Sample records for apparent false negative

  1. [Persistent sciatic artery: possible false negative imaging].

    PubMed

    Nedelcu, C; Deux, J-F; Boudghène, F; Pujade, B; Marsault, C; Tassart, M

    2007-07-01

    Persistent sciatic artery is a rare congenital malformation due to the lack of regression of the dorsal arterial axis of the embryo that can be revealed by serious complications. We report a case of bilateral persistent sciatic artery revealed by subacute distal ischemia. This case illustrates the possibility of false negative imaging and the importance of ruling out this diagnosis in case of recurrent and apparently idiopathic distal embolism. PMID:17601692

  2. The false-negative Meckel's scan

    SciTech Connect

    Wilton, G.; Froelich, J.W.

    1982-10-01

    A case is presented of a 17-month-old girl who underwent two Meckel's scans with /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate. The initial study was interpreted as normal while a subsequent study five days later was definitely positive. Surgery immediately following the positive Meckel's scan demonstrated a Meckel's diverticulum containing gastric mucosa without evidence of active hemorrhage. This prompted a review of the literature in reference to false-negative Meckel's scans which revealed a wide variance in the reported incidence of false-negative examinations. Repeat scintigraphy in the face of a strong clinical suspicion after an initial normal study may decrease the indicence of false-negative imaging series.

  3. On False-Positive and False-Negative Decisions with a Mastery Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.

    1979-01-01

    Methods are described for obtaining upper and lower bounds to both false-positive and false-negative decisions with a mastery test. These methods make no assumptions about the form of the true score distribution. (CTM)

  4. On False-Positive and False-Negative Decisions with a Mastery Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.

    Wilcox (1977) examines two methods of estimating the probability of a false-positive on false-negative decision with a mastery test. Both procedures make assumptions about the form of the true score distribution which might not give good results in all situations. In this paper, upper and lower bounds on the two possible error types are described…

  5. Skin sensitization, false positives and false negatives: experience with guinea pig assays.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David A; Kimber, Ian

    2010-07-01

    The advent of the local lymph node assay (LLNA), and efforts to develop in vitro alternatives for the identification of skin sensitizing chemicals has focused attention on the issue of false positive and false negative results. In essence, the question becomes 'what is the gold standard?' In this context, attention has focused primarily on the LLNA as this is now the preferred assay for skin sensitization testing. However, for many years prior to introduction of the LLNA, the guinea pig maximization test and the occluded patch test of Buehler were the methods of choice. In order to encourage a more informed dialogue about the relative performance, accuracy and applicability of the LLNA and guinea pig tests, we have here considered the extent to which guinea pig methods were themselves subject to false positives and negative results. We describe and discuss here well-characterized examples of instances where both false negatives (including abietic acid and eugenol) or false positives (including vanillin and sulfanilic acid) have been recorded in guinea pig tests. These and other examples are discussed with particular reference to the fabrication of a gold standard dataset that is required for the validation of in vitro alternatives. PMID:20583317

  6. Analysis of gene expression in pathophysiological states: balancing false discovery and false negative rates.

    PubMed

    Norris, Andrew W; Kahn, C Ronald

    2006-01-17

    Nucleotide-microarray technology, which allows the simultaneous measurement of the expression of tens of thousands of genes, has become an important tool in the study of disease. In disorders such as malignancy, gene expression often undergoes broad changes of sizable magnitude, whereas in many common multifactorial diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis, the changes in gene expression are modest. In the latter circumstance, it is therefore challenging to distinguish the truly changing from non-changing genes, especially because statistical significance must be considered in the context of multiple hypothesis testing. Here, we present a balanced probability analysis (BPA), which provides the biologist with an approach to interpret results in the context of the total number of genes truly differentially expressed and false discovery and false negative rates for the list of genes reaching any significance threshold. In situations where the changes are of modest magnitude, sole consideration of the false discovery rate can result in poor power to detect genes truly differentially expressed. Concomitant analysis of the rate of truly differentially expressed genes not identified, i.e., the false negative rate, allows balancing of the two error rates and a more thorough insight into the data. To this end, we have developed a unique, model-based procedure for the estimation of false negative rates, which allows application of BPA to real data in which changes are modest. PMID:16407153

  7. False negative results from using common PCR reagents

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The sensitivity of the PCR reaction makes it ideal for use when identifying potentially novel viral infections in human disease. Unfortunately, this same sensitivity also leaves this popular technique open to potential contamination with previously amplified PCR products, or "carry-over" contamination. PCR product carry-over contamination can be prevented with uracil-DNA-glycosylase (UNG), and it is for this reason that it is commonly included in many commercial PCR master-mixes. While testing the sensitivity of PCR assays to detect murine DNA contamination in human tissue samples, we inadvertently discovered that the use of this common PCR reagent may lead to the production of false-negative PCR results. Findings We show here that contamination with minute quantities of UNG-digested PCR product or any negative control PCR reactions containing primer-dimers regardless of UNG presence can completely block amplification from as much as 60 ng of legitimate target DNA. Conclusions These findings could potentially explain discrepant results from laboratories attempting to amplify MLV-related viruses including XMRV from human samples, as none of the published reports used internal-tube controls for amplification. The potential for false negative results needs to be considered and carefully controlled in PCR experiments, especially when the target copy number may be low - just as the potential for false positive results already is. PMID:22032271

  8. The false-positive to false-negative ratio in epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Ioannidis, John P A; Tarone, Robert; McLaughlin, Joseph K

    2011-07-01

    The ratio of false-positive to false-negative findings (FP:FN ratio) is an informative metric that warrants further evaluation. The FP:FN ratio varies greatly across different epidemiologic areas. In genetic epidemiology, it has varied from very high values (possibly even >100:1) for associations reported in candidate-gene studies to very low values (1:100 or lower) for associations with genome-wide significance. The substantial reduction over time in the FP:FN ratio in human genome epidemiology has corresponded to the routine adoption of stringent inferential criteria and comprehensive, agnostic reporting of all analyses. Most traditional fields of epidemiologic research more closely follow the practices of past candidate gene epidemiology, and thus have high FP:FN ratios. Further, FP and FN results do not necessarily entail the same consequences, and their relative importance may vary in different settings. This ultimately has implications for what is the acceptable FP:FN ratio and for how the results of published epidemiologic studies should be presented and interpreted. PMID:21490505

  9. Black and green tea - luminol false-negative bloodstains detection.

    PubMed

    Bancirova, Martina

    2012-06-01

    The antioxidant properties of black and green teas are well known. It is also possible to determine their antioxidant capacity by using a chemiluminscent method. This method is based on the measurement of the delay in the emission of light from the luminol reaction in the presence of the antioxidant. Bloodstains which are invisible to the naked eye can also be detected by luminol. Three common methods (detection using the Grodsky or Weber formulations and by Bluestar® Forensic latent bloodstain reagent) are based on the luminol chemiluminescence reaction. The bloodstains can be masked by drinks and/or foods containing antioxidants. The aim of this work was to compare the ability of black and green teas containing antioxidants to cause false negative results during chemiluminescent bloodstain detection. PMID:22583502

  10. Estimating the Likelihood of False-Positive and False-Negative Decisions in Mastery Testing: An Empirical Bayes Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand

    False-positive and false-negative dicisions are the fundamental errors committed with a mastery test; yet the estimation of the likelihood of committing these errors has not been investigated. Accordingly, two methods of estimating the likelihood of committing these errors are described and then investigated using Monte Carlo techniques.…

  11. Estimating the Likelihood of False-Positive and False-Negative Decisions in Mastery Testing: An Empirical Bayes Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.

    1977-01-01

    False-positive and false-negative decisions are the two possible errors committed with a mastery test; yet the estimation of the likelihood of committing these errors has not been investigated. Two methods of this type of estimation are presented and discussed. (Author/JKS)

  12. Environmental awareness intrusion detection and prevention system toward reducing false positives and false negatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meharouech Sourour; Bouhoula Adel; Abbes Tarek

    2009-01-01

    Intrusion detection systems (IDS) and intrusion prevention systems (IPS) are now considered a mainstream security technology. IDS and IPS are designed to identify security breaches. However, one of the most important problems with current IDS and IPS is the lack of the ldquoenvironmental awarenessrdquo (i.e. security policy, network topology and software). This ignorance triggers many false positives (false alerts) and

  13. Using Sniffing Behavior to Differentiate True Negative from False Negative Responses in Trained Scent-Detection Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Daniel S.; Feugier, Alexandre; Zulch, Helen; Guest, Claire; Harris, Rob; Pike, Thomas W.

    2014-01-01

    False negatives are recorded in every chemical detection system, but when animals are used as a scent detector, some false negatives can arise as a result of a failure in the link between detection and the trained alert response, or a failure of the handler to identify the positive alert. A false negative response can be critical in certain scenarios, such as searching for a live person or detecting explosives. In this study, we investigated whether the nature of sniffing behavior in trained detection dogs during a controlled scent-detection task differs in response to true positives, true negatives, false positives, and false negatives. A total of 200 videos of 10 working detection dogs were pseudorandomly selected and analyzed frame by frame to quantify sniffing duration and the number of sniffing episodes recorded in a Go/No-Go single scent-detection task using an eight-choice test apparatus. We found that the sniffing duration of true negatives is significantly shorter than false negatives, true positives, and false positives. Furthermore, dogs only ever performed one sniffing episode towards true negatives, but two sniffing episodes commonly occurred in the other situations. These results demonstrate how the nature of sniffing can be used to more effectively assess odor detection by dogs used as biological detection devices. PMID:25214467

  14. Human papillomavirus in false negative archival cervical smears: implications for screening for cervical cancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J M Walboomers; A M de Roda Husman; P J Snijders; H V Stel; E K Risse; T J Helmerhorst; F J Voorhorst; C J Meijer

    1995-01-01

    AIM--To assess the value of detecting human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in false negative archival cervical smears in population based screening programmes for cervical cancer. METHODS--Cytomorphologically classified false negative archival Pap smears (n = 27) taken from 18 women up to six years before cervical cancer was diagnosed were blindly mixed with 89 smears from hospital patients with a variety of

  15. Recurrent Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Presenting as a Positron Emission Tomography False-negative Scan

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chien Shih; Jenq-Yuh Ko; Cheng-Ping Wang; Lai-Lei Ting; Jong-Kai Hsiao

    2009-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is valuable for detecting locoregional recurrences of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) with a high sensitivity and fair specificity. A negative PET result is generally thought to confidently exclude the presence of a tumor. However, a false-negative PET scan is more dangerous than false-positive results because an undiscovered recurrent tumor may eventually lead to the patient's death without

  16. Detection of Histoplasma capsulatum Antigenuria by Ultrafiltration of Samples with False-Negative Results

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lindsey Egan; Patricia A. Connolly; Deanna Fuller; Thomas E. Davis; John Witt; Kenneth S. Knox; Chadi A. Hage; L. Joseph Wheat

    2008-01-01

    Patients with histoplasmosis may test falsely negative for Histoplasma capsulatum antigenuria. In some cases antigen is present at levels below the assay's detection limit, and ultrafiltration could improve sensitivity. Antigen was detected following ultrafiltration in 73.8% of falsely negative specimens versus 2% of controls. Ultrafiltration improved sensitivity with a small reduction in specificity. When the third-generation MVista Histoplasma capsulatum antigen

  17. NMR-based quality control approach for the identification of false positives and false negatives in high throughput screening.

    PubMed

    Dalvit, Claudio; Caronni, Dannica; Mongelli, Nicola; Veronesi, Marina; Vulpetti, Anna

    2006-06-01

    The quality of the data generated in a high throughput screening (HTS) run is fundamental for selecting bona fide inhibitors and for ensuring the capture of the full richness of inhibitors present in a chemical library. For this purpose a quality control filter based on three one dimensional (1D) proton NMR experiments is proposed. The approach called SPAM (Solubility, Purity and Aggregation of the Molecule) Filter requires the acquisition of a 1D reference spectrum, a WaterLOGSY spectrum and/or a selective longitudinal relaxation filter spectrum for the identified hits dissolved in aqueous solution and in the presence of a water soluble reference molecule. This palette of experiments permits the rapid characterization of the identity, purity, solubility and aggregation state of the active compound. This knowledge is crucial for deriving accurate IC(50) and K(1) values of the inhibitors, for identifying false negatives and for detecting promiscuous inhibitors. Only compounds that pass through the SPAM Filter can be considered as starting points for medicinal chemistry efforts directed toward lead optimization. Examples of this approach in the identification of false positives in a screening run against the enzyme thymidine phosphorylase (TP) and the rescue of a false negative in a screening run against the Ser/Thr kinase AKT1 are presented. PMID:16925519

  18. Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring

    PubMed Central

    Hamel, Jennifer A.; Cocroft, Reginald B.

    2012-01-01

    Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups. PMID:22787019

  19. Unexplained False Negative Results in Noninvasive Prenatal Testing: Two Cases Involving Trisomies 13 and 18

    PubMed Central

    Hochstenbach, R.; Page-Christiaens, G. C. M. L.; van Oppen, A. C. C.; Lichtenbelt, K. D.; van Harssel, J. J. T.; Brouwer, T.; Manten, G. T. R.; van Zon, P.; Elferink, M.; Kusters, K.; Akkermans, O.; Ploos van Amstel, J. K.; Schuring-Blom, G. H.

    2015-01-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) validation studies show high sensitivity and specificity for detection of trisomies 13, 18, and 21. False negative cases have rarely been reported. We describe a false negative case of trisomy 13 and another of trisomy 18 in which NIPT was commercially marketed directly to the clinician. Both cases came to our attention because a fetal anatomy scan at 20 weeks of gestation revealed multiple anomalies. Karyotyping of cultured amniocytes showed nonmosaic trisomies 13 and 18, respectively. Cytogenetic investigation of cytotrophoblast cells from multiple placental biopsies showed a low proportion of nontrisomic cells in each case, but this was considered too small for explaining the false negative NIPT result. The discordant results also could not be explained by early gestational age, elevated maternal weight, a vanishing twin, or suboptimal storage or transport of samples. The root cause of the discrepancies could, therefore, not be identified. The couples involved experienced difficulties in accepting the unexpected and late-adverse outcome of their pregnancy. We recommend that all parties involved in caring for couples who choose NIPT should collaborate to clarify false negative results in order to unravel possible biological causes and to improve the process of patient care from initial counseling to communication of the result. PMID:26137330

  20. Case report: false negative serum cryptococcal latex agglutination test in a patient with disseminated cryptococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Navabi, Nazlee; Montebatsi, Milton; Scott, Michelle; Gluckman, Stephen J; Reid, Michael J A

    2015-03-01

    A case of false-negative serum latex agglutination cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) test in a 45-year-old HIV-positive male with Cryptococcus-positive culture is described. The patient was presented to a hospital in Botswana, with breathlessness and a diffuse papular rash. His CD4 count was 25 cells/?L. Despite the suspicion for disseminated cryptococcal disease, an initial serum CRAG latex test was negative. Results of subsequent Indian ink staining, culture of cerebrospinal fluid and skin scrapings, and serum lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) were all positive for Cryptococcus neoformans. There are several possible explanations for the false-negative CRAG latex test. Given the positive LFA result, we speculate that disease may have been caused by Cryptococcus gattii, which is estimated to be responsible for between 15% and 30% of all cryptococcal diseases in Botswana. Reduced sensitivity of CRAG latex assays for detecting C gattii may lead to underdiagnosis of cryptococcal infection. PMID:25331223

  1. Efficient information theoretic strategies for classifier combination, feature extraction and performance evaluation in improving false positives and false negatives for spam e-mail filtering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vasilios Zorkadis; Dimitris A. Karras; M. c Panayotou

    2005-01-01

    Spam emails are considered as a serious privacy-related violation, besides being a costly, unsolicited communication. Various spam filtering techniques have been so far proposed, mainly based on Naïve Bayesian algorithms. Other Machine Learning algorithms like Boosting trees, or Support Vector Machines (SVM) have already been used with success. However, the number of False Positives (FP) and False Negatives (FN) resulting

  2. A Simple Strategy for Reducing False Negatives in Calling Variants from Single-Cell Sequencing Data

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Cong; Miao, Zong; He, Xionglei

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growth of interest in single-cell genomics, computational methods for distinguishing true variants from artifacts are highly desirable. While special attention has been paid to false positives in variant or mutation calling from single-cell sequencing data, an equally important but often neglected issue is that of false negatives derived from allele dropout during the amplification of single cell genomes. In this paper, we propose a simple strategy to reduce the false negatives in single-cell sequencing data analysis. Simulation results show that this method is highly reliable, with an error rate of 4.94×10-5, which is orders of magnitude lower than the expected false negative rate (~34%) estimated from a single-cell exome dataset, though the method is limited by the low SNP density in the human genome. We applied this method to analyze the exome data of a few dozen single tumor cells generated in previous studies, and extracted cell specific mutation information for a small set of sites. Interestingly, we found that there are difficulties in using the classical clonal model of tumor cell growth to explain the mutation patterns observed in some tumor cells. PMID:25876174

  3. Low False-Negative Rate of PCR Analysis for Detecting Human Papillomavirus-Related Cervical Lesions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PHILIP ZAZOVE; BARBARA D. REED; LUCIE GREGOIRE; ALEX FERENCZY; DANIEL W. GORENFLO; WAYNE D. LANCASTER; Mortimer B. Davis-Jewish

    1998-01-01

    Although PCR analysis is a sensitive test for detection of human papillomavirus (HPV) in the cervix, the proportion of cases of cervical dysplasia missed, or the false-negative rate, has been unknown. We determined the accuracy of PCR analysis for HPV DNA as a predictor of HPV-related cervical lesions in a cross-sectional study of sexually active women, aged 18 to 50

  4. Effect of false positive and false negative rates on inference of binding target conservation across different conditions and species from ChIP-chip data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Debayan Datta; Hongyu Zhao

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ChIP-chip data are routinely used to identify transcription factor binding targets. However, the presence of false positives and false negatives in ChIP-chip data complicates and hinders analyses, especially when the binding targets for a specific transcription factor are compared across conditions or species. RESULTS: We propose an Expectation Maximization based approach to infer the underlying true counts of \\

  5. The frequency of false-positive and false-negative results in the detection of Y-chromosomes in interphase nuclei

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. L. Thomsen; E. Niebuhr

    1986-01-01

    In blood smears from 527 females and 457 males examined for the presence of Y chromosomes in interphase nuclei, 0.6% false-positive results and 11% false-negative results were found. There was a clear tendency for the falsenegative results to occur among those with small fluorescent or non-existing bands on the Y chromosome. The three falsepositive females all had fluorescent chromosomal variants.

  6. Development of peptide receptor binding assays: methods to avoid false negatives.

    PubMed

    Vergote, Valentijn; Van Dorpe, Sylvia; Verbeken, Mathieu; Burvenich, Christian; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Banks, William A; De Spiegeleer, Bart

    2009-11-27

    Selection of appropriate ligand receptor binding assay conditions is critical for peptides, where the possibility of obtaining false negative results is pertinent due to their inherent adsorption and instability characteristics, as well as high response-sensitivity to operational conditions. The aim of this study was thus to develop a cost-effective multivariate screening method for determination of the influence of different factors on the outcome of such studies, using (125)I-labelled vasoactive intestinal peptide binding on lung homogenate as a model. The study was divided into two parts: investigation of filtration for bound-unbound ligand separation, and screening of sample incubation variables. Experimental designs were used (including Plackett-Burman) to evaluate adsorption, total binding, non-specific binding, specific binding and (non-)specific/total binding ratio. Several significant factors were identified. For filtration, a combination of polyethylenimine and BSA filter pretreatment was best, whereas albumin-containing washing solvent negatively influenced the amount of specific bound radioligand. For sample incubation, significant effects on one or more of the studied responses were observed for several factors. Bacitracin protease inhibitor also decreased adsorption. We report here multivariate experimental designs for screening of peptide (radio)ligand receptor binding assay conditions. This approach efficiently minimizes the risk on false negative results due to inappropriate operational conditions. PMID:19706310

  7. Prime time news: the influence of primed positive and negative emotion on susceptibility to false memories.

    PubMed

    Porter, Stephen; ten Brinke, Leanne; Riley, Sean N; Baker, Alysha

    2014-01-01

    We examined the relation between emotion and susceptibility to misinformation using a novel paradigm, the ambiguous stimuli affective priming (ASAP) paradigm. Participants (N = 88) viewed ambiguous neutral images primed either at encoding or retrieval to be interpreted as either highly positive or negative (or neutral/not primed). After viewing the images, they either were asked misleading or non-leading questions. Following a delay, memory accuracy for the original images was assessed. Results indicated that any emotional priming at encoding led to a higher susceptibility to misinformation relative to priming at recall. In particular, inducing a negative interpretation of the image at encoding led to an increased susceptibility of false memories for major misinformation (an entire object not actually present in the scene). In contrast, this pattern was reversed when priming was used at recall; a negative reinterpretation of the image decreased memory distortion relative to unprimed images. These findings suggest that, with precise experimental control, the experience of emotion at event encoding, in particular, is implicated in false memory susceptibility. PMID:24552271

  8. False Negatives in the Assessment of Lifetime Alcohol Use Disorders: A Serious But Unappreciated Problem

    PubMed Central

    Haeny, Angela M; Littlefield, Andrew K; Sher, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Some individuals will not meet criteria for a lifetime alcohol use disorder (AUD) at a baseline assessment but will at a follow-up measurement, but not because the disorder began after the initial evaluation. Despite several research implications, this type of unreliability of lifetime AUD estimates has not been studied extensively. The present study investigated the extent of false negatives in the assessment of lifetime AUDs using longitudinal data. Method: A prospective cohort of college freshmen (baseline N = 489) were assessed seven times between ages 18 and 34 years using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Individuals were categorized as false negatives at the index assessment using a retrospective (using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Third Edition [DSM-III], and DSM-IV data), a prospective (using DSM-III data only), and a combined approach (using DSM-III data only). Results: For DSM-IV, of the 29 ostensible new onsets at a follow-up 5 years later (age approximately 34 years), 28 (96%) reported meeting AUD criteria before the index assessment (age approximately 29 years). For DSM-III, of the 25 ostensible new onsets, the retrospective, prospective, and combined approaches categorized 18 (72%) individuals as false negatives at the index assessment. Conclusions: These findings further demonstrate sensitivity issues with lifetime AUD assessments and call into question the validity of “onset” cases that rely on only two waves of data, especially when the follow-up assessment fails to reassess lifetime fully (i.e., across the entire drinking history). PMID:24766765

  9. False-negative dipyridamole-thallium-201 myocardial imaging after caffeine infusion

    SciTech Connect

    Smits, P.; Corstens, F.H.; Aengevaeren, W.R.; Wackers, F.J.; Thien, T. (University Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands))

    1991-08-01

    The vasodilator effect of intravenously administered dipyridamole may be caused by an increase in endogenous plasma adenosine levels. The authors evaluated the effect of caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, on the diagnostic results of dipyridamole-201Tl myocardial imaging in eight patients with coronary artery disease. Caffeine infusion significantly attenuated the dipyridamole-induced fall in blood pressure and the accompanied increase in heart rate. The infusion of dipyridamole alone resulted in chest pain and ST-segment depressions on the electrocardiogram in four patients, whereas none of these problems occurred when the tests were repeated after caffeine. In six of eight patients, caffeine was responsible for false-negative dipyridamole-201Tl tests. Semiquantitive scores of the dipyridamole-induced 201Tl perfusion defects were decreased by caffeine from 9.0 {plus minus} 0.9 to 2.0 {plus minus} 1.1 points (p less than 0.05). Computerized analysis revealed a caffeine-mediated reduction in the percent reversibility of the images from 46% {plus minus} 16% to 6% {plus minus} 10% (p less than 0.05). They conclude that the use of caffeinated products prior to dipyridamole-201Tl testing may be responsible for false-negative findings.

  10. Avoiding False Positive Antigen Detection by Flow Cytometry on Blood Cell Derived Microparticles: The Importance of an Appropriate Negative Control

    PubMed Central

    Crompot, Emerence; Van Damme, Michael; Duvillier, Hugues; Pieters, Karlien; Vermeesch, Marjorie; Perez-Morga, David; Meuleman, Nathalie; Mineur, Philippe; Bron, Dominique; Lagneaux, Laurence; Stamatopoulos, Basile

    2015-01-01

    Background Microparticles (MPs), also called microvesicles (MVs) are plasma membrane-derived fragments with sizes ranging from 0.1 to 1?m. Characterization of these MPs is often performed by flow cytometry but there is no consensus on the appropriate negative control to use that can lead to false positive results. Materials and Methods We analyzed MPs from platelets, B-cells, T-cells, NK-cells, monocytes, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B-cells. Cells were purified by positive magnetic-separation and cultured for 48h. Cells and MPs were characterized using the following monoclonal antibodies (CD19,20 for B-cells, CD3,8,5,27 for T-cells, CD16,56 for NK-cells, CD14,11c for monocytes, CD41,61 for platelets). Isolated MPs were stained with annexin-V-FITC and gated between 300nm and 900nm. The latex bead technique was then performed for easy detection of MPs. Samples were analyzed by Transmission (TEM) and Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM). Results Annexin-V positive events within a gate of 300-900nm were detected and defined as MPs. Our results confirmed that the characteristic antigens CD41/CD61 were found on platelet-derived-MPs validating our technique. However, for MPs derived from other cell types, we were unable to detect any antigen, although they were clearly expressed on the MP-producing cells in the contrary of several data published in the literature. Using the latex bead technique, we confirmed detection of CD41,61. However, the apparent expression of other antigens (already deemed positive in several studies) was determined to be false positive, indicated by negative controls (same labeling was used on MPs from different origins). Conclusion We observed that mother cell antigens were not always detected on corresponding MPs by direct flow cytometry or latex bead cytometry. Our data highlighted that false positive results could be generated due to antibody aspecificity and that phenotypic characterization of MPs is a difficult field requiring the use of several negative controls. PMID:25978814

  11. Ruptured intracranial aneurysm during pregnancy with false-negative computed tomography angiography findings: a case report.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yukihiro; Ebisu, Toshihiko; Mineura, Katsuyoshi

    2015-06-01

    A 34-year-old female was admitted at 34 weeks of gestation with sudden onset of a severe headache accompanied by vomiting. Neurological examination revealed neck rigidity, and computed tomography (CT) of the brain revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Although the hemorrhage was located primarily in the left Sylvian fissure, computed tomography angiography (CTA) performed immediately after CT did not reveal any obvious vascular abnormalities such as an intracranial aneurysm. An emergency cesarean section was performed, and a healthy infant was delivered. Cerebral digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed the day following surgery, which revealed a saccular aneurysm measuring 4.3 mm?×?2.4 mm in the left middle cerebral artery. Left craniotomy and clipping of the aneurysm were performed. The clot around the aneurysm was relatively solid. This case report is of significance given that initial CTA was negative for SAH during pregnancy, suggesting the requirement for immediate DSA or another CTA in such cases. There are many previous reports on false-negative CTA findings or disappearance and reappearance of aneurysms in SAH patients, and various biophysical and dynamic parameters are suggested to cause such phenomena. However, there are no reports on similar occurrences during pregnancy. Although the precise cause remains unclear, multiple factors associated with homeostasis during pregnancy were possibly associated with the transient disappearance in this patient. PMID:25732356

  12. On minimizing assignment errors and the trade-off between false positives and negatives in parentage analysis.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Hugo B; Saenz-Agudelo, Pablo; Planes, Serge; Jones, Geoffrey P; Berumen, Michael L

    2013-12-01

    Genetic parentage analyses provide a practical means with which to identify parent-offspring relationships in the wild. In Harrison et al.'s study (2013a), we compare three methods of parentage analysis and showed that the number and diversity of microsatellite loci were the most important factors defining the accuracy of assignments. Our simulations revealed that an exclusion-Bayes theorem method was more susceptible to false-positive and false-negative assignments than other methods tested. Here, we analyse and discuss the trade-off between type I and type II errors in parentage analyses. We show that controlling for false-positive assignments, without reporting type II errors, can be misleading. Our findings illustrate the need to estimate and report both the rate of false-positive and false-negative assignments in parentage analyses. PMID:24102837

  13. Technetium-99m white blood cell imaging: False-negative result in salmonella osteomyelitis associated with sickle cell disease

    SciTech Connect

    Guze, B.H.; Hawkins, R.A.; Marcus, C.S.

    1989-02-01

    The authors report a case of sickle cell anemia associated osteomyelitis where the Tc-99m white blood cell imaging was negative, and bone imaging showed increased uptake in the region in question. The reasons for the possible false-negative image are discussed.

  14. The Hypoplastic Inferior Petrosal Sinus: A Potential Source of False-Negative Results in Petrosal Sampling for Cushing's Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN L. DOPPMAN; RICHARD CHANG; EDWARD H. OLDFIELD; GEORGE CHROUSOS; CONSTANTINE A. STRATAKIS; LYNNETTE K. NIEMAN

    2010-01-01

    Our purpose was to describe the hypoplastic or plexiform inferior petrosal sinus as a potential cause of false-negative sampling results in patients with Cushing's disease. Five hundred and one patients with surgically proven Cushing's disease and negative or equivocal magnetic resonance imaging scans of the pituitary gland underwent petrosal sinus sampling. Four patients (0.8%) with surgically proven Cushing's disease had

  15. False-negative results in routine combined first-trimester screening for down syndrome in Finland.

    PubMed

    Marttala, Jaana; Kaijomaa, Marja; Ranta, Jenni; Dahlbacka, Anna; Nieminen, Pentti; Tekay, Aydin; Kokkonen, Hannaleena; Laitinen, Paivi; Ignatius, Jaakko; Romppanen, Jarkko; Heinonen, Seppo; Jarvela, Ilkka; Heikkila, Matti; Yla-Outinen, Ari; Ulander, Veli-Matti; Hamalainen, Esa; Ryynanen, Markku

    2012-03-01

    We analyzed the frequency and possible causes of false-negative (Fn) screening results in first-trimester combined Down syndrome screening in Finland. During the study period (May 1, 2002, to December 31, 2008), 76,949 voluntary women with singleton pregnancies participated in screening. Maternal age at screening, week of gestation, levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free ?-human chorionic gonadotropin (f?-hCG), and nuchal translucency (NT) measurement were compared and statistically analyzed between true-positive (Tp) and Fn cases. There were a total of 188 Down syndrome cases (1:409) in the screened population; 154 confirmed Tp and 34 Fn cases. Most Fn cases (n = 25) occurred at 12 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks' gestation and only nine Fn cases presented between 10 and 11 weeks' gestation. According to the logistic regression analysis, the NT measurement was the most powerful discriminating factor in Fn screening results and accounted for 37.2% of Fn results. The second most important factor was f?-hCG, adding 14.0% to R(2), followed by PAPP-A, which contributed a further 14.3%. The chosen parameters explain 83.9% of Fn results, but 16.1% remain due to unknown factor(s). All investigated parameters contributed to Fn screening results, but fetal NT was the most discriminating factor leading to an Fn screening result. PMID:21833895

  16. False-Negative Rate of Gram-Stain Microscopy for Diagnosis of Septic Arthritis: Suggestions for Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Amanat, Suheil; Ahmed, Abdulkhaled; Armstrong, Malcolm; Sharma, Pankaj; Qamruddin, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    We quantify the false-negative diagnostic rate of septic arthritis using Gram-stain microscopy of synovial fluid and compare this to values reported in the peer-reviewed literature. We propose a method of improving the diagnostic value of Gram-stain microscopy using Lithium Heparin containers that prevent synovial fluid coagulation. Retrospective study of the Manchester Royal Infirmary microbiology database of patients undergoing synovial fluid Gram-stain and culture between December 2003 and March 2012 was undertaken. The initial cohort of 1896 synovial fluid analyses for suspected septic arthritis was reduced to 143 after exclusion criteria were applied. Analysis of our Gram-stain microscopy yielded 111 false-negative results from a cohort size of 143 positive synovial fluid cultures, giving a false-negative rate of 78%. We report a false-negative rate of Gram-stain microscopy for septic arthritis of 78%. Clinicians should therefore avoid the investigation until a statistically significant data set confirms its efficacy. The investigation's value could be improved by using Lithium Heparin containers to collect homogenous synovial fluid samples. Ongoing research aims to establish how much this could reduce the false-negative rate. PMID:24678320

  17. False-positive and true-negative hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes on FDG-PET —Radiological-pathological correlation—

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norio Shiraki; Masaki Hara; Hiroyuki Ogino; Yuta Shibamoto; Akihiko Iida; Tsuneo Tamaki; Takayuki Murase; Tadaaki Eimoto

    2004-01-01

    Objective  To compare histological findings of FDG-PET false-positive and true-negative hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Sixty-seven lymphnode areas in 11 patients who were diagnosed to have N3 lymph nodes by FDG-PET and underwent surgery were\\u000a histologically examined, and the histopathological findings in false-positive and true-negative lymph nodes were compared.\\u000a Lymph nodes with higher accumulation of FDG than the surrounding mediastinum level

  18. Recurrent\\/metastatic thyroid carcinomas false negative for serum thyroglobulin but positive by posttherapy I-131 whole body scans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eun-Kyung Park; June-Key Chung; Il Han Lim; Do Joon Park; Dong Soo Lee; Myung Chul Lee; Bo Youn Cho

    2009-01-01

    Purpose  Serum Tg and I-131 WBS have been used to detect recurrent and metastatic thyroid cancers postoperatively. Tg is known to be\\u000a more sensitive than I-131 WBS, and therefore, false-negative WBS cases with elevated Tg levels are frequently found. However,\\u000a the clinical characteristics of false-negative Tg cases with positive WBS have not been clarified.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and methods  The authors evaluated 824 postoperative

  19. Urine testing for norcodeine, norhydrocodone, and noroxycodone facilitates interpretation and reduces false negatives.

