cells through the induced expression of TP73 and phosphorylation of TP73 and TP53, suggesting their key roles in the tumor cell response to DhL treatment. PMID:26309132

  13. Cyclane-aminol 10-hydroxycamptothecin analogs as novel DNA topoisomerase I inhibitors induce apoptosis selectively in tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shixuan; Geng, Tao; Jiang, Bo; Song, Ge; Ha, Lisha; Sun, Chenguang; Qian, Yuan; Fan, Qingyu; Guo, Hongmin

    2014-07-01

    A novel series of cyclane-aminol 10-hydroxycamptothecin (HCPT) analogs was designed and synthesized through the Mannich reaction using HCPT as the lead compound, such as 10-hydroxyl-9-L-prolinol (+) methylcamptothecin (PRPT), 10-hydroxyl-9-(4'-hydroxy) piperidinylmethylcamptothecin (PPPT), and 10-hydroxy-9-(4'-hydroxyethyl)-piperazinylmethycamptothecin (QPPT). Three kinds of new cyclane-aminols were introduced into the structure of HCPT, which modified strong cytotoxic HCPT into cyclane-aminol HCPT analogs with moderate cytotoxicity and improved selectivity toward DNA topoisomerase I inhibition in tumor cells. Special metabolic pathways for cyclane-aminol HCPT analogs in rats were discovered, which differed from other HCPT analogs. Cyclane-aminol HCPT analogs can capture O2 and cause an increase in intracellular hydrogen peroxide levels with selective induction of apoptosis in tumor cells rather than in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Among them, PPPT has a much better druggability than topotecan (TPT) and has the potential to be developed into an antitumor agent. PMID:24525588

  14. Sulforaphane induces DNA damage and mitotic abnormalities in human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells: correlation with cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Ferreira de Oliveira, José Miguel P; Remédios, Catarina; Oliveira, Helena; Pinto, Pedro; Pinho, Francisco; Pinho, Sónia; Costa, Maria; Santos, Conceição

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is a recalcitrant bone malignancy with poor responsiveness to treatments; therefore, new chemotherapeutic compounds are needed. Sulforaphane (SFN) has been considered a promising chemotherapeutic compound for several types of tumors by inducing apoptosis and cytostasis, but its effects (e.g., genotoxicity) in osteosarcoma cells remains exploratory. In this work, the MG-63 osteosarcoma cell line was exposed to SFN up to 20 μM for 24 and 48 h. SFN induced G2/M phase arrest and decreased nuclear division index, associated with disruption of cytoskeletal organization. Noteworthy, SFN induced a transcriptome response supportive of G2/M phase arrest, namely a decrease in Chk1- and Cdc25C-encoding transcripts, and an increase in Cdk1-encoding transcripts. After 48-h exposure, SFN at a dietary concentration (5 μM) contributed to genomic instability in the MG-63 cells as confirmed by increased number of DNA breaks, clastogenicity, and nuclear and mitotic abnormalities. The increased formation of nucleoplasmic bridges, micronuclei, and apoptotic cells positively correlated with loss of viability. These results suggest that genotoxic damage is an important step for SFN-induced cytotoxicity in MG-63 cells. In conclusion, SFN shows potential to induce genotoxic damage at low concentrations and such potential deserves further investigation in other tumor cell types. PMID:24405297

  15. Scorpion (Odontobuthus doriae) venom induces apoptosis and inhibits DNA synthesis in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Zargan, Jamil; Sajad, Mir; Umar, Sadiq; Naime, M; Ali, Shakir; Khan, Haider A

    2011-02-01

    Scorpion and its organs have been used to cure epilepsy, rheumatism, and male impotency since medieval times. Scorpion venom which contains different compounds like enzyme and non-enzyme proteins, ions, free amino acids, and other organic inorganic substances have been reported to posses antiproliferative, cytotoxic, apoptogenic, and immunosuppressive properties. We for the first time report the apoptotic and antiproliferative effects of scorpion venom (Odontobuthus doriae) in human neuroblastoma cells. After exposure of cells to medium containing varying concentrations of venom (10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/ml), cell viability decreased to 90.75, 75.53, 55.52, 37.85, and 14.30%, respectively, after 24 h. Cells expressed morphological changes like swelling, inhibition of neurite outgrowth, irregular shape, aggregation, rupture of membrane, and release of cytosolic contents after treatment with venom. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level increased in 50 and 100 μg/ml as compared to control, but there was no significant increase in LDH level at a dose of 10 and 20 μg/ml. Two concentrations viz. 50 and 100 μ/ml were selected because of the profound effect of these concentrations on the cellular health and population. Treatment with these two concentrations induced reactive nitrogen intermediates and depolarization in mitochondria. While caspase-3 activity increased in a concentration-dependent manner, only 50 μg/ml was able to fragment DNA. It was interesting to note that at higher dose, i.e., 100 μg/ml, the cells were killed, supposedly by acute necrosis. DNA synthesis evidenced by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation was inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner. The cells without treatment incorporated BrdU with high affinity confirming their cancerous nature whereas very less incorporation was noticed in treated cells. Our results show apoptotic and antiproliferative potential of scorpion venom (O. doriae) in human neuroblastoma cells. These properties

  16. Puma cooperates with Bim, the rate-limiting BH3-only protein in cell death during lymphocyte development, in apoptosis induction

    PubMed Central

    Erlacher, Miriam; Labi, Verena; Manzl, Claudia; Böck, Günther; Tzankov, Alexandar; Häcker, Georg; Michalak, Ewa; Strasser, Andreas; Villunger, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    The physiological role of B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) homology 3–only proteins has been investigated in mice lacking the individual genes identifying rate-limiting roles for Bim (Bcl-2–interacting mediator of cell death) and Puma (p53–up-regulated modulator of apoptosis) in apoptosis induction. The loss of Bim protects lymphocytes from apoptosis induced by cytokine deprivation and deregulated Ca++ flux and interferes with the deletion of autoreactive lymphocytes and the shutdown of immune responses. In contrast, Puma is considered the key mediator of p53-induced apoptosis. To investigate the hypothesis that Bim and Puma have overlapping functions, we generated mice lacking both genes and found that bim−/−/puma−/− animals develop multiple postnatal defects that are not observed in the single knockout mice. Most strikingly, hyperplasia of lymphatic organs is comparable with that observed in mice overexpressing Bcl-2 in all hemopoietic cells exceeding the hyperplasia observed in bim−/− mice. Bim and Puma also have clearly overlapping functions in p53-dependent and -independent apoptosis. Their combined loss promotes spontaneous tumorigenesis, causing the malignancies observed in Bcl-2 transgenic mice, but does not exacerbate the autoimmunity observed in the absence of Bim. PMID:17178918

  17. ATM-deficient human fibroblast cells are resistant to low levels of DNA double-strand break induced apoptosis and subsequently undergo drug-induced premature senescence

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jun; Jo, Yong Hwa; Cho, Chang Hoon; Choe, Wonchae; Kang, Insug; Baik, Hyung Hwan; Yoon, Kyung-Sik

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A-T cells were not hypersensitive to low levels of DNA DSBs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A-T cells have enhanced Akt but defect in activation of p53 and apoptotic proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A-T cells underwent premature senescence after DNA damage accumulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chemotherapeutic effect in cancer therapy may be associated with premature senescence. -- Abstract: DNA DSBs are induced by IR or radiomimetic drugs such as doxorubicin. It has been indicated that cells from ataxia-telangiectasia patients are highly sensitive to radiation due to defects in DNA repair, but whether they have impairment in apoptosis has not been fully elucidated. A-T cells showed increased sensitivity to high levels of DNA damage, however, they were more resistant to low doses. Normal cells treated with combination of KU55933, a specific ATM kinase inhibitor, and doxorubicin showed increased resistance as they do in a similar manner to A-T cells. A-T cells have higher viability but more DNA breaks, in addition, the activations of p53 and apoptotic proteins (Bax and caspase-3) were deficient, but Akt expression was enhanced. A-T cells subsequently underwent premature senescence after treatment with a low dose of doxorubicin, which was confirmed by G2 accumulation, senescent morphology, and SA-{beta}-gal positive until 15 days repair incubation. Finally, A-T cells are radio-resistant at low doses due to its defectiveness in detecting DNA damage and apoptosis, but the accumulation of DNA damage leads cells to premature senescence.

  18. Digital Droplet Multiple Displacement Amplification (ddMDA) for Whole Genome Sequencing of Limited DNA Samples

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Minsoung; Light, Yooli K.; Meagher, Robert J.; Singh, Anup K.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) is a widely used technique for amplification of DNA from samples containing limited amounts of DNA (e.g., uncultivable microbes or clinical samples) before whole genome sequencing. Despite its advantages of high yield and fidelity, it suffers from high amplification bias and non-specific amplification when amplifying sub-nanogram of template DNA. Here, we present a microfluidic digital droplet MDA (ddMDA) technique where partitioning of the template DNA into thousands of sub-nanoliter droplets, each containing a small number of DNA fragments, greatly reduces the competition among DNA fragments for primers and polymerase thereby greatly reducing amplification bias. Consequently, the ddMDA approach enabled a more uniform coverage of amplification over the entire length of the genome, with significantly lower bias and non-specific amplification than conventional MDA. For a sample containing 0.1 pg/μL of E. coli DNA (equivalent of ~3/1000 of an E. coli genome per droplet), ddMDA achieves a 65-fold increase in coverage in de novo assembly, and more than 20-fold increase in specificity (percentage of reads mapping to E. coli) compared to the conventional tube MDA. ddMDA offers a powerful method useful for many applications including medical diagnostics, forensics, and environmental microbiology. PMID:27144304

  19. Digital Droplet Multiple Displacement Amplification (ddMDA) for Whole Genome Sequencing of Limited DNA Samples.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Minsoung; Light, Yooli K; Meagher, Robert J; Singh, Anup K

    2016-01-01

    Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) is a widely used technique for amplification of DNA from samples containing limited amounts of DNA (e.g., uncultivable microbes or clinical samples) before whole genome sequencing. Despite its advantages of high yield and fidelity, it suffers from high amplification bias and non-specific amplification when amplifying sub-nanogram of template DNA. Here, we present a microfluidic digital droplet MDA (ddMDA) technique where partitioning of the template DNA into thousands of sub-nanoliter droplets, each containing a small number of DNA fragments, greatly reduces the competition among DNA fragments for primers and polymerase thereby greatly reducing amplification bias. Consequently, the ddMDA approach enabled a more uniform coverage of amplification over the entire length of the genome, with significantly lower bias and non-specific amplification than conventional MDA. For a sample containing 0.1 pg/μL of E. coli DNA (equivalent of ~3/1000 of an E. coli genome per droplet), ddMDA achieves a 65-fold increase in coverage in de novo assembly, and more than 20-fold increase in specificity (percentage of reads mapping to E. coli) compared to the conventional tube MDA. ddMDA offers a powerful method useful for many applications including medical diagnostics, forensics, and environmental microbiology. PMID:27144304

  20. HMGB1-DNA Complex-induced Autophagy Limits AIM2 Inflammasome Activation through RAGE

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Liying; Yang, Minghua; Kang, Rui; Yu, Yan; Dai, Yunpen; Gao, Fei; Wang, Hongmei; Sun, Xiaojun; Li, Xiuli; Li, Jianhua; Wang, Haichao; Cao, Lizhi; Tang, Daolin

    2014-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a prototype damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) that can induce inflammatory and immune responses alone as well as in combination with other molecules such as DNA. However, the intricate molecular mechanisms underlying HMGB1-DNA complex-mediated innate immune response remains largely elusive. In this study, we demonstrated that HMGB1-DNA complex initially induced absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2)-dependent inflammasome activation, and promoted rapid release of inflammasome-dependent early proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β (IL-1β). Subsequently, HMGB1-DNA complex stimulated an ATG5-dependent cellular degradation process, autophagy, which was paralleled by a cessation of AIM2 inflammasome activation and IL-1β release. These HMGB1-DNA complex-induced inflammasome activation and autophagy were both dependent on the receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) that recognizes a wide array of ligands (including HMGB1 and DNA). Thus, autophagy may function as a negative counter-regulatory mechanism for HMGB1-DNA complex-induced inflammasome activation, and provide a checkpoint to limit the development of inflammation. PMID:24971542

  1. Digital droplet multiple displacement amplification (ddMDA) for whole genome sequencing of limited DNA samples

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rhee, Minsoung; Light, Yooli K.; Meagher, Robert J.; Singh, Anup K.; Kumar-Sinha, Chandan

    2016-05-04

    Here, multiple displacement amplification (MDA) is a widely used technique for amplification of DNA from samples containing limited amounts of DNA (e.g., uncultivable microbes or clinical samples) before whole genome sequencing. Despite its advantages of high yield and fidelity, it suffers from high amplification bias and non-specific amplification when amplifying sub-nanogram of template DNA. Here, we present a microfluidic digital droplet MDA (ddMDA) technique where partitioning of the template DNA into thousands of sub-nanoliter droplets, each containing a small number of DNA fragments, greatly reduces the competition among DNA fragments for primers and polymerase thereby greatly reducing amplification bias. Consequently,more » the ddMDA approach enabled a more uniform coverage of amplification over the entire length of the genome, with significantly lower bias and non-specific amplification than conventional MDA. For a sample containing 0.1 pg/μL of E. coli DNA (equivalent of ~3/1000 of an E. coli genome per droplet), ddMDA achieves a 65-fold increase in coverage in de novo assembly, and more than 20-fold increase in specificity (percentage of reads mapping to E. coli) compared to the conventional tube MDA. ddMDA offers a powerful method useful for many applications including medical diagnostics, forensics, and environmental microbiology.« less

  2. Tissue-Specific Effects of Valproic Acid on DNA Repair Genes and Apoptosis in Postimplantation Mouse Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Lamparter, Christina; Winn, Louise M.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to the anticonvulsant drug valproic acid (VPA) is associated with an increased risk of congenital malformations. Although the mechanisms contributing to its teratogenicity are poorly understood, VPA has been shown to induce DNA double strand breaks (DSB) and to increase homologous recombination in vitro. The objective of the present study was to determine whether in utero exposure to VPA alters the frequency of intrachromosomal recombination and the expression of several genes involved in DSB repair in pKZ1 mouse embryos. Pregnant pKZ1 transgenic mice (GD 9.0) were administered VPA (500 mg/kg s.c.) and embryos were extracted and microdissected into the head, heart, and trunk regions 1, 3, 6, and 24 h after injection. Quantitative PCR was used to measure the tissue-specific expression of lacZ, a surrogate measure of recombination, Xrcc4, Rad51, Brca1, and Brca2, with Western blotting used to quantify Rad51, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved-PARP protein. Increased recombination was only observed in the embryonic head following 6-h VPA exposure. VPA had no effect on Xrcc4 expression. Rad51, Brca1, and Brca2 expression rapidly decreased in head and trunk tissues after 1-h VPA exposure, followed by a subsequent increase in all tissues, although it was generally attenuated in the head and not due to differences in endogenous levels. Cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved-PARP expression was increased in all tissues 3 h following VPA exposure. This study indicates that the tissue-specific expression of several genes involved in DSB repair is altered following exposure to VPA and may be contributing to increased apoptosis. PMID:24913804

  3. Induction of cell cycle arrest, DNA damage, and apoptosis by nimbolide in human renal cell carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yi-Hsien; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Chen, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Shu-Ching; Lin, Chia-Liang; Tsai, Jen-Pi

    2015-09-01

    Nimbolide is a tetranortriterpenoid isolated from the leaves and flowers of Azadirachta indica which has been shown to exhibit anticancer, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-invasive properties in a variety of cancer cells. However, the anti-tumor effect on human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cells is unknown. In this study, we found that nimbolide treatment had a cytotoxic effect on 786-O and A-498 RCC cells in a dose-dependent manner. According to flow cytometric analysis, nimbolide treatment resulted in G2/M arrest in 786-O and A-498 cells accompanied with an increase in the phosphorylation status of p53, cdc2, cdc25c, and decreased expressions of cyclin A, cyclin B, cdc2, and cdc25c. Nimbolide also caused DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner as determined by comet assay and measurement of γ-H2AX. In addition, apoptotic cells were observed in an Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide double-stained assay. The activities of caspase-3, -9, and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) were increased, and the expression of pro-caspase-8 was decreased in nimbolide-treated 786-O and A-498 cells. Western blot analysis revealed that the levels of intrinsic-related apoptotic proteins Bax and extrinsic-related proteins (DR5, CHOP) were significantly increased in nimbolide-treated 786-O and A-498 cells. In addition, the expressions of Bcl-2 and Mcl-1 were decreased in 786-O and A-498 cells after nimbolide treatment. We conclude that nimbolide can inhibit the growth of human RCC cells by inducing G2/M phase arrest by modulating cell cycle-related proteins and cell apoptosis by regulating intrinsic and extrinsic caspase signaling pathways. Nimbolide may be a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of RCC. PMID:25916210

  4. Limited dCTP availability accounts for mitochondrial DNA depletion in mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE).

    PubMed

    González-Vioque, Emiliano; Torres-Torronteras, Javier; Andreu, Antoni L; Martí, Ramon

    2011-03-01

    Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy (MNGIE) is a severe human disease caused by mutations in TYMP, the gene encoding thymidine phosphorylase (TP). It belongs to a broader group of disorders characterized by a pronounced reduction in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in one or more tissues. In most cases, these disorders are caused by mutations in genes involved in deoxyribonucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) metabolism. It is generally accepted that imbalances in mitochondrial dNTP pools resulting from these mutations interfere with mtDNA replication. Nonetheless, the precise mechanistic details of this effect, in particular, how an excess of a given dNTP (e.g., imbalanced dTTP excess observed in TP deficiency) might lead to mtDNA depletion, remain largely unclear. Using an in organello replication experimental model with isolated murine liver mitochondria, we observed that overloads of dATP, dGTP, or dCTP did not reduce the mtDNA replication rate. In contrast, an excess of dTTP decreased mtDNA synthesis, but this effect was due to secondary dCTP depletion rather than to the dTTP excess in itself. This was confirmed in human cultured cells, demonstrating that our conclusions do not depend on the experimental model. Our results demonstrate that the mtDNA replication rate is unaffected by an excess of any of the 4 separate dNTPs and is limited by the availability of the dNTP present at the lowest concentration. Therefore, the availability of dNTP is the key factor that leads to mtDNA depletion rather than dNTP imbalances. These results provide the first test of the mechanism that accounts for mtDNA depletion in MNGIE and provide evidence that limited dNTP availability is the common cause of mtDNA depletion due to impaired anabolic or catabolic dNTP pathways. Thus, therapy approaches focusing on restoring the deficient substrates should be explored. PMID:21483760

  5. Delivery of PUMA Apoptosis Gene Using Polyethyleneimine-SMCC-TAT/DNA Nanoparticles: Biophysical Characterization and In Vitro Transfection Into Malignant Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Fu; Wang, Zhifei; Huang, Yuanfu; Xu, Hancong; He, Lei; Deng Yan; Zeng, Xin; He, Nongyue

    2015-10-01

    A synthesized PEI-based gene delivery system, wherein PEI was crosslinked with sulfosuccinimidyl-4-(N-maleimidomethyl) cyclohexane-1-carboxylate (Sulfo-SMCC) conjugating trans-activating transcriptional activator (TAT), yielding PEI-SMCC-TAT (PST), a novel non-viral vector for apoptosis-related gene PUMA (p53 up regulated modulator of apoptosis), was designed and evaluated. Sulfo-SMCC is a commonly used heterobifunctional crosslinker and is soluble in water, making the crosslinking easier without organic reagent like DMSO or chloroform. The PST/pDNA nanoparticles were 171.9 nm at the optimal N/P ratio (50:1). DNA complexes of all the PST conjugation had much lower toxicity and exhibited enhancement in transfection efficiency in comparison with single PEI vector. The results also showed that the transfection efficiency of PST/pEGFP nanoparticles into malignant melanoma A375 cell increased, and PST carrying PUMA gene induced the apoptosis of A375 cells. It was suggested that PST could be a promising melanoma tumor-targeting nanovector, and have a good potential in clinical application. PMID:26502640

  6. Ciprofloxacin-induced G2 arrest and apoptosis in TK6 lymphoblastoid cells is not dependent on DNA double-strand break formation

    PubMed Central

    Smart, Daniel J.; Halicka, H. Dorota; Traganos, Frank; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Williams, Gary M.

    2008-01-01

    Drugs developed for the treatment of conditions other than neoplasia can also show promise as potential antitumor agents. The fluoroquinolone antibiotic ciprofloxacin (CPFX) is known to modulate cycle cell progression and apoptosis in cancer cells, and is thought to induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via topoisomerase II (topo II) inhibition and stabilized cleavage complex (SCC) formation. DSBs trigger Ser-139 phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γH2AX) by PI-3-like kinases including ATM; γH2AX can serve as a marker of DNA damage when measured in situ using immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between CPFX-mediated DNA damage and induction of apoptosis in human lymphoblastoid cells and phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated lymphocytes (Lymphs). Treatment of TK6 cells (wild-type p53) with 100 µg/ml CPFX for 2-10 h produced no increase in γH2AX; to the contrary, its level in S phase cells was reduced at 10 h compared to controls. Nevertheless, stabilization of topo IIα, ATM Ser-1981 phosphorylation and G2 arrest was observed in TK6 cells exposed to CPFX for ≥4 h. However, following 24 h treatment, γH2AX was dramatically increased in a sub-population of cells indicating the onset of apoptosis (confirmed by presence of activated caspase 3). CPFX had a similar lack of effect on induction of γH2AX at early time points in WTK1 and NH32 cells (devoid of functional p53) and proliferating Lymphs, however, induction of apoptosis was less pronounced than in TK6 cells. Formation of SCC and activation of ATM (but lack of γH2AX induction) indicates topo II-mediated chromatin or DNA changes in the absence of DSBs; ATM activation apparently triggers the G2M checkpoint leading to G2 arrest. The subsequent induction of apoptosis appears to be facilitated by functional p53. CPFX may therefore have a potential use as a chemotherapeutic agent in the treatment of lymphoblast-derived cancer. PMID:18059176

  7. Modulation of DNA damage response and induction of apoptosis mediates synergism between doxorubicin and a new imidazopyridine derivative in breast and lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    El-Awady, Raafat A; Semreen, Mohammad H; Saber-Ayad, Maha M; Cyprian, Farhan; Menon, Varsha; Al-Tel, Taleb H

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage response machinery (DDR) is an attractive target of cancer therapy. Modulation of DDR network may alter the response of cancer cells to DNA damaging anticancer drugs such as doxorubicin. The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of a newly developed imidazopyridine (IAZP) derivative on the DDR after induction of DNA damage in cancer cells by doxorubicin. Cytotoxicity sulphrhodamine-B assay showed a weak anti-proliferative effect of IAZP alone on six cancer cell lines (MCF7, A549, A549DOX11, HepG2, HeLa and M8) and a normal fibroblast strain. Combination of IAZP with doxorubicin resulted in synergism in lung (A549) and breast (MCF7) cancer cells but neither in the other cancer cell lines nor in normal fibroblasts. Molecular studies revealed that synergism is mediated by modulation of DNA damage response and induction of apoptosis. Using constant-field gel electrophoresis and immunofluorescence detection of γ-H2AX foci, IAZP was shown to inhibit the repair of doxorubicin-induced DNA damage in A549 and MCF7 cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that IAZP suppresses the phosphorylation of the ataxia lelangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR) protein, which is an important player in the response of cancer cells to chemotherapy-induced DNA damage. Moreover, IAZP augmented the doxorubicin-induced degradation of p21, activation of p53, CDK2, caspase 3/7 and phosphorylation of Rb protein. These effects enhanced doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in both cell lines. Our results indicate that IAZP is a promising agent that may enhance the cytotoxic effects of doxorubicin on some cancer cells through targeting the DDR. It is a preliminary step toward the clinical application of IAZP in combination with anticancer drugs and opens the avenue for the development of compounds targeting the DDR pathway that might improve the therapeutic index of anticancer drugs and enhance their cure rate. PMID:26590797

  8. Cyanidin suppresses amyloid beta-induced neurotoxicity by inhibiting reactive oxygen species-mediated DNA damage and apoptosis in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Fu, Xiao-ting; Li, Da-wei; Wang, Kun; Wang, Xin-zhi; Li, Yuan; Sun, Bao-liang; Yang, Xiao-yi; Zheng, Zun-cheng; Cho, Nam Chun

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced oxidative stress is a major pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Cyanidin, a natural flavonoid compound, is neuroprotective against oxidative damage-mediated degeneration. However, its molecular mechanism remains unclear. Here, we investigated the effects of cyanidin pretreatment against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells, and explored the underlying mechanisms. Cyanidin pretreatment significantly attenuated Aβ-induced cell mortality and morphological changes in PC12 cells. Mechanistically, cyanidin effectively blocked apoptosis induced by Aβ, by restoring the mitochondrial membrane potential via upregulation of Bcl-2 protein expression. Moreover, cyanidin markedly protected PC12 cells from Aβ-induced DNA damage by blocking reactive oxide species and superoxide accumulation. These results provide evidence that cyanidin suppresses Aβ-induced cytotoxicity, by preventing oxidative damage mediated by reactive oxide species, which in turn inhibits mitochondrial apoptosis. Our study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of cyanidin in the prevention of oxidative stress-mediated Aβ neurotoxicity. PMID:27335564

  9. Para-phenylenediamine induced DNA damage and apoptosis through oxidative stress and enhanced caspase-8 and -9 activities in Mardin-Darby canine kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, S C; Chen, C H; Tioh, Y L; Zhong, P Y; Lin, Y S; Chye, S M

    2010-06-01

    Para-phenylenediamine (p-PD), a suspected carcinogen, is a component of permanent hair dyes. In this study we examined the mechanism of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in Mardin-Darby canine kidney cells (MDCK)-treated with p-PD. Our results showed that p-PD decreased cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In addition, p-PD induced DNA damage was confirmed by the comet and TUNEL assays. Pre-treatment of MDCK cells with antioxidants vitamin C or E significantly inhibited p-PD induced cytotoxicity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Furthermore, p-PD induced apoptosis through activated initiator caspase-8 and -9, and effector caspase-3/7. Based on these results, we suggested that p-PD induce apoptosis which was mediated with caspase-8, caspase-9 and caspase-3/7 activation via the involvement of ROS. PMID:20156547

  10. α-Phellandrene alters expression of genes associated with DNA damage, cell cycle, and apoptosis in murine leukemia WEHI-3 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jen-Jyh; Yu, Chien-Chih; Lu, Kung-Wen; Chang, Shu-Jen; Yu, Fu-Shun; Liao, Ching-Lung; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2014-08-01

    α-phellandrene (α-PA) is a cyclic monoterpene, present in natural plants such as Schinus molle L. α-PA promotes immune responses in mice in vivo. However, there is no available information on whether α-PA affects gene expression in leukemia cells. The present study determined effects of α-PA on expression levels of genes associated with DNA damage, cell cycle and apoptotic cell death in mouse leukemia WEHI-3 cells. WEHI-3 cells were treated with 10 μM α-PA for 24 h, cells were harvested and total RNA was extracted, and gene expression was analyzed by cDNA microarray. Results indicated that α-PA up-regulated 10 genes 4-fold, 13 by over 3-fold and 175 by over 2-fold; 21 genes were down-regulated by over 4-fold, 26 genes by over 3-fold and expression of 204 genes was altered by at leas 2-fold compared with the untreated control cells. DNA damage-associated genes such as DNA damage-inducer transcript 4 and DNA fragmentation factor were up-regulated by 4-fold and over 2-fold, respectively; cell-cycle check point genes such as cyclin G2 and cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitor 2D and IA (p21) were up-regulated by over 3-fold and over 2-fold, respectively; apoptosis-associated genes such as BCL2/adenovirus EIB interacting protein 3, XIAP-associated factor 1, BCL2 modifying factor, caspase-8 and FADD-like apoptosis regulator were over 2-fold up-regulated. Furthermore, DNA damage-associated gene TATA box binding protein was over 4-fold down-regulated, and D19Ertd652c (DNA segment) over 2-fold down-regulated; cell cycle-associated gene cyclin E2 was over 2-fold down-regulated; apoptosis associated gene growth arrest-specific 5 was over 9-fold down-regulated, Gm5426 (ATP synthase) was over 3-fold down-regulated, and death box polypeptide 33 was over 2-fold down-regulated. Based on these observations, α-PA altered gene expression in WEHI-3 cells in vitro. PMID:25075043

  11. Phase behavior and critical activated dynamics of limited-valence DNA nanostars.

    PubMed

    Biffi, Silvia; Cerbino, Roberto; Bomboi, Francesca; Paraboschi, Elvezia Maria; Asselta, Rosanna; Sciortino, Francesco; Bellini, Tommaso

    2013-09-24

    Colloidal particles with directional interactions are key in the realization of new colloidal materials with possibly unconventional phase behaviors. Here we exploit DNA self-assembly to produce bulk quantities of "DNA stars" with three or four sticky terminals, mimicking molecules with controlled limited valence. Solutions of such molecules exhibit a consolution curve with an upper critical point, whose temperature and concentration decrease with the valence. Upon approaching the critical point from high temperature, the intensity of the scattered light diverges with a power law, whereas the intensity time autocorrelation functions show a surprising two-step relaxation, somehow reminiscent of glassy materials. The slow relaxation time exhibits an Arrhenius behavior with no signs of criticality, demonstrating a unique scenario where the critical slowing down of the concentration fluctuations is subordinate to the large lifetime of the DNA bonds, with relevant analogies to critical dynamics in polymer solutions. The combination of equilibrium and dynamic behavior of DNA nanostars demonstrates the potential of DNA molecules in diversifying the pathways toward collective properties and self-assembled materials, beyond the range of phenomena accessible with ordinary molecular fluids. PMID:24019470

  12. Power and limitations of the chloroplast trnL (UAA) intron for plant DNA barcoding

    PubMed Central

    Taberlet, Pierre; Coissac, Eric; Pompanon, François; Gielly, Ludovic; Miquel, Christian; Valentini, Alice; Vermat, Thierry; Corthier, Gérard; Brochmann, Christian; Willerslev, Eske

    2007-01-01

    DNA barcoding should provide rapid, accurate and automatable species identifications by using a standardized DNA region as a tag. Based on sequences available in GenBank and sequences produced for this study, we evaluated the resolution power of the whole chloroplast trnL (UAA) intron (254–767 bp) and of a shorter fragment of this intron (the P6 loop, 10–143 bp) amplified with highly conserved primers. The main limitation of the whole trnL intron for DNA barcoding remains its relatively low resolution (67.3% of the species from GenBank unambiguously identified). The resolution of the P6 loop is lower (19.5% identified) but remains higher than those of existing alternative systems. The resolution is much higher in specific contexts such as species originating from a single ecosystem, or commonly eaten plants. Despite the relatively low resolution, the whole trnL intron and its P6 loop have many advantages: the primers are highly conserved, and the amplification system is very robust. The P6 loop can even be amplified when using highly degraded DNA from processed food or from permafrost samples, and has the potential to be extensively used in food industry, in forensic science, in diet analyses based on feces and in ancient DNA studies. PMID:17169982

  13. Apoptosis and the activity of ceramide, Bax and Bcl-2 in the lungs of neonatal rats exposed to limited and prolonged hyperoxia

    PubMed Central

    Husari, Ahmad W; Dbaibo, Ghassan S; Bitar, Hala; Khayat, Aline; Panjarian, Shoghag; Nasser, Michel; Bitar, Fadi F; El-Sabban, Marwan; Zaatari, Ghazi; Mroueh, Salman M

    2006-01-01

    Background The aim of the study is to examine the effect of limited and prolonged hyperoxia on neonatal rat lung. This is done by examining the morphologic changes of apoptosis, the expression of ceramide, an important mediator of apoptosis, the expression of inflammatory mediators represented by IL-1β and the expression of 2 proto-oncogenes that appear to modulate apoptosis (Bax and Bcl-2). Methods Newborn rats were placed in chambers containing room air or oxygen above 90% for 7 days. The rats were sacrificed at 3, 7 or 14 days and their lungs removed. Sections were fixed, subjected to TUNEL, Hoechst, and E-Cadherin Staining. Sections were also incubated with anti-Bcl-2 and anti-Bax antisera. Bcl-2 and Bax were quantitated by immunohistochemistry. Lipids were extracted, and ceramide measured through a modified diacylglycerol kinase assay. RT-PCR was utilized to assess IL-1β expression. Results TUNEL staining showed significant apoptosis in the hyperoxia-exposed lungs at 3 days only. Co-staining of the apoptotic cells with Hoechst, and E-Cadherin indicated that apoptotic cells were mainly epithelial cells. The expression of Bax and ceramide was significantly higher in the hyperoxia-exposed lungs at 3 and 14 days of age, but not at 7 days. Bcl-2 was significantly elevated in the hyperoxia-exposed lungs at 3 and 14 days. IL-1β expression was significantly increased at 14 days. Conclusion Exposure of neonatal rat lung to hyperoxia results in early apoptosis documented by TUNEL assay. The early rise in Bax and ceramide appears to overcome the anti-apoptotic activity of Bcl-2. Further exposure did not result in late apoptotic changes. This suggests that apoptotic response to hyperoxia is time sensitive. Prolonged hyperoxia results in acute lung injury and the shifting balance of ceramide, Bax and Bcl-2 may be related to the evolution of the inflammatory process. PMID:16869980

  14. DNA binding, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction activity of a mixed-ligand copper(II) complex with taurine Schiff base and imidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mei; kong, Lin Lin; Gou, Yi; Yang, Feng; Liang, Hong

    2014-07-01

    A novel binuclear copper(II) complex (complex 1) with taurine Schiff base and imidazole has been synthesized and structurally characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, elemental analysis, ESI-MS spectrometry, UV-vis and IR spectroscopy. Single-crystal analysis revealed that 1 displays the sulfonate-bridged dinuclear copper(II) centers. Both copper atoms are five-coordinated and exhibit slightly distorted square pyramidal geometries. Each of copper atom is surrounded by three oxygen atoms and one nitrogen atom from different taurine Schiff base ligands, and one nitrogen atom from one imidazole ligand. The interaction between 1 and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) was investigated by UV-vis, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectra and agarose gel electrophoresis. The experimental results indicated that 1 could bind to CT-DNA via an intercalative mode and show efficient cleavage activity. In addition, 1 showed an antitumor effect on cell cycle and apoptosis. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that MGC-803 cells were arrested in the S phase after treatment with 1. Fluorescence microscopic observation indicated that 1 could induce apoptosis of MGC-803 cells.

  15. Demethoxycurcumin alters gene expression associated with DNA damage, cell cycle and apoptosis in human lung cancer NCI-H460 cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yang-Ching; Hsu, Shu-Chun; Liu, Hsin-Chung; Hsiao, Yung-Ting; Hsia, Te-Chun; Yang, Su-Tso; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths and new lung cancer cases are continuously emerging around the globe; however, treatment of lung cancer remains unsatisfactory. Demethoxycurcumin (DMC) has been shown to exert cytotoxic effects in human cancer cells via induction of apoptosis. However, the effects of DMC on genetic mechanisms associated with these actions have not been yet elucidated. Human lung cancer NCI-H460 cells were incubated with or without 35 μM of DMC for 24 h and total RNA was extracted for cDNA synthesis labeling and microarray hybridization, followed by fluor-labeled cDNA hybridization on chip. Expression Console software with default Robust Multichip Analysis (RMA) parameters were used for detecting and quantitating the localized concentrations of fluorescent molecules. The GeneGo software was used for investigating key genes involved and their possible interaction pathways. Genes associated with DNA damage and repair, cell-cycle check point and apoptosis could be altered by DMC; in particular, 144 genes were found up-regulated and 179 genes down-regulated in NCI-H460 cells after exposure to DMC. In general, DMC-altered genes may offer information to understand the cytotoxic mechanism of this agent at the genetic level since gene alterations can be useful biomarkers or targets for the diagnosis and treatment of human lung cancer in the future. PMID:25600535

  16. Threshold Dose of Three Types of Quantum Dots (QDs) Induces Oxidative Stress Triggers DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Mouse Fibroblast L929 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Wang, Yiqing; Kong, Lu; Xue, Yuying; Tang, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Although it has been reported that fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) have obvious acute toxic effects in vitro, their toxic effects at low doses or threshold doses are still unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the biological histocompatibility and in vitro toxicity of three types of QDs at threshold doses. Also, we compared the toxic effects of QDs with different raw chemical compositions and sizes. The results showed that low concentrations of QDs (≤7 μg/mL) had no obvious effect on cell viability and cell membrane damage, oxidative damage, cell apoptosis or DNA damage. However, QD exposure led to a significant cytotoxicity at higher doses (≥14 μg/mL) and induced abnormal cellular morphology. In addition, when comparing the three types of QDs, 2.2 nm CdTe QDs exposure showed a significantly increased proportion of apoptotic cells and significant DNA damage, suggesting that size and composition contribute to the toxic effects of QDs. Based on these discussions, it was concluded that the concentration (7 μg/mL) may serve as a threshold level for these three types of QDs only in L929 fibroblasts, whereas high concentrations (above 14 μg/mL) may be toxic, resulting in inhibition of proliferation, induction of apoptosis and DNA damage in L929 fibroblasts. PMID:26516873

  17. Dioscin Induces Apoptosis in Human Cervical Carcinoma HeLa and SiHa Cells through ROS-Mediated DNA Damage and the Mitochondrial Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinwei; Tao, Xufeng; Xu, Lina; Yin, Lianhong; Qi, Yan; Xu, Youwei; Han, Xu; Peng, Jinyong

    2016-01-01

    Dioscin, a natural product, has activity against glioblastoma multiforme, lung cancer and colon cancer. In this study, the effects of dioscin against human cervical carcinoma HeLa and SiHa cells were further confirmed, and the possible mechanism(s) were investigated. A transmission electron microscopy (TEM) assay and DAPI staining were used to detect the cellular morphology. Flow cytometry was used to assay cell apoptosis, ROS and Ca(2+) levels. Single cell gel electrophoresis and immunofluorescence assays were used to test DNA damage and cytochrome C release. The results showed that dioscin significantly inhibited cell proliferation and caused DNA damage in HeLa and SiHa cells. The mechanistic investigation showed that dioscin caused the release of cytochrome C from mitochondria into the cytosol. In addition, dioscin significantly up-regulated the protein levels of Bak, Bax, Bid, p53, caspase-3, caspase-9, and down-regulated the protein levels of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl. Our work thus demonstrated that dioscin notably induces apoptosis in HeLa and SiHa cells through adjusting ROS-mediated DNA damage and the mitochondrial signaling pathway. PMID:27271587

  18. Artesunate-enhanced apoptosis of human high-risk myelodysplastic cells induced by the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor decitabine

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YING; WANG, FUXU; WEN, SHUPENG; GUO, YUJIE; LIU, XUAN; ZHANG, XUEJUN; PAN, LING

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate whether artesunate (ART) could enhance the rate of apoptosis induced by decitabine (DAC) in the high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) SKM-1 cell line, and examine the potential underlying mechanisms. The cytotoxicity and effect upon the apoptosis of ART and DAC in the SKM-1 cells was detected using the cell counting kit-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. The SKM-1 protein expression levels of activated caspase-3, −9 and −8, cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were measured by western blotting. The laser confocal microscope analysis revealed AIF transfer to the nucleus. The growth inhibition and apoptosis rates of the ART- and DAC-treated SKM-1 cells were significantly increased compared with those of the single agent-treated SKM-1 cells (P<0.05). In addition, ART and DAC induced caspase-dependent apoptosis, while ART, but not DAC, induced caspase-independent apoptosis via AIF transfer from the mitochondria to the nucleus. In addition, ART-DAC-induced cell death was not attenuated by the caspase-3/7 inhibitor, Ac-DEVD-CHO. The results of the present study suggested that the ART-DAC combination exhibited increased effectiveness compared with the single-agent therapy, in vitro. The ART-DAC combined therapy not only activated a caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway, but also a caspase-independent mitochondrial pathway. PMID:26137088

  19. Faster DNA Repair of Ultraviolet-Induced Cyclobutane Pyrimidine Dimers and Lower Sensitivity to Apoptosis in Human Corneal Epithelial Cells than in Epidermal Keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Mallet, Justin D; Dorr, Marie M; Drigeard Desgarnier, Marie-Catherine; Bastien, Nathalie; Gendron, Sébastien P; Rochette, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Absorption of UV rays by DNA generates the formation of mutagenic cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PP). These damages are the major cause of skin cancer because in turn, they can lead to signature UV mutations. The eye is exposed to UV light, but the cornea is orders of magnitude less prone to UV-induced cancer. In an attempt to shed light on this paradox, we compared cells of the corneal epithelium and the epidermis for UVB-induced DNA damage frequency, repair and cell death sensitivity. We found similar CPD levels but a 4-time faster UVB-induced CPD, but not 6-4PP, repair and lower UV-induced apoptosis sensitivity in corneal epithelial cells than epidermal. We then investigated levels of DDB2, a UV-induced DNA damage recognition protein mostly impacting CPD repair, XPC, essential for the repair of both CPD and 6-4PP and p53 a protein upstream of the genotoxic stress response. We found more DDB2, XPC and p53 in corneal epithelial cells than in epidermal cells. According to our results analyzing the protein stability of DDB2 and XPC, the higher level of DDB2 and XPC in corneal epithelial cells is most likely due to an increased stability of the protein. Taken together, our results show that corneal epithelial cells have a better efficiency to repair UV-induced mutagenic CPD. On the other hand, they are less prone to UV-induced apoptosis, which could be related to the fact that since the repair is more efficient in the HCEC, the need to eliminate highly damaged cells by apoptosis is reduced. PMID:27611318

  20. Catalase protects HepG2 cells from apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents by accelerating the degradation of p53.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jingxiang; Cederbaum, Arthur I

    2003-02-14

    Oxidants such as H(2)O(2) play a role in the toxicity of certain DNA-damaging agents, a process that often involves the tumor suppressor p53. H(2)O(2) is rapidly degraded by catalase, which protects cells against oxidant injury. To study the effect of catalase on apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents, HepG2 cells were infected with adenovirus containing the cDNA of catalase (Ad-Cat). Forty-eight hours after infection, catalase protein and activity was increased 7-10-fold compared with control cells infected with Ad-LacZ. After treatment with Vp16 or mitomycin C, control cells underwent apoptosis in a p53-dependent manner; however, overexpression of catalase inhibited this apoptosis. Basal levels as well as Vp16- or mitomycin C-stimulated levels of p53 and p21 protein were decreased in the catalase-overexpressing cells as compared with control cells; however, p53 mRNA levels were not decreased by catalase. There was no difference in p53 protein synthesis between catalase-overexpressing cells and control cells. However, pulse-chase experiments indicated that p53 protein degradation was enhanced in the catalase-overexpressing cells. Proteasome inhibitors but not calpeptin prevented the catalase-mediated decrease of p53 content. Whereas Vp16 increased, catalase overexpression decreased the phosphorylation of p53. The protein phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid did not prevent the catalase-mediated down-regulation of p53 or phosphorylated p53. These results demonstrate that catalase protects HepG2 cells from apoptosis induced by DNA-damaging agents in association with decreasing p53 phosphorylation; the latter may lead to an acceleration in the degradation of p53 protein by the proteasome complex. This suggests that the level of catalase may play a critical role in cell-induced resistance to the effects of anti-cancer drugs which up-regulate p53. PMID:12468545

  1. Design and synthesis of C3-pyrazole/chalcone-linked beta-carboline hybrids: antitopoisomerase I, DNA-interactive, and apoptosis-inducing anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ahmed; Srinivasulu, Vunnam; Nayak, V Lakshma; Sathish, Manda; Shankaraiah, Nagula; Bagul, Chandrakant; Reddy, N V Subba; Rangaraj, Nandini; Nagesh, Narayana

    2014-09-01

    A series of β-carboline hybrids bearing a substituted phenyl and a chalcone/(N-acetyl)-pyrazole moiety at the C1 and C3 positions, respectively, was designed, synthesized, and evaluated for anticancer activity. These new hybrid molecules showed significant cytotoxic activity, with IC50 values ranging from <2.0 μM to 80 μM, and the structure-activity relationships (SAR) associated with substitutions at positions 1 and 3 of these hybrids was clearly addressed. Further, induction of apoptosis was confirmed by Annexin V-FITC, Hoechst staining, and DNA fragmentation analysis. In addition, DNA photocleavage studies proved that two of the hybrids, (E)-1-(furan-2-yl)-3-(1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-3-yl)prop-2-en-1-one (7 d) and 1-(3-(furan-2-yl)-5-(1-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indol-3-yl)-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl)ethanone (8 d) could effectively cleave pBR322 plasmid DNA upon irradiation with UV light. Active hybrid 8 d inhibited DNA topoisomerase I activity efficiently and preserved DNA in the supercoiled form. To further corroborate the biological activities, as well as to understand the nature of the interaction of these hybrids with DNA, spectroscopic studies were also performed. Unlike simple β-carboline alkaloids, the binding mode of these new hybrid molecules with DNA was not similar, and both biophysical as well as molecular docking studies speculated a combilexin-type of interaction with DNA. Further, an in silico study of these β-carboline hybrids revealed their drug-like properties. PMID:24470122

  2. Use of stereotypical mutational motifs to define resolution limits for the ultra-deep resequencing of mitochondrial DNA

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Kristian; Payne, Brendan AI; Horvath, Rita; Chinnery, Patrick F

    2015-01-01

    Massively parallel resequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has led to significant advances in the study of heteroplasmic mtDNA variants in health and disease, but confident resolution of very low-level variants (<2% heteroplasmy) remains challenging due to the difficulty in distinguishing signal from noise at this depth. However, it is likely that such variants are precisely those of greatest interest in the study of somatic (acquired) mtDNA mutations. Previous approaches to this issue have included the use of controls such as phage DNA and mtDNA clones, both of which may not accurately recapitulate natural mtDNA. We have therefore explored a novel approach, taking advantage of mtDNA with a known stereotyped mutational motif (nAT>C, from patient with MNGIE, mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy) and comparing mutational pattern distribution with healthy mtDNA by ligation-mediated deep resequencing (Applied Biosystems SOLiD). We empirically derived mtDNA-mutant heteroplasmy detection limits, demonstrating that the presence of stereotypical mutational motif could be statistically validated for heteroplasmy thresholds ≥0.22% (P=0.034). We therefore provide empirical evidence from biological samples that very low-level mtDNA mutants can be meaningfully resolved by massively parallel resequencing, confirming the utility of the approach for studying somatic mtDNA mutation in health and disease. Our approach could also usefully be employed in other settings to derive platform-specific deep resequencing resolution limits. PMID:24896153

  3. DNA damage and apoptosis in blood neutrophils of inflammatory bowel disease patients and in Caco-2 cells in vitro exposed to betanin.