    PubMed

    Cone, Edward J; Zichterman, Anne; Heltsley, Rebecca; Black, David L; Cawthon, Beverly; Robert, Tim; Moser, Frank; Caplan, Yale H

    2010-05-20

    Urine drug testing of pain patients provides objective information to health specialists regarding patient compliance, diversion, and concurrent illicit drug use. Interpretation of urine test results for semi-synthetic opiates can be difficult because of complex biotransformations of parent drug to metabolites that are also available commercially and may be abused. Normetabolites such as norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone are unique metabolites that are not available commercially. Consequently, detection of normetabolite in specimens not containing parent drug, provides conclusive evidence that the parent drug was consumed. The goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and patterns of the three normetabolites, norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone, in urine specimens of pain patients treated with opiates. Urine specimens were hydrolyzed with beta-glucuronidase and analyzed by a validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) assay for the presence of codeine, norcodeine, morphine, hydrocodone, norhydrocodone, hydromorphone, dihydrocodeine, oxycodone, noroxycodone, and oxymorphone. The limit of quantitation (LOQ) for these analytes was 50ng/mL. The study was approved by an Institutional Review Board. Of the total specimens (N=2654) tested, 71.4% (N=1895) were positive (>or=LOQ) for one or more of the analytes. The prevalence (%) of positive results for codeine, hydrocodone and oxycodone was 1.2%, 26.1%, and 36.2%, respectively, and the prevalence of norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone was 0.5%, 22.1%, and 31.3%, respectively. For specimens containing normetabolite, the prevalence of norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone in the absence of parent drug was 8.6%, 7.8% and 9.4%, respectively. From one-third to two-thirds of these specimens also did not contain other metabolites that could have originated from the parent drug. Consequently, the authors conclude that inclusion of norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone is useful in interpretation of opiate drug source and reduces potential false negatives that would occur without tests for these unique metabolites. PMID:20036472

  20. False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method

    SciTech Connect

    Krauter, Paula; Piepel, Gregory F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matthew S.; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

    2012-02-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10x10^-3 to 1.86 CFU/cm^2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (>1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm^2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

  1. Lobular breast carcinoma: a case of rare possible 18F-FDG PET/CT and bone scan false negative.

    PubMed

    Maffione, Anna Margherita; Lisato, Laura Camilla; Rasi, Annalisa; Marzola, Maria Cristina; Colletti, Patrick M; Rubello, Domenico

    2015-02-01

    A patient with diffuse osteosclerotic bone metastases from invasive lobular breast carcinoma is presented with both F-FDG PET/CT and bone scans negative for hypermetabolic lesions. Skeletal metastases were documented by CT and bone marrow biopsy, and high increased CA 15-3 level was recorded. This case report points to the potential risk of false-negative FDG PET and bone scans examination in lobular carcinoma type. PMID:24999681

  2. Effects of Maternal Negativity and of Early and Recent Recurrent Depressive Disorder on Children’s False Belief Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Rohrer, Lisa M.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.; Maughan, Angeline

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown that children of depressed mothers are at risk for problems in a variety of developmental domains; however, little is known about the effects of maternal depression on children’s emerging understanding of false beliefs. In this study, three false belief tasks were administered to five-year-old children whose mothers had either met criteria for major depressive disorder within the first 20 months of the child’s life (n = 91) or had never been depressed (n = 50). Significant difficulties in performance were found among the children of depressed mothers, especially those whose mothers had experienced early and recent recurrent depressive disorder. Regardless of diagnostic status, children whose mothers exhibited negativity during problem-solving tasks administered at an earlier developmental period also were less likely to demonstrate false belief understanding. These effects remained even after child verbal ability was controlled. PMID:21244156

  3. All That Glisters Is Not Gold: Sampling-Process Uncertainty in Disease-Vector Surveys with False-Negative and False-Positive Detections

    PubMed Central

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Valença-Barbosa, Carolina; Sarquis, Otília; Lima, Marli M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vector-borne diseases are major public health concerns worldwide. For many of them, vector control is still key to primary prevention, with control actions planned and evaluated using vector occurrence records. Yet vectors can be difficult to detect, and vector occurrence indices will be biased whenever spurious detection/non-detection records arise during surveys. Here, we investigate the process of Chagas disease vector detection, assessing the performance of the surveillance method used in most control programs – active triatomine-bug searches by trained health agents. Methodology/Principal Findings Control agents conducted triplicate vector searches in 414 man-made ecotopes of two rural localities. Ecotope-specific ‘detection histories’ (vectors or their traces detected or not in each individual search) were analyzed using ordinary methods that disregard detection failures and multiple detection-state site-occupancy models that accommodate false-negative and false-positive detections. Mean (±SE) vector-search sensitivity was ?0.283±0.057. Vector-detection odds increased as bug colonies grew denser, and were lower in houses than in most peridomestic structures, particularly woodpiles. False-positive detections (non-vector fecal streaks misidentified as signs of vector presence) occurred with probability ?0.011±0.008. The model-averaged estimate of infestation (44.5±6.4%) was ?2.4–3.9 times higher than naïve indices computed assuming perfect detection after single vector searches (11.4–18.8%); about 106–137 infestation foci went undetected during such standard searches. Conclusions/Significance We illustrate a relatively straightforward approach to addressing vector detection uncertainty under realistic field survey conditions. Standard vector searches had low sensitivity except in certain singular circumstances. Our findings suggest that many infestation foci may go undetected during routine surveys, especially when vector density is low. Undetected foci can cause control failures and induce bias in entomological indices; this may confound disease risk assessment and mislead program managers into flawed decision making. By helping correct bias in naïve indices, the approach we illustrate has potential to critically strengthen vector-borne disease control-surveillance systems. PMID:25233352

  4. Performance of the Amplicor human immunodeficiency virus type 1 PCR and analysis of specimens with false-negative results.

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, K L; Tosswill, J H; Parry, J V; Clewley, J P

    1997-01-01

    Over a 4-year period, the Roche Amplicor kit was used in a United Kingdom reference laboratory for the detection or confirmation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection, particularly in infants born to HIV-infected mothers. Of 408 specimens from adults and older children tested, the 122 seronegative specimens were all Amplicor negative. Of the 286 seropositive specimens, 268 were Amplicor positive. On the basis of these results, the Amplicor assay has a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 93.7%. In addition, for 247 specimens from infants and young children, serological results may not have been diagnostic because of placental transfer of maternal antibodies. Forty-eight were Amplicor positive, and of the 199 Amplicor-negative specimens, 19 were assumed to be false negative on the basis of clinical data, serological markers (including p24 antigen), and/or results for previous or follow-up specimens. This represents a sensitivity of 75% for the Amplicor test for specimens from patients under 2 years of age. Of these 37 false-negative specimens plus 2 specimens from other laboratories, 31 could be characterized by amplifying extracted material from them by an in-house nested gag PCR spanning the Amplicor target region. The amplicons were sequenced and found to represent subtypes A (35.5%), B (22.6%), C (22.6%), D (16.1%), and G (3.2%). False-negative results by the Amplicor assay may be ascribed to low-target copy number, the physical behavior of one primer (SK462), and sequence variation in the target region of the other primer (SK431). PMID:9350745

  5. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Breast Cancer: Impact of the Number of Sentinel Nodes Removed on the False-Negative Rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sandra L Wong; Michael J Edwards; Celia Chao; Todd M Tuttle; R Dirk Noyes; David J Carlson; Patricia B Cerrito; Kelly M McMasters

    BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated that sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy can accurately determine axillary nodal status for breast cancer, but unacceptably high false negative rates have also been reported. Attention has been focused on factors associated with improved accuracy. We have previously shown that injection of blue dye in combination with radioactive colloid reduces the false negative rate compared

  6. A Case of False Negative NIPT for Down Syndrome-Lessons Learned

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Kimberly M.; Holmes, Alexandrea

    2014-01-01

    Down syndrome or trisomy 21 is the most common cause of prenatal chromosome abnormalities with approximately 50% of all reported chromosome conditions. With the successful introduction of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Down syndrome into routine prenatal care, it is important to understand the risks, benefits, and limitations in order to guide patients in making an informed decision. Herein, we describe the first published case report of a patient whose fetus tested “negative” for Trisomy 21 by NIPT but was diagnosed postnatally with trisomy 21. We present the importance of proper pretest and posttest genetic counseling to ensure prenatal patients are able to make informed decisions and are educated appropriately about NIPT. PMID:24649382

  7. Molecular Studies Neglect Apparently Gram-Negative Populations in the Human Gut Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Hugon, Perrine; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Robert, Catherine; Lepolard, Catherine; Papazian, Laurent; Musso, Didier; Vialettes, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Studying the relationships between gut microbiota, human health, and diseases is a major challenge that generates contradictory results. Most studies draw conclusions about the gut repertoire using a single biased metagenomics approach. We analyzed 16 different stool samples collected from healthy subjects who were from different areas, had metabolic disorders, were immunocompromised, or were treated with antibiotics at the time of the stool collection. The analyses performed included Gram staining, flow cytometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) of the Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla, and pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene amplicons targeting the V6 region. We quantified 1010 prokaryotes per gram of feces, which is less than was previously described. The Mann-Whitney test revealed that Gram-negative proportions of the prokaryotes obtained by Gram staining, TEM, and pyrosequencing differed according to the analysis used, with Gram-negative prokaryotes yielding median percentages of 70.6%, 31.0%, and 16.4%, respectively. A comparison of TEM and pyrosequencing analyses highlighted a difference of 14.6% in the identification of Gram-negative prokaryotes, and a Spearman test showed a tendency toward correlation, albeit not significant, in the Gram-negative/Gram-positive prokaryote ratio (? = 0.3282, P = 0.2146). In contrast, when comparing the qPCR and pyrosequencing results, a significant correlation was found for the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio (? = 0.6057, P = 0.0130). Our study showed that the entire diversity of the human gut microbiota remains unknown because different techniques generate extremely different results. We found that to assess the overall composition of bacterial communities, multiple techniques must be combined. The biases that exist for each technique may be useful in exploring the major discrepancies in molecular studies. PMID:23885002

  8. Hypothetical explanations of the negative apparent effects of cloud seeding in the whitetop experiment.

    PubMed

    Lovasich, J L; Neyman, J; Scott, E L; Wells, M A

    1971-11-01

    In order to explain the apparent losses of rain ascribable to seeding at the Whitetop trial, particularly large and highly significant in the stratum E (but not in the opposite stratum W) of experimental days, it has been hypothesized that seeding causes widespread cloudiness and subsequent lowering of ground temperatures. This hypothesis is flatly contradicted by the observations: the seeded E-days (but not W-days) were uniformly less cloudy and hotter than those without seeding. Curiously, these differences prevailed not only from the scheduled time of seeding but also for several hours beforehand. The average rainfall for the 10 hr that preceded the time of seeding was investigated in eight "cells", defined by the day's wind direction to be downwind, upwind, and to the sides and "far" and "near" the center of seeding. Highly significant decreases were found in the far-upwind and far-left cells, indicating an earlymorning disparity between those E-days that later were declared as experimental to be seeded and those E-days that were declared as experimental not to be seeded. This disparity, difficult to explain by chance variation, suggests that particular caution be used in treating differences in the rainfall between seeded and not-seeded days in the Whitetop trial as having been caused by seeding. PMID:16591951

  9. Characterization of a reduction-sensitive factor from human plasma responsible for apparent false activity in competitive assays for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, E F; Weare, J A; Randell, R; Holland, P V; Madsen, G; Decker, R H

    1991-01-01

    Addition of reducing agents to competitive assays for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) eliminates apparent false reactivity of specimens obtained from individuals with no prior history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and without other serological markers of HBV infection. We have purified and characterized a reduction-sensitive factor (RSF) isolated from the plasma of several volunteer blood donors. Column fractions were assayed fro anti-HBc by using a highly sensitive chemiluminescence assay with a detection of 0.15 Paul Ehrlich Institut units per ml at 50% inhibition. Gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300 indicated that reductant-sensitive samples possessed anti-HBc activity that was associated with immunoglobulin M (IgM), whereas reductant-stable activity was associated with IgG. Gel filtration followed by metal chelate affinity chromatography resulted in a 55-fold purification and demonstrated that RSF activity copurifies with IgM. RSF was recovered from a recombinant hepatitis B core antigen matrix and shown to be an IgM species by immunoblot. In addition, RSF activity coeluted with IgM protein from anti-mu-chain Sepharose. Discrepancies between enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay procedures for anti-HBc (Corzyme and Corab, respectively: Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.) appear to be due to the relative sensitivity of the enzyme immunoassay for IgM anti-HBc (sevenfold greater than the radioimmunoassay using a specific panel). The biological basis for the occurrence of low levels of nonspecific IgM anti-HBc reactivity in individuals not previously exposed to HBV remains to be elucidated. PMID:2037679

  10. Factors associated with false-negative endoscopic biopsy results after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chao, Yin-Kai; Yeh, Chi-Ju; Lee, Mu-Hsien; Wen, Yu-Wen; Chang, Hsien-Kun; Tseng, Chen-Kan; Liu, Yun-Hen

    2015-02-01

    The usefulness of endoscopic biopsy following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) is limited because of its high false-negative (FN) rates. However, data on the factors associated with FN biopsy results remain scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with FN results on endoscopic biopsies in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) following nCRT. We retrospectively reviewed the records of ESCC patients who were treated at the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan, between 1999 and 2013. Inclusion criteria were receiving nCRT as first-line treatment before esophagectomy and having been preoperatively submitted to an endoscopic biopsy. Endoscopic findings at the lesion site were classified into 6 distinct categories: stricture, tumor, ulcer, scar, other findings, or normal. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with FN biopsy findings. A total of 227 patients were selected, of which 92 (41.9%) had positive biopsy results. Among patients with negative biopsy findings (n?=?135), 85 were found to have residual cancer on the resected esophagus. Multivariate analysis identified endoscopic findings as the only independent predictor of FN biopsy results. The negative predictive values were 77.8%, 61.9%, 52.6%, 30.3%, 23.1%, and 20.0% for the normal, scar, other findings, ulcer, stricture, and tumor categories, respectively (P?

  11. Serum Thyroglobulin (Tg) Monitoring of Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Using Sensitive (Second-Generation) Immunometric Assays Can Be Disrupted by False-Negative and False-Positive Serum Thyroglobulin Autoantibody Misclassifications

    PubMed Central

    Petrovic, Ivana; Fatemi, Shireen; LoPresti, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Context: Reliable thyroglobulin (Tg) autoantibody (TgAb) detection before Tg testing for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is critical when TgAb status (positive/negative) is used to authenticate sensitive second-generation immunometric assay (2GIMA) measurements as free from TgAb interference and when reflexing “TgAb-positive” sera to TgAb-resistant, but less sensitive, Tg methodologies (radioimmunoassay [RIA] or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry [LC-MS/MS]). Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess how different Kronus (K) vs Roche (R) TgAb method cutoffs for “positivity” influence false-negative vs false-positive serum TgAb misclassifications that may reduce the clinical utility of reflex Tg testing. Methods: Serum Tg2GIMA, TgRIA, and TgLC-MS/MS measurements for 52 TgAb-positive and 37 TgAb-negative patients with persistent/recurrent DTC were compared. A total of 1426 DTC sera with TgRIA of ?1.0 ?g/L had false-negative and false-positive TgAb frequencies determined using low Tg2GIMA/TgRIA ratios (<75%) to indicate TgAb interference. Results: TgAb-negative patients with disease displayed Tg2GIMA, TgRIA, and TgLC-MS/MS serum discordances (% coefficient of variation = 24 ± 20%, range, 0%–100%). Of the TgAb-positive patients with disease, 98% had undetectable/lower Tg2GIMA vs either TgRIA or TgLC-MS/MS (P < .01), whereas 8 of 52 (15%) had undetectable Tg2GIMA + TgLC-MS/MS associated with TgRIA of ?1.0 ?g/L. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis reported more sensitivity for TgAb method K vs R (81.9% vs 69.1%, P < .001), but receiver operating characteristic curve cutoffs (>0.6 kIU/L [K] vs >40 kIU/L [R]) had unacceptably high false-negative frequencies (22%–32%), whereas false positives approximated 12%. Functional sensitivity cutoffs minimized false negatives (13.5% [K] vs 21.3% [R], P < .01) and severe interferences (Tg2GIMA, <0.10 ?g/L) (0.7% [K] vs 2.4% [R], P < .05) but false positives approximated 23%. Conclusions: Reliable detection of interfering TgAbs is method and cutoff dependent. No cutoff eliminated both false-negative and false-positive TgAb misclassifications. Functional sensitivity cutoffs were optimal for minimizing false negatives but have inherent imprecision (20% coefficient of variation) that, exacerbated by TgAb biologic variability during DTC monitoring, could cause TgAb status to fluctuate for patients with low TgAb concentrations, prompting unnecessary Tg method changes and disrupting Tg monitoring. Laboratories using reflexing should limit Tg method changes by considering a patient's Tg + TgAb testing history in addition to current TgAb status before Tg method selection. PMID:25226290

  12. False-Negative Results of Endoscopic Biopsy in the Diagnosis of Gastrointestinal Kaposi's Sarcoma in HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Naoyoshi; Sekine, Katsunori; Igari, Toru; Hamada, Yohei; Yazaki, Hirohisa; Ohmagari, Norio; Akiyama, Junichi; Shimbo, Takuro; Teruya, Katsuji; Oka, Shinichi; Uemura, Naomi

    2012-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a rare endothelial neoplasm mainly involving the skin, but it is often associated with AIDS. Diagnosis of gastrointestinal (GI) tract KS, a common site of visceral involvement in AIDS, is important, but endoscopic biopsy carries a risk of false-negative results (FNRs) due to its submucosal appearance. This study sought to determine the rate and causes of FNR for endoscopic biopsy of GI-KS lesions. Endoscopic biopsy samples of 116 GI-KS lesions were reviewed retrospectively. All GI-KS lesions were confirmed to be resolved following KS therapy. FNRs were yielded for 41 of the lesions (35.3%). Among upper and lower GI sites, the esophagus was the only site significantly associated with FNRs (P < 0.01). Small size (<10?mm) and patches found on endoscopy were significantly associated with FNRs (P < 0.05). Findings of submucosal tumor (SMT) with ulceration were significantly associated with true-positive results (P < 0.05). In conclusion, FNRs were found in 35.3% of GI-KS lesions and were especially related to the site of the esophagus and endoscopic early stage (small size or patch appearance). An SMT with ulceration may be relatively easy to diagnose on endoscopic biopsy. Caution should be exercised when performing endoscopic biopsy of these lesions in AIDS patients and evaluating the histological features. PMID:23227427

  13. Residual Antibiotics in Decontaminated Human Cardiovascular Tissues Intended for Transplantation and Risk of Falsely Negative Microbiological Analyses

    PubMed Central

    Gatto, Claudio; Manara, Sabrina; Dainese, Luca; Polvani, Gianluca; Tóthová, Jana D'Amato

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the presence of antibiotics in cryopreserved cardiovascular tissues and cryopreservation media, after tissue decontamination with antibiotic cocktails, and the impact of antibiotic residues on standard tissue bank microbiological analyses. Sixteen cardiovascular tissues were decontaminated with bank-prepared cocktails and cryopreserved by two different tissue banks according to their standard operating procedures. Before and after decontamination, samples underwent microbiological analysis by standard tissue bank methods. Cryopreserved samples were tested again with and without the removal of antibiotic residues using a RESEP tube, after thawing. Presence of antibiotics in tissue homogenates and processing liquids was determined by a modified agar diffusion test. All cryopreserved tissue homogenates and cryopreservation media induced important inhibition zones on both Staphylococcus aureus- and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-seeded plates, immediately after thawing and at the end of the sterility test. The RESEP tube treatment markedly reduced or totally eliminated the antimicrobial activity of tested tissues and media. Based on standard tissue bank analysis, 50% of tissues were found positive for bacteria and/or fungi, before decontamination and 2 out of 16 tested samples (13%) still contained microorganisms after decontamination. After thawing, none of the 16 cryopreserved samples resulted positive with direct inoculum method. When the same samples were tested after removal of antibiotic residues, 8 out of 16 (50%) were contaminated. Antibiotic residues present in tissue allografts and processing liquids after decontamination may mask microbial contamination during microbiological analysis performed with standard tissue bank methods, thus resulting in false negatives. PMID:25397402

  14. Residual antibiotics in decontaminated human cardiovascular tissues intended for transplantation and risk of falsely negative microbiological analyses.

    PubMed

    Buzzi, Marina; Guarino, Anna; Gatto, Claudio; Manara, Sabrina; Dainese, Luca; Polvani, Gianluca; Tóthová, Jana D'Amato

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the presence of antibiotics in cryopreserved cardiovascular tissues and cryopreservation media, after tissue decontamination with antibiotic cocktails, and the impact of antibiotic residues on standard tissue bank microbiological analyses. Sixteen cardiovascular tissues were decontaminated with bank-prepared cocktails and cryopreserved by two different tissue banks according to their standard operating procedures. Before and after decontamination, samples underwent microbiological analysis by standard tissue bank methods. Cryopreserved samples were tested again with and without the removal of antibiotic residues using a RESEP tube, after thawing. Presence of antibiotics in tissue homogenates and processing liquids was determined by a modified agar diffusion test. All cryopreserved tissue homogenates and cryopreservation media induced important inhibition zones on both Staphylococcus aureus- and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-seeded plates, immediately after thawing and at the end of the sterility test. The RESEP tube treatment markedly reduced or totally eliminated the antimicrobial activity of tested tissues and media. Based on standard tissue bank analysis, 50% of tissues were found positive for bacteria and/or fungi, before decontamination and 2 out of 16 tested samples (13%) still contained microorganisms after decontamination. After thawing, none of the 16 cryopreserved samples resulted positive with direct inoculum method. When the same samples were tested after removal of antibiotic residues, 8 out of 16 (50%) were contaminated. Antibiotic residues present in tissue allografts and processing liquids after decontamination may mask microbial contamination during microbiological analysis performed with standard tissue bank methods, thus resulting in false negatives. PMID:25397402

  15. False-Negative 18F-FDG PET Results in Lymph Node Metastasis of A Patient with Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shung-Shung Sun; Chia-Hung Kao

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG) is a noninvasive function- al imaging technique that provides information of the tissue metabolism with high accuracy in detecting vari- ous malignancies. 18 F-FDG is not a cancer-specific agent, and false-positive results have been reported. However, false-negative results of 18 F-FDG PET scan in diagnosis of malignant disease were rarely

  16. Tracking false-negative results in molecular diagnosis: proposal of a triplex-PCR based method for leishmaniasis diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Molecular biological methods have become increasingly relevant to the diagnosis and control of infectious diseases, such as leishmaniasis. Since various factors may affect the sensitivity of PCR assays, including DNA yield and purity, an optimal extraction method is pivotal. Losses of a parasite’s DNA during extraction may significantly impair its detection by PCR and lead to false-negative results. This study proposes a triplex PCR assay targeting the parasite’s DNA, an external control (pUC18) and an internal control (G3PD) for accurate diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Results Two primer pairs were designed to detect the plasmid pUC18 and a triplex PCR assay targeting the Leishmania braziliensis kinetoplast DNA, the external control and the internal control was standardized. The triplex PCR assay was assessed for its ability to detect the three target DNA fragments simultaneously. PCR products from pUC18 DNA resulted in bands of 368 (P1) and 316 (P2) base pairs (bp). The triplex PCR optimized with the chosen external control system (P1) allowed the simultaneous detection of the internal control (G3PD – 567 bp) as well as of small quantities (10 pg) of the target parasite’s DNA, detected by amplification of a 138 bp product. Conclusions The new tool standardized herein enables a more reliable interpretation of PCR results, mainly by contributing to quality assurance of leishmaniasis diagnosis. Furthermore, after simple standardization steps, this protocol could be applied to the diagnosis of other infectious diseases in reference laboratories. This triplex PCR enables the assessment of small losses during the DNA extraction process, problems concerning DNA degradation (sample quality) and the detection of L. braziliensis kDNA. PMID:24808911

  17. False negative rate and other performance measures of a sponge-wipe surface sampling method for low contaminant concentrations.

    SciTech Connect

    Einfeld, Wayne; Krauter, Paula A.; Boucher, Raymond M.; Tezak, Mathew; Amidan, Brett G. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA); Piepel, Greg F. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA)

    2011-05-01

    Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces is known to vary due to sampling methodology, techniques, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. A series of tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge-wipe method. Specific factors evaluated were the effects of contaminant concentrations and surface materials on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD) - and the uncertainties of these quantities. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show a roughly linear dependence of surface roughness on RE, where the smoothest surfaces have the highest mean RE values. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3 x 10{sup -3} to 1.86 CFU/cm{sup 2}). The FNR data were consistent with RE data, showing a trend of smoother surfaces resulting in higher REs and lower FNRs. Stainless steel generally had the lowest mean FNR (0.123) and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD{sub 90} varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm{sup 2} on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. Selecting sampling locations on the basis of surface roughness and using roughness to interpret spore recovery data can improve sampling. Further, FNR values, calculated as a function of concentration and surface material, can be used pre-sampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance, and post-sampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

  18. Dogs Cannot Bark: Event-Related Brain Responses to True and False Negated Statements as Indicators of Higher-Order Conscious Processing

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Cornelia; Kübler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level) and prime-target expressions (word level). Stimuli were presented acoustically and no overt behavioral response of the participants was required. Event-related brain potentials to target words preceded by true and false negated expressions were analyzed both within group and at the single subject level. Across the different processing conditions (word pairs and sentences), target words elicited a frontal negativity and a late positivity in the time window from 600–1000 msec post target word onset. Amplitudes of both brain potentials varied as a function of the truth value of the negated expressions. Results were confirmed at the single-subject level. In sum, our results support recent suggestions according to which evaluation of the truth value of a negated expression is a time- and cognitively demanding process that cannot be solved automatically, and thus requires conscious processing. Our paradigm provides insight into higher-order processing related to language comprehension and reasoning in healthy subjects. Future studies are needed to evaluate if our paradigm also proves sensitive for the detection of consciousness in non-responsive patients. PMID:22022414

  19. Effects of Maternal Negativity and of Early and Recent Recurrent Depressive Disorder on Children's False Belief Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohrer, Lisa M.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.; Maughan, Angeline

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that children of depressed mothers are at risk for problems in a variety of developmental domains; however, little is known about the effects of maternal depression on children's emerging understanding of false beliefs. In this study, 3 false belief tasks were administered to 5-year-old children whose mothers had either met…

  20. Limited Agreement of Independent RNAi Screens for Virus-Required Host Genes Owes More to False-Negative

    E-print Network

    Craven, Mark

    Limited Agreement of Independent RNAi Screens for Virus-Required Host Genes Owes More to False interference (RNAi) analysis is a powerful approach to identify gene functions that support or modulate is that independent RNAi studies often show limited agreement in their lists of implicated genes. To better understand

  1. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam-Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-12-05

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam-swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (culture and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated how the false negative rate depends on test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam-swab sampling at low concentrations.

  2. Experimental Design for a Macrofoam Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

    2014-04-16

    This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (plating/counting and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated false negative as a function of affecting test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam swab sampling at low concentrations.

  3. Clinical Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolate with a N. meningitidis porA gene and no prolyliminopeptidase activity, Sweden, 2011: danger of false-negative genetic and culture diagnostic results.

    PubMed

    Golparian, D; Johansson, E; Unemo, M

    2012-01-01

    We describe a Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain, found in Sweden in 2011, that harbours a N. meningitidis porA gene causing false-negative results in PCRs targeting the gonococcal porA pseudogene. Furthermore, the strain had no prolyliminopeptidase (PIP) activity that many commercial biochemical kits for species verification in culture rely on. Enhanced awareness of the spread of such strains and screening for them can be crucial. PMID:22401563

  4. Hepatitis C Virus Core Mutations Associated with False-Negative Serological Results for Genotype 3a Core Antigen.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Linh Thuy; Dunford, Linda; Freitas, Ines; Holder, Paul; Nguyen, Lan Anh; O'Gorman, Joanne; Connell, Jeff; Carr, Michael; Hall, William; De Gascun, Cillian

    2015-08-01

    Genetic characterization of the genotype 3a (GT3a) hepatitis C virus (HCV) core region from HCV core antigen (HCVcAg)-negative/RNA-positive cases and HCVcAg-positive/RNA-positive controls identified significant associations between the substitutions A48T and T49A/P and failure to detect HCVcAg (P < 0.05). Polymorphisms at residues 48 and 49 in the core protein are present across all major epidemic and endemic GTs. These findings have implications for HCV diagnosis, particularly in low-income regions in which GT3a HCV is endemic. PMID:25994168

  5. False-negative dengue cases in Roraima, Brazil: an approach regarding the high number of negative results by NS1 ag kits.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Pablo O A; Granja, Fabiana; Meneses, Cátia A; Nascimento, Ismael A S; Sousa, Débora D; Lima Júnior, Wilson P; Naveca, Felipe Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Serum samples from 150 NS1-negative (Platelia ELISA) patients presumptively diagnosed with dengue were analyzed by the TaqMan probed real-time reverse transcription PCR (TaqMan qRT-PCR) method. The qRT-PCR positive samples were tested for serotype by semi-nested RT-PCR and a qualitative immunochromatographic assay for IgG and IgM. Molecular detection methods showed 33 (22%) positive samples out of 150 NS1-antigen negative samples. Of these, 72% were collected up to day 2 after the onset of symptoms, when diagnostic sensitivity of NS1-antigen test assays is significantly enhanced. Most of the cases were not characterized as secondary infection. Twenty-eight samples were successfully serotyped, 75% of which for DENV-4, 14% for DENV-2, 7% for DENV-3 and 4% for DENV-1. These findings reaffirm the hyperendemic situation of the state of Roraima and suggest a lower sensitivity of the NS1 test, mainly when DENV-4 is the predominant serotype. Health care providers should therefore be aware of samples tested negative by NS1 antigen assays, especially when clinical symptoms and other laboratory data results show evidence of dengue infection. PMID:25229228

  6. Conventional viral cultures and shell vial assay for diagnosis of apparently culture-negative Coxiella burnetii endocarditis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Gil-Grande; J. M. Aguado; C. Pastor; M. García-Bravo; C. Gómez-Pellico; F. Soriano; A. R. Noriega

    1995-01-01

    A patient with culture-negative endocarditis was diagnosed with Q fever endocarditis based on the results of serological tests and positive leukocyte cultures obtained using conventional viral cultures and the shell vial technique. This case report suggests that isolation ofCoxiella burnetii from blood may allow better diagnostic and therapeutical evaluation of patients with Q fever endocarditis. The use of both conventional

  7. I blush, therefore I will be judged negatively: influence of false blush feedback on anticipated others' judgments and facial coloration in high and low blushing-fearfuls.