    PubMed

    Zielińska-Przyjemska, Małgorzata; Olejnik, Anna; Dobrowolska-Zachwieja, Agnieszka; Łuczak, Michał; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic, relapsing, inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract, and continuing colonic inflammation is considered an important risk factor in the development of colorectal cancer. Our previous studies showed that beetroot (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) products and their major component betanin modulate the reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA damage in 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) stimulated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils of healthy volunteers. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of betanin on the oxidative DNA damage and apoptosis in neutrophils isolated from blood of patients with inflammatory bowel disease--ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). The results were compared with those obtained in colon carcinoma-derived Caco-2 cells. Betanin treatment at the concentration of 100 μM for 24 h increased DNA damage assessed by comet assay in IBD patients' neutrophils. A similar effect although less pronounced was observed in Caco-2 cells. Treatment of Caco-2 cells with H2O2 caused a 4-fold increase of DNA strand breaks in comparison to untreated cells, but pre-treatment with betanin reduced DNA damage in these cells. Betanin also induced procaspase-3 cleavage and caspase-3 activity accompanied by the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential, indicating its pro-apoptotic activity. These results suggest that betanin may support mechanisms that lead to the release of ROS and apoptotic cell death. In this way betanin may exert anti-inflammatory and potentially cancer preventive activity. PMID:27117102

  4. The Lys63-deubiquitylating Enzyme BRCC36 Limits DNA Break Processing and Repair.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hoi-Man; Wei, Leizhen; Lan, Li; Huen, Michael S Y

    2016-07-29

    Multisubunit protein assemblies offer integrated functionalities for efficient cell signal transduction control. One example of such protein assemblies, the BRCA1-A macromolecular complex, couples ubiquitin recognition and metabolism and promotes cellular responses to DNA damage. Specifically, the BRCA1-A complex not only recognizes Lys(63)-linked ubiquitin (K63-Ub) adducts at the damaged chromatin but is endowed with K63-Ub deubiquitylase (DUB) activity. To explore how the BRCA1-A DUB activity contributes to its function at DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), we used RNAi and genome editing approaches to target BRCC36, the protein subunit that confers the BRCA1-A complex its DUB activity. Intriguingly, we found that the K63-Ub DUB activity, although dispensable for maintaining the integrity of the macromolecular protein assembly, is important in enforcing the accumulation of the BRCA1-A complex onto DSBs. Inactivating BRCC36 DUB attenuated BRCA1-A functions at DSBs and led to unrestrained DSB end resection and hyperactive DNA repair. Together, our findings uncover a pivotal role of BRCC36 DUB in limiting DSB processing and repair and illustrate how cells may physically couple ubiquitin recognition and metabolizing activities for fine tuning of DNA repair processes. PMID:27288411

  5. Herbal Formulation C168 Attenuates Proliferation and Induces Apoptosis in HCT 116 Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells: Role of Oxidative Stress and DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Lek Mun; Chan, Kok Meng; Hamid, Asmah; Latip, Jalifah; Rajab, Nor Fadilah

    2016-01-01

    The use of herbal formulations has gained scientific interest, particularly in cancer treatment. In this study, the herbal formulation of interest, denoted as C168, is a mixture of eight genera of plants. This study aims to investigate the antiproliferative effect of C168 methanol extract (CME) on various cancer cells and its underlying mechanism of action on the most responsive cell line, namely, HCT 116 cells. CME exerted antiproliferative activities on HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells and HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells but not on CCD-841-CoN normal colon epithelial cells, Jurkat E6.1 lymphoblastic leukemic cells, and V79-4 Chinese hamster lung fibroblasts. Further investigation on HCT 116 cells showed that CME induced G2/M cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis. Treatment of CME induced oxidative stress in HCT 116 cells by increasing the superoxide anion level and decreasing the intracellular glutathione. CME also increased tail moment value and H2AX phosphorylation in HCT 116 cells, suggesting DNA damage as an early signal of CME induced apoptosis. Loss of mitochondrial membrane potential in CME-treated cells also indicated the involvement of mitochondria in CME induced apoptosis. This study indicated the selectivity of CME toward colon cancer cells with the involvement of oxidative damage as its possible mechanism of action. PMID:26884792

  6. Myristicin from nutmeg induces apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway and down regulates genes of the DNA damage response pathways in human leukaemia K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Martins, Célia; Doran, Carolina; Silva, Inês C; Miranda, Claudia; Rueff, José; Rodrigues, António S

    2014-07-25

    Myristicin, an allylbenzene, is a major active component of various spices, such as nutmeg and cinnamon, plants from the Umbelliferae family or in some essential oils, such as oils of clove or marjoram. Human exposure to myristicin is low but widespread due to consumption of these spices and essential oils, added to food (e.g. cola drinks) or in traditional medicine. Occasionally high dose exposure occurs, leading to various clinical symptoms, however the molecular mechanisms underlying them are unknown. Our previous studies revealed that myristicin is not genotoxic and yet presented apoptotic activity. Therefore, in this work we assessed the apoptotic mechanisms induced by myristicin in human leukaemia cells. In order to gain further insight on the potential of myristicin to modulate gene expression we also analysed alterations in expression of 84 genes associated with the DNA damage response pathway. The results obtained show that myristicin can induce apoptosis as characterised by alterations in the mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, PARP-cleavage and DNA fragmentation. The gene expression profile revealed an overall down regulation of DNA damage response genes after exposure to myristicin, with significant under-expression of genes associated with nucleotide excision repair (ERCC1), double strand break repair (RAD50, RAD51) and DNA damage signalling (ATM) and stress response (GADD45A, GADD45G). On the whole, we demonstrate that myristicin can alter mitochondrial membrane function, induce apoptosis and modulate gene expression in human leukaemia K562 cells. This study provides further detail on the molecular mechanisms underlying the biological activity of myristicin. PMID:24792648

  7. The influence of TRP53 in the dose response of radiation-induced apoptosis, DNA repair and genomic stability in murine haematopoietic cells

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Lemon, Jennifer A.; Taylor, Kristina; Verdecchia, Kyle; Phan, Nghi; Boreham, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic and DNA damage endpoints are frequently used as surrogate markers of cancer risk, and have been well-studied in the Trp53+/- mouse model. We report the effect of differing Trp53 gene status on the dose response of ionizing radiation exposures (0.01-2 Gy), with the unique perspective of determining if effects of gene status remain at extended time points. Here we report no difference in the dose response for radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in bone marrow and genomic instability (MN-RET levels) in peripheral blood, between wild-type (Trp53+/+) and heterozygous (Trp53+/-) mice. The dose response for Trp53+/+ mice showed higher initial levelsmore » of radiation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis relative to Trp53+/- between 0 and 1 Gy. Although this trend was observed up to 12 hours post-irradiation, both genotypes ultimately reached the same level of apoptosis at 14 hours, suggesting the importance of late-onset p53-independent apoptotic responses in this mouse model. Expected radiation-induced G1 cell cycle delay was observed in Trp53+/+ but not Trp53+/-. Although p53 has an important role in cancer risk, we have shown its influence on radiation dose response can be temporally variable. This research highlights the importance of caution when using haematopoietic endpoints as surrogates to extrapolate radiation-induced cancer risk estimation.« less

  8. Cellular Uptake, DNA Binding and Apoptosis Induction of Cytotoxic Trans-[PtCl2(N,N-dimethylamine)(Isopropylamine)] in A2780cisR Ovarian Tumor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, José M.; Montero, Eva I.; Quiroga, Adoración G.; Fuertes, Miguel A; Alonso, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    Trans-[PtCl2(N,N-dimethylamine)(isopropylamine)] is a novel trans-platinum compound that shows cytotoxic activity in several cisplatin resistant cell lines. The aim of this paper was to analyse, by means of molecular cell biology techniques and total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF), the cytotoxic activity, the induction of apoptosis, the cellular uptake and the DNA binding of trans-[PtCl2(N,N-dimethylamine)(isopropylamine)] in the cisplatin resistant cell line A2780cisR. The results show that this drug is more cytotoxic and induces a higher amount of apoptotic cells than cisplatin in A2780cisR cells. However, the intracellular accumulation and extent of binding to DNA of trans-[PtCl2(N,N-dimethylamine)( isopropylamine)] is lower than that of cis-DDP. Moreover, trans-[PtCl2(N,N-dimethylamine)(isopropylaminae)] is partially inactivated by intracellular levels of glulathione. The result suggest that circumvention of ciplatin resistance by trans-[PtCl2(N,N-dimethylamine)(isopropylamine)] in A2780cisR cells might be related with the ability of this drug to induce apoptosis. PMID:18475973

  9. Small proline-rich repeat protein 3 enhances the sensitivity of esophageal cancer cells in response to DNA damage-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Aiping; Chen, Hongyan; Ding, Fang; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Mingrong; Xiao, Zefen; Liu, Zhihua

    2013-10-01

    Small proline-rich repeat protein 3 (SPRR3) has been linked with the altered chemoradiosensitivity, however the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we report that ectopic overexpression of SPRR3 enhanced the sensitivity of cells in response to DNA damage-induced apoptosis via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), and increasing activation of caspase 3 in human esophageal cancer cell lines. Conversely, siRNA knockdown of SPRR3 reduced apoptosis. We found that SPRR3 was localized in mitochondria and interacted with Bcl-2 in vivo, thus facilitating Bax mitochondrial translocation and the subsequent release of cytochrome c, and thereby enhancing cell sensitivity to DNA damage stimuli. In clinical samples, expression of SPRR3 was associated with the pathologic response (P = 0.007 in radiotherapy group, P = 0.035 in preoperative radiotherapy group) and good survival of patients with locally advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC, P = 0.008). Taken together, our results implicate that SPRR3 might serve as a radiation-sensitive predictor of ESCC. PMID:23820115

  10. Aneuploidy generates proteotoxic stress and DNA damage concurrently with p53-mediated post-mitotic apoptosis in SAC-impaired cells.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Akihiro; Ohori, Momoko; Iwai, Kenichi; Nakayama, Yusuke; Nambu, Tadahiro; Morishita, Daisuke; Kawamoto, Tomohiro; Miyamoto, Maki; Hirayama, Takaharu; Okaniwa, Masanori; Banno, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Tomoyasu; Kandori, Hitoshi; Iwata, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    The molecular mechanism responsible that determines cell fate after mitotic slippage is unclear. Here we investigate the post-mitotic effects of different mitotic aberrations--misaligned chromosomes produced by CENP-E inhibition and monopolar spindles resulting from Eg5 inhibition. Eg5 inhibition in cells with an impaired spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) induces polyploidy through cytokinesis failure without a strong anti-proliferative effect. In contrast, CENP-E inhibition causes p53-mediated post-mitotic apoptosis triggered by chromosome missegregation. Pharmacological studies reveal that aneuploidy caused by the CENP-E inhibitor, Compound-A, in SAC-attenuated cells causes substantial proteotoxic stress and DNA damage. Polyploidy caused by the Eg5 inhibitor does not produce this effect. Furthermore, p53-mediated post-mitotic apoptosis is accompanied by aneuploidy-associated DNA damage response and unfolded protein response activation. Because Compound-A causes p53 accumulation and antitumour activity in an SAC-impaired xenograft model, CENP-E inhibitors could be potential anticancer drugs effective against SAC-impaired tumours. PMID:26144554

  11. Effect of PEG Grafting Density and Hydrodynamic Volume on Gold Nanoparticle-Cell Interactions: An Investigation on Cell Cycle, Apoptosis, and DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Uz, Metin; Bulmus, Volga; Alsoy Altinkaya, Sacide

    2016-06-14

    In this study, interactions of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with cells were investigated with particular focus on the relationship between the PEG layer properties (conformation, grafting density, and hydrodynamic volume) and cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, and DNA damage. Steric hindrance and PEG hydrodynamic volume controlled the protein adsorption, whereas the AuNP core size and PEG hydrodynamic volume were primary factors for cell uptake and viability. At all PEG grafting densities, the particles caused significant cell cycle arrest and DNA damage against CaCo2 and PC3 cells without apoptosis. However, at a particular PEG grafting density (∼0.65 chains/nm(2)), none of these severe damages were observed on 3T3 cells indicating discriminating behavior of the healthy (3T3) and cancer (PC3 and CaCo2) cells. It was concluded that the PEG grafting density and hydrodynamic volume, tuned with the PEG concentration and AuNP size, played an important role in particle-cell interactions. PMID:27206138

  12. Curcumin Ameliorates Furazolidone-Induced DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Human Hepatocyte L02 Cells by Inhibiting ROS Production and Mitochondrial Pathway.

    PubMed

    Dai, Chongshan; Li, Daowen; Gong, Lijing; Xiao, Xilong; Tang, Shusheng

    2016-01-01

    Furazolidone (FZD), a synthetic nitrofuran derivative, has been widely used as an antibacterial and antiprotozoal agent. Recently, the potential toxicity of FZD has raised concerns, but its mechanism is still unclear. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of curcumin on FZD-induced cytotoxicity and the underlying mechanism in human hepatocyte L02 cells. The results showed that curcumin pre-treatment significantly ameliorated FZD-induced oxidative stress, characterized by decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde formation, and increased superoxide dismutase, catalase activities and glutathione contents. In addition, curcumin pre-treatment significantly ameliorated the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the activations of caspase-9 and -3, and apoptosis caused by FZD. Alkaline comet assay showed that curcumin markedly reduced FZD-induced DNA damage in a dose-dependent manner. Curcumin pre-treatment consistently and markedly down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of p53, Bax, caspase-9 and -3 and up-regulated the mRNA expression level of Bcl-2. Taken together, these results reveal that curcumin protects against FZD-induced DNA damage and apoptosis by inhibiting oxidative stress and mitochondrial pathway. Our study indicated that curcumin may be a promising combiner with FZD to reduce FZD-related toxicity in clinical applications. PMID:27556439

  13. Defining the Optimal Selenium Dose for Prostate Cancer Risk Reduction: Insights from the U-Shaped Relationship between Selenium Status, DNA Damage, and Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Emily C; Shen, Shuren; Kengeri, Seema S; Xu, Huiping; Combs, Gerald F; Morris, J Steven; Bostwick, David G; Waters, David J

    2009-01-01

    Our work in dogs has revealed a U-shaped dose response between selenium status and prostatic DNA damage that remarkably parallels the relationship between dietary selenium and prostate cancer risk in men, suggesting that more selenium is not necessarily better. Herein, we extend this canine work to show that the selenium dose that minimizes prostatic DNA damage also maximizes apoptosis-a cancer-suppressing death switch used by prostatic epithelial cells. These provocative findings suggest a new line of thinking about how selenium can reduce cancer risk. Mid-range selenium status (.67-.92 ppm in toenails) favors a process we call "homeostatic housecleaning"-an upregulated apoptosis that preferentially purges damaged prostatic cells. Also, the U-shaped relationship provides valuable insight into stratifying individuals as selenium-responsive or selenium-refractory, based upon the likelihood of reducing their cancer risk by additional selenium. By studying elderly dogs, the only non-human animal model of spontaneous prostate cancer, we have established a robust experimental approach bridging the gap between laboratory and human studies that can help to define the optimal doses of cancer preventives for large-scale human trials. Moreover, our observations bring much needed clarity to the null results of the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) and set a new research priority: testing whether men with low, suboptimal selenium levels less than 0.8 ppm in toenails can achieve cancer risk reduction through daily supplementation. PMID:20877485

  14. A novel DNA intercalator, butylamino-pyrimido[4',5':4,5]selenolo(2,3-b)quinoline, induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in leukemic cells.

    PubMed

    Shahabuddin, M S; Nambiar, Mridula; Choudhary, Bibha; Advirao, Gopal M; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2010-02-01

    DNA intercalators are one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agents. Novel intercalating compounds of pyrimido[4',5':4,5]selenolo(2,3-b)quinoline series having a butylamino or piperazino group at fourth position (BPSQ and PPSQ, respectively) are studied. Our results showed that BPSQ induced cytotoxicity whereas PPSQ was cytostatic. The cytotoxicity induced by BPSQ was concentration- and time-dependent. Cell cycle analysis and tritiated thymidine assay revealed that BPSQ affects the cell cycle progression by arresting at S phase. The absence of p-histone H3 and reduction in the levels of PCNA in the cells treated with BPSQ further confirmed the cell cycle arrest. Further, annexin V staining, DNA fragmentation, nuclear condensation and changes in the expression levels of BCL2/BAD confirmed the activation of apoptosis. Activation of caspase 8 and lack of cleavage of caspase 9, caspase 3 and PARP suggest the possibility of BPSQ triggering extrinsic pathway for induction of apoptosis, which is discussed. Hence, we have identified a novel compound which would have clinical relevance in cancer chemotherapeutics. PMID:19142583

  15. Silibinin Inhibits Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced DNA-Damage and Apoptosis by Enhancing Interleukin-12 Expression in JB6 Cells and SKH-1 Hairless Mouse Skin

    PubMed Central

    Narayanapillai, Sreekanth; Agarwal, Chapla; Deep, Gagan; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated silibinin efficacy against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin carcinogenesis via different mechanisms in cell lines and animal models; however, its role in regulating interleukin-12 (IL-12), an immunomodulatory cytokine that reduces UVB-induced DNA damage and apoptosis, is not known. Here, we report that UVB irradiation causes caspase 3 and PARP cleavage and apoptosis, and addition of recombinant IL-12 or silibinin immediately after UVB significantly protects UVB-induced apoptosis in JB6 cells. IL-12 antibody-mediated blocking of IL-12 activity compromised the protective effects of both IL-12 and silibinin. Both silibinin and IL-12 also accelerated the repair of UVB-caused cyclobutane-pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) in JB6 cells. Additional studies confirmed that indeed silibinin causes a significant increase in IL-12 levels in UVB-irradiated JB6 cells as well as in mouse skin epidermis, and that similar to cell-culture findings, silibinin topical application immediately after UVB exposure causes a strong protection against UVB-induced TUNEL positive cells in epidermis possibly through a significantly accelerated repair of UVB-caused CPDs. Together, these findings for the first time provide an important insight regarding the pharmacological mechanism wherein silibinin induces endogenous IL-12 in its efficacy against UVB-caused skin damages. In view of the fact that an enhanced endogenous IL-12 level could effectively remove UVB-caused DNA damage and associated skin cancer, our findings suggest that the use of silibinin in UVB-damaged human skin would also be a practical and translational strategy to manage solar radiation-caused skin damages as well as skin cancer. PMID:23359305

  16. Genomic Sequence of Spodoptera frugiperda Ascovirus 1a, an Enveloped, Double-Stranded DNA Insect Virus That Manipulates Apoptosis for Viral Reproduction▿

    PubMed Central

    Bideshi, Dennis K.; Demattei, Marie-Véronique; Rouleux-Bonnin, Florence; Stasiak, Karine; Tan, Yeping; Bigot, Sylvie; Bigot, Yves; Federici, Brian A.

    2006-01-01

    Ascoviruses (family Ascoviridae) are double-stranded DNA viruses with circular genomes that attack lepidopterans, where they produce large, enveloped virions, 150 by 400 nm, and cause a chronic, fatal disease with a cytopathology resembling that of apoptosis. After infection, host cell DNA is degraded, the nucleus fragments, and the cell then cleaves into large virion-containing vesicles. These vesicles and virions circulate in the hemolymph, where they are acquired by parasitic wasps during oviposition and subsequently transmitted to new hosts. To develop a better understanding of ascovirus biology, we sequenced the genome of the type species Spodoptera frugiperda ascovirus 1a (SfAV-1a). The genome consisted of 156,922 bp, with a G+C ratio of 49.2%, and contained 123 putative open reading frames coding for a variety of enzymes and virion structural proteins, of which tentative functions were assigned to 44. Among the most interesting enzymes, due to their potential role in apoptosis and viral vesicle formation, were a caspase, a cathepsin B, several kinases, E3 ubiquitin ligases, and especially several enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, including a fatty acid elongase, a sphingomyelinase, a phosphate acyltransferase, and a patatin-like phospholipase. Comparison of SfAV-1a proteins with those of other viruses showed that 10% were orthologs of Chilo iridescent virus proteins, the highest correspondence with any virus, providing further evidence that ascoviruses evolved from a lepidopteran iridovirus. The SfAV-1a genome sequence will facilitate the determination of how ascoviruses manipulate apoptosis to generate the novel virion-containing vesicles characteristic of these viruses and enable study of their origin and evolution. PMID:16987980

  17. Screening of mammalian DNA polymerase and topoisomerase inhibitors from Garcinia mangostana L. and analysis of human cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Takefumi; Takenaka, Yukiko; Kozaki, Sachiko; Tanahashi, Takao; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2016-03-01

    We purified and identified eight xanthones from mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) and investigated whether these compounds inhibited the activities of mammalian DNA polymerases (Pols) and human DNA topoisomerases (Topos). β-Mangostin was the strongest inhibitor of both mammalian Pols and human Topos among the isolated xanthones, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 6.4-39.6 and 8.5-10 µM, respectively. Thermal transition analysis indicated that β-mangostin did not directly bind to double-stranded DNA, suggesting that this compound directly bound the enzyme protein rather than the DNA substrate. β-Mangostin showed the strongest suppression of human cervical cancer HeLa cell proliferation among the eight compounds tested, with a 50% lethal dose (LD50) of 27.2 µM. This compound halted cell cycle in S phase at 12-h treatment and induced apoptosis. These results suggest that decreased proliferation by β-mangostin may be a result of the inhibition of cellular Pols rather than Topos, and β-mangostin might be an anticancer chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:26781450

  18. Replication-induced DNA damage after PARP inhibition causes G2 delay, and cell line-dependent apoptosis, necrosis and multinucleation.

    PubMed

    Dale Rein, Idun; Solberg Landsverk, Kirsti; Micci, Francesca; Patzke, Sebastian; Stokke, Trond

    2015-01-01

    PARP inhibitors have been approved for treatment of tumors with mutations in or loss of BRCA1/2. The molecular mechanisms and particularly the cellular phenotypes resulting in synthetic lethality are not well understood and varying clinical responses have been observed. We have investigated the dose- and time-dependency of cell growth, cell death and cell cycle traverse of 4 malignant lymphocyte cell lines treated with the PARP inhibitor Olaparib. PARP inhibition induced a severe growth inhibition in this cell line panel and increased the levels of phosphorylated H2AX-associated DNA damage in S phase. Repair of the remaining replication related damage caused a G2 phase delay before entry into mitosis. The G2 delay, and the growth inhibition, was more pronounced in the absence of functional ATM. Further, Olaparib treated Reh and Granta-519 cells died by apoptosis, while U698 and JVM-2 cells proceeded through mitosis with aberrant chromosomes, skipped cytokinesis, and eventually died by necrosis. The TP53-deficient U698 cells went through several rounds of DNA replication and mitosis without cytokinesis, ending up as multinucleated cells with DNA contents of up to 16c before dying. In summary, we report here for the first time cell cycle-resolved DNA damage induction, and cell line-dependent differences in the mode of cell death caused by PARP inhibition. PMID:26312527

  19. Replication-induced DNA damage after PARP inhibition causes G2 delay, and cell line-dependent apoptosis, necrosis and multinucleation

    PubMed Central

    Dale Rein, Idun; Solberg Landsverk, Kirsti; Micci, Francesca; Patzke, Sebastian; Stokke, Trond

    2015-01-01

    PARP inhibitors have been approved for treatment of tumors with mutations in or loss of BRCA1/2. The molecular mechanisms and particularly the cellular phenotypes resulting in synthetic lethality are not well understood and varying clinical responses have been observed. We have investigated the dose- and time-dependency of cell growth, cell death and cell cycle traverse of 4 malignant lymphocyte cell lines treated with the PARP inhibitor Olaparib. PARP inhibition induced a severe growth inhibition in this cell line panel and increased the levels of phosphorylated H2AX-associated DNA damage in S phase. Repair of the remaining replication related damage caused a G2 phase delay before entry into mitosis. The G2 delay, and the growth inhibition, was more pronounced in the absence of functional ATM. Further, Olaparib treated Reh and Granta-519 cells died by apoptosis, while U698 and JVM-2 cells proceeded through mitosis with aberrant chromosomes, skipped cytokinesis, and eventually died by necrosis. The TP53-deficient U698 cells went through several rounds of DNA replication and mitosis without cytokinesis, ending up as multinucleated cells with DNA contents of up to 16c before dying. In summary, we report here for the first time cell cycle-resolved DNA damage induction, and cell line-dependent differences in the mode of cell death caused by PARP inhibition. PMID:26312527

  20. An Aqueous Extract of Fagonia cretica Induces DNA Damage, Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Breast Cancer Cells via FOXO3a and p53 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Matt; Carmichael, Amtul R.; Griffiths, Helen R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Plants have proved to be an important source of anti-cancer drugs. Here we have investigated the cytotoxic action of an aqueous extract of Fagonia cretica, used widely as a herbal tea-based treatment for breast cancer. Methodology/Principal Findings Using flow cytometric analysis of cells labeled with cyclin A, annexin V and propidium iodide, we describe a time and dose-dependent arrest of the cell cycle in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle and apoptosis following extract treatment in MCF-7 (WT-p53) and MDA-MB-231 (mutant-p53) human breast cancer cell lines with a markedly reduced effect on primary human mammary epithelial cells. Analysis of p53 protein expression and of its downstream transcription targets, p21 and BAX, revealed a p53 associated growth arrest within 5 hours of extract treatment and apoptosis within 24 hours. DNA double strand breaks measured as γ-H2AX were detected early in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. However, loss of cell viability was only partly due to a p53-driven response; as MDA-MB-231 and p53-knockdown MCF-7 cells both underwent cell cycle arrest and death following extract treatment. p53-independent growth arrest and cytotoxicity following DNA damage has been previously ascribed to FOXO3a expression. Here, in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells, FOXO3a expression was increased significantly within 3 hours of extract treatment and FOXO3 siRNA reduced the extract-induced loss of cell viability in both cell lines. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate for the first time that an aqueous extract of Fagonia cretica can induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis via p53-dependent and independent mechanisms, with activation of the DNA damage response. We also show that FOXO3a is required for activity in the absence of p53. Our findings indicate that Fagonia cretica aqueous extract contains potential anti-cancer agents acting either singly or in combination against breast cancer cell proliferation via DNA damage-induced FOXO3a and p53

  1. OBATOCLAX and ABT-737 Induce ER Stress Responses in Human Melanoma Cells that Limit Induction of Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wroblewski, David; Jiang, Chen Chen; Croft, Amanda; Farrelly, Margaret L.; Zhang, Xu Dong; Hersey, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, in particular, Mcl-1, are known to play a critical role in resistance of human melanoma cells to induction of apoptosis by endoplasmic reticulum stress and other agents. The present study examined whether the BH3 mimetics, Obatoclax and ABT-737, which inhibit multiple anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family proteins, would overcome resistance to apoptosis. We report that both agents induced a strong unfolded protein response (UPR) and that RNAi knockdown of UPR signalling proteins ATF6, IRE1α and XBP-1 inhibited Mcl-1 upregulation and increased sensitivity to the agents. These results demonstrate that inhibition of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins by Obatoclax and ABT-737 appears to elicit a protective feedback response in melanoma cells, by upregulation of Mcl-1 via induction of the UPR. We also report that Obatoclax, but not ABT-737, strongly induces autophagy, which appears to play a role in determining melanoma sensitivity to the agents. PMID:24367627

  2. Induction of ROS-independent DNA damage by curcumin leads to G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human papillary thyroid carcinoma BCPAP cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Cheng, Xian; Gao, Yanyan; Bao, Jiandong; Guan, Haixia; Lu, Rongrong; Yu, Huixin; Xu, Qiang; Sun, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Previously we found that curcumin, the active constituent of dietary spice turmeric, showed potent inhibitory effects on the cell growth of thyroid cancer cells. However, the detailed anti-cancer mechanism of curcumin is still unknown. In this study, we have reported that curcumin induces significant DNA damage in human papillary thyroid carcinoma BCPAP cells in a dose-dependent manner as evidenced by the upregulated phosphorylation of H2A.X at Ser139, which was further confirmed by the long tails in the comet assay and the increase in the number of TUNEL-positive cells. Subsequently, curcumin treatment caused a significant accumulation of cells at the G2/M phase that eventually resulted in a caspase-dependent apoptosis in BCPAP cells. DNA agarose gel electrophoresis revealed that curcumin-induced DNA damage in BCPAP cells was independent of DNA conformational change. Pretreatment with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers failed to block the phosphorylation of H2A.X, suggesting the non-involvement of ROS in curcumin-mediated DNA damage. Interestingly, ATM/ATR activation by curcumin induced phosphorylation of Chk2 (Thr68) followed by that of Cdc25C (Ser216) and Cdc2 (Tyr15), and Cyclin B1 accumulation. In addition, the ATM-specific inhibitor KU-55933 reversed curcumin-induced phosphorylation of H2A.X. These results collectively show that curcumin treatment induced the DNA damage response via triggering an ATM-activated Chk2-Cdc25C-Cdc2 signaling pathway. These observations provide novel mechanisms and potential targets for the better understanding of the anti-cancer mechanisms of curcumin. PMID:26442630

  3. Apoptosis-related deregulation of proteolytic activities and high serum levels of circulating nucleosomes and DNA in blood correlate with breast cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background As cell-free circulating DNA exists predominantly as mono- and oligonucleosomes, the focus of the current study was to examine the interplay of circulating nucleosomes, DNA, proteases and caspases in blood of patients with benign and malignant breast diseases. Methods The concentrations of cell-free DNA and nucleosomes as well as the protease and caspase activities were measured in serum of patients with benign breast disease (n = 20), primary breast cancer (M0, n = 31), metastatic breast cancer (M1, n = 32), and healthy individuals (n = 28) by PicoGreen, Cell Death Detection ELISA, Protease Fluorescent Detection Kit and Caspase-Glo®3/7 Assay, respectively. Results Patients with benign and malignant tumors had significantly higher levels of circulating nucleic acids in their blood than healthy individuals (p = 0.001, p = 0.0001), whereas these levels could not discriminate between benign and malignant lesions. Our analyses of all serum samples revealed significant correlations of circulating nucleosome with DNA concentrations (p = 0.001), nucleosome concentrations with caspase activities (p = 0.008), and caspase with protease activities (p = 0.0001). High serum levels of protease and caspase activities associated with advanced tumor stages (p = 0.009). Patients with lymph node-positive breast cancer had significantly higher nucleosome levels in their blood than node-negative patients (p = 0.004). The presence of distant metastases associated with a significant increase in serum nucleosome (p = 0.01) and DNA levels (p = 0.04), and protease activities (p = 0.008). Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that high circulating nucleic acid concentrations in blood are no indicators of a malignant breast tumor. However, the observed changes in apoptosis-related deregulation of proteolytic activities along with the elevated serum levels of nucleosomes and DNA in blood are linked to breast cancer progression. PMID:21211028

  4. 4β-Hydroxywithanolide E from Physalis peruviana (golden berry) inhibits growth of human lung cancer cells through DNA damage, apoptosis and G2/M arrest

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The crude extract of the fruit bearing plant, Physalis peruviana (golden berry), demonstrated anti-hepatoma and anti-inflammatory activities. However, the cellular mechanism involved in this process is still unknown. Methods Herein, we isolated the main pure compound, 4β-Hydroxywithanolide (4βHWE) derived from golden berries, and investigated its antiproliferative effect on a human lung cancer cell line (H1299) using survival, cell cycle, and apoptosis analyses. An alkaline comet-nuclear extract (NE) assay was used to evaluate the DNA damage due to the drug. Results It was shown that DNA damage was significantly induced by 1, 5, and 10 μg/mL 4βHWE for 2 h in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.005). A trypan blue exclusion assay showed that the proliferation of cells was inhibited by 4βHWE in both dose- and time-dependent manners (p < 0.05 and 0.001 for 24 and 48 h, respectively). The half maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 4βHWE in H1299 cells for 24 and 48 h were 0.6 and 0.71 μg/mL, respectively, suggesting it could be a potential therapeutic agent against lung cancer. In a flow cytometric analysis, 4βHWE produced cell cycle perturbation in the form of sub-G1 accumulation and slight arrest at the G2/M phase with 1 μg/mL for 12 and 24 h, respectively. Using flow cytometric and annexin V/propidium iodide immunofluorescence double-staining techniques, these phenomena were proven to be apoptosis and complete G2/M arrest for H1299 cells treated with 5 μg/mL for 24 h. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated that golden berry-derived 4βHWE is a potential DNA-damaging and chemotherapeutic agent against lung cancer. PMID:20167063

  5. DNA cleavage within the MLL breakpoint cluster region is a specific event which occurs as part of higher-order chromatin fragmentation during the initial stages of apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Stanulla, M; Wang, J; Chervinsky, D S; Thandla, S; Aplan, P D

    1997-01-01

    A distinct population of therapy-related acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) is strongly associated with prior administration of topoisomerase II (topo II) inhibitors. These t-AMLs display distinct cytogenetic alterations, most often disrupting the MLL gene on chromosome 11q23 within a breakpoint cluster region (bcr) of 8.3 kb. We recently identified a unique site within the MLL bcr that is highly susceptible to DNA double-strand cleavage by classic topo II inhibitors (e.g., etoposide and doxorubicin). Here, we report that site-specific cleavage within the MLL bcr can be induced by either catalytic topo II inhibitors, genotoxic chemotherapeutic agents which do not target topo II, or nongenotoxic stimuli of apoptotic cell death, suggesting that this site-specific cleavage is part of a generalized cellular response to an apoptotic stimulus. We also show that site-specific cleavage within the MLL bcr can be linked to the higher-order chromatin fragmentation that occurs during the initial stages of apoptosis, possibly through cleavage of DNA loops at their anchorage sites to the nuclear matrix. In addition, we show that site-specific cleavage is conserved between species, as specific DNA cleavage can also be demonstrated within the murine MLL locus. Lastly, site-specific cleavage during apoptosis can also be identified at the AML1 locus, a locus which is also frequently involved in chromosomal rearrangements present in t-AML patients. In conclusion, these results suggest the potential involvement of higher-order chromatin fragmentation which occurs as a part of a generalized apoptotic response in a mechanism leading to chromosomal translocation of the MLL and AML1 genes and subsequent t-AML. PMID:9199342

  6. Synergistic anti-oral cancer effects of UVC and methanolic extracts of Cryptocarya concinna roots via apoptosis, oxidative stress and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hsueh-Wei; Tang, Jen-Yang; Yen, Ching-Yu; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Huang, Hurng-Wern; Chung, Yi-An; Chen, Ih-Sheng; Huang, Ming-Yii

    2016-05-01

    Purpose Radiation combined with natural products may improve the radiosensitivity of cancer cells. This study investigated the potential of a combined modality treatment with Ultraviolet C (UVC; wavelength range 200-280 nm) and our previously identified anti-oral cancer agent (methanolic extracts of Cryptocarya concinna roots; MECCrt) in oral cancer cells. Materials and methods The mechanism of the possible synergy of UVC and MECCrt was explored in terms of cell viability, cell cycle, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MitoMP), and DNA damage analyses. Results In cell viability (%) at 24 h treatment, the low doses of UVC (14 J/m(2)) and MECCrt (10 μg/ml) resulted in slight damage to human oral cancer Ca9-22 cells (83.2 and 80.4) but was less harmful to human oral normal HGF-1 cells (93.4 and 91.8, respectively). The combined treatment of UVC and MECCrt (UVC/MECCrt) had a lower viability (54.5%) than UVC or MECCrt alone in Ca9-22 cells but no showed significant change in HGF-1 cells. In Ca9-22 cells, the expression of flow cytometry-based apoptosis (sub-G1 phase, annexin V, and pancaspase assays) was significantly higher in UVC/MECCrt than in UVC or MECCrt alone (p < 0.0001). Using flow cytometry, intracellular ROS levels of UVC/MECCrt and MECCrt alone were higher than for UVC alone. MitoMP change and H2A histone family member X (γH2AX; H2AFX)-based DNA damage were synergistically inhibited and induced by MECCrt/UVC compared to its single treatment in Ca9-22 cells, respectively. Conclusion UVC plus MECCrt treatment had selective killing and synergistic anti-proliferative effects against oral cancer cells involving apoptosis, oxidative stress, and DNA damage. This combination therapy appears to have a great clinical potential against oral cancer cells. PMID:26887975

  7. Cohesin Is Limiting for the Suppression of DNA Damage–Induced Recombination between Homologous Chromosomes

    PubMed Central

    Covo, Shay; Westmoreland, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Double-strand break (DSB) repair through homologous recombination (HR) is an evolutionarily conserved process that is generally error-free. The risk to genome stability posed by nonallelic recombination or loss-of-heterozygosity could be reduced by confining HR to sister chromatids, thereby preventing recombination between homologous chromosomes. Here we show that the sister chromatid cohesion complex (cohesin) is a limiting factor in the control of DSB repair and genome stability and that it suppresses DNA damage–induced interactions between homologues. We developed a gene dosage system in tetraploid yeast to address limitations on various essential components in DSB repair and HR. Unlike RAD50 and RAD51, which play a direct role in HR, a 4-fold reduction in the number of essential MCD1 sister chromatid cohesion subunit genes affected survival of gamma-irradiated G2/M cells. The decreased survival reflected a reduction in DSB repair. Importantly, HR between homologous chromosomes was strongly increased by ionizing radiation in G2/M cells with a single copy of MCD1 or SMC3 even at radiation doses where survival was high and DSB repair was efficient. The increased recombination also extended to nonlethal doses of UV, which did not induce DSBs. The DNA damage–induced recombinants in G2/M cells included crossovers. Thus, the cohesin complex has a dual role in protecting chromosome integrity: it promotes DSB repair and recombination between sister chromatids, and it suppresses damage-induced recombination between homologues. The effects of limited amounts of Mcd1and Smc3 indicate that small changes in cohesin levels may increase the risk of genome instability, which may lead to genetic diseases and cancer. PMID:20617204

  8. Dioscin, a natural steroid saponin, induces apoptosis and DNA damage through reactive oxygen species: a potential new drug for treatment of glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Lv, Linlin; Zheng, Lingli; Dong, Deshi; Xu, Lina; Yin, Lianhong; Xu, Youwei; Qi, Yan; Han, Xu; Peng, Jinyong

    2013-09-01

    Dioscin, a natural product obtained from medicinal plants shows lipid-lowering, anti-cancer and hepatoprotective effects. However, the effect of it on glioblastoma is unclear. In this study, dioscin significantly inhibited proliferation of C6 glioma cells and caused reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and Ca²⁺ release. ROS accumulation affected levels of malondialdehyde, nitric oxide, glutathione disulfide and glutathione, and caused cell apoptosis. In addition, ROS generation caused mitochondrial damage including structural changes, increased mitochondrial permeability transition and decreased mitochondria membrane potential, which led to the release of cytochrome C, nuclear translation of programmed cell death-5 and increased activities of caspase-3,9. Simultaneously, dioscin down-regulated protein expression of Bcl-2, Bcl-xl, up-regulated expression of Bak, Bax, Bid and cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Also, oxygen stress induced S-phase arrest of cancer cells by way of regulating expression of DNA Topo I, p53, CDK2 and Cyclin A and caused DNA damage. In a rat allograft model, dioscin significantly inhibited tumor size and extended the life cycle of the rats. In conclusion, dioscin shows noteworthy anti-cancer activity on glioblastoma cells by promoting ROS accumulation, inducing DNA damage and activating mitochondrial signal pathways. Ultimately, we believe dioscin has promise as a new therapy for the treatment of glioblastoma. PMID:23871826

  9. Translation termination factor eRF3 is targeted for caspase-mediated proteolytic cleavage and degradation during DNA damage-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Yoshifumi; Hosoda, Nao; Datta, Pinaki; Alnemri, Emad S; Hoshino, Shin-ichi

    2012-12-01

    Polypeptide chain release factor eRF3 plays pivotal roles in translation termination and post-termination events including ribosome recycling and mRNA decay. It is not clear, however, if eRF3 is targeted for the regulation of gene expression. Here we show that DNA-damaging agents (UV and etoposide) induce the immediate cleavage and degradation of eRF3 in a caspase-dependent manner. The effect is selective since the binding partners of eRF3, eRF1 and PABP, and an unrelated control, GAPDH, were not affected. Point mutations of aspartate residues within overlapping DXXD motifs near the amino terminus of eRF3 prevented the appearance of the UV-induced cleavage product, identifying D32 as the major cleavage site. The cleavage and degradation occurred in a similar time-dependent manner to those of eIF4G, a previously established caspase-3 target involved in the inhibition of translation during apoptosis. siRNA-mediated knockdown of eRF3 led to inhibition of cellular protein synthesis, supporting the idea that the decrease in the amount of eRF3 caused by the caspase-mediated degradation contributes to the inhibition of translation during apoptosis. This is the first report showing that eRF3 could serve as a target in the regulation of gene expression. PMID:23054082

  10. Flavonoid-enriched apple fraction AF4 induces cell cycle arrest, DNA topoisomerase II inhibition, and apoptosis in human liver cancer HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Sudhanshu; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-01-01

    Apples are a major source of dietary phytochemicals such as flavonoids in the Western diet. Here we report anticancer properties and possible mechanism of action of apple flavonoid-enriched fraction (AF4) isolated from the peels of Northern Spy apples in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells, HepG2. Treatment with AF4 induced cell growth inhibition in HepG2 cells in time- and dose-dependent manner. Concentration of 50 μg/ml (50 μg total monomeric polyphenols/ml) AF4 was sufficient to induce a significant reduction in cell viability within 6 h of treatment (92%, P < 0.05) but had very low toxicity (minimum 4% to maximum 16%) on primary liver and lung cells, which was significantly lower than currently prescribed chemotherapy drug Sorafenib (minimum 29% to maximum 49%, P < 0.05). AF4 induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells within 6 h of treatment via activation of caspase-3. Cell cycle analysis via flow-cytometer showed that AF4 induced G2/M phase arrest. Further, results showed that AF4 acts as a strong DNA topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor, which may be a plausible reason to drive the cells to apoptosis. Overall, our data suggests that AF4 possesses a significantly stronger antiproliferative and specific action than Sorafenib in vitro and is a potential natural chemotherapy agent for treatment of liver cancer. PMID:25256427

  11. Decreased Expression of Inhibitor of DNA-binding (Id) Proteins and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor and Increased Apoptosis in Ovarian Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Min Jung; Park, Sea Hee; Moon, Sung Eun; Koo, Ja Seong; Moon, Hwa Sook; Joo, Bo Sun

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the expression of inhibitor of DNA-binding (Id) proteins and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the ovary according to female age using a mice model as the first step in investigating the potential role of Ids and VEGF in ovarian aging. C57BL inbred female mice of three age groups (6-9, 14-16, and 23-26 weeks) were injected with 5 IU pregnant mare’s serum gonadotropin (PMSG) in order to synchronize the estrus cycle. After 48 h, ovarian expression of Ids and VEGF was analyzed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), western blot and immunohistochemistry. Ovarian apoptosis was examined by ovarian expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Expression of Id-1 and VEGF was decreased with advancing female age, but not Id-2, Id-3, and Id-4. In particular, their expressions were significantly decreased in aged mice of 23-26 weeks compared with the young mice of 6-9 weeks (p < 0.05). In contrast, ovarian apoptosis was greatly increased in the aged mice compared to the young mice. This result suggests that Id-1 may have an implicated role in ovarian aging by associating with VEGF. PMID:25949117

  12. DNA Double Strand Break Response and Limited Repair Capacity in Mouse Elongated Spermatids

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Emad A.; Scherthan, Harry; de Rooij, Dirk G.

    2015-01-01

    Spermatids are extremely sensitive to genotoxic exposures since during spermiogenesis only error-prone non homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathways are available. Hence, genomic damage may accumulate in sperm and be transmitted to the zygote. Indirect, delayed DNA fragmentation and lesions associated with apoptotic-like processes have been observed during spermatid elongation, 27 days after irradiation. The proliferating spermatogonia and early meiotic prophase cells have been suggested to retain a memory of a radiation insult leading later to this delayed fragmentation. Here, we used meiotic spread preparations to localize phosphorylate histone H2 variant (γ-H2AX) foci marking DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) in elongated spermatids. This technique enabled us to determine the background level of DSB foci in elongated spermatids of RAD54/RAD54B double knockout (dko) mice, severe combined immunodeficiency SCID mice, and poly adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitor (DPQ)-treated mice to compare them with the appropriate wild type controls. The repair kinetics data and the protein expression patterns observed indicate that the conventional NHEJ repair pathway is not available for elongated spermatids to repair the programmed and the IR-induced DSBs, reflecting the limited repair capacity of these cells. However, although elongated spermatids express the proteins of the alternative NHEJ, PARP1-inhibition had no effect on the repair kinetics after IR, suggesting that DNA damage may be passed onto sperm. Finally, our genetic mutant analysis suggests that an incomplete or defective meiotic recombinational repair of Spo11-induced DSBs may lead to a carry-over of the DSB damage or induce a delayed nuclear fragmentation during the sensitive programmed chromatin remodeling occurring in elongated spermatids. PMID:26694360

  13. The influence of TRP53 in the dose response of radiation-induced apoptosis, DNA repair and genomic stability in murine haematopoietic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lemon, Jennifer A.; Taylor, Kristina; Verdecchia, Kyle; Phan, Nghi; Boreham, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Apoptotic and DNA damage endpoints are frequently used as surrogate markers of cancer risk, and have been well-studied in the Trp53+/- mouse model. We report the effect of differing Trp53 gene status on the dose response of ionizing radiation exposures (0.01-2 Gy), with the unique perspective of determining if effects of gene status remain at extended time points. Here we report no difference in the dose response for radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks in bone marrow and genomic instability (MN-RET levels) in peripheral blood, between wild-type (Trp53+/+) and heterozygous (Trp53+/-) mice. The dose response for Trp53+/+ mice showed higher initial levels of radiation-induced lymphocyte apoptosis relative to Trp53+/- between 0 and 1 Gy. Although this trend was observed up to 12 hours post-irradiation, both genotypes ultimately reached the same level of apoptosis at 14 hours, suggesting the importance of late-onset p53-independent apoptotic responses in this mouse model. Expected radiation-induced G1 cell cycle delay was observed in Trp53+/+ but not Trp53+/-. Although p53 has an important role in cancer risk, we have shown its influence on radiation dose response can be temporally variable. This research highlights the importance of caution when using haematopoietic endpoints as surrogates to extrapolate radiation-induced cancer risk estimation.