    PubMed

    Dijk, Corine; Voncken, Marisol J; de Jong, Peter J

    2009-07-01

    In the present study, we investigate whether people attribute costs to displaying a blush. Individuals with and without fear of blushing were invited to have a short conversation with two confederates. During the conversation, half of the individuals received the feedback that they were blushing intensely. The study tested whether the belief that one is blushing leads to the anticipation that one will be judged negatively. In addition, the set-up permitted the actual physiological blush response to be investigated. In line with the model that we propose for erythrophobia, participants in the feedback condition expected the confederates to judge them relatively negatively, independent of their fear of blushing. Furthermore, sustaining the idea that believing that one will blush can act as a self-fulfilling prophecy, high-fearfuls showed relatively intense facial coloration in both conditions, whereas low-fearfuls only showed enhanced blush responses following false blush feedback. PMID:19358973

  8. [One example of false negative hepatitis B surface antigen (EIA) result due to variant S area strain and reagment reactiveness related to hepatitis B surface antigen].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Chikashi; Moriyama, Hidehiko; Taketani, Takeshi; Shibata, Hiroshi; Nagai, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    The presence in serum of the Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), the outer envelope of the hepatitis B virus (HBV), indicates viral infection, used in laboratory tests to confirm this. We report a case of discrepancy among HBsAg test results detected between measurements in a subject with HB infection. Gene analysis demonstrated several S region gene mutations, not detected previously. We tested 12 measurements e.g., EIA, CLIA, CLEIA, F-EIA, MAT, and IC for whether they could detect our subject's HBsAg and found that it was not recognized by a method using only a single monoclonal antibody to detect HBsAg in two detection processes, in contrast to the 11 other measurements, which used two different antibodies. This case shows that amino acid substitution may cause a false negative result for HBsAg. Gene mutations known to occur in HBV, should thus trigger an awareness of the need to keep in mind that false negative results can happen in case such as ours. PMID:21404602

  9. A case report of false negative Legionella test results in a chlorinated public hot water distribution system due to the lack of sodium thiosulfate in sampling bottles.

    PubMed

    Wiedenmann, A; Langhammer, W; Botzenhart, K

    2001-12-01

    We examined samples from the showers and the central water distribution system of a public building with an indoor swimming pool. The pool was used for school and recreational activities and as a sports therapy facility for patients with coronary heart disease. The building's hot water system was contaminated with Legionella pneumophila. Due to the building's intricate piping system, several attempts to completely eliminate legionellae by thermal and chemical disinfection had failed, so an external sanitation company was charged with the installation of a continuous chlorination device in order to keep Legionella concentrations low. The laboratory which was contracted by the sanitation company to monitor bacteria levels after installation of the chlorination device used sampling bottles without sodium thiosulfate and repeatedly reported an absence of Legionella. However, up to 69,000 colony forming particles (CFP) of Legionella pneumophila (Lp) per litre and up to 171 CFP/ml of heterotrophic bacteria could be detected when parallel samples were collected in bottles containing sodium thiosulfate at standard concentrations. Laboratories, epidemiologists, public health officials and technical staff who may be in charge of delivering, preparing or using sterile sampling devices for the collection of environmental samples to be tested for legionellae should be aware that cultures can return false negative results if the sampling containers used to collect chlorinated drinking water or chlorinated pool water samples do not contain a neutralizing agent to instantly inactivate residual halogen biocides. False negative results may lead to a false sense of security regarding the safety of water systems or the success of disinfection measures, and may thus endanger public health or even hinder the epidemiological clarification of outbreaks. PMID:11833297

  10. False friends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pedro J. Chamizo Dom??nguez; Brigitte Nerlich

    2002-01-01

    In this article we want to investigate the semantic (figurative) structures that underlie false friends, especially semantic false friends, in various European languages (Spanish, French, German and English). Chance false friends share the same form but have different etymologies and different meanings in different languages. They can be compared to homonyms in a single natural language. Semantic false friends, by

  11. Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory F. Piepel; Brett G. Amidan; Paula Krauter; Wayne Einfeld

    2011-01-01

    Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the false negative rate

  12. Risks associated with magnetic resonance imaging and cervical collar in comatose, blunt trauma patients with negative comprehensive cervical spine computed tomography and no apparent spinal deficit

    PubMed Central

    Dunham, C Michael; Brocker, Brian P; Collier, B David; Gemmel, David J

    2008-01-01

    Introduction In blunt trauma, comatose patients (Glasgow Coma Scale score 3 to 8) with a negative comprehensive cervical spine (CS) computed tomography assessment and no apparent spinal deficit, CS clearance strategies (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] and prolonged cervical collar use) are controversial. Methods We conducted a literature review to delineate risks for coma, CS instability, prolonged cervical collar use, and CS MRI. Results Based on our search of the literature, the numbers of functional survivor patients among those who had sustained blunt trauma were as follows: 350 per 1,000 comatose unstable patients (increased intracranial pressure [ICP], hypotension, hypoxia, or early ventilator-associated pneumonia); 150 per 1,000 comatose high-risk patients (age > 45 years or Glasgow Coma Scale score 3 to 5); and 600 per 1,000 comatose stable patients (not unstable or high risk). Risk probabilities for adverse events among unstable, high-risk, and stable patients were as follows: 2.5% for CS instability; 26.2% for increased intensive care unit complications with prolonged cervical collar use; 9.3% to 14.6% for secondary brain injury with MRI transportation; and 20.6% for aspiration during MRI scanning (supine position). Additional risk probabilities for adverse events among unstable patients were as follows: 35.8% for increased ICP with cervical collar; and 72.1% for increased ICP during MRI scan (supine position). Conclusion Blunt trauma coma functional survivor (independent living) rates are alarming. When a comprehensive CS computed tomography evaluation is negative and there is no apparent spinal deficit, CS instability is unlikely (2.5%). Secondary brain injury from the cervical collar or MRI is more probable than CS instability and jeopardizes cerebral recovery. Brain injury severity, probability of CS instability, cervical collar risk, and MRI risk assessments are essential when deciding whether CS MRI is appropriate and for determining the timing of cervical collar removal. PMID:18625041

  13. Mixed Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Infections and False-Negative Results for Rifampin Resistance by GeneXpert MTB/RIF Are Associated with Poor Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Tumedi, Kefentse A.; Moeti, Keletso; Ncube, Ronald; Nicol, Mark; Collman, Ronald G.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Modongo, Chawangwa

    2014-01-01

    The Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay is becoming a principal screening tool for diagnosing rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infection. However, little is known about the performance of the Xpert assay in infections with both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains (mixed MTBC infections). We assessed the performance of the Xpert assay for detecting rifampin resistance using phenotypic drug sensitivity testing (DST) as the reference standard in 370 patients with microbiologically proven pulmonary tuberculosis. Mixed MTBC infections were identified genetically through 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) analysis. Logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with poor (defined as treatment failure, default, and death from any cause) or good (defined as cure or successful treatment completion) clinical outcomes. The analytic sensitivity of the Xpert assay for detecting rifampin resistance was assessed in vitro by testing cultures containing different ratios of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant organisms. Rifampin resistance was detected by the Xpert assay in 52 (14.1%) and by phenotypic DST in 55 (14.9%) patients. Mixed MTBC infections were identified in 37 (10.0%) patients. The Xpert assay was 92.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.4% to 97.9%) sensitive for detecting rifampin resistance and 99.7% (95% CI, 98.3% to 99.9%) specific. When restricted to patients with mixed MTBC infections, Xpert sensitivity was 80.0% (95% CI, 56.3 to 94.3%). False-negative Xpert results (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.6; 95% CI,1.2 to 48.2) and mixed MTBC infections (aOR, 6.5; 95% CI, 2.1 to 20.5) were strongly associated with poor clinical outcome. The Xpert assay failed to detect rifampin resistance in vitro when <90% of the organisms in the sample were rifampin resistant. Our study indicates that the Xpert assay has an increased false-negative rate for detecting rifampin resistance with mixed MTBC infections. In hyperendemic settings where mixed infections are common, the Xpert results might need further confirmation. PMID:24789181

  14. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a direct biosensor for mutation detection: elimination of false-negative errors in target gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tak, Yu Kyung; Naoghare, Pravin K; Lee, Kyeong-Hee; Park, Soon-Sup; Song, Joon Myong

    2008-09-01

    A new method was developed to determine the mutagenic efficacy of a suspected mutagen by employing green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a direct biosensor for mutation detection. Alterations in target gene (AcGFP1) expression after mutagen [(+/-)-7p,8a-dihydroxy-9a,10a-epoxy-7,8,9,10-tetrahydrobenzo[a]pyrene (BPDE)] treatment were measured to detect the mutagenic efficacy of the carcinogen. In contrast to mutagen treatment of the entire plasmid or cell culture, the target AcGFP1gene devoid of the plasmid backbone was exposed to BPDE (10-500 microM) to eliminate the need for an additional fusion gene. Shuttle vectors (pAcGFP-N1) were religated to the AcGFP1 gene with BPDE adducts (0-8.59 microM) and replicated in the eukaryotic host. This approach eliminated false-negative errors in target gene expression that arose from BPDE adduct formation in the residual plasmid backbone rather than in the AcGFP1 gene. Determination of the BPDE-AcGFP1 adducts allowed the quantitative mutagenic effect of the BPDE adducts on AcGFP1 gene expression to be monitored. The results obtained with flow cytometry and confocal microscopy validate our method and demonstrate efficient and direct use of GFP as a biosensor for mutation detection. PMID:18555790

  15. False names.

    PubMed Central

    Rendleman, N

    1998-01-01

    A patient's unique, personal name is fundamental in medical relationships. Sometimes, patients may use false names, which obscure family, ethnic, sexual, or billing identities. The means and motivations involved--fraud, concealment, gaining financial or personal advantage, gratifying a psychic need, or changing group assignment--produce a variety of distinct clinical manifestations of false name use. These may be classified as alias, pseudonym, manipulator, fraud, psychotic, amnestic, medical factitioner, and renamed. The identification of falsely named patients enables clinicians to improve care for these types of patients. Individual cases are briefly described and a discussion of naming in society and medicine follows. This preliminary discussion may serve to fuel further refinement. PMID:9830369

  16. Axillary lymph node dissection can be avoided in women with breast cancer with intraoperative, false-negative sentinel lymph node biopsies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hiroyuki Takei; Masafumi Kurosumi; Takashi Yoshida; Yuko Ishikawa; Yuji Hayashi; Jun Ninomiya; Katsunori Tozuka; Hanako Oba; Kenichi Inoue; Shigenori Nagai; Yoshihiro Saito; Tomoko Kazumoto; Jun-ichi Saitoh; Toshio Tabei

    2010-01-01

    Background  It is currently unclear which patients with breast cancer with sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastases do not need axillary lymph\\u000a node dissection (ALND).\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Patients and methods  A cohort of 1,132 women who had unilateral invasive breast cancer with clinically negative nodes or nodes suspicious for metastasis,\\u000a were intraoperatively diagnosed as having negative SLNs, and did not undergo an immediate ALND. Our

  17. Completion axillary lymph node dissection minimizes the likelihood of false negatives for patients with invasive breast carcinoma and cytokeratin positive only sentinel lymph nodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W Jakub; Nils M Diaz; Mark D Ebert; Alan Cantor; Douglas S Reintgen; Elisabeth L Dupont; Alan R Shons; Charles E Cox

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To document the incidence of metastatic disease in complete axillary lymph node dissections (CALND) of patients with invasive carcinoma after a sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy, positive only by immunohistochemical staining for cytokeratin (CK-IHC).Methods: Sections of all SLNs, negative by routine histology, were immunostained and examined for cytokeratin positive cells. Sections of lymph nodes from CALND specimens were interpreted

  18. True or False

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Science Update (; )

    2005-04-18

    This Science Update introduces students to a study suggests that correcting false information can sometimes make matters worse. The researchers found that when people were told a statement was false, they remembered the statement itself much better than the warning.

  19. Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Krauter, Paula; Einfeld, Wayne

    2011-05-01

    Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the false negative rate (FNR). The FNR may depend on the 1) method of contaminant deposition, 2) surface concentration of the contaminant, 3) surface material being sampled, 4) sample collection method, 5) sample storage/transportation conditions, 6) sample processing method, and 7) sample analytical method. A review of the literature found 17 laboratory studies that focused on swab, wipe, or vacuum samples collected from a variety of surface materials contaminated by BA or a surrogate, and used culture methods to determine the surface contaminant concentration. These studies quantified performance of the sampling and analysis methods in terms of recovery efficiency (RE) and not FNR (which left a major gap in available information). Quantifying the FNR under a variety of conditions is a key aspect of validating sample and analysis methods, and also for calculating the confidence in characterization or clearance decisions based on a statistical sampling plan. A laboratory study was planned to partially fill the gap in FNR results. This report documents the experimental design developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for a sponge-wipe method. The testing was performed by SNL and is now completed. The study investigated the effects on key response variables from six surface materials contaminated with eight surface concentrations of a BA surrogate (Bacillus atrophaeus). The key response variables include measures of the contamination on test coupons of surface materials tested, contamination recovered from coupons by sponge-wipe samples, RE, and FNR. The experimental design involves 16 test runs, performed in two blocks of eight runs. Three surface materials (stainless steel, vinyl tile, and ceramic tile) were tested in the first block, while three other surface materials (plastic, painted wood paneling, and faux leather) were tested in the second block. The eight surface concentrations of the surrogate were randomly assigned to test runs within each block. Some of the concentrations were very low and presented challenges for deposition, sampling, and analysis. However, such tests are needed to investigate RE and FNR over the full range of concentrations of interest. In each run, there were 10 test coupons of each of the three surface materials. A positive control sample was generated at the same time as each test sample. The positive control results will be used to 1) calculate RE values for the wipe sampling and analysis method, and 2) fit RE- and FNR-concentration equations, for each of the six surface materials. Data analyses will support 1) estimating the FNR for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 2) estimating the surface concentrations and their uncertainties of the contaminant for each combination of concentration and surface material, 3) estimating RE (%) and their uncertainties for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 4) fitting FNR-concentration and RE-concentration equations for each of the six surface materials, 5) assessing goodness-of-fit of the equations, and 6) quantifying the uncertainty in FNR and RE predictions made with the fitted equations.

  20. Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Krauter, Paula; Einfeld, Wayne

    2010-12-16

    Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the probability of correct detection (PCD) (or equivalently the false negative rate FNR = 1 ? PCD). The PCD/FNR may depend on the 1) method of contaminant deposition, 2) surface concentration of the contaminant, 3) surface material being sampled, 4) sample collection method, 5) sample storage/transportation conditions, 6) sample processing method, and 7) sample analytical method. A review of the literature found 17 laboratory studies that focused on swab, wipe, or vacuum samples collected from a variety of surface materials contaminated by BA or a surrogate, and used culture methods to determine the surface contaminant concentration. These studies quantified performance of the sampling and analysis methods in terms of recovery efficiency (RE) and not PCD/FNR (which left a major gap in available information). Quantifying the PCD/FNR under a variety of conditions is a key aspect of validating sample and analysis methods, and also for calculating the confidence in characterization or clearance decisions based on a statistical sampling plan. A laboratory study was planned to partially fill the gap in PCD/FNR results. This report documents the experimental design developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for a sponge-wipe method. The study will investigate the effects on key response variables from six surface materials contaminated with eight surface concentrations of a BA surrogate (Bacillus atrophaeus). The key response variables include measures of the contamination on test coupons of surface materials tested, contamination recovered from coupons by sponge-wipe samples, RE, and PCD/FNR. The experimental design involves 16 test runs, to be performed in two blocks of eight runs. Three surface materials (stainless steel, vinyl tile, and ceramic tile) were tested in the first block, while three other surface materials (plastic, painted wood paneling, and faux leather) will be tested in the second block. The eight surface concentrations of the surrogate were randomly assigned to test runs within each block. Some of the concentrations will be very low and may present challenges for deposition, sampling, and analysis. However, such tests are needed to investigate RE and PCD/FNR over the full range of concentrations of interest. In each run, there will be 10 test coupons of each of the three surface materials. A positive control sample will be generated prior to each test sample. The positive control results will be used to 1) calculate RE values for the wipe sampling and analysis method, and 2) fit RE- and PCD-concentration equations, for each of the six surface materials. Data analyses will support 1) estimating the PCD for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 2) estimating the surface concentrations and their uncertainties of the contaminant for each combination of concentration and surface material, 3) estimating RE (%) and their uncertainties for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 4) fitting PCD-concentration and RE-concentration equations for each of the six surface materials, 5) assessing goodness-of-fit of the equations, and 6) quantifying the uncertainty in PCD and RE predictions made with the fitted equations.

  1. Hypnotizability, not suggestion, influences false memory development.

    PubMed

    Dasse, Michelle N; Elkins, Gary R; Weaver, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotizability influences the development of false memories. In Experiment 1, participants heard a positive or negative suggestion regarding hypnosis and then listened to 8 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm lists in a hypnotic state. Neither hypnosis nor prehypnotic suggestion affected memory. Highly hypnotizable participants were more accurate in recall and recognition. In Experiment 2, suggestions were delivered in the form of feedback. Participants heard a positive or negative suggestion about their performance prior to either the encoding or retrieval of 8 DRM lists. Neither accurate nor false memories were affected by the suggestion. Highly hypnotizable individuals recognized fewer critical lures if they received a negative suggestion about their performance. These results highlight the unusual role of hypnotizability in the creation of false memories. PMID:25365130

  2. Mars Rotate (False Color)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center Scientific Visualization Studio

    This site from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center features an animation of Mars rotating. The visualization was created using data collected by the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on board the Mars Global Surveyor. The animation uses false color to highlight topography, specifically the Hellas Basin, Terra Meridiani, the Tharsis rise, and Lucus Planum. The site also provides still images of the same features.

  3. Individual differences in false memory from misinformation: Cognitive factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bi Zhu; Chuansheng Chen; Elizabeth F. Loftus; Chongde Lin; Qinghua He; Chunhui Chen; He Li; Gui Xue; Zhonglin Lu; Qi Dong

    2010-01-01

    This research investigated the cognitive correlates of false memories that are induced by the misinformation paradigm. A large sample of Chinese college students (N=436) participated in a misinformation procedure and also took a battery of cognitive tests. Results revealed sizable and systematic individual differences in false memory arising from exposure to misinformation. False memories were significantly and negatively correlated with

  4. Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory F. Piepel; Brett G. Amidan; Paula Krauter; Wayne Einfeld

    2010-01-01

    Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the probability of correct

  5. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... which are false. Eating too much sugar causes diabetes. False: Type 1 diabetes happens when the cells ... completely proven to be true yet. People with diabetes can never eat sweets. False: You can have ...

  6. Diabetes: What's True and False?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Digestive System How the Body Works Main Page Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > Kids > Diabetes Center > ... True or False: Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Diabetes False: When kids get type 1 diabetes , it's ...

  7. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This false-color photograph is a composite of 15 images of the Moon taken through three color filters by Galileo's solid-state imaging system during the spacecraft's passage through the Earth-Moon system on December 8, 1992. When this view was obtained, the spacecraft was 425,000 kilometers (262,000 miles) from the Moon and 69,000 kilometers (43,000 miles) from Earth. The false-color processing used to create this lunar image is helpful for interpreting the surface soil composition. Areas appearing red generally correspond to the lunar highlands, while blue to orange shades indicate the ancient volcanic lava flow of a mare, or lunar sea. Bluer mare areas contain more titanium than do the orange regions. Mare Tranquillitatis, seen as a deep blue patch on the right, is richer in titanium than Mare Serenitatis, a slightly smaller circular area immediately adjacent to the upper left of Mare Tranquillitatis. Blue and orange areas covering much of the left side of the Moon in this view represent many separate lava flows in Oceanus Procellarum. The small purple areas found near the center are pyroclastic deposits formed by explosive volcanic eruptions. The fresh crater Tycho, with a diameter of 85 kilometers (53 miles), is prominent at the bottom of the photograph, where part of the Moon's disk is missing.

  8. 39 CFR 946.2 - Disposition of property of apparent owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Disposition of property of apparent owners. 946.2...THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION...EVIDENCE § 946.2 Disposition of property of apparent owners. Where...

  9. 39 CFR 946.2 - Disposition of property of apparent owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Disposition of property of apparent owners. 946.2...THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION...EVIDENCE § 946.2 Disposition of property of apparent owners. Where...

  10. 39 CFR 946.2 - Disposition of property of apparent owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Disposition of property of apparent owners. 946.2...THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION...EVIDENCE § 946.2 Disposition of property of apparent owners. Where...

  11. 39 CFR 946.2 - Disposition of property of apparent owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Disposition of property of apparent owners. 946.2...THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION...EVIDENCE § 946.2 Disposition of property of apparent owners. Where...

  12. Circulating anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies with predominance of subclass IgG4 and false-negative immunoassay test results in anti-glomerular basement membrane disease.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, Sophie; Herlitz, Hans; Lundberg, Sigrid; Selga, Daina; Mölne, Johan; Wieslander, Jörgen; Segelmark, Mårten

    2014-02-01

    Autoantibodies against a constituent of the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), the ?3-chain of type IV collagen, can cause both rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and alveolar hemorrhage, referred to as anti-GBM disease or Goodpasture disease. Anti-GBM antibodies generally are of immunoglobulin G subclass 1 (IgG1) and can in most cases readily be detected in the circulation using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). We report 4 cases in which anti-GBM ELISA yielded negative or borderline results despite life-threatening disease. All 4 patients had positive results by IgG4 anti-GBM ELISA and all had undetectable antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody. All cases were confirmed with kidney biopsy. Two of the patients showed higher signal in anti-GBM ELISA when using a nondenaturing coating buffer. All 4 were young women with severe alveolar hemorrhage and favorable renal outcome, suggesting that patients with predominance of IgG4 autoantibodies may constitute a distinct subgroup of anti-GBM disease. We conclude that patients with idiopathic alveolar hemorrhage can have anti-GBM disease detected by only IgG subclass-specific tests or kidney biopsy. PMID:24189476

  13. Apparent haptic movement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Carl E. Sherrick; Ronald Rogers

    1966-01-01

    When Os were presented with ISO-Hz vibrotactile bursts at two loci on the skin of the thigh and permitted to adjust the time\\u000a between burst onsets, they reported good apparent movement between the loci. The time between stimulus onsets for optimal\\u000a movement was found to vary directly with the duration of the stimulus. Replication of the experiment with electrocutaneous\\u000a stimuli

  14. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  15. Boosted apparent horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akcay, Sarp

    Boosted black holes play an important role in General Relativity (GR), especially in relation to the binary black hole problem. Solving Einstein vac- uum equations in the strong field regime had long been the holy grail of numerical relativity until the significant breakthroughs made in 2005 and 2006. Numerical relativity plays a crucial role in gravitational wave detection by providing numerically generated gravitational waveforms that help search for actual signatures of gravitational radiation exciting laser interferometric de- tectors such as LIGO, VIRGO and GEO600 here on Earth. Binary black holes orbit each other in an ever tightening adiabatic inspiral caused by energy loss due to gravitational radiation emission. As the orbits shrinks, the holes speed up and eventually move at relativistic speeds in the vicinity of each other (separated by ~ 10M or so where 2M is the Schwarzschild radius). As such, one must abandon the Newtonian notion of a point mass on a circular orbit with tangential velocity and replace it with the concept of black holes, cloaked behind spheroidal event horizons that become distorted due to strong gravity, and further appear distorted because of Lorentz effects from the high orbital velocity. Apparent horizons (AHs) are 2-dimensional boundaries that are trapped surfaces. Conceptually, one can think of them as 'quasi-local' definitions for a black hole horizon. This will be explained in more detail in chapter 2. Apparent horizons are especially important in numerical relativity as they provide a computationally efficient way of describing and locating a black hole horizon. For a stationary spacetime, apparent horizons are 2-dimensional cross-sections of the event horizon, which is itself a 3-dimensional null surface in spacetime. Because an AH is a 2-dimensional cross-section of an event horizon, its area remains invariant under distortions due to Lorentz boosts although its shape changes. This fascinating property of the AH can be attributed to the fact that it is a cross-section of a null surface, which, under the boost, still remains null and the total area does not change. Although this invariance of the area is conceptually easy to see it is less straightforward to derive this result. We present two diRTMerent ways to show the area invariance. One is based on the spin-boost transformation of the null tetrad and the other a direct coordinate transformation of the boosted metric under the Lorentz boost. Despite yielding identical results the two methods differ significantly and we elaborate on this in much more detail. We furthermore show that the use of the spin-boost transformation is not well-suited for binary black hole spacetime and that the spin-boost is fundamentally different from a Lorentz boost although the transformation equations look very similar. We also provide a way to visualize the distorted horizons and look at the multi-pole moments of these surfaces under small boosts. We finish by summarizing our main results at the end and by commenting on the binding energy of the binary and how the apparent horizon is distorted due to presence of another black hole.

  16. Identification and classification of skin sensitizers: identifying false positives and false negatives.

    PubMed

    Basketter, David A; McFadden, John; Evans, Peter; Andersen, Klaus E; Jowsey, Ian

    2006-11-01

    The first step in regulatory evaluation of substances involves the identification of their intrinsic hazards, including the potential for skin sensitization. This is, quite properly, entirely different from assessment of the risks to human health, which might arise from incorporation of substances in products. EU guidance on regulations concerning the classification of skin sensitizers suggests a range of sources of information be deployed in the hazard identification process. These include chemical structure, predictive animal tests, and various types of human data. Where the information is clear-cut, then uncertainties rarely arise. However, for some materials, discordant information arises, perhaps because the substance is on the borderline of test sensitivity and classification (sensitizing materials of insufficient potency do not classified according to the EU scheme), due to conflicting results in predictive tests or for other reasons. In this study, we review data on a number of substances where a classification decision is complicated by such discordances and seek to use these examples to demonstrate how best to make a weight of evidence decision on whether a substance should, or should not, be classified as a skin sensitizer. PMID:17026691

  17. Balancing false positives and false negatives for the detection of differential expression in malignancies

    E-print Network

    of differential expression. As an example, we apply our method to data sets studying acute leukaemia. British; ROC curve; acute leukaemia #12;#12; #12; #12; #12; #12; #12; #12; #12; #12; #12; #12; #12; #12; #12

  18. White Rock in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Iani Chaos in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image of a portion of the Iani Chaos region was collected during the Southern Fall season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.6 Longitude 342.4 East (17.6 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  20. Can false memories spontaneously recover?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John G. Seamon; Jeffrey R. Berko; Brooke Sahlin; Yi-Lo Yu; Jennifer M. Colker; David H. Gottfried

    2006-01-01

    Can false memories that were suppressed at one time spontaneously recover at a later time? Fuzzy trace theory and activation-monitoring theory predict that false memories in the Deese, Roediger, and McDermott (DRM) procedure become substantially reduced as list learning progresses because participants employ a memory-editing process. It follows that if the editing process is rendered less effective, false memories should

  1. Accuracy and Apparent Accuracy in Medical Testing

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Stuart Boersma

    Unreviewed Activity submitted in preparation for the NNN Writing with Numbers Workshop Students investigate two quantitative issues in the field of medical testing. First, students use two way tables and information about a diagnostic test's sensitivity and specificity to investigate the probability of a patient receiving a false positive result. Second, students learn about the phenomenon of referral bias in medical testing. Students use proportional reasoning to observe the effect of doctor referral rates on the apparent sensitivity and specificity of a screening tool.

  2. Dynamics of false vacuum bubbles in Brans-Dicke theory

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo [Department of Physics and BK21 Division and Center for Quantum Spacetime, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Dong-han, E-mail: bhl@sogang.ac.kr, E-mail: warrior@sogang.ac.kr, E-mail: innocent@muon.kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-01

    We study the dynamics of false vacuum bubbles in the Brans-Dicke theory of gravity by using the thin shell or thin wall approximation. We consider a false vacuum bubble that has a different value for the Brans-Dicke field between the inside false vacuum region and the outside true vacuum region. Within a certain limit of field values, the difference of field values makes the effective tension of the shell negative. This allows new expanding false vacuum bubbles to be seen by the outside observer, which are disallowed in Einstein gravity.

  3. Dividing Attention Lowers Children's but Increases Adults' False Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otgaar, Henry; Peters, Maarten; Howe, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of divided attention on children's and adults' neutral and negative true and false memories in a standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Children (7- and 11-year-olds; n = 126) and adults (n = 52) received 5 neutral and 5 negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott word lists; half of each group also received a…

  4. Can false memories spontaneously recover?

    PubMed

    Seamon, John G; Berko, Jeffrey R; Sahlin, Brooke; Yu, Yi-Lo; Colker, Jennifer M; Gottfried, David H

    2006-05-01

    Can false memories that were suppressed at one time spontaneously recover at a later time? Fuzzy trace theory and activation-monitoring theory predict that false memories in the Deese, Roediger, and McDermott (DRM) procedure become substantially reduced as list learning progresses because participants employ a memory-editing process. It follows that if the editing process is rendered less effective, false memories should spontaneously recover. We found that after DRM lists were well learned and false recognition to critical words was substantially reduced by multiple study-test trials, those false memories spontaneously recovered when participants were either rushed or delayed on a retest. We attributed the reduction in false recognition over trials to a memory-editing process that suppresses false recognition as participants gradually learn which words were in the lists and which words, though similar, were not. Rushing or delaying the participants on a retest made it more difficult for them to edit their memory, and false memories spontaneously returned. PMID:16766445

  5. 14 CFR 23.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 23.943 Section 23.943 ...Powerplant General § 23.943 Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction of...airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes...

  6. 14 CFR 23.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 23.943 Section 23.943 ...Powerplant General § 23.943 Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction of...airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes...

  7. 14 CFR 23.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 23.943 Section 23.943 ...Powerplant General § 23.943 Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction of...airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes...

  8. 14 CFR 25.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 2014-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 25.943 Section 25.943 ...Powerplant General § 25.943 Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction...airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes...

  9. 14 CFR 25.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 25.943 Section 25.943 ...Powerplant General § 25.943 Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction...airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes...

  10. 14 CFR 25.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2012-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 25.943 Section 25.943 ...Powerplant General § 25.943 Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction...airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes...

  11. 14 CFR 23.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2013-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 23.943 Section 23.943 ...Powerplant General § 23.943 Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction of...airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes...

  12. 14 CFR 25.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2010-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 25.943 Section 25.943 ...Powerplant General § 25.943 Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction...airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes...

  13. 14 CFR 23.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 23.943 Section 23.943 ...Powerplant General § 23.943 Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction of...airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes...

  14. 14 CFR 25.943 - Negative acceleration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2011-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 25.943 Section 25.943 ...Powerplant General § 25.943 Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction...airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes...

  15. VESPA: False positive probabilities calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Timothy D.

    2015-03-01

    Validation of Exoplanet Signals using a Probabilistic Algorithm (VESPA) calculates false positive probabilities and statistically validates transiting exoplanets. Written in Python, it uses isochrones [ascl:1503.010] and the package simpledist.

  16. Tunneling decay of false kinks

    E-print Network

    Dupuis, Éric; MacKenzie, Richard; Marleau, Luc; Paranjape, M B; Ung, Y

    2015-01-01

    We consider the decay of "false kinks," that is, kinks formed in a scalar field theory with a pair of degenerate symmetry-breaking false vacua in 1+1 dimensions. The true vacuum is symmetric. A second scalar field and a peculiar potential are added in order for the kink to be classically stable. We find an expression for the decay rate of a false kink. As with any tunneling event, the rate is proportional to $\\exp(-S_E)$ where $S_E$ is the Euclidean action of the bounce describing the tunneling event. This factor varies wildly depending on the parameters of the model. Of interest is the fact that for certain parameters $S_E$ can get arbitrarily small, implying that the kink is only barely stable. Thus, while the false vacuum itself may be very long-lived, the presence of kinks can give rise to rapid vacuum decay.

  17. “When true is false, and false is true” [Column

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many insects and other organisms are called “false” as a common name or the Latin equivalent “pseudo-“ in their scientific names. The column explores the details of and the reasons why so many insects are given such names. Reasons include the vast biodiversity of certain groups, the historical typ...

  18. Sleep loss produces false memories.

    PubMed

    Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal",...), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss. PMID:18946511

  19. The consequences of suggesting false childhood food events.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Daniel M; Scoboria, Alan; Arnold, Robert

    2015-03-01

    We combined data across eight published experiments (N=1369) to examine the formation and consequences of false autobiographical beliefs and memories. Our path models revealed that the formation of false autobiographical belief fully mediated the pathway between suggesting to people that they had experienced a positive or negative food-related event in the past and current preference for that food. Suggestion indirectly affected intention to eat the food via change in autobiographical belief. The development of belief with and without memory produced similar changes in food preferences and behavior intention, indicating that belief in the event drives changes in suggestion-related attitudes. Finally, positive suggestions (e.g., "you loved asparagus the first time you tried it") yielded stronger effects than negative suggestions (e.g., "you got sick eating egg salad"). These findings show that false autobiographical suggestions lead to the development of autobiographical beliefs, which in turn, have consequences for one's attitudes and behaviors. PMID:25613303

  20. Accounting for False Positive HIV Tests: Is Visceral Leishmaniasis Responsible?

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Leslie; Ritmeijer, Koert; Piriou, Erwan; Siddiqui, M. Ruby; Kliescikova, Jarmila; Pearce, Neil; Ariti, Cono; Muluneh, Libsework; Masiga, Johnson; Abebe, Almaz

    2015-01-01

    Background Co-infection with HIV and visceral leishmaniasis is an important consideration in treatment of either disease in endemic areas. Diagnosis of HIV in resource-limited settings relies on rapid diagnostic tests used together in an algorithm. A limitation of the HIV diagnostic algorithm is that it is vulnerable to falsely positive reactions due to cross reactivity. It has been postulated that visceral leishmaniasis (VL) infection can increase this risk of false positive HIV results. This cross sectional study compared the risk of false positive HIV results in VL patients with non-VL individuals. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants were recruited from 2 sites in Ethiopia. The Ethiopian algorithm of a tiebreaker using 3 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) was used to test for HIV. The gold standard test was the Western Blot, with indeterminate results resolved by PCR testing. Every RDT screen positive individual was included for testing with the gold standard along with 10% of all negatives. The final analysis included 89 VL and 405 non-VL patients. HIV prevalence was found to be 12.8% (47/ 367) in the VL group compared to 7.9% (200/2526) in the non-VL group. The RDT algorithm in the VL group yielded 47 positives, 4 false positives, and 38 negatives. The same algorithm for those without VL had 200 positives, 14 false positives, and 191 negatives. Specificity and positive predictive value for the group with VL was less than the non-VL group; however, the difference was not found to be significant (p = 0.52 and p = 0.76, respectively). Conclusion The test algorithm yielded a high number of HIV false positive results. However, we were unable to demonstrate a significant difference between groups with and without VL disease. This suggests that the presence of endemic visceral leishmaniasis alone cannot account for the high number of false positive HIV results in our study. PMID:26161864

  1. Negative ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Massey

    1976-01-01

    Topics covered include: the negative ion of hydrogen; ground states of complex atomic negative ions-theoretical considerations; the electron affinities of the elements; atomic negative ions-excited states-autodetachment, general account; autodetaching states of specific atomic negative ions; molecular negative ions-ground states; excited electronic states of molecular negative ions; modes of formation of negative ions-formation by radiative processes-radiative attachment and polar photodissociation; modes

  2. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  3. 'Payson' Panorama in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The panoramic camera aboard NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired this panorama of the 'Payson' outcrop on the western edge of 'Erebus' Crater during Opportunity's sol 744 (Feb. 26, 2006). From this vicinity at the northern end of the outcrop, layered rocks are observed in the crater wall, which is about 1 meter (3.3 feet) thick. The view also shows rocks disrupted by the crater-forming impact event and subjected to erosion over time.

    To the left of the outcrop, a flat, thin layer of spherule-rich soils overlies more outcrop materials. The rover is currently traveling down this 'road' and observing the approximately 25-meter (82-foot) length of the outcrop prior to departing Erebus crater.

    The panorama camera took 28 separate exposures of this scene, using four different filters. The resulting panorama covers about 90 degrees of terrain around the rover. This false-color rendering was made using the camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer and 423-nanometer filters. Using false color enhances the subtle color differences between layers of rocks and soils in the scene so that scientists can better analyze them. Image-to-image seams have been eliminated from the sky portion of the mosaic to better simulate the vista a person standing on Mars would see.

  4. Apparent Solar Tornado - Like Prominences

    E-print Network

    Panasenco, Olga; Velli, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Recent high-resolution observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) have reawakened interest in the old and fascinating phenomenon of solar tornado-like prominences. This class of prominences was first introduced by Pettit (1932), who studied them over many years. Observations of tornado prominences similar to the ones seen by SDO had already been documented by Secchi (1877) in his famous "Le Soleil". High resolution and high cadence multiwavelength data obtained by SDO reveal that the tornado-like appearance of these prominences is mainly an illusion due to projection effects. We discuss two different cases where prominences on the limb might appear to have a tornado-like behavior. One case of apparent vortical motions in prominence spines and barbs arises from the (mostly) 2D counterstreaming plasma motion along the prominence spine and barbs together with oscillations along individual threads. The other case of apparent rotational motion is observed in prominence cavities and results from the 3D ...

  5. 7 CFR 996.11 - Negative aflatoxin content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negative aflatoxin content. 996.11 Section 996.11 Agriculture...STATES Definitions § 996.11 Negative aflatoxin content. Negative aflatoxin content means 15 parts per billion...

  6. False memory susceptibility is correlated with categorisation ability in humans

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, Kathryn; Chittka, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Our memory is often surprisingly inaccurate, with errors ranging from misremembering minor details of events to generating illusory memories of entire episodes. The pervasiveness of such false memories generates a puzzle: in the face of selection pressure for accuracy of memory, how could such systematic failures have persisted over evolutionary time? It is possible that memory errors are an inevitable by-product of our adaptive memories and that semantic false memories are specifically connected to our ability to learn rules and concepts and to classify objects by category memberships. Here we test this possibility using a standard experimental false memory paradigm and inter-individual variation in verbal categorisation ability. Indeed it turns out that the error scores are significantly negatively correlated, with those individuals scoring fewer errors on the categorisation test being more susceptible to false memory intrusions in a free recall test. A similar trend, though not significant, was observed between individual categorisation ability and false memory susceptibility in a word recognition task. Our results therefore indicate that false memories, to some extent, might be a by-product of our ability to learn rules, categories and concepts. PMID:25254105

  7. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0607-0117) [40 FR 53232, Nov. 17,...

  8. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0607-0117) [40 FR 53232, Nov. 17,...

  9. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0607-0117) [40 FR 53232, Nov. 17,...

  10. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0607-0117) [40 FR 53232, Nov. 17,...

  11. 15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0607-0117) [40 FR 53232, Nov. 17,...

  12. Pathways to False Allegations of Sexual Assault

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jessica Engle; William ODonohue

    2012-01-01

    Not all allegations of sexual assault are true. Unfortunately, there has been little work on understanding the prevalence of false allegations or pathways to these. This paper proposes 11 pathways to false allegations of sexual assault: (a) lying, (b) implied consent, (c) false memories, (d) intoxication, (e) antisocial personality disorder, (f) borderline personality disorder, (g) histrionic personality disorder, (h) delirium,

  13. Removing False Paths from Combinational Modules 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuji Kukimoto; Robert K. Brayton

    The existence of false paths complicates the task of accurate tim- ing analysis significantly. A technique to remove false paths from a combinational circuit without degrading its performance h as a prac- tical value since topological timing analysis is then good e nough to estimate the performance of false-path-free circuits accu rately. One can think of the KMS algorithm (1)

  14. False-color Dalmatian Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 10 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 18, 2003 during the Southern Spring season in Noachis Terra.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -74, Longitude 351.9 East (8.1 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  15. Impact of false-positive mammography on subsequent screening attendance and risk of cancer

    E-print Network

    McCann, Jenny; Stockton, Diane; Godward, Sara

    2002-07-17

    negative. Previous studies suggest that, in addition to increasing anxiety, such false-positive mammography is associated with increased risk of subsequent interval cancer. In the present article, we quantify this increased risk, investigate whether...

  16. Introduction: Negation and Polarity at the Millennium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence R. Horn; Yasuhiko Kato

    Negative utterances are a core feature of every system of human communication and of no system of animal communication. Negation and its correlates—truth- values, false messages, contradiction, and irony—can thus be seen as defining characteristics of the human species. From Plato and Aristotle to contemporary linguists, logicians, and psychologists, the study of negation has played a central role in the

  17. Negative temperatures and negative dissipation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Machlup

    1975-01-01

    Negative absolute temperature, defined in terms of the Boltzmann factor, corresponds to an upside-down energy pyramid. The example of the laser shows population inversion to be accompanied by the switch from absorption to emission, that is, from positive to negative dissipation, from increasing disorder throughout a system to increasing order in a subsystem. Early treatments of the negative-temperature concept are

  18. ``False Positive,'' an Apt Term and Concept for Volcanologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wunderman, R.

    2010-12-01

    A less-than-bold prediction is that signals that could presage an eruption, but later turn out not to have been predictive (false positives), will continue to vex volcanologists and societies touched by volcanic processes. At present, even at the most carefully monitored volcanoes, many remote-sensing, geophysical, and geochemical clues are often incompletely diagnostic. Even assessing multiple kinds of data cannot ensure successful prediction of eruption or eruptive behavior. Although we’ve witnessed improvements in instrumentation, a growing number of instructive examples, and advances in understanding, the concept of false positives might elevate public understanding since the term is in common use (eg., medical tests). The term helps reveal inherent uncertainty to the press and public, with much-needed emphasis on the limits of the data. Such understanding among the public is critical when scientists forecast an eruption that fails to materialize (“cry wolf”), a circumstance that can have profound negative consequences, including loss of credibility. Bayes’ theorem can calculate probabilities as well as the rates of false positives and false negatives. The rates are a function of both the accuracy of the test and the actual rate of occurrence of the phenomena in question. Globally, rates of occurrence differ for various volcanological processes. For example, dome extrusion is common, whereas caldera collapse, comparatively rare. The latter’s rarity may suggest caution in interpreting precursory signals that could indicate that outcome. Despite the risk of false positives, it may be appropriate to heed test results, even those of marginal reliability, because the consequences of disaster are much greater than the cost of avoidance. For example, risks of uncertain ash plumes detected by VAACs with remote sensing may be minimized by altering an aircraft’s route, a choice less onerous than confronting the danger of ash encounter.

  19. False positive detection of peanut residue in liquid caramel coloring using commercial ELISA kits.

    PubMed

    Stelk, T; Niemann, L; Lambrecht, D M; Baumert, J L; Taylor, S L

    2013-07-01

    Initial food industry testing in our laboratory using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods indicated that the darkest caramel color (class IV) unexpectedly contained traces of peanut protein, a potential undeclared allergen issue. Caramel production centers on the heating of sugars, often glucose, under controlled heat and chemical processing conditions with other ingredients including ammonia, sulfite, and/or alkali salts. These ingredients should not contain any traces of peanut residue. We sought to determine the reliability of commercially available peanut allergen ELISA methods for detection of apparent peanut residue in caramel coloring. Caramel color samples of classes I, II, III, and IV were obtained from 2 commercial suppliers and tested using 6 commercially available quantitative and qualitative peanut ELISA kits. Five lots of class IV caramel color were spiked with a known concentration of peanut protein from light roasted peanut flour to assess recovery of peanut residue using a spike and recovery protocol with either 15 ppm or 100 ppm peanut protein on a kit-specific basis. A false positive detection of peanut protein was found in class IV caramel colors with a range of 1.2 to 17.6 parts per million recovered in both spiked and unspiked liquid caramel color samples. ELISA kit spike/recovery results indicate that false negative results might also be obtained if peanut contamination were ever to actually exist in class IV caramel color. Manufacturers of peanut-free products often test all ingredients for peanut allergen residues using commercial ELISA kits. ELISA methods are not reliable for the detection of peanut in class IV caramel ingredients and their use is not recommended with this matrix. PMID:23647653

  20. Geophysics Fatally Flawed by False Fundamental Philosophy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, L. S.

    2004-05-01

    For two centuries scientists have failed to realize Laplace's nebular hypothesis \\(1796\\) of Earth's creation is false. As a consequence, geophysicists today are misinterpreting and miscalculating many fundamental aspects of the Earth and Solar System. Why scientists have deluded themselves for so long is a mystery. The greatest error is the assumption Earth was created 4.6 billion years ago as a molten protoplanet in its present size, shape and composition. This assumption ignores daily accretion of more than 200 tons/day of meteorites and dust, plus unknown volumes of solar insolation that created coal beds and other biomass that increased Earth's mass and diameter over time! Although the volume added daily is minuscule compared with Earth's total mass, logic and simple addition mandates an increase in mass, diameter and gravity. Increased diameter from accretion is proved by Grand Canyon stratigraphy that shows a one kilometer increase in depth and planetary radius at a rate exceeding three meters \\(10 ft\\) per Ma from start of the Cambrian \\(540 Ma\\) to end of the Permian \\(245 Ma\\)-each layer deposited onto Earth's surface. This is unequivocal evidence of passive external growth by accretion, part of a dual growth and expansion process called "Accreation" \\(creation by accretion\\). Dynamic internal core expansion, the second stage of Accreation, did not commence until the protoplanet reached spherical shape at 500-600 km diameter. At that point, gravity-powered compressive heating initiated core melting and internal expansion. Expansion quickly surpassed the external accretion growth rate and produced surface volcanoes to relieve explosive internal tectonic pressure and transfer excess mass (magma)to the surface. Then, 200-250 Ma, expansion triggered Pangaea's breakup, first sundering Asia and Australia to form the Pacific Ocean, followed by North and South America to form the Atlantic Ocean, by the mechanism of midocean ridges, linear underwater volcanoes, that enable planetary expansion the same way cranial sutures permit human skulls to grow to maturity. Expansion is shown by the Asian and Australian trenches, from Kamchatka to the Marianas, and from Samoa to the tip of Macquarie Ridge south of New Zealand, that are mirror images of the western coasts of North and South America. This is clear evidence neither the Atlantic nor the Pacific Ocean existed 250 Ma when Earth was much smaller. In just 250 Ma external accretion and internal core expansion increased Earth's diameter from 7640 km to 12,735 km and increased total surface area to 361,060,000 sq. km, the area occupied by today's oceans-oceans that did not exist 250 Ma when Earth was slightly larger than Mars is today \\(6787 km\\). The fallacy of the nebular hypothesis did not become apparent until after Oliver and Isacks introduced the concept of subduction in 1967. Subduction was based on the false assumption that Earth's diameter is constant and unchanging, and spawned the theory of Plate Tectonics that "revolutionized" geophysics in a short period of time-a "revolution" destined for failure. Evidence is presented showing all solar bodies originate as comets \\(fragments of supernovae explosions\\) captured by the Sun that become meteoroids or asteroids by external accretion of meteorites and dust from over 370 known meteor streams.\\(Terentjeva, 1964\\) Accreation replaces the nebular hypothesis and rejuvenates Carey's Earth Expansion theory that, unfortunately, was pushed aside by plate tectonics because it lacked a plausible mechanism. However, expansion carries an ultimate threat to Mankind's tenure on Earth and exploration of Mars as the future home of Mankind takes on added significance.

  1. Determining Test Length to Control for False-Positive and False-Negative Error Rates on Criterion-Referenced Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Rand R.

    Concern about passing those examinees who should pass, and retaining those who need remedial work, is one problem related to criterion-referenced testing. This paper deals with one aspect of that problem. When determining how many items to include on a criterion-referenced test, practitioners must resolve various non-statistical issues before a…

  2. False vs True rupture of membranes.

    PubMed

    Cohain, J S

    2015-05-01

    New medical nomenclature: False rupture of membranes or False ROM and Double rupture of membranes or Double ROM are being introduced into the English language. A single caregiver found about 1% of term births and 10% of term PROM involved False ROM, in which the chorion breaks while the amnion remains intact. Diagnostically, if meconium or vernix is observed, then both the chorionic and amniotic sacs have broken. In the absence of detection of vernix or meconium, an immediate accurate diagnostic test for False ROM is lacking and differentiating between True ROM from False ROM is possible only after leaking stops, which takes hours to days. The obvious benefit of differentiating between 'True' and 'False' ROM, is that in the case of False ROM, the amnion is intact and ascending infections are likely not at increased risk, although research is lacking as to whether False ROM is associated with an increased rate of ascending infection. Three cases of False ROM are presented and avenues for future research are enumerated. PMID:25279443

  3. Mediastinal false aneurysm after thoracic aortic surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahiro Katsumata; Narain Moorjani; Giuseppe Vaccari; Stephen Westaby

    2000-01-01

    Background. Postoperative mediastinal false aneurysm is associated with a substantial morbidity and mortality. Surgical treatment is mandatory, although the individual approach varies according to the type of pathologic process, infection status, and site of origin of the aneurysm.Methods. Between April 1993 and February 1999, we treated 10 patients, aged 25 to 73 years, with anastomotic mediastinal false aneurysm originating from

  4. How Does Distinctive Processing Reduce False Recall?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Dunlap, Kathryn R.

    2011-01-01

    False memories arising from associatively related lists are a robust phenomenon that resists many efforts to prevent it. However, a few variables have been shown to reduce this form of false memory. Explanations for how the reduction is accomplished have focused on either output monitoring processes or constraints on access, but neither idea alone…

  5. ARE FALSE MEMORIES PSI-CONDUCIVE?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas Rose; Susan Blackmore

    2001-01-01

    1 ABSTRACT: S. J. Blackmore and N. J. Rose (1997) reported an experiment that used false memory creation to generate a significant psi effect. This article reports a series of 3 experiments that attempted to replicate this effect and examines the relationship between false memory creation and paranormal belief. Experiment 1 is a faithful replication of the original. Experiment 2

  6. LVIS Tree Height Cross Section (false color)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Randall Jones

    1999-09-17

    This animation starts with a false-color map of tree heights north of San Jose, Costa Rica, and changes to a close-up 3D cut-away of a section of the forest, also in false color. Data from LVIS observations taken in March, 1998.

  7. 7 CFR 275.13 - Review of negative cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review of negative cases. 275.13 Section 275.13...PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Quality Control (QC) Reviews § 275.13 Review of negative cases. (a) General. A...

  8. 7 CFR 275.13 - Review of negative cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review of negative cases. 275.13 Section 275.13...PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Quality Control (QC) Reviews § 275.13 Review of negative cases. (a) General. A...

  9. 7 CFR 275.13 - Review of negative cases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review of negative cases. 275.13 Section 275.13...PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Quality Control (QC) Reviews § 275.13 Review of negative cases. (a) General. A...

  10. 29 CFR 1902.46 - Negative 18(e) determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Negative 18(e) determination. 1902.46 Section 1902...STATE STANDARDS Procedures for Determinations Under Section 18(e) of the Act Procedures for 18(e) Determination § 1902.46 Negative...

  11. István Mészáros, the unconscious, and false consciousness.

    PubMed

    Rendon, Mario

    2013-06-01

    Hungarian philosopher István Mészáros' more recent work expands our understanding of consciousness in a way that is particularly relevant to psychoanalysis. He underscores the tragedy of consciousness, increasingly alienated from the totality of our social and individual being, and replaced by its false analog. To make sustainable an anachronistic type of vertical social structure, ideologists of false consciousness join arms with those who control society's historically developed means to reproduce itself and its members. This results in the social phenomenon of alienation, whereby actively produced false consciousness creates a correlate individual unconscious. Mészáros' theory seems compatible with the psychoanalytic paradigms developed by Karen Horney and the Neo-Freudians. PMID:23722401

  12. Negative learning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Oppenheimer; Brian C. O’Neill; Mort Webster

    2008-01-01

    New technical information may lead to scientific beliefs that diverge over time from the a posteriori right answer. We call this phenomenon, which is particularly problematic in the global change arena, negative learning. Negative\\u000a learning may have affected policy in important cases, including stratospheric ozone depletion, dynamics of the West Antarctic\\u000a ice sheet, and population and energy projections. We simulate

  13. Apparent horizon in fluid-gravity duality

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, Ivan; Heller, Michal P.; Plewa, Grzegorz; Spalinski, Michal [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, A1C 5S7 (Canada); Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland) and Physics Department, University of Bialystok, 15-424 Bialystok (Poland)

    2011-05-15

    This article develops a computational framework for determining the location of boundary-covariant apparent horizons in the geometry of conformal fluid-gravity duality in arbitrary dimensions. In particular, it is shown up to second order and conjectured to hold to all orders in the gradient expansion that there is a unique apparent horizon which is covariantly expressible in terms of fluid velocity, temperature, and boundary metric. This leads to the first explicit example of an entropy current defined by an apparent horizon and opens the possibility that in the near-equilibrium regime there is preferred foliation of apparent horizons for black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes.

  14. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31 U.S.C. 3729 based on actions...

  15. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31 U.S.C. 3729 based on actions...

  16. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31 U.S.C. 3729 based on actions...

  17. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31 U.S.C. 3729 based on actions...

  18. 20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31 U.S.C. 3729 based on actions...

  19. Can language prediction lead to false memories? 

    E-print Network

    Speed, Laura

    2010-06-30

    The present study sought to investigate the use of prediction during sentence comprehension and whether prediction could lead to false memories for sentences when the ending of a sentence is not properly recovered. ...

  20. Astronomy Ranking Task: Apparent and Absolute Magnitude

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Astronomy Ranking Task: Apparent and Absolute Magnitude Exercise #4 Description: The table below provides partial magnitude and distance information for five stars (A - E). Star Name Apparent Magnitude Absolute Magnitude Distance from Earth (parsecs) A -1 3 B 5 1 C 0 10 D 1 10,000 E 3 3 A. Ranking

  1. Astronomy Ranking Task: Apparent and Absolute Magnitude

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Astronomy Ranking Task: Apparent and Absolute Magnitude Exercise #2 Description: The figure below magnitude. Ranking Order: Greatest 1 _______ 2 _______ 3 _______ 4 _______ 5 _______ Least Or, the apparent magnitude number would be the same for each star. ______ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your

  2. Pleiotropy, apparent stabilizing selection and uncovering fitness

    E-print Network

    Sokolowski, Marla

    Pleiotropy, apparent stabilizing selection and uncovering fitness optima Katrina McGuigan1 , Locke ow- ing to joint effects with fitness, and results in the genetic variation being concentrated with high levels of genetic vari- ation can be used to uncover fitness optima that are defined by apparent

  3. Apparent Subdiffusion Inherent to Single Particle Tracking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas S. Martin; Martin B. Forstner; Josef A. Käs

    2002-01-01

    Subdiffusion and its causes in both in vivo and in vitro lipid membranes have become the focus of recent research. We report apparent subdiffusion, observed via single particle tracking (SPT), in a homogeneous system that only allows normal diffusion (a DMPC monolayer in the fluid state). The apparent subdiffusion arises from slight errors in finding the actual particle position due

  4. Testing of Apparent Child Sex Offender Clustering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth A. Clontz; J. Gayle Mericle

    During a previous research project, the authors of this work noticed an apparent clustering of registered child sexual offenders as reflected by street addresses. The following research seeks to determine whether or not this effect is real or apparent. If this correlation exists, does it further relate to income levels of the neighborhood as established by the 2000 U.S. Census

  5. [False-positive diagnostic findings in acoustic neurinomas].

    PubMed

    Charabi, S; Thomsen, J C; Tos, M

    1991-12-30

    In the period from 1976 to 1990 Tos and Thomsen operated on 520 patients with acoustic neuromas using the translabyrinthine approach and five other patients were operated on via middle fossa approach. The diagnostic work up in all patients included: pure tone audiometry, tympanogram with acoustic reflexes, caloric test and brainstem audiometry. Since the late seventies, CT became the radiological investigation of choice to visualize the tumor. The first generation of CT failed to reveal tumors less than 1.5 cm in the extrameatal diameter, and pantopaque cisternography was necessary in some cases. The following generation of CT did not always reveal small intrameatal tumors, and false-negative results were reported. The incidence of false-positive CT findings in our series is calculated to be 0.6%. Three patients were operated on on account of false-positive CT. Peroperatively, adhesions in and around the internal porus were found in two cases while no pathology was found in the third case. Postoperatively, anacusis was observed in two cases. This could have been avoided if magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium contrast had been performed. In our opinion, MRI should be considered before a definitive surgical procedure is undertaken. Until MRI becomes more widely available, intravenous contrast-enhanced tomography followed by air cisternography is recommended in the diagnosis of small acoustic neuromas. PMID:1781059

  6. MTS in false positive reduction for multi-sensor fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Cudney, Elizabeth

    2014-05-01

    The Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MTS) is a relatively new tool in the vehicle health maintenance domain, but has some distinct advantages in current multi-sensor implementations. The use of Mahalanobis Spaces (MS) allows the algorithm to identify characteristics of sensor signals to identify behaviors in machines. MTS is extremely powerful with the caveat that the correct variables are selected to form the MS. In this research work, 56 sensors monitor various aspects of the vehicles. Typically, using the MTS process, identification of useful variables is preceded by validation of the measurements scale. However, the MTS approach doesn't directly include any mitigating steps should the measurement scale not be validated. Existing work has performed outlier removal in construction of the MS, which can lead to better validation. In our approach, we modify the outlier removal process with more liberal definitions of outliers to better identify variables' impact prior to identification of useful variables. This subtle change substantially lowered the false positive rate due to the fact that additional variables were retained. Traditional MTS approaches identify useful variables only to the extent they provide usefulness in identifying the positive (abnormal) condition. The impact of removing false negatives is not included. Initial results show our approach can reduce false positive values while still maintaining complete fault identification for this vehicle data set.

  7. Wrong Sample Dispensing May Cause False Positive Malaria Test

    PubMed Central

    Agnihotri, Ajju

    2015-01-01

    Both false positive (FP) and false negative are known limitations of any diagnostic test. Malaria parasite (MP) rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) may give FP results due to interference by substance in blood sample. We detected a FP in a MP RDT for first time in 36-year-old female whole blood donor due to incorrect sample dispensing technique. As per manufacturer’s instructions, while allowing all kit components and blood specimen to come to room temperature before testing, blood samples usually separate into lower layer of red blood cells (RBC) and upper layer of plasma. Technician performing the test took the sample from the bottom of the vacutainer thus taking RBC instead of whole blood (WB-recommended by manufacturer). This test showed reactive result and as per our standard protocol was re-tested to confirm the result. This second test was performed after re-mixing the same sample, which now tested as non-reactive sample, buffer and other kit component mix-up were ruled out. Repeated test on another sample of same donor produced same results. Thick and thin peripheral blood smear examination for malaria was found negative. This case highlights wrong MP RDT result due to wrong sample dispensing. PMID:26023564

  8. Wrong sample dispensing may cause false positive malaria test.

    PubMed

    Agnihotri, Naveen; Agnihotri, Ajju

    2015-04-01

    Both false positive (FP) and false negative are known limitations of any diagnostic test. Malaria parasite (MP) rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) may give FP results due to interference by substance in blood sample. We detected a FP in a MP RDT for first time in 36-year-old female whole blood donor due to incorrect sample dispensing technique. As per manufacturer's instructions, while allowing all kit components and blood specimen to come to room temperature before testing, blood samples usually separate into lower layer of red blood cells (RBC) and upper layer of plasma. Technician performing the test took the sample from the bottom of the vacutainer thus taking RBC instead of whole blood (WB-recommended by manufacturer). This test showed reactive result and as per our standard protocol was re-tested to confirm the result. This second test was performed after re-mixing the same sample, which now tested as non-reactive sample, buffer and other kit component mix-up were ruled out. Repeated test on another sample of same donor produced same results. Thick and thin peripheral blood smear examination for malaria was found negative. This case highlights wrong MP RDT result due to wrong sample dispensing. PMID:26023564

  9. Loop transformations to prevent false sharing

    SciTech Connect

    Granston, E.D. [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States); Montaut, T.; Bodin, F. [IRISA, Rennes (France)

    1995-08-01

    To date, page management in shared virtual memory (SVM) systems has been primarily the responsibility of the run-time system. However, there are some problems that are difficult to resolve efficiently at run time. Chief among these is false sharing. In this paper, a loop transformation theory is developed for identifying and eliminating potential sources of multiple-writer false sharing and other sources of page migration resulting from regular references in numerical applications. Loop nests of one and two dimensions (before blocking) with single-level, DOALL-style parallelism are covered. The potential of these transformations is demonstrated experimentally.