  14. Combined inhibition of PI3K-related DNA damage response kinases and mTORC1 induces apoptosis in MYC-driven B-cell lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Shortt, Jake; Martin, Benjamin P; Newbold, Andrea; Hannan, Katherine M; Devlin, Jennifer R; Baker, Adele J; Ralli, Rachael; Cullinane, Carleen; Schmitt, Clemens A; Reimann, Maurice; Hall, Michael N; Wall, Meaghan; Hannan, Ross D; Pearson, Richard B; McArthur, Grant A; Johnstone, Ricky W

    2013-04-11

    Pharmacological strategies capable of directly targeting MYC are elusive. Previous studies have shown that MYC-driven lymphomagenesis is associated with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation and a MYC-evoked DNA damage response (DDR) transduced by phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)-related kinases (DNA-PK, ATM, and ATR). Here we report that BEZ235, a multitargeted pan-PI3K/dual-mTOR inhibitor, potently killed primary Myc-driven B-cell lymphomas and human cell lines bearing IG-cMYC translocations. Using pharmacologic and genetic dissection of PI3K/mTOR signaling, dual DDR/mTORC1 inhibition was identified as a key mediator of apoptosis. Moreover, apoptosis was initiated at drug concentrations insufficient to antagonize PI3K/mTORC2-regulated AKT phosphorylation. p53-independent induction of the proapoptotic BH3-only protein BMF was identified as a mechanism by which dual DDR/mTORC1 inhibition caused lymphoma cell death. BEZ235 treatment induced apoptotic tumor regressions in vivo that correlated with suppression of mTORC1-regulated substrates and reduced H2AX phosphorylation and also with feedback phosphorylation of AKT. These mechanistic studies hold important implications for the use of multitargeted PI3K inhibitors in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. In particular, the newly elucidated role of PI3K-related DDR kinases in response to PI3K inhibitors offers a novel therapeutic opportunity for the treatment of hematologic malignancies with an MYC-driven DDR. PMID:23403624

  15. Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species by Polyenylpyrroles Derivatives Causes DNA Damage Leading to G2/M Arrest and Apoptosis in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Kuo-Feng; Liao, Pei-Chun; Fang, Zhanxiong; Yang, Feng-Ling; Yang, Yu-Liang; Chen, Yi-Lin; Chiu, Yi-Chich; Liu, May-Lan; Lam, Yulin; Wu, Shih-Hsiung

    2013-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for 5.8% of all malignancies in Taiwan and the incidence of OSCC is on the rise. OSCC is also a common malignancy worldwide and the five-year survival rate remains poor. Therefore, new and effective treatments are needed to control OSCC. In the present study we have investigated the efficacy and associated mechanisms of polyenylpyrroles and their analogs in both in vitro cell culture and in vivo nude mice xenografts. Auxarconjugatin B (compound 1a) resulted in cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase and caspase-dependent apoptosis in OEC-M1 and HSC-3 cells by activating DNA damage and mitochondria dysfunction through the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, increase in B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X protein level, and decrease in B-cell lymphoma-2 level. Compound 1a-induced generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species through cytochrome P450 1A1 was identified as a major mechanism of its effect for DNA damage, mitochondria dysfunction and apoptosis, which was reversed by antioxidant N-acetylcysteine as well as cytochrome P450 1A1 inhibitor and specific siRNA. Furthermore, compound 1a-treated nude mice showed a reduction in the OEC-M1 xenograft tumor growth and an increase in the caspase-3 activation in xenograft tissue. These results provide promising insights as to how compound 1a mediates cytotoxicity and may prove to be a molecular rationale for its translation into a potential therapeutic against OSCC. PMID:23840748

  16. MicroRNA-related polymorphisms in apoptosis pathway genes are predictive of clinical outcome in patients with limited disease small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; Bi, Nan; Zhang, Wen-Jue; Wu, Li-Hong; Liu, Li-Pin; Men, Yu; Wang, Jing-Bo; Liang, Jun; Hui, Zhou-Guang; Zhou, Zong-Mei; Wang, Lu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    We examined the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at miRNA binding sites in the 3′-UTRs of genes in the apoptosis pathway on the prognosis of patients with limited disease-small cell lung cancer (LD-SCLC). Twelve tagSNPs in seven genes were genotyped using blood samples from 146 LD-SCLC patients treated with chemoradiotherapy. Cox proportional hazard regression models and recursive partitioning analysis were performed to identify SNPs significantly associated with overall survival. Three SNPs, CASP8: rs1045494 (C > T), PIK3R1: rs3756668 (A > G) and CASP7: rs4353229 (T > C), were associated with longer overall survival in LD-SCLC patients after chemoradiotherapy. The adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 0.480 (0.258–0.894), 0.405 (0.173–0.947) and 0.446 (0.247–0.802), respectively, and remained significant after multiple comparison correction. Moreover, subset analysis showed these SNPs were still predictive of overall survival in stage III patients. Recursive partitioning analysis enabled patients to be classified into three risk subgroups based on unfavorable genotype combinations of the rs1045494 and rs4353229 SNPs. These findings suggest miRNA-related polymorphisms in the apoptosis pathway may be useful biomarkers for selection of LD-SCLC patients likely to benefit from chemoradiotherapy. PMID:26988918

  17. Overexpression of GSTA2 protects against cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by the DNA inter-strand crosslinking nitrogen mustard, mechlorethamine.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jingping; Shults, Keith; Flye, Leanne; Jiang, Fen; Head, David R; Briggs, Robert C

    2005-05-15

    The effectiveness of bifunctional alkylating nitrogen mustard compounds in chemotherapy is related to their ability to form DNA inter-strand crosslinks. Patients exposed to DNA inter-strand crosslinking (ICL) agents subsequently experience an elevated incidence of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and MDS related acute myeloid leukemia. Fanconi's anemia (FA) patients are deficient in the repair of crosslink DNA damage and they experience a high incidence of MDS. These observations indicate that hematopoietic cells are specific target for the transforming effects of DNA crosslinking damage. Changes in transcript levels were characterized in human hematopoietic cells occurring in response to the nitrogen mustard, mechlorethamine (HN2), but not in response to monofunctional analogs. Only modest changes in a few gene transcripts were detected in HL60 cells exposed to levels of HN2 tittered to maximal dose that caused growth suppression with minimal cell death and allowed eventual resumption of normal cell growth. Under conditions of transient growth suppression, a subset of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) isoenzyme genes was consistently upregulated three to fourfold by HN2, but not by monofunctional analogs. Subsequent efforts to confirm the changes detected by microarray analyses revealed an unexpected dependence on treatment conditions. The GST alpha class A2 subfamily member transcripts were upregulated 24 h after a 1 h exposure to HN2 that caused an extensive, but transient block in late S/G2 cell cycle phase, but were minimally altered with continuous exposure. The 1-h exposure to HN2 caused a transient late S/G2 cell cycle arrest in both the HL-60 cell line and the Colo 320HSR human colon cancer cell line. Overexpression of GSTA2 by transient transfection protected Colo 320HSR cells against both cycle arrest and apoptosis following exposure to HN2. Overexpression of GSTA2 in Colo 320HSR cells induced after exposure to HN2 did not alter cycle arrest or apoptosis

  18. The chemopreventive activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor tributyrin in colon carcinogenesis involves the induction of apoptosis and reduction of DNA damage

    SciTech Connect

    Heidor, Renato; Furtado, Kelly Silva; Ortega, Juliana Festa; Oliveira, Tiago Franco de; Tavares, Paulo Eduardo Latorre Martins; Vieira, Alessandra; Miranda, Mayara Lilian Paulino; Purgatto, Eduardo; Moreno, Fernando Salvador

    2014-04-15

    The chemopreventive activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) tributyrin (TB), a prodrug of butyric acid (BA), was evaluated in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis. The animals were treated with TB (TB group: 200 mg/100 g of body weight, b.w.) or maltodextrin (MD isocaloric control group: 300 mg/100 g b.w.) daily for 9 consecutive weeks. In the 3rd and 4th weeks of treatment, the rats in the TB and MD groups were given DMH (40 mg/kg b.w.) twice a week. After 9 weeks, the animals were euthanized, and the distal colon was examined. Compared with the control group (MD group), TB treatment reduced the total number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF; p < 0.05) as well as the ACF with ≥ 4 crypts (p < 0.05), which are considered more aggressive, but not inhibited the formation of DMH-induced O6-methyldeoxyguanosine DNA adducts. The TB group also showed a higher apoptotic index (p < 0.05) and reduced DNA damage (p < 0.05) compared with MD group. TB acted as a HDACi, as rats treated with the prodrug of BA had higher levels of histone H3K9 acetylation compared with the MD group (p < 0.05). TB administration resulted in increased colonic tissue concentrations of BA (p < 0.05) compared with the control animals. These results suggest that TB can be considered a promising chemopreventive agent for colon carcinogenesis because it reduced the number of ACF, including those that were more aggressive. Induction of apoptosis and reduction of DNA damage are cellular mechanisms that appear to be involved in the chemopreventive activity of TB. - Highlights: • Tributyrin is a chemopreventive agent for rat colon aberrant crypt foci. • Tributyrin increased apoptosis in an experimental rat colon carcinogenesis model. • Tributyrin treatment in a rat colon carcinogenesis model decreased DNA damage. • Tributyrin treatment induced H3K9 acetylation in a rat colon carcinogenesis model.

  19. Effects of Cinnamon (C. zeylanicum) Bark Oil Against Taxanes-Induced Damages in Sperm Quality, Testicular and Epididymal Oxidant/Antioxidant Balance, Testicular Apoptosis, and Sperm DNA Integrity.

    PubMed

    Sariözkan, Serpil; Türk, Gaffari; Güvenç, Mehmet; Yüce, Abdurrauf; Özdamar, Saim; Cantürk, Fazile; Yay, Arzu Hanım

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether cinnamon bark oil (CBO) has protective effect on taxanes-induced adverse changes in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular apoptosis, and sperm DNA integrity. For this purpose, 88 adult male rats were equally divided into 8 groups: control, CBO, docetaxel (DTX), paclitaxel (PTX), DTX+PTX, DTX+CBO, PTX+CBO, and DTX+PTX+CBO. CBO was given by gavage daily for 10 weeks at the dose of 100 mg/kg. DTX and PTX were administered by intraperitoneal injection at the doses of 5 and 4 mg/kg/week, respectively, for 10 weeks. DTX+PTX and DTX+PTX+CBO groups were treated with DTX during first 5 weeks and PTX during next 5 weeks. DTX, PTX, and their mixed administrations caused significant decreases in absolute and relative weights of all reproductive organs, testosterone level, sperm motility, concentration, glutathione level, and catalase activity in testicular and epididymal tissues. They also significantly increased abnormal sperm rate, testicular and epididymal malondialdehyde level, apoptotic germ cell number, and sperm DNA fragmentation and significantly damaged the histological structure of testes. CBO consumption by DTX-, PTX-, and DTX+PTX-treated rats provided significant ameliorations in decreased relative weights of reproductive organs, decreased testosterone, decreased sperm quality, imbalanced oxidant/antioxidant system, increased apoptotic germ cell number, rate of sperm with fragmented DNA, and severity of testicular histopathological lesions induced by taxanes. In conclusion, taxanes cause impairments in sperm quality, testicular and epididymal oxidant/antioxidant balance, testicular histopathological structure, and sperm DNA integrity, and long-term CBO consumption protects male reproductive system of rats. PMID:27008095

  20. The genomic underpinnings of apoptosis in the silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is regulated in an orderly fashion by a series of genes, and has a crucial role in important physiological processes such as growth development, immunological response and so on. Recently, substantial studies have been undertaken on apoptosis in model animals including humans, fruit flies, and the nematode. However, the lack of genomic data for silkworms limits their usefulness in apoptosis studies, despite the advantages of silkworm as a representative of Lepidoptera and an effective model system. Herein we have identified apoptosis-related genes in the silkworm Bombyx mori and compared them to those from insects, mammals, and nematodes. Results From the newly assembled genome databases, a genome-wide analysis of apoptosis-related genes in Bombyx mori was performed using both nucleotide and protein Blast searches. Fifty-two apoptosis-related candidate genes were identified, including five caspase family members, two tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily members, one Bcl-2 family member, four baculovirus IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis) repeat (BIR) domain family members and 1 RHG (Reaper, Hid, Grim, and Sickle; Drosophila cell death activators) family member. Moreover, we identified a new caspase family member, BmCaspase-New, two splice variants of BmDronc, and Bm3585, a mammalian TNF superfamily member homolog. Twenty-three of these apoptosis-related genes were cloned and sequenced using cDNA templates isolated from BmE-SWU1 cells. Sequence analyses revealed that these genes could have key roles in apoptosis. Conclusions Bombyx mori possesses potential apoptosis-related genes. We hypothesized that the classic intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways potentially are active in Bombyx mori. These results lay the foundation for further apoptosis-related study in Bombyx mori. PMID:21040523

  1. Human Vγ2Vδ2 T cells limit breast cancer growth by modulating cell survival-, apoptosis-related molecules and microenvironment in tumors

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Reeva; Lu, Jingwei; Kanji, Suman; Das, Manjusri; Joseph, Matthew; Lustberg, Maryam B.; Ray, Alo; Pompili, Vincent J.; Shapiro, Charles L.; Das, Hiranmoy

    2013-01-01

    Innate immune system has been known to play an important role in inhibiting the malignant transformation, tumor progression and invasion. However, the mechanistic basis remains ambiguous. Despite polyclonality of human γδ T cells, Vγ2Vδ2 T cell subset was shown to recognize and limit the growth of various tumors at various degrees. The differential recognition of the tumor cells by Vγ2Vδ2 T cells are yet to be defined. Our study reveals that γδ T cells limit in vitro growth of most breast tumor cells, such as SkBr7 (HER2+), MCF7 (ER+) and MDA-MB-231 (ER−) by inhibiting their survival and inducing apoptosis, except BrCa-MZ01 (PR+) cells. To investigate detail mechanisms of antineoplastic effects, we found that cell death was associated with the surface expression levels of MICA/B and ICAM1. Molecular signaling analysis demonstrated that inhibition of cell growth by γδ T cells was associated with the lower expression levels of cell survival-related molecules such as AKT, ERK and concomitant upregulation of apoptosis-related molecules, such as PARP, cleaved caspase 3 and tumor suppressor genes PTEN and P53. However, opposite molecular signaling was observed in the resistant cell line after coculture with γδ T cells. In vivo, antineoplastic effects of γδ T cells were also documented, where tumor growth was inhibited due to the downregulation of survival signals, strong induction of apoptotic molecules, disruption of microvasculature and increased infiltration of tumor associated macrophages. These findings reveal that a complex molecular signaling is involved in γδ T cell-mediated antineoplastic effects. PMID:23595559

  2. Differential induction of apoptosis and senescence by the DNA methyltransferase inhibitors 5-azacytidine and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in solid tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, Sascha; Berger, Alexander; Weiland, Timo; Essmann, Frank; Waibel, Michaela; Nuebling, Tina; Häcker, Sabine; Schenk, Martin; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus; Salih, Helmut R; Fulda, Simone; Sipos, Bence; Johnstone, Ricky W; Lauer, Ulrich M; Bitzer, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Epigenetic alterations are a hallmark of cancer that govern the silencing of genes. Up to now, 5-azacytidine (5-aza-CR, Vidaza) and 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC, Dacogen) are the only clinically approved DNA methyltransferase inhibitors (DNMTi). Current effort tries to exploit DNMTi application beyond acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome, especially to solid tumors. Although both drugs only differ by a minimal structural difference, they trigger distinct molecular mechanisms that are highly relevant for a rational choice of new combination therapies. Therefore, we investigated cell death pathways in vitro in human hepatoma, colon, renal, and lung cancer cells and in vivo in chorioallantoic membrane and xenograft models. Real-time cancer cell monitoring and cytokine profiling revealed a profoundly distinct response pattern to both drugs. 5-aza-dC induced p53-dependent tumor cell senescence and a high number of DNA double-strand breaks. In contrast, 5-aza-CR downregulated p53, induced caspase activation and apoptosis. These individual response patterns of tumor cells could be verified in vivo in chorioallantoic membrane assays and in a hepatoma xenograft model. Although 5-aza-CR and 5-aza-dC are viewed as drugs with similar therapeutic activity, they induce a diverse molecular response in tumor cells. These findings together with other reported differences enable and facilitate a rational design of new combination strategies to further exploit the epigenetic mode of action of these two drugs in different areas of clinical oncology. PMID:23924947

  3. Nuclear glutathione S-transferase pi prevents apoptosis by reducing the oxidative stress-induced formation of exocyclic DNA products.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Kensaku; Goto, Shinji; Okunaga, Tomohiro; Ihara, Yoshito; Tsuji, Kentaro; Kawai, Yoshichika; Uchida, Koji; Osawa, Toshihiko; Matsuo, Takayuki; Nagata, Izumi; Kondo, Takahito

    2004-12-01

    We previously found that nuclear glutathione S-transferase pi (GSTpi) accumulates in cancer cells resistant to anticancer drugs, suggesting that it has a role in the acquisition of resistance to anticancer drugs. In the present study, the effect of oxidative stress on the nuclear translocation of GSTpi and its role in the protection of DNA from damage were investigated. In human colonic cancer HCT8 cells, the hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced increase in nuclear condensation, the population of sub-G(1) peak, and the number of TUNEL-positive cells were observed in cells pretreated with edible mushroom lectin, an inhibitor of the nuclear transport of GSTpi. The DNA damage and the formation of lipid peroxide were dependent on the dose of H(2)O(2) and the incubation time. Immunological analysis showed that H(2)O(2) induced the nuclear accumulation of GSTpi but not of glutathione peroxidase. Formation of the 7-(2-oxo-hepyl)-substituted 1,N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine adduct by the reaction of 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HPODE) with 2'-deoxyguanosine was inhibited by GSTpi in the presence of glutathione. The conjugation product of 4-oxo-2-nonenal, a lipid aldehyde of 13-HPODE, with GSH in the presence of GSTpi, was identified by LS/MS. These results suggested that nuclear GSTpi prevents H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage by scavenging the formation of lipid-peroxide-modified DNA. PMID:15528046

  4. Mutation of a Nopp140 gene dao-5 alters rDNA transcription and increases germ cell apoptosis in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Lee, C-C; Tsai, Y-T; Kao, C-W; Lee, L-W; Lai, H-J; Ma, T-H; Chang, Y-S; Yeh, N-H; Lo, S J

    2014-01-01

    Human diseases of impaired ribosome biogenesis resulting from disruption of rRNA biosynthesis or loss of ribosomal components are collectively described as 'ribosomopathies'. Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS), a representative human ribosomopathy with craniofacial abnormalities, is attributed to mutations in the tcof1 gene that has a homologous gene called nopp140. Previous studies demonstrated that the dao-5 (dauer and aged animal overexpression gene 5) of Caenorhabditis elegans is a member of nopp140 gene family and plays a role in nucleogenesis in the early embryo. Here, we established a C. elegans model for studying Nopp140-associated ribosomopathy. A null dao-5 mutant ok542 with a semi-infertile phenotype showed a delay in gonadogenesis, as well as a higher incidence of germline apoptosis. These phenotypes in dao-5(ok542) are likely resulted from inefficient rDNA transcription that was observed by run-on analyses and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays measuring the RNA Pol I occupancy on the rDNA promoter. ChIP assays further showed that the modifications of acetylated histone 4 (H4Ac) and dimethylation at the lysine 9 of histone 3 (H3K9me2) around the rDNA promoter were altered in dao-5 mutants compared with the N2 wild type. In addition, activated CEP-1 (a C. elegans p53 homolog) activity was also linked to the loss of DAO-5 in terms of the transcriptional upregulation of two CEP-1 downstream effectors, EGL-1 and CED-13. We propose that the dao-5 mutant of C. elegans can be a valuable model for studying human Nopp140-associated ribosomopathy at the cellular and molecular levels. PMID:24722283

  5. The changes of antioxidant defense system caused by quercetin administration do not lead to DNA damage and apoptosis in the spleen and bone marrow cells of rats.

    PubMed

    Papiez, M A; Cierniak, A; Krzysciak, W; Bzowska, M; Taha, H M; Jozkowicz, A; Piskula, M

    2008-09-01

    Quercetin may have the opposite effect, namely anti- as well as pro-oxidant. The aim of this study was to assess the results of quercetin anti- and/or pro-oxidant activity in the bone marrow and spleen cells of rats. The experimental rats were treated daily, with quercetin in a dose of 8 or 80mg/kg b.w. by gavage for 40 days. The intracellular redox state in cells were assessed by measuring the ferric ion reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) level and malonodialdehyde concentration. HO-1 mRNA expression was examined with real-time PCR. The extent of DNA damage was determined by the alkaline-labile comet assay. A potential pro-apoptotic quercetin action was determined using the FITC-Annexin V kit. The quercetin and isorhamnetin concentrations in serum were analyzed by HPLC-ECD. MDA concentration and FRAP values, were significantly decreased in the spleen and bone marrow cells of rats treated with quercetin, in a dose of 80mg/kg b.w. in comparison with the control rats; no significant changes were observed after quercetin was administered in a dose ten times as low. Treatment with quercetin dose-dependently upregulated the expression of HO-1 mRNA in the bone marrow cells. Quercetin administration to the rats did not induce either DNA damage or apoptosis in the examined cells. The results of our study prove that changes in the antioxidant state, caused by quercetin, do not lead to DNA damage or exert any pro-apoptotic activity in vivo. PMID:18602965

  6. JAK2V617F mediates resistance to DNA damage-induced apoptosis by modulating FOXO3A localization and Bcl-xL deamidation.

    PubMed

    Ahn, J S; Li, J; Chen, E; Kent, D G; Park, H J; Green, A R

    2016-04-28

    The JAK2V617F mutation is found in most patients with a myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN). This gain-of-function mutation dysregulates cytokine signaling and is associated with increased accumulation of DNA damage, a process likely to drive disease evolution. JAK2V617F inhibits NHE-1 upregulation in response to DNA damage and consequently represses Bcl-xL deamidation and apoptosis, thus giving rise to inappropriate cell survival. However, the mechanism whereby NHE-1 expression is inhibited by JAK2V617F is unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells expressing JAK2V617F compromises the NHE-1/Bcl-xL deamidation pathway by repressing NHE-1 upregulation in response to DNA damage. In JAK2V617F-positive cells, increased ROS levels results from aberrant PI3K signaling, which decreases nuclear localization of FOXO3A and decreases catalase expression. Furthermore, when compared with autologous control erythroblasts, clonally derived JAK2V617F-positive erythroblasts from MPN patients displayed increased ROS levels and reduced nuclear FOXO3A. However, in hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), FOXO3A is largely localized within the nuclei despite the presence of JAK2V617F mutation, suggesting that JAK2-FOXO signaling has a different effect on progenitors compared with stem cells. Inactivation of FOXO proteins and elevation of intracellular ROS are characteristics common to many cancers, and hence these findings are likely to be of relevance beyond the MPN field. PMID:26234675

  7. JS-K, a GST-activated nitric oxide generator, induces DNA double-strand breaks, activates DNA damage response pathways, and induces apoptosis in vitro and in vivo in human multiple myeloma cells.

    PubMed

    Kiziltepe, Tanyel; Hideshima, Teru; Ishitsuka, Kenji; Ocio, Enrique M; Raje, Noopur; Catley, Laurence; Li, Chun-Qi; Trudel, Laura J; Yasui, Hiroshi; Vallet, Sonia; Kutok, Jeffery L; Chauhan, Dharminder; Mitsiades, Constantine S; Saavedra, Joseph E; Wogan, Gerald N; Keefer, Larry K; Shami, Paul J; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2007-07-15

    Here we investigated the cytotoxicity of JS-K, a prodrug designed to release nitric oxide (NO(*)) following reaction with glutathione S-transferases, in multiple myeloma (MM). JS-K showed significant cytotoxicity in both conventional therapy-sensitive and -resistant MM cell lines, as well as patient-derived MM cells. JS-K induced apoptosis in MM cells, which was associated with PARP, caspase-8, and caspase-9 cleavage; increased Fas/CD95 expression; Mcl-1 cleavage; and Bcl-2 phosphorylation, as well as cytochrome c, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), and endonuclease G (EndoG) release. Moreover, JS-K overcame the survival advantages conferred by interleukin-6 (IL-6) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), or by adherence of MM cells to bone marrow stromal cells. Mechanistic studies revealed that JS-K-induced cytotoxicity was mediated via NO(*) in MM cells. Furthermore, JS-K induced DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and activated DNA damage responses, as evidenced by neutral comet assay, as well as H2AX, Chk2 and p53 phosphorylation. JS-K also activated c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) in MM cells; conversely, inhibition of JNK markedly decreased JS-K-induced cytotoxicity. Importantly, bortezomib significantly enhanced JS-K-induced cytotoxicity. Finally, JS-K is well tolerated, inhibits tumor growth, and prolongs survival in a human MM xenograft mouse model. Taken together, these data provide the preclinical rationale for the clinical evaluation of JS-K to improve patient outcome in MM. PMID:17384201

  8. STAT3 regulated ATR via microRNA-383 to control DNA damage to affect apoptosis in A431 cells.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xing-Hua; Zheng, Li; He, Hong-Peng; Zheng, De-Liang; Wei, Zhao-Qiang; Wang, Nan; Dong, Jian; Ma, Wen-Jian; Zhang, Tong-Cun

    2015-11-01

    Skin cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Mounting evidence shows that exposure of the skin to solar UV radiation results in inflammation, oxidative stress, DNA damage, dysregulation of cellular signaling pathways and immunosuppression thereby resulting in skin cancer. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is well known to function as an anti-apoptotic factor, especially in numerous malignancies, but the relationship between STAT3 activation and DNA damage response in skin cancer is still not fully understood. We now report that STAT3 inhibited DNA damage induced by UV and STAT3 mediated upregulation of GADD45γ and MDC-1 and the phosphorylation of H2AX in UV induced DNA damage. Notably, STAT3 can increase the expression of ATR in A431 cells. Luciferase assay shows that STAT3 activates the transcription of ATR promoter. More importantly, microRNA-383 suppressed ATR expression by targeting 3' (untranslated regions)UTR of ATR in A431 cells, and STAT3 down-regulates the transcription of miR-383 promoter. Thus, these results reveal the new insight that ATR is down-regulated by STAT3-regulated microRNA-383 in A431 cells. Moreover, overexpression of STAT3 enhanced expression of antiapoptosis genes BCL-1 and MCL-1, and depletion of STAT3 sensitized A431 cells to apoptotic cell death following UV. Collectively, these studies suggest that STAT3 may be a potential target for both the prevention and treatment of human skin cancer. PMID:26261078

  9. Cytotoxicity, apoptosis, DNA damage and methylation in mammary and kidney epithelial cell lines exposed to ochratoxin A.

    PubMed

    Giromini, Carlotta; Rebucci, Raffaella; Fusi, Eleonora; Rossi, Luciana; Saccone, Francesca; Baldi, Antonella

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vitro damage induced by ochratoxin A (OTA) in BME-UV1 and MDCK epithelial cells. Both cells lines were treated with OTA (0 up to 10 μg/mL), and cell viability (MTT assay), membrane stability (lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay) and apoptotic cell rate (Tunel assay) were investigated. Further, the effect of the incubation with OTA has been evaluated at DNA level by the determination of DNA integrity, by the quantification of DNA adduct formation (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)) and by the assessment of the global DNA methylation status (5-methyl-cytosine (5-mC)). The obtained results showed that after 24 h of OTA treatment, BME-UV1 cell viability was reduced in a dose-dependent way. OTA significantly (P < 0.05) increased LDH release in BME-UV1 cells at all concentrations tested. OTA (1.25 μg/mL) induced 35 % LDH release in MDCK cells (P < 0.05). A significant (P < 0.05) change in percentages of apoptotic BME-UV1 (10 ± 0.86) and MDCK (25 ± 0.88) cells was calculated when the cells were co-incubated with OTA. The level of 8-OHdG adduct formation was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in BME-UV1 cells treated with 1.25 μg/mL of OTA. The results of the present study suggest that a different mechanism of action may occur in these cell lines. Graphical abstract Study results overview. PMID:27154019

  10. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1984-10-19

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

  11. Response of thyroid follicular cells to gamma irradiation compared to proton irradiation. I. Initial characterization of DNA damage, micronucleus formation, apoptosis, cell survival, and cell cycle phase redistribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, L. M.; Murray, D. K.; Bant, A. M.; Kazarians, G.; Moyers, M. F.; Nelson, G. A.; Tran, D. T.

    2001-01-01

    The RBE of protons has been assumed to be equivalent to that of photons. The objective of this study was to determine whether radiation-induced DNA and chromosome damage, apoptosis, cell killing and cell cycling in organized epithelial cells was influenced by radiation quality. Thyroid-stimulating hormone-dependent Fischer rat thyroid cells, established as follicles, were exposed to gamma rays or proton beams delivered acutely over a range of physical doses. Gamma-irradiated cells were able to repair DNA damage relatively rapidly so that by 1 h postirradiation they had approximately 20% fewer exposed 3' ends than their counterparts that had been irradiated with proton beams. The persistence of free ends of DNA in the samples irradiated with the proton beam implies that either more initial breaks or a quantitatively different type of damage had occurred. These results were further supported by an increased frequency of chromosomal damage as measured by the presence of micronuclei. Proton-beam irradiation induced micronuclei at a rate of 2.4% per gray, which at 12 Gy translated to 40% more micronuclei than in comparable gamma-irradiated cultures. The higher rate of micronucleus formation and the presence of larger micronuclei in proton-irradiated cells was further evidence that a qualitatively more severe class of damage had been induced than was induced by gamma rays. Differences in the type of damage produced were detected in the apoptosis assay, wherein a significant lag in the induction of apoptosis occurred after gamma irradiation that did not occur with protons. The more immediate expression of apoptotic cells in the cultures irradiated with the proton beam suggests that the damage inflicted was more severe. Alternatively, the cell cycle checkpoint mechanisms required for recovery from such damage might not have been invoked. Differences based on radiation quality were also evident in the alpha components of cell survival curves (0.05 Gy(-1) for gamma rays, 0

  12. Deleterious effects of sunscreen titanium dioxide nanoparticles on DNA: efforts to limit DNA damage by particle surface modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serpone, Nick; Salinaro, Angela; Emeline, A.

    2001-06-01

    Sunlight can have deleterious effects on humans: causes sunburns and is the principal cause of skin cancers. Usage of TiO2 (and ZnO) in sunscreen lotions, widely used as UVA/UVB blockers, and intended to prevent sunburns and to protect consumers from skin cancers (carcinomas and melanomas) is examined. Although used to mineralize many undesired organic pollutants, TiO2 is considered to be a safe physical sunscreen agent because it reflects and scatters both UVB (290-320 nm) and UVA (320-400 nm) sunlight; however, it also absorbs substantial UV radiation which, in aqueous media, yields hydroxyl radial ((DOT)OH) species. These species cause substantial damage to DNA (J. Photochem.Photobio.A:Chem.,111(1997)205). Most importantly, sunlight-illuminated sunscreen TiO2 particles catalyze DNA damage both in vitro and in human cells (FEBS Letters, 418 (1997)87). These results raise concerns on the overall effects of sunscreens and raise the question on the suitability of photoactive TiO2 as a sunscreen component without further studies. The photocatalytically active nature of these metal oxides necessitates some changes since even the TiO2 specimens currently used in suncreams cause significant DNA strand breaks.

  13. The novel curcumin analog FLLL32 decreases STAT3 DNA binding activity and expression, and induces apoptosis in osteosarcoma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Curcumin is a naturally occurring phenolic compound shown to have a wide variety of antitumor activities; however, it does not attain sufficient blood levels to do so when ingested. Using structure-based design, a novel compound, FLLL32, was generated from curcumin. FLLL32 possesses superior biochemical properties and more specifically targets STAT3, a transcription factor important in tumor cell survival, proliferation, metastasis, and chemotherapy resistance. In our previous work, we found that several canine and human osteosarcoma (OSA) cell lines, but not normal osteoblasts, exhibit constitutive phosphorylation of STAT3. Compared to curcumin, we hypothesized that FLLL32 would be more efficient at inhibiting STAT3 function in OSA cells and that this would result in enhanced downregulation of STAT3 transcriptional targets and subsequent death of OSA cells. Methods Human and canine OSA cells were treated with vehicle, curcumin, or FLLL32 and the effects on proliferation (CyQUANT®), apoptosis (SensoLyte® Homogeneous AMC Caspase- 3/7 Assay kit, western blotting), STAT3 DNA binding (EMSA), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), survivin, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) expression (RT-PCR, western blotting) were measured. STAT3 expression was measured by RT-PCR, qRT- PCR, and western blotting. Results Our data showed that FLLL32 decreased STAT3 DNA binding by EMSA. FLLL32 promoted loss of cell proliferation at lower concentrations than curcumin leading to caspase-3- dependent apoptosis, as evidenced by PARP cleavage and increased caspase 3/7 activity; this could be inhibited by treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK. Treatment of OSA cells with FLLL32 decreased expression of survivin, VEGF, and MMP2 at both mRNA and protein levels with concurrent decreases in phosphorylated and total STAT3; this loss of total STAT3 occurred, in part, via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Conclusions These data demonstrate that the novel curcumin

  14. Efimov-like phase of a three-stranded DNA and the renormalization-group limit cycle.

    PubMed

    Pal, Tanmoy; Sadhukhan, Poulomi; Bhattacharjee, Somendra M

    2015-04-01

    A three-stranded DNA with short range base pairings only is known to exhibit a classical analog of the quantum Efimov effect, viz., a three-chain bound state at the two-chain melting point where no two are bound. By using a nonperturbative renormalization-group method for a rigid duplex DNA and a flexible third strand, with base pairings and strand exchange, we show that the Efimov-DNA is associated with a limit cycle type behavior of the flow of an effective three-chain interaction. The analysis also shows that thermally generated bubbles play an essential role in producing the effect. A toy model for the flow equations shows the limit cycle in an extended three-dimensional parameter space of the two-chain coupling and a complex three-chain interaction. PMID:25974437

  15. Extending the Limited Transfer Window Hypothesis to Inter-organelle DNA Migration

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David Roy

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial genomes often contain large amounts of plastid DNA (ptDNA)-derived sequences (MTPTs). It has been suggested that the intercompartmental transfer of ptDNA is greatly reduced in species with only a single plastid per cell (monoplastidic) as compared with those with many plastids per cell (polyplastidic). This hypothesis has not been applied to the movement of DNA from plastids to mitochondria. By analyzing the organelle genomes from diverse mono- and polyplastidic taxa, I show that MTPTs are restricted to the mitochondrial genomes of species with many plastids per cell and are absent from those with one plastid per cell or with monoplastidic meristematic systems. Moreover, the most bloated mitochondrial genomes that were explored had the largest MTPT contents. These data, like previous results on ptDNA-derived sequences in nuclear genomes, support the hypothesis that plastid number and the forces governing the expansion and contraction of noncoding mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) influence MTPT abundance. I also show that plastid genomes are depauperate in mtDNA-derived sequences (PTMTs), irrespective of the number of mitochondria per cell and plastid genome size, which may reflect the lack of a DNA uptake system in plastids. PMID:21803764

  16. A pilot study on the DNA-protective, cytotoxic, and apoptosis-inducing properties of olive-leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Anter, Jaouad; Fernández-Bedmar, Zahira; Villatoro-Pulido, Myriam; Demyda-Peyras, Sebastian; Moreno-Millán, Miguel; Alonso-Moraga, Angeles; Muñoz-Serrano, Andrés; Luque de Castro, María Dolores

    2011-08-16

    Leaves of olive trees are an abundant raw material in the Mediterranean basin. They contain large amounts of potentially useful phytochemicals and could play beneficial roles in health care. In the present study, the principal bioactive phenols in olive-leaf extracts (OLEs) have been identified and quantified, and their genotoxic/antigenotoxic, cytotoxic and apoptotic effects have been assessed. The Somatic Mutation and Recombination Test (SMART) in wing imaginal discs of Drosophila melanogaster has been performed to test the possible genotoxicity of overall OLE and the individual components oleuropein and luteolin at different concentrations. The same assay was able to detect antigenotoxic activity against hydrogen peroxide as oxidative genotoxicant. None of the extracts/phenols tested showed significant mutagenic activity. This fact, together with the antigenotoxic activity against H(2)O(2) detected for all these extracts/phenols, confirmed the safety of OLE, oleuropein and luteolin in terms of DNA protection. HL60 human promyelocytic leukemia cells were used to assess the cytotoxic effects of the extracts/phenols. OLE, oleuropein and luteolin showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic effect with different IC50 (10μl/ml, 170μM, and 40μM, respectively). DNA fragmentation patterns and cell staining with acridine orange and ethidium bromide indicated that the mechanism for the cytotoxic effect of OLE, oleuropein and luteolin was the apoptotic pathway, with DNA laddering and cytoplasmic and nuclear changes. These results could help explain the mechanism of action that underlies the beneficial effect of OLE, proposed as a nutraceutical in the prevention of human cancer. PMID:21620995

  17. Limiter

    DOEpatents

    Cohen, Samuel A.; Hosea, Joel C.; Timberlake, John R.

    1986-01-01

    A limiter with a specially contoured front face accommodates the various power scrape-off distances .lambda..sub.p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V.sub..parallel., of the impacting particles. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution.

  18. DNA methyltransferase inhibitor-mediated apoptosis in the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway in a renal cell carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Konac, Ece; Varol, Nuray; Yilmaz, Akin; Menevse, Sevda; Sozen, Sinan

    2013-09-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway is activated in most cancer types when Wnt antagonist genes are inactivated. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3β) is an important regulator of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. The mechanisms underlying GSK3β regulation of neoplastic transformation and tumor development are unclear. Studies have raised the possibility that the Wnt signaling pathway may be implicated in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Therefore, in the present study, we hypothesize that the expression and methylation status of the secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (sFRP2) gene, one of the secreted antagonists that bind Wnt protein, and re-expression of this gene with the demethylation agent (5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine; DAC) may induce apoptosis in RCC cells. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the relationship among epigenetic inactivation of sFRP2 and p-GSK3β (Ser9) and other Wnt antagonists (sFRP1, DKK3, WIF-1) and apoptotic factors (Bax and Caspase3) as well as the anti-apoptotic factor BCL2. Our results indicate that DAC-mediated inhibition of DNA methylation led to a re-activation of sFRP2 expression and increased expression levels of the Wnt antagonists and apoptotic factors. In contrast, the level of β-catenin (CTNNB1) expression decreased. The p-GSK3β (Ser9) protein level in Caki-2 cells was significantly down-regulated, while the DNA fragmentation rate increased after treatment with 5 μM DAC at 96 h. Our data show that sFRP2 functions as a tumor suppressor gene in RCC and that its restoration may offer a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of RCC. Moreover, our study draws attention to the regulatory features of epigenetic molecules and analyses their underlying molecular mechanisms of action and their potential use in clinical practice. PMID:23975733

  19. Anti-proliferative effect of methanolic extract of Gracilaria tenuistipitata on oral cancer cells involves apoptosis, DNA damage, and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Methanolic extracts of Gracilaria tenuistipitata (MEGT) were obtained from the edible red algae. Previously, we found that water extract of G. tenuistipitata was able to modulate oxidative stress-induced DNA damage and its related cellular responses. Methods In this study, the methanol extraction product MEGT was used to evaluate the cell growth inhibition in oral cancer cells and its possible mechanism was investigated. Results The cell viability of MEGT treated Ca9-22 oral cancer cell line was significantly decreased in a dose–response manner (p < 0.05). The sub-G1 population and annexin V intensity of MEGT-treated Ca9-22 cancer cells were significantly increased in a dose–response manner (p < 0.0005 and p < 0.001, respectively). The γH2AX intensities of MEGT-treated Ca9-22 cancer cells were significantly increased in a dose–response manner (p < 0.05). The reactive oxygen species (ROS) and glutathione (GSH)-positive intensities of MEGT-treated Ca9-22 oral cancer cells were significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in a dose–response manner (p < 0.05). The DiOC2(3) intensity for mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) of MEGT-treated Ca9-22 cancer cells was significantly decreased in a dose–response manner (p < 0.05). Conclusions These results indicated that MEGT had apoptosis-based cytotoxicity against oral cancer cells through the DNA damage, ROS induction, and mitochondrial depolarization. Therefore, MEGT derived from the edible algae may have potential therapeutic effects against oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). PMID:22937998

  20. Limitations on geminivirus genome size imposed by plasmodesmata and virus-encoded movement protein: insights into DNA trafficking.

    PubMed

    Gilbertson, Robert L; Sudarshana, Mysore; Jiang, Hao; Rojas, Maria R; Lucas, William J

    2003-11-01

    Animals and plants evolved systems to permit non-cell-autonomous trafficking of RNA, whereas DNA plays a cell-autonomous role. In plants, plasmodesmata serve as the conduit for this phenomenon, and viruses have evolved to use this pathway for the spread of infectious nucleic acids. In this study, a plant DNA virus was used to explore the constraints imposed on the movement of DNA through this endogenous RNA trafficking pathway. The combined properties of the geminivirus-encoded movement protein and plasmodesmata were shown to impose a strict limitation on the size of the viral genome at the level of cell-to-cell movement. Size-increased viral genome components underwent homologous and nonhomologous recombination to overcome this strict limitation. Our results provide insights into the genetic mechanisms that underlie viral evolution and provide a likely explanation for why relatively few types of plant DNA viruses have evolved: they would have had to overcome the constraints imposed by an endogenous system operating to ensure that DNA acts in a cell-autonomous manner. PMID:14555695

  1. Limitations on Geminivirus Genome Size Imposed by Plasmodesmata and Virus-Encoded Movement Protein: Insights into DNA Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Gilbertson, Robert L.; Sudarshana, Mysore; Jiang, Hao; Rojas, Maria R.; Lucas, William J.

    2003-01-01

    Animals and plants evolved systems to permit non-cell-autonomous trafficking of RNA, whereas DNA plays a cell-autonomous role. In plants, plasmodesmata serve as the conduit for this phenomenon, and viruses have evolved to use this pathway for the spread of infectious nucleic acids. In this study, a plant DNA virus was used to explore the constraints imposed on the movement of DNA through this endogenous RNA trafficking pathway. The combined properties of the geminivirus-encoded movement protein and plasmodesmata were shown to impose a strict limitation on the size of the viral genome at the level of cell-to-cell movement. Size-increased viral genome components underwent homologous and nonhomologous recombination to overcome this strict limitation. Our results provide insights into the genetic mechanisms that underlie viral evolution and provide a likely explanation for why relatively few types of plant DNA viruses have evolved: they would have had to overcome the constraints imposed by an endogenous system operating to ensure that DNA acts in a cell-autonomous manner. PMID:14555695

  2. Of humans and hamsters: a comparative evaluation of carcinogen activation, DNA damage, cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis in oral cancer patients and hamster buccal pouch carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Nagini, Siddavaram; Letchoumy, Paramasivame Vidjaya; A, Thangavelu; Cr, Ramachandran

    2009-06-01

    The hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model is one of the most well characterized animal systems for analyzing the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), a common malignancy worldwide. HBP carcinomas that closely mimic human OSCC are useful in understanding the molecular mechanisms of neoplastic transformation. The present study is a comparative evaluation of markers of carcinogen activation, oxidative stress, cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and angiogenesis in human and hamster OSCCs. Enhanced expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 isoforms in both human and hamster oral tumours was associated with significantly increased expression of 8-hydroxy 2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) indicating oxidative DNA damage. Analysis of markers of cell survival and proliferation revealed increased expression of PCNA, GST-P, and NF-kappaB with downregulation of p21, p53 and IkappaB in both human and hamster OSCCs. In addition, both human and hamster oral carcinomas displayed invasive, and angiogenic properties as revealed by dysregulated cytokeratin expression, downregulation of RECK, and increased expression of uPA, MMP-2 and-9, HIF-1alpha, and VEGF. The results reveal aberrant expression of multiple molecules in key signaling pathways in both human OSCCs and HBP carcinomas rendering the HBP model as an important tool for monitoring oral oncogenesis. PMID:19250857

  3. Synthesis of eight-arm, branched oligonucleotide hybrids and studies on the limits of DNA-driven assembly.

    PubMed

    Schwenger, Alexander; Gerlach, Claudia; Griesser, Helmut; Richert, Clemens

    2014-12-01

    Oligonucleotide hybrids with organic cores as rigid branching elements and four or six CG dimer strands have been shown to form porous materials from dilute aqueous solution. In order to explore the limits of this form of DNA-driven assembly, we prepared hybrids with three or eight DNA arms via solution-phase syntheses, using H-phosphonates of protected dinucleoside phosphates. This included the synthesis of (CG)8TREA, where TREA stands for the tetrakis[4-(resorcin-5-ylethynyl)phenyl]adamantane core. The ability of the new compounds to assemble in a DNA-driven fashion was studied by UV-melting analysis and NMR, using hybrids with self-complementary CG zipper arms or non-self-complementary TC dimer arms. The three-arm hybrid failed to form a material under conditions where four-arm hybrids did so. Further, the assembly of TREA hybrids appears to be dominated by hydrophobic interactions, not base pairing of the DNA arms. These results help in the design of materials forming by multivalent DNA-DNA interactions. PMID:25407332

  4. Rad51/Dmc1 paralogs and mediators oppose DNA helicases to limit hybrid DNA formation and promote crossovers during meiotic recombination.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Alexander; Mehats, Alizée; Osman, Fekret; Whitby, Matthew C

    2014-12-16

    During meiosis programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired by homologous recombination using the sister chromatid or the homologous chromosome (homolog) as a template. This repair results in crossover (CO) and non-crossover (NCO) recombinants. Only CO formation between homologs provides the physical linkages guiding correct chromosome segregation, which are essential to produce healthy gametes. The factors that determine the CO/NCO decision are still poorly understood. Using Schizosaccharomyces pombe as a model we show that the Rad51/Dmc1-paralog complexes Rad55-Rad57 and Rdl1-Rlp1-Sws1 together with Swi5-Sfr1 play a major role in antagonizing both the FANCM-family DNA helicase/translocase Fml1 and the RecQ-type DNA helicase Rqh1 to limit hybrid DNA formation and promote Mus81-Eme1-dependent COs. A common attribute of these protein complexes is an ability to stabilize the Rad51/Dmc1 nucleoprotein filament, and we propose that it is this property that imposes constraints on which enzymes gain access to the recombination intermediate, thereby controlling the manner in which it is processed and resolved. PMID:25414342

  5. Thiosemicarbazone Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes as potential anticancer agents: syntheses, crystal structure, DNA cleavage, cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction activity.

    PubMed

    Shao, Jia; Ma, Zhong-Ying; Li, Ang; Liu, Ya-Hong; Xie, Cheng-Zhi; Qiang, Zhao-Yan; Xu, Jing-Yuan

    2014-07-01

    Four novel thiosemicarbazone metal complexes, [Cu(Am4M)(OAc)]·H2O (1), [Zn(HAm4M)Cl2] (2), [Zn2(Am4M)2Br2] (3) and [Zn2(Am4M)2(OAc)2]·2MeOH (4) [HAm4M=(Z)-2-(amino(pyridin-2-yl)methylene)-N-methylhydrazinecarbothioamide], have been synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, elemental analysis, ESI-MS and IR. X-ray analysis revealed that complexes 1 and 2 are mononuclear, which possess residual coordination sites for Cu(II) ion in 1 and good leaving groups (Cl(-)) for Zn(II) ion in 2. Both 3 and 4 displayed dinuclear units, in which the metal atoms are doubly bridged by S atoms of two Am4M(-) ligands in 3 and by two acetate ions in bi- and mono-dentate forms, respectively, in 4. Their antiproliferative activities on human epithelial cervical cancer cell line (HeLa), human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG-2) and human gastric cancer cell line (SGC-7901) were screened. Inspiringly, IC50 value (11.2±0.9 μM) of complex 1 against HepG-2 cells was nearly 0.5 fold of that against human hepatic cell lines LO2, showing a lower toxicity to human liver cells. Additionally, it displayed a stronger inhibition on the viability of HepG-2 cells than cisplatin (IC50=25±3.1 μM), suggesting complex 1 might be a potential high efficient antitumor agent. Furthermore, fluorescence microscopic observation and flow cytometric analysis revealed that complex 1 could significantly suppress HepG-2 cell viability and induce apoptosis. Several indexes, such as DNA cleavage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, comet assay and cell cycle analysis indicated that the antitumor mechanism of complex 1 on HepG-2 cells might be via ROS-triggered apoptosis pathway. PMID:24690556

  6. DNA damage, redox changes, and associated stress-inducible signaling events underlying the apoptosis and cytotoxicity in murine alveolar macrophage cell line MH-S by methanol-extracted Stachybotrys chartarum toxins

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Huiyan; Yadav, Jagjit S. . E-mail: Jagjit.Yadav@uc.edu

    2006-08-01

    Spore-extracted toxins of the indoor mold Stachybotrys chartarum (SC) caused cytotoxicity (release of lactate dehydrogenase), inhibition of cell proliferation, and cell death in murine alveolar macrophage cell line MH-S in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Apoptotic cell death, confirmed based on morphological changes, DNA ladder formation, and caspase 3/7 activation, was detectable as early as at 3 h during treatment with a toxin concentration of 1 spore equivalent/macrophage and was preceded by DNA damage beginning at 15 min, as evidenced by DNA comet formation in single cell gel electrophoresis assay. The apoptotic dose of SC toxins did not induce detectable nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1{beta}, IL-6, and TNF-{alpha}) but showed exacerbated cytotoxicity in presence of a non-apoptotic dose of the known pro-inflammatory agent LPS (10 ng/ml). Intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) level showed a significant decrease beginning at 9 h of the toxin treatment whereas oxidized glutathione (GSSG) showed a corresponding significant increase, indicating a delayed onset of oxidative stress in the apoptosis process. The toxin-treated macrophages accumulated p53, an indicator of DNA damage response, and showed activation of the stress-inducible MAP kinases, JNK, and p38, in a time-dependent manner. Chemical blocking of either p38 or p53 inhibited in part the SC toxin-induced apoptosis whereas blocking of JNK did not show any such effect. This study constitutes the first report on induction of DNA damage and associated p53 activation by SC toxins, and demonstrates the involvement of p38- and p53-mediated signaling events in SC toxin-induced apoptosis of alveolar macrophages.

  7. DNA hybridization as a guide to phylogeny: chemical and physical limits.

    PubMed

    Schmid, C W; Marks, J

    1990-03-01

    The technique of forming interspecific DNA heteroduplexes and estimating phylogenetic distances from the depression in their duplex melting temperature has several physical and chemical constraints. These constraints determine the maximum phylogenetic distance that may be estimated by this technique and the most appropriate method of analyzing that distance. Melting curves of self-renatured single copy primate DNAs reveal the presence of components absent from the renaturation products of exactly paired sequences. This observation, which confirms existing literature, challenges a fundamental assumption: that orthologous (i.e., corresponding) DNA sequences in the divergent species are being compared in DNA heteroduplex melting experiments. As a model system, the thermal stabilities of heteroduplexes formed between a human alpha-globin cDNA and four alpha-like globin genes isolated from chimpanzee are qualitatively compared. The results of this comparison show that the cross-hybrids of imperfectly matched gene duplicates from divergent species can contribute to the additional components that are present in renatured single copy DNAs. Single copy DNA, as usually defined, includes sequence duplicates that will obscure phylogenetic comparisons in a mass hybridization of genomes. PMID:2109086

  8. Spaceflight Associated Apoptosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichiki, Albert T.; Gibson, Linda A.; Allebban, Zuhair

    1996-01-01

    Lymphoid tissues have been shown to atrophy in rats flown on Russian spaceflights. Histological examination indicated evidence for cell degradation. Lymphoid tissues from rats flown on Spacelab Life Sciences-2 mission were analyzed for apoptosis by evidence of fragmented lymphocytes, which could be engulfed by macrophages, or DNA strand breaks using the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Apoptosis was not detected in the thymus and spleen collected inflight or from the synchronous ground rats but was detected in the thymus, spleen and inguinal lymph node of the flight animals on recovery. These results indicate that the apoptosis observed in the lymphatic tissues of the rats on recovery could have been induced by the gravitational stress of reentry, corroborating the findings from the early space-flight observations.

  9. Anti-lung cancer potential of pure esteric-glycoside condurangogenin A against nonsmall-cell lung cancer cells in vitro via p21/p53 mediated cell cycle modulation and DNA damage-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Sikdar, Sourav; Mukherjee, Avinaba; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Marsdenia condurango (condurango) is a tropical woody vine native to South America. Our earlier study was limited to evaluation of anti-cancer potentials of crude condurango extract and its glycoside-rich components in vitro on lung cancer. Objective: This study aims at evaluating the effect of the single isolated active ingredient condurangogenin A (ConA; C32H42O7) on A549, H522 and H460-nonsmall-cell lung cancer cells. Materials and Methods: ConA was isolated by column chromatography and analyzed by mass spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and proton-nuclear magnetic resonance. diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays were conducted on three cell-types using 6%-alcohol as control. Critical studies on cellular morphology, cell-cycle regulation, reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, and DNA-damage were made, and expressions of related signaling markers studied. Results: As IC50 doses of ConA proved to be too high and toxic to both A549 and H522 cells, all experimental studies were carried out on H460 cells with the IC50 dose (32 μg/ml − 24 h). Cellular morphology revealed typical apoptotic features after ConA treatment. At early treatment hours (2 h-12 h), maximum cells were arrested at G0/G1 phase that could be correlated with reduced level of cyclin D1-CDK with p21 up-regulation. At 18 h − 24 h, sub G0/G1 cell population was increased gradually, as revealed from cytochrome-c release and caspase-3 activation, further confirming the apoptosis-inducing ability of ConA at later phases. Gradual increase of TUNEL-positive cells with significant modulation of mitochondria-dependent apoptotic markers at longer time-points would establish apoptosis-induction property of ConA, indicating its potential as a strong candidate for anti-cancer drug formulation. Conclusion: Further studies are warranted against other types of cancer cells and animal models before its possible human use. PMID:26109778

  10. ESCRT III repairs nuclear envelope ruptures during cell migration to limit DNA damage and cell death.

    PubMed

    Raab, M; Gentili, M; de Belly, H; Thiam, H R; Vargas, P; Jimenez, A J; Lautenschlaeger, F; Voituriez, Raphaël; Lennon-Duménil, A M; Manel, N; Piel, M

    2016-04-15

    In eukaryotic cells, the nuclear envelope separates the genomic DNA from the cytoplasmic space and regulates protein trafficking between the two compartments. This barrier is only transiently dissolved during mitosis. Here, we found that it also opened at high frequency in migrating mammalian cells during interphase, which allowed nuclear proteins to leak out and cytoplasmic proteins to leak in. This transient opening was caused by nuclear deformation and was rapidly repaired in an ESCRT (endosomal sorting complexes required for transport)-dependent manner. DNA double-strand breaks coincided with nuclear envelope opening events. As a consequence, survival of cells migrating through confining environments depended on efficient nuclear envelope and DNA repair machineries. Nuclear envelope opening in migrating leukocytes could have potentially important consequences for normal and pathological immune responses. PMID:27013426

  11. A novel method for detecting apoptosis shows that hepatocytes undergo a time dependent increase in DNA cleavage and chromatin condensation which is augmented after TGF-beta 1 treatment.

    PubMed

    Cain, K; Inayat-Hussain, S H; Couet, C; Qin, H M; Oberhammer, F A

    1996-04-01

    This study describes a new method for quantitating apoptosis in hepatocyte monolayers in which nuclei were isolated from the cells and DNA strand breaks detected by in situ end-labeling and flow cytometry. Most (97%) nuclei from untreated hepatocytes had low end-labelling and were derived from non-apoptotic cells. Approximately 2-3% of the nuclei had high end-labelling and originated from apoptotic hepatocytes. The numbers of these nuclei increased linearly from 3 to 85% between 0 and 48 h after treatment with transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1). However, a morphological assessment of apoptosis with Hoechst H33258 showed that the proportion of apoptotic nuclei plateaued at 18-19% between 24 and 48 h after TGF-beta 1 treatment. Thus, the in situ end-labeling technique also detected DNA cleavage in nuclei which did not have an obvious apoptotic morphology. Confocal microscopy of low and high end-labelled nuclei which had been separated by fluorescent cell sorting showed that nuclei with high levels of end-labeling exhibited a wide diversity of morphologies. These included nuclei with little or no chromatin condensation and nuclei with characteristic apoptotic morphology. In addition, nuclei from untreated hepatocytes contained low levels of DNA cleavage, which were localized in areas of condensed chromatin and increased according to the time in culture. Thus, hepatocytes undergo a progressive and cumulative process of DNA cleavage/chromatin condensation which is markedly enhanced by TGF-beta 1. PMID:8900474

  12. DNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsenfeld, Gary

    1985-01-01

    Structural form, bonding scheme, and chromatin structure of and gene-modification experiments with deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) are described. Indicates that DNA's double helix is variable and also flexible as it interacts with regulatory and other molecules to transfer hereditary messages. (DH)

  13. Water-soluble oxoglaucine-Y(III), Dy(III) complexes: in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities by triggering DNA damage, leading to S phase arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jian-Hua; Chen, Zhen-Feng; Qin, Jiao-Lan; Liu, Yan-Cheng; Li, Zhu-Quan; Khan, Taj-Malook; Wang, Meng; Jiang, Yan-Hua; Shen, Wen-Ying; Liang, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Complexes of yttrium(III) and dysprosium(III) with the traditional Chinese medicine active ingredient oxoglaucine (OG), namely [Y(OG)2(NO3)3]·CH3OH (1) and [Dy(OG)2(NO3)3]·H2O (2), were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, ESI-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In vitro the complexes exhibited higher anticancer activity than the free ligand OG against the tested cancer cell lines. Among the tested cell lines, HepG2 is the most sensitive to the complexes. Complex 2 can trigger DNA damage in HepG2 cells, resulting in cell cycle arrest in the S phase and leading to cell apoptosis. The S phase cell-cycle arrest is caused via the ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated)-Chk2-Cdc25A pathway. Chk2 is phosphorylated and activated in an ATM-dependent manner. It, in turn, phosphorylates Cdc25A phosphatise on serine124, causing the inactivation of Cdc25A in ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic degradation. The cyclin-Cdk complexes of the S phase could also be inhibited by limited supply of cyclins A and E. This irreversible cell cycle arrest process ultimately induces mitochondria-involved apoptotic cell death via the activation of Bcl-2 protein. Complex e2 ffectively inhibited tumour growth in the BEL-7402 xenograft mouse model and exhibited higher safety in vivo than cisplatin. PMID:26017376

  14. Plasmid size up to 20 kbp does not limit effective in vivo lung gene transfer using compacted DNA nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fink, T L; Klepcyk, P J; Oette, S M; Gedeon, C R; Hyatt, S L; Kowalczyk, T H; Moen, R C; Cooper, M J

    2006-07-01

    Nanoparticles consisting of single molecules of DNA condensed with polyethylene glycol-substituted lysine 30-mers efficiently transfect lung epithelium following intrapulmonary administration. Nanoparticles formulated with lysine polymers having different counterions at the time of DNA mixing have distinct geometric shapes: trifluoroacetate or acetate counterions produce ellipsoids or rods, respectively. Based on intracytoplasmic microinjection studies, nanoparticle ellipsoids having a minimum diameter less than the 25 nm nuclear membrane pore efficiently transfect non-dividing cells. This 25 nm size restriction corresponds to a 5.8 kbp plasmid when compacted into spheroids, whereas the 8-11 nm diameter of rod-like particles is smaller than the nuclear pore diameter. In mice, up to 50% of lung cells are transfected after dosing with a rod-like compacted 6.9 kbp lacZ expression plasmid, and correction of the CFTR chloride channel was observed in humans following intranasal administration of a rod-like compacted 8.3 kbp plasmid. To further investigate the potential size and shape limitations of DNA nanoparticles for in vivo lung delivery, reporter gene activity of ellipsoidal and rod-like compacted luciferase plasmids ranging in size between 5.3 and 20.2 kbp was investigated. Equivalent molar reporter gene activities were observed for each formulation, indicating that microinjection size limitations do not apply to the in vivo gene transfer setting. PMID:16525478

  15. Hairpin formation in DNA computation presents limits for large NP-complete problems.

    PubMed

    Li, Dafa; Huang, Hongtao; Li, Xinxin; Li, Xiangrong

    2003-12-01

    Recently, several DNA computing paradigms for NP-complete problems were presented, especially for the 3-SAT problem. Can the present paradigms solve more than just trivial instances of NP-complete problems? In this paper we show that with high probability potentially deleterious features such as severe hairpin loops would be likely to arise. If DNA strand x of length n and the 'complement' of the reverse of x have l match bases, then x forms a hairpin loop and is called a (n,l)-hairpin format. Let gamma=2l/n. Then gamma can be considered as a measurement of the stability of hairpin loops. Let p(n,l) be the probability that a n-mer DNA strand is a (n,l)-hairpin format, and q(n,l)((m)) be the probability that m ones are chosen at random from 4(n) n-mer oligonucleotides such that at least one of the m ones is a (n,l)-hairpin format. Then, q(n,l)((m))=1-(1-p(n,l))(m)=mp(n,l). If we require q(n,l)((m))DNA computing paradigms cannot solve large NP-complete problems. For example, if n=20, used in Adleman and Lipton's paradigm, gamma=50% and a=50%, then m is almost 12. PMID:14643488

  16. Limited performance of DNA barcoding in a diverse community of tropical butterflies

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Marianne; Hill, Ryan I; Willmott, Keith R; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K; Brower, Andrew V.Z; Mallet, James; Jiggins, Chris D

    2007-01-01

    DNA ‘barcoding’ relies on a short fragment of mitochondrial DNA to infer identification of specimens. The method depends on genetic diversity being markedly lower within than between species. Closely related species are most likely to share genetic variation in communities where speciation rates are rapid and effective population sizes are large, such that coalescence times are long. We assessed the applicability of DNA barcoding (here the 5′ half of the cytochrome c oxidase I) to a diverse community of butterflies from the upper Amazon, using a group with a well-established morphological taxonomy to serve as a reference. Only 77% of species could be accurately identified using the barcode data, a figure that dropped to 68% in species represented in the analyses by more than one geographical race and at least one congener. The use of additional mitochondrial sequence data hardly improved species identification, while a fragment of a nuclear gene resolved issues in some of the problematic species. We acknowledge the utility of barcodes when morphological characters are ambiguous or unknown, but we also recommend the addition of nuclear sequence data, and caution that species-level identification rates might be lower in the most diverse habitats of our planet. PMID:17785265

  17. Conventional fluorescence microscopy below the diffraction limit with simultaneous capture of two fluorophores in DNA origami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasgow, Ben J.

    2016-02-01

    A conventional fluorescence microscope was previously constructed for simultaneous imaging of two colors to gain sub-diffraction localization. The system is predicated on color separation of overlapping Airy discs, construction of matrices of Cartesian coordinates to determine locations as well as centers of the point spread functions of fluorophores. Quantum dots that are separated by as little as 10 nm were resolved in the x-y coordinates. Inter-fluorophore distances that vary by 10 nm could also be distinguished. Quantum dots are bright point light source emitters that excite with a single laser and can serve as a label for many biomolecules. Here, alterations in the method are described to test the ability to resolve Atto 488 and Atto 647 dyes attached to DNA origami at ~40 nm spacing intervals. Dual laser excitation is used in tandem with multi-wavelength bandpass filters. Notwithstanding challenges from reduced intensity in Atto labeled DNA origami helical bundles compared to quantum dots, preliminary data show a mean inter-fluorophore distance of 56 nm with a range (14-148 nm). The range closely matches published results with DNA origami with other methods of subdiffraction microscopy. Sub-diffraction simultaneous two-color imaging fluorescence microscopy acronymically christened (SSTIFM) is a simple, readily accessible, technique for measurement of inter-fluorophore distances in compartments less than 40 nm. Preliminary results with so called nanorulers are encouraging for use with other biomolecules.

  18. Conventional fluorescence microscopy below the diffraction limit with simultaneous capture of two fluorophores in DNA origami

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A conventional fluorescence microscope was previously constructed for simultaneous imaging of two colors to gain subdiffraction localization. The system is predicated on color separation of overlapping Airy discs, construction of matrices of Cartesian coordinates to determine locations as well as centers of the point spread functions of fluorophores. Quantum dots that are separated by as little as 10 nm were resolved in the x-y coordinates. Inter-fluorophore distances that vary by 10 nm could also be distinguished. Quantum dots are bright point light source emitters that excite with a single laser and can serve as a label for many biomolecules. Here, alterations in the method are described to test the ability to resolve Atto 488 and Atto 647 dyes attached to DNA origami at ~40 nm spacing intervals. Dual laser excitation is used in tandem with multi-wavelength bandpass filters. Notwithstanding challenges from reduced intensity in Atto labeled DNA origami helical bundles compared to quantum dots, preliminary data show a mean inter-fluorophore distance of 56 nm with a range (14-148 nm). The range closely matches published results with DNA origami with other methods of subdiffraction microscopy. Sub-diffraction simultaneous two-color imaging fluorescence microscopy acronymically christened (SSTIFM) is a simple, readily accessible, technique for measurement of inter-fluorophore distances in compartments less than 40 nm. Preliminary results with so called nanorulers are encouraging for use with other biomolecules. PMID:27307653

  19. Induction of Indoleamine 2,3 Dioxygenase-1 by Immunostimulatory-DNA Limits Severity of Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ciorba, Matthew A; Bettonville, Ellen E; McDonald, Keely G; Metz, Richard; Prendergast, George C; Newberry, Rodney D; Stenson, William F

    2010-01-01

    The chronic inflammatory bowel diseases are characterized by aberrant innate and adaptive immune responses to commensal luminal bacteria. In both human IBD and in experimental models of colitis there is an increased expression of the enzyme indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO). IDO expression has the capacity to exert antimicrobial effects and dampen adaptive immune responses. In the murine TNBS model of colitis, inhibition of this enzyme leads to worsened disease severity suggesting that IDO acts as a natural break in limiting colitis. In this investigation we show that induction of IDO-1 by a TLR-9 agonist, immunostimulatory-DNA (ISS-DNA), critically contributes to its colitis limiting capacities. ISS-DNA induces intestinal expression of IDO-1, but not the recently described paralog enzyme IDO-2. This induction occurred in both epithelial cells and in subsets of CD11c+ and CD11b+ cells of the lamina propria which also increase after ISS-ODN. Signaling required for intestinal IDO-1 induction involves interferon dependent pathways, as IDO-1 was not induced in STAT-1 knockout mice. Using both the TNBS and DSS models of colitis we show the importance of IDO-1s induction in limiting colitis severity. The clinical parameters and histologic correlates of colitis in these models were improved by administration of the TLR-9 agonist; however, when the function of IDO is inhibited, the colitis limiting effects of ISS-ODN were abrogated. These findings support the possibility that targeted induction of IDO-1 is an approach deserving further investigation as a therapeutic strategy for diseases of intestinal inflammation. PMID:20181893

  20. [Apoptosis and its biomedical significance].

    PubMed

    Ortega-Camarillo, C; Díaz-Flores, M; Avalos-Rodríguez, A; Vergara-Onofre, M; Rosales-Torres, A M

    2001-01-01

    Cell death can occur through apoptotic or necrotic death pathways. Membrane disruption leads to inflammation, a typical feature of necrosis. Apoptosis constitutes a genetically controlled physiologic process of cell removal. It is characterized by cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and DNA cleavage. Apoptotic cells are rapidly recognized and engulfed by phagocytes thus inhibiting an inflammatory response following necrosis. Apoptosis has been proposed as a basic event to protect tissue homeostasis. This paper analyzes the genetic, biochemical, and morphologic characteristics related to apoptosis, as well as its relationship to certain illnesses. PMID:11766462

  1. Combined low initial DNA damage and high radiation-induced apoptosis confers clinical resistance to long-term toxicity in breast cancer patients treated with high-dose radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Either higher levels of initial DNA damage or lower levels of radiation-induced apoptosis in peripheral blood lymphocytes have been associated to increased risk for develop late radiation-induced toxicity. It has been recently published that these two predictive tests are inversely related. The aim of the present study was to investigate the combined role of both tests in relation to clinical radiation-induced toxicity in a set of breast cancer patients treated with high dose hyperfractionated radical radiotherapy. Methods Peripheral blood lymphocytes were taken from 26 consecutive patients with locally advanced breast carcinoma treated with high-dose hyperfractioned radical radiotherapy. Acute and late cutaneous and subcutaneous toxicity was evaluated using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group morbidity scoring schema. The mean follow-up of survivors (n = 13) was 197.23 months. Radiosensitivity of lymphocytes was quantified as the initial number of DNA double-strand breaks induced per Gy and per DNA unit (200 Mbp). Radiation-induced apoptosis (RIA) at 1, 2 and 8 Gy was measured by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide. Results Mean DSB/Gy/DNA unit obtained was 1.70 ± 0.83 (range 0.63-4.08; median, 1.46). Radiation-induced apoptosis increased with radiation dose (median 12.36, 17.79 and 24.83 for 1, 2, and 8 Gy respectively). We observed that those "expected resistant patients" (DSB values lower than 1.78 DSB/Gy per 200 Mbp and RIA values over 9.58, 14.40 or 24.83 for 1, 2 and 8 Gy respectively) were at low risk of suffer severe subcutaneous late toxicity (HR 0.223, 95%CI 0.073-0.678, P = 0.008; HR 0.206, 95%CI 0.063-0.677, P = 0.009; HR 0.239, 95%CI 0.062-0.929, P = 0.039, for RIA at 1, 2 and 8 Gy respectively) in multivariate analysis. Conclusions A radiation-resistant profile is proposed, where those patients who presented lower levels of initial DNA damage and higher levels of radiation induced apoptosis were at low risk of suffer severe

  2. Drug-Induced Reactivation of Apoptosis Abrogates HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hanauske-Abel, Hartmut M.; Saxena, Deepti; Palumbo, Paul E.; Hanauske, Axel-Rainer; Luchessi, Augusto D.; Cambiaghi, Tavane D.; Hoque, Mainul; Spino, Michael; Gandolfi, Darlene D'Alliessi; Heller, Debra S.; Singh, Sukhwinder; Park, Myung Hee; Cracchiolo, Bernadette M.; Tricta, Fernando; Connelly, John; Popowicz, Anthony M.; Cone, Richard A.; Holland, Bart; Pe’ery, Tsafi; Mathews, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    HIV-1 blocks apoptosis, programmed cell death, an innate defense of cells against viral invasion. However, apoptosis can be selectively reactivated in HIV-infected cells by chemical agents that interfere with HIV-1 gene expression. We studied two globally used medicines, the topical antifungal ciclopirox and the iron chelator deferiprone, for their effect on apoptosis in HIV-infected H9 cells and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells infected with clinical HIV-1 isolates. Both medicines activated apoptosis preferentially in HIV-infected cells, suggesting that the drugs mediate escape from the viral suppression of defensive apoptosis. In infected H9 cells, ciclopirox and deferiprone enhanced mitochondrial membrane depolarization, initiating the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis to execution, as evidenced by caspase-3 activation, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase proteolysis, DNA degradation, and apoptotic cell morphology. In isolate-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells, ciclopirox collapsed HIV-1 production to the limit of viral protein and RNA detection. Despite prolonged monotherapy, ciclopirox did not elicit breakthrough. No viral re-emergence was observed even 12 weeks after drug cessation, suggesting elimination of the proviral reservoir. Tests in mice predictive for cytotoxicity to human epithelia did not detect tissue damage or activation of apoptosis at a ciclopirox concentration that exceeded by orders of magnitude the concentration causing death of infected cells. We infer that ciclopirox and deferiprone act via therapeutic reclamation of apoptotic proficiency (TRAP) in HIV-infected cells and trigger their preferential elimination. Perturbations in viral protein expression suggest that the antiretroviral activity of both drugs stems from their ability to inhibit hydroxylation of cellular proteins essential for apoptosis and for viral infection, exemplified by eIF5A. Our findings identify ciclopirox and deferiprone as prototypes of selectively cytocidal

  3. Genes related to growth regulation, DNA repair and apoptosis in an oestrogen receptor-negative (MDA-231) versus an oestrogen receptor-positive (MCF-7) breast tumour cell line.

    PubMed

    Skog, Sven; He, Qimin; Khoshnoud, Reza; Fornander, Tommy; Rutqvist, Lars-Erik

    2004-01-01

    The molecular mechanism(s) behind the development of endocrine resistance in breast cancer remains controversial. Here, we compare the capability of oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative cells (MDA-231) versus ER-positive tamoxifen-sensitive cells (MCF-7) to handle DNA repair, transmit signals from damaged DNA, initiate cell death via apoptosis, and then to control transmitted signals from the cell cycle and to synthesize growth factors and receptors. Genes related to these events were studied by cDNA micro-array. Normal human breast cells (H2F) and human lymphoblastoid tumour cells (CEM) were used as controls. Of the 18 genes investigated, 10 genes showed differences in their expression between the cell types. The ER-negative cells showed higher expressions of BRCA1, BRCA2, cdc2, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, cyclin E, IGFBP-3, TGF-alpha, TGF beta 2 and a lower expression of TGF beta R1. No differences in the expressions of bax, bcl-2, p53, p21 and GADD45 were found between the two cell lines. We found that the ER-negative cells were characterized by: (1) a stimulated expression of growth factors and cell cycle regulation compounds, (2) improved DNA repair capacity, but (3) no change in DNA damage signals and apoptotic pathways. Improved DNA repair capacity of ER-negative cells would have a growth advantage over ER-positive tumours when receiving antitumour therapy. PMID:15192311

  4. PICH and BLM limit histone association with anaphase centromeric DNA threads and promote their resolution.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yuwen; Huh, Jae-Wan; Warrington, Ross; Li, Bing; Wu, Nan; Leng, Mei; Zhang, Junmei; Ball, Haydn L; Li, Bing; Yu, Hongtao

    2011-08-17

    Centromeres nucleate the formation of kinetochores and are vital for chromosome segregation during mitosis. The SNF2 family helicase PICH (Plk1-interacting checkpoint helicase) and the BLM (the Bloom's syndrome protein) helicase decorate ultrafine histone-negative DNA threads that link the segregating sister centromeres during anaphase. The functions of PICH and BLM at these threads are not understood, however. Here, we show that PICH binds to BLM and enables BLM localization to anaphase centromeric threads. PICH- or BLM-RNAi cells fail to resolve these threads in anaphase. The fragmented threads form centromeric-chromatin-containing micronuclei in daughter cells. Anaphase threads in PICH- and BLM-RNAi cells contain histones and centromere markers. Recombinant purified PICH has nucleosome remodelling activities in vitro. We propose that PICH and BLM unravel centromeric chromatin and keep anaphase DNA threads mostly free of nucleosomes, thus allowing these threads to span long distances between rapidly segregating centromeres without breakage and providing a spatiotemporal window for their resolution. PMID:21743438

  5. PICH and BLM limit histone association with anaphase centromeric DNA threads and promote their resolution

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Yuwen; Huh, Jae-Wan; Warrington, Ross; Li, Bing; Wu, Nan; Leng, Mei; Zhang, Junmei; Ball, Haydn L; Li, Bing; Yu, Hongtao

    2011-01-01

    Centromeres nucleate the formation of kinetochores and are vital for chromosome segregation during mitosis. The SNF2 family helicase PICH (Plk1-interacting checkpoint helicase) and the BLM (the Bloom's syndrome protein) helicase decorate ultrafine histone-negative DNA threads that link the segregating sister centromeres during anaphase. The functions of PICH and BLM at these threads are not understood, however. Here, we show that PICH binds to BLM and enables BLM localization to anaphase centromeric threads. PICH- or BLM-RNAi cells fail to resolve these threads in anaphase. The fragmented threads form centromeric-chromatin-containing micronuclei in daughter cells. Anaphase threads in PICH- and BLM-RNAi cells contain histones and centromere markers. Recombinant purified PICH has nucleosome remodelling activities in vitro. We propose that PICH and BLM unravel centromeric chromatin and keep anaphase DNA threads mostly free of nucleosomes, thus allowing these threads to span long distances between rapidly segregating centromeres without breakage and providing a spatiotemporal window for their resolution. PMID:21743438

  6. Distribution of a limited Sir2 protein pool regulates the strength of yeast rDNA silencing and is modulated by Sir4p.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, J S; Brachmann, C B; Pillus, L; Boeke, J D

    1998-01-01

    Transcriptional silencing in Saccharomyces cerevisiae occurs at the silent mating-type loci HML and HMR, at telomeres, and at the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) locus RDN1. Silencing in the rDNA occurs by a novel mechanism that depends on a single Silent Information Regulator (SIR) gene, SIR2. SIR4, essential for other silenced loci, paradoxically inhibits rDNA silencing. In this study, we elucidate a regulatory mechanism for rDNA silencing based on the finding that rDNA silencing strength directly correlates with cellular Sir2 protein levels. The endogenous level of Sir2p was shown to be limiting for rDNA silencing. Furthermore, small changes in Sir2p levels altered rDNA silencing strength. In rDNA silencing phenotypes, sir2 mutations were shown to be epistatic to sir4 mutations, indicating that SIR4 inhibition of rDNA silencing is mediated through SIR2. Furthermore, rDNA silencing is insensitive to SIR3 overexpression, but is severely reduced by overexpression of full-length Sir4p or a fragment of Sir4p that interacts with Sir2p. This negative effect of SIR4 overexpression was overridden by co-overexpression of SIR2, suggesting that SIR4 directly inhibits the rDNA silencing function of SIR2. Finally, genetic manipulations of SIR4 previously shown to promote extended life span also resulted in enhanced rDNA silencing. We propose a simple model in which telomeres act as regulators of rDNA silencing by competing for limiting amounts of Sir2 protein. PMID:9649515

  7. Proteome research: complementarity and limitations with respect to the RNA and DNA worlds.

    PubMed

    Humphery-Smith, I; Cordwell, S J; Blackstock, W P

    1997-08-01

    A methodological overview of proteome analysis is provided along with details of efforts to achieve high-throughput screening (HTS) of protein samples derived from two-dimensional electrophoresis gels. For both previously sequenced organisms and those lacking significant DNA sequence information, mass spectrometry has a key role to play in achieving HTS. Prototype robotics designed to conduct appropriate chemistries and deliver 700-1000 protein (genes) per day to batteries of mass spectrometers or liquid chromatography (LC)-based analyses are well advanced, as are efforts to produce high density gridded arrays containing > 1000 proteins on a single matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation/time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) sample stage. High sensitivity HTS of proteins is proposed by employing principally mass spectrometry in an hierarchical manner: (i) MALDI-TOF-mass spectrometry (MS) on at least 1000 proteins per day; (ii) electrospray ionisation (ESI)/MS/MS for analysis of peptides with respect to predicted fragmentation patterns or by sequence tagging; and (iii) ESI/MS/MS for peptide sequencing. Genomic sequences when complemented with information derived from hybridisation assays and proteome analysis may herald in a new era of holistic cellular biology. The current preoccupation with the absolute quantity of gene-product (RNA and/or protein) should move backstage with respect to more molecularly relevant parameters, such as: molecular half-life; synthesis rate; functional competence (presence or absence of mutations); reaction kinetics; the influence of individual gene-products on biochemical flux; the influence of the environment, cell-cycle, stress and disease on gene-products; and the collective roles of multigenic and epigenetic phenomena governing cellular processes. Proteome analysis is demonstrated as being capable of proceeding independently of DNA sequence information and aiding in genomic annotation. Its ability to confirm the existence of gene

  8. DNA barcoding of Northern Nearctic Muscidae (Diptera) reveals high correspondence between morphological and molecular species limits

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Various methods have been proposed to assign unknown specimens to known species using their DNA barcodes, while others have focused on using genetic divergence thresholds to estimate “species” diversity for a taxon, without a well-developed taxonomy and/or an extensive reference library of DNA barcodes. The major goals of the present work were to: a) conduct the largest species-level barcoding study of the Muscidae to date and characterize the range of genetic divergence values in the northern Nearctic fauna; b) evaluate the correspondence between morphospecies and barcode groupings defined using both clustering-based and threshold-based approaches; and c) use the reference library produced to address taxonomic issues. Results Our data set included 1114 individuals and their COI sequences (951 from Churchill, Manitoba), representing 160 morphologically-determined species from 25 genera, covering 89% of the known fauna of Churchill and 23% of the Nearctic fauna. Following an iterative process through which all specimens belonging to taxa with anomalous divergence values and/or monophyly issues were re-examined, identity was modified for 9 taxa, including the reinstatement of Phaonia luteva (Walker) stat. nov. as a species distinct from Phaonia errans (Meigen). In the post-reassessment data set, no distinct gap was found between maximum pairwise intraspecific distances (range 0.00-3.01%) and minimum interspecific distances (range: 0.77-11.33%). Nevertheless, using a clustering-based approach, all individuals within 98% of species grouped with their conspecifics with high (>95%) bootstrap support; in contrast, a maximum species discrimination rate of 90% was obtained at the optimal threshold of 1.2%. DNA barcoding enabled the determination of females from 5 ambiguous species pairs and confirmed that 16 morphospecies were genetically distinct from named taxa. There were morphological differences among all distinct genetic clusters; thus, no cases of

  9. Limited up-regulation of DNA methyltransferase in human colon cancer reflecting increased cell proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, P J; Washer, L L; Law, D J; Boland, C R; Horon, I L; Feinberg, A P

    1996-01-01

    Epigenetic alterations in the genome of tumor cells have attracted considerable attention since the discovery of widespread alterations in DNA methylation of colorectal cancers over 10 years ago. However, the mechanism of these changes has remained obscure. el-Deiry and coworkers [el-Deiry, W. S., Nelkin, B. D., Celano, P., Yen, R. C., Falco, J. P., Hamilton, S. R. & Baylin, S. B. (1991) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 88, 3470-3474], using a quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assay, reported 15-fold increased expression of DNA methyltransferase (MTase) in colon cancer, compared with matched normal colon mucosa, and a 200-fold increase in MTase mRNA levels compared with mucosa of unaffected patients. These authors suggested that increases in MTase mRNA levels play a direct pathogenetic role in colon carcinogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we developed a sensitive quantitative RNase protection assay of MTase, linear over three orders of magnitude. Using this assay on 12 colorectal carcinomas and matched normal mucosal specimens, we observed a 1.8- to 2.5-fold increase in MTase mRNA levels in colon carcinoma compared with levels in normal mucosa from the same patients. There was no significant difference between the normal mucosa of affected and unaffected patients. Furthermore, when the assay was normalized to histone H4 expression, a measure of S-phase-specific expression, the moderate increase in tumor MTase mRNA levels was no longer observed. These data are in contrast to the previously reported results, and they indicate that changes in MTase mRNA levels in colon cancer are nonspecific and compatible with other markers of cell proliferation. Images Fig. 2 PMID:8816806

  10. DNA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stent, Gunther S.

    1970-01-01

    This history for molecular genetics and its explanation of DNA begins with an analysis of the Golden Jubilee essay papers, 1955. The paper ends stating that the higher nervous system is the one major frontier of biological inquiry which still offers some romance of research. (Author/VW)

  11. Adaptation of the WHO guideline for residual DNA in parenteral vaccines produced on continuous cell lines to a limit for oral vaccines.

    PubMed

    Lebron, J A; Troilol, P J; Pacchione, S; Griffiths, T G; Harper, L B; Mixson, L A; Jackson, B E; Michna, L; Barnum, A B; Denisova, L; Johnson, C N; Maurer, K L; Morgan-Hoffman, S; Niu, Z; Roden, D F; Wang, Z; Wolf, J J; Hamilton, T R; Laux, K M; Soper, K A; Ledwith, B J

    2006-01-01

    Although there is a WHO guidance for a limit on residual DNA for parenterally administered vaccines produced on continuous cell lines, there is no corresponding guidance for oral vaccines. To help determine an oral limit, we performed a study of Vero cell DNA uptake in rats, in which the relative uptake and persistence of Vero cell DNA administered orally was compared to its uptake when delivered intramuscularly (IM). The results of this study allowed the generation of an empirically derived IM versus oral factor (10(6)) representing the relative inefficiency of DNA uptake by oral administration. This factor was then applied to the WHO recommended parenteral limit of 10 ng/dose to determine a corresponding upper limit on the level of residual Vero cell DNA for an oral vaccine of 10 mg. As a conservative approach, this empirically determined limit was reduced 100-fold to 100 microg. Thus, the results of this animal study, together with additional evidence in the literature, support a residual DNA safety limit of 100 microg per dose for an oral vaccine produced on a continuous cell line. PMID:16566435

  12. Limited Contribution of DNA Methylation Variation to Expression Regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Meng, Dazhe; Dubin, Manu; Zhang, Pei; Osborne, Edward J; Stegle, Oliver; Clark, Richard M; Nordborg, Magnus

    2016-07-01

    The extent to which epigenetic variation affects complex traits in natural populations is not known. We addressed this question using transcriptome and DNA methylation data from a sample of 135 sequenced A. thaliana accessions. Across individuals, expression was significantly associated with cis-methylation for hundreds of genes, and many of these associations remained significant after taking SNP effects into account. The pattern of correlations differed markedly between gene body methylation and transposable element methylation. The former was usually positively correlated with expression, and the latter usually negatively correlated, although exceptions were found in both cases. Finally, we developed graphical models of causality that adapt to a sample with heavy population structure, and used them to show that while methylation appears to affect gene expression more often than expression affects methylation, there is also strong support for both being independently controlled. In conclusion, although we find clear evidence for epigenetic regulation, both the number of loci affected and the magnitude of the effects appear to be small compared to the effect of SNPs. PMID:27398721

  13. Limited Contribution of DNA Methylation Variation to Expression Regulation in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Pei; Osborne, Edward J.; Stegle, Oliver; Clark, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    The extent to which epigenetic variation affects complex traits in natural populations is not known. We addressed this question using transcriptome and DNA methylation data from a sample of 135 sequenced A. thaliana accessions. Across individuals, expression was significantly associated with cis-methylation for hundreds of genes, and many of these associations remained significant after taking SNP effects into account. The pattern of correlations differed markedly between gene body methylation and transposable element methylation. The former was usually positively correlated with expression, and the latter usually negatively correlated, although exceptions were found in both cases. Finally, we developed graphical models of causality that adapt to a sample with heavy population structure, and used them to show that while methylation appears to affect gene expression more often than expression affects methylation, there is also strong support for both being independently controlled. In conclusion, although we find clear evidence for epigenetic regulation, both the number of loci affected and the magnitude of the effects appear to be small compared to the effect of SNPs. PMID:27398721

  14. OSTEOCYTE APOPTOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Jilka, Robert L.; Noble, Brendon; Weinstein, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    Apoptotic death of osteocytes was recognized over 15 years ago, but its significance for bone homeostasis has remained elusive. A new paradigm has emerged that invokes osteocyte apoptosis as a critical event in the recruitment of osteoclasts to a specific site in response to skeletal unloading, fatigue damage, estrogen deficiency and perhaps in other states where bone must be removed. This is accomplished by yet to be defined signals emanating from dying osteocytes, which stimulate neighboring viable osteocytes to produce osteoclastogenic cytokines. The osteocyte apoptosis caused by chronic glucocorticoid administration does not increase osteoclasts; however, it does negatively impact maintenance of bone hydration, vascularity, and strength. PMID:23238124

  15. Suppression of hLRH-1 mediated by a DNA vector-based RNA interference results in cell cycle arrest and induction of apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma cell BEL-7402

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Shuiliang; Lan Fenghua; Huang Lianghu; Dong Lihong; Zhu Zhongyong; Li Zonghai; Xie Youhua; Fu Jiliang . E-mail: fu825@mail.tongji.edu.cn

    2005-08-05

    RNA interference (RNAi) is the process by which double-stranded RNA directs sequence-specific degradation of mRNA. A DNA vector-based approach has been shown to be able to trigger RNA interference in mammalian cells successfully. LRH-1 is an orphan nuclear receptor predominantly expressed in tissues of endodermal origin, where it controls development and cholesterol homeostasis. In the present study, we demonstrated that the expression of hLRH-1 and cyclin E1 in BEL-7402 cells could be suppressed by up to {approx}80% via DNA vector-based RNA interference. The suppression of hLRH-1 resulted in cell cycle arrest mediated by the down-regulation of cyclin E1. Induction of apoptosis and down-regulation of Gadd45{beta} were also shown in hLRH-1 knock down BEL-7402 cells. These results, together with the findings that Gadd45{beta} remained unchanged in cyclin E1 RNAi cells, suggested that the induction of apoptosis by knock down of hLRH-1 was closely related to the down-regulation of Gadd45{beta}.

  16. DNA Barcoding Reveals Limited Accuracy of Identifications Based on Folk Taxonomy

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Gary; Abbad, Abdelaziz; Kool, Anneleen

    2014-01-01

    Background The trade of plant roots as traditional medicine is an important source of income for many people around the world. Destructive harvesting practices threaten the existence of some plant species. Harvesters of medicinal roots identify the collected species according to their own folk taxonomies, but once the dried or powdered roots enter the chain of commercialization, accurate identification becomes more challenging. Methodology A survey of morphological diversity among four root products traded in the medina of Marrakech was conducted. Fifty-one root samples were selected for molecular identification using DNA barcoding using three markers, trnH-psbA, rpoC1, and ITS. Sequences were searched using BLAST against a tailored reference database of Moroccan medicinal plants and their closest relatives submitted to NCBI GenBank. Principal Findings Combining psbA-trnH, rpoC1, and ITS allowed the majority of the market samples to be identified to species level. Few of the species level barcoding identifications matched the scientific names given in the literature, including the most authoritative and widely cited pharmacopeia. Conclusions/Significance The four root complexes selected from the medicinal plant products traded in Marrakech all comprise more than one species, but not those previously asserted. The findings have major implications for the monitoring of trade in endangered plant species as morphology-based species identifications alone may not be accurate. As a result, trade in certain species may be overestimated, whereas the commercialization of other species may not be recorded at all. PMID:24416210

  17. 5,5-Diphenyl-2-thiohydantoin-N10 (DPTH-N10) suppresses proliferation of cultured colon cancer cell line COLO-205 by inhibiting DNA synthesis and activating apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tong-Sheng; Chen, Li-Ching; Liu, Yuan; Wu, Jender; Liang, Yu-Chih; Lee, Wen-Sen

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential applications of 5,5-diphenyl-2-thiohydantoin-N10 (DPTH-N10) in the treatment of human colon cancer. Subcultured human colon cancer cell line, COLO-205, was used for examining the antiproliferation effect of DPTH-N10 on colon cancer. Thymidine incorporation and cell count were conducted to examine the antiproliferation effect of DPTH-N10. Western blot analysis was performed to examine the protein levels of cell cycle-related proteins. DNA fragmentation assay was performed to examine the occurrence of apoptosis. DPTH-N10 at a range of concentrations (0-30 microM) inhibits the proliferation but did not cause the cell death of COLO-205, indicating that it may have an inhibitory effect on the cell proliferation in COLO-205. The apoptosis was observed in COLO-205 when the DPTH-N10 concentrations were higher than 30 muM. Western blot analysis showed that the protein level of the cell cycle inhibitory protein, p21, in COLO-205 increased after DPTH-N10 treatment. Immunoprecipitation showed that the formation of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK)2-p21 complex was increased in the DPTH-N10-treated COLO-205. Kinase assay further demonstrated that the CDK2 activity was decreased in the DPTH-N10-treated COLO-205. DPTH-N10 caused growth inhibition in COLO-205 by inhibiting DNA synthesis and activating apoptosis. The findings from our previous in vitro studies in DPTH-N10-induced anti-angiogenic effect and from the present in vitro studies in DPTH-N10-induced antiproliferation effect on colon cancer cell line strongly suggest the potential applications of DPTH-N10 in the treatment of human colon cancer. PMID:20449574

  18. Patulin causes DNA damage leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through modulation of Bax, p{sup 53} and p{sup 21/WAF1} proteins in skin of mice

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Neha; Ansari, Kausar M.; Kumar, Rahul; Dhawan, Alok; Dwivedi, Premendra D.; Das, Mukul

    2009-01-15

    Patulin (PAT), a mycotoxin found in apples, grapes, oranges, pear and peaches, is a potent genotoxic compound. WHO has highlighted the need for the study of cutaneous toxicity of PAT as manual labour is employed during pre and post harvest stages, thereby causing direct exposure to skin. In the present study cutaneous toxicity of PAT was evaluated following topical application to Swiss Albino mice. Dermal exposure of PAT, to mice for 4 h resulted in a dose (40-160 {mu}g/animal) and time (up to 6 h) dependent enhancement of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), a marker enzyme of cell proliferation. The ODC activity was found to be normal after 12 and 24 h treatment of patulin. Topical application of PAT (160 {mu}g/100 {mu}l acetone) for 24-72 h caused (a) DNA damage in skin cells showing significant increase (34-63%) in olive tail moment, a parameter of Comet assay (b) significant G 1 and S-phase arrest along with induction of apoptosis (2.8-10 folds) as shown by annexin V and PI staining assay through flow cytometer. Moreover PAT leads to over expression of p{sup 21/WAF1} (3.6-3.9 fold), pro apoptotic protein Bax (1.3-2.6) and tumor suppressor wild type p{sup 53} (2.8-3.9 fold) protein. It was also shown that PAT induced apoptosis was mediated through mitochondrial intrinsic pathway as revealed through the release of cytochrome C protein in cytosol leading to enhancement of caspase-3 activity in skin cells of mice. These results suggest that PAT has a potential to induce DNA damage leading to p{sup 53} mediated cell cycle arrest along with intrinsic pathway mediated apoptosis that may also be correlated with enhanced polyamine production as evident by induction of ODC activity, which may have dermal toxicological implications.

  19. Ethanol extract of Hedyotis diffusa willd upregulates G0/G1 phase arrest and induces apoptosis in human leukemia cells by modulating caspase cascade signaling and altering associated genes expression was assayed by cDNA microarray.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yu-Jui; Yang, Jai-Sing; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chiang, Su-Yin; Lin, Jaung-Geng; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2015-09-01

    The authors' previous study has shown that water extract of Hedyotis diffusa Willd (HDW) promoted immune response and exhibited anti-leukemic activity in BALB/c leukemic mice in vivo. In this study, the anti-proliferation effects of ethanol extract of H. diffusa Willd (EEHDW) on lung cancer cell lines (A549, H1355, and LLC), leukemia cell lines (HL-60, WEHI-3), and a mouse melanoma cell line (B16F10) in vitro were investigated. The results demonstrated that EEHDW suppressed the cell proliferation of A549, H1355, HL-60, WEHI-3, and B16F10 cells as well as reduced cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. We found that EEHDW inhibited the cell proliferation of HL-60 cells in concentration-dependent manner. In addition, EEHDW triggered an arrest of HL-60 cells at G0/G1 phase and sub-G1 population (apoptotic cells). EEHDW provoked DNA condensation and DNA damage in HL-60 cells. The activities of caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were elevated in EEHDW-treated HL-60 cells. DNA microarray to investigate and display the gene levels related to cell growth, signal transduction, apoptosis, cell adhesion, cell cycle, DNA damage and repair, transcription and translation was also used. These findings suggest that EEHDW may be a potential herbal medicine and therapeutic agent for the treatment of leukemia. PMID:24677778

  20. Slow base excision by human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase limits the rate of formation of AP sites and AP endonuclease 1 does not stimulate base excision.

    PubMed

    Maher, Robyn L; Vallur, Aarthy C; Feller, Joyce A; Bloom, Linda B

    2007-01-01

    The base excision repair pathway removes damaged DNA bases and resynthesizes DNA to replace the damage. Human alkyladenine DNA glycosylase (AAG) is one of several damage-specific DNA glycosylases that recognizes and excises damaged DNA bases. AAG removes primarily damaged adenine residues. Human AP endonuclease 1 (APE1) recognizes AP sites produced by DNA glycosylases and incises the phophodiester bond 5' to the damaged site. The repair process is completed by a DNA polymerase and DNA ligase. If not tightly coordinated, base excision repair could generate intermediates that are more deleterious to the cell than the initial DNA damage. The kinetics of AAG-catalyzed excision of two damaged bases, hypoxanthine and 1,N6-ethenoadenine, were measured in the presence and absence of APE1 to investigate the mechanism by which the base excision activity of AAG is coordinated with the AP incision activity of APE1. 1,N6-ethenoadenine is excised significantly slower than hypoxanthine and the rate of excision is not affected by APE1. The excision of hypoxanthine is inhibited to a small degree by accumulated product, and APE1 stimulates multiple turnovers by alleviating product inhibition. These results show that APE1 does not significantly affect the kinetics of base excision by AAG. It is likely that slow excision by AAG limits the rate of AP site formation in vivo such that AP sites are not created faster than can be processed by APE1. PMID:17018265

  1. Gene transfer by cationic surfactants is essentially limited by the trapping of the surfactant/DNA complexes onto the cell membrane: a fluorescence investigation.

    PubMed

    Clamme, J P; Bernacchi, S; Vuilleumier, C; Duportail, G; Mély, Y

    2000-08-25

    The interaction between complexes of plasmid DNA with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and L929 fibroblasts was first examined using confocal microscopy. The complexes labeled with the DNA intercalator, YOYO-1, were found to be trapped onto the external face of the plasma membrane; a feature that may constitute a major limiting step in transfection. Moreover, since no cytotoxic effect appeared in these conditions, we further inferred that the CTAB molecules remained bound to the DNA. The interaction of the complexes with the membranes was best modeled with neutral vesicles. From anisotropy thermotropic curves of DPHpPC-labeled vesicles and fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements between these vesicles and YOYO-labeled complexes, we evidenced that the binding of the complexes to the vesicle surface opened the micelle-like domains and unwound DNA. However, DNA was not released but remained stably bound via electrostatic interactions to the CTAB molecules incorporated in the external liposome leaflet. Consequently, the large diameter of the unwound plasmid DNA is likely the major factor that precludes its internalization into the cells by endocytosis. In contrast, anionic vesicles that mimic the cytoplasmic facing monolayer of the plasma membrane rapidly released DNA from the complex. This may explain the previously reported high transfection efficiency of DNA complexed with liposomes composed of neutral lipids and cationic surfactants, since the latter may destabilize the endosomal membrane and induce the release of DNA in the cytoplasm. PMID:11030593

  2. Radiation response and regulation of apoptosis induced by a combination of TRAIL and CHX in cells lacking mitochondrial DNA: A role for NF-{kappa}B-STAT3-directed gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Vladimir N. Ghandhi, Shanaz A.; Zhou, Hongning; Huang, Sarah X.; Chai, Yunfei; Amundson, Sally A.; Hei, Tom K.