  10. Negative Messages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jurrien Gregor HALFF

    2010-01-01

    Most people think that if we send out a coherent negative message to stakeholders, everything will be fine. But, as Associate Professor Gregor Halff points out, the reality is very different. During a critical situation, there will be more people talking about you than with you.\\u000aHalff shares in this enlightening video that the key to a successful outcome is

  11. The foraging behavior of granivorous rodents and short-term apparent competition among seeds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph A. Veech

    2001-01-01

    The foraging behavior of a predator species is thought to be the cause of short-term apparent competition among those prey species that share the predator. Short-term apparent competition is the negative indirect effect that one prey species has on another prey species via its effects on predator foraging behavior. In theory, the density-dependent foraging behavior of gra- nivorous rodents and

  12. A review of the psychosocial effects of false-positive results on parents and current communication practices in newborn screening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Hewlett; S. E. Waisbren

    2006-01-01

    Summary  As more states adopt expanded newborn screening for metabolic disorders, the overall number of false positives increases.\\u000a False-positive screening results have been associated with increased anxiety and stress in parents of infants who require\\u000a follow-up testing, even after the infant’s good health is confirmed. This article reviews the literature on the negative impact\\u000a of false-positive newborn screening results on parents,

  13. Vendor cited for false PFC savings claim

    SciTech Connect

    Greenstein, I.

    1983-08-29

    A Cynex power factor controller (PFC) vendor claiming a 60% saving was cited by the Better Business Bureau for false advertising after a user survey revealed that savings were only 20% at best. The company plans no future advertising claims, although it insists that 60% savings are possible. The inventor disagrees. (DCK)

  14. Analysis of False Starts in Spontaneous Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

    A primary difference between spontaneous speech and read speech concerns the use of false starts, where a speaker interrupts the flow of speech to restart his or her utterance. A study examined the acoustic aspects of such restarts in a widely-used speech database, examining approximately 1000 utterances, about 10% of which contained a restart.…

  15. False Accusations of Nosocomial Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Money, John

    1992-01-01

    Practitioners performing routine physical examination may be falsely accused of sexual abuse. Criminal justice system is incompatible with biomedical system of prevention. It is responsible for establishment of sexual abuse industry, practitioners of which have vested interest in maintaining status quo of sexual criminalization. They themselves…

  16. Intelligent hybrid approach to false identity detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tossapon Boongoen; Qiang Shen

    2009-01-01

    Combating identity fraud is prominent and urgent since false identity has become the common denominator of all serious crime. Among many identified identity attributes, personal names are commonly falsified or aliased by most criminals and terrorists. Typical approaches to such name disambiguation rely on the text-based similarity measures, which are efficient to some extent, but severely fail to handle highly

  17. Growth of false bottoms under sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Naomi; Feltham, Daniel; Flocco, Daniela

    2015-04-01

    In the summer months, melt water from the surface of Arctic sea ice can percolate through the relatively porous ice and collect at the ice-ocean interface, filling hollows in the base of the ice. These pools are called under-ice melt ponds. Freezing can occur at the interface between the fresh water and the oceanic mixed layer, forming a sheet of ice called a false bottom. These have been observed to thicken and migrate upwards over time. False bottoms insulate the true base of the sea ice from the ocean and their formation is a significant mechanism of Arctic sea ice summer growth. Current parameterisations of basal ablation of sea ice in climate models do not account for these processes, the inclusion of which could improve the accuracy of predictions of Arctic sea ice. In this poster, a one-dimensional thermodynamic model of the evolution of under-ice melt ponds and false bottoms is presented. Our aim is to develop a parameterisation of the impact of under ice melt ponds and false bottoms on basal ablation of Arctic sea ice appropriate for use in gridded climate models.

  18. Diseases of Camelina sativa (false flax)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Séguin-Swartz; C. Eynck; R. K. Gugel; S. E. Strelkov; C. Y. Olivier; J. L. Li; H. Klein-Gebbinck; H. Borhan; C. D. Caldwell; K. C. Falk

    2009-01-01

    There is renewed interest in the crucifer Camelina sativa (false flax, camelina, gold of pleasure) as an alternative oilseed crop because of its potential value for food, feed, and industrial applications. This species is adapted to canola-growing areas in many regions of the world and is generally considered to be resistant to many diseases. A review of the literature indicates

  19. Visual content of words delays negation.

    PubMed

    Orenes, Isabel; Santamaría, Carlos

    2014-11-01

    Many studies have shown the advantage of processing visualizable words over non-visualizables due to the associated image code. The present paper reports the case of negation in which imagery could slow down processing. Negation reverses the truth value of a proposition from false to true or vice versa. Consequently, negation works only on propositions (reversing their truth value) and cannot apply directly to other forms of knowledge representation such as images (although they can be veridical or not). This leads to a paradoxical hypothesis: despite the advantage of visualizable words for general processing, the negation of clauses containing words related to the representation of an image would be more difficult than negation containing non-visualizable words. Two experiments support this hypothesis by showing that sentences with a previously negated visualizable word took longer to be read than sentences with previously negated non-visualizable words. The results suggest that a verbal code is used to process negation. PMID:25463550

  20. Cosmic chirality both true and false.

    PubMed

    Barron, Laurence D

    2012-12-01

    The discrete symmetries of parity P, time reversal T, and charge conjugation C may be used to characterize the properties of chiral systems. It is well known that parity violation infiltrates into ordinary matter via an interaction between the nucleons and electrons, mediated by the Z(0) particle, that lifts the degeneracy of the mirror-image enantiomers of a chiral molecule. Being odd under P but even under T, this P-violating interaction exhibits true chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection under all circumstances. It has been suggested that CP violation may also infiltrate into ordinary matter via a P-odd, T-odd interaction mediated by the (as yet undetected) axion. This CP-violating interaction exhibits false chirality and so may induce absolute enantioselection in processes far from equilibrium. Both true and false cosmic chirality should be considered together as possible sources of homochirality in the molecules of life. PMID:22930646

  1. Quantum nucleation of false-vacuum bubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, W.; Morgan, D.; Polchinski, J. (Department of Physics, Theory Group, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (USA))

    1990-04-15

    We show that a small bubble of false vacuum can tunnel to the critical size for inflation, and calculate the amplitude in leading WKB approximation. An initially nonsingular space becomes an exterior space plus a baby universe (which contains the bubble), joined by a black-hole singularity. We work in a Hamiltonian formalism; the corresponding Euclidean bounce is shown to have a degenerate vierbein.

  2. Disclosing false identity through hybrid link analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tossapon Boongoen; Qiang Shen; Chris Price

    2010-01-01

    Combating the identity problem is crucial and urgent as false identity has become a common denominator of many serious crimes,\\u000a including mafia trafficking and terrorism. Without correct identification, it is very difficult for law enforcement authority\\u000a to intervene, or even trace terrorists’ activities. Amongst several identity attributes, personal names are commonly, and\\u000a effortlessly, falsified or aliased by most criminals. Typical

  3. The false enforcement of unpopular norms.

    PubMed

    Willer, Robb; Kuwabara, Ko; Macy, Michael W

    2009-09-01

    Prevailing theory assumes that people enforce norms in order to pressure others to act in ways that they approve. Yet there are numerous examples of "unpopular norms" in which people compel each other to do things that they privately disapprove. While peer sanctioning suggests a ready explanation for why people conform to unpopular norms, it is harder to understand why they would enforce a norm they privately oppose. The authors argue that people enforce unpopular norms to show that they have complied out of genuine conviction and not because of social pressure. They use laboratory experiments to demonstrate this "false enforcement" in the context of a wine tasting and an academic text evaluation. Both studies find that participants who conformed to a norm due to social pressure then falsely enforced the norm by publicly criticizing a lone deviant. A third study shows that enforcement of a norm effectively signals the enforcer's genuine support for the norm. These results demonstrate the potential for a vicious cycle in which perceived pressures to conform to and falsely enforce an unpopular norm reinforce one another. PMID:20614762

  4. Apparent and actual galaxy cluster temperatures

    E-print Network

    Andrew R Liddle; Pedro T P Viana; A Kathy Romer; Robert G Mann

    2001-03-16

    The redshift evolution of the galaxy cluster temperature function is a powerful probe of cosmology. However, its determination requires the measurement of redshifts for all clusters in a catalogue, which is likely to prove challenging for large catalogues expected from XMM--Newton, which may contain of order 2000 clusters with measurable temperatures distributed around the sky. In this paper we study the apparent cluster temperature, which can be obtained without cluster redshifts. We show that the apparent temperature function itself is of limited use in constraining cosmology, and so concentrate our focus on studying how apparent temperatures can be combined with other X-ray information to constrain the redshift. We also briefly study the circumstances in which non-thermal spectral features can give redshift information.

  5. High temperature strain gage apparent strain compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holmes, Harlan K.; Moore, T. C., Sr.

    1992-01-01

    Once an installed strain gage is connected to a strain indicating device and the instrument is balanced, a subsequent change in temperature of the gage installation will generally produce a resistance change in the gage. This purely temperature-induced resistance will be registered by the indicating device as a strain and is referred to as 'apparent strain' to distinguish it from strain due to applied stress. One desirable technique for apparent strain compensation is to employ two identical gages with identical mounting procedures which are connected with a 'half bridge' configuration where gages see the same thermal environment but only one experiences a mechanical strain input. Their connection in adjacent arms of the bridge will then balance the thermally induced apparent strains and, in principle, only the mechanical strain remains. Two approaches that implement this technique are discussed.

  6. False positive acetaminophen concentrations in patients with liver injury

    PubMed Central

    Polson, Julie; Wians, Frank H.; Orsulak, Paul; Fuller, Dwain; Murray, Natalie G.; Koff, Jonathan M.; Khan, Adil I.; Balko, Jody A.; Hynan, Linda S.; Lee, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Acetaminophen toxicity is the most common form of acute liver failure in the U.S. After acetaminophen overdoses, quantitation of plasma acetaminophen can aid in predicting severity of injury. However, recent case reports have suggested that acetaminophen concentrations may be falsely increased in the presence of hyperbilirubinemia. Methods We tested sera obtained from 43 patients with acute liver failure, mostly unrelated to acetaminophen, utilizing 6 different acetaminophen quantitation systems to determine the significance of this effect. In 36 of the 43 samples with bilirubin concentrations ranging from 1.0-61.5 mg/dl no acetaminophen was detectable by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. These 36 samples were then utilized to test the performance characteristics of 2 immunoassay and 4 enzymatic-colorimetric methods. Results Three of four colorimetric methods demonstrated ‘detectable’ values for acetaminophen in from 4 to 27 of the 36 negative samples, low concentration positive values being observed when serum bilirubin concentrations exceeded 10 mg/dl. By contrast, the 2 immunoassay methods (EMIT, FPIA) were virtually unaffected. The false positive values obtained were, in general, proportional to the quantity of bilirubin in the sample. However, prepared samples of normal human serum with added bilirubin showed a dose-response curve for only one of the 4 colorimetric assays. Conclusions False positive acetaminophen tests may result when enzymatic-colorimetric assays are used, most commonly with bilirubin concentrations >10 mg/dl, leading to potential clinical errors in this setting. Bilirubin (or possibly other substances in acute liver failure sera) appears to affect the reliable measurement of acetaminophen, particularly with enzymatic-colorimetric assays. PMID:18279672

  7. Monitoring of progesterone in captive female false killer whales, Pseudorca crassidens.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, S; Combelles, C; Vincent, D; Nachtigall, P; Pawloski, J; Breese, M

    1999-09-01

    The present study describes progesterone profiles to enhance understanding of general reproductive patterns in three female captive false killer whales and analyzes potential relationships in progesterone concentrations between plasma, salivary, and ocular secretions. Plasma progesterone concentrations reflected ovarian activity for most of the year, with increased concentrations in the spring and summer, indicating that the two adult female false killer whales were spontaneous ovulators and seasonally polyestrus. Elevated progesterone concentrations were determined at intervals, for up to 10 consecutive months, in one female. There were also varying periods of no apparent ovarian activity from 3 to 10 consecutive months. Correlation coefficients between progesterone concentrations in plasma, salivary, and ocular secretions ranged between -0.23 and 0.16. It is concluded that blood collection should not be replaced by salivary or ocular secretion collection for the measurement of progesterone in the false killer whale. PMID:10480983

  8. Is the truth in the details? Extended narratives help distinguishing false "memories" from false "reports".

    PubMed

    Sjödén, Björn; Granhag, Pär Anders; Ost, James; Roos Af Hjelmsäter, Emma

    2009-06-01

    The present study examined the effects of fantasy proneness on false "reports" and false "memories", of existent and non-existent footage of a public event. We predicted that highly fantasy prone individuals would be more likely to stand by their initial claim of having seen a film of the event than low fantasy prone participants when prompted for more details about their experiences. Eighty creative arts students and 80 other students were asked whether they had seen CCTV footage preceding the attack on Swedish foreign minister Anna Lindh up to, and including, non-existent footage of the actual moment of the attack. If affirmative, they were probed for extended narratives of what they claimed to have seen. Overall, 64% of participants provided a false "report" by answering yes to the initial question. Of these, 30% provided no explicit details of the attack, and a further 15% retracted their initial answer in their narratives. This left 19% of the sample who appeared to have false "memories" because they provided explicit details of the actual moment of the attack. Women scored higher than men and art students scored higher than other students on fantasy proneness, but there was no effect on levels of false reporting or false "memory". Memories were rated more vivid and clear for existent compared to non-existent aspects of the event. In sum, these data suggest a more complex relationship between memory distortions and fantasy proneness than previously observed. PMID:19000104

  9. APPARENT PULSE DIFFUSION DUE TO DISORDERED MICROSTRUCTURE

    E-print Network

    Solna, Knut

    component. In the sequel we refer to the transformation of the pulse due to the microscale mediumAPPARENT PULSE DIFFUSION DUE TO DISORDERED MICROSTRUCTURE A. Nachbin \\Lambda and K. Sølna y \\Lambda, and it is important to describe when and how fine scale heterogeneities interact with a traveling seismic pulse. We

  10. Astronomy Ranking Task: Apparent and Absolute Magnitude

    E-print Network

    Farritor, Shane

    Astronomy Ranking Task: Apparent and Absolute Magnitude Exercise #3 Description: The figure below shows five stars (A - E) as they appear in the night sky from Earth. The absolute magnitude number: ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ D. Ranking Instructions: Rank the absolute magnitude number (from greatest to least) of each star (A

  11. False discovery rates in spectral identification

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Automated database search engines are one of the fundamental engines of high-throughput proteomics enabling daily identifications of hundreds of thousands of peptides and proteins from tandem mass (MS/MS) spectrometry data. Nevertheless, this automation also makes it humanly impossible to manually validate the vast lists of resulting identifications from such high-throughput searches. This challenge is usually addressed by using a Target-Decoy Approach (TDA) to impose an empirical False Discovery Rate (FDR) at a pre-determined threshold x% with the expectation that at most x% of the returned identifications would be false positives. But despite the fundamental importance of FDR estimates in ensuring the utility of large lists of identifications, there is surprisingly little consensus on exactly how TDA should be applied to minimize the chances of biased FDR estimates. In fact, since less rigorous TDA/FDR estimates tend to result in more identifications (at higher 'true' FDR), there is often little incentive to enforce strict TDA/FDR procedures in studies where the major metric of success is the size of the list of identifications and there are no follow up studies imposing hard cost constraints on the number of reported false positives. Here we address the problem of the accuracy of TDA estimates of empirical FDR. Using MS/MS spectra from samples where we were able to define a factual FDR estimator of 'true' FDR we evaluate several popular variants of the TDA procedure in a variety of database search contexts. We show that the fraction of false identifications can sometimes be over 10× higher than reported and may be unavoidably high for certain types of searches. In addition, we further report that the two-pass search strategy seems the most promising database search strategy. While unavoidably constrained by the particulars of any specific evaluation dataset, our observations support a series of recommendations towards maximizing the number of resulting identifications while controlling database searches with robust and reproducible TDA estimation of empirical FDR. PMID:23176207

  12. False belief and verb non-factivity: a common neural basis?

    PubMed

    Cheung, Him; Chen, Lan; Szeto, Ching-Yee; Feng, Gangyi; Lu, Guangming; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Zhu, Zude; Wang, Suiping

    2012-03-01

    Using fMRI, the present study compares the brain activation underlying false belief thinking induced by pictorial, nonverbal material to that instigated by strong non-factive verbs in a sample of adult Chinese speakers. These verbs obligatorily negate their complements which describe the mind content of the sentence agent, and thus may activate part of the false belief network. Some previous studies have shown a behavioral correlation between verb non-factivity/false complementation and conventional false belief but corresponding neural evidence is lacking. Our results showed that the non-factive grammar and false belief commonly implicated the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), which had been shown by past studies to play a role in general mentalizing. Regions that were unique to nonverbal false belief were the left TPJ and right middle frontal gyrus (MFG), whereas the unique regions for the non-factive grammar were the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and right superior temporal gyrus (STG). Hence, conventional nonverbal false belief and verb non-factivity have both shared and unique neural representations. PMID:22206905

  13. Evidence for false-positive results for boldenone testing of veal urine due to faecal cross-contamination during sampling.

    PubMed

    Sgoifo Rossi, C A; Arioli, F; Bassini, A; Chiesa, L M; Dell'Orto, V; Montana, M; Pompa, G

    2004-08-01

    European Directive 96/22/EC, which controls veterinary residues in animals, does not permit the presence of synthetic growth promoters in products of animal origin or in livestock. Boldenone is categorized in class A3 (growth promoters -- steroids) and is thus a banned substance. Testing of veal urine for banned substances is part of the European Union statutory programme for animals going into the food chain. In relation to this monitoring, three studies were conducted to investigate the apparent presence of the banned growth promoter boldenone in veal urine, which was suspected as being caused by interference from faecal contamination of the sample. In the first study, urine samples were collected at different times (time 0 and after 30 min) using (1) a conventional zoonotechnical apron and (2) a technique designed specifically to avoid faecal contamination ('kettle'). This resulted in samples that were, respectively, positive and negative for the presence of alpha-boldenone (alpha-BOL). In a second study, urine samples negative to alpha-BOL were collected from eight veal calves, but became positive after deliberate faecal contamination. In a third study, data obtained from the Italian RNP (Residual National Program) indicated that 18.1% of 3295 urine samples collected using the zootechnical apron were positive for alpha-BOL and 2.1% for beta-boldenone (beta-BOL), whilst of 902 samples collected using the kettle, beta-BOL was not detected in any samples and only 0.2% were positive to alpha-BOL, in concentrations lower than 2 ng ml(-1). These results further support the supposition that faecal contamination of the urine during sample collection can lead to false-positive results during boldenone analysis. PMID:15370825

  14. The Apparent Efficiency of the Arteriovenous Pumping Mechanism in the Rabbit Eye at Low Frequencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Malessa; M. A. Pak; K. A. Kotzamanoglu

    1982-01-01

    The apparent efficiency (h) of an arteriovenous pumping mechanism which has been proposed to be effective within the eye was calculated from static and dynamic (0.6 and 6 Hz) volume elasticity functions of the rabbit eye in vivo and postmortem, h was found to be of considerable size at zero and 0.6 Hz. At 6 Hz h was slightly negative.

  15. Effect of high temperature on the apparent activation energy of respiration of fresh produce

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daisuke Nei; Toshitaka Uchino; Natsumi Sakai; Shun-ichirou Tanaka

    2005-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain why the apparent activation energy of respiration of fresh produce is negative at the higher temperatures of 40–50°C. We assumed that maintenance of respiratory enzyme function was reduced at high temperatures, but the activity of the individual enzymes was not changed. In this study, experiments for testing the assumption were carried out to examine

  16. The Neural Correlates of Conceptual and Perceptual False Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garoff-Eaton, Rachel J.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    False recognition, broadly defined as a claim to remember something that was not encountered previously, can arise for multiple reasons. For instance, a distinction can be made between conceptual false recognition (i.e., false alarms resulting from semantic or associative similarities between studied and tested items) and perceptual false

  17. False Fire Alarms: A Deviant Pattern of Seeking Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camblin, Louise; Weinland, Laura

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the phenomenon of false fire alarms, the deliberate, intentional false reporting of fires, by mentally troubled persons as a primitive kind of help-seeking behavior. Several common themes found by reviewing false alarm cases are presented. Suggests that identifying the intrapsychic dynamics of false alarm reporters could be useful in…

  18. Adults' Memories of Childhood: True and False Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qin, Jianjian; Ogle, Christin M.; Goodman, Gail S.

    2008-01-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined factors that, according to the source-monitoring framework, might influence false memory formation and true/false memory discernment. In Experiment 1, combined effects of warning and visualization on false childhood memory formation were examined, as were individual differences in true and false childhood…

  19. Oligosymptomatic neurosyphilis with false negative CSF-VDRL in HIV-infected individuals?

    PubMed

    Malessa, R; Agelink, M W; Hengge, U; Mertins, L; Gastpar, M; Brockmeyer, N H

    1996-03-19

    The true prevalence of neurosyphilis in HIV-infection is unknown, since a sufficiently sensitive and specific test is lacking. In a prospective study we found reactive serum TPHA and FTA-ABS IgG tests in 95 (31%) of 307 HIV-infected patients. Three of 11 patients with latent syphilis revealed reactive CSF-VDRL tests, six others only demonstrated CSF abnormalities. Resolution of CSF abnormalities during a six month follow up after high dose antibiotic therapy led to the diagnosis of oligosymptomatic or asymptomatic neurosyphilis in all nine patients. Thus, the specificity of the CSF-VDRL was 100%, but the sensitivity was only 33%. The overall prevalence of neurosyphilis was 2.9%, increasing to 9.5% in patients with a reactive serum TPHA. Our study emphasizes the importance of antibiotic therapy for presumptive neurosyphilis in HIV-infected patients with latent syphilis and CSF abnormalities but nonreactive CSF-VDRL tests, even if they are neurologically asymptomatic or present with complaints inconclusive of neurosyphilis. PMID:9367943

  20. Reducing False Negative Reads in RFID Data Streams Using an Adaptive Sliding-Window Approach

    PubMed Central

    Massawe, Libe Valentine; Kinyua, Johnson D. M.; Vermaak, Herman

    2012-01-01

    Unreliability of the data streams generated by RFID readers is among the primary factors which limit the widespread adoption of the RFID technology. RFID data cleaning is, therefore, an essential task in the RFID middleware systems in order to reduce reading errors, and to allow these data streams to be used to make a correct interpretation and analysis of the physical world they are representing. In this paper we propose an adaptive sliding-window based approach called WSTD which is capable of efficiently coping with both environmental variation and tag dynamics. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach. PMID:22666027

  1. Urine testing for norcodeine, norhydrocodone, and noroxycodone facilitates interpretation and reduces false negatives

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edward J. Cone; Anne Zichterman; Rebecca Heltsley; David L. Black; Beverly Cawthon; Tim Robert; Frank Moser; Yale H. Caplan

    2010-01-01

    Urine drug testing of pain patients provides objective information to health specialists regarding patient compliance, diversion, and concurrent illicit drug use. Interpretation of urine test results for semi-synthetic opiates can be difficult because of complex biotransformations of parent drug to metabolites that are also available commercially and may be abused. Normetabolites such as norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone are unique metabolites

  2. 9 CFR 85.8 - Interstate movement of swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 false Interstate movement of swine from a qualified negative gene-altered...PSEUDORABIES § 85.8 Interstate movement of swine from a qualified negative gene-altered vaccinated herd. Swine from a qualified negative...

  3. Apparent extended body motions in depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hecht, Heiko; Proffitt, Dennis R.

    1991-01-01

    Five experiments were designed to investigate the influence of three-dimensional (3-D) orientation change on apparent motion. Projections of an orientation-specific 3-D object were sequentially flashed in different locations and at different orientations. Such an occurrence could be resolved by perceiving a rotational motion in depth around an axis external to the object. Consistent with this proposal, it was found that observers perceived curved paths in depth. Although the magnitude of perceived trajectory curvature often fell short of that required for rotational motions in depth (3-D circularity), judgments of the slant of the virtual plane on which apparent motions occurred were quite close to the predictions of a model that proposes circular paths in depth.

  4. Comment: An Apparent Controversy in Auroral Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerendel, Gerhard

    2007-03-01

    In his article ``A turning point in auroral physics,'' Bryant argued against what he called the `standard' theory of auroral acceleration, according to which the electrons ``gain their energy from static electric fields,'' and offered wave acceleration as an alternative. Because of the importance of the process, not only for the aurora borealis but also for other cosmic plasmas, a clarification of this apparent controversy seems to be in place.

  5. [An apparently primary lymphoma of the testicle].

    PubMed

    Belbusti, F; Signoretti, P; Tondi, M R; Sparaventi, G

    1991-01-01

    A case of apparently primary non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the testis is described. The patient, in stage IVE at the diagnosis, was treated with left orchiectomy and chemotherapy (MACOP-B). The abdominal CT scan showed a retroperitoneal lymph node involvement with infiltration of the right kidney and liver. The patient died 6 months after onset of the disease due to its progressive course. PMID:1721520

  6. Remembering, imagining, false memories & personal meanings.

    PubMed

    Conway, Martin A; Loveday, Catherine

    2015-05-01

    The Self-Memory System encompasses the working self, autobiographical memory and episodic memory. Specific autobiographical memories are patterns of activation over knowledge structures in autobiographical and episodic memory brought about by the activating effect of cues. The working self can elaborate cues based on the knowledge they initially activate and so control the construction of memories of the past and the future. It is proposed that such construction takes place in the remembering-imagining system - a window of highly accessible recent memories and simulations of near future events. How this malfunctions in various disorders is considered as are the implication of what we term the modern view of human memory for notions of memory accuracy. We show how all memories are to some degree false and that the main role of memories lies in generating personal meanings. PMID:25592676

  7. Testing jumps via false discovery rate control.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yu-Min

    2013-01-01

    Many recently developed nonparametric jump tests can be viewed as multiple hypothesis testing problems. For such multiple hypothesis tests, it is well known that controlling type I error often makes a large proportion of erroneous rejections, and such situation becomes even worse when the jump occurrence is a rare event. To obtain more reliable results, we aim to control the false discovery rate (FDR), an efficient compound error measure for erroneous rejections in multiple testing problems. We perform the test via the Barndorff-Nielsen and Shephard (BNS) test statistic, and control the FDR with the Benjamini and Hochberg (BH) procedure. We provide asymptotic results for the FDR control. From simulations, we examine relevant theoretical results and demonstrate the advantages of controlling the FDR. The hybrid approach is then applied to empirical analysis on two benchmark stock indices with high frequency data. PMID:23573190

  8. Dynamics and instability of false vacuum bubbles

    SciTech Connect

    Aguirre, Anthony; Johnson, Matthew C. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States)

    2005-11-15

    This paper examines the classical dynamics of false-vacuum regions embedded in surrounding regions of true vacuum, in the thin-wall limit. The dynamics of all generally relativistically allowed solutions--most but not all of which have been previously studied--are derived, enumerated, and interpreted. We comment on the relation of these solutions to possible mechanisms whereby inflating regions may be spawned from noninflating ones. We then calculate the dynamics of first-order deviations from spherical symmetry, finding that many solutions are unstable to such aspherical perturbations. The parameter space in which the perturbations on bound solutions inevitably become nonlinear is mapped. This instability has consequences for the Farhi-Guth-Guven mechanism for baby universe production via quantum tunneling.

  9. Photograph of Saturn constructed in false color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This Saturn photograph has been constructed in false color from a green and a violet frame obtained Aug. 19 by Voyager 2 from a range of 7.1 million kilometers (4.4 million miles). In true color, the blue oval in the center of the image would be brown and the two spots below and to the right would be white. The convective structure below the blue oval is moving west at 20 meters-per-second (40 mph) relative to the oval. The wavelike structures in the ribbon to the north are moving eastward at 150 meters-per-second (300 mph). In this image, the smallest observable features are 130 km. (80 mi.) across. The separate green and violet frames used to construct this picture are displayed in an accompanying release (P-23916BW, S-2-13). The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

  10. Right ventricular false tendons, a cadaveric approach.

    PubMed

    Loukas, Marios; Wartmann, Christopher T; Tubbs, R Shane; Apaydin, Nihal; Louis, Robert G; Black, Brandie; Jordan, Robert

    2008-06-01

    Left ventricular false tendons (LFTs) have been extensively described and recognized by gross anatomic studies. However, there is very little information available regarding right ventricular false tendons (RFTs). The aim of our study, therefore, was to explore and delineate the morphology, topography and morphometry of the RFTs, and provide a comprehensive picture of their anatomy across a broad range of specimens. We identified 35/100 heart specimens containing right ventricular RFTs and classified them into five types. In Type I (21, 47.7%) the RFTs, was located between the ventricular septum and the anterior papillary muscle; in Type II (11, 22.9%) between ventricular septum and the posterior papillary muscle; in Type III (7, 14.5%) between the anterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve and the right ventricular free wall; in Type IV (5, 10.4%) between the posterior papillary muscle and the ventricular free wall; and lastly, in Type V (4, 8.3%) between the anterior papillary muscle and ventricular free wall. The mean length of the RFTs was 18 +/- 7 mm with a mean diameter of 1.4 +/- 05 mm. Histologic examination with Masson trichrome and PAS revealed that 20 (41.6%) of the 48 RFTs carried conduction tissue fibers. The presence of conduction tissue fibers within the RFTs was limited to Types I, III, and IV. In Types II and V the RFTs resembled fibrous structures in contrast with Type I, II and IV, which were composed more of muscular fibers, including conduction tissue fibers. RFTs containing conduction tissue fibers were identified, which may implicate them in the appearance of arrhythmias. PMID:18283389

  11. The Apparent Thermal Conductivity of Pozzolana Concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessenouci, M. Z.; Triki, N. E. Bibi; Khelladi, S.; Draoui, B.; Abene, A.

    The recent development of some lightweight construction materials, such as light concrete, can play an important role as an insulator, while maintaining sufficient levels of mechanical performance. The quality of insulation to provide depends on the climate, the exposure of the walls and also the materials used in the construction. The choice of a material to be used as an insulator, obviously, depends on its availability and its cost. This is a study of natural pozzolanas as basic components in building materials. It is intended to highlight their thermal advantage. It is economically advantageous to use pozzolana in substitution for a portion of the clinker as hydraulically active additions, as well as in compositions of lightweight concretes in the form of pozzolanic aggregate mixtures, which provide mechanical strengths that comply with current standards. A theoretical study is conducted on the apparent thermal conductivity of building materials, namely concrete containing pozzolana. Thermal modeling, apparent to that commonly used for porous materials, has been applied to pozzolana concrete. Experimental results on measurements of the apparent thermal conductivity of pozzolana concrete are reported in this study, using an approach that considers that concrete is composed of two solid ingredients, a binding matrix (hydrated cement paste) and all aggregates. A second comparative theoretical approach is used for the case where concrete consists of a solid phase and a fluid phase (air).

  12. Apparent horizons in binary black hole spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoemaker, Deirdre Marie

    Over the last decade, advances in computing technology and numerical techniques have lead to the possible theoretical prediction of astrophysically relevant waveforms in numerical simulations. With the building of gravitational wave detectors such as the Laser Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Observatory, we stand at the epoch that will usher in the first experimental study of strong field general relativity. One candidate source for ground based detection of gravitational waveforms, the orbit and merger of two black holes, is of great interest to the relativity community. The binary black hole problem is the two-body problem in general relativity. It is a stringent dynamical test of the theory. The problem involves the evolution of the Einstein equation, a complex system of non-linear, dynamic, elliptic-hyperbolic equations intractable in closed form. Numerical relativists are now developing the technology to evolve the Einstein equation using numerical simulations. The generation of these numerical I codes is a ``theoretical laboratory'' designed to study strong field phenomena in general relativity. This dissertation reports the successful development and application of the first multiple apparent horizon tracker applied to the generic binary black hole problem. I have developed a method that combines a level set of surfaces with a curvature flow method. This method, which I call the level flow method, locates the surfaces of any apparent horizons in the spacetime. The surface location then is used to remove the singularities from the computational domain in the evolution code. I establish the following set of criteria desired in an apparent horizon tracker: (1)The robustness of the tracker due to its lack of dependence on small changes to the initial guess; (2)The generality of the tracker in its applicability to generic spacetimes including multiple back hole spacetimes; and (3)The efficiency of the tracker algorithm in CPU time. I demonstrate the apparent horizon tracker by evolving a binary black hole spacetime in Kerr-Schild coordinates without the horizon tracking; and then using the information from the horizon tracking to run the simulation further. Because of the apparent horizon tracking, the results shown in this dissertation are of the first binary black hole merger in the Grand Challenge Binary Black Hole Coalescence Alliance code. We have taken a significant step forward in the binary black hole merger problem.