    2011-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA depleted ({rho}{sup 0}) human skin fibroblasts (HSF) with suppressed oxidative phosphorylation were characterized by significant changes in the expression of 2100 nuclear genes, encoding numerous protein classes, in NF-{kappa}B and STAT3 signaling pathways, and by decreased activity of mitochondrial death pathway, compared to the parental {rho}{sup +} HSF. In contrast, the extrinsic TRAIL/TRAIL-Receptor mediated death pathway remained highly active, and exogenous TRAIL in a combination with cycloheximide (CHX) induced higher levels of apoptosis in {rho}{sup 0} cells compared to {rho}{sup +} HSF. Global gene expression analysis using microarray and qRT-PCR demonstrated that mRNA expression levels of many growth factors and their adaptor proteins (FGF13, HGF, IGFBP4, IGFBP6, and IGFL2), cytokines (IL6, {Oota}L17{Beta}, {Oota}L18, {Oota}L19, and {Oota}L28{Beta}) and cytokine receptors (IL1R1, IL21R, and IL31RA) were substantially decreased after mitochondrial DNA depletion. Some of these genes were targets of NF-{kappa}B and STAT3, and their protein products could regulate the STAT3 signaling pathway. Alpha-irradiation further induced expression of several NF-{kappa}B/STAT3 target genes, including IL1A, IL1B, IL6, PTGS2/COX2 and MMP12, in {rho}{sup +} HSF, but this response was substantially decreased in {rho}{sup 0} HSF. Suppression of the IKK-NF-{kappa}B pathway by the small molecular inhibitor BMS-345541 and of the JAK2-STAT3 pathway by AG490 dramatically increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in the control and irradiated {rho}{sup +} HSF. Inhibitory antibodies against IL6, the main activator of JAK2-STAT3 pathway, added into the cell media, also increased TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HSF, especially after alpha-irradiation. Collectively, our results indicated that NF-{kappa}B activation was partially lost in {rho}{sup 0} HSF resulting in downregulation of the basal or radiation-induced expression of numerous NF-{kappa}B targets, further suppressing IL6

  3. Single-step procedure for labeling DNA strand breaks with fluorescein- or BODIPY-conjugated deoxynucleotides: Detection of apoptosis and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation

    SciTech Connect

    Xun Li; Traganos, F.; Melamed, M.R.; Darzynkiewicz, Z.

    1995-06-01

    The methods of in situ labeling of DNA strand breaks have been used to identify apoptotic cells and/or DNA replicating cells. While discrimination of apoptotic cells is based on the inherent presence of numerous DNA strand breaks in their chromatin, DNA proliferating cells can be discriminated by the selective DNA strand break induction by photolysis (SBIP) methodology at the sites that contain incorporated bromodeoxyuridine (BrdUrd) or iododeoxyuridine (IdUrd). In both instances, DNA strand breaks are labeled with biotin- or digoxygenin-conjugated deoxynucleotides, preferably in the reaction catalyzed by exogenous terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase; fluorescein tagged avidin (streptavidin) or digoxygenin antibody is used in the second step of the reaction. In the present study, DNA strand break labeling was simplified by using directly labeled deoxynucleotides, in a single-step reaction. Apoptotic cells in HL-60 cultures treated with camptothecin or in primary cultures of non-Hodgkin`s lymphoma cells treated with prednisolone were easily identified utilizing BODIPY-conjugated dUTP (B-dUTP). The single-step procedure, requiring fewer centrifugation steps, resulted in less cell loss compared to the two-step cell labeling technique. The morphology of cells subjected to SBIP was excellent, allowing visualization of distinct DNA replication points. Because, unlike the immunocytochemical methods used to detect BrdUrd incorporation, the SBIP methodology does not require DNA denaturation by heat or acid, nuclear proteins are expected to remain undenatured in situ, allowing one to study colocalization of various constituents, detected immunocytochemically, at the DNA replication points. 30 refs., 7 figs.

  4. Biological evaluation of new nickel(II) metallates: Synthesis, DNA/protein binding and mitochondrial mediated apoptosis in human lung cancer cells (A549) via ROS hypergeneration and depletion of cellular antioxidant pool.

    PubMed

    Kalaivani, P; Saranya, S; Poornima, P; Prabhakaran, R; Dallemer, F; Vijaya Padma, V; Natarajan, K

    2014-07-23

    A series of novel nickel(II) thiosemicarbazone complexes(1-4) have been prepared and characterized by various spectral, analytical techniques and X-ray crystallography. Further, their efficacy to interact with CT-DNA/BSA has been explored. From the binding studies, it is inferred that complex 4 found to be more active than other complexes. The complexes bound with CT-DNA by intercalation mode. Moreover, static quenching was observed for their interaction with BSA. The new complexes were tested for their in vitro cytotoxicity against human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cell line. The results showed that the new complexes exhibited significant degree of cytotoxicity at given experimental condition. Further, the results of LDH and NO release supported the cytotoxic nature of the complexes. The observed cytotoxicity of the complexes may be routed through ROS-hypergeneration and lipid-peroxidation with subsequent depletion of cellular antioxidant pool (GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx and GST) resulted in the reduction of mitochondrial-membrane potential, caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Thus, the data from the present study disclose that the complexes could induce apoptosis in A549 cells through mitochondrial mediated fashion and inhibited the migration of lung cancer cells and by metastasis. PMID:24946146

  5. Pushing the limits for amplifying BrdU-labeled DNA encoding 16S rRNA: DNA polymerase as the determining factor.

    PubMed

    Roux-Michollet, Dad D; Schimel, Joshua P; Holden, Patricia A

    2010-12-01

    Identifying microorganisms that are active under specific conditions in ecosystems is a challenge in microbial ecology. Recently, the bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) technique was developed to label actively growing cells. BrdU, a thymidine analog, is incorporated into newly synthesized DNA, and the BrdU-labeled DNA is then isolated from total extractable DNA by immunocapture using a BrdU-specific antibody. Analyzing the BrdU-labeled DNA allows for assessing the actively growing community, which can then be compared to the unlabeled DNA that represents the total community. However, applying the BrdU approach to study soils has been problematic due to low DNA amounts and soil contaminants. To address these challenges, we developed a protocol, optimizing specificity and reproducibility, to amplify BrdU-labeled gene fragments encoding 16S rRNA. We found that the determining factor was the DNA polymerase: among the 13 different polymerases we tested, only 3 provided adequate yields with minimal contamination, and only two of those three produced similar amplification patterns of community DNA. PMID:20883730

  6. DNA Hypermethylation of CREB3L1 and Bcl-2 Associated with the Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis via PI3K/Akt Pathway in Human BEAS-2B Cells Exposure to Silica Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Yang; Li, Qiuling; Jiang, Lizhen; Guo, Caixia; Li, Yanbo; Yu, Yang; Li, Yang; Duan, Junchao; Sun, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    The toxic effects of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) are raising concerns due to its widely applications in biomedicine. However, current information about the epigenetic toxicity of SiNPs is insufficient. In this study, the epigenetic regulation of low-dose exposure to SiNPs was evaluated in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells over 30 passages. Cell viability was decreased in a dose- and passage-dependent manner. The apoptotic rate, the expression of caspase-9 and caspase-3, were significantly increased induced by SiNPs. HumanMethylation450 BeadChip analysis identified that the PI3K/Akt as the primary apoptosis-related pathway among the 25 significant altered processes. The differentially methylated sites of PI3K/Akt pathway involved 32 differential genes promoters, in which the CREB3L1 and Bcl-2 were significant hypermethylated. The methyltransferase inhibitor, 5-aza, further verified that the DNA hypermethylation status of CREB3L1 and Bcl-2 were associated with downregulation of their mRNA levels. In addition, mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis was triggered by SiNPs via the downregulation of PI3K/Akt/CREB/Bcl-2 signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that long-term low-dose exposure to SiNPs could lead to epigenetic alterations. PMID:27362941

  7. The simultaneous detection of mitochondrial DNA damage from sun-exposed skin of three whale species and its association with UV-induced microscopic lesions and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Amy; Martinez-Levasseur, Laura M; Acevedo-Whitehouse, Karina; Gendron, Diane; Birch-Machin, Mark A

    2013-07-01

    Due to life history and physiological constraints, cetaceans (whales) are unable to avoid prolonged exposure to external environmental insults, such as solar ultraviolet radiation (UV). The majority of studies on the effects of UV on skin are restricted to humans and laboratory animals, but it is important to develop tools to understand the effects of UV damage on large mammals such as whales, as these animals are long-lived and widely distributed, and can reflect the effects of UV across a large geographical range. We and others have used mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a reliable marker of UV-induced damage particularly in human skin. UV-induced mtDNA strand breaks or lesions accumulate throughout the lifespan of an individual, thus constituting an excellent biomarker for cumulative exposure. Based on our previous studies in human skin, we have developed for the first time in the literature a quantitative real-time PCR methodology to detect and quantify mtDNA lesions in skin from sun-blistered whales. Furthermore the methodology allows for simultaneous detection of mtDNA damage in different species. Therefore using 44 epidermal mtDNA samples collected from 15 blue whales, 10 fin whales, and 19 sperm whales from the Gulf of California, Mexico, we quantified damage across 4.3 kilobases, a large region of the ~16,400 base pair whale mitochondrial genome. The results show a range of mtDNA damage in the skin of the three different whale species. This previously unreported observation was correlated with apoptotic damage and microscopic lesions, both of which are markers of UV-induced damage. As is the case in human studies, this suggests the potential use of mtDNA as a biomarker for measuring the effect of cumulative UV exposure in whales and may provide a platform to help understand the effects of changing global environmental conditions. PMID:23583579

  8. EAF2 mediates germinal centre B-cell apoptosis to suppress excessive immune responses and prevent autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingqian; Takahashi, Yoshimasa; Fujii, Shin-ichiro; Zhou, Yang; Hong, Rongjian; Suzuki, Akari; Tsubata, Takeshi; Hase, Koji; Wang, Ji-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Regulated apoptosis of germinal centre (GC) B cells is critical for normal humoral immune responses. ELL-associated factor 2 (EAF2) regulates transcription elongation and has been shown to be an androgen-responsive potential tumour suppressor in prostate by inducing apoptosis. Here we show that EAF2 is selectively upregulated in GC B cells among various immune cell types and promotes apoptosis of GC B cells both in vitro and in vivo. EAF2 deficiency results in enlarged GCs and elevated antibody production during a T-dependent immune response. After immunization with type II collagen, mice lacking EAF2 produce high levels of collagen-specific autoantibodies and rapidly develop severe arthritis. Moreover, the mutant mice spontaneously produce anti-dsDNA, rheumatoid factor and anti-nuclear antibodies as they age. These results demonstrate that EAF2-mediated apoptosis in GC B cells limits excessive humoral immune responses and is important for maintaining self-tolerance. PMID:26935903

  9. Constitutive activation of the ATM/BRCA1 pathway prevents DNA damage-induced apoptosis in 5-azacytidine-resistant cell lines.

    PubMed

    Imanishi, Satoshi; Umezu, Tomohiro; Ohtsuki, Kazushige; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Ohyashiki, Junko H

    2014-06-01

    5-Azacytidine (AZA) exerts its anti-tumor effects by exerting cytotoxicity via its incorporation into RNA and DNA, which causes the reactivation of aberrantly silenced growth-regulatory genes by promoter demethylation, as well as DNA damage. AZA is used for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia. However, some patients demonstrate resistance to AZA, the mechanisms of which are not fully elucidated. We therefore sought to better characterize the molecular mechanism of AZA resistance using an in vitro model of AZA resistance. We established AZA-resistant cell lines by exposing the human leukemia cell lines U937 and HL-60 to clinical concentrations of AZA, and characterized these cells. AZA-resistant cells showed a down-regulation of the DNMT3A protein, in correlation with their marked genome-wide DNA hypomethylation. Furthermore, genes involved in pyrimidine metabolism were down-regulated in both AZA-resistant cell lines; AZA sensitivity was restored by inhibition of CTP synthase. Of note is that the DNA damage response pathway is constitutively activated in the AZA-resistant cell lines, but not in the parental cell lines. Inhibition of the DNA damage response pathway canceled the AZA resistance, in association with an increase in apoptotic cells. We found that the molecular mechanism underlying AZA resistance involves pyrimidine metabolism and the DNA damage response through ATM kinase. This study therefore sheds light on the mechanisms underlying AZA resistance, and will enable better understanding of AZA resistance in patients undergoing AZA treatment. PMID:24680865

  10. p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis sensitizes drug-resistant U251 glioblastoma stem cells to temozolomide through enhanced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    MIAO, WANG; LIU, XIAODONG; WANG, HONGQIN; FAN, YIMIN; LIAN, SHIZHONG; YANG, XIN; WANG, XINXING; GUO, GENG; LI, QICHAO; WANG, SIFEI

    2015-01-01

    Malignant glioma is a highly aggressive brain tumor with a poor prognosis. Chemotherapy has been observed to prolong overall survival rate and temozolomide (TMZ), a promising chemotherapeutic agent for treating glioblastoma (GBM), possesses the most effective clinical activity at present, although drug resistance limits its clinical outcome. Growing evidence supports the concept that initial and recurrent GBM may derive from glioblastoma stem cells, which may be responsible for drug resistance. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this resistance remain to be elucidated. In the present study, a TMZ-resistant GBM cell line, U251R, was developed and subsequently divided into two subpopulations according to the CD133 immunophenotype. No significant difference was identified in the expression of O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) between CD133+ U251R cells and CD133− U251R cells, whereas the CD133+ cell population was more resistant to TMZ-induced growth inhibition and cell death. TMZ achieves its cytotoxic effect by inducing DNA lesions and p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA) is an essential mediator of DNA damage-induced apoptosis independently of p53 status. Therefore, whether PUMA effectively enhances growth suppression and induces apoptosis when combined with TMZ was investigated. Consequently, it was found that adenoviruses expressing wild-type-PUMA not only lead to the apoptosis of CD133+ U251R cells alone, but also significantly increase their sensitivity toward TMZ by elevating the Bcl-2-associated X protein/B-cell lymphoma-2 ratio without alterations in MGMT expression. Therefore, PUMA may be a suitable target for intervention to improve the therapeutic efficacy of TMZ. PMID:25625235

  11. Leaf extracts from Moricandia arvensis promote antiproliferation of human cancer cells, induce apoptosis, and enhance antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Skandrani, Ines; Boubaker, Jihed; Bhouri, Wissem; Limem, Ilef; Kilani, Soumaya; Ben Sghaier, Mohamed; Neffati, Aicha; Bouhlel, Ines; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro antiproliferative, apoptotic, and antioxidant activities from leaf extracts of Moricandia arvensis, which are used in traditional cooking and medicines, were investigated. The MTT assay revealed that only TOF (total oligomer flavonoids), ethyl acetate (EA), chloroform (Chl), and petroleum ether (PE) extracts inhibited the proliferation of K562 cells. Apoptosis plays a very important role in the treatment of cancer by promoting the apoptosis of cancer cells and limiting the concurrent death of normal cells. Thus, the possible effects of M. arvensis extracts on the induction of apoptosis in human leukemic cells (K562 cells) were investigated. The electrophoretic analysis of DNA fragmentation confirms that TOF, Chl, PE, and EA extracts provoke DNA fragmentation. Using the lipid peroxidation inhibitory assay, the antioxidant capacity of M. arvensis extracts was evaluated by the ability of each extract to inhibit malondialdehyde formation. It was revealed that EA and TOF extracts are the most active in scavenging the hydroxyl radicals. PMID:19995267

  12. Combined experimental and computational analysis of DNA damage signaling reveals context-dependent roles for Erk in apoptosis and G1/S arrest after genotoxic stress.

    PubMed

    Tentner, Andrea R; Lee, Michael J; Ostheimer, Gerry J; Samson, Leona D; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Yaffe, Michael B

    2012-01-01

    Following DNA damage, cells display complex multi-pathway signaling dynamics that connect cell-cycle arrest and DNA repair in G1, S, or G2/M phase with phenotypic fate decisions made between survival, cell-cycle re-entry and proliferation, permanent cell-cycle arrest, or cell death. How these phenotypic fate decisions are determined remains poorly understood, but must derive from integrating genotoxic stress signals together with inputs from the local microenvironment. To investigate this in a systematic manner, we undertook a quantitative time-resolved cell signaling and phenotypic response study in U2OS cells receiving doxorubicin-induced DNA damage in the presence or absence of TNFα co-treatment; we measured key nodes in a broad set of DNA damage signal transduction pathways along with apoptotic death and cell-cycle regulatory responses. Two relational modeling approaches were then used to identify network-level relationships between signals and cell phenotypic events: a partial least squares regression approach and a complementary new technique which we term 'time-interval stepwise regression.' Taken together, the results from these analysis methods revealed complex, cytokine-modulated inter-relationships among multiple signaling pathways following DNA damage, and identified an unexpected context-dependent role for Erk in both G1/S arrest and apoptotic cell death following treatment with this commonly used clinical chemotherapeutic drug. PMID:22294094

  13. The DnaA Protein Is Not the Limiting Factor for Initiation of Replication in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Flåtten, Ingvild; Fossum-Raunehaug, Solveig; Taipale, Riikka; Martinsen, Silje; Skarstad, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    The bacterial replication cycle is driven by the DnaA protein which cycles between the active ATP-bound form and the inactive ADP-bound form. It has been suggested that DnaA also is the main controller of initiation frequency. Initiation is thought to occur when enough ATP-DnaA has accumulated. In this work we have performed cell cycle analysis of cells that contain a surplus of ATP-DnaA and asked whether initiation then occurs earlier. It does not. Cells with more than a 50% increase in the concentration of ATP-DnaA showed no changes in timing of replication. We suggest that although ATP-DnaA is the main actor in initiation of replication, its accumulation does not control the time of initiation. ATP-DnaA is the motor that drives the initiation process, but other factors will be required for the exact timing of initiation in response to the cell’s environment. We also investigated the in vivo roles of datA dependent DnaA inactivation (DDAH) and the DnaA-binding protein DiaA. Loss of DDAH affected the cell cycle machinery only during slow growth and made it sensitive to the concentration of DiaA protein. The result indicates that compromised cell cycle machines perform in a less robust manner. PMID:26047361

  14. Liquid Biopsies: Genotyping Circulating Tumor DNA

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Luis A.; Bardelli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Genotyping tumor tissue in search of somatic genetic alterations for actionable information has become routine practice in clinical oncology. Although these sequence alterations are highly informative, sampling tumor tissue has significant inherent limitations; tumor tissue is a single snapshot in time, is subject to selection bias resulting from tumor heterogeneity, and can be difficult to obtain. Cell-free fragments of DNA are shed into the bloodstream by cells undergoing apoptosis or necrosis, and the load of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) correlates with tumor staging and prognosis. Moreover, recent advances in the sensitivity and accuracy of DNA analysis have allowed for genotyping of cfDNA for somatic genomic alterations found in tumors. The ability to detect and quantify tumor mutations has proven effective in tracking tumor dynamics in real time as well as serving as a liquid biopsy that can be used for a variety of clinical and investigational applications not previously possible. PMID:24449238

  15. The RNA Splicing Response to DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Shkreta, Lulzim; Chabot, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    The number of factors known to participate in the DNA damage response (DDR) has expanded considerably in recent years to include splicing and alternative splicing factors. While the binding of splicing proteins and ribonucleoprotein complexes to nascent transcripts prevents genomic instability by deterring the formation of RNA/DNA duplexes, splicing factors are also recruited to, or removed from, sites of DNA damage. The first steps of the DDR promote the post-translational modification of splicing factors to affect their localization and activity, while more downstream DDR events alter their expression. Although descriptions of molecular mechanisms remain limited, an emerging trend is that DNA damage disrupts the coupling of constitutive and alternative splicing with the transcription of genes involved in DNA repair, cell-cycle control and apoptosis. A better understanding of how changes in splice site selection are integrated into the DDR may provide new avenues to combat cancer and delay aging. PMID:26529031

  16. The RNA Splicing Response to DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Shkreta, Lulzim; Chabot, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    The number of factors known to participate in the DNA damage response (DDR) has expanded considerably in recent years to include splicing and alternative splicing factors. While the binding of splicing proteins and ribonucleoprotein complexes to nascent transcripts prevents genomic instability by deterring the formation of RNA/DNA duplexes, splicing factors are also recruited to, or removed from, sites of DNA damage. The first steps of the DDR promote the post-translational modification of splicing factors to affect their localization and activity, while more downstream DDR events alter their expression. Although descriptions of molecular mechanisms remain limited, an emerging trend is that DNA damage disrupts the coupling of constitutive and alternative splicing with the transcription of genes involved in DNA repair, cell-cycle control and apoptosis. A better understanding of how changes in splice site selection are integrated into the DDR may provide new avenues to combat cancer and delay aging. PMID:26529031

  17. Signal transduction and metabolic changes during tumor cell apoptosis following phthalocyanine-sensitized photodynamic therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oleinick, Nancy L.; Agarwal, Munna L.; Berger, Nathan A.; Cheng, Ming-Feng; Chatterjee, Satadel; He, Jin; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Larkin, Hedy E.; Mukhter, Hasan; Rihter, Boris D.; Zaidi, Syed I. A.

    1993-06-01

    Mechanisms of cell death have been explored in cells and tumors treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT). Photosensitizers used for these studies were Photofrin, tetrasulfonated and nonsulfonated aluminum phthalocyanine, and a new silicon phthalocyanine [SiPc(OH)OSi(CH3)2(CH2)3N(CH3)2], referred to as PcIV. In mouse lymphoma L5178Y cells, a dose of PDT sensitized by PcIV which causes a 90% loss of cell survival induces apoptosis (programmed cell death) over a several-hour time course, beginning within 10 minutes of irradiation. Apoptosis is a metabolic process initiated by PDT-induced damage to membranes and triggered by the activation of phospholipases A2 and C and the release of Ca++ from intracellular stores. An endogenous endonuclease is activated and cleaves nuclear DNA in the internucleosomal region of chromatin. Subsequent metabolic events now appear to cause the loss of cellular NAD and ATP, the former a result of the activation of a second nuclear enzyme, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, by the endonucleolytically generated DNA strand breaks. Loss of ATP follows upon the loss of NAD needed for energy metabolism. Although the induction of apoptosis is efficiently produced by direct PDT damage to L5178Y cells, we now find that apoptosis is also produced by treatment of certain other lymphoid-derived cells and cells of epithelial origin. Under the limited set of conditions tested, there was no evidence for PDT-induced apoptosis in a fibroblast cell line, in mouse fibrosarcoma RIF-1 and L929 cells, in human adenocarcinoma A549 cells, or in human squamous cell carcinoma cells in culture. The evidence suggests that apoptosis, a form of metabolic cell death, is an important mechanism of tumor ablation in PDT-treated tumors, and that the induction of apoptosis may involve the interaction of direct PDT damage to malignant cells with factors produced by PDT action on vascular and other host cells.

  18. Spontaneous apoptosis in human thymocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Tiso, M.; Gangemi, R.; Bargellesi Severi, A.; Pizzolitto, S.; Fabbi, M.; Risso, A.

    1995-01-01

    Apoptosis seems to be involved in different stages of immune cell development. In particular, experimental evidence suggests that it is a major form of cell death in the thymus. The present analysis of human thymocytes reveals that a fraction of these cells, cultured in vitro, undergoes spontaneous apoptosis. This observation is based both on molecular (DNA fragmentation) and morphological (electron microscopic) investigations of the cells. The apoptotic thymocytes are CD3- or CD3lo, CD4lo, and CD8lo and do not express Bcl-2 protein. Furthermore, thymocytes die by apoptosis when exposed to pharmacological stimuli, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, dexamethasone, ATP, or Ca++ ionophore. Thus the apoptotic machinery in thymocytes can be triggered by an imbalance in growth factors in the in vitro culture media and can be modulated by various biochemical signals. The process of spontaneous apoptosis is independent of mRNA or protein synthesis, as actinomycin D and cycloheximide fail to inhibit this phenomenon. Furthermore, apoptosis seems to require active oxidative phosphorylation, as it is prevented by incubation of the cells with inhibitors of the respiratory chain. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7639336

  19. Defining the Optimal Selenium Dose for Prostate Cancer Risk Reduction: Insights from the U-Shaped Relationship Between Selenium Status, DNA Damage, and Apoptosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our work in dogs has revealed a U-shaped dose response between selenium status and prostatic DNA damage that remarkably parallels the relationship between dietary selenium and prostate cancer risk in men, suggesting that more selenium is not necessarily better. Herein, we extend this canine work to ...

  20. Resveratrol-3-O-glucuronide and resveratrol-4’-O-glucuronide reduce DNA strand breakage but not apoptosis in Jurkat T cells treated with camptothecin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resveratrol has been reported to inhibit or induce DNA damage depending upon the type of cell and experimental conditions. Dietary resveratrol is present in the body mostly as metabolites and little is known about the activities of these metabolic products. We evaluated physiologically obtainable ...

  1. Training-induced apoptosis in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Boffi, F M; Cittar, J; Balskus, G; Muriel, M; Desmaras, E

    2002-09-01

    Apoptosis or programmed cell death is a genetically controlled response of cells to commit suicide and is associated with DNA fragmentation or laddering. The common inducers of apoptosis include Ca2+i and oxygen free radicals/oxidative stress, which are also implicated in the pathogenesis of exercise-induced myopathies. To examine training-induced apoptosis, Thoroughbred horses were subjected to 3 months training programme on a treadmill. At the end of the training programme venous blood samples were taken for a creatine kinase (CK) assay. In addition, muscle biopsy samples were obtained for a membrane lipid peroxidation measurement by malondialdehyde (MDA) assay and for apoptosis detection. Apoptosis was studied by visualising the apoptotic myocytes on the paraffin sections by the modified TUNEL method. DNA laddering was evaluated by subjecting the DNA obtained from the biopsies to 1.5% agarose gel electrophoresis. There was a significant increase (P<0.05) of protein-bound MDA, and a nonsignificant trend (P = 0.14) for the control group to have higher levels of CK compared to the trained group. Under light microscopy, percentage of the TUNEL positive cells was higher (P<0.001) in the training group. This result was corroborated with the findings of DNA fragmentation by gel electrophoresis, which showed higher ladders of DNA band at the same group. In conclusion, these results clearly demonstrate that there is training-induced apoptosis in skeletal muscle. It is probable that apoptosis allows the work/recovery/rebound/supercompensation cycle, when unaccustomed muscle cells activate programmed cell death and are replaced by new and stronger cells, which is the mechanism for training-induced increases in fitness. PMID:12405700

  2. Biomarkers of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Ward, T H; Cummings, J; Dean, E; Greystoke, A; Hou, J M; Backen, A; Ranson, M; Dive, C

    2008-01-01

    Within the era of molecularly targeted anticancer agents, it has become increasingly important to provide proof of mechanism as early on as possible in the drug development cycle, especially in the clinic. Selective activation of apoptosis is often cited as one of the major goals of cancer chemotherapy. Thus, the present minireview focuses on a discussion of the pros and cons of a variety of methodological approaches to detect different components of the apoptotic cascade as potential biomarkers of programmed cell death. The bulk of the discussion centres on serological assays utilising the technique of ELISA, since here there is an obvious advantage of sampling multiple time points. Potential biomarkers of apoptosis including circulating tumour cells, cytokeratins and DNA nucleosomes are discussed at length. However, accepting that a single biomarker may not have the power to predict proof of concept and patient outcome, it is clear that in the future more emphasis will be placed on technologies that can analyse panels of biomarkers in small volumes of samples. To this end the increased throughput afforded by multiplex ELISA technologies is discussed. PMID:19238626

  3. Fine mapping of 28S rRNA sites specifically cleaved in cells undergoing apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Houge, G; Robaye, B; Eikhom, T S; Golstein, J; Mellgren, G; Gjertsen, B T; Lanotte, M; Døskeland, S O

    1995-01-01

    Bona fide apoptosis in rat and human leukemia cells, rat thymocytes, and bovine endothelial cells was accompanied by limited and specific cleavage of polysome-associated and monosome-associated 28S rRNA, with 18S rRNA being spared. Specific 28S rRNA cleavage was observed in all instances of apoptotic death accompanied by internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, with cleavage of 28S rRNA and of DNA being linked temporally. This indicates that 28S rRNA fragmentation may be as general a feature of apoptosis as internucleosomal DNA fragmentation and that concerted specific cleavage of intra- and extranuclear polynucleotides occurs in apoptosis. Apoptosis-associated cleavage sites were mapped to the 28S rRNA divergent domains D2, D6 (endothelial cells), and D8. The D2 cuts occurred in hairpin loop junctions considered to be buried in the intact ribosome, suggesting that this rRNA region becomes a target for RNase attack in apoptotic cells. D8 was cleaved in two exposed UU(U) sequences in bulge loops. Treatment with agents causing necrotic cell death or aging of cell lysates failed to produce any detectable limited D2 cleavage but did produce a more generalized cleavage in the D8 region. Of potential functional interest was the finding that the primary cuts in D2 exactly flanked a 0.3-kb hypervariable subdomain (D2c), allowing excision of the latter. The implication of hypervariable rRNA domains in apoptosis represents the first association of any functional process with these enigmatic parts of the ribosomes. PMID:7891700

  4. EWS Knockdown and Taxifolin Treatment Induced Differentiation and Removed DNA Methylation from p53 Promoter to Promote Expression of Puma and Noxa for Apoptosis in Ewing’s Sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Hossain, Mohammad Motarab; Ray, Swapan Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Ewing’s sarcoma is a pediatric tumor that mainly occurs in soft tissues and bones. Malignant characteristics of Ewing’s sarcoma are correlated with expression of EWS oncogene. We achieved knockdown of EWS expression using a plasmid vector encoding EWS short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to increase anti-tumor mechanisms of taxifolin (TFL), a new flavonoid, in human Ewing’s sarcoma cells in culture and animal models. Immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometric analysis showed high expression of EWS in human Ewing’s sarcoma SK-N-MC and RD-ES cell lines. EWS shRNA plus TFL inhibited 80% cell viability and caused the highest decreases in EWS expression at mRNA and protein levels in both cell lines. Knockdown of EWS expression induced morphological features of differentiation. EWS shRNA plus TFL caused more alterations in molecular markers of differentiation than either agent alone. EWS shRNA plus TFL caused the highest decreases in cell migration with inhibition of survival, angiogenic and invasive factors. Knockdown of EWS expression was associated with removal of DNA methylation from p53 promoter, promoting expression of p53, Puma, and Noxa. EWS shRNA plus TFL induced the highest amounts of apoptosis with activation of extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in both cell lines in culture. EWS shRNA plus TFL also inhibited growth of Ewing’s sarcoma tumors in animal models due to inhibition of differentiation inhibitors and angiogenic and invasive factors and also induction of activation of caspase-3 for apoptosis. Collectively, knockdown of EWS expression increased various anti-tumor mechanisms of TFL in human Ewing’s sarcoma in cell culture and animal models.

  5. Early Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Limits Exposure to HIV-1 Replication and Cell-Associated HIV-1 DNA Levels in Infants

    PubMed Central

    McManus, Margaret; Mick, Eric; Hudson, Richard; Mofenson, Lynne M.; Sullivan, John L.; Somasundaran, Mohan; Luzuriaga, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to measure HIV-1 persistence following combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in infants and children. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) HIV-1 DNA was quantified prior to and after 1 year of cART in 30 children, stratified by time of initiation (early, age <3 months, ET; late, age >3 months-2 years, LT). Pre-therapy PBMC HIV-1 DNA levels correlated with pre-therapy plasma HIV-1 levels (r = 0.59, p<0.001), remaining statistically significant (p = 0.002) after adjustment for prior perinatal antiretroviral exposure and age at cART initiation. PBMC HIV-1 DNA declined significantly after 1 year of cART (Overall: -0.91±0.08 log10 copies per million PBMC, p<0.001; ET: -1.04±0.11 log10 DNA copies per million PBMC, p<0.001; LT: -0.74 ±0.13 log10 DNA copies per million PBMC, p<0.001) but rates of decline did not differ significantly between ET and LT. HIV-1 replication exposure over the first 12 months of cART, estimated as area-under-the-curve (AUC) of circulating plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, was significantly associated with PBMC HIV-1 DNA at one year (r = 0.51, p = 0.004). In 21 children with sustained virologic suppression after 1 year of cART, PBMC HIV-1 DNA levels continued to decline between years 1 and 4 (slope -0.21 log10 DNA copies per million PBMC per year); decline slopes did not differ significantly between ET and LT. PBMC HIV-1 DNA levels at 1 year and 4 years of cART correlated with age at cART initiation (1 year: p = 0.04; 4 years: p = 0.03) and age at virologic control (1 and 4 years, p = 0.02). Altogether, these data indicate that reducing exposure to HIV-1 replication and younger age at cART initiation are associated with lower HIV-1 DNA levels at and after one year of age, supporting the concept that HIV-1 diagnosis and cART initiation in infants should occur as early as possible. PMID:27104621

  6. Early Combination Antiretroviral Therapy Limits Exposure to HIV-1 Replication and Cell-Associated HIV-1 DNA Levels in Infants.

    PubMed

    McManus, Margaret; Mick, Eric; Hudson, Richard; Mofenson, Lynne M; Sullivan, John L; Somasundaran, Mohan; Luzuriaga, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to measure HIV-1 persistence following combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in infants and children. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) HIV-1 DNA was quantified prior to and after 1 year of cART in 30 children, stratified by time of initiation (early, age <3 months, ET; late, age >3 months-2 years, LT). Pre-therapy PBMC HIV-1 DNA levels correlated with pre-therapy plasma HIV-1 levels (r = 0.59, p<0.001), remaining statistically significant (p = 0.002) after adjustment for prior perinatal antiretroviral exposure and age at cART initiation. PBMC HIV-1 DNA declined significantly after 1 year of cART (Overall: -0.91±0.08 log10 copies per million PBMC, p<0.001; ET: -1.04±0.11 log10 DNA copies per million PBMC, p<0.001; LT: -0.74 ±0.13 log10 DNA copies per million PBMC, p<0.001) but rates of decline did not differ significantly between ET and LT. HIV-1 replication exposure over the first 12 months of cART, estimated as area-under-the-curve (AUC) of circulating plasma HIV-1 RNA levels, was significantly associated with PBMC HIV-1 DNA at one year (r = 0.51, p = 0.004). In 21 children with sustained virologic suppression after 1 year of cART, PBMC HIV-1 DNA levels continued to decline between years 1 and 4 (slope -0.21 log10 DNA copies per million PBMC per year); decline slopes did not differ significantly between ET and LT. PBMC HIV-1 DNA levels at 1 year and 4 years of cART correlated with age at cART initiation (1 year: p = 0.04; 4 years: p = 0.03) and age at virologic control (1 and 4 years, p = 0.02). Altogether, these data indicate that reducing exposure to HIV-1 replication and younger age at cART initiation are associated with lower HIV-1 DNA levels at and after one year of age, supporting the concept that HIV-1 diagnosis and cART initiation in infants should occur as early as possible. PMID:27104621

  7. Loss of PIDD limits NF-κB activation and cytokine production but not cell survival or transformation after DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Bock, F J; Krumschnabel, G; Manzl, C; Peintner, L; Tanzer, M C; Hermann-Kleiter, N; Baier, G; Llacuna, L; Yelamos, J; Villunger, A

    2013-04-01

    Activation of NF-κB (nuclear factor of kappa light chain gene enhancer in B cells) in response to DNA damage is considered to contribute to repair of genetic lesions, increased cell survival and cytokine release. The molecular mechanisms orchestrating this cytoplasmic event involve core components of the nuclear DNA damage response machinery, including ATM-kinase (ataxia telangiectasia mutated kinase) and PARP-1 (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1). The physiological consequences of defective NF-κB activation in this context, however, remain poorly investigated. Here we report on the role of the 'p53-induced protein with a death domain', PIDD, which appears rate limiting in this process, as is PARP-1. Despite impaired NF-κB activation, DNA damage did not increase cell death or reduce clonal survival of various cell types lacking PIDD, such as mouse embryonic fibroblasts or stem and progenitor cells of the hematopoietic system. Furthermore, lymphomagenesis induced by γ-irradiation (IR) was unaffected by deficiency for PIDD or PARP-1, indicating that loss of DNA damage-triggered NF-κB signalling does not affect IR-driven tumorigenesis. However, loss of either gene compromised cytokine release after acute IR injury. Hence, we propose that NF-κB's most notable function after DNA damage in primary cells is related to the release of cytokines, thereby contributing to sterile inflammation. PMID:23238565

  8. Advantages and limitations of ribosomal RNA PCR and DNA sequencing for identification of bacteria in cardiac valves of danish patients.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Michael; Bangsborg, Jette; Kjerulf, Anne; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Christensen, John; Irmukhamedov, Akhmadjon 6; Bruun, Niels Eske; Dargis, Rimtas; Andresen, Keld; Christensen, Jens Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Studies on the value of culture-independent molecular identification of bacteria in cardiac valves are mostly restricted to comparing agreement of identification to what is obtained by culture to the number of identified bacteria in culture-negative cases. However, evaluation of the usefulness of direct molecular identification should also address weaknesses, their relevance in the given setting, and possible improvements. In this study cardiac valves from 56 Danish patients referred for surgery for infective endocarditis were analysed by microscopy and culture as well as by PCR targeting part of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene followed by DNA sequencing of the PCR product. PCR and DNA sequencing identified significant bacteria in 49 samples from 43 patients, including five out of 13 culture-negative cases. No rare, exotic, or intracellular bacteria were identified. There was a general agreement between bacterial identity obtained by ribosomal PCR and DNA sequencing from the valves and bacterial isolates from blood culture. However, DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene did not discriminate well among non-haemolytic streptococci, especially within the Streptococcus mitis group. Ribosomal PCR with subsequent DNA sequencing is an efficient and reliable method of identifying the cause of IE, but exact species identification of some of the most common causes, i.e. non-haemolytic streptococci, may be improved with other molecular methods. PMID:24403979

  9. DNA damage induces down-regulation of UDP-glucose ceramide glucosyltransferase, increases ceramide levels and triggers apoptosis in p53-deficient cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, Teka-Ann S.; Filippov, Valery; Filippova, Maria; Yang, Jun; Zhang, Kangling; Duerksen-Hughes, Penelope J.

    2013-01-01

    DNA damaging agents typically induce an apoptotic cascade in which p53 plays a central role. However, absence of a p53-mediated response does not necessarily abrogate programmed cell death, due to the existence of p53-independent apoptotic pathways, such as those mediated by the pro-apoptotic molecule ceramide. We compared ceramide levels before and after DNA damage in human osteosarcoma (U2OS) and colon cancer (HCT116) cells that were either expressing or deficient in p53. When treated with mitomycin C, p53-deficient cells, but not p53-expressing cells, showed a marked increase in ceramide levels. Microarray analysis of genes involved in ceramide metabolism identified acid ceramidase (ASAH1, up-regulated), ceramide glucosyltransferase (UGCG, down-regulated), and galactosylceramidase (GALC, up-regulated) as the three genes most affected. Experiments employing pharmacological and siRNA agents revealed that inhibition of UGCG is sufficient to increase ceramide levels and induce cell death. When inhibition of UGCG and treatment with mitomycin C were combined, p53-deficient, but not p53-expressing cells, showed a significant increase in cell death, suggesting that the regulation of sphingolipid metabolism could be used to sensitize cells to chemotherapeutic drugs. PMID:22349266

  10. Curcumin and Ellagic acid synergistically induce ROS generation, DNA damage, p53 accumulation and apoptosis in HeLa cervical carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Devbrat; Basu, Soumya; Parija, Lucy; Rout, Deeptimayee; Manna, Sanjeet; Dandapat, Jagneshwar; Debata, Priya Ranjan

    2016-07-01

    Cervical cancer and precancerous lesions of the cervix continue to be a global health issue, and the medication for the treatment for chronic HPV infection so far has not been effective. Potential anticancer and anti HPV activities of two known phytochemicals, Curcumin and Ellagic acid were evaluated in HeLa cervical cancer cells. Curcumin is a natural compound found in the root of Curcuma longa plant and Ellagic acid a polyphenol found in fruits of strawberries, raspberries and walnuts. The combination of Curcumin and Ellagic acid at various concentrations showed better anticancer properties than either of the drug when used alone as evidenced by MTT assay. Besides this, Curcumin and Ellagic acid also restore p53, induce ROS formation and DNA damage. Mechanistic study further indicated that Curcumin and Ellagic acid show anti-HPV activity as evidenced by decrease in the HPV E6 oncoprotein on HeLa cells. PMID:27261574

  11. Monitoring apoptosis in real time.

    PubMed

    Green, Allan M; Steinmetz, Neil D

    2002-01-01

    Many therapeutically active anticancer treatments exert their effect by the induction of apoptosis and necrosis. Serial biopsies in breast cancer patients have suggested that response to therapy correlates with early posttreatment increases in tumor apoptotic index. Radiolabeled technetium Tc 99m-recombinant human (rh) annexin V provides a noninvasive technique for imaging treatment-induced cell death. Annexin V is a naturally occurring human protein that binds avidly to membrane-associated phosphatidylserine (PS). PS is normally found only on the inner leaflet of the cell membrane double layer, but it is actively transported to the outer layer as an early event in apoptosis and becomes available for annexin binding. Annexin also gains access to PS as a result of the membrane fragmentation associated with necrosis. In vitro studies of apoptosis using fluorescein annexin have shown good correlation with assessments of apoptosis documented by nuclear DNA degradation and caspase activation. In vivo localization of intravenously administered Tc 99m-annexin V has been demonstrated in numerous preclinical models of apoptosis, including anti-Fas-mediated hepatic apoptosis, rejection of allogeneic heterotopic cardiac allografts, cyclophosphamide treatment of murine lymphoma, cyclophosphamide-induced apoptosis in bone marrow, and leukocyte apoptosis associated with abscess formation. Scintigraphic studies in humans using Tc 99m-rh annexin V have demonstrated the feasibility of imaging cell death in acute myocardial infarction, in tumors with a high apoptotic index, and in response to anti-tumor chemotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer, small-cell lung cancer, breast cancer, lymphoma, and sarcoma. Increased localization of Tc 99m-rh annexin V within 1 to 3 days of chemotherapy has been noted in some, but not all, subjects with these tumors. To date, most subjects showing increased Tc 99m-rh annexin V uptake after the first course of chemotherapy have shown objective

  12. Synergistic Effects Induced by a Low Dose of Diesel Particulate Extract and Ultraviolet-A in Caenorhabditis elegans: DNA Damage-Triggered Germ Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Diesel exhaust has been classified as a potential carcinogen and is associated with various health effects. A previous study showed that the doses for manifesting the mutagenetic effects of diesel exhaust could be reduced when coexposed with ultraviolet-A (UVA) in a cellular system. However, the mechanisms underlying synergistic effects remain to be clarified, especially in an in vivo system. In the present study, using Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) as an in vivo system we studied the synergistic effects of diesel particulate extract (DPE) plus UVA, and the underlying mechanisms were dissected genetically using related mutants. Our results demonstrated that though coexposure of wild type worms at young adult stage to low doses of DPE (20 μg/mL) plus UVA (0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 J/cm2) did not affect worm development (mitotic germ cells and brood size), it resulted in a significant induction of germ cell death. Using the strain of hus-1::gfp, distinct foci of HUS-1::GFP was observed in proliferating germ cells, indicating the DNA damage after worms were treated with DPE plus UVA. Moreover, the induction of germ cell death by DPE plus UVA was alleviated in single-gene loss-of-function mutations of core apoptotic, checkpoint HUS-1, CEP-1/p53, and MAPK dependent signaling pathways. Using a reactive oxygen species (ROS) probe, it was found that the production of ROS in worms coexposed to DPE plus UVA increased in a time-dependent manner. In addition, employing a singlet oxygen (1O2) trapping probe, 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidone, coupled with electron spin resonance analysis, we demonstrated the increased 1O2 production in worms coexposed to DPE plus UVA. These results indicated that UVA could enhance the apoptotic induction of DPE at low doses through a DNA damage-triggered pathway and that the production of ROS, especially 1O2, played a pivotal role in initiating the synergistic process. PMID:24841043

  13. Morphologic criteria and detection of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Saraste, A

    1999-05-01

    Apoptosis is an organized, energy dependent process, which leads to cell death. Its definition is based on distinct morphological features [10] and demonstration of internucleosomal DNA degradation [27], executed by selectively activated DNAses [4, 22]. The morphologic hallmarks of apoptosis include chromatic margination, nuclear condensation and fragmentation, and condensation of the cell with preservation of organelles. The process is followed by fragmentation of the cell into membrane-bound apoptotic bodies, which undergo phagocytosis by nearby cells without associated inflammation [10, 11]. Apoptosis characteristically occurs in insolated single cells. The duration of apoptosis is estimated to be from 12 to 24 hours, but in cell culture visible morphologic changes are accomplished in less than two hours [10, 16]. Non-apoptotic cell death, a prototype of which is cell death due to ischemia (oncosis), is characterized by depletion of intracellular ATP stores, swelling of the cell with disruption of organelles and rupture of the plasma membrane [15]. Groups of necrotic cells and inflammation are found in tissues [10, 15]. The significance of apoptosis has mostly been studied using the TUNEL assay that detects DNA strand breaks in tissue sections and allows quantification of apoptotic cells by light microscopy [6]. Common experience seems to be that the TUNEL assay is prone to false positive or negative findings. This has been explained by the dependence of the staining kinetics on the reagent concentration [17], fixation of the tissue [2] and the extent of proteolysis [17]. Active RNA synthesis [12] and DNA damage in necrotic cells [17, 19] may cause non-specific staining. To obtain reliable and reproducible results, TUNEL assay should be carefully standardized by using tissue sections treated with DNAse (positive control of apoptosis). Quantification of apoptosis should include enough microscopic fields and identification of the cell type undergoing apoptosis

  14. 3-β-Εrythrodiol isolated from Conyza canadensis inhibits MKN‑45 human gastric cancer cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, DNA fragmentation, ROS generation and reduces tumor weight and volume in mouse xenograft model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Qin, Yue-Hong; Yu, Jian-Yong; Ma, Heng; Song, Xi-Lin

    2016-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo anticancer and apoptotic effects of 3-β-erythrodiol, a plant-derived triterpene against MKN-45 human gastric cancer cells. In addition, effects on cellular morphology, cell cycle phase distribution, DNA fragmentation, and ROS generation were also elucidated in the current research work. Cytotoxic activity of 3-β-erythrodiol was demonstrated by MTT cell viability and LDH assay. Cellular morphological study was carried out using phase contrast, fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy. Cell cycle analysis was evaluated by flow cytometry and gel electrophoresis was used to evaluate DNA fragmentation pattern. The results of the present study revealed that 3-β-erythrodiol induced dose-dependent as well as time-dependent anticancer effects in MKN-45 gastric cancer cells. Cellular morphological changes in MKN-45 cells as indicated by fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy were induced by 3-β-erythrodiol. This triterpene induced both early and late apoptotic features in these cancer cells. 3-β-Erythrodiol treatment led to sub-G1 cell cycle arrest with a corresponding decrease in S-phase cells and an increase in G2/M phase cells. DNA fragments were evident in gel electrophoresis experiment following 3-β-erythrodiol treatment. It was observed that 0.50 and 1.0 µg/g 3-β-erythrodiol injection reduced the tumor weight from 1.4 g in PBS-treated group (control) to 0.61 and 0.22 g, respectively. Similarly, 0.50 and 1.0 µg/g 3-β-erythrodiol injection reduced the tumor volume from 1.5 cm3 in PBS-treated group (control) to 0.91 and 0.31 cm3, respectively. The present investigation indicates that 3-β-erythrodiol exerts anti-proliferative effects in human gastric cancer by inducing early and late apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and ROS generation. It also decreased the tumor volume and tumor weight in male Balb/c nude mice. PMID:26846256

  15. An AIF orthologue regulates apoptosis in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Wissing, Silke; Ludovico, Paula; Herker, Eva; Büttner, Sabrina; Engelhardt, Silvia M.; Decker, Thorsten; Link, Alexander; Proksch, Astrid; Rodrigues, Fernando; Corte-Real, Manuela; Fröhlich, Kai-Uwe; Manns, Joachim; Candé, Céline; Sigrist, Stephan J.; Kroemer, Guido; Madeo, Frank

    2004-01-01

    Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), a key regulator of cell death, is essential for normal mammalian development and participates in pathological apoptosis. The proapoptotic nature of AIF and its mode of action are controversial. Here, we show that the yeast AIF homologue Ynr074cp controls yeast apoptosis. Similar to mammalian AIF, Ynr074cp is located in mitochondria and translocates to the nucleus of yeast cells in response to apoptotic stimuli. Purified Ynr074cp degrades yeast nuclei and plasmid DNA. YNR074C disruption rescues yeast cells from oxygen stress and delays age-induced apoptosis. Conversely, overexpression of Ynr074cp strongly stimulates apoptotic cell death induced by hydrogen peroxide and this effect is attenuated by disruption of cyclophilin A or the yeast caspase YCA1. We conclude that Ynr074cp is a cell death effector in yeast and rename it AIF-1 (Aif1p, gene AIF1). PMID:15381687

  16. Expression Profile of DNA Damage Signaling Genes in Proton Exposed Mouse Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Govindarajan; Wu, Honglu

    Exposure of living systems to radiation results in a wide assortment of lesions, the most signif-icant of is damage to genomic DNA which induce several cellular functions such as cell cycle arrest, repair, apoptosis etc. The radiation induced DNA damage investigation is one of the im-portant area in biology, but still the information available regarding the effects of proton is very limited. In this report, we investigated the differential gene expression pattern of DNA damage signaling genes particularly, damaged DNA binding, repair, cell cycle arrest, checkpoints and apoptosis using quantitative real-time RT-PCR array in proton exposed mouse brain tissues. The expression profiles showed significant changes in DNA damage related genes in 2Gy proton exposed mouse brain tissues as compared with control brain tissues. Furthermore, we also show that significantly increased levels of apoptotic related genes, caspase-3 and 8 activities in these cells, suggesting that in addition to differential expression of DNA damage genes, the alteration of apoptosis related genes may also contribute to the radiation induced DNA damage followed by programmed cell death. In summary, our findings suggest that proton exposed brain tissue undergo severe DNA damage which in turn destabilize the chromatin stability.