  13. Proactive and retroactive effects of negative suggestion.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alan S; Brown, Christine M; Mosbacher, Joy L; Dryden, W Erich

    2006-11-01

    The negative effects of false information presented either prior to (proactive interference; PI) or following (retroactive interference; RI) true information was examined with word definitions (Experiment 1) and trivia facts (Experiment 2). Participants were explicitly aware of which information was true and false when shown, and true-false discrimination was evaluated via multiple-choice tests. Negative suggestion, defined as poorer performance on interference items than noninterference (control) items, consistently occurred when the wrong information followed the correct information (RI) but not when it preceded the correct information (PI). These effects did not change as a function of retention interval (immediate, 1 week, or 3 weeks) or number of incorrect alternatives (1 or 3). Implications of this outcome for experiencing incorrect information in both academic and nonacademic situations are considered. PMID:17087580

  14. Avoiding the False Peaks in Correlation Discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Awwal, A S

    2009-07-31

    Fiducials imprinted on laser beams are used to perform video image based alignment of the 192 laser beams in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In many video images, matched filtering is used to detect the location of these fiducials. Generally, the highest correlation peak is used to determine the position of the fiducials. However, when the signal to-be-detected is very weak compared to the noise, this approach totally breaks down. The highest peaks act as traps for false detection. The active target images used for automatic alignment in the National Ignition Facility are examples of such images. In these images, the fiducials of interest exhibit extremely low intensity and contrast, surrounded by high intensity reflection from metallic objects. Consequently, the highest correlation peaks are caused by these bright objects. In this work, we show how the shape of the correlation is exploited to isolate the valid matches from hundreds of invalid correlation peaks, and therefore identify extremely faint fiducials under very challenging imaging conditions.

  15. The False Security of Blind Dates

    PubMed Central

    Cimino, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background The reuse of clinical data for research purposes requires methods for the protection of personal privacy. One general approach is the removal of personal identifiers from the data. A frequent part of this anonymization process is the removal of times and dates, which we refer to as “chrononymization.” While this step can make the association with identified data (such as public information or a small sample of patient information) more difficult, it comes at a cost to the usefulness of the data for research. Objectives We sought to determine whether removal of dates from common laboratory test panels offers any advantage in protecting such data from re-identification. Methods We obtained a set of results for 5.9 million laboratory panels from the National Institutes of Health’s (NIH) Biomedical Translational Research Information System (BTRIS), selected a random set of 20,000 panels from the larger source sets, and then identified all matches between the sets. Results We found that while removal of dates could hinder the re-identification of a single test result, such removal had almost no effect when entire panels were used. Conclusions Our results suggest that reliance on chrononymization provides a false sense of security for the protection of laboratory test results. As a result of this study, the NIH has chosen to rely on policy solutions, such as strong data use agreements, rather than removal of dates when reusing clinical data for research purposes. PMID:23646086

  16. An Apparent Relationship Between Locoism and Lathyrism

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, Richard F.; James, Lynn F.; Binns, Wayne; Shupe, James L.

    1967-01-01

    An apparent relationship between locoism and lathyrism was investigated. Similarities reported in the literature in botanical relationship, signs produced in affected animals, and chemical characteristics were noted. It was demonstrated that the known lathyrogens, aminoacetonitrile and ?, ?-diaminobutyric acid, as well as an extract from the loco plant (expected to contain lathyrogens if present in the plant) produced many of the abortive, teratogenic and neurologic effects and signs evident in animals in true locoism. Preliminary assay of extracts from the plant suggested the presence of lathyrogens in the loco plant. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4229933

  17. Apparent negative activation energy in electrochemical insulating-to-conducting conversion at polymethylthiophene films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichi Aoki; Jianquan Li

    1998-01-01

    An electrochemical conversion rate of poly(3-methylthiophene) films from the insulating state to the conducting state in dopant-rich solution decreased with an increase in temperature. The conversion rate defined here is the moving speed of the conducting front growing from the electrode toward the solution phase in response to the potential step. It was evaluated by time-variation of absorption at the

  18. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1022 - Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information...App. B Appendix B to Part 1022—Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information a. Although use of the model notices is not required, a...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 222 - Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information...222, App. B Appendix B to Part 222—Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information a. Although use of the model notices is not required, a...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 222 - Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information...222, App. B Appendix B to Part 222—Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information a. Although use of the model notices is not required, a...

  1. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1022 - Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information...App. B Appendix B to Part 1022—Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information a. Although use of the model notices is not required, a...

  2. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 222 - Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information...222, App. B Appendix B to Part 222—Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information a. Although use of the model notices is not required, a...

  3. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 222 - Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information...222, App. B Appendix B to Part 222—Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information a. Although use of the model notices is not required, a...

  4. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 1022 - Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information...App. B Appendix B to Part 1022—Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information a. Although use of the model notices is not required, a...

  5. 12 CFR Appendix B to Part 222 - Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information...222, App. B Appendix B to Part 222—Model Notices of Furnishing Negative Information a. Although use of the model notices is not required, a...

  6. Do Optimal Prognostic Thresholds in Continuous Physiological Variables Really Exist? Analysis of Origin of Apparent Thresholds, with Systematic Review for Peak Oxygen Consumption, Ejection Fraction and BNP

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Tora; Rehman, Michaela B.; Pastormerlo, Luigi Emilio; Harrell, Frank E.; Coats, Andrew J. S.; Francis, Darrel P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinicians are sometimes advised to make decisions using thresholds in measured variables, derived from prognostic studies. Objectives We studied why there are conflicting apparently-optimal prognostic thresholds, for example in exercise peak oxygen uptake (pVO2), ejection fraction (EF), and Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) in heart failure (HF). Data Sources and Eligibility Criteria Studies testing pVO2, EF or BNP prognostic thresholds in heart failure, published between 1990 and 2010, listed on Pubmed. Methods First, we examined studies testing pVO2, EF or BNP prognostic thresholds. Second, we created repeated simulations of 1500 patients to identify whether an apparently-optimal prognostic threshold indicates step change in risk. Results 33 studies (8946 patients) tested a pVO2 threshold. 18 found it prognostically significant: the actual reported threshold ranged widely (10–18 ml/kg/min) but was overwhelmingly controlled by the individual study population's mean pVO2 (r?=?0.86, p<0.00001). In contrast, the 15 negative publications were testing thresholds 199% further from their means (p?=?0.0001). Likewise, of 35 EF studies (10220 patients), the thresholds in the 22 positive reports were strongly determined by study means (r?=?0.90, p<0.0001). Similarly, in the 19 positives of 20 BNP studies (9725 patients): r?=?0.86 (p<0.0001). Second, survival simulations always discovered a “most significant” threshold, even when there was definitely no step change in mortality. With linear increase in risk, the apparently-optimal threshold was always near the sample mean (r?=?0.99, p<0.001). Limitations This study cannot report the best threshold for any of these variables; instead it explains how common clinical research procedures routinely produce false thresholds. Key Findings First, shifting (and/or disappearance) of an apparently-optimal prognostic threshold is strongly determined by studies' average pVO2, EF or BNP. Second, apparently-optimal thresholds always appear, even with no step in prognosis. Conclusions Emphatic therapeutic guidance based on thresholds from observational studies may be ill-founded. We should not assume that optimal thresholds, or any thresholds, exist. PMID:24475020

  7. Latent and apparent image quality metrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miettinen, Kristo S.

    2002-07-01

    Measures of image quality are presented here that have been developed to assess both the immediate quality of an image and the potential at intermediate points in an imaging chain for enhanced image quality. The original intent of the metric(s) was to provide an optimand for interpolator design, and the metrics have subsequently been used for a number of differential image quality analyses and imaging system component designs. The metrics presented are of the same general form as the National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale (NIIRS), representing quality as the base-2 logarithm of linear resolution, so that one unit of differential quality represents a doubling or halving of the resolution of imagery. Analysis of a simple imaging chain is presented in terms of the metrics, with conclusions regarding interpolator design, consistency of the latent and apparent image quality metrics, and the relationship between interpolator and convolution kernel design in a system where both are present. Among the principal results are an optimized division of labor between interpolators and Modulation Transfer Function Correction (MTFC) filters, consistency of the analytical latent and apparent image quality metrics with each other and with visually optimized aim curves, and an introduction to sharpening interpolator design methodology.

  8. Age-related changes in False Recognition: An ERP Study 

    E-print Network

    Robb, Lindsey

    2011-01-01

    to falsely “remember” events which did not happen, by misleading post-event information, compared to younger adults. An exploratory analysis of left parietal old/new effects from collected ERP data revealed unexpected conclusions. False alarms to lure stimuli...

  9. False alarms and incorrect rejections in an information security center: correlation with the frequency of incidents.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Thiers; Abrahão, Julia

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the actions taken by operators aimed at preventing and combating information security incidents at a banking organization. The work utilizes the theoretical framework of ergonomics and cognitive psychology. The method is workplace ergonomic analysis. Its focus is directed towards examining the cognitive dimension of the work environment with special attention to the occurrence of correlations between variability in incident frequency and the results of sign detection actions. It categorizes 45,142 operator decisions according to the theory of signal detection (Sternberg, 2000). It analyzes the correlation between incident proportions (indirectly associated with the cognitive efforts demanded from the operator) and operator decisions. The study demonstrated the existence of a positive correlation between incident proportions and false positive decisions (false alarms). However, this correlation could not be observed in relation to decisions of the false-negative type (incorrect rejection). PMID:22317160

  10. 20 CFR 702.217 - Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation...Claims Procedures Notice § 702.217 Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation...S.C. 909, if the injury results in death, shall be punished by a fine not...

  11. Lexical Association and False Memory for Words in Two Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hung, Hsu-Ching

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between language experience and false memory produced by the DRM paradigm. The word lists used in Stadler, et al. (Memory & Cognition, 27, 494-500, 1999) were first translated into Chinese. False recall and false recognition for critical non-presented targets were then tested on a group of Chinese users. The…

  12. Validity and Reliability of True-False Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Martin E.; Wright, Benjamin D.

    1985-01-01

    A model of examinee behavior was used to generate hypotheses about the operation of true-false scores. Confirmation of hypotheses supported the contention that true-false scores contain an error component that makes these tests less reliable than multiple-choice tests. Examinee response style may invalidate a total true-false score. (Author/DWH)

  13. Incorporation of false alarms in simulations of electronic receivers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Sobczynski; C. J. Pearson

    1973-01-01

    A simple method for simulating false alarms in simulations of electronic receivers is developed. False alarms are an important part of electronic receivers and previously their generation was computationally complex because of their random nature and very small probability of occurrence. The approach derives the probability density function of the time between false alarms and shows how, for typical values

  14. False memory ? false memory: DRM errors are unrelated to the misinformation effect.

    PubMed

    Ost, James; Blank, Hartmut; Davies, Joanna; Jones, Georgina; Lambert, Katie; Salmon, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    The DRM method has proved to be a popular and powerful, if controversial, way to study 'false memories'. One reason for the controversy is that the extent to which the DRM effect generalises to other kinds of memory error has been neither satisfactorily established nor subject to much empirical attention. In the present paper we contribute data to this ongoing debate. One hundred and twenty participants took part in a standard misinformation effect experiment, in which they watched some CCTV footage, were exposed to misleading post-event information about events depicted in the footage, and then completed free recall and recognition tests. Participants also completed a DRM test as an ostensibly unrelated filler task. Despite obtaining robust misinformation and DRM effects, there were no correlations between a broad range of misinformation and DRM effect measures (mean r ?=?-.01). This was not due to reliability issues with our measures or a lack of power. Thus DRM 'false memories' and misinformation effect 'false memories' do not appear to be equivalent. PMID:23573186

  15. Inflation after false vacuum decay: Observational prospects after Planck

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousso, Raphael; Harlow, Daniel; Senatore, Leonardo

    2015-04-01

    We assess two potential signals of the formation of our universe by the decay of a false vacuum. Negative spatial curvature is one possibility, but the window for its detection is now small. However, another possible signal is a suppression of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectrum at large angles. This arises from the steepening of the effective potential as it interpolates between a flat inflationary plateau and the high barrier separating us from our parent vacuum. We demonstrate that these two effects can be parametrically separated in angular scale. Observationally, the steepening effect appears to be excluded at large ?; but it remains consistent with the slight lack of power below ??30 found by the WMAP and Planck collaborations. We give two simple models which improve the fit to the Planck data; one with observable curvature and one without. Despite cosmic variance, we argue that future CMB polarization and most importantly large-scale structure observations should be able to corroborate the Planck anomaly if it is real. If we further assume the specific theoretical setting of a landscape of metastable vacua, as suggested by string theory, we can estimate the probability of seeing a low-? suppression in the CMB. There are significant theoretical uncertainties in such calculations, but we argue the probability for a detectable suppression may be as large as O (1 ), and in general is significantly larger than the probability of seeing curvature.

  16. Spirit's West Valley Panorama (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA'S Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this westward view from atop a low plateau where Sprit spent the closing months of 2007.

    After several months near the base of the plateau called 'Home Plate' in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater, Spirit climbed onto the eastern edge of the plateau during the rover's 1,306th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 5, 2007). It examined rocks and soils at several locations on the southern half of Home Plate during September and October. It was perched near the western edge of Home Plate when it used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to take the images used in this view on sols 1,366 through 1,369 (Nov. 6 through Nov. 9, 2007). With its daily solar-energy supply shrinking as Martian summer turned to fall, Spirit then drove to the northern edge of Home Plate for a favorable winter haven. The rover reached that northward-tilting site in December, in time for the fourth Earth-year anniversary of its landing on Mars. Spirit reached Mars on Jan. 4, 2004, Universal Time (Jan. 3, 2004, Pacific Standard Time). It landed at a site at about the center of the horizon in this image.

    This panorama covers a scene spanning left to right from southwest to northeast. The western edge of Home Plate is in the foreground, generally lighter in tone than the more distant parts of the scene. A rock-dotted hill in the middle distance across the left third of the image is 'Tsiolkovski Ridge,' about 30 meters or 100 feet from the edge of Home Plate and about that same distance across. A bump on the horizon above the left edge of Tsiolkovski Ridge is 'Grissom Hill,' about 8 kilometers or 5 miles away. At right, the highest point of the horizon is 'Husband Hill,' to the north and about 800 meters or half a mile away.

    This view combines separate images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene.

  17. Apparent skepticism: capital punishment and medical evidence.

    PubMed

    Helminski, F

    1993-01-01

    In recent cases on the constitutionality of sentencing to death criminals who were younger than 18 years of age at the time of their crimes or who are mentally retarded, the US Supreme Court has rejected medical evidence that such persons categorically possess diminished culpability. Rather, the Court has accepted the public's "apparent skepticism" of such a scientific consensus in upholding the execution of capital offenders who are 16 years of age or older. The 1952 English case of Craig and Bentley sparked discussion of similar issues in the United Kingdom and contributed to the abolition of capital punishment for murder in that country. US courts should have more deference for such medical evidence, despite perceived widespread resistance to the conclusions of researchers that adolescents and mentally retarded persons categorically lack sufficient maturity, judgment, and deliberation to receive capital punishment and that they are not deterred from murder by the threat of execution. PMID:8417260

  18. Field signature for apparently superluminal particle motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Land, Martin

    2015-05-01

    In the context of Stueckelberg's covariant symplectic mechanics, Horwitz and Aharonovich [1] have proposed a simple mechanism by which a particle traveling below light speed almost everywhere may exhibit a transit time that suggests superluminal motion. This mechanism, which requires precise measurement of the particle velocity, involves a subtle perturbation affecting the particle's recorded time coordinate caused by virtual pair processes. The Stueckelberg framework is particularly well suited to such problems, because it permits pair creation/annihilation at the classical level. In this paper, we study a trajectory of the type proposed by Horwitz and Aharonovich, and derive the Maxwell 4-vector potential associated with the motion. We show that the resulting fields carry a signature associated with the apparent superluminal motion, providing an independent test for the mechanism that does not require direct observation of the trajectory, except at the detector.

  19. Finding apparent horizons in numerical relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornburg, Jonathan

    1996-10-01

    We review various algorithms for finding apparent horizons in 3+1 numerical relativity. We then focus on one particular algorithm, in which we pose the apparent horizon equation H??ini+Kijninj-K=0 as a nonlinear elliptic (boundary-value) PDE on angular-coordinate space for the horizon shape function r=h(?,?), finite difference this PDE, and use Newton's method or a variant to solve the finite difference equations. We describe a method for computing the Jacobian matrix of the finite differenced H(h) sH (sh) function by symbolically differentiating the finite difference equations, giving the Jacobian elements directly in terms of the finite difference molecule coefficients used in computing sH (sh). Assuming the finite differencing scheme commutes with linearization, we show how the Jacobian elements may be computed by first linearizing the continuum H(h) equations, then finite differencing the linearized continuum equations. (This is essentially just the ``Jacobian part'' of the Newton-Kantorovich method for solving nonlinear PDEs.) We tabulate the resulting Jacobian coefficients for a number of different sH (sh) and Jacobian computation schemes. We find this symbolic differentiation method of computing the Jacobian to be much more efficient than the usual numerical-perturbation method, and also much easier to implement than is commonly thought. When solving the discrete sH (sh)=0 equations, we find that Newton's method generally shows robust convergence. However, we find that it has a small (poor) radius of convergence if the initial guess for the horizon position contains significant high-spatial-frequency error components, i.e., angular Fourier components varying as (say) cosm? with m>~8. (Such components occur naturally if spacetime contains significant amounts of high-frequency gravitational radiation.) We show that this poor convergence behavior is not an artifact of insufficient resolution in the finite difference grid; rather, it appears to be caused by a strong nonlinearity in the continuum H(h) function for high-spatial-frequency error components in h. We find that a simple ``line search'' modification of Newton's method roughly doubles the horizon finder's radius of convergence, but both the unmodified and modified methods' radia of convergence still fall rapidly with increasing spatial frequency, approximately as 1/m3/2. Further research is needed to explore more robust numerical algorithms for solving the sH (sh)=0 equations. Provided it converges, the Newton's-method algorithm for horizon finding is potentially very accurate, in practice limited only by the accuracy of the sH (sh) finite differencing scheme. Using fourth order finite differencing, we demonstrate that the error in the numerically computed horizon position shows the expected O((??)4) scaling with grid resolution ??, and is typically ~10-5(10-6) for a grid resolution of ??=?/2/50(?/2/100/). Finally, we briefly discuss the global problem of finding or recognizing the outermost apparent horizon in a slice. We argue that this is an important problem, and that no reliable algorithms currently exist for it except in spherical symmetry.

  20. Adults' memories of childhood: true and false reports.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jianjian; Ogle, Christin M; Goodman, Gail S

    2008-12-01

    In 3 experiments, the authors examined factors that, according to the source-monitoring framework, might influence false memory formation and true/false memory discernment. In Experiment 1, combined effects of warning and visualization on false childhood memory formation were examined, as were individual differences in true and false childhood memories. Combining warnings and visualization led to the lowest false memory and highest true memory. Several individual difference factors (e.g., parental fearful attachment style) predicted false recall. In addition, true and false childhood memories differed (e.g., in amount of information). Experiment 2 examined relations between Deese/Roediger-McDermott task performance and false childhood memories. Deese/Roediger-McDermott performance (e.g., intrusion of unrelated words in free recall) was associated with false childhood memory, suggesting liberal response criteria in source decisions as a common underlying mechanism. Experiment 3 investigated adults' abilities to discern true and false childhood memory reports (e.g., by detecting differences in amount of information as identified in Experiment 1). Adults who were particularly successful in discerning such reports indicated reliance on event plausibility. Overall, the source-monitoring framework provided a viable explanatory framework. Implications for theory and clinical and forensic interviews are discussed. PMID:19102620

  1. PERSPECTIVE Refuge-mediated apparent competition in plantconsumer interactions

    E-print Network

    Orrock, John

    IDEA AND PERSPECTIVE Refuge-mediated apparent competition in plant­consumer interactions John L is the concept of refuge-mediated apparent competition: an indirect interaction whereby plants provide a refuge a simple model and empirical examples to develop and illustrate the concept of refuge-mediated apparent

  2. Apparent speed increases at low luminance

    PubMed Central

    Vaziri-Pashkam, Maryam; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the effect of luminance on apparent speed, subjects adjusted the speed of a low-luminance rotating grating (0.31 cd/m2) to match that of a high-luminance one (1260 cd/m2). Above 4 Hz, subjects overestimated the speed of the low-luminance grating. This overestimation increased as a function of temporal rate and reached 30% around 10 Hz temporal rates. The speed overestimation became significant once the lower luminance was 2.4 log units lower than the high luminance comparison. Next the role of motion smear in speed overestimation was examined. First it was shown that the length of the perceived motion smear increased at low luminances. Second, the length of the visible smear was manipulated by changing the presentation time of the stimuli. Speed overestimation was reduced at shorter presentation times. Third the speed of a blurred stimulus was compared to a stimulus with sharp edges and the blurred stimulus was judged to move faster. These results indicate that the length of motion smear following a target contributes to its perceived speed and that this leads to speed overestimation at low luminance where motion traces lengthen because of increased persistence. PMID:19146275

  3. Apparent Benzene Solubility in Tetraphenylborate Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Swingle, R.F.; Peterson, R.A.; Crawford, C.L.

    1997-11-01

    Personnel conducted testing to determine the apparent solubility of benzene in potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) slurries. The lack of benzene vapor pressure suppression in these tests indicate that for a 6.5 wt percent solids KTPB slurry in 4.65 M Na+ salt solution at approximately 25 degrees Celsius, no significant difference exists between the solubility of benzene in the slurry and the solubility of benzene in salt solution without KTPB solids. The work showed similar results in slurry with 6,000 mg/L sludge and 2,000 mg/L monosodium titanate added. Slurries containing tetraphenylborate decomposition intermediates (i.e., 4,200 mg/L triphenylboron (3PB), 510 mg/L diphenylborinic acid (2PB) and 1,500 mg/L phenylboric acid (1PB) or 100 mg/L tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP)) also showed no significant difference in benzene solubility form filtrate containing no KTPB solids. Slurry containing 2,000 mg/L Surfynol 420 did exhibit significant additional benzene solubility, as did irradiated slurries. The vapor pressure depression in the irradiated slurries presumably results from dissolution of biphenyl and other tetraphenylborate irradiation products in the benzene.

  4. Fibrillary glomerulonephritis: An apparent familial form?

    PubMed

    Ying, Tracey; Hill, Prue; Desmond, Michael; Agar, John; Mallett, Andrew

    2015-07-01

    Fibrillary glomerulonephritis is a rare cause of glomerulonephritis characterized by non-amyloid fibrillary deposits of unknown aetiology. It is generally considered idiopathic but may be associated with secondary causes such as monoclonal gammopathy, hepatitis B and C infections, autoimmune diseases and malignancies. We report two Australian families with apparent familial fibrillary glomerulonephritis inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, and postulate the existence of a primary familial entity. Family 1 consists of an affected father and daughter; the daughter progressed to end-stage renal failure within 18 months of diagnosis, despite immunosuppressive therapy. The father, however, remains stable at 10 months follow up. Family 2 comprises an affected mother and son; the mother commenced haemodialysis 5 years after diagnosis and subsequently underwent successful renal transplantation. The son is presently stable at last follow-up after 5 years. A further review of the second family history reveals a third family member (maternal father) dying of 'Bright's disease'. We describe their histopathology, clinical progression and treatment outcomes, and provide a review of the current understanding of this heterogeneous condition that is associated with poor renal outcomes. PMID:26063488

  5. Curved apparent motion induced by amodal completion

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether amodal completion can bias apparent motion (AM) to deviate from its default straight path toward a longer curved path, which would violate the well-established principle that AM follows the shortest possible path. Observers viewed motion sequences of two alternating rectangular tokens positioned at the ends of a semicircular occluder, with varying interstimulus intervals (ISIs; 100–500 ms). At short ISIs, observers tended to report simple straight-path motion—that is, outside the occluder. But at long ISIs, they became increasingly likely to report a curved-path motion behind the occluder. This tendency toward reporting curved-path motion was influenced by the shape of tokens, display orientation, the gap between tokens and the occluder, and binocular depth cues. Our results suggest that the visual system tends to minimize unexplained absence of a moving object, as well as its path length, such that AM deviates from the shortest path when amodal integration of motion trajectory behind the curved occluder can account for the objective invisibility of the object during the ISI. PMID:22069082

  6. New Constraints on the False Positive Rate for Short-Period Kepler Planet Candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colón, Knicole D.; Morehead, Robert C.; Ford, Eric B.

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler space mission has discovered thousands of potential planets orbiting other stars, thereby setting the stage for in-depth studies of different populations of planets. We present new multi-wavelength transit photometry of small (Rp < 6 Earth radii), short-period (P < 6 days) Kepler planet candidates acquired with the Gran Telescopio Canarias. Multi-wavelength transit photometry allows us to search for wavelength-dependent transit depths and subsequently identify eclipsing binary false positives (which are especially prevalent at the shortest orbital periods). We combine these new observations of three candidates with previous results for five other candidates (Colón & Ford 2011 and Colón, Ford, & Morehead 2012) to provide new constraints on the false positive rate for small, close-in candidates. In our full sample, we identify four candidates as viable planets and four as eclipsing binary false positives. We therefore find a higher false positive rate for small, close-in candidates compared to the lower false positive rate of ~10% determined by other studies for the full sample of Kepler planet candidates (e.g. Fressin et al. 2013). We also discuss the dearth of known planets with periods less than ~2.5 days and radii between ~3 and 11 Earth radii (the so-called 'sub-Jovian desert'), since the majority of the candidates in our study are located in or around this 'desert.' The lack of planets with these orbital and physical properties is not expected to be due to observational bias, as short-period planets are generally easier to detect (especially if they are larger or more massive than Earth). We consider the implications of our results for the other ~20 Kepler planet candidates located in this desert. Characterizing these candidates will allow us to better understand the formation processes of this apparently rare class of planets.

  7. Earth's Climate Sensitivity: Apparent Inconsistencies in Recent Assessments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Stephen E.; Charlson, Robert J.; Kahn, Ralph; Rodhe, Henning

    2014-12-01

    Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) and forcing of Earth's climate system over the industrial era have been re-examined in two new assessments: the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and a study by Otto et al. (2013). The ranges of these quantities given in these assessments and also in the Fourth (2007) IPCC Assessment are analyzed here within the framework of a planetary energy balance model, taking into account the observed increase in global mean surface temperature over the instrumental record together with best estimates of the rate of increase of planetary heat content. This analysis shows systematic differences among the several assessments and apparent inconsistencies within individual assessments. Importantly, the likely range of ECS to doubled CO2 given in AR5, 1.5-4.5 K/(3.7 W m-2) exceeds the range inferred from the assessed likely range of forcing, 1.2-2.9 K/(3.7 W m-2), where 3.7 W m-2 denotes the forcing for doubled CO2. Such differences underscore the need to identify their causes and reduce the underlying uncertainties. Explanations might involve underestimated negative aerosol forcing, overestimated total forcing, overestimated climate sensitivity, poorly constrained ocean heating, limitations of the energy balance model, or a combination of effects.

  8. Earths Climate Sensitivity: Apparent Inconsistencies in Recent Assessments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schwartz, Stephen E. [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Charlson, Robert J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Kahn, Ralph [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Rodhe, Henning [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2014-12-01

    Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) and forcing of Earth's climate system over the industrial era have been re-examined in two new assessments: the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and a study by Otto et al. (2013). The ranges of these quantities given in these assessments and also in the Fourth (2007) IPCC Assessment are analyzed here within the framework of a planetary energy balance model, taking into account the observed increase in global mean surface temperature over the instrumental record together with best estimates of the rate of increase of planetary heat content. This analysis shows systematic differences among the several assessments and apparent inconsistencies within individual assessments. Importantly, the likely range of ECS to doubled CO? given in AR5, 1.5–4.5 K/(3.7 W m?²) exceeds the range inferred from the assessed likely range of forcing, 1.2–2.9 K/(3.7 W m?²), where 3.7 W ?² denotes the forcing for doubled CO?. Such differences underscore the need to identify their causes and reduce the underlying uncertainties. Explanations might involve underestimated negative aerosol forcing, overestimated total forcing, overestimated climate sensitivity, poorly constrained ocean heating, limitations of the energy balance model, or a combination of effects.

  9. Earths Climate Sensitivity: Apparent Inconsistencies in Recent Assessments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schwartz, Stephen E.; Charlson, Robert J.; Kahn, Ralph; Rodhe, Henning

    2014-12-01

    Earth's equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) and forcing of Earth's climate system over the industrial era have been re-examined in two new assessments: the Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and a study by Otto et al. (2013). The ranges of these quantities given in these assessments and also in the Fourth (2007) IPCC Assessment are analyzed here within the framework of a planetary energy balance model, taking into account the observed increase in global mean surface temperature over the instrumental record together with best estimates of the rate of increase of planetary heat content.more »This analysis shows systematic differences among the several assessments and apparent inconsistencies within individual assessments. Importantly, the likely range of ECS to doubled CO? given in AR5, 1.5–4.5 K/(3.7 W m?²) exceeds the range inferred from the assessed likely range of forcing, 1.2–2.9 K/(3.7 W m?²), where 3.7 W ?² denotes the forcing for doubled CO?. Such differences underscore the need to identify their causes and reduce the underlying uncertainties. Explanations might involve underestimated negative aerosol forcing, overestimated total forcing, overestimated climate sensitivity, poorly constrained ocean heating, limitations of the energy balance model, or a combination of effects.« less

  10. Decay of false vacuum via fuzzy monopole in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasai, Aya; Ookouchi, Yutaka

    2015-06-01

    We investigate dielectric branes in false vacua in type IIB string theory. The dielectric branes are supported against collapsing by lower energy vacua inside spherical or tubelike branes. We claim that such branes can be seeds for semiclassical (or quantum mechanical) decay of the false vacua, which makes the lifetime of the false vacua shorter. Also, we discuss a topology change of a bubble corresponding to the fuzzy monopole triggered by dissolving fundamental strings.

  11. Decay of False Vacuum via Fuzzy Monopole in String Theory

    E-print Network

    Kasai, Aya

    2015-01-01

    We investigate dielectric branes in false vacua in Type IIB string theory. The dielectric branes are supported against collapsing by lower energy vacua inside spherical or tube-like branes. We claim that such branes can be seeds for semi-classical (or quantum mechanical) decay of the false vacua, which makes the life-time of the false vacua shorter. Also, we discuss a topology change of a bubble corresponding to the fuzzy monopole triggered by dissolving fundamental strings.