  17. Apoptosis after reperfused myocardial infarction: Role of angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Jugdutt, Bodh I

    2004-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays a significant role in apoptosis after myocardial infarction (MI) and reperfused MI. Cumulative evidence suggests that Ang II is a major contributor to cardiomyocyte (CM) apoptosis and left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after acute reperfused MI and that apoptosis mediates a major portion of early LV dysfunction. Importantly, blockade of the Ang II type 1 receptor (AT1R) limits CM apoptosis and LV dysfunction after acute reperfused MI. Ang II type 2 receptor activation during AT1R blockade contributes to these beneficial effects. The role of Ang II and apoptosis in chronic LV remodelling, healing and post-MI heart failure is more complex and involves effects on the CMs, fibroblasts and vascular cells. The long-term effects of agents targeting apoptosis after reperfused MI, including AT1R blockade, on apoptosis in different cell types, windows of enhanced apoptosis and the appropriate timing of therapy need to be considered. PMID:19641712

  18. Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans induces apoptosis in human monocytic THP-1 cells.

    PubMed

    Kato, Satsuki; Sugimura, Norihiko; Nakashima, Keisuke; Nishihara, Tatsuji; Kowashi, Yusuke

    2005-03-01

    It has previously been reported that the murine macrophage cell line J774.1 and the human oral epithelial cell line KB undergo apoptosis as a result of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans infection. Recent studies have demonstrated that apoptosis regulation is modulated by multiple phosphorylation of several different protein kinases, including the major subtypes of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family. The MAPK family promotes cell survival and/or proliferation in response to growth factor stimulation, or apoptosis in response to various stress stimuli. The primary objective of the present investigation was to clarify whether human immune cells undergo apoptosis following A. actinomycetemcomitans infection and, if so, to establish the involvement of the MAPK family. Human monocytic THP-1 cells were infected with A. actinomycetemcomitans in microtubes. Lactate dehydrogenase release into the culture supernatant and DNA fragmentation in the cells were monitored. DNA fragmentation was also identified by agarose gel electrophoresis. Cell death following A. actinomycetemcomitans infection occurred by apoptosis, shown by an increase in the proportion of fragmented DNA and the typical ladder pattern of DNA fragmentation indicative of apoptosis. Furthermore, p38 MAPK activity and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels increased following A. actinomycetemcomitans infection. In contrast, cell death and TNF-alpha levels in infected cells decreased upon addition of a p38 inhibitor or an anti-TNF-alpha antibody. However, exogenous TNF-alpha could not induce apoptosis in uninfected THP-1 cells. Interestingly, p38 MAPK activity diminished in the presence of anti-TNF-alpha antibody. These findings indicated that A. actinomycetemcomitans infection induces apoptosis in THP-1 cells and that p38 MAPK activity is directly involved in apoptosis. TNF-alpha may play an indirect role in apoptosis via enhanced p38 MAPK activity. A. actinomycetemcomitans

  19. Dysfunctional telomeres induce p53-dependent and independent apoptosis to compromise cellular proliferation and inhibit tumor formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Xinwei; Flores, Elsa R; Yu, Jian; Chang, Sandy

    2016-08-01

    Aging is associated with progressive telomere shortening, resulting in the formation of dysfunctional telomeres that compromise tissue proliferation. However, dysfunctional telomeres can limit tumorigenesis by activating p53-dependent cellular senescence and apoptosis. While activation of both senescence and apoptosis is required for repress tumor formation, it is not clear which pathway is the major tumor suppressive pathway in vivo. In this study, we generated Eμ-myc; Pot1b(∆/∆) mouse to directly compare tumor formation under conditions in which either p53-dependent apoptosis or senescence is activated by telomeres devoid of the shelterin component Pot1b. We found that activation of p53-dependent apoptosis plays a more critical role in suppressing lymphoma formation than p53-dependent senescence. In addition, we found that telomeres in Pot1b(∆/∆) ; p53(-/-) mice activate an ATR-Chk1-dependent DNA damage response to initiate a robust p53-independent, p73-dependent apoptotic pathway that limited stem cell proliferation but suppressed B-cell lymphomagenesis. Our results demonstrate that in mouse models, both p53-dependent and p53-independent apoptosis are important to suppressing tumor formation. PMID:27113195

  20. Sphingosine in apoptosis signaling.

    PubMed

    Cuvillier, Olivier

    2002-12-30

    The sphingolipid metabolites ceramide, sphingosine, and sphingosine 1-phosphate contribute to controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis. Ceramide and its catabolite sphingosine act as negative regulators of cell proliferation and promote apoptosis. Conversely, sphingosine 1-phosphate, formed by phosphorylation of sphingosine by a sphingosine kinase, has been involved in stimulating cell growth and inhibiting apoptosis. As the phosphorylation of sphingosine diminishes apoptosis, while dephosphorylation of sphingosine 1-phosphate potentiates it, the role of sphingosine as a messenger of apoptosis is of importance. Herein, the effects of sphingosine on diverse signaling pathways implicated in the apoptotic process are reviewed. PMID:12531549

  1. Evaluation of Apoptosis in Immunotoxicity Testing

    PubMed Central

    Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Rieder, Sadiye Amcaoglu; Vakharia, Dilip; Nagarkatti, Prakash S.

    2014-01-01

    Immunotoxicity testing is important in determining the toxic effects of chemical substances, medicinal products, airborne pollutants, cosmetics, medical devices, and food additives. The immune system of the host is a direct target of these toxicants, and the adverse effects include serious health complications such as susceptibility to infections, cancer, allergic reactions, and autoimmune diseases. One way to investigate the harmful effects of different chemicals is to study apoptosis in immune cell populations. Apoptosis is defined as the programmed cell death, and in general, this process helps in development and maintains homeostasis. However, in the case of an insult by a toxicant, apoptosis of the immune cells can lead to immunosuppression resulting in the development of cancer and the inability to fight infections. Apoptosis is characterized by cell shrinkage, nuclear condensation, changes in cell membrane and mitochondria, DNA fragmentation into 200 base oligomers, and protein degradation by caspases. Various methods are employed in order to investigate apoptosis. These methods include direct measurement of apoptotic cells with flow cytometry and in situ labeling, as well as RNA, DNA, and protein assays that are indicative of apoptotic molecules. PMID:19967519

  2. Limitations of plasmid vaccines to complex viruses: selected myxoma virus antigens as DNA vaccines were not protective.

    PubMed

    Adams, Mathew M; van Leeuwen, Barbara H; Kerr, Peter J

    2004-11-25

    Myxoma virus, a poxvirus of the genus Leporipoxvirus, is the causative agent of the disease myxomatosis which is highly lethal in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Current vaccines to protect against myxomatosis are either attenuated live strains of the virus or the antigenically related rabbit fibroma virus. We examined the immune response of outbred domestic rabbits to the individual myxoma virus antigens M055R, M073R, M115L and M121R, delivered as DNA vaccines co-expressing rabbit interleukin-2 or interleukin-4. M115L and M121R were also delivered simultaneously. None of the vaccine constructs were able to protect the rabbits from disease or reduce mortality after challenge with virulent myxoma virus, despite induction of antigen-specific cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. PMID:15531037

  3. An increase of granulosa cell apoptosis mediates aqueous neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract-induced oocyte apoptosis in rat

    PubMed Central

    Tripathi, Anima; Shrivastav, Tulsidas G; Chaube, Shail K

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Neem plant (Azadirachta indica) has been extensively used in Ayurvedic system of medicine for female fertility regulation for a long time, but its mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Hence, the present study was aimed to determine whether an increase of granulosa cell apoptosis is associated with aqueous neem leaf extract (NLE)-induced oocyte apoptosis. Materials and Methods: Sexually immature female rats of 20 days old were fed NLE (50 mg/day) for 10 days and then subjected to superovulation induction protocol. The morphological changes in cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs), rate of oocyte apoptosis, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), total nitrite, and cytochrome c concentrations, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cytochrome c, p53, Bcl2 and Bax expressions, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation, and estradiol 17β level in granulosa cells collected from preovulatory COCs were analyzed. Results: Aqueous NLE increased H2O2 concentration and decreased catalase activity, increased iNOS expression and total nitrite concentration, increased p53, Bax, and p53 expressions but decreased Bcl2 expression, increased cytochrome c concentration and induced DNA fragmentation in granulosa cells. An increased granulosa cell apoptosis resulted in reduced estradiol 17β concentration and induced apoptosis in ovulated oocytes. Conclusion: We conclude that aqueous NLE-induced granulosa cell apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated pathway, reduced estradiol 17β concentration and induced apoptosis in ovulated oocytes. Thus, granulosa cell apoptosis mediates NLE-induced oocyte apoptosis during female fertility regulation in rat. PMID:23776837

  4. Apoptosis as a Mechanism for Liver Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Guicciardi, Maria Eugenia; Gores, Gregory J.

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocyte injury is ubiquitous in clinical practice, and the mode of cell death associated with this injury is often apoptosis, especially by death receptors. Information from experimental systems demonstrates that hepatocyte apoptosis is sufficient to cause liver hepatic fibrogenesis. The mechanisms linking hepatocyte apoptosis to hepatic fibrosis remain incompletely understood, but likely relate to engulfment of apoptotic bodies by professional phagocytic cells and stellate cells, and release of mediators by cells undergoing apoptosis. Inhibition of apoptosis with caspase inhibitors has demonstrated beneficial effects in murine models of hepatic fibrosis. Recent studies implicating Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) in liver injury and fibrosis are also of particular interest. Engulfment of apoptotic bodies is one mechanism by which the TLR9 ligand (CpG DNA motifs) could be delivered to this intracellular receptor. These concepts suggest therapy focused on interrupting the cellular mechanisms linking apoptosis to fibrosis would be useful in human liver diseases. PMID:20960379

  5. CD45 regulates apoptosis in peripheral T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhe; Dawes, Ritu; Petrova, Svetla; Beverley, Peter C L; Tchilian, Elma Z

    2006-06-01

    Programmed cell death (apoptosis) is a key mechanism for regulating lymphocyte numbers. Murine lymph node lymphocytes cultured in vitro without added stimuli show significant levels of apoptosis over 24 h, detectable by staining with Annexin V. CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes from transgenic (Tg) mice expressing single CD45RABC or CD45RO isoforms show increased apoptosis and the extent of apoptosis is inversely correlated with the level of CD45 expression. CD45 Tg cells exhibit phosphatidyl serine translocation and DNA oligonucleosome formation, and can be partially rescued from apoptosis by culture in caspase inhibitors or common gamma-chain-binding cytokines. We conclude that CD45 is an important regulator of spontaneous apoptosis in T lymphocytes and this mechanism may contribute to the disease associations reported for individuals expressing CD45 variant alleles. PMID:16621865

  6. X-ray-induced cell death: Apoptosis and necrosis

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Hisako; Shinohara, Kunio

    1994-10-01

    X-ray-induced cell death in MOLT-4N1, a subclone of MOLT-4 cells, and M10 cells was studied with respect to their modes of cell death, apoptosis and necrosis. MOLT-4N1 cells showed radiosensitivity similar to that of M10 cells, a radiosensitive mutant of L5178Y, as determined by the colony formation assay. Analysis of cell size demonstrated that MOLT-4N1 cells increased in size at an early stage after irradiation and then decreased to a size smaller than that of control cells, whereas the size of irradiated M10 cells increased continuously. Apoptosis detected by morphological changes and DNA ladder formation (the cleavage of DNA into oligonucleosomal fragments) occurred in X-irradiated MOLT-4N1 cells but not in M10 cells. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that the ladder formation involved an intermediate-sized DNA (about 20 kbp). Most of the DNA was detected at the origin in both methods of electrophoresis in the case of M10 cells, though a trace amount of ladder formation was observed. Heat treatment of M10 cells induced apoptosis within 30 min after treatment, in contrast to MOLT-4N1 cells. The results suggest that apoptosis and necrosis are induced by X rays in a manner which is dependent on the cell line irrespective of the capability of the cells to develop apoptosis. DNA fragmentation was the earliest change observed in the development of apoptosis. 27 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Human mature erythroblasts are resistant to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hristoskova, Sashka; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Hahn, Sinuhe; Rusterholz, Corinne

    2007-03-10

    Apoptosis plays an important role in red blood cell development, notably by regulating the fate of early erythroid progenitors. We show here that, by contrast, mature erythroblasts are resistant to apoptosis. Treatment of these cells with several apoptosis-inducing agents failed to trigger caspase activation and oligonucleosomal DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, we find that cytochrome c levels are dramatically reduced even though the cells contain mitochondria. Supplementation of cytosolic extracts from mature erythroblasts with cytochrome c, however, did not rescue caspase activation. This was not due to the presence of inhibitors of apoptosis, as these proteins were also missing in these cells. We also show that cytochrome c depletion is a normal event during erythroblast differentiation, which follows transient, developmentally induced caspase activation and correlates with the loss of response to cytokine withdrawal or drug-induced apoptosis. Our data therefore suggest that erythroblasts acquire resistance to apoptosis during maturation through the developmentally induced depletion of cytochrome c and other crucial regulators of the apoptotic machinery. PMID:17289021

  8. Induction of apoptosis in frog virus 3-infected cells.

    PubMed

    Chinchar, V G; Bryan, Locke; Wang, J; Long, Scott; Chinchar, G D

    2003-02-15

    The ability of frog virus 3 (FV3), the type species of the family Iridoviridae, to induce apoptosis was examined by monitoring DNA cleavage, chromatin condensation, and cell-surface expression of phosphotidylserine (PS) in fathead minnow (FHM) and baby hamster kidney (BHK) cells. In productively infected FHM cells, DNA fragmentation was first noted at 6-7 h postinfection and was clearly seen by 17 h postinfection, while chromatin condensation was detected at 8.5 h postinfection. As with some other viruses, FV3-induced apoptosis did not require de novo viral gene expression as both heat-inactivated and UV-inactivated virus readily triggered DNA fragmentation in FHM cells. Moreover, FV3-induced apoptosis was blocked in FHM cells by the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK, suggesting that virus infection triggers programmed cell death through activation of the caspase cascade. FV3 infection also triggered apoptosis in BHK cells as monitored by TUNEL and annexin V binding assays. To determine whether FV3, similar to other large DNA viruses, encoded proteins that block or delay apoptosis, mock- and FV3-infected FHM cells were osmotically shocked and assayed for DNA fragmentation 3 hours later. DNA fragmentation was clearly seen whether or not shocked cells were previously infected with FV3, indicating that infection with FV3 did not block apoptosis induced by osmotic shock in FHM cells. The above results demonstrate that iridoviruses triggered apoptosis and that the induction of programmed cell death did not require viral gene expression. However, it remains to be determined if virion attachment to target cells is sufficient to induce cell death, or if apoptosis is triggered directly or indirectly by one or more virion-associated proteins. PMID:12642103

  9. Scope and Limitations of Typical Copper-Free Bioorthogonal Reactions with DNA: Reactive 2'-Deoxyuridine Triphosphates for Postsynthetic Labeling.

    PubMed

    Merkel, Marcus; Arndt, Stefanie; Ploschik, Damian; Cserép, Gergely B; Wenge, Ulrike; Kele, Péter; Wagenknecht, Hans-Achim

    2016-09-01

    Four triphosphates of 2'-deoxyuridine that carried the following bioorthogonally reactive groups were synthesized by organic-chemical methods. Two triphosphates with tetrazines and one with a cyclopropene moiety were designed for Diels-Alder reactions with inverse electron demand, and one triphosphate with a tetrazole core was designed for the "photoclick" cycloaddition. These triphosphates were not only successfully applied for oligonucleotide preparation by standard DNA polymerases, including Hemo KlenTaq, Vent, and Deep Vent, but also bypassed for full length primer extension products. Fluorescent labeling of the primer extension products was achieved by fluorophores with reactive counterparts and analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis mobility shifts. The tetrazine-oligonucleotide conjugates were reacted with carboxymethylmonobenzocyclooctyne- and bicyclononyne-modified fluorophores. The yield of these postsynthetic reactions could significantly be improved by a more stable but still reactive nicotinic acid-derived tetrazine and by changing the key experimental conditions, mainly the pH of 7.2 and the temperature of 45-55 °C. The cyclopropene-oligonucleotide conjugate could be successfully labeled with a tetrazine-modified rhodamine in very good yields. The "photoclick" cycloaddition between tetrazole-oligonucleotide conjugates and a maleimide-modified dye worked quantitatively. The combination of primer extension, bypass, and bioorthogonal modification works also for double and triple labeling using the cyclopropene-modified 2'-deoxyuridine triphosphate. PMID:27513089

  10. Transition State in DNA Polymerase β Catalysis: Rate-Limiting Chemistry Altered by Base-Pair Configuration

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Kinetics studies of dNTP analogues having pyrophosphate-mimicking β,γ-pCXYp leaving groups with variable X and Y substitution reveal striking differences in the chemical transition-state energy for DNA polymerase β that depend on all aspects of base-pairing configurations, including whether the incoming dNTP is a purine or pyrimidine and if base-pairings are right (T•A and G•C) or wrong (T•G and G•T). Brønsted plots of the catalytic rate constant (log(kpol)) versus pKa4 for the leaving group exhibit linear free energy relationships (LFERs) with negative slopes ranging from −0.6 to −2.0, consistent with chemical rate-determining transition-states in which the active-site adjusts to charge-stabilization demand during chemistry depending on base-pair configuration. The Brønsted slopes as well as the intercepts differ dramatically and provide the first direct evidence that dNTP base recognition by the enzyme–primer–template complex triggers a conformational change in the catalytic region of the active-site that significantly modifies the rate-determining chemical step. PMID:24580380

  11. Key regulators of apoptosis execution as biomarker candidates in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Emilie M; Rehm, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Resistance to apoptosis is frequently detected in malignant melanoma, a skin cancer with rapidly growing incidence rates. Apoptosis resistance may develop with disease progression and may be associated with the poor responsiveness of metastatic melanoma to apoptosis-inducing treatments, such as genotoxic chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Likewise, the efficacy of novel treatment options (targeted kinase inhibitors and immunotherapeutics) that indirectly lead to cell death may depend on the susceptibility of melanoma to apoptosis. At its core, apoptosis execution is regulated by the interplay between a comparatively small number of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins, and consequently numerous studies have investigated the potential of these players as biomarker candidates. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of biomarker discovery studies focusing on key regulators of apoptosis execution, critically review the findings of these studies, and outline strategies that address current limitations and challenges in exploiting regulators of apoptosis execution as prognostic or predictive biomarkers in melanoma. PMID:27308353

  12. Rabies virus matrix protein induces apoptosis by targeting mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Zan, Jie; Liu, Juan; Zhou, Jian-Wei; Wang, Hai-Long; Mo, Kai-Kun; Yan, Yan; Xu, Yun-Bin; Liao, Min; Su, Shuo; Hu, Rong-Liang; Zhou, Ji-Yong

    2016-09-10

    Apoptosis, as an innate antiviral defense, not only functions to limit viral replication by eliminating infected cells, but also contribute to viral dissemination, particularly at the late stages of infection. A highly neurotropic CVS strain of rabies virus induces apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. However, the detailed mechanism of CVS-mediated neuronal apoptosis is not entirely clear. Here, we show that CVS induces apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway by dissipating mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c and AIF. CVS blocks Bax activation at the early stages of infection; while M protein partially targets mitochondria and induces mitochondrial apoptosis at the late stages of infection. The α-helix structure spanning 67-79 amino acids of M protein is essential for mitochondrial targeting and induction of apoptosis. These results suggest that CVS functions on mitochondria to regulate apoptosis at different stages of infection, so as to for viral replication and dissemination. PMID:27426727

  13. Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields Induce Spermatogenic Germ Cell Apoptosis: Possible Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Kon; Park, Sungman; Gimm, Yoon-Myoung; Kim, Yoon-Won

    2014-01-01

    The energy generated by an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) is too weak to directly induce genotoxicity. However, it is reported that an extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) is related to DNA strand breakage and apoptosis. The testes that conduct spermatogenesis through a dynamic cellular process involving meiosis and mitosis seem vulnerable to external stress such as heat, MF exposure, and chemical or physical agents. Nevertheless the results regarding adverse effects of ELF-EMF on human or animal reproductive functions are inconclusive. According to the guideline of the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP; 2010) for limiting exposure to time-varying MF (1 Hz to 100 kHz), overall conclusion of epidemiologic studies has not consistently shown an association between human adverse reproductive outcomes and maternal or paternal exposure to low frequency fields. In animal studies there is no compelling evidence of causal relationship between prenatal development and ELF-MF exposure. However there is increasing evidence that EL-EMF exposure is involved with germ cell apoptosis in testes. Biophysical mechanism by which ELF-MF induces germ cell apoptosis has not been established. This review proposes the possible mechanism of germ cell apoptosis in testes induced by ELF-MF. PMID:25025060

  14. Apoptosis as anticancer mechanism: function and dysfunction of its modulators and targeted therapeutic strategies

    PubMed Central

    Pistritto, Giuseppa; Trisciuoglio, Daniela; Ceci, Claudia; Garufi, Alessia; D'Orazi, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death that results in the orderly and efficient removal of damaged cells, such as those resulting from DNA damage or during development. Apoptosis can be triggered by signals from within the cell, such as genotoxic stress, or by extrinsic signals, such as the binding of ligands to cell surface death receptors. Deregulation in apoptotic cell death machinery is an hallmark of cancer. Apoptosis alteration is responsible not only for tumor development and progression but also for tumor resistance to therapies. Most anticancer drugs currently used in clinical oncology exploit the intact apoptotic signaling pathways to trigger cancer cell death. Thus, defects in the death pathways may result in drug resistance so limiting the efficacy of therapies. Therefore, a better understanding of the apoptotic cell death signaling pathways may improve the efficacy of cancer therapy and bypass resistance. This review will highlight the role of the fundamental regulators of apoptosis and how their deregulation, including activation of anti-apoptotic factors (i.e., Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, etc) or inactivation of pro-apoptotic factors (i.e., p53 pathway) ends up in cancer cell resistance to therapies. In addition, therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating apoptotic activity are briefly discussed. PMID:27019364

  15. Mitochondrial Respiratory Pathways Inhibition in Rhizopus oryzae Potentiates Activity of Posaconazole and Itraconazole via Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Shirazi, Fazal; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of mucormycosis has increased drastically in immunocompromised patients. Also the array of targets whose inhibition results in Mucorales death is limited. Recently, researchers identified mitochondria as important regulators of detoxification and virulence mechanisms in fungi. In this context, targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain may provide a new platform for antifungal development. We hypothesized that targeting respiratory pathways potentiates triazoles activity via apoptosis. We found that simultaneous administration of antimycin A (AA) and benzohydroxamate (BHAM), inhibitors of classical and alternative mitochondrial pathways respectively, resulted in potent activity of posaconazole (PCZ) and itraconazole (ICZ) against Rhizopus oryzae. We observed cellular changes characteristic of apoptosis in R. oryzae cells treated with PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM. The fungicidal activity of this combination against R. oryzae was correlated with intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation (ROS), phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and increased caspase like activity. DNA fragmentation and condensation assays also revealed apoptosis of R. oryzae cells. These apoptotic features were prevented by the addition of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM makes R. oryzae exquisitely sensitive to treatment with triazoles via apoptosis. This strategy may serve as a new model for the development of improved or novel antifungal agents. PMID:23696824

  16. Mitochondrial respiratory pathways inhibition in Rhizopus oryzae potentiates activity of posaconazole and itraconazole via apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Fazal; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of mucormycosis has increased drastically in immunocompromised patients. Also the array of targets whose inhibition results in Mucorales death is limited. Recently, researchers identified mitochondria as important regulators of detoxification and virulence mechanisms in fungi. In this context, targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain may provide a new platform for antifungal development. We hypothesized that targeting respiratory pathways potentiates triazoles activity via apoptosis. We found that simultaneous administration of antimycin A (AA) and benzohydroxamate (BHAM), inhibitors of classical and alternative mitochondrial pathways respectively, resulted in potent activity of posaconazole (PCZ) and itraconazole (ICZ) against Rhizopus oryzae. We observed cellular changes characteristic of apoptosis in R. oryzae cells treated with PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM. The fungicidal activity of this combination against R. oryzae was correlated with intracellular reactive oxygen species accumulation (ROS), phosphatidylserine externalization, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and increased caspase like activity. DNA fragmentation and condensation assays also revealed apoptosis of R. oryzae cells. These apoptotic features were prevented by the addition of the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine. Taken together, these findings suggest that the use of PCZ or ICZ in combination with AA and BHAM makes R. oryzae exquisitely sensitive to treatment with triazoles via apoptosis. This strategy may serve as a new model for the development of improved or novel antifungal agents. PMID:23696824

  17. Apoptosis as anticancer mechanism: function and dysfunction of its modulators and targeted therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    Pistritto, Giuseppa; Trisciuoglio, Daniela; Ceci, Claudia; Garufi, Alessia; D'Orazi, Gabriella

    2016-04-01

    Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death that results in the orderly and efficient removal of damaged cells, such as those resulting from DNA damage or during development. Apoptosis can be triggered by signals from within the cell, such as genotoxic stress, or by extrinsic signals, such as the binding of ligands to cell surface death receptors. Deregulation in apoptotic cell death machinery is an hallmark of cancer. Apoptosis alteration is responsible not only for tumor development and progression but also for tumor resistance to therapies. Most anticancer drugs currently used in clinical oncology exploit the intact apoptotic signaling pathways to trigger cancer cell death. Thus, defects in the death pathways may result in drug resistance so limiting the efficacy of therapies. Therefore, a better understanding of the apoptotic cell death signaling pathways may improve the efficacy of cancer therapy and bypass resistance. This review will highlight the role of the fundamental regulators of apoptosis and how their deregulation, including activation of anti-apoptotic factors (i.e., Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, etc) or inactivation of pro-apoptotic factors (i.e., p53 pathway) ends up in cancer cell resistance to therapies. In addition, therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating apoptotic activity are briefly discussed. PMID:27019364

  18. ATM promotes apoptosis and suppresses tumorigenesis in response to Myc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pusapati, Raju V.; Rounbehler, Robert J.; Hong, Sungki; Powers, John T.; Yan, Mingshan; Kiguchi, Kaoru; McArthur, Mark J.; Wong, Paul K.; Johnson, David G.

    2006-01-01

    Overexpression of the c-myc oncogene contributes to the development of a significant number of human cancers. In response to deregulated Myc activity, the p53 tumor suppressor is activated to promote apoptosis and inhibit tumor formation. Here we demonstrate that p53 induction in response to Myc overexpression requires the ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase, a major regulator of the cellular response to DNA double-strand breaks. In a transgenic mouse model overexpressing Myc in squamous epithelial tissues, inactivation of Atm suppresses apoptosis and accelerates tumorigenesis. Deregulated Myc expression induces DNA damage in primary transgenic keratinocytes and the formation of H2AX and phospho-SMC1 foci in transgenic tissue. These findings suggest that Myc overexpression causes DNA damage in vivo and that the ATM-dependent response to this damage is critical for p53 activation, apoptosis, and the suppression of tumor development. p53 | DNA damage

  19. A limited autoimmunity to p185neu elicited by DNA and allogeneic cell vaccine hampers the progression of preneoplastic lesions in HER-2/NEU transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Lo Iacono, M; Cavallo, F; Quaglino, E; Rolla, S; Iezzi, M; Pupa, S M; De Giovanni, C; Lollini, P-L; Musiani, P; Forni, G; Calogero, R A

    2005-01-01

    Prevention of the progression of precancerous lesions by vaccines is virtually uncharted territory. Their potential, however, is being assessed in transgenic mice which develop autochthonous tumors with defined stages of progression. In this paper we show that the DNA micro-array technology significantly helps assessment of the preventive efficacy of a combined DNA and cell vaccine. All female rat Her-2/neu transgenic BALB/c (BALB-neuT) mice develop an invasive carcinoma in each of their mammary glands within 25 weeks of age. This is elicited by the activated transforming rat Her-2/neu oncogene embedded in their genome. We have previously shown that vaccination of mice bearing multiple in situ carcinomas with DNA plasmids which code for the extracellular and transmembrane domain of rat p185neu, the product of the rat Her-2/neu oncogene, followed by a boost with rat p185neu+ allogeneic cells engineered to secrete interferon-gamma, keeps 48% of mice tumor free until week 32. We have now extended our follow-up until mice reach one year of age and show that protection vanishes as time progresses. This observation suggests that the accuracy of the results studying immunotherapy against life-threatening tumors is a function of the length of the follow-up. The application of microarrays, and the concordance of morphologic and gene expression data led us to identify antibody as the main mechanism induced by vaccination. Protection is associated with a break of tolerance and a limited autoimmunity against the endogenous mouse p185neu. PMID:15888257

  20. Pre-Columbian origins of Native American dog breeds, with only limited replacement by European dogs, confirmed by mtDNA analysis.

    PubMed

    van Asch, Barbara; Zhang, Ai-bing; Oskarsson, Mattias C R; Klütsch, Cornelya F C; Amorim, António; Savolainen, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Dogs were present in pre-Columbian America, presumably brought by early human migrants from Asia. Studies of free-ranging village/street dogs have indicated almost total replacement of these original dogs by European dogs, but the extent to which Arctic, North and South American breeds are descendants of the original population remains to be assessed. Using a comprehensive phylogeographic analysis, we traced the origin of the mitochondrial DNA lineages for Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dogs, Alaskan Malamute, Chihuahua, xoloitzcuintli and perro sín pelo del Peru, by comparing to extensive samples of East Asian (n = 984) and European dogs (n = 639), and previously published pre-Columbian sequences. Evidence for a pre-Columbian origin was found for all these breeds, except Alaskan Malamute for which results were ambigous. No European influence was indicated for the Arctic breeds Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dog, and North/South American breeds had at most 30% European female lineages, suggesting marginal replacement by European dogs. Genetic continuity through time was shown by the sharing of a unique haplotype between the Mexican breed Chihuahua and ancient Mexican samples. We also analysed free-ranging dogs, confirming limited pre-Columbian ancestry overall, but also identifying pockets of remaining populations with high proportion of indigenous ancestry, and we provide the first DNA-based evidence that the Carolina dog, a free-ranging population in the USA, may have an ancient Asian origin. PMID:23843389

  1. Limited DNA methylation variation and the transcription of MET1 and DDM1 in the genus Chrysanthemum (Asteraceae): following the track of polyploidy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibin; Qi, Xiangyu; Chen, Sumei; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidy has been recognized as a widespread and common phenomenon among flowering plants. DNA-5'-CCGG site cytosine methylation (C-methylation) is one of the major and immediate epigenetic responses of the plant genome. Elucidating the ways in which altered C-methylation patterns, either at the whole genomic level or at specific sites can affect genome stability in polyploidy will require substantial additional investigation. Methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism profiling was used to evaluate variation in C-methylation among a set of 20 Chrysanthemum species and their close relatives of varying ploidy levels from diploid to decaploid. The range in relative C-methylation level was within 10%, and there was no significant difference neither between different ploidy levels nor between different species in the same ploidy level (U-values < 1.96). The transcript abundances of MET1 and DDM1 genes, which both involved in the regulation of C-methylation at CpG sites, were enhanced with increased ploidy level, but only MET1 was positively correlated with the nuclear DNA content. Considering the key role and efficiency of MET1 in maintaining CpG methylation, the limited variation observed with respect to C-methylation may reflect a balance between the increased activity of MET1 in the higher ploidy genomes and the larger number of CpG dinucleotide sites available for methylation. PMID:26379692

  2. ΔNp63 activates the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway and limits the efficacy of cisplatin treatment in squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Bretz, Anne Catherine; Gittler, Miriam P; Charles, Joël P; Gremke, Niklas; Eckhardt, Ines; Mernberger, Marco; Mandic, Robert; Thomale, Jürgen; Nist, Andrea; Wanzel, Michael; Stiewe, Thorsten

    2016-04-20

    TP63, a member of the p53 gene family gene, encodes the ΔNp63 protein and is one of the most frequently amplified genes in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the head and neck (HNSCC) and lungs (LUSC). Using an epiallelic series of siRNAs with intrinsically different knockdown abilities, we show that the complete loss of ΔNp63 strongly impaired cell proliferation, whereas partial ΔNp63 depletion rendered cells hypersensitive to cisplatin accompanied by an accumulation of DNA damage. Expression profiling revealed wide-spread transcriptional regulation of DNA repair genes and in particular Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway components such as FANCD2 and RAD18 - known to be crucial for the repair of cisplatin-induced interstrand crosslinks. In SCC patients ΔNp63 levels significantly correlate with FANCD2 and RAD18 expression confirming ΔNp63 as a key activator of the FA pathwayin vivo Mechanistically, ΔNp63 bound an upstream enhancer of FANCD2 inactive in primary keratinocytes but aberrantly activated by ΔNp63 in SCC. Consistently, depletion of FANCD2 sensitized to cisplatin similar to depletion of ΔNp63. Together, our results demonstrate that ΔNp63 directly activates the FA pathway in SCC and limits the efficacy of cisplatin treatment. Targeting ΔNp63 therefore would not only inhibit SCC proliferation but also sensitize tumors to chemotherapy. PMID:26819410

  3. ΔNp63 activates the Fanconi anemia DNA repair pathway and limits the efficacy of cisplatin treatment in squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Bretz, Anne Catherine; Gittler, Miriam P.; Charles, Joël P.; Gremke, Niklas; Eckhardt, Ines; Mernberger, Marco; Mandic, Robert; Thomale, Jürgen; Nist, Andrea; Wanzel, Michael; Stiewe, Thorsten

    2016-01-01

    TP63, a member of the p53 gene family gene, encodes the ΔNp63 protein and is one of the most frequently amplified genes in squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the head and neck (HNSCC) and lungs (LUSC). Using an epiallelic series of siRNAs with intrinsically different knockdown abilities, we show that the complete loss of ΔNp63 strongly impaired cell proliferation, whereas partial ΔNp63 depletion rendered cells hypersensitive to cisplatin accompanied by an accumulation of DNA damage. Expression profiling revealed wide-spread transcriptional regulation of DNA repair genes and in particular Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway components such as FANCD2 and RAD18 - known to be crucial for the repair of cisplatin-induced interstrand crosslinks. In SCC patients ΔNp63 levels significantly correlate with FANCD2 and RAD18 expression confirming ΔNp63 as a key activator of the FA pathway in vivo. Mechanistically, ΔNp63 bound an upstream enhancer of FANCD2 inactive in primary keratinocytes but aberrantly activated by ΔNp63 in SCC. Consistently, depletion of FANCD2 sensitized to cisplatin similar to depletion of ΔNp63. Together, our results demonstrate that ΔNp63 directly activates the FA pathway in SCC and limits the efficacy of cisplatin treatment. Targeting ΔNp63 therefore would not only inhibit SCC proliferation but also sensitize tumors to chemotherapy. PMID:26819410

  4. Limited DNA methylation variation and the transcription of MET1 and DDM1 in the genus Chrysanthemum (Asteraceae): following the track of polyploidy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haibin; Qi, Xiangyu; Chen, Sumei; Fang, Weimin; Guan, Zhiyong; Teng, Nianjun; Liao, Yuan; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Fadi

    2015-01-01

    Polyploidy has been recognized as a widespread and common phenomenon among flowering plants. DNA-5′-CCGG site cytosine methylation (C-methylation) is one of the major and immediate epigenetic responses of the plant genome. Elucidating the ways in which altered C-methylation patterns, either at the whole genomic level or at specific sites can affect genome stability in polyploidy will require substantial additional investigation. Methylation sensitive amplification polymorphism profiling was used to evaluate variation in C-methylation among a set of 20 Chrysanthemum species and their close relatives of varying ploidy levels from diploid to decaploid. The range in relative C-methylation level was within 10%, and there was no significant difference neither between different ploidy levels nor between different species in the same ploidy level (U-values < 1.96). The transcript abundances of MET1 and DDM1 genes, which both involved in the regulation of C-methylation at CpG sites, were enhanced with increased ploidy level, but only MET1 was positively correlated with the nuclear DNA content. Considering the key role and efficiency of MET1 in maintaining CpG methylation, the limited variation observed with respect to C-methylation may reflect a balance between the increased activity of MET1 in the higher ploidy genomes and the larger number of CpG dinucleotide sites available for methylation. PMID:26379692

  5. The phage growth limitation system in Streptomyces coelicolor A(3)2 is a toxin/antitoxin system, comprising enzymes with DNA methyltransferase, protein kinase and ATPase activity

    PubMed Central

    Hoskisson, Paul A.; Sumby, Paul; Smith, Margaret C.M.

    2015-01-01

    The phage growth limitation system of Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) is an unusual bacteriophage defence mechanism. Progeny ϕC31 phage from an initial infection are thought to be modified such that subsequent infections are attenuated in a Pgl+ host but normal in a Pgl− strain. Earlier work identified four genes required for phage resistance by Pgl. Here we demonstrate that Pgl is an elaborate and novel phage restriction system that, in part, comprises a toxin/antitoxin system where PglX, a DNA methyltransferase is toxic in the absence of a functional PglZ. In addition, the ATPase activity of PglY and a protein kinase activity in PglW are shown to be essential for phage resistance by Pgl. We conclude that on infection of a Pgl+ cell by bacteriophage ϕC31, PglW transduces a signal, probably via phosphorylation, to other Pgl proteins resulting in the activation of the DNA methyltransferase, PglX and this leads to phage restriction. PMID:25592393

  6. Pre-Columbian origins of Native American dog breeds, with only limited replacement by European dogs, confirmed by mtDNA analysis

    PubMed Central

    van Asch, Barbara; Zhang, Ai-bing; Oskarsson, Mattias C. R.; Klütsch, Cornelya F. C.; Amorim, António; Savolainen, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Dogs were present in pre-Columbian America, presumably brought by early human migrants from Asia. Studies of free-ranging village/street dogs have indicated almost total replacement of these original dogs by European dogs, but the extent to which Arctic, North and South American breeds are descendants of the original population remains to be assessed. Using a comprehensive phylogeographic analysis, we traced the origin of the mitochondrial DNA lineages for Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dogs, Alaskan Malamute, Chihuahua, xoloitzcuintli and perro sín pelo del Peru, by comparing to extensive samples of East Asian (n = 984) and European dogs (n = 639), and previously published pre-Columbian sequences. Evidence for a pre-Columbian origin was found for all these breeds, except Alaskan Malamute for which results were ambigous. No European influence was indicated for the Arctic breeds Inuit, Eskimo and Greenland dog, and North/South American breeds had at most 30% European female lineages, suggesting marginal replacement by European dogs. Genetic continuity through time was shown by the sharing of a unique haplotype between the Mexican breed Chihuahua and ancient Mexican samples. We also analysed free-ranging dogs, confirming limited pre-Columbian ancestry overall, but also identifying pockets of remaining populations with high proportion of indigenous ancestry, and we provide the first DNA-based evidence that the Carolina dog, a free-ranging population in the USA, may have an ancient Asian origin. PMID:23843389

  7. Calpains, mitochondria, and apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Matthew A.; Schnellmann, Rick G.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial activity is critical for efficient function of the cardiovascular system. In response to cardiovascular injury, mitochondrial dysfunction occurs and can lead to apoptosis and necrosis. Calpains are a 15-member family of Ca2+-activated cysteine proteases localized to the cytosol and mitochondria, and several have been shown to regulate apoptosis and necrosis. For example, in endothelial cells, Ca2+ overload causes mitochondrial calpain 1 cleavage of the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger leading to mitochondrial Ca2+ accumulation. Also, activated calpain 1 cleaves Bid, inducing cytochrome c release and apoptosis. In renal cells, calpains 1 and 2 promote apoptosis and necrosis by cleaving cytoskeletal proteins, which increases plasma membrane permeability and cleavage of caspases. Calpain 10 cleaves electron transport chain proteins, causing decreased mitochondrial respiration and excessive activation, or inhibition of calpain 10 activity induces mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. In cardiomyocytes, calpain 1 activates caspase 3 and poly-ADP ribose polymerase during tumour necrosis factor-α-induced apoptosis, and calpain 1 cleaves apoptosis-inducing factor after Ca2+ overload. Many of these observations have been elucidated with calpain inhibitors, but most calpain inhibitors are not specific for calpains or a specific calpain family member, creating more questions. The following review will discuss how calpains affect mitochondrial function and apoptosis within the cardiovascular system. PMID:22581845

  8. Targeting the Apoptosis Pathway in Hematologic Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Shadia; Wang, Rui; Gandhi, Varsha

    2014-01-01

    Apoptosis is a cell death program that is well-orchestrated for normal tissue homeostasis and for removal of damaged, old, or infected cells. It is regulated by intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. The intrinsic pathway responds to signals such as ultraviolet radiation or DNA damage and activates “executioner” caspases through a mitochondria-dependent pathway. The extrinsic pathway is activated by death signals induced, for example, by an infection that activates the immune system or receptor-mediated pathways. The extrinsic pathway signals also cascade down to executioner caspases that cleave target proteins and lead to cell death. Strict control of cellular apoptosis is important for the hematopoietic system as it has a high turnover rate. However, the apoptosis program is often deregulated in hematologic malignancies leading to the accumulation of malignant cells. Therefore, apoptosis pathways have been identified for development of anticancer therapeutics. We review here the proteins that have been targeted for anticancer drug development in hematologic malignancies. These include BCL-2 family proteins, death ligands and receptors, inhibitor of apoptosis family proteins, and caspases. Except for caspase activators, drugs that target each of these classes of proteins have advanced into clinical trials. PMID:24295132

  9. A chemoprotective fish oil/pectin diet enhances apoptosis via Bcl-2 promoter methylation in rat azoxymethane-induced carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Youngmi; Turner, Nancy D; Davidson, Laurie A; Chapkin, Robert S; Carroll, Raymond J; Lupton, Joanne R

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated that diets containing fish oil and pectin (FO/P) reduce colon tumor incidence relative to control (corn oil and cellulose [CO/C]) in part by inducing apoptosis of DNA-damaged colon cells. Relative to FO/P, CO/C promotes colonocyte expression of the antiapoptotic modulator, Bcl-2, and Bcl-2 promoter methylation is altered in colon cancer. To determine if FO/P, compared with CO/C, limits Bcl-2 expression by enhancing promoter methylation in colon tumors, we examined Bcl-2 promoter methylation, mRNA levels, colonocyte apoptosis and colon tumor incidence in azoxymethane (AOM)-injected rats. Rats were provided diets containing FO/P or CO/C, and were terminated 16 and 34 weeks after AOM injection. DNA isolated from paraformaldehyde-fixed colon tumors and uninvolved tissue was bisulfite modified and amplified by quantitative reverese transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction to assess DNA methylation in Bcl-2 cytosine–guanosine islands. FO/P increased Bcl-2 promoter methylation (P = 0.009) in tumor tissues and colonocyte apoptosis (P = 0.020) relative to CO/C. An inverse correlation between Bcl-2 DNA methylation and Bcl-2 mRNA levels was observed in the tumors. We conclude that dietary FO/P promotes apoptosis in part by enhancing Bcl-2 promoter methylation. These Bcl-2 promoter methylation responses, measured in vivo, contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms involved in chemoprevention of colon cancer by diets containing FO/P. PMID:23354397

  10. DNA Damage and Repair in Vascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Uryga, Anna; Gray, Kelly; Bennett, Martin

    2016-01-01

    DNA damage affecting both genomic and mitochondrial DNA is present in a variety of both inherited and acquired vascular diseases. Multiple cell types show persistent DNA damage and a range of lesions. In turn, DNA damage activates a variety of DNA repair mechanisms, many of which are activated in vascular disease. Such DNA repair mechanisms either stall the cell cycle to allow repair to occur or trigger apoptosis or cell senescence to prevent propagation of damaged DNA. Recent evidence has indicated that DNA damage occurs early, is progressive, and is sufficient to impair function of cells composing the vascular wall. The consequences of persistent genomic and mitochondrial DNA damage, including inflammation, cell senescence, and apoptosis, are present in vascular disease. DNA damage can thus directly cause vascular disease, opening up new possibilities for both prevention and treatment. We review the evidence for and the causes, types, and consequences of DNA damage in vascular disease. PMID:26442438

  11. CYTOMETRY OF APOPTOSIS. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND NEW ADVANCES

    PubMed Central

    Wlodkowic, D.; Skommer, J.; Darzynkiewicz, Z.

    2012-01-01

    Characteristic changes in cell morphology paralleled by the appearance of a multitude of molecular and biochemical markers occur during apoptosis. These changes vary depending on the cell type, mechanism of induction of apoptosis, and the time-window at which the process of apoptosis is analyzed. By virtue of the capability of rapid measurement of individual cells the flow- and imaging-cytometry become preferred technologies to detect, identify and record incidence of apoptosis in large cell populations. It also provided a valuable tool to investigate molecular mechanisms in field of necrobiology. This review outlines the progress in development of the most commonly used cytometric methods probing cells death based on analysis of fragmentation of DNA, activation of caspases, analysis of mitochondrial potential, alterations in plasma membrane structure and other features that characterize programmed cell death. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled “Apoptosis: Four Decades Later”. PMID:23070010

  12. [GPI-Pr Deficiency and Apoptosis of PNH Granulocytes

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai-Li; Xu, Cai-Min; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Lu, Zhao-Jiang; Pan, Hua-Zhen; Zhang, Zhi-Nan

    2001-09-01

    To study the relationship of Glycosyl phosphatidylinositol anchored proteins (GIP-Pr) and apoptosis of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) cells, we isolated peripheral granulocytes from 10 patients with PNH and 10 normal controls and measured apoptosis induced by serum starvation. The FCM analysis of phosphotidylserine (ps) externalization in granulocytes was determined using Annexin-V-FLUOS labeling. After the cells were induced for apoptosis in serum-free medium for 20 hours, the percentage of externalization was 78.6% in normal control cells but 39.5% in PNH cells. The results of FCM analysis of PI stained granulocytes showed that the PI positive rate was 51.5% in control cells and 30.2% in PNH cells. The gel electrophoresis analysis of DNA fragmentation all indicate that PNH granulocytes were relatively resistant to apoptosis as compared with normal controls. This resistance to apoptosis might not be related to the percentage of CD59 deficient granulocytes. PMID:12578597

  13. Efficacy of an AC sinusoidal electric field for apoptosis induction in lung carcinoma cells (A549)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyoun-Hyang; Lee, Seung S.; Hoon Lee, Dae

    2012-08-01

    An AC sinusoidal electric field was applied to lung carcinoma cells for the induction of apoptosis. The occurrence of apoptosis was determined by analysis of Annexin V/PI and DNA fragmentation. Additional evidence of apoptosis was confirmed by caspase-3 cleavage and disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential. These results demonstrated that the expression of apoptosis can be controlled by varying the magnitude and the duration of the field, and that the application of an AC electric field can stimulate the apoptosis via mitochondria-mediated pathway.

  14. Permeability of human HT-29/B6 colonic epithelium as a function of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Bojarski, C; Gitter, A H; Bendfeldt, K; Mankertz, J; Schmitz, H; Wagner, S; Fromm, M; Schulzke, J D

    2001-01-01

    The barrier function of colonic epithelia is challenged by apoptotic loss of enterocytes. In monolayers of human colonic HT-29/B6 cells, apoptosis induced by camptothecin was assessed by poly-(ADP-ribose)-polymerase (PARP) cleavage, histone ELISA and DNA-specific fluorochrome staining (with 4′,6′-diamidino-2′-phenylindoladihydrochloride (DAPI)). Epithelial barrier function was studied in Ussing chambers by measuring transepithelial conductivity and unidirectional tracer fluxes. The ion permeability associated with single cell apoptoses was investigated with the conductance scanning technique. The spontaneous rate of apoptotic cells was 3.5 ± 0.3 % with an overall epithelial conductivity of 3.2 ± 0.1 mS cm−2. Camptothecin induced a time- and dose-dependent increase of apoptosis and permeability. With 20 μg ml−1 of camptothecin for 48 h, apoptosis increased 4.1-fold to 14.3 ± 1.5 % and the conductivity doubled to 6.4 ± 1.0 mS cm−2. While 3H-mannitol flux increased 3.8-fold and 3H-lactulose flux increased 2.6-fold, the flux of 3H-polyethylene glycol 4000 remained unchanged. Hence, the higher permeability was limited to molecules < 4000 Da. The local epithelial conductivity was higher at the sites of apoptosis than in non-apoptotic areas. With camptothecin the leaks associated with apoptosis became more numerous and more conductive, while in non-apoptotic areas the conductivity remained at control level. Hence, the camptothecin-induced increase in epithelial conductivity reflected the opening of apoptotic leaks and thus the results described, for the first time, epithelial permeability as a function of apoptosis only. The conductivity of apoptotic leaks contributed 5.5 % to the epithelial conductivity of controls and 60 % to the conductivity of monolayers treated with 20 μg ml−1 of camptothecin. Thus apoptosis increased the contribution of paracellular pathways to the overall epithelial permeability. Under control conditions the paracellular

  15. Bystander Macrophage Apoptosis after Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Deirdre M.; ten Bokum, Annemieke M. C.; O'Leary, Seonadh M.; O'Sullivan, Mary P.; Keane, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Human macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis may undergo apoptosis. Macrophage apoptosis contributes to the innate immune response against M. tuberculosis by containing and limiting the growth of mycobacteria and also by depriving the bacillus of its niche cell. Apoptosis of infected macrophages is well documented; however, bystander apoptosis of uninfected macrophages has not been described in the setting of M. tuberculosis. We observed that uninfected human macrophages underwent significant bystander apoptosis 48 and 96 h after they came into contact with macrophages infected with avirulent M. tuberculosis. The bystander apoptosis was significantly greater than the background apoptosis observed in uninfected control cells cultured for the same length of time. There was no evidence of the involvement of tumor necrosis factor alpha, Fas, tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, transforming growth factor β, Toll-like receptor 2, or MyD88 in contact-mediated bystander apoptosis. This newly described phenomenon may further limit the spread of M. tuberculosis by eliminating the niche cells on which the bacillus relies. PMID:17954721

  16. HYPOXIA-INDUCED GROWTH LIMITATION OF JUVENILE FISHES IN AN ESTUARINE NURSERY: ASSESSMENT OF SMALL-SCALE TEMPORAL DYNAMICS USING RNA:DNA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ratio of RNA to DNA (RNA:DNA) in white muscle tissue of juvenile summer flounder (Paralichthys dentatus) and weakfish (Cynoscion regalis) was used as a proxy for recent growth rate in an estuarine nursery. Variability in RNA:DNA was examined relative to temporal changes in te...

  17. Vanadate induces apoptosis in epidermal JB6 P+ cells via hydrogen peroxide-mediated reactions.

    PubMed

    Ye, J; Ding, M; Leonard, S S; Robinson, V A; Millecchia, L; Zhang, X; Castranova, V; Vallyathan, V; Shi, X

    1999-12-01

    Apoptosis is a physiological mechanism for the control of DNA integrity in mammalian cells. Vanadium induces both DNA damage and apoptosis. It is suggested that vanadium-induced apoptosis serves to eliminate DNA-damaged cells. This study is designed to clarify a role of reactive oxygen species in the mechanism of apoptosis induced by vanadium. We established apoptosis model with murine epidermal JB6 P+ cells in the response to vanadium stimulation. Apoptosis was detected by a cell death ELISA assay and morphological analysis. The result shows that apoptosis induced by vanadate is dose-dependent, reaching its saturation level at a concentration of 100 microM vanadate. Vanadyl (IV) can also induce apoptosis albeit with lesser potency. A role of reactive oxygen species was analyzed by multiple reagents including specific scavengers of different reactive oxygen species. The result shows that vanadate-induced apoptosis is enhanced by NADPH, superoxide dismutase and sodium formate, but was inhibited by catalase and deferoxamine. Cells exposed to vanadium consume more molecular oxygen and at the same time, produce more H2O2 as measured by the change in fluorescence of scopoletin in the presence of horseradish peroxidase. This change in oxygen consumption and H2O2 production is enhanced by NADPH. Taken together, these results show that vanadate induces apoptosis in epidermal cells and H2O2 induced by vanadate plays a major role in this process. PMID:10705990

  18. Induction of apoptosis by sphingoid long-chain bases in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jijun; Park, Tae-Sik; Chio, Li-Chun; Fischl, Anthony S; Ye, Xiang S

    2003-01-01

    Sphingolipid metabolism is implicated to play an important role in apoptosis. Here we show that dihydrosphingosine (DHS) and phytosphingosine (PHS), two major sphingoid bases of fungi, have potent fungicidal activity with remarkably high structural and stereochemical specificity against Aspergillus nidulans. In fact, only naturally occurring DHS and PHS are active. Further analysis revealed that DHS and PHS induce rapid DNA condensation independent of mitosis, large-scale DNA fragmentation, and exposure of phosphatidylserine, all common morphological features characteristic of apoptosis, suggesting that DHS and PHS induce apoptosis in A. nidulans. The finding that DNA fragmentation requires protein synthesis, which implies that an active process is involved, further supports this proposition. The induction of apoptosis by DHS and PHS is associated with the rapid accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, ROS are not required for apoptosis induced by DHS and PHS, as scavenging of ROS by a free radical spin trap has no effect. We further demonstrate that apoptosis induced by DHS and PHS is independent of metacaspase function but requires mitochondrial function. Together, the results suggest that DHS and PHS induce a type of apoptosis in A. nidulans most similar to the caspase-independent apoptosis observed in mammalian systems. As A. nidulans is genetically tractable, this organism should be an ideal model system for dissecting sphingolipid signaling in apoptosis and, importantly, for further elucidating the molecular basis of caspase-independent apoptosis. PMID:12482970

  19. Hyperglycemia Differentially Affects Maternal and Fetal DNA Integrity and DNA Damage Response

    PubMed Central

    Moreli, Jusciele B.; Santos, Janine H.; Lorenzon-Ojea, Aline Rodrigues; Corrêa-Silva, Simone; Fortunato, Rodrigo S.; Rocha, Clarissa Ribeiro; Rudge, Marilza V.; Damasceno, Débora C.; Bevilacqua, Estela; Calderon, Iracema M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Investigate the DNA damage and its cellular response in blood samples from both mother and the umbilical cord of pregnancies complicated by hyperglycemia. Methods: A total of 144 subjects were divided into 4 groups: normoglycemia (ND; 46 cases), mild gestational hyperglycemia (MGH; 30 cases), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; 45 cases) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (DM2; 23 cases). Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) isolation and/or leukocytes from whole maternal and umbilical cord blood were obtained from all groups at delivery. Nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage were measured by gene-specific quantitative PCR, and the expression of mRNA and proteins involved in the base excision repair (BER) pathway were assessed by real-time qPCR and Western blot, respectively. Apoptosis was measured in vitro experiments by caspase 3/7 activity and ATP levels. Results: GDM and DM2 groups were characterized by an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers, an increase in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage, and decreased expression of mRNA (APE1, POLβ and FEN1) and proteins (hOGG1, APE1) involved in BER. The levels of hyperglycemia were associated with the in vitro apoptosis pathway. Blood levels of DNA damage in umbilical cord were similar among the groups. Newborns of diabetic mothers had increased expression of BER mRNA (APE1, POLβ and FEN1) and proteins (hOGG1, APE1, POLβ and FEN1). A diabetes-like environment was unable to induce apoptosis in the umbilical cord blood cells. Conclusions: Our data show relevant asymmetry between maternal and fetal blood cell susceptibility to DNA damage and apoptosis induction. Maternal cells seem to be more predisposed to changes in an adverse glucose environment. This may be due to differential ability in upregulating multiple genes involved in the activation of DNA repair response, especially the BER mechanism. However if this study shows a more effective adaptive response by the fetal organism, it also calls for

  20. Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Suppresses Apoptosis and Promotes Renal Tubular Regeneration After Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Migita, Heihachi; Yoshitake, Shigenori; Tange, Yoshihiro; Choijookhuu, Narantsog; Hishikawa, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Background: Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury remains a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), in addition to I/R injury-induced tissue inflammation, necrosis and apoptosis. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) is defined as a treatment in which a patient is intermittently exposed to 100% oxygen pressurized to a pressure above sea level (> 2.0 atmospheres absolute (ATA), 1.0 ATA = 760 mmHg). It has been used in a number of medical conditions with a proven efficacy in a limited number of disorders. However, the effects of HBO therapy on apoptosis and proliferative activity after I/R injury have not been fully understood. Objectives: We studied the possible beneficial effects of HBO therapy on apoptosis and tubular cell regeneration after renal I/R injury in rats. Materials and Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into three groups: Sham (Sham-operated rats); I/R (animals submitted to I/R); and I/R + HBO (I/R rats exposed to HBO). Tubular cell apoptosis was confirmed by DNA laddering and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated uridine triphosphate nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Cellular proliferation activity was determined using the anti-Ki-67 antibody. Results: A significant decrease in apoptotic cells and increase in proliferative reaction were observed in the I/R + HBO group compared to the I/R group. Conclusions: We demonstrated that HBO suppressed apoptosis, which caused inflammation after renal I/R, and promoted tubular cell regeneration. HBO has protective effects against AKI caused by renal I/R through the inhibition of apoptosis. PMID:26981502

  1. A novel method for detection of apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Zagariya, Alexander M.

    2012-04-15

    There are two different Angiotensin II (ANG II) peptides in nature: Human type (ANG II) and Bovine type (ANG II*). These eight amino acid peptides differ only at position 5 where Valine is replaced by Isoleucine in the Bovine type. They are present in all species studied so far. These amino acids are different by only one atom of carbon. This difference is so small, that it will allow any of ANG II, Bovine or Human antibodies to interact with all species and create a universal method for apoptosis detection. ANG II concentrations are found at substantially higher levels in apoptotic, compared to non-apoptotic, tissues. ANG II accumulation can lead to DNA damage, mutations, carcinogenesis and cell death. We demonstrate that Bovine antiserum can be used for universal detection of apoptosis. In 2010, the worldwide market for apoptosis detection reached the $20 billion mark and significantly increases each year. Most commercially available methods are related to Annexin V and TUNNEL. Our new method based on ANG II is more widely known to physicians and scientists compared to previously used methods. Our approach offers a novel alternative for assessing apoptosis activity with enhanced sensitivity, at a lower cost and ease of use.

  2. Sodium orthovanadate inhibits p53-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Morita, Akinori; Yamamoto, Shinichi; Wang, Bing; Tanaka, Kaoru; Suzuki, Norio; Aoki, Shin; Ito, Azusa; Nanao, Tomohisa; Ohya, Soichiro; Yoshino, Minako; Zhu, Jin; Enomoto, Atsushi; Matsumoto, Yoshihisa; Funatsu, Osamu; Hosoi, Yoshio; Ikekita, Masahiko

    2010-01-01

    Sodium orthovanadate (vanadate) inhibits the DNA-binding activity of p53, but its precise effects on p53 function have not been examined. Here, we show that vanadate exerts a potent antiapoptotic activity through both transcription-dependent and transcription-independent mechanisms relative to other p53 inhibitors, including pifithrin (PFT) alpha. We compared the effects of vanadate to PFTalpha and PFTmicro, an inhibitor of transcription-independent apoptosis by p53. Vanadate suppressed p53-associated apoptotic events at the mitochondria, including the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the conformational change of Bax and Bak, the mitochondrial translocation of p53, and the interaction of p53 with Bcl-2. Similarly, vanadate suppressed the apoptosis-inducing activity of a mitochondrially targeted temperature-sensitive p53 in stable transfectants of SaOS-2 cells. In radioprotection assays, which rely on p53, vanadate completely protected mice from a sublethal dose of 8 Gy and partially from a lethal dose of 12 Gy. Together, our findings indicated that vanadate effectively suppresses p53-mediated apoptosis by both transcription-dependent and transcription-independent pathways, and suggested that both pathways must be inhibited to completely block p53-mediated apoptosis. PMID:20048077

  3. Limit of detection of genomic DNA by conventional PCR for estimating the load of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli associated with bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Chandrashekhar, K M; Isloor, Shrikrishna; Veeresh, B H; Hegde, Raveendra; Rathnamma, D; Murag, Shivaraj; Veeregowda, B M; Upendra, H A; Hegde, Nagendra R

    2015-11-01

    Detection of mastitis-associated bacteria can be accomplished by culturing or by molecular techniques. On the other hand, rapid and inexpensive methods to enumerate bacterial load without culturing can be better achieved by molecular methods. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are the predominant bacterial pathogens associated with bovine mastitis. Here, we describe the application of conventional PCR for the limit of detection (LOD) of genomic DNA of S. aureus and E. coli based on single-copy genes. The selected genes were thermonuclease (nuc), aureolysin (aur), and staphopain A (scpA) for S. aureus and β-D-glucuronidase A (uidA), cytochrome d oxidase (cyd), and rodA (a gene affecting cell shape and methicillin sensitivity) for E. coli. The LOD was 5.3, 15.9, and 143 pg for aur, nuc, and scpA genes, corresponding to S. aureus genomic copies of 1.75 × 10(3), 5.16 × 10(3), and 4.71 × 10(4), respectively. The LOD was 0.45, 12.3 and 109 pg for uidA, rodA and cyd genes, corresponding to E. coli genome copies of 8.91 × 10(1), 2.43 × 10(3), and 2.16 × 10(4), respectively. Application of uidA and aur PCRs to field strains revealed that as low as approximately 100 genome copies of E. coli and 1000-10,000 copies of S. aureus could be detected. This study is the first to report LOD of genomic DNA using conventional PCR for aur and scpA genes of S. aureus, and rodA and cyd genes of E. coli. The results should be useful for developing assays to assess bacterial load in milk and to determine the load that contributes to subclinical or clinical mastitis. PMID:25773783

  4. Apoptosis in Anthracycline Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jianjian; Abdelwahid, Eltyeb; Wei, Lei

    2011-01-01

    Apoptosis is a tightly regulated physiologic process of programmed cell death that occurs in both normal and pathologic tissues. Numerous in vitro or in vivo studies have indicated that cardiomyocyte death through apoptosis and necrosis is a primary contributor to the progression of anthracycline-induced cardiomyopathy. There are now several pieces of evidence to suggest that activation of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways contribute to anthracycline-induced apoptosis in the heart. Novel strategies were developed to address a wide variety of cardiotoxic mechanisms and apoptotic pathways by which anthracycline influences cardiac structure and function. Anthracycline-induced apoptosis provides a very valid representation of cardiotoxicity in the heart, an argument which has implications for the most appropriate animal models of damaged heart plus diverse pharmacological effects. In this review we describe various aspects of the current understanding of apoptotic cell death triggered by anthracycline. Differences in the sensitivity to anthracycline-induced apoptosis between young and adult hearts are also discussed. PMID:22212952

  5. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 mediates denbinobin-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Chen-Tzu; Chen, Bing-Chang; Yu, Chung-Chi; Weng, Chih-Ming; Hsu, Ming-Jen; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chen, Mei-Chieh; Teng, Che-Ming; Pan, Shiow-Lin; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Shih, Chung-Hung; Lin, Chien-Huang

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we explore the role of apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) in denbinobin-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells. Denbinobin-induced cell apoptosis was attenuated by an ASK1 dominant-negative mutant (ASK1DN), two antioxidants (N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) and glutathione (GSH)), a c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor (SP600125), and an activator protein-1 (AP-1) inhibitor (curcumin). Treatment of A549 cells with denbinobin caused increases in ASK1 activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and these effects were inhibited by NAC and GSH. Stimulation of A549 cells with denbinobin caused JNK activation; this effect was markedly inhibited by NAC, GSH, and ASK1DN. Denbinobin induced c-Jun phosphorylation, the formation of an AP-1-specific DNA-protein complex, and Bim expression. Bim knockdown using a bim short interfering RNA strategy also reduced denbinobin-induced A549 cell apoptosis. The denbinobin-mediated increases in c-Jun phosphorylation and Bim expression were inhibited by NAC, GSH, SP600125, ASK1DN, JNK1DN, and JNK2DN. These results suggest that denbinobin might activate ASK1 through ROS production to cause JNK/AP-1 activation, which in turn induces Bim expression, and ultimately results in A549 cell apoptosis. PMID:19405983

  6. Effects of 5-azacytidine and butyrate on differentiation and apoptosis of hepatic cancer cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X M; Wang, X; Li, J; Evers, B M

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the cellular effects of 5-azacytidine (5-azaC) and sodium butyrate on two human liver cancers, HepG2 and Hep3B. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Primary liver cancer is a significant health problem; treatment options are limited and prognosis is poor. Recent studies have focused on the role that programmed cell death (i.e., apoptosis) plays in both normal and neoplastic growth: certain genes can either suppress (e.g., Bcl-2, Bcl-xL) or promote (e.g., Bik, Bax, Bak) apoptosis. The identification of novel agents targeted to specific molecular pathways may be beneficial in the treatment of this disease. METHODS: Human liver cancer cell lines HepG2 and Hep3B were treated with 5-azaC alone, butyrate alone, or 5-azaC and butyrate. Morphologic and proliferative changes were assessed by light microscopy and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine staining; flow cytometry was used to determine cell cycle characteristics. Apoptosis was assessed by DNA laddering and the in situ apoptosis detection assay using the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. In addition, total RNA and protein were analyzed by ribonuclease protection and Western blot, respectively, to assess changes in the expression of apoptosis-related genes. RESULTS: Treatment with either 5-azaC or butyrate inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in both HepG2 and Hep3B cells; the combination of 5-azaC and butyrate was not more effective than either agent alone. 5-azaC alone resulted in a more differentiated-appearing morphology and G2 cell cycle arrest in both cell lines. Treatment with 5-azaC or butyrate affected the expression levels of proteins of the Bcl-2 family. CONCLUSIONS: Both 5-azaC and butyrate induced apoptosis in the HepG2 and Hep3B liver cancer cells; 5-azaC treatment alone produced G2 arrest in both cell lines. Proteins of the Bcl-2 family may play a role in the cellular changes that occur with treatment, but further studies are required to define this potential role. Products of the

  7. Analysis of Residual DSBs in Ataxia-Telangiectasia Lymphoblast Cells Initiating Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Anglada, Teresa; Terradas, Mariona; Hernández, Laia; Genescà, Anna; Martín, Marta

    2016-01-01

    In order to examine the relationship between accumulation of residual DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and cell death, we have used a control and an ATM (Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated) defective cell line, as Ataxia-Telangiectasia (AT) cells tend to accumulate residual DSBs at long times after damage infliction. After irradiation, AT cells showed checkpoint impairment and a fraction of cells displayed an abnormal centrosome number and tetraploid DNA content, and this fraction increased along with apoptosis rates. At all times analyzed, AT cells displayed a significantly higher rate of radiation-induced apoptosis than normal cells. Besides apoptosis, 70–85% of the AT viable cells (TUNEL-negative) carried ≥10 γH2AX foci/cell, while only 12–27% of normal cells did. The fraction of AT and normal cells undergoing early and late apoptosis were isolated by flow cytometry and residual DSBs were concretely scored in these populations. Half of the γH2AX-positive AT cells undergoing early apoptosis carried ≥10 γH2AX foci/cell and this fraction increased to 75% in late apoptosis. The results suggest that retention of DNA damage-induced γH2AX foci is an indicative of lethal DNA damage, as cells undergoing apoptosis are those accumulating more DSBs. Scoring of residual γH2AX foci might function as a predictive tool to assess radiation-induced apoptosis. PMID:27057549

  8. Apoptosis: A Four-Week Laboratory Investigation for Advanced Molecular and Cellular Biology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiBartolomeis, Susan M.; Mone, James P.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, apoptosis has emerged as an important field of study central to ongoing research in many diverse fields, from developmental biology to cancer research. Apoptosis proceeds by a highly coordinated series of events that includes enzyme activation, DNA fragmentation, and alterations in plasma membrane permeability. The detection…

  9. Host Immune Defense Peptide LL-37 Activates Caspase-Independent Apoptosis and Suppresses Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Shun X.; Cheng, Alfred S.L.; To, Ka F.; Tong, Joanna H.M.; Li, May S.; Shen, Jin; Wong, Clover C.M.; Zhang, Lin; Chan, Ruby L.Y.; Wang, Xiao J.; Ng, Simon S.M.; Chiu, Lawrence C.M.; Marquez, Victor E.; Gallo, Richard L.; Chan, Francis K.L.; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph J.Y.; Wu, William K.K.; Cho, Chi H.

    2014-01-01

    Cathelicidins are a family of bacteriocidal polypeptides secreted by macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN). LL-37, the only human cathelicidin, has been implicated in tumorigenesis, but there has been limited investigation of its expression and function in cancer. Here, we report that LL-37 activates a p53-mediated, caspase-independent apoptotic cascade that contributes to suppression of colon cancer. LL-37 was expressed strongly in normal colon mucosa but downregulated in colon cancer tissues, where in both settings its expression correlated with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase–mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive apoptotic cells. Exposure of colon cancer cells to LL-37 induced phosphatidylserine externalization and DNA fragmentation in a manner independent of caspase activation. Apoptogenic function was mediated by nuclear translocation of the proapoptotic factors, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G (EndoG), through p53-dependent upregulation of Bax and Bak and downregulation of Bcl-2 via a pertussis toxin–sensitive G-protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) pathway. Correspondingly, colonic mucosa of cathelicidin-deficient mice exhibited reduced expression of p53, Bax, and Bak and increased expression of Bcl-2 together with a lower basal level of apoptosis. Cathelicidin-deficient mice exhibited an increased susceptibility to azoxymethane-induced colon tumorigenesis, establishing pathophysiologic relevance in colon cancer. Collectively, our findings show that LL-37 activates a GPCR-p53-Bax/Bak/Bcl-2 signaling cascade that triggers AIF/EndoG–mediated apoptosis in colon cancer cells. PMID:23100468

  10. Review of Chromium (VI) Apoptosis, Cell-Cycle-Arrest, and Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, A; Shi, J; Lee, WKP; Hill, R; Wakeman, TP; Katz, A; Xu, B; Dalal, NS; Robertson, JD; Chen, C; Chiu, N; Donehower, L

    2014-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium combines with glutathione in chloride intracellular channel carrier to form tetravalent and pentavelent chromium in plasma and organelle membranes. It also combines with NADH/NADPH to form pentavalent chromium in mitochondria. Tetravalent- and pentavalent- chromium (directly and indirectly) mediated DNA double strand breaks activate DNA damage signaling sensors: DNA-dependent-protein-kinase signals p53-dependent intrinsic mitochorndrial apoptosis, and ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated and ataxia-telangiectasia-Rad3-related signal cell-arrest for DNA repair. Tetravalent chromium may be the most potent species since it causes DNA breaks and somatic recombination, but not apoptosis. Upon further failure of apoptosis and senescence/DNA-repair, damaged cells may become immortal with loss-of-heterozygosity and genetic plasticity. PMID:20859824

  11. Water-Soluble Ruthenium(II) Complexes with Chiral 4-(2,3-Dihydroxypropyl)-formamide Oxoaporphine (FOA): In Vitro and in Vivo Anticancer Activity by Stabilization of G-Quadruplex DNA, Inhibition of Telomerase Activity, and Induction of Tumor Cell Apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen-Feng; Qin, Qi-Pin; Qin, Jiao-Lan; Zhou, Jie; Li, Yu-Lan; Li, Nan; Liu, Yan-Cheng; Liang, Hong

    2015-06-11

    Three water-soluble ruthenium(II) complexes with chiral 4-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-formamide oxoaporphine (FOA) were synthesized and characterized. It was found that these ruthenium(II) complexes exhibited considerable in vitro anticancer activities and that they were the effective stabilizers of telomeric and G-quadruplex-DNA (G4-DNA) in promoter of c-myc, which acted as a telomerase inhibitor targeting G4-DNA and induced cell senescence and apoptosis. Interestingly, the in vitro anticancer activity of 6 (LC-003) was higher than those of 4 (LC-001) and 5 (LC-002), more selective for BEL-7404 cells than for normal HL-7702 cells, and preferred to activate caspases-3/9. The different biological behaviors of the ruthenium complexes could be correlated with the chiral nature of 4-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-formamide oxoaporphine. More significantly, 6 exhibited effective inhibitory on tumor growth in BEL-7402 xenograft mouse model and higher in vivo safety than cisplatin. These mechanistic insights indicate that 6 displays low toxicity and can be a novel anticancer drug candidate. PMID:25988535

  12. [Sphingolipid and apoptosis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Hu, Xiao-Song; Shi, Jie-Ping

    2003-07-01

    Over the last decade, considerable progress has been made in the study of sphingolipids with the development of biological techniques. Sphingolipids play important roles in diverse physiological process, including cytoskeleton migration, angiogenesis, embryonic development and signal transduction. Except for this, the lastest evidence has suggested that sphingolipids and their metabolite (ceramide, sphingosine, sphingosine 1-phosphate) can induce apoptosis in a wide variety of tumor cell lines such as LoVo HT29, Bel7402, A549, CNE2 cells. This paper is attempted to review the recent advances of investigation into the relationship between sphingolipids and apoptosis. PMID:14628466

  13. [Apoptosis during embryo development].

    PubMed

    Jezek, Davor; Kozina, Viviana

    2009-10-01

    The development of human embryo includes two essential processes, i.e., rapid mitotic activity of cells and gradual differentiation of tissues and organs. The latter process is very often characterized by extensive migration of cells from their site of origin to the site of definitive location, inductive action of the neighboring germ layers and programmed cell death (apoptosis). This paper describes examples of proliferative and apoptotic processes during the development of human embryo. The development of trilaminar germ disk, skin, gonads, central and peripheral nerve system as well as limbs provides instructive examples of how apoptosis regulates the development and differentiation of cells. PMID:19999545

  14. Control of Apoptosis in Treatment and Biology of Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Modi, Shrey; Kir, Devika; Banerjee, Sulagna; Saluja, Ashok

    2016-02-01

    Pancreatic cancer is estimated to be the 12th most common cancer in the United States in 2014 and yet this malignancy is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Late detection and resistance to therapy are the major causes for its dismal prognosis. Apoptosis is an actively orchestrated cell death mechanism that serves to maintain tissue homoeostasis. Cancer develops from normal cells by accruing significant changes through one or more mechanisms, leading to DNA damage and mutations, which in a normal cell would induce this programmed cell death pathway. As a result, evasion of apoptosis is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells. PDAC is notoriously resistant to apoptosis, thereby explaining its aggressive nature and resistance to conventional treatment modalities. The current review is focus on understanding different intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in pancreatic cancer that may affect apoptosis in this disease. PMID:26206252

  15. Ethanol promotes T cell apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway

    PubMed Central

    Kapasi, Aditi A; Patel, Geeta; Goenka, Anuj; Nahar, Nilay; Modi, Neeraj; Bhaskaran, Madhu; Reddy, Krishna; Franki, Nicholas; Patel, Jaimita; Singhal, Pravin C

    2003-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest that acute ethanol intoxication is often associated with lymphopenia. Previously, ethanol was reported to invoke thymocyte apoptosis. We studied the effect of ethanol on T cell apoptosis. In addition, we evaluated the molecular mechanism of ethanol-induced T cell apoptosis. Human T cells harvested from healthy subjects after an alcohol drinking binge showed enhanced T cell apoptosis (before, 0·4 ± 0·2% versus after, 19·6 ± 2·5% apoptotic lymphocytes/field; P < 0·001). In in vitro studies, ethanol in a concentration of 50 mm and higher enhanced the apoptosis of Jurkat cells. DNA isolated from ethanol-treated Jurkat cells displayed integer multiples of 180 base pairs. Ethanol decreased Jurkat cell expression of Bcl-2, whereas ethanol increased Jurkat cell expression of Bax. Jurkat cells treated with ethanol also showed translocation of cytochrome C into cytosol. Moreover, a caspase-9 inhibitor partially inhibited ethanol-induced Jurkat cell apoptosis. In in vivo studies, after binge drinking, T cell expression of Bcl-2 also decreased. In addition, binge drinking induced the cleavage of caspase-3, suggesting activation of caspase-3 in T cells. These results suggest that ethanol promotes T cell apoptosis through the activation of intrinsic or mitochondrial pathway. PMID:12603597

  16. Genome surveillance in pluripotent stem cells: Low apoptosis threshold and efficient antioxidant defense

    PubMed Central

    Dannenmann, Benjamin; Lehle, Simon; Essmann, Frank; Schulze-Osthoff, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pluripotent stem cells must be endowed with efficient genome surveillance. Here we describe the multiple mechanisms that ensure their genome integrity, including high susceptibility to apoptosis and efficient prevention of DNA lesions. In induced pluripotent stem cells, apoptosis hypersensitivity is mediated by increased expression of proapoptotic BCL-2 protein, whereas DNA damage is prevented by the upregulation of several antioxidant enzymes. Antioxidants might be therefore employed for safer stem cell therapies. PMID:27308586

  17. (+)-CC-1065 as a structural probe of Mu transposase-induced bending of DNA: overcoming limitations of hydroxyl-radical footprinting.

    PubMed

    Ding, Z M; Harshey, R M; Hurley, L H

    1993-09-11

    Phage Mu transposase (A-protein) is primarily responsible for transposition of the Mu genome. The protein binds to six att sites, three at each end of Mu DNA. At most att sites interaction of a protein monomer with DNA is seen to occur over three minor and two consecutive major grooves and to result in bending up to about 90 degrees. To probe the directionality and locus of these A-protein-induced bends, we have used the antitumor antibiotic (+)-CC-1065 as a structural probe. As a consequence of binding within the minor groove, (+)-CC-1065 is able to alkylate N3 of adenine in a sequence selective manner. This selectivity is partially determined by conformational flexibility of the DNA sequence, and the covalent adduct has a bent DNA structure in which narrowing of the minor groove has occurred. Using this drug in experiments in which either gel retardation or DNA strand breakage are used to monitor the stability of the A-protein--DNA complex or the (+)-CC-1065 alkylation sites on DNA (att site L3), we have demonstrated that of the three minor grooves implicated in the interaction with A-protein, the peripheral two are 'open' or accessible to drug bonding following protein binding. These drug-bonding sites very likely represent binding at at least two A-protein-induced bending sites. Significantly, the locus of bending at these sites is spaced approximately two helical turns apart, and the bending is proposed to occur by narrowing of the minor groove of DNA. The intervening minor groove between these two peripheral sites is protected from (+)-CC-1065 alkylation. The results are discussed in reference to a proposed model for overall DNA bending in the A-protein att L3 site complex. This study illustrates the utility of (+)-CC-1065 as a probe for protein-induced bending of DNA, as well as for interactions of minor groove DNA bending proteins with DNA which may be masked in hydroxyl radical footprinting experiments. PMID:8414983

  18. [Cell shrinkage during apoptosis is not obligatory. Apoptosis of U937 cells induced by staurosporine and etoposide].

    PubMed

    Vereninov, A A; Goriachaia, T S; Matveev, V V; Moshkov, A V; Rozanov, Iu M; Sakuta, G A; Shirokova, A V; Iurinskaia, V E

    2004-01-01

    A study was made of apoptotic cell shrinkage, which is generally believed to be a hallmark of apoptosis. The two conventional models of apoptosis were used for examination of changes in cell water balance--one is apoptosis caused in human lymphoma cell line U937 by staurosporine, and the other by etoposide. Intracellular water was determined by measuring buoyant density of cells in continuous Percoll gradient. Apoptosis was recognized by microscopy and flow cytometry. Apoptosis caused by staurosporine (1 microM, 4 h) was found to be associated with a decrease in cell water content by almost 24%. In contrast, no decrease in cell water content was observed in U937 cells incubated with etoposide (50 microM, 4 h), in spite of the number of features suggesting the presence of apoptosis, such as the appearance of apoptotic bodies, chromatin condensation and fragmentation and disappearance of S-phase cells in DNA histogram. It is concluded that definition of apoptosis as "shrinkage-necrosis" (Kerr, 1971) needs correcting: the distinction of apoptotic cells involves the absence of swelling, rather than cell shrinkage. PMID:15473371

  19. Apoptosis in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Stoian, M; State, N; Stoica, V; Radulian, G

    2014-06-15

    Apoptosis is an inborn process that has been preserved during evolution; it allows the cells to systematically inactivate, destroy and dispose of their own components thus leading to their death. This programme can be activated by both intra and extracellular mechanisms. The intracellular components involve a genetically defined development programme while the extracellular aspects regard endogenous proteins, cytokines and hormones as well as xenobiotics, radiations, oxidative stress and hypoxia. The ability of a cell to enter apoptosis as a response to a "death" signal depends on its proliferative status, the position in the cell cycle and also on the controlled expression of those genes that have the capacity of promoting and inhibiting cell death. The fine regulation of these parameters needs to be maintained in order to ensure the physiological environment required for the induction of apoptosis. Any malfunction in any of the steps of controlled cellular death can lead to dysfunctions and, as a consequence, to different pathological conditions. The importance of apoptosis lies in its active nature and in the potential of controlling biological systems. PMID:25408720

  20. Fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy for imaging apoptotic DNA fragmentation at the single-cell level in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Gubory, Kais H. . E-mail: kais.algubory@jouy.inra.fr

    2005-11-01

    The major characteristic of cell death by apoptosis is the loss of nuclear DNA integrity by endonucleases, resulting in the formation of small DNA fragments. The application of confocal imaging to in vivo monitoring of dynamic cellular events, like apoptosis, within internal organs and tissues has been limited by the accessibility to these sites. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to test the feasibility of fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy (FCFM) to image in situ apoptotic DNA fragmentation in surgically exteriorized sheep corpus luteum in the living animal. Following intra-luteal administration of a fluorescent DNA-staining dye, YO-PRO-1, DNA cleavage within nuclei of apoptotic cells was serially imaged at the single-cell level by FCFM. This imaging technology is sufficiently simple and rapid to allow time series in situ detection and visualization of cells undergoing apoptosis in the intact animal. Combined with endoscope, this approach can be used for minimally invasive detection of fluorescent signals and visualization of cellular events within internal organs and tissues and thereby provides the opportunity to study biological processes in the natural physiological environment of the cell in living animals.

  1. [DNA computing].

    PubMed

    Błasiak, Janusz; Krasiński, Tadeusz; Popławski, Tomasz; Sakowski, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    Biocomputers can be an alternative for traditional "silicon-based" computers, which continuous development may be limited due to further miniaturization (imposed by the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle) and increasing the amount of information between the central processing unit and the main memory (von Neuman bottleneck). The idea of DNA computing came true for the first time in 1994, when Adleman solved the Hamiltonian Path Problem using short DNA oligomers and DNA ligase. In the early 2000s a series of biocomputer models was presented with a seminal work of Shapiro and his colleguas who presented molecular 2 state finite automaton, in which the restriction enzyme, FokI, constituted hardware and short DNA oligomers were software as well as input/output signals. DNA molecules provided also energy for this machine. DNA computing can be exploited in many applications, from study on the gene expression pattern to diagnosis and therapy of cancer. The idea of DNA computing is still in progress in research both in vitro and in vivo and at least promising results of these research allow to have a hope for a breakthrough in the computer science. PMID:21735816

  2. ATP depletion inhibits glucocorticoid-induced thymocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Stefanelli, C; Bonavita, F; Stanic', I; Farruggia, G; Falcieri, E; Robuffo, I; Pignatti, C; Muscari, C; Rossoni, C; Guarnieri, C; Caldarera, C M

    1997-03-15

    In quiescent thymocytes, mitochondrial de-energization was not correlated to apoptotic death. In fact, thymocytes treated with oligomycin, a highly specific inhibitor of ATP synthase, alone or with atractyloside to block ATP translocation from the cytoplasm, were alive, even if their mitochondria were depolarized, as revealed by flow cytometry after Rhodamine 123 staining. Furthermore, oligomycin was a powerful inhibitor of apoptosis induced in rat thymocytes by dexamethasone and, to a lesser extent, by the calcium ionophore A23187 and etoposide, but was without effect when apoptosis was induced by staurosporine, and increased cell death in mitogen-treated thymocytes. The inhibition of apoptosis was confirmed by morphological criteria, inhibition of inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation and inhibition of the loss of membrane integrity. The anti-apoptotic effect of oligomycin in cells treated with A23187 or etoposide was correlated to the inhibition of protein synthesis, while inhibition of apoptosis induced by dexamethasone, already evident at an oligomycin concentration of 10 ng/ml, was instead strictly correlated to the effect exerted on the cellular ATP level. Thymocyte apoptosis triggered by dexamethasone was blocked or delayed by inhibitors of respiratory-chain uncouplers, inhibitors of ATP synthase and antioxidants: a lasting protection from dexamethasone-induced apoptosis was always correlated to a drastic and rapid reduction in ATP level (31-35% of control), while a delay in the death process was characterized by a moderate decrease in ATP (73-82% of control). Oligomycin inhibited the specific binding of radioactive corticosteroid to thymocyte nuclei, confirming the inhibitory effect of ATP depletion on glucocorticoid binding and suggesting that ATP depletion is a common mediator of the anti-apoptotic action of different effectors in glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, the reported data indicate that ATP may act as a cellular modulator of some

  3. ATP depletion inhibits glucocorticoid-induced thymocyte apoptosis.

    PubMed Central

    Stefanelli, C; Bonavita, F; Stanic', I; Farruggia, G; Falcieri, E; Robuffo, I; Pignatti, C; Muscari, C; Rossoni, C; Guarnieri, C; Caldarera, C M

    1997-01-01

    In quiescent thymocytes, mitochondrial de-energization was not correlated to apoptotic death. In fact, thymocytes treated with oligomycin, a highly specific inhibitor of ATP synthase, alone or with atractyloside to block ATP translocation from the cytoplasm, were alive, even if their mitochondria were depolarized, as revealed by flow cytometry after Rhodamine 123 staining. Furthermore, oligomycin was a powerful inhibitor of apoptosis induced in rat thymocytes by dexamethasone and, to a lesser extent, by the calcium ionophore A23187 and etoposide, but was without effect when apoptosis was induced by staurosporine, and increased cell death in mitogen-treated thymocytes. The inhibition of apoptosis was confirmed by morphological criteria, inhibition of inter-nucleosomal DNA fragmentation and inhibition of the loss of membrane integrity. The anti-apoptotic effect of oligomycin in cells treated with A23187 or etoposide was correlated to the inhibition of protein synthesis, while inhibition of apoptosis induced by dexamethasone, already evident at an oligomycin concentration of 10 ng/ml, was instead strictly correlated to the effect exerted on the cellular ATP level. Thymocyte apoptosis triggered by dexamethasone was blocked or delayed by inhibitors of respiratory-chain uncouplers, inhibitors of ATP synthase and antioxidants: a lasting protection from dexamethasone-induced apoptosis was always correlated to a drastic and rapid reduction in ATP level (31-35% of control), while a delay in the death process was characterized by a moderate decrease in ATP (73-82% of control). Oligomycin inhibited the specific binding of radioactive corticosteroid to thymocyte nuclei, confirming the inhibitory effect of ATP depletion on glucocorticoid binding and suggesting that ATP depletion is a common mediator of the anti-apoptotic action of different effectors in glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, the reported data indicate that ATP may act as a cellular modulator of some

  4. Untangling the Roles of Anti-Apoptosis in Regulating Programmed Cell Death using Humanized Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Clapp, Caitlin; Portt, Liam; Khoury, Chamel; Sheibani, Sara; Eid, Rawan; Greenwood, Matthew; Vali, Hojatollah; Mandato, Craig A.; Greenwood, Michael T.

    2012-01-01

    Genetically programmed cell death (PCD) mechanisms, including apoptosis, are important for the survival of metazoans since it allows, among things, the removal of damaged cells that interfere with normal function. Cell death due to PCD is observed in normal processes such as aging and in a number of pathophysiologies including hypoxia (common causes of heart attacks and strokes) and subsequent tissue reperfusion. Conversely, the loss of normal apoptotic responses is associated with the development of tumors. So far, limited success in preventing unwanted PCD has been reported with current therapeutic approaches despite the fact that inhibitors of key apoptotic inducers such as caspases have been developed. Alternative approaches have focused on mimicking anti-apoptotic processes observed in cells displaying increased resistance to apoptotic stimuli. Hormesis and pre-conditioning are commonly observed cellular strategies where sub-lethal levels of pro-apoptotic stimuli lead to increased resistance to higher or lethal levels of stress. Increased expression of anti-apoptotic sequences is a common mechanism mediating these protective effects. The relevance of the latter observation is exemplified by the observation that transgenic mice overexpressing anti-apoptotic genes show significant reductions in tissue damage following ischemia. Thus strategies aimed at increasing the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins, using gene therapy or cell penetrating recombinant proteins are being evaluated as novel therapeutics to decrease cell death following acute periods of cell death inducing stress. In spite of its functional and therapeutic importance, more is known regarding the processes involved in apoptosis than anti-apoptosis. The genetically tractable yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has emerged as an exceptional model to study multiple aspects of PCD including the mitochondrial mediated apoptosis observed in metazoans. To increase our knowledge of the process of anti-apoptosis

  5. Catalase Inhibits Ionizing Radiation-Induced Apoptosis in Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Xia; Luo, Hongmei; Vanek, Kenneth N.; LaRue, Amanda C.; Schulte, Bradley A.

    2015-01-01

    Hematologic toxicity is a major cause of mortality in radiation emergency scenarios and a primary side effect concern in patients undergoing chemo-radiotherapy. Therefore, there is a critical need for the development of novel and more effective approaches to manage this side effect. Catalase is a potent antioxidant enzyme that coverts hydrogen peroxide into hydrogen and water. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of catalase as a protectant against ionizing radiation (IR)-induced toxicity in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs). The results revealed that catalase treatment markedly inhibits IR-induced apoptosis in murine hematopoietic stem cells and hematopoietic progenitor cells. Subsequent colony-forming cell and cobble-stone area-forming cell assays showed that catalase-treated HSPCs can not only survive irradiation-induced apoptosis but also have higher clonogenic capacity, compared with vehicle-treated cells. Moreover, transplantation of catalase-treated irradiated HSPCs results in high levels of multi-lineage and long-term engraftments, whereas vehicle-treated irradiated HSPCs exhibit very limited hematopoiesis reconstituting capacity. Mechanistically, catalase treatment attenuates IR-induced DNA double-strand breaks and inhibits reactive oxygen species. Unexpectedly, we found that the radioprotective effect of catalase is associated with activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway and pharmacological inhibition of STAT3 abolishes the protective activity of catalase, suggesting that catalase may protect HSPCs against IR-induced toxicity via promoting STAT3 activation. Collectively, these results demonstrate a previously unrecognized mechanism by which catalase inhibits IR-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in HSPCs. PMID:25603016

  6. Mortalin, Apoptosis, and Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Londono, Carolina; Osorio, Cristina; Gama, Vivian; Alzate, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    Mortalin is a highly conserved heat-shock chaperone usually found in multiple subcellular locations. It has several binding partners and has been implicated in various functions ranging from stress response, control of cell proliferation, and inhibition/prevention of apoptosis. The activity of this protein involves different structural and functional mechanisms, and minor alterations in its expression level may lead to serious biological consequences, including neurodegeneration. In this article we review the most current data associated with mortalin’s binding partners and how these protein-protein interactions may be implicated in apoptosis and neurodegeneration. A complete understanding of the molecular pathways in which mortalin is involved is important for the development of therapeutic strategies for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24970131

  7. Apoptosis Process in Mouse Leydig Cells during Postnatal Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salles Faria, Maria José; Simões, Zilá Paulino; Luz; Orive Lunardi, Laurelucia; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2003-02-01

    The development of Leydig cells in mammals has been widely described as a biphasic pattern with two temporally mature Leydig cell populations, fetal stage followed by the adult generation beginning at puberty. In the present study, mouse Leydig cells were examined for apoptosis during postnatal testis development using electron microscopy and in situ DNA fragmentation by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase staining (TdT). Both the morphological study and the DNA fragmentation analysis showed that cellular death by apoptosis did not occur in Leydig cells during the neonatal, prepubertal, puberty, and adult periods. From these results, we suggest that the remaining fetal Leydig cells in the neonatal testis are associated with the involution or degeneration processes. In contrast, in the prepubertal and puberty stages, fragmentation of apoptotic DNA was detected in germ cells present in some seminiferous tubules.