  12. False positive Lyme serology due to syphilis: report of 6 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Naesens, R; Vermeiren, S; Van Schaeren, J; Jeurissen, A

    2011-01-01

    A 44-year-old man presented with visual field defects. Ophthalmoscopy revealed papilloedema of the left eye. Neuroborreliosis was suspected and serum was positively being tested using VIDAS* Lyme screen II (bioMerieux Vitek Inc). However, confirmatory testing using the Borrelia VlsE C6 titre was negative. Western Blotting on serum and cerebrospinal fluid could not confirm the possible diagnosis of neuroborreliosis. VDRL and TPPA testing was positive, and finally, the diagnosis of neurosyphilis was established. We subsequently screened our database on patients with positive VIDAS Lyme screening and negative confirmatory testing by Western blot, and found another 5 cases in which Lyme screening was false positive due to cross-reactivity with Treponema pallidum antibodies. Our data show that in patients with positive Lyme screening and negative confirmatory testing, performance of lues serology should be considered. PMID:21485767

  13. Glycopeptide Resistance in Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Biavasco; C. Vignaroli; P. E. Varaldo

    2000-01-01

    Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the first organisms in which acquired glycopeptide resistance was recognized.\\u000a Ever since the early reports, it has been apparent that resistance to teicoplanin is more common than that to vancomycin and\\u000a that resistance occurs mostly in species such as Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of teicoplanin for CNS usually fall over

  14. False positives complicate ancient pathogen identifications using high-throughput shotgun sequencing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Identification of historic pathogens is challenging since false positives and negatives are a serious risk. Environmental non-pathogenic contaminants are ubiquitous. Furthermore, public genetic databases contain limited information regarding these species. High-throughput sequencing may help reliably detect and identify historic pathogens. Results We shotgun-sequenced 8 16th-century Mixtec individuals from the site of Teposcolula Yucundaa (Oaxaca, Mexico) who are reported to have died from the huey cocoliztli (‘Great Pestilence’ in Nahautl), an unknown disease that decimated native Mexican populations during the Spanish colonial period, in order to identify the pathogen. Comparison of these sequences with those deriving from the surrounding soil and from 4 precontact individuals from the site found a wide variety of contaminant organisms that confounded analyses. Without the comparative sequence data from the precontact individuals and soil, false positives for Yersinia pestis and rickettsiosis could have been reported. Conclusions False positives and negatives remain problematic in ancient DNA analyses despite the application of high-throughput sequencing. Our results suggest that several studies claiming the discovery of ancient pathogens may need further verification. Additionally, true single molecule sequencing’s short read lengths, inability to sequence through DNA lesions, and limited ancient-DNA-specific technical development hinder its application to palaeopathology. PMID:24568097

  15. False Belief and Language Comprehension in Cantonese-Speaking Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Him

    2006-01-01

    The current research compared two accounts of the relation between language and false belief in children, namely that (a) language is generally related to false belief because both require secondary representation in a social-interactional context and that (b) specific language structures that explicitly code meta representation contribute…

  16. False Recognition in Lewy-Body Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Boysson, C.; Belleville, S.; Phillips, N. A.; Johns, E. K.; Goupil, D.; Souchay, C.; Bouchard, R.; Chertkow, H.

    2011-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the false recognition phenomenon in persons with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and those with Lewy-body disease (LBD). Patients with LBD (n=10) or FTD (n=15) and their corresponding controls (n=30) were subjected to the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm to induce false recognition. Patients were…

  17. False belief understanding in Cantonese-speaking children.

    PubMed

    Tardif, Twila; Wellman, Henry M; Cheung, Kar Man

    2004-11-01

    The present study investigates the performance of 96 Cantonese-speaking three- to five-year-old preschoolers on three false belief tasks - a deceptive object, a change of location, and an unexpected contents task encompassing a variety of task factors. Most importantly, the research examines the possibility that false belief performance depends on specific linguistic factors such as the type of verb used in the test question--an explicitly false vs. a neutral belief verb. Cantonese was chosen as particularly useful for examining this question because it explicitly codes belief status as either neutral (nam5) or false (ji5wai4), and because it offers additional linguistic and cultural contrasts to research conducted on false belief with children learning English and other Indo-European languages. As expected, a strong age effect was found, as well as a significant advantage for children who received the explicit false belief (ji5wai4) wording and for those who were asked to explain rather than predict the protagonist's actions. Interestingly, there was also a strong task difference with children performing better on the deceptive object task than on the other two false belief tasks. We argue that these results point both to universal trajectories in theory of mind development and to interesting, but localized, effects of language and culture on children's false belief understanding. PMID:15658745

  18. Retrieval Failure Contributes to Gist-Based False Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Scott A.; Robbins, Clifford A.; Gilmore, Adrian W.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    People often falsely recognize items that are similar to previously encountered items. This robust memory error is referred to as "gist-based false recognition". A widely held view is that this error occurs because the details fade rapidly from our memory. Contrary to this view, an initial experiment revealed that, following the same encoding…

  19. Young Children's Difficulty Acknowledging False Belief: Realism and Deception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltmarsh, Rebecca; Mitchell, Peter

    1998-01-01

    Investigated what makes young children acknowledge a false belief held by another person. Showed movies in which a stereotypical item in a familiar box was replaced by one character with an atypical item. Found highly significant improvement in preschoolers' acknowledgment of second character's false belief when preschoolers saw stereotypical…

  20. The fSAM Model of False Recall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Daniel R.; Smith, Troy A.; Kahana, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors report a new theory of false memory building upon existing associative memory models and implemented in fSAM, the first fully specified quantitative model of false recall. Participants frequently intrude unstudied critical words while recalling lists comprising their strongest semantic associates but infrequently produce other…

  1. Collection and evaluation of false alarm signatures in background data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjeev Agarwal; Shivakar Vulli; Neil J. Malloy; Elizabeth M. Lord; Josh R. Fairley; Bruce M. Sabol; Wesley Johnson; Richard Ess; Anh H. Trang

    2009-01-01

    A significant amount of background airborne data was collected as part of May 2005 tests for airborne minefield detection at an arid site. The locations of false alarms which occurred consistently during different runs, were identified and geo-referenced by MultiSensor Science LLC. Ground truth information, which included pictures, type qualifiers and some hyperspectral data for these identified false alarm locations,

  2. Black Preschoolers' Social Cognition: Storytelling and False Belief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curenton, Stephanie M.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Lillard, Angeline S.

    Noting that the lower performance of low-income children on false belief tasks in comparison to that of middle-income children has not been adequately explained, this study examined the possibility that black children's experiences and talents with storytelling may facilitate their performance on false belief tasks when narrative questions are…

  3. False Belief, Complementation Language, and Contextual Bias in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Lisa; Cheung, Him; Xiao, Wen

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we address two questions concerning the relation between children's false belief and their understanding of complex object complements. The first question is whether the previously demonstrated association between tensed complements and false belief generalizes to infinitival complements (de Villiers & Pyers, 2002). The…

  4. Correlates of False Self in Adolescent Romantic Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sippola, Lorrie K.; Buchanan, Carie M.; Kehoe, Sabrina

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the association between interpersonal competencies in the peer domain and feelings of false self in romantic relationships. Participants included 238 White, middle-class boys and girls (Grades 10 and 11). Students completed self report measures of false self in romantic relationships and interpersonal…

  5. False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false

  6. Veridical and False Recall in Adults Who Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Courtney T.; Sheng, Li; Ratner, Nan Bernstein; Gkalitsiou, Zoi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study used a false memory paradigm to explore the veridical and false recall of adults who stutter. Method: Twelve adults who stutter and 12 age-matched typically fluent peers listened to and then verbally recalled lists of words that consisted of either semantic or phonological associates or an equal number of semantic and…

  7. False Allegations of Abuse and Neglect when Parents Separate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trocme, Nico; Bala, Nicholas

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The 1998 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS-98) is the first national study to document the rate of intentionally false allegations of abuse and neglect investigated by child welfare services in Canada. This paper provides a detailed summary of the characteristics associated with intentionally false

  8. Right and Righteous: Children’s Incipient Understanding and Evaluation of True and False Statements

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.; Carrick, Nathalie

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined young children’s early understanding and evaluation of truth-telling and lying, and the role that factuality plays in their judgments. Study 1 (104 2- to 5-year-olds) found that even the youngest children reliably accepted true statements and rejected false statements, and that older children’s ability to label true and false statements as “truth” and “lie” emerged in tandem with their positive evaluation of true statements and “truth” and their negative evaluation of false statements and “lie.” The findings suggest that children’s early preference for factuality develops into a conception of “truth” and “lie” that is linked both to factuality and moral evaluation. Study 2 (128 3- to 5-year-olds) found that, whereas young children exhibited good understanding of the association of true and false statements with “truth,” “lie,” “mistake,” “right,” and “wrong,” they showed little awareness of assumptions about speaker knowledge underlying “lie” and “mistake.” The results further support the primacy of factuality in children’s early understanding and evaluation of truth and lies. PMID:24436637

  9. Gain-Scheduled Fault Tolerance Control Under False Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob; Belcastro, Christine (Technical Monitor)

    2006-01-01

    An active fault tolerant control (FTC) law is generally sensitive to false identification since the control gain is reconfigured for fault occurrence. In the conventional FTC law design procedure, dynamic variations due to false identification are not considered. In this paper, an FTC synthesis method is developed in order to consider possible variations of closed-loop dynamics under false identification into the control design procedure. An active FTC synthesis problem is formulated into an LMI optimization problem to minimize the upper bound of the induced-L2 norm which can represent the worst-case performance degradation due to false identification. The developed synthesis method is applied for control of the longitudinal motions of FASER (Free-flying Airplane for Subscale Experimental Research). The designed FTC law of the airplane is simulated for pitch angle command tracking under a false identification case.

  10. Decoy Methods for Assessing False Positives and False Discovery Rates in Shotgun Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guanghui; Wu, Wells W.; Zhang, Zheng; Masilamani, Shyama; Shen, Rong-Fong

    2008-01-01

    The potential of getting a significant number of false positives (FPs) in peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs) obtained by proteomic database search has been well-recognized. Among the attempts to assess FPs, the concomitant use of target and decoy databases is widely practiced. By adjusting filtering criteria, FPs and false discovery rate (FDR) can be controlled at a desired level. Although the target-decoy approach is gaining in popularity, subtle differences in decoy construction (e.g., reversing vs. stochastic methods), rate calculation (e.g., total vs. unique PSMs), or searching (separate vs. composite) do exist among various implementations. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of these differences on FP and FDR estimations using a rat kidney protein sample and the SEQUEST search engine as an example. On the effects of decoy construction, we found that, when a single scoring filter (XCorr) was used, stochastic methods generated a higher estimation of FPs and FDR than sequence reversing methods, likely due to an increase in unique peptides. This higher estimation could largely be attenuated by creating decoy databases similar in effective size, but not by a simple normalization with a unique-peptide coefficient. When multiple filters were applied, the differences seen between reversing and stochastic methods significantly diminished, suggesting multiple filterings reduce the dependency on how a decoy is constructed. For a fixed set of filtering criteria, FDR and FPs estimated by using unique PSMs were almost twice those using total PSMs. The higher estimation seemed to be dependent on data acquisition setup. As to the differences between performing separate or composite searches, in general, FDR estimated from separate search was about three times that from composite search. The degree of difference gradually decreased as the filtering criteria became more stringent. Paradoxically, the estimated true positives in separate search were higher when multiple filters were used. By analyzing a standard protein mixture, we demonstrated that the higher estimation of FDR and FPs in separate search likely reflected an overestimation, which could be corrected with a simple merging procedure. Our study illustrates the relative merits of different implementations of the target-decoy strategy, which should be worth contemplating when large-scale proteomic biomarker discovery is to be attempted. PMID:19061407

  11. Telling true from false: cannabis users show increased susceptibility to false memories

    PubMed Central

    Riba, J; Valle, M; Sampedro, F; Rodríguez-Pujadas, A; Martínez-Horta, S; Kulisevsky, J; Rodríguez-Fornells, A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies on the neurocognitive impact of cannabis use have found working and declarative memory deficits that tend to normalize with abstinence. An unexplored aspect of cognitive function in chronic cannabis users is the ability to distinguish between veridical and illusory memories, a crucial aspect of reality monitoring that relies on adequate memory function and cognitive control. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that abstinent cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to false memories, failing to identify lure stimuli as events that never occurred. In addition to impaired performance, cannabis users display reduced activation in areas associated with memory processing within the lateral and medial temporal lobe (MTL), and in parietal and frontal brain regions involved in attention and performance monitoring. Furthermore, cannabis consumption was inversely correlated with MTL activity, suggesting that the drug is especially detrimental to the episodic aspects of memory. These findings indicate that cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to memory distortions even when abstinent and drug-free, suggesting a long-lasting compromise of memory and cognitive control mechanisms involved in reality monitoring. PMID:25824306

  12. Telling true from false: cannabis users show increased susceptibility to false memories.

    PubMed

    Riba, J; Valle, M; Sampedro, F; Rodríguez-Pujadas, A; Martínez-Horta, S; Kulisevsky, J; Rodríguez-Fornells, A

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies on the neurocognitive impact of cannabis use have found working and declarative memory deficits that tend to normalize with abstinence. An unexplored aspect of cognitive function in chronic cannabis users is the ability to distinguish between veridical and illusory memories, a crucial aspect of reality monitoring that relies on adequate memory function and cognitive control. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that abstinent cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to false memories, failing to identify lure stimuli as events that never occurred. In addition to impaired performance, cannabis users display reduced activation in areas associated with memory processing within the lateral and medial temporal lobe (MTL), and in parietal and frontal brain regions involved in attention and performance monitoring. Furthermore, cannabis consumption was inversely correlated with MTL activity, suggesting that the drug is especially detrimental to the episodic aspects of memory. These findings indicate that cannabis users have an increased susceptibility to memory distortions even when abstinent and drug-free, suggesting a long-lasting compromise of memory and cognitive control mechanisms involved in reality monitoring. PMID:25824306

  13. Apparent lethal concentrations of pyrolysis products of some polymeric materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Marcussen, W. H.; Furst, A.; Kourtides, D. A.; Parker, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Thirty-nine samples of polymeric materials were evaluated to determine the apparent lethal concentrations of their pyrolysis products. The materials were compared on the basis of the apparent lethal concentration for 50 percent of the test animals. Relative toxicity rankings based o apparent lethal concentration values can differ significantly depending on whether they are based on weight of sample charged or weight of sample pyrolyzed. The ranking of polyphenylene sulfide is particularly sensitive to this difference.

  14. Negative-ion states

    SciTech Connect

    Compton, R.N.

    1982-01-01

    In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures.

  15. False positive responses of Campylobacter jejuni when using the chemical-in-plug chemotaxis assay.

    PubMed

    Kanungpean, Doungjit; Kakuda, Tsutomu; Takai, Shinji

    2011-03-01

    Campylobacter jejuni reportedly exhibits chemotactic behavior towards fucose, several amino acids and organic acids, mucin and bile. The chemotaxis of C. jejuni has mainly been studied using the chemical-in-plug chemotaxis assay. In this study, a nonchemotactic mutant (cheY mutant) and nonmotile mutant (flhA mutant) were constructed and used as negative controls in an assay. Apparent zones of accumulation around test plugs containing several amino acids and organic acids were observed with both of the mutants. Our results suggest that positive responses of C. jejuni in the chemical-in-plug assay are not always indicative of chemotaxis. PMID:21041987

  16. Collection and evaluation of false alarm signatures in background data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Sanjeev; Vulli, Shivakar; Malloy, Neil J.; Lord, Elizabeth M.; Fairley, Josh R.; Sabol, Bruce M.; Johnson, Wesley; Ess, Richard; Trang, Anh H.

    2009-05-01

    A significant amount of background airborne data was collected as part of May 2005 tests for airborne minefield detection at an arid site. The locations of false alarms which occurred consistently during different runs, were identified and geo-referenced by MultiSensor Science LLC. Ground truth information, which included pictures, type qualifiers and some hyperspectral data for these identified false alarm locations, was surveyed by ERDC-WES. This collection of background data, and subsequent survey of the false alarm locations, is unique in that it is likely the first such airborne data collection with ground truthed and documented false alarm locations. A library of signatures for different sources of these false alarms was extracted in the form of image chips and organized into a self-contained database by Missouri S&T. The library contains target chips from airborne mid wave infrared (MWIR) and multispectral imaging (MSI) sensors, representing data for different days, different times of day and different altitudes. Target chips for different surface mines were also added to the database. This database of the target signatures is expected to facilitate evaluation of spectral and shape characteristics of the false alarms, to achieve better false alarm mitigation and improve mine and minefield detection for airborne applications. The aim of this paper is to review and summarize the data collection procedure used, present the currently available database of target chips and make some recommendations regarding future data collections.

  17. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, R.W.

    1984-05-08

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

  18. Negative ion generator

    DOEpatents

    Stinnett, Regan W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions.

  19. Sentential Negation in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowarin, Macaulay

    2009-01-01

    This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

  20. [Effects of false memories on the Concealed Information Test].

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Wataru

    2012-10-01

    The effects of false memories on polygraph examinations with the Concealed Information Test (CIT) were investigated by using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, which allows participants to evoke false memories. Physiological responses to questions consisting of learned, lure, and unlearned items were measured and recorded. The results indicated that responses to lure questions showed critical responses to questions about learned items. These responses included repression of respiration, an increase in electrodermal activity, and a drop in heart rate. These results suggest that critical response patterns are generated in the peripheral nervous system by true and false memories. PMID:23214081

  1. Apparent mass and cross-axis apparent mass of standing subjects during exposure to vertical whole-body vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

    2006-05-01

    The effects of posture and vibration magnitude on the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the standing human body during exposure to vertical vibration have been investigated. Twelve male subjects were exposed to random vertical vibration over the frequency range 2.0-20 Hz at three vibration magnitudes: 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 m s -2 rms. Subjects stood in five different postures: upright, lordotic, anterior lean, knees bent and knees more bent. The vertical acceleration at the floor and the forces in the vertical and fore-and-aft directions at the floor were used to obtain the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass. The resonance frequency of the apparent mass was significantly reduced with knees bent and knees more bent postures, but there were only minor effects on the resonance frequency by changing the position of the upper body. Considerable cross-axis apparent mass, up to about 30% of the static mass of subjects, was found. The cross-axis apparent mass was influenced by all postural changes used in the study. In all postures the resonance frequencies of the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass tended to decrease with increasing vibration magnitude. This nonlinear characteristic tended to be less clear in some postures in which subjects increased muscle tension.

  2. Attachment working models and false recall: a category structure approach 

    E-print Network

    Wilson, Carol Leigh

    2009-06-02

    of attachment theory; namely, that relationship working models influence how individuals process relationship-relevant information in general. In addition, this research contributes new knowledge regarding the generation of false memories in particular....

  3. Efficient Recovery from False State in Distributed Routing Algorithms

    E-print Network

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    -state-removal problem concrete, we investigate distance vector routing as an instance of this problem. Distance vector is then executed to remove remaining false state using these new distance vectors. The purge algorithm perfor

  4. 38 CFR 21.9740 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Pursuit of Courses § 21.9740 False, late, or missing reports. (a) Eligible individual....

  5. 38 CFR 21.9740 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Pursuit of Courses § 21.9740 False, late, or missing reports. (a) Eligible individual....

  6. 38 CFR 21.9740 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Pursuit of Courses § 21.9740 False, late, or missing reports. (a) Eligible individual....

  7. 38 CFR 21.9740 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Pursuit of Courses § 21.9740 False, late, or missing reports. (a) Eligible individual....

  8. 38 CFR 21.9740 - False, late, or missing reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Pursuit of Courses § 21.9740 False, late, or missing reports. (a) Eligible individual....

  9. False alarm mitigation techniques for hyperspectral target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieper, M. L.; Manolakis, D.; Truslow, E.; Cooley, T.; Brueggeman, M.

    2013-05-01

    A challenging problem of major importance in hyperspectral imaging applications is the detection of subpixel objects of military and civilian interest. High false alarm thresholds are required to detect subpixel objects due to the large amount of surrounding background clutter. These high false alarm rates are unacceptable for military purposes, requiring the need for false alarm mitigation (FAM) techniques to weed out the objects of interest. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison of the implementation of these FAM techniques and their inherent benefits in the whitened detection space. The widely utilized matched filter (MF) and adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) are both based on a linear mixing model (LMM) between a background and object class. The matched filter approximates the object abundance, and the ACE measures the model error. Each of these measurements provides inadequate object separation alone, but by using both the object abundance and model error, the objects can be separated from the false alarms.

  10. Cognitive neuroscience of false memory: the role of gist memory 

    E-print Network

    Bellamy, Katarina Jane

    2010-01-01

    This thesis explores the role of gist memory and gist representation in the formation of false recognition, specifically in the Deese, Roediger and McDermott Paradigm. We found that normal individuals displayed a range ...

  11. The strategic nature of false recognition in the DRM paradigm.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael B; Guerin, Scott A; Wolford, George L

    2011-09-01

    The false memory effect produced by the Deese/Roediger & McDermott (DRM) paradigm is reportedly impervious to warnings to avoid false alarming to the critical lures (D. A. Gallo, H. L. Roediger III, & K. B. McDermott, 2001). This finding has been used as strong evidence against models that attribute the false alarms to a decision process (e.g., M. B. Miller & G. L. Wolford, 1999). In this report, the authors clarify their earlier article and suggest that subjects establish only 2 underlying criteria for a recognition judgment, a liberal criterion for items that seem to be related to 1 of the study list themes and a conservative criterion for items that do not seem to be related. They demonstrate that warnings designed on the basis of these underlying criteria are effective in significantly suppressing the false recognition effect, suggesting that strategic control of the retrieval response does play a role in the DRM paradigm. PMID:21767060

  12. The role of test structure in creating false memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jennifer H. Coane; Dawn M. McBride

    2006-01-01

    In the Deese\\/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, studying lists of semantic associates results in high rates of false recognition\\u000a of a nonpresented critical word. The present set of experiments was designed to measure the contribution of additional processing\\u000a of list items at test to this false memory effect. The participants studied sets of lists and then performed a recognition\\u000a task for each

  13. The nucleation of false vacuum bubbles with compact geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Chul H.; Lee, Wonwoo; Oh, Changheon

    2015-06-01

    We investigate and classify the possible types of false vacuum bubbles in Einstein gravity. The false vacuum bubbles can occur only if gravity is taken into account. We show that there exist solutions only with compact geometries. The analytic computations for the radius and nucleation rate of a vacuum bubble are evaluated using the thin-wall approximation. We discuss possible cosmological implications of our new solutions.

  14. One hundred alleged false confession cases: some normative data.

    PubMed

    Gudjonsson, G H

    1990-05-01

    This paper describes the psychological characteristics of individuals who retract self-incriminating admissions made during police interviewing. A group of 100 alleged false confessors was compared with 104 other forensic referrals on four psychological variables. The two groups differed significantly on tests of intelligence, suggestibility, compliance and acquiescence. Normative data are provided for clinicians to evaluate test scores when assessing the psychological characteristics of individuals who claim to have made false confessions. PMID:2364207

  15. Astrophysical False Positives Encountered in Wide-Field Transit Searches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Charbonneau; Timothy M. Brown; Edward W. Dunham; David W. Latham; Dagny L. Looper; Georgi Mandushev

    2004-01-01

    Wide-field photometric transit surveys for Jupiter-sized planets are inundated by astrophysical false positives, namely systems that contain an eclipsing binary and mimic the desired photometric signature. We discuss several examples of such false alarms. These systems were initially identified as candidates by the PSST instrument at Lowell Observatory. For three of the examples, we present follow-up spectroscopy that demonstrates that

  16. Line tension and reduction of apparent contact angle associated with electric double layers

    E-print Network

    Dörr, Aaron

    2014-01-01

    The line tension of an electrolyte wetting a non-polar substrate is computed analytically and numerically. The results show that, depending on the value of the apparent contact angle, positive or negative line tension values may be obtained. Furthermore, a significant difference between Young's contact angle and the apparent contact angle measured several Debye lengths remote from the three-phase contact line occurs. When applying the results to water wetting highly charged surfaces, line tension values of the same order of magnitude as found in recent experiments can be achieved. Therefore, the theory presented may contribute to the understanding of line tension measurements and points to the importance of the electrostatic line tension. Being strongly dependent on the interfacial charge density, electrostatic line tension is found to be tunable via the pH value of the involved electrolyte. As a practical consequence, the stability of nanoparticles adsorbed at fluid-fluid interfaces is predicted to be depend...

  17. APPARENT WATER OPTICAL PROPERTIES AT THE CARIBBEAN TIME SERIES STATION

    E-print Network

    Gilbes, Fernando

    APPARENT WATER OPTICAL PROPERTIES AT THE CARIBBEAN TIME SERIES STATION Roy A. Armstrong, Jose M of Puerto Rico Mayagüez, Puerto Rico 00681 ABSTRACT The Caribbean Time Series, located 28 nautical miles in near- surface waters of the northeastern Caribbean Basin. Apparent optical properties such as, remote

  18. Renal Manifestations and Visceral Adiposity in Apparently Healthy Korean Women

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-Won Lee; Urhee Bae; Duk-Chul Lee; Hye-Ree Lee; Jae-Yong Shim; John A. Linton

    2008-01-01

    Aims: It was the aim of this study to investigate the relationship between normal renal function – estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) – and visceral adiposity measured by CT in apparently healthy Korean women. Methods: A total of 425 apparently healthy women were recruited. We assessed body composition with CT and divided the study population into 2 groups based on

  19. Original article Age-related changes in apparent digestibility

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Age-related changes in apparent digestibility in growing kittens E. Jean HARPER kitten to digest protein, fat, carbohydrate, dry-matter and energy were assessed. Kittens were divided access to food. Apparent digestibility of the two diets, and kitten bodyweights were measured over a 24

  20. Temporal binding during apparent movement of the human body

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guido Orgs; Patrick Haggard

    2011-01-01

    Alternating between static images of human bodies with an appropriate interstimulus interval (ISI) produces apparent biological motion. Here we investigate links between apparent biological motion and time perception. We presented two pictures of the initial and final positions of a human movement separated by six different ISIs. The shortest movement path between two positions was always biomechanically impossible. Participants performed

  1. Selective right ventricular angiography in apparently idiopathic ventricular fibrillation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefan Peters; Jörg Tröster; Carl Arthur Hartwig; Gert-Hinrich Reil

    1995-01-01

    Summary The definition of underlying heart disease in apparently idiopathic ventricular fibrillation seems to be important in regard to prognosis and choice of therapy. From October 1989, until August 1993, cardiac arrest due to the documented ventricular fibrillation occurred in eight consecutive patients with normal results on clinical examination, normal echocardiography, and normal or apparently nonspecific electrocardiogram (ECG) findings. Complete

  2. Apparent Specific Heat Capacity of Chilled and Frozen Meat Products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sebnem Tavman; Seher Kumcuoglu; Volker Gaukel

    2007-01-01

    In this article, apparent specific heat capacities of meat and meat products, minced beef, hamburger patties, soudjouk, minced turkey meat, turkey sausage, and turkey soudjouk, were measured at temperatures ranging from ?60°C to +40°C, using a differential scanning calorimeter. Experimental data were compared with values calculated from different predictive models given in the literature. Measured apparent specific heat capacities were

  3. Sleep Reduces False Memory in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lo, June C.; Sim, Sam K. Y.; Chee, Michael W. L.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Design: Balanced, crossover design. False memory was induced using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and assessed following nocturnal sleep and following a period of daytime wakefulness. Post-learning sleep structure was evaluated using polysomnography (PSG). Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: Fourteen healthy older adults from the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study (mean age ± standard deviation = 66.6 ± 4.1 y; 7 males). Measurements and Results: At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. At retrieval, they made “remember”/“know” and “new” judgments. Compared to wakefulness, post-learning sleep was associated with reduced “remember” responses, but not “know” responses to critical lures. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the veridical recognition of studied words, false recognition of unrelated distractors, discriminability, or response bias between the sleep and the wake conditions. More post-learning slow wave sleep was associated with greater reduction in false memory. Conclusions: In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory. This benefit correlates with the amount of slow wave sleep in the post-learning sleep episode. Citation: Lo JC; Sim SK; Chee MW. Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults. SLEEP 2014;37(4):665-671. PMID:24744453

  4. False-alarm characterization in hyperspectral gas-detection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPietro, Robert S.; Truslow, Eric; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Golowich, Steven E.; Lockwood, Ronald B.

    2012-09-01

    Chemical cloud detection using long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral-imaging sensors has many civilian and military applications, including chemical warfare threat mitigation, environmental monitoring, and emergency response. Current capabilities are limited by variation in background clutter as opposed to the physics of photon detection, and this makes the statistical characterization of clutter and clutter-induced false alarms essential to the design of practical systems. In this exploratory work, we use hyperspectral data collected both on the ground and in the air to spectrally and spatially characterize false alarms. Focusing on two widely-used detectors, the matched filter (MF) and the adaptive cosine estimator (ACE), we compare empirical false-alarm rates to their theoretical counterparts - detector output under Gaussian, t and t-mixture distributed data - and show that these models often underestimate false-alarm rates. Next, we threshold real detection maps and show that true detections and false alarms often exhibit very different spatial behavior. To exploit this difference and understand how spatial processing affects performance, the spatial behavior of false alarms must be understood. We take a first step in this direction by showing that, although the behavior may `look' quite random, it is not well captured by the complete-spatial-randomness model. Finally, we describe how our findings impact the design of real detection systems.

  5. Negative-ion implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, Junzo [Kyoto Univ., Yoshida, Kyoto (Japan). Dept. of Electronics

    1995-12-31

    Negative-ion implantation is a promising technique for forthcoming ULSI (more than 256 M bits) fabrication and TFT (for color LCD) fabrication, since the surface charging voltage of insulated electrodes or insulators implanted by negative ions is found to saturate within so few as several volts, no breakdown of insulators would be expected without a charge neutralizer in these fabrication processes. Scatter-less negative-ion implantation into powders is also possible. For this purpose an rf-plasma-sputter type heavy negative-ion source was developed, which can deliver several milliamperes of various kinds of negative ion currents such as boron, phosphor, silicon, carbon, copper, oxygen, etc. A medium current negative-ion implanter with a small version of this type of ion source has been developed.

  6. Effect of reactivity loss on apparent reaction order of burning char particles

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Jeffrey J.; Shaddix, Christopher R. [Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Considerable debate still exists in the char combustion community over the expected and observed reaction orders of carbon reacting with oxygen. In particular, very low values of the reaction order (approaching zero) are commonly observed in char combustion experiments. These observations appear to conflict with porous catalyst theory as first expressed by Thiele, which suggests that the apparent reaction order must be greater than 0.5. In this work, we propose that this conflict may be resolved by considering the decrease in char reactivity with burnout due to ash effects, thermal annealing, or other phenomena. Specifically, the influence of ash dilution of the available surface area on the apparent reaction order is explored. Equations describing the ash dilution effect are combined with a model for particle burnout based on single-film nth-order Arrhenius char combustion and yield an analytical expression for the effective reaction order. When this expression is applied for experimental conditions reflecting combustion of individual pulverized coal particles in an entrained flow reactor, the apparent reaction order is shown to be lower than the inherent char matrix reaction order, even for negligible extents of char conversion. As char conversion proceeds and approaches completion, the apparent reaction order drops precipitously past zero to negative values. Conversely, the inclusion of the ash dilution model has little effect on the char conversion profile or char particle temperature until significant burnout has occurred. Taken together, these results suggest that the common experimental observation of low apparent reaction orders during char combustion is a consequence of the lack of explicit modeling of the decrease in char reactivity with burnout. (author)

  7. Variation in the apparent density of human mandibular bone with age and dental status

    PubMed Central

    KINGSMILL, V. J.; BOYDE, A.

    1998-01-01

    This study examines the variability in the anatomy of mandibles of differing ages and different stages of tooth loss. Mandibles from individuals between 19 and 96 y were sectioned into 2 mm thick vertical plane-parallel slices and cleaned of marrow and periosteum. The apparent density (mass per unit volume in g/ml) from midline (MID) and mental foramen region (MF) sites was determined by weighing the slices and dividing by a volume calculated as the product of section thickness and the mean area of the 2 sides of the section. The cortical thickness of the inferior border and the basal and alveolar bone heights were measured in radiographs of the slices. Mandibular apparent density was negatively correlated with the cross sectional area (midline r=?0.48, mental foramen r=?0.45), and at the midline was significantly greater in edentulous than in dentate individuals (means (± s.e.m.) edentulous n=13: 1.43 (±0.07) g/ml; dentate n=17: 1.27 (±0.04) g/ml, P<0.05). Where a large enough age range was available, mandibular apparent bone density showed a significant increase with age (midline males: r=0.53, n=18) especially for dentate individuals (r=0.91, n=8). There was a correlation between the apparent densities at the two sites in the same mandible (r=0.64), with the values obtained for the midline being significantly greater than for the mental foramen region (midline 1.34 (±0.04) g/ml; mental foramen 1.19 (±0.04) g/ml, P<0.001, paired t test). The mandible shows great interindividual variability, but there may be a considerable reduction in cross sectional girth of the mandible following tooth loss, and, unlike postcranial sites, an increase in apparent density with age. PMID:9643424

  8. Negative thermal expansion materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. O. Evans; T. A. Mary; A. W. Sleight

    1998-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW2O8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal

  9. Negative thermal expansion materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. O Evans; T. A Mary; A. W Sleight

    1997-01-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW2O8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal

  10. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    SciTech Connect

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-12-18

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas.

  11. Negative ions in comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wekhof, A.

    1981-01-01

    Negative ion sources in comets are identified and cometary plasma effects caused by negative ions are examined. The primary negative ion sources are shown to be: (1) for the inner coma - photodissociation of HCN, electron attachment of OH, and collision with alkalis; (2) in the vicinity of the nucleus - interplanetary dust collisions with the nucleus; and (3) for both the contaminated solar wind region and sporadic discharges in the nonhomogeneous inner coma plasma - dissociative electron attachment and charge inversion during keV positive ion scattering by cometary dust. Negative ion abundance for Halley's Comet has been estimated to be 10 to the -6th - 10 to the -10th of electron densities.

  12. The effect of visual apparent motion on audiovisual simultaneity.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jinhwan; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Visual motion information from dynamic environments is important in multisensory temporal perception. However, it is unclear how visual motion information influences the integration of multisensory temporal perceptions. We investigated whether visual apparent motion affects audiovisual temporal perception. Visual apparent motion is a phenomenon in which two flashes presented in sequence in different positions are perceived as continuous motion. Across three experiments, participants performed temporal order judgment (TOJ) tasks. Experiment 1 was a TOJ task conducted in order to assess audiovisual simultaneity during perception of apparent motion. The results showed that the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) was shifted toward a sound-lead stimulus, and the just noticeable difference (JND) was reduced compared with a normal TOJ task with a single flash. This indicates that visual apparent motion affects audiovisual simultaneity and improves temporal discrimination in audiovisual processing. Experiment 2 was a TOJ task conducted in order to remove the influence of the amount of flash stimulation from Experiment 1. The PSS and JND during perception of apparent motion were almost identical to those in Experiment 1, but differed from those for successive perception when long temporal intervals were included between two flashes without motion. This showed that the result obtained under the apparent motion condition was unaffected by the amount of flash stimulation. Because apparent motion was produced by a constant interval between two flashes, the results may be accounted for by specific prediction. In Experiment 3, we eliminated the influence of prediction by randomizing the intervals between the two flashes. However, the PSS and JND did not differ from those in Experiment 1. It became clear that the results obtained for the perception of visual apparent motion were not attributable to prediction. Our findings suggest that visual apparent motion changes temporal simultaneity perception and improves temporal discrimination in audiovisual processing. PMID:25295594

  13. The psychodynamics of patients with false memory syndrome (FMS).

    PubMed

    Gardner, Richard A

    2004-01-01

    The False Memory Syndrome (FMS) diagnosis was very much in vogue from the late 1980s to the mid-1990s. It was an outgrowth of the belief held by many therapists that childhood sexual abuse was one of the most common causes of all forms of psychopathology. Although no longer in-vogue, the diagnosis is more recently being used for people who are falsely claiming that they were sexually abused by their priests. As was true in the earlier era, there were indeed many people who were sexually abused in childhood, but there were also many who were not and actually came to believe that they were, especially under the influence of therapists conducting "repressed memory therapy." Similarly, sexual abuse by priests has been a widespread phenomenon. Yet, there are still false accusers who are being led to believe by their overzealous therapists that they were indeed abused. As a psychoanalyst who has been asked to do forensic evaluations in many of these cases, I automatically ask myself questions about the psychodynamics of such falsely accusing patients. Here I describe those psychodynamic factors that I believe were operative in FMS cases, factors which in some cases apply to false sex abuse accusation against priests. Accordingly, this article is not simply of historical interest, but is still relevant and timely. PMID:15132191

  14. The dynamics of apparent horizons in Robinson-Trautman spacetimes

    E-print Network

    H. P. de Oliveira; E. L. Rodrigues; I. Damião Soares

    2009-12-21

    We present an alternative scheme of finding apparent horizons based on spectral methods applied to Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. We have considered distinct initial data such as representing the spheroids of matter and the head-on collision of two non-rotating black holes. The evolution of the apparent horizon is presented. We have obtained in some cases a mass gap between the final Bondi and apparent horizon masses, whose implications were briefly commented in the light of the thermodynamics of black holes.

  15. Blocking Mimicry Makes True and False Smiles Look the Same

    PubMed Central

    Rychlowska, Magdalena; Cañadas, Elena; Wood, Adrienne; Krumhuber, Eva G.; Fischer, Agneta; Niedenthal, Paula M.

    2014-01-01

    Recent research suggests that facial mimicry underlies accurate interpretation of subtle facial expressions. In three experiments, we manipulated mimicry and tested its role in judgments of the genuineness of true and false smiles. Experiment 1 used facial EMG to show that a new mouthguard technique for blocking mimicry modifies both the amount and the time course of facial reactions. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants rated true and false smiles either while wearing mouthguards or when allowed to freely mimic the smiles with or without additional distraction, namely holding a squeeze ball or wearing a finger-cuff heart rate monitor. Results showed that blocking mimicry compromised the decoding of true and false smiles such that they were judged as equally genuine. Together the experiments highlight the role of facial mimicry in judging subtle meanings of facial expressions. PMID:24670316

  16. Management and Conservation Article Apparent Survival and Population

    E-print Network

    Colwell, Mark

    population of the threatened western snowy plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus) in coastal northern are more challenging. KEY WORDS apparent survival, Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus, demography, fecundity Service (USFWS) listed the Pacific Coast population of the western snowy plover (Charadrius alexandrinus

  17. Apparent Ionic Charge in Electrolyte and Polyelectrolyte Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magdelenat, H.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Compares average displacements of charged particles under thermal motion alone with those obtained by the action of an external electric field to develop a concept of "apparent charge" to approximate actual structural charge in an electrolyte solution. (SL)

  18. A Tactile Display Used Phantom Sensation with Apparent Movement Together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Shintaro; Uchida, Masafumi; Nozawa, Akio; Ide, Hideto

    When two and more stimuli are arranged in the space, an illusion such as the phantom sensation and the apparent movement appear in the sense of touch. The foundation research to build a system of presenting two-dimensional information by using the phantom sensation and the apparent movement is done by this research. When the apparent movement is used, information in the direction can be expressed between 2 elements of tactile stimulus in two-dimensional vector information. In this report, we propose the technique of informatrion expression in 3 elements of tactile stimulus that the apparent movement is used with the phantom sensation together. By this technique, two-dimensional vector information can be expressed by 3 elements of tactile stimulus.

  19. Negative thermal expansion materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. S. O.; Mary, T. A.; Sleight, A. W.

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW 2O 8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A 2(MO 4) 3. Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed.

  20. Negative thermal expansion materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, J. S. O.; Mary, T. A.; Sleight, A. W.

    1998-04-01

    The recent discovery of negative thermal expansion over an unprecedented temperature range in ZrW2O8 (which contracts continuously on warming from below 2 K to above 1000 K) has stimulated considerable interest in this unusual phenomenon. Negative and low thermal expansion materials have a number of important potential uses in ceramic, optical and electronic applications. We have now found negative thermal expansion in a large new family of materials with the general formula A2(MO4)3. Chemical substitution dramatically influences the thermal expansion properties of these materials allowing the production of ceramics with negative, positive or zero coefficients of thermal expansion, with the potential to control other important materials properties such as refractive index and dielectric constant. The mechanism of negative thermal expansion and the phase transitions exhibited by this important new class of low-expansion materials will be discussed.

  1. Personality characteristics associated with susceptibility to false memories.

    PubMed

    Frost, Peter; Sparrow, Sarah; Jennifer, Barry

    2006-01-01

    This study examined whether certain personality characteristics are associated with susceptibility to false memories. Participants first answered questions from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in order to measure various personality characteristics. They then watched a video excerpt, the simulated eyewitness event. They were next encouraged to lie about the videotaped event during an interview. A week later, some participants recognized confabulated events as being from the video. Two personality characteristics in particular--the introversion-extroversion and thinking-feeling dimensions--were associated with susceptibility to false memories. PMID:16841777

  2. False Paradoxes of Superposition in Electric and Acoustic Waves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Richard C.

    1980-01-01

    Corrected are several misconceptions concerning the apparently "missing" energy that results when acoustic or electromagnetic waves cancel by destructive interference and the wave impedance reflected to the sources of the wave energy changes so that the input power is reduced. (Author/CS)

  3. Apparent Temperature and Air Pollution vs. Elderly Population Mortality in Metro Vancouver

    PubMed Central

    Krsti?, Goran

    2011-01-01

    Background Meteorological conditions and air pollution in urban environments have been associated with general population and elderly mortality, showing seasonal variation. Objectives This study is designed to evaluate the relationship between apparent temperature (AT) and air pollution (PM2.5) vs. mortality in elderly population of Metro Vancouver. Methods Statistical analyses are performed on moving sum daily mortality rates vs. moving average AT and PM2.5 in 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, and 7-day models for all seasons, warm temperatures above 15°C, and cold temperatures below 10°C. Results Approximately 37% of the variation in all-season mortality from circulatory and respiratory causes can be explained by the variation in 7-day moving average apparent temperature (r2?=?0.37, p<0.001). Although the analytical results from air pollution models show increasingly better prediction ability of longer time-intervals (r2?=?0.012, p<0.001 in a 7-day model), a very weak negative association between elderly mortality and air pollution is observed. Conclusions Apparent temperature is associated with mortality from respiratory and circulatory causes in elderly population of Metro Vancouver. In a changing climate, one may anticipate to observe potential health impacts from the projected high- and particularly from the low-temperature extremes. PMID:21980381

  4. Apparent competition in canopy trees determined by pathogen transmission rather than susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Richard C; Meentemeyer, Ross K; Rizzo, David M

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiological theory predicts that asymmetric transmission, susceptibility, and mortality within a community will drive pathogen and disease dynamics. These epidemiological asymmetries can result in apparent competition, where a highly infectious host reduces the abundance of less infectious or more susceptible members in a community via a shared pathogen. We show that the exotic pathogen Phytophthora ramorum and resulting disease, sudden oak death, cause apparent competition among canopy trees and that transmission differences among canopy trees drives patterns of disease severity in California coast redwood forests. P. ramorum ranges in its ability to infect, sporulate on, and cause mortality of infected hosts. A path analysis showed that the most prolific inoculum producer, California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), had a greater impact on the mortality rate of tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) than did other inoculum-supporting species. In stands experiencing high tanoak mortality, lack of negative impacts by P. ramorum on bay laurel may increase bay laurel density and subsequently result in positive feedback on pathogen populations. This study demonstrates the degree to which invasive, generalist pathogens can cause rapid changes in forest canopy composition and that differences in transmission can be more important than susceptibility in driving patterns of apparent competition. PMID:20391996

  5. The Cost of False Alarms in Hellman and Rainbow Tradeoffs

    E-print Network

    and the rainbow table method in a manner that takes false alarms into account. We also analyze the effects pre- computation process. Keywords time memory tradeoff, Hellman, rainbow table, checkpoint- tion by 50% at the most. On the other hand, the paper presenting the rainbow table method [16], which

  6. Working memory predicts the rejection of false memories.

    PubMed

    Leding, Juliana K

    2012-01-01

    The relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and false memories in the memory conjunction paradigm was explored. Previous research using other paradigms has shown that individuals high in WMC are not as likely to experience false memories as low-WMC individuals, the explanation being that high-WMC individuals are better able to engage in source monitoring. In the memory conjunction paradigm participants are presented at study with parent words (e.g., eyeglasses, whiplash). At test, in addition to being presented with targets and foils, participants are presented with lures that are composed of previously studied features (e.g., eyelash). It was found that high-WMC individuals had lower levels of false recognition than low-WMC individuals. Furthermore, recall-to-reject responses were analysed (e.g., "I know I didn't see eyelash because I remember seeing eyeglasses") and it was found that high-WMC individuals were more likely to utilise this memory editing strategy, providing direct evidence that one reason that high-WMC individuals are not as prone to false memories is because they are better able to engage in source monitoring. PMID:22292532

  7. Direct Instruction vs. Arts Integration: A False Dichotomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aprill, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author takes on what he considers to be the false dichotomy between direct instruction and arts integration. He contends that at a time when national issues of sustainability and conservation of energy and resources become ever more urgent, it is time that those committed to quality arts education stop squandering time, money,…

  8. Thread-based implementations of the false nearest neighbors method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Marín Carrión; E. Arias Antúnez; M. M. Artigao Castillo; J. J. Águila Guerrero; J. J. Miralles Canals

    2009-01-01

    The False Nearest Neighbors (FNN) method is particularly relevant in different fields of science and engineering (medicine, economy, oceanography, biological systems, etc.). In some of these applications, it is important to give results within a reasonable time scale, so the execution time of the FNN method has to be reduced. This paper describes three parallel implementations of the FNN method

  9. Specification Mining With Few False Positives Presented to

    E-print Network

    Weimer, Westley

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii 1 Introduction 1 2 Mining Temporal Safety Specifications 8 2.1 Temporal Safety SpecificationsSpecification Mining With Few False Positives A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School identifies which traces are most indicative of program behavior, which allows off-the-shelf mining techniques

  10. Children's understanding of false belief in humans and animals 

    E-print Network

    Saunders, Katherine Nuttall

    1998-01-01

    of the possible implications that the effect of varying the situation in which a child makes a prediction of false belief, such as altering the actor used, has for the four main theories of theory of mind development: Modularity, "Theory-Theory", Simulation...

  11. Bogus Concerns about the False Prototype Enhancement Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homa, Donald; Hout, Michael C.; Milliken, Laura; Milliken, Ann Marie

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments addressed the mechanism responsible for the false prototype effect, the phenomenon in which a prototype gradient can be obtained in the absence of learning. Previous demonstrations of this effect have occurred solely in a single-category paradigm in which transfer patterns are assigned or not to the learning category. We tested the…

  12. Neural Activity during Encoding Predicts False Memories Created by Misinformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okado, Yoko; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2005-01-01

    False memories are often demonstrated using the misinformation paradigm, in which a person's recollection of a witnessed event is altered after exposure to misinformation about the event. The neural basis of this phenomenon, however, remains unknown. The authors used fMRI to investigate encoding processes during the viewing of an event and…

  13. Semiclassical calculation of an induced decay of false vacuum

    E-print Network

    A. Monin; M. B. Voloshin

    2010-04-12

    We consider a model where a scalar field develops a metastable vacuum state and weakly interacts with another scalar field. In this situation we find the probability of decay of the false vacuum stimulated by the presence and collisions of particles of the second field. The discussed calculation is an illustration of the recently suggested thermal approach to treatment of induced semiclassical processes.

  14. The Just So Story--Obvious but False.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Considers how public opinion and entire theories of teaching reading are based in the false Just So story--Just Sound Out, and you can read. Explains why sounding out is a handicap. Suggests a better alternative, teaching by recognizing words. (SG)

  15. 12. VIEW OF SPACE BETWEEN EAST FALSE PARTITION WALL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. VIEW OF SPACE BETWEEN EAST FALSE PARTITION WALL IN CLEAN ROOM (102) AND EAST WALL OF VEHICLE SUPPORT BUILDING SHOWING PREFILTER NEAR SOUTH WALL - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  16. High false positive rates in common sensory threshold tests.

    PubMed

    Running, Cordelia A

    2015-02-01

    Large variability in thresholds to sensory stimuli is observed frequently even in healthy populations. Much of this variability is attributed to genetics and day-to-day fluctuation in sensitivity. However, false positives are also contributing to the variability seen in these tests. In this study, random number generation was used to simulate responses in threshold methods using different "stopping rules": ascending 2-alternative forced choice (AFC) with 5 correct responses; ascending 3-AFC with 3 or 4 correct responses; staircase 2-AFC with 1 incorrect up and 2 incorrect down, as well as 1 up 4 down and 5 or 7 reversals; staircase 3-AFC with 1 up 2 down and 5 or 7 reversals. Formulas are presented for rates of false positives in the ascending methods, and curves were generated for the staircase methods. Overall, the staircase methods generally had lower false positive rates, but these methods were influenced even more by number of presentations than ascending methods. Generally, the high rates of error in all these methods should encourage researchers to conduct multiple tests per individual and/or select a method that can correct for false positives, such as fitting a logistic curve to a range of responses. PMID:25407557

  17. Children's understanding of promising, lying, and false belief.

    PubMed

    Maas, Fay K

    2008-07-01

    Understanding promising and lying requires an understanding of intention and the ability to interpret mental states. The author examined (a) the extent to which 4- to 6-year-olds focus on the sincerity of the speaker's intention when the 4-to 6-year-olds make judgments about promises and lies and (b) whether false-belief reasoning skills are related to understanding promising and lying. Participants watched videotaped stories and made promise and lie judgments from their own perspective and from the listener-character's perspective. Children also completed false-belief reasoning tasks. Older children made more correct promise judgments from both perspectives. All children made correct lie judgments from the listener's perspective. The author found that Ist-order false-belief reasoning was related to making judgments from the participant's perspective; 2nd-order false-belief reasoning was related to making judgments from the listener-character's perspective. Results suggest that children's understanding of promising and lying moves from a focus on outcome toward a focus on the belief that each utterance is designed to create. PMID:18649495

  18. Reducing the severity of false smut in rice fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    False smut is a disease that farmers can likely expect to see more of in the future. Disease severity will vary greatly from year to year, and currently, fungicide sprays are suppressive at best. However, there are management strategies that rice farmers can adopt that will significantly reduce the ...

  19. Validity of False Belief Tasks in Blind Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brambring, Michael; Asbrock, Doreen

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that congenitally blind children without any additional impairment reveal a developmental delay of at least 4 years in perspective taking based on testing first-order false-belief tasks. These authors interpret this delay as a sign of autism-like behavior. However, the delay may be caused by testing blind children…

  20. Matched False-Belief Performance during Verbal and Nonverbal Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dungan, James; Saxe, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Language has been shown to play a key role in the development of a child's theory of mind, but its role in adult belief reasoning remains unclear. One recent study used verbal and nonverbal interference during a false-belief task to show that accurate belief reasoning in adults necessarily requires language (Newton & de Villiers, 2007). The…

  1. Siblings, Language, and False Belief in Low-Income Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Guo, Ying

    2013-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between number of siblings and false belief understanding (FBU) in 94 low-income 4-5-year-olds. Previous research with middle-income children has shown a positive association between number of siblings and FBU. However, it is unclear whether having multiple siblings in low-income families is related to better…

  2. Counterfactual Thinking and False Belief: The Role of Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drayton, Stefane; Turley-Ames, Kandi J.; Guajardo, Nicole R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine further the relationship between counterfactual thinking and false belief (FB) as examined by Guajardo and Turley-Ames ("Cognitive Development, 19" (2004) 53-80). More specifically, the current research examined the importance of working memory and inhibitory control in understanding the relationship…

  3. False reports from patients with frontotemporal dementia: delusions or confabulations?

    PubMed

    Mendez, Mario F; Fras, Ivan Andrew; Kremen, Sarah A; Tsai, Po-Heng

    2011-01-01

    Patients with behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) can make false statements consistent with delusions or confabulations. It is unclear whether bvFTD is primarily associated with either delusions or with confabulations and whether they can be explained by the pathophysiology of this disease. In order to clarify this, we retrospectively surveyed the records of 48 patients with bvFTD for the presence of any false reports and identified four patients. Their false reports included continued interaction with a favorite but dead relation, fictitious marriages with movie stars, and two who claimed that their partner was having an affair. When confronted with the falsity of their statements, the patients conveyed a lack of certainty regarding their external or internal source but persisted in the constancy of their reports. On functional neuroimaging, the patients had predominant frontal involvement. This report found that patients with bvFTD can have both fantastic, wish fulfilling confabulations and typical content-specific delusions. We propose that both phenomena result from known disturbances of ventromedial prefrontal cortex in bvFTD, including deficits in source monitoring and in activating an automatic "doubt tag" for false reports. PMID:21876263

  4. The Multiple True-False Item Format: A Status Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisbie, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Literature related to the multiple true-false (MTF) item format is reviewed. Each answer cluster of a MTF item may have several true items and the correctness of each is judged independently. MTF tests appear efficient and reliable, although they are a bit harder than multiple choice items for examinees. (SLD)

  5. The Relative Merits of Multiple True-False Achievement Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frisbie, David A.; Sweeney, Daryl C.

    1982-01-01

    A 100-item five-choice multiple choice (MC) biology final exam was converted to multiple choice true-false (MTF) form to yield two content-parallel test forms comprised of the two item types. Students found the MTF items easier and preferred MTF over MC; the MTF subtests were more reliable. (Author/GK)

  6. Landsat Changes Over Time: Pearl River, China (False Color)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jesse Allen

    1999-04-09

    Landsat Thematic Mapper views the Pearl River in China in 1988, 1992, and 1995. The band combination used in these images is 432. They are false color and include the infrared band. To view related animations, please see animations 942, 1396, 1398, and 1399.

  7. Detecting False Positives in Multielement Designs: Implications for Brief Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Sara M.; Rapp, John T.; Henrickson, Marissa L.

    2011-01-01

    The authors assessed the extent to which multielement designs produced false positives using continuous duration recording (CDR) and interval recording with 10-s and 1-min interval sizes. Specifically, they created 6,000 graphs with multielement designs that varied in the number of data paths, and the number of data points per data path, using a…

  8. Educators' Ability to Detect True and False Bullying Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez-Garibello, Carlos; Saykaly, Christine; Moore, Kelsey; Talwar, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research investigating children's lie-telling behavior has focused on lay people and legal professionals' abilities to detect deception. Fewer researchers have assessed educators' abilities to evaluate the veracity of children's reports of bullying. In this study, educators' abilities to detect true and false accounts of bullying…

  9. Teacher Education and the Enduring Significance of "False Empathy"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Chezare A.; Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2015-01-01

    The concept "False Empathy" posited by critical race theory luminary Richard Delgado ("Calif Law Rev" 84(1):61-100, 1996) easily obscures White teacher's good intentions to be effective educators of racially, culturally, and linguistically diverse students. It is argued here that critical race theory is useful for isolating and…

  10. Estimating False Discovery Proportion Under Arbitrary Covariance Dependence

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianqing Fan; Xu Han; Weijie Gu

    2012-01-01

    Multiple hypothesis testing is a fundamental problem in high dimensional inference, with wide applications in many scientific fields. In genome-wide association studies, tens of thousands of tests are performed simultaneously to find if any SNPs are associated with some traits and those tests are correlated. When test statistics are correlated, false discovery control becomes very challenging under arbitrary dependence. In

  11. Looking for Childhood Schizophrenia: Case Series of False Positives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stayer, Catherine; Sporn, Alexandra; Gogtay, Nitin; Tossell, Julia; Lenane, Marge; Gochman, Peter; Rapoport, Judith L.

    2004-01-01

    Extensive experience with the diagnosis of childhood-onset schizophrenia indicates a high rate of false positives. Most mislabeled patients have chronic disabling, affective, or behavioral disorders. The authors report the cases of three children who passed stringent initial childhood-onset schizophrenia "screens" but had no chronic psychotic…

  12. Statistical inference and data mining: false discoveries control

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Statistical inference and data mining: false discoveries control St´ephane Lallich1 and Olivier statistics organises data collec- tion and analysis for an objective set a priori, data mining extracts relevant information a posteriori from the collected data. This creates some difficul- ties for statistical

  13. Basis of false-positive glucagon tests for pheochromocytoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Otto Kuchel; Pavel Harnet; Nguyen T Buu; Pierre Larochelle

    1981-01-01

    In more than half of 67 patients suspected of having pheochromocytoma, glucagon stimulation increased plasma free norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E) 50% or more, with rising blood pressure or pulse rate; only three patients, however, harbored a pheochromocytoma. A low degree of catecholamine conjugation accounts for most of the false-positive results. In patients with low conjugated NE + E there

  14. False Belief and Emotion Understanding in Post-Institutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2007-01-01

    Deficits in social cognition may impair the ability to negotiate social transactions and relationships and contribute to socio emotional difficulties experienced by some post-institutionalized children. We examined false belief and emotion understanding in 40 institutional care-adopted children, 40 foster care-adopted children and 40 birth…

  15. How do our brain hemispheres cooperate to avoid false memories?

    PubMed

    Bergert, Susanne

    2013-02-01

    Memories are not always as reliable as they may appear. The occurrence of false memories can be reduced, however, by enhancing the cooperation between the two brain hemispheres. Yet is the communication from left to right hemisphere as helpful as the information transfer from right to left? To address this question, 72 participants were asked to learn 16 word lists. Applying the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, the words in each list were associated with an unpresented prototype word. In the test condition, learned words and corresponding prototypes were presented along with non-associated new words, and participants were asked to indicate which of the words they recognized. Crucially, both study and test words were projected to only one hemisphere in order to stimulate each hemisphere separately. It was found that false recognitions occurred significantly less often when the right hemisphere studied and the left hemisphere recognized the stimuli. Moreover, only the right-to-left direction of interhemispheric communication reduced false memories significantly, whereas left-to-right exchange did not. Further analyses revealed that the observed reduction of false memories was not due to an enhanced discrimination sensitivity, but to a stricter response bias. Hence, the data suggest that interhemispheric cooperation does not improve the ability to tell old and new apart, but rather evokes a conservative response tendency. Future studies may narrow down in which cognitive processing steps interhemispheric interaction can change the response criterion. PMID:22245145

  16. Children's Understanding of False Beliefs that Result from Developmental Misconceptions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Scott A.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Three experiments studied preschoolers' understanding of false beliefs resulting from developmental misconceptions. Found that children showed some (but incomplete) mastery of Level 2 perspective taking, appearance-reality distinction, line of sight, and biological principles of growth and innate potential. Performance was comparable to that with…

  17. Removing false code dependencies to speedup software build processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yijun Yu; Homayoun Dayani-Fard; John Mylopoulos

    2003-01-01

    The development of large software systems involves a continual lengthy build process that may include preprocessing, compilation and linking of tens of thousands of source code files. In many cases, much of this build time is wasted because of false dependencies between implementation files and their respective header files. We present a graph algorithm and a programming tool that discovers

  18. Sample size determination for the false discovery rate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stan Pounds; Cheng Cheng

    2005-01-01

    Motivation: There is not a widely applicable method to determine the sample size for experiments basing statistical significance on the false discovery rate (FDR). Results: We propose and develop the anticipated FDR (aFDR) as a conceptual tool for determining sample size. We derive mathematical expressions for the aFDR and anticipated average statistical power. These expressions are used to develop a

  19. Magnetic negative stiffness dampers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Xiang; Zhu, Songye

    2015-07-01

    This communication presents the design principle and experimental validation of two novel configurations of magnetic negative stiffness dampers (MNSDs), both of which are composed of several permanent magnets arranged in a conductive pipe. The MNSD, as a passive device, efficiently integrates negative stiffness and eddy-current damping in a simple and compact design, in which the negative stiffness behavior depends on the different arrangements of the permanent magnets. When applied to structural vibration control, passive MNSD may achieve a performance comparable with semi-active or active control in some applications. Laboratory experiments of small-scale prototypes successfully verified the proposed MNSD design concept.

  20. Introduction to Negative Numbers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    WNET.org

    2006-01-01

    This lesson plan based on a Cyberchase activity, first addresses a common misconception: starting measurement from 1 instead of 0. Then, it introduces negative numbers by extending a number line beyond 0 in the negative (left) direction. It is motivated by the Cyber Squad’s mission to find the captured Cyberchase Council on a particular floor of a tall building as seen in two quicktime videos: “Importance of the Origin" and "Inventing Negative Numbers" (each are cataloged separately). In addition to the learning activity, other support materials are included: handouts, assessments and answer keys.

  1. Negative birefringent polyimide films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, Frank W. (Inventor); Cheng, Stephen Z. D. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A negative birefringent film, useful in liquid crystal displays, and a method for controlling the negative birefringence of a polyimide film is disclosed which allows the matching of an application to a targeted amount of birefringence by controlling the degree of in-plane orientation of the polyimide by the selection of functional groups within both the diamine and dianhydride segments of the polyimide which affect the polyimide backbone chain rigidity, linearity, and symmetry. The higher the rigidity, linearity and symmetry of the polyimide backbone, the larger the value of the negative birefringence of the polyimide film.

  2. False ventricular tachycardia alarm suppression in the ICU based on the discrete wavelet transform in the ECG signal.

    PubMed

    Salas-Boni, Rebeca; Bai, Yong; Harris, Patricia Rae Eileen; Drew, Barbara J; Hu, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Over the past few years, reducing the number of false positive cardiac monitor alarms (FA) in the intensive care unit (ICU) has become an issue of the utmost importance. In our work, we developed a robust methodology that, without the need for additional non-ECG waveforms, suppresses false positive ventricular tachycardia (VT) alarms without resulting in false negative alarms. Our approach is based on features extracted from the ECG signal 20 seconds prior to a triggered alarm. We applied a multi resolution wavelet transform to the ECG data 20seconds prior to the alarm trigger, extracted features from appropriately chosen scales and combined them across all available leads. These representations are presented to a L1-regularized logistic regression classifier. Results are shown in two datasets of physiological waveforms with manually assessed cardiac monitor alarms: the MIMIC II dataset, where we achieved a false alarm (FA) suppression of 21% with zero true alarm (TA) suppression; and a dataset compiled by UCSF and General Electric, where a 36% FA suppression was achieved with a zero TA suppression. The methodology described in this work could be implemented to reduce the number of false monitor alarms in other arrhythmias. PMID:25172188

  3. Lateralized processing of false memories and pseudoneglect in aging.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Rémy; Dehon, Hedwige; Peigneux, Philippe

    2013-05-01

    Aging is associated with higher propensity to false memories and decreased retrieval of previously studied items. When young adults (YA) perform on a lateralized version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, the right cerebral hemisphere (RH) is more sensitive than the left (LH) to false memories, suggesting hemispheric imbalance in the cerebral