  8. Atypical nuclear apoptosis downstream to caspase-3 activation in ara-C treated CCRF-CEM cells.

    PubMed

    Badran, Adel; Iwasaki, Hiromichi; Inoue, Hitoshi; Ueda, Takanori

    2003-03-01

    The necessity of internucleosomal DNA fragmentation for the complete execution of apoptosis is still controversial. While investigating the apoptotic pathway induced by 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine (ara-C) in the human T-lymphoblastic leukemia CCRF-CEM (CEM) cells, we could easily retrieve high molecular weight (HMW) DNA fragments with a predominant size of 50 kb. However, under the same circumstances, internucleosomal DNA fragmentation characteristic of apoptosis was undetectable despite estimated heightened caspase-3 activity. Paradoxically, generation of low molecular weight DNA fragments was readily demonstrable by flow cytometric and immunohistochemical evidence in the absence of any detectable DNA ladder formation. These findings present a proof that, within certain contexts, small-sized DNA fragmentation occurring in apoptosis may not necessarily be of the ladder yielding internucleosomal integer multiples' pattern. Our data also add to the evidence that the machinery underlying HMW DNA fragmentation is distinct from that responsible for the internucleosomal one. PMID:12579303

  9. Increased small intestinal apoptosis in coeliac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Moss, S F; Attia, L; Scholes, J V; Walters, J R; Holt, P R

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coeliac disease (CD) mucosa is flattened despite epithelial hyperproliferation. AIMS: To establish mechanisms of cell loss in CD. PATIENTS: 14 controls, 17 active CD patients, and 16 maintained with gluten free diet. METHODS: Programmed cell death was examined in small intestinal biopsy specimens by staining fragmented DNA using terminal uridine deoxynucleotidyl nick end labelling (TUNEL), in comparison with haematoxylin and eosin stained adjacent sections. Double staining with anti-CD45 antibodies determined the origin of apoptotic cells. Apoptosis was graded from 1-3 (< 5, 5-20, > 20% respectively). Proliferating cells, immunostained by Ki-67 (MIB-1) antibody, were counted. RESULTS: Apoptotic cells were seen rarely by haematoxylin and eosin but more readily by TUNEL. In controls, 1.4 +/- 0.2% of epithelial cells were apoptotic (mean grade 1.1), mainly located in the upper villus. In active CD, frequent apoptotic cells were distributed throughout the crypt-villus unit (mean grade 2.4), decreasing after treatment to 1.1 (p < 0.001) even when still histologically abnormal. CD45 antibodies rarely stained apoptotic cells in active CD. The number of TUNEL positive cells correlated with proliferating cell number (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Enterocyte apoptosis is greatly increased in untreated CD, correlates with proliferation, and falls to normal with a gluten free diet, before histological improvement. Increased apoptosis may be responsible for villous atrophy in CD. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:9038662

  10. Protection against apoptosis in chicken bursa and thymus cells by phorbol ester in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Asakawa, J.; Thorbecke, G.J. )

    1991-03-15

    Programmed suicide or apoptosis, due to activation of endogenous nucleases, occurs in immature CD4{sup {minus}}85{sup {minus}} mammalian thymus cells. Like the thymus, the bursa of Fabricius is a site of massive lymphopoiesis accompanied by cell death in vivo. In the present study the authors have, therefore, examined whether chicken bursa and thymus cells exhibit apoptosis. Bursa and thymus cells from SC chickens, 4-10 weeks of age, were incubated for 8-24 hrs with various reagents. Genomic DNA was isolated, electrophoresed in 3% Nusieve agarose gels, and examined for patterns of DNA fragmentation. A laddering of DNA in multiples of 200 base pairs, indicative of apoptosis, was observed with both bursa and thymus cells. These patterns of DNA fragmentation from bursa cells could be prevented by adding phorbol myristic acetate during culture and, more effectively, by PMA plus ionomycin, but not by ionomycin alone or by anti-{mu}. PMA did not affect the patterns of DNA fragmentation seen with spleen cells. Addition of the protein kinase C inhibitor staurosporin inhibited the preventive effect of PMA on apoptosis. PMA also greatly promoted the survival of bursa cells in culture, as assayed by percentage cell death and by {sup 3}H-thymidine incorporation. It is concluded that bursa and thymus cells from the chicken exhibit apoptosis. The data further suggest that protein kinase C activation protects apoptosis in cultured bursa cells.

  11. A novel firefly luciferase biosensor enhances the detection of apoptosis induced by ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Junwei; Zhang, Huan; Fang, Liurong; Xi, Yongqiang; Zhou, Yanrong; Luo, Rui; Wang, Dang Xiao, Shaobo; Chen, Huanchun

    2014-10-03

    Highlights: • We developed a novel firefly luciferase based biosensor to detect apoptosis. • The novel biosensor 233-DnaE-DEVDG was reliable, sensitive and convenient. • 233-DnaE-DEVDG faithfully indicated ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induced apoptosis. • EsxA, esxT and esxL in ESAT-6 family proteins induced apoptosis. • Activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. - Abstract: The activation of caspase-3 is a key surrogate marker for detecting apoptosis. To quantitate caspase-3 activity, we constructed a biosensor comprising a recombinant firefly luciferase containing a caspase-3 cleavage site. When apoptosis was induced, caspase-3 cleavage of the biosensor activated firefly luciferase by a factor greater than 25. The assay conveniently detected apoptosis in real time, indicating that it will facilitate drug discovery. We screened ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and found that esxA, esxT and esxL induced apoptosis. Further, activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and the NF-κB-regulated genes encoding tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) participated in esxT-induced apoptosis. We conclude that this assay is useful for high-throughput screening to identify and characterize proteins and drugs that regulate apoptosis.

  12. Preventive effects of bicarbonate on cerivastatin-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Masaki; Kaido, Fumie; Kagawa, Toshiki; Itagaki, Shirou; Hirano, Takeshi; Iseki, Ken

    2007-08-16

    Although HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors such as statins are the most widely used cholesterol-lowering agents, there is a risk of myopathy or rhabdmyolysis occurring in patients taking these drugs. It has been reported that a number of lipophilic statins cause apoptosis in various cells, but it is still not clear whether intracellular acidification is involved in statin-induced apoptosis. There have been few studies aimed at identifying compounds that suppress statin-induced myotoxicity. In the present study, we examined the relationship between cerivastatin-induced apoptosis and intracellular acidification and the effect of bicarbonate on cerivastatin-induced apoptosis using an RD cell line as a model of in vitro skeletal muscle. Cerivastatin reduced the number of viable cells and caused dramatic morphological changes and DNA fragmentation in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, cerivastatin-induced apoptosis was associated with intracellular acidification and caspase-9 and -3/7 activation. On the other hand, bicarbonate suppressed cerivastatin-induced pH alteration, caspase activation, morphological change and reduction of cell viability. Accordingly, bicarbonate suppressed statin-induced apoptosis. The strategy to combine statins with bicarbonate can lead to reduction in the chance of the severe adverse events including myopathy or rhabdmyolysis. PMID:17553641

  13. Inhibition of apoptosis as a mechanism of tumor promotion.

    PubMed

    Wright, S C; Zhong, J; Larrick, J W

    1994-06-01

    Recent evidence supports the concept that tumor growth in vivo depends on evasion of normal homeostatic control mechanisms that operate through induction of cell death by apoptosis. This study tested the hypothesis that a common property shared by known or suspected tumor promoters is the ability to block the process of apoptosis. A total of 10 tumor promoters were tested and all were found to inhibit DNA fragmentation and cell death of 7 different cell lines triggered into apoptosis by diverse agents. Resistance to apoptosis could be induced rapidly (within 1 h) by treating with relatively high concentrations of promoters. However, low physiological concentrations of promoters could also induce complete resistance to apoptosis after prolonged exposure (5-15 days of culture). Like tumor promotion in vivo, promoter-induced resistance to apoptosis was reversible after culturing in the absence of promoter. These findings provide new insight into the mechanism of tumor promotion and suggest a novel in vitro screening assay to detect new tumor-promoting agents in the environment. PMID:8005393

  14. Differential Apoptosis Radiosensitivity of Neural Progenitors in Adult Mouse Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Qing; Cheng, Zoey; Wong, Shun

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian tissue-specific stem cells and progenitors demonstrate differential DNA damage response. Neural progenitors in dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are known to undergo apoptosis after irradiation. Using a mouse model of hippocampal neuronal development, we characterized the apoptosis sensitivity of the different neural progenitor subpopulations in adult mouse dentate gyrus after irradiation. Two different bromodeoxyuridine incorporation paradigms were used for cell fate mapping. We identified two apoptosis sensitive neural progenitor subpopulations after irradiation. The first represented non-proliferative and non-newborn neuroblasts and immature neurons that expressed doublecortin, calretinin or both. The second consisted of proliferative intermediate neural progenitors. The putative radial glia-like neural stem cells or type-1 cells, regardless of proliferation status, were apoptosis resistant after irradiation. There was no evidence of radiation-induced apoptosis in the absence of the Trp53 (p53) gene but absence of Cdkn1a (p21) did not alter the apoptotic response. Upregulation of nuclear p53 was observed in neuroblasts after irradiation. We conclude that adult hippocampal neural progenitors may demonstrate differential p53-dependent apoptosis sensitivity after irradiation. PMID:27331809

  15. Spaceflight alters microtubules and increases apoptosis in human lymphocytes (Jurkat)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, M. L.; Reynolds, J. L.; Cubano, L. A.; Hatton, J. P.; Lawless, B. D.; Piepmeier, E. H.

    1998-01-01

    Alteration in cytoskeletal organization appears to underlie mechanisms of gravity sensitivity in space-flown cells. Human T lymphoblastoid cells (Jurkat) were flown on the Space Shuttle to test the hypothesis that growth responsiveness is associated with microtubule anomalies and mediated by apoptosis. Cell growth was stimulated in microgravity by increasing serum concentration. After 4 and 48 h, cells filtered from medium were fixed with formalin. Post-flight, confocal microscopy revealed diffuse, shortened microtubules extending from poorly defined microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs). In comparable ground controls, discrete microtubule filaments radiated from organized MTOCs and branched toward the cell membrane. At 4 h, 30% of flown, compared to 17% of ground, cells showed DNA condensation characteristic of apoptosis. Time-dependent increase of the apoptosis-associated Fas/ APO-1 protein in static flown, but not the in-flight 1 g centrifuged or ground controls, confirmed microgravity-associated apoptosis. By 48 h, ground cultures had increased by 40%. Flown populations did not increase, though some cells were cycling and actively metabolizing glucose. We conclude that cytoskeletal alteration, growth retardation, and metabolic changes in space-flown lymphocytes are concomitant with increased apoptosis and time-dependent elevation of Fas/APO-1 protein. We suggest that reduced growth response in lymphocytes during spaceflight is linked to apoptosis.

  16. Differential Apoptosis Radiosensitivity of Neural Progenitors in Adult Mouse Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-Qing; Cheng, Zoey; Wong, Shun

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian tissue-specific stem cells and progenitors demonstrate differential DNA damage response. Neural progenitors in dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are known to undergo apoptosis after irradiation. Using a mouse model of hippocampal neuronal development, we characterized the apoptosis sensitivity of the different neural progenitor subpopulations in adult mouse dentate gyrus after irradiation. Two different bromodeoxyuridine incorporation paradigms were used for cell fate mapping. We identified two apoptosis sensitive neural progenitor subpopulations after irradiation. The first represented non-proliferative and non-newborn neuroblasts and immature neurons that expressed doublecortin, calretinin or both. The second consisted of proliferative intermediate neural progenitors. The putative radial glia-like neural stem cells or type-1 cells, regardless of proliferation status, were apoptosis resistant after irradiation. There was no evidence of radiation-induced apoptosis in the absence of the Trp53 (p53) gene but absence of Cdkn1a (p21) did not alter the apoptotic response. Upregulation of nuclear p53 was observed in neuroblasts after irradiation. We conclude that adult hippocampal neural progenitors may demonstrate differential p53-dependent apoptosis sensitivity after irradiation. PMID:27331809

  17. HIV-1 protease-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Apoptosis is one of the presumptive causes of CD4+ T cell depletion during HIV infection and progression to AIDS. However, the precise role of HIV-1 in this process remains unexplained. HIV-1 protease (PR) has been suggested as a possible factor, but a direct link between HIV-1 PR enzymatic activity and apoptosis has not been established. Results Here, we show that expression of active HIV-1 PR induces death in HeLa and HEK-293 cells via the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. This conclusion is based on in vivo observations of the direct localization of HIV-1 PR in mitochondria, a key player in triggering apoptosis. Moreover, we observed an HIV-1 PR concentration-dependent decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and the role of HIV-1 PR in activation of caspase 9, PARP cleavage and DNA fragmentation. In addition, in vitro data demonstrated that HIV-1 PR mediates cleavage of mitochondrial proteins Tom22, VDAC and ANT, leading to release of AIF and Hsp60 proteins. By using yeast two-hybrid screening, we also identified a new HIV-1 PR interaction partner, breast carcinoma-associated protein 3 (BCA3). We found that BCA3 accelerates p53 transcriptional activity on the bax promoter, thus elevating the cellular level of pro-apoptotic Bax protein. Conclusion In summary, our results describe the involvement of HIV-1 PR in apoptosis, which is caused either by a direct effect of HIV-1 PR on mitochondrial membrane integrity or by its interaction with cellular protein BCA3. PMID:24886575

  18. Mitochondria in human pluripotent stem cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    TeSlaa, Tara; Setoguchi, Kiyoko; Teitell, Michael A

    2016-04-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have great potential in regenerative medicine because they can differentiate into any cell type in the body. Genome integrity is vital for human development and for high fidelity passage of genetic information across generations through the germ line. To ensure genome stability, hPSCs maintain a lower rate of mutation than somatic cells and undergo rapid apoptosis in response to DNA damage and additional cell stresses. Furthermore, cellular metabolism and the cell cycle are also differentially regulated between cells in pluripotent and differentiated states and can aid in protecting hPSCs against DNA damage and damaged cell propagation. Despite these safeguards, clinical use of hPSC derivatives could be compromised by tumorigenic potential and possible malignant transformation from failed to differentiate cells. Since hPSCs and mature cells differentially respond to cell stress, it may be possible to specifically target undifferentiated cells for rapid apoptosis in mixed cell populations to enable safer use of hPSC-differentiated cells in patients. PMID:26828436

  19. Myc Potentiates Apoptosis by Stimulating Bax Activity at the Mitochondria†

    PubMed Central

    Soucie, Erinn L.; Annis, Matthew G.; Sedivy, John; Filmus, Jorge; Leber, Brian; Andrews, David W.; Penn, Linda Z.

    2001-01-01

    The ability of the c-Myc oncoprotein to potentiate apoptosis has been well documented; however, the mechanism of action remains ill defined. We have previously identified spatially distinct apoptotic pathways within the same cell that are differentially inhibited by Bcl-2 targeted to either the mitochondria (Bcl-acta) or the endoplasmic reticulum (Bcl-cb5). We show here that in Rat1 cells expressing an exogenous c-myc allele, distinct apoptotic pathways can be inhibited by Bcl-2 or Bcl-acta yet be distinguished by their sensitivity to Bcl-cb5 as either susceptible (serum withdrawal, taxol, and ceramide) or refractory (etoposide and doxorubicin). Myc expression and apoptosis were universally associated with Bcl-acta and not Bcl-cb5, suggesting that Myc acts downstream at a point common to these distinct apoptotic signaling cascades. Analysis of Rat1 c-myc null cells shows these same death stimuli induce apoptosis with characteristic features of nuclear condensation, membrane blebbing, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, and DNA fragmentation; however, this Myc-independent apoptosis is not inhibited by Bcl-2. During apoptosis, Bax translocation to the mitochondria occurs in the presence or absence of Myc expression. Moreover, Bax mRNA and protein expression remain unchanged in the presence or absence of Myc. However, in the absence of Myc, Bax is not activated and cytochrome c is not released into the cytoplasm. Reintroduction of Myc into the c-myc null cells restores Bax activation, cytochrome c release, and inhibition of apoptosis by Bcl-2. These results demonstrate a role for Myc in the regulation of Bax activation during apoptosis. Moreover, apoptosis that can be triggered in the absence of Myc provides evidence that signaling pathways exist which circumvent Bax activation and cytochrome c release to trigger caspase activation. Thus, Myc increases the cellular competence to die by enhancing disparate apoptotic signals at a common mitochondrial amplification

  20. Modulation of Radiation-Induced Apoptosis by Thiolamines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warters, R. L.; Roberts, J. C.; Wilmore, B. H.; Kelley, L. L.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to the thiolamine radioprotector N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,3-propanediamine (WR-1065) induced apoptosis in the mouse TB8-3 hybridoma after 60-minute (LD(sub50) = 4.5mM) or during a 20-hour (LD(sub50) = 0.15 mM) exposure. In contrast, a 20-hour exposure to 17 mM L-cysteine or 10 mM cysteamine was required to induce 50 percent apoptosis within 20 hours. Apoptosis was not induced by either a 60-minute or 20-hour exposure to 10 mM of the thiazolidime prodrugs ribose-cysteine (RibCys) or ribose-cysteamine (RibCyst). Thiolamine-induced apoptosis appeared to be a p53-independent process since it was induced by WR-1065 exposure in human HL60 cells. Exposure to WR-1065 (4mM for 15 minutes) or cysteine (10mM for 60 minutes) before and during irradiation protected cells against the induction of both DNA double-strand breaks and apoptosis, while exposure to RibCys (10 mM for 3 hours) did not. Treatment with either WR-1065, cysteine, RibCys or RibCyst for 60 minutes beginning 60 minutes after irradiation did not affect the level of radiation-induced apoptosis. In contrast, treatment with either cysteine, cysteamine or RibCys for 20 hours beginning 60 minutes after irradiation enhanced radiation-induced apoptosis. Similar experiments could not be conducted with WR-1065 because of its extreme toxicity. Our results indicate that thiolamine enhancement of radiation-induced apoptosis is not involved in their previously reported capacity to reduce radiation-induced mutations.

  1. Apoptosis in mammalian preimplantation embryos: regulation by survival factors.

    PubMed

    Brison, Daniel R.

    2000-01-01

    The formation of a developmentally competent mammalian blastocyst requires the transition from a unicellular state, the fertilized zygote, to a differentiated multicellular structure. In common with other developing organisms, generation of the required cell population involves the processes of cell division, differentiation and cell death, all of which can be regulated by peptide growth factors. Cell death in the preimplantation embryo occurs by apoptosis and, by analogy with other systems, may serve to eliminate unwanted cells during the critical developmental transitions that take place during this period. Cells may be eliminated because they are abnormal or possess defects, including damaged DNA or chromosomal abnormalities. At the early cleavage stages, apoptosis may be associated with activation of the embryonic genome and may contribute to the blastomere fragmentation commonly observed in human IVF embryos. The major wave of apoptosis occurs in a number of species in the inner cell mass of the blastocyst, as identified using nuclear labelling including terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL) and fluorescence and confocal microscopy. Apoptosis may protect the integrity and cellular composition of the inner cell mass, by eliminating damaged cells or possibly those with an inappropriate phenotype. Preimplantation embryos express genes involved in the regulation and execution of apoptosis and their cells can undergo this default pathway in the absence of exogenous survival signals. Evidence is now accumulating from several species that apoptosis in the embryo is regulated by soluble peptide growth factors acting as survival factors in an autocrine or paracrine manner. To date, these include transforming growth factor alpha and members of the insulin-like growth factor family. Apoptosis may also be affected by environmental factors, including culture conditions and the composition of media. The regulation of apoptosis in the preimplantation

  2. Role of Calpain in Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Hamid Reza

    2011-01-01

    Apoptosis, a form of programmed cell death that occurs under physiological as well as pathological conditions, is characterized by morphological and biochemical features. While the importance of caspases in apoptosis is established, several noncaspase proteases (Ca2+-dependent proteases) such as calpain may play a role in the execution of apoptosis. The calpain family consists of two major isoforms, calpain I and calpain II which require µM and mM Ca2+ concentrations to initiate their activity. An increase in intracellular Ca2+ level is thought to trigger a cascade of biochemical processes including calpain activation. Once activated, calpains degrade membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear substrates, leading to the breakdown of cellular architecture and finally apoptosis. The activation of calpain has been implicated in neuronal apoptosis following spinal cord injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. This review focuses on calpain with an emphasis on its key role in the proteolysis of cellular protein substrates following apoptosis. PMID:23507938

  3. Protecting the heritable genome: DNA damage response mechanisms in spermatogonial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Rübe, Claudia E; Zhang, Sheng; Miebach, Nadine; Fricke, Andreas; Rübe, Christian

    2011-02-01

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) must maintain the integrity of their genome to prevent reproduction failure and limit the hereditary risk associated with transmission to the progeny. SSCs must therefore have robust response mechanisms to counteract the potentially deleterious effects of DNA damage, with DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) representing the greatest threat to genomic integrity. Through in vivo analysis of the DNA damage response of SSCs within their physiological tissue context, we aimed to gain insights into the mechanisms by which SSCs preserve genome integrity. After whole-body irradiation of repair-proficient and repair-deficient (DNA-PK- and ATM-deficient) mice, the formation and rejoining of DSBs was analyzed in SSCs of testis compared with somatic cells of other tissues by enumerating γH2AX-, MDC1-, and 53BP1-foci. Caspase-3 and PARP-1 were used as markers for apoptotic cell death. Our results show that DNA damage response mechanisms in SSCs characterized by unique chromatin compositions are markedly different from those of somatic cells. In SSCs lacking compact heterochromatin, histone-associated signaling components of the DNA repair machinery are completely absent and radiation-induced DSBs are rejoined predominantly by DNA-PK-independent pathways, suggesting the existence of alternative repair mechanisms. As a complimentary mechanism characterized by low thresholds for ATM-dependent checkpoint activation, the differentiating progeny, but not the SSCs themselves, promote apoptosis in response to low levels of DNA damage. By evaluating SSCs within their stem cell niche, we show that DNA repair, cell-cycle checkpoints, and apoptosis function together to maintain the integrity of the heritable genome. PMID:21123119

  4. Modulation of iridovirus-induced apoptosis by endocytosis, early expression, JNK, and apical caspase

    SciTech Connect

    Chitnis, Nilesh S.; D'Costa, Susan M.; Paul, Eric R.; Bilimoria, Shaen L.

    2008-01-20

    Chilo iridescent virus (CIV) is the type species for the family Iridoviridae, which are large, isometric, cytoplasmic dsDNA viruses. We examined the mechanism of apoptosis induction by CIV. High CIV doses (CIV{sub XS}; 400 {mu}g/ml), UV-irradiated virus (CIV{sub UV}; 10 {mu}g/ml) and CVPE (CIV protein extract; 10 {mu}g/ml) induced apoptosis in 60% of treated Choristoneura fumiferana (IPRI-CF-124T) cells. Normal doses of infectious CIV (10 {mu}g/ml) induced apoptosis in only 10% of C. fumiferana (CF) cells. Apoptosis was inhibited by Z-IETD-FMK, an apical caspase inhibitor, indicating that CIV-induced apoptosis requires caspase activity. The putative caspase in CF cells was designated Cf-caspase-i. CIV{sub UV} or CVPE enhanced Cf-caspase-i activity by 80% at 24 h relative to mock-treated cells. Since the MAP kinase pathway induces or inhibits apoptosis depending on the context, we used JNK inhibitor SP600125 and demonstrated drastic suppression of CVPE-induced apoptosis. Thus, the JNK signaling pathway is significant for apoptosis in this system. Virus interaction with the cell surface was not sufficient for apoptosis since CIV{sub UV} particles bound to polysterene beads failed to induce apoptosis. Endocytosis inhibitors (bafilomycin or ammonium chloride) negated apoptosis induction by CIV{sub UV}, CIV{sub XS} or CVPE indicating that entry through this mode is required. Given the weak apoptotic response to infectious CIV, we postulated that viral gene expression inhibited apoptosis. CIV infection of cells pretreated with cycloheximide induced apoptosis in 69% of the cells compared to 10% in normal infections. Furthermore, blocking viral DNA replication with aphidicolin or phosphonoacetic acid suppressed apoptosis and Cf-caspase-i activity, indicating that early viral expression is necessary for inhibition of apoptosis, and de novo synthesis of viral proteins is not required for induction. We show for the first time that, in a member of the family Iridoviridae

  5. Effect of caffeine on radiation-induced apoptosis in TK6 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhen, W.; Vaughan, A.T.M.

    1995-02-01

    Apoptosis has been measured in cells of the human TK6 lymphoblastoid cell line by recording the release of endonuclease-digested DNA from affected cells using flow cytometry. In asynchronously dividing cells, DNA degradation characteristic of apoptosis was first seen 12 h after irradiation as a defined DNA fluorescent peak of sub-G{sub 1}-phase content, reaching a maximum of 30-50% of the population by 24-72 h. Treating cells with 2 mM caffeine either before or up to 3 h after irradiation eliminated the degradation of DNA entirely. In addition, the percentage of cells in which apoptosis could be detected microscopically decreased from 62.4 {+-} 0.95% to 16.7 {+-} 1.5% 72 h after caffeine treatment. Delaying caffeine treatment for 12 h after irradiation reduced DNA degradation by approximately 50% compared to cells receiving radiation alone. DNA degradation induced by serum deprivation was unaffected by caffeine treatment. These data support the contention that irradiation of TK6 cells produces a long-lived cellular signal which triggers apoptosis. Apoptosis produced by serum deprivation does not operate through the same pathway. 36 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Pathophysiological Significance of Hepatic Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kewei; Lin, Bingliang

    2013-01-01

    Apoptosis is a classical pathological feature in liver diseases caused by various etiological factors such as drugs, viruses, alcohol, and cholestasis. Hepatic apoptosis and its deleterious effects exacerbate liver function as well as involvement in fibrosis/cirrhosis and carcinogenesis. An imbalance between apoptotic and antiapoptotic capabilities is a prominent characteristic of liver injury. The regulation of apoptosis and antiapoptosis can be a pivotal step in the treatment of liver diseases. PMID:27335822

  7. Avenanthramides Prevent Osteoblast and Osteocyte Apoptosis and Induce Osteoclast Apoptosis in Vitro in an Nrf2-Independent Manner.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Gretel G; Morales, Cynthya C; Wallace, Taylor C; Plotkin, Lilian I; Bellido, Teresita

    2016-01-01

    Oats contain unique bioactive compounds known as avenanthramides (AVAs) with antioxidant properties. AVAs might enhance the endogenous antioxidant cellular response by activation of the transcription factor Nrf2. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species plays a critical role in many chronic and degenerative diseases, including osteoporosis. In this disease, there is an imbalance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts, which is accompanied by increased osteoblast/osteocyte apoptosis and decreased osteoclast apoptosis. We investigated the ability of the synthethic AVAs 2c, 2f and 2p, to 1-regulate gene expression in bone cells, 2-affect the viability of osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts, and the generation of osteoclasts from their precursors, and 3-examine the potential involvement of the transcription factor Nrf2 in these actions. All doses of AVA 2c and 1 and 5 µM dose of 2p up-regulated collagen 1A expression. Lower doses of AVAs up-regulated OPG (osteoprotegerin) in OB-6 osteoblastic cells, whereas 100 μM dose of 2f and all concentrations of 2c down-regulated RANKL gene expression in MLO-Y4 osteocytic cells. AVAs did not affect apoptosis of OB-6 osteoblastic cells or MLO-Y4 osteocytic cells; however, they prevented apoptosis induced by the DNA topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide, the glucocorticoid dexamethasone, and hydrogen peroxide. AVAs prevented apoptosis of both wild type (WT) and Nrf2 Knockout (KO) osteoblasts, demonstrating that AVAs-induced survival does not require Nrf2 expression. Further, KO osteoclast precursors produced more mature osteoclasts than WT; and KO cultures exhibited less apoptotic osteoclasts than WT cultures. Although AVAs did not affect WT osteoclasts, AVA 2p reversed the low apoptosis of KO osteoclasts. These in vitro results demonstrate that AVAs regulate, in part, the function of osteoblasts and osteocytes and prevent osteoblast/osteocyte apoptosis and increase osteoclast apoptosis; further

  8. Avenanthramides Prevent Osteoblast and Osteocyte Apoptosis and Induce Osteoclast Apoptosis in Vitro in an Nrf2-Independent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Gretel G.; Morales, Cynthya C.; Wallace, Taylor C.; Plotkin, Lilian I.; Bellido, Teresita

    2016-01-01

    Oats contain unique bioactive compounds known as avenanthramides (AVAs) with antioxidant properties. AVAs might enhance the endogenous antioxidant cellular response by activation of the transcription factor Nrf2. Accumulation of reactive oxygen species plays a critical role in many chronic and degenerative diseases, including osteoporosis. In this disease, there is an imbalance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts, which is accompanied by increased osteoblast/osteocyte apoptosis and decreased osteoclast apoptosis. We investigated the ability of the synthethic AVAs 2c, 2f and 2p, to 1-regulate gene expression in bone cells, 2-affect the viability of osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts, and the generation of osteoclasts from their precursors, and 3-examine the potential involvement of the transcription factor Nrf2 in these actions. All doses of AVA 2c and 1 and 5 µM dose of 2p up-regulated collagen 1A expression. Lower doses of AVAs up-regulated OPG (osteoprotegerin) in OB-6 osteoblastic cells, whereas 100 μM dose of 2f and all concentrations of 2c down-regulated RANKL gene expression in MLO-Y4 osteocytic cells. AVAs did not affect apoptosis of OB-6 osteoblastic cells or MLO-Y4 osteocytic cells; however, they prevented apoptosis induced by the DNA topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide, the glucocorticoid dexamethasone, and hydrogen peroxide. AVAs prevented apoptosis of both wild type (WT) and Nrf2 Knockout (KO) osteoblasts, demonstrating that AVAs-induced survival does not require Nrf2 expression. Further, KO osteoclast precursors produced more mature osteoclasts than WT; and KO cultures exhibited less apoptotic osteoclasts than WT cultures. Although AVAs did not affect WT osteoclasts, AVA 2p reversed the low apoptosis of KO osteoclasts. These in vitro results demonstrate that AVAs regulate, in part, the function of osteoblasts and osteocytes and prevent osteoblast/osteocyte apoptosis and increase osteoclast apoptosis; further

  9. Influence of Proton and Salt Concentration on the Chromonic Liquid Crystal Phase Diagram of Disodium Cromoglycate Solutions: Prospects and Limitations of a Host for DNA Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bingru; Kitzerow, Heinz-S

    2016-03-31

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals have recently been suggested for use as a self-organized host for dispersing and aligning self-organized DNA origami nanostructures. However, an appropriate pH value and a suitable cation concentration are necessary to stabilize such nanostructures and to avoid unfolding of the DNA. The present study shows that the nematic and columnar liquid crystal phases appearing in aqueous solutions of disodium cromoglycate are robust against the replacement of deionized water by a neutral or alkaline buffer solution. However, disodium cromoglycate precipitates when an acidic buffer is used or when the concentration of magnesium cations exceeds a critical concentration of about 0.6-0.7 mmol/L. PMID:26964003

  10. JNK Signaling in Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Dhanasekaran, Danny N.; Reddy, E. Premkumar

    2011-01-01

    Jun N-terminal kinases or JNKs play a critical role in death receptor-initiated extrinsic as well as mitochondrial intrinsic apoptotic pathways. JNKs activate apoptotic signaling by the upregulation pro-apoptotic genes via the transactivation of specific transcription factors or by directly modulating the activities of mitochondrial pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins through distinct phosphorylation events. This review analyzes our present understanding of the role of JNK in apoptotic signaling and the various mechanisms by which JNK promotes apoptosis PMID:18931691

  11. Resistance to etoposide-induced apoptosis in a Burkitt's lymphoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhao, E G; Song, Q; Cross, S; Misko, I; Lees-Miller, S P; Lavin, M F

    1998-08-31

    Burkitt's lymphoma cells that vary in their phenotypic characteristics show significantly different degrees of susceptibility to radiation-induced apoptosis. Propensity to undergo apoptosis is reflected in the degradation of substrates such as DNA-dependent protein kinase but the status of bcl-2, c-myc and p53 has been uninformative. In this study, we have focused on 2 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated Burkitt's cell lines, one (WW2) susceptible and the other (BL29) resistant to etoposide-induced apoptosis. Differences in expression of BHRF1, an EBV gene that is homologous to the Bcl-2 proto-oncogene and known to inhibit apoptosis, or changes in apoptosis inhibitory proteins (IAPs), did not appear to account for the difference in susceptibility in the 2 cell lines. Cytoplasmic extracts from etoposide-treated WW2 cells caused apoptotic changes in nuclei isolated from either BL29 or WW2 cells, whereas extracts from BL29 cells failed to do so. In addition, extracts from etoposide-treated WW2 cells degraded the catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs), an important indicator of apoptosis, but this protein was resistant to degradation by BL29 extracts. It appears likely that caspase 3 (CPP32) is involved in this degradation since it was activated only in the apoptosis susceptible cells and the pattern of cleavage of DNA-PKcs was similar to that reported previously with recombinant caspase 3. As observed previously, addition of caspase 3 to nuclei failed to induce morphological changes indicative of apoptosis, but addition of caspase 3 to nuclei in the presence of extract from the resistant cells led to apoptotic changes. We conclude that resistance to apoptosis in BL29 cells is due to a failure of etoposide to activate upstream effectors of caspase activity. PMID:9688310

  12. Hepatocyte apoptosis in dairy cattle during the transition period

    PubMed Central

    Tharwat, Mohamed; Takamizawa, Aya; Hosaka, Yoshinao Z.; Endoh, Daiji; Oikawa, Shin

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate hepatocyte apoptosis in dairy cows during the transition period. Four clinically healthy, pregnant dairy cattle were used. The cows had no clinical diseases throughout this study. Blood samples were collected and livers were biopsied from the cows at 3 different times: 3 weeks before expected partition (wk −3); during parturition (wk 0), and 3 weeks (wk +3) after parturition. The damage to deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) caused by hepatocytes was evaluated by comet assay. The apoptotic features of hepatocytes were examined by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopic analyses. The hepatic triglyceride content markedly increased at wk 0 and wk +3 compared with the values at wk −3. The results of the comet assay showed increases in the mean tail moment values of hepatic cells after parturition in all cows, which suggested increased DNA damage. Histopathologically, the hepatocytes began to contain lipid droplets at wk 0 and were severely opacified at wk +3. Caspase-3-positive and single-stranded DNA-(ssDNA)-positive cells were first detected in the liver after parturition. Condensation of nuclear chromatin, a typical sign of apoptosis, was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy after parturition. These results suggest that apoptosis is induced in hepatocytes of dairy cows around parturition and may result from lipotoxicity in hepatocytes. PMID:23543948

  13. Umbelliferone exhibits anticancer activity via the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shi-Min; Hu, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Jun

    2015-09-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant tumor, associated with poor patient prognoses, and high rates of morbidity and mortality. To date, the therapeutic strategies available for the treatment of HCC remain limited. The present study aimed to elucidate the anticancer activity of umbelliferone, a naturally occurring coumarin derivative isolated from Ferula communis, against the HepG2 HCC cell line. A 3‑(4,5‑dimthylthaizol‑2‑yl)‑2,5, diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was used to evaluate cell viability following umbelliferone treatment, and the effects of umbelliferone on cell cycle progression and apoptosis were evaluated using flow cytometry. The presence of morphological features characteristic of apoptosis, including cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, nuclear condensation and apoptotic body formation, were evaluated in HepG2 cells following umbelliferone treatment. Cell cycle analysis conducted via propidium iodide (PI) staining indicated that umbelliferone treatment induced cell cycle arrest at S phase in HepG2 cells. Analysis with Annexin V and PI staining revealed that umbelliferone induced apoptotic events in HepG2 cells in a concentration‑dependant manner (0‑50 µM). Umbelliferone also induced dose‑dependant DNA fragmentation. In conclusion, umbelliferone was found to exhibit significant anticancer effects via the induction of apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and DNA fragmentation in HepG2 cancer cells. PMID:25997538

  14. Suppression of Peroxiredoxin 4 in Glioblastoma Cells Increases Apoptosis and Reduces Tumor Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae Hyong; Song, Jieun; Alcantara Llaguno, Sheila R.; Murnan, Eric; Liyanarachchi, Sandya; Palanichamy, Kamalakannan; Yi, Ji-Yeun; Viapiano, Mariano Sebastian; Nakano, Ichiro; Yoon, Sung Ok; Wu, Hong; Parada, Luis F.; Kwon, Chang-Hyuk

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary brain malignancy, is incurable despite the best combination of current cancer therapies. For the development of more effective therapies, discovery of novel candidate tumor drivers is urgently needed. Here, we report that peroxiredoxin 4 (PRDX4) is a putative tumor driver. PRDX4 levels were highly increased in a majority of human GBMs as well as in a mouse model of GBM. Reducing PRDX4 expression significantly decreased GBM cell growth and radiation resistance in vitro with increased levels of ROS, DNA damage, and apoptosis. In a syngenic orthotopic transplantation model, Prdx4 knockdown limited GBM infiltration and significantly prolonged mouse survival. These data suggest that PRDX4 can be a novel target for GBM therapies in the future. PMID:22916164

  15. Neuropeptide Y protects kidney against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by regulating p53-dependent apoptosis pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, Namoh; Min, Woo-Kie; Park, Min Hee; Lee, Jong Kil; Jin, Hee Kyung; Bae, Jae-Sung

    2016-05-01

    Cisplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapeutic drug for treating various types of cancers. However, the use of cisplatin is limited by its negative effect on normal tissues, particularly nephrotoxicity. Various mechanisms such as DNA adduct formation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, and apoptosis are involved in the adverse effect induced by cisplatin treatment. Several studies have suggested that neuropeptide Y (NPY) is involved in neuroprotection as well as restoration of bone marrow dysfunction from chemotherapy induced nerve injury. However, the role of NPY in chemotherapy- induced nephrotoxicity has not been studied. Here, we show that NPY rescues renal dysfunction by reducing the expression of pro-apoptotic proteins in cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity through Y1 receptor, suggesting that NPY can protect kidney against cisplatin nephrotoxicity as a possible useful agent to prevent and treat cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. [BMB Reports 2016; 49(5): 288-292]. PMID:26728272

  16. Requirement for SAPK-JNK signaling in the induction of apoptosis by ribosomal stress in REH lymphoid leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C R; Jiffar, T; Fischer, U M; Ruvolo, P P; Jarvis, W D

    2003-11-01

    The present studies examined performance of SAPK cascades and apoptotic commitment following ribosomal trauma in REH lymphoid leukemia cells. Ribostatic insults included disruption of ribosomal activity by mechanistically dissimilar agents such as blasticidin-S (BCS) (which binds 28S-rRNA to block peptidyl bond formation), kasugamycin (KSM) (which binds 18S-rRNA to prevent translational initiation), and cycloheximide (CHX) (which blocks A-site to P-site translocation of peptidyl-tRNA). Exposure of REH cells to BCS elicited DNA degradation and apoptotic cytolysis. BCS stimulated JNK1/JNK2 and p38, and their shared targets c-Jun and ATF2. Inhibition of JNK1/JNK2 (but not of p38) antagonized blasticidin-induced apoptosis, whereas targeting alternative ribosomal sites with KSM or CHX limited translation, but failed to activate the SAPK cascade or initiate apoptosis. Our findings indicate that interference with 28S-rRNA by BCS initiates apoptosis in REH cells through recruitment of SAPK-JNK signaling. Disparities between the lethal actions of BCS, KSM, and CHX appear to reflect established differences in the subribosomal targets of these agents. We propose that the SAPK cascade comprises an essential mechanism for the transduction of specific lethal stress signals emanating from active ribosomes, and that interference with the 28S-rRNA, rather than the peptidyl transfer center of the large subunit, is critical to apoptotic commitment. PMID:12970763

  17. [Level of nitric oxide in the kidneys during apoptosis activation].

    PubMed

    Komarievtseva, I O; Orlova, O A; Blahodarenko, Ie A

    2002-01-01

    The content of nitric oxide stable metabolites in a tissue of kidneys of rats in conditions of activation of apoptosis was investigated. Research was carried out in two models: acute renal failure and a hypertrophy of a unique kidney after a unilateral nephrectomy. Detection of apoptosis was carried out by definition of DNA fragmentation. Substantial increase of the nitric oxide stable metabolites contents is revealed at activation of apoptosis in both models. Change of a ratio of the contents of nitrite--anions in relation to the general contents of NO2- + NO3- is revealed, indicating the role of peroxide processes in effect of nitric oxide and its metabolites on the cell. PMID:14964872

  18. Dividing roles of prion protein in staurosporine-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Qin, Kefeng; Wang, Jianwei; Hung, Tao; Zhao, Richard Y

    2006-10-20

    Prion protein (PrPC) is a normal cellular glycoprotein that is expressed in almost all tissues including the central nervous system. Much attention has been focused on this protein because conversion of the normal PrPC to the diseased form (PrPSc) plays an essential role in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies such as mad cow disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In spite of the extensive effort, the normal physiological function of PrPC remains elusive. Emerging evidence suggests that PrPC plays a protective role against cellular stresses including apoptosis induced by various pro-apoptotic agents such as Bax and staurosporine (STS), however, other reports showed overexpression of PrPC enhances STS-mediated apoptosis. In this study, we took a different approach by depleting endogenous PrPC using specific interfering RNA technique and compared the depleting and overproducing effects of PrPC on STS-induced apoptosis in neuro-2a (N2a) cells. We demonstrate here that down-regulation of PrPC sensitizes N2a cells to STS-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis. The enhanced apoptosis induced by STS was shown by increased DNA fragmentation, immunoreactivity of Bax, and caspase-3 cleavage. We also showed that overproduction of PrPC had little or no effect on STS-mediated DNA fragmentation in N2a cells but it augments STS-mediated apoptosis in HEK293 cells, suggesting a cell line-specific effect. In addition, the inhibitory effect of PrPC on STS-mediated cellular stress appears to be modulated in part through induction of cell cycle G2 accumulation. Together, our data suggest that physiological level of endogenous PrPC plays a protective role against STS-mediated cellular stress. Loss of this protection could render cells more prone to cellular insults such as STS. PMID:16950206

  19. Characterization of DNA end joining in a mammalian cell nuclear extract: junction formation is accompanied by nucleotide loss, which is limited and uniform but not site specific.

    PubMed Central

    Nicolás, A L; Young, C S

    1994-01-01

    Mammalian cells have a marked capacity to repair double-strand breaks in DNA, but the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying this process are largely unknown. A previous report has described an activity from mammalian cell nuclei that is capable of multimerizing blunt-ended DNA substrates (R. Fishel, M.K. Derbyshire, S.P. Moore, and C.S.H. Young, Biochimie 73:257-267, 1991). In this report, we show that nuclear extracts from HeLa cells contain activities which preferentially join linear plasmid substrates in either a head-to-head or tail-to-tail configuration, that the joining reaction is covalent, and that the joining is accompanied by loss of sequence at the junction. Sequencing revealed that there was a loss of a uniform number of nucleotides from junctions formed from any one type of substrate. The loss was not determined by any simple site-specific mechanism, but the number of nucleotides lost was affected by the precise terminal sequence. There was no major effect on the efficiency or outcome of the joining reaction with substrates containing blunt ends or 3' or 5' protruding ends. Using a pair of plasmid molecules with distinguishable restriction enzyme sites, we also observed that blunt-ended DNA substrates could join with those containing protruding 3' ends. As with the junctions formed between molecules with identical ends, there was uniform loss of nucleotides. Taken together, the data are consistent with two models for the joining reaction in which molecules are aligned either throughout most of their length or by using small sequence homologies located toward their ends. Although either model can explain the preferential formation of head-to-head and tail-to-tail products, the latter predicts the precise lossof nucleotides observed. These activities are found in all cell lines examined so far and most likely represent an important repair activity of the mammalian cell. Images PMID:8264584

  20. Involvement of the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways in ultraviolet B-induced apoptosis of corneal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ubels, John L; Glupker, Courtney D; Schotanus, Mark P; Haarsma, Loren D

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to elucidate the pathway by which UVB initiates efflux of K(+) and subsequently apoptosis in human corneal limbal epithelial (HCLE) cells. The initial focus of the study was on the extrinsic pathway involving Fas. HCLE cells transfected with Fas siRNA were exposed to 80-150 mJ/cm(2) UVB and incubated in culture medium with 5.5 mM K(+). Knockdown of Fas resulted in limited reduction in UVB-induced caspase-8 and -3 activity. Patch-clamp recordings showed no difference in UVB-induced normalized K(+) currents between Fas transfected and control cells. Knockdown of caspase-8 had no effect on the activation of caspase-3 following UVB exposure, while a caspase-8 inhibitor completely eliminated UVB activation of caspase-3. This suggests that caspase-8 is a robust enzyme, able to activate caspase-3 via residual caspase-8 present after knockdown, and that caspase-8 is directly involved in the UVB activation of caspase-3. Inhibition of caspase-9 significantly decreased the activation of caspases-8 and -3 in response to UVB. Knockdown of Apaf-1, required for activation of caspase-9, resulted in a significant reduction in UVB-induced activation of caspases-9, -8, and -3. Knockdown of Apaf-1 also inhibited intrinsic and UVB-induced levels of apoptosis, as determined by DNA fragmentation measured by TUNEL assay. In UVB exposed cultures treated with caspase-3 inhibitor, the percentage of apoptotic cells was reduced to control levels, confirming the necessity of caspase-3 activation in DNA fragmentation. The lack of effect of Fas knockdown on K(+) channel activation, as well as the limited effect on activation of caspases-8 and -3, strongly suggest that Fas and the extrinsic pathway is not of primary importance in the initiation of apoptosis in response to UVB in HCLE cells. Inhibition of caspase-8 and -3 activation following inhibition of caspase-9, as well as reduction in activation of caspases-9, -8, and -3 and DNA fragmentation in response to Apaf

  1. Apoptosis by Direct Current Treatment in Tumor Cells and Tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hongbae; Sim, Sungbo; Ahn, Saeyoung

    2003-10-01

    Electric field induces cell fusion, electroporation on biological cells, including apoptosis. Apoptosis is expressed in a series of natural enzymatic reactions for the natural elimination of unhealthy, genetically damaged, or otherwise aberrant cells that are not needed or not advantageous to the well-being of the organism. Its markers involve cell shrinkage, activation of intracellular caspase proteases, externalization of phosphatidylserine at the plasma membrane, and fragmentation of DNA. Direct electric fields using direct current have been exploited recently to investigate its effects on tumor cells and tissues, but the mechanism of direct electric fields has not been exhibited clearly other than by electroosmosis or pH changes. Direct electric field induces apoptosis in tumor cells cultured and tumor tissues as indicated by cell shrinkage, DNA fragmentation and tumor suppression. In our experiment that direct electric field was applied to tumor tissues via two needle electrodes inserted into tumor tissue 5mm at distance in parallel, pH changes resulted from electrochemical reaction, exhibiting about pH 9.0, 1.83, 2.0 in the vicinity of cathodic and anodic electrode, and at their mid-point, respectively. DNA fragmentation of tumor tissues destructed by direct electric field was analyzed by Tunel assay by ApopTag technology. As a result of this analysis, it showed that apoptosis in tumor tissue destructed was increased up to 59.1normal(control) tissues, showing 41.1, 31.1cathodic tissues. In vitro cell survival was exhibited that it was decreased with enhancing electric current intensity in the same condition of electrical charge 5C having different time applied. We will show results of apoptosis analyzed by flow cytometry in vitro.

  2. Apoptosis and the Airway Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    White, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    The airway epithelium functions as a barrier and front line of host defense in the lung. Apoptosis or programmed cell death can be elicited in the epithelium as a response to viral infection, exposure to allergen or to environmental toxins, or to drugs. While apoptosis can be induced via activation of death receptors on the cell surface or by disruption of mitochondrial polarity, epithelial cells compared to inflammatory cells are more resistant to apoptotic stimuli. This paper focuses on the response of airway epithelium to apoptosis in the normal state, apoptosis as a potential regulator of the number and types of epithelial cells in the airway, and the contribution of epithelial cell apoptosis in important airways diseases. PMID:22203854

  3. Impact of apoptosis on the on-line measured dielectric properties of CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Zalai, Dénes; Tobak, Teodóra; Putics, Ákos

    2015-12-01

    Apoptosis is a common type of cell death in biopharmaceutical cell culture processes which causes decrease in viable cell density and product yield. The progression of apoptosis has been reported to influence the dielectric properties of mammalian cells; however, the on-line detection of these effects has been rarely described. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the on-line detectability of dielectric changes upon apoptosis induction in an industrial fed-batch process of CHO cells expressing a recombinant monoclonal antibody. Using capacitance signals, measured at 25 frequencies, the impact of apoptosis on the dielectric spectra was investigated in eight bioreactor cultivations in which various process conditions were combined with two different apoptosis induction strategies (camptothecin treatment and glucose starvation). To differentiate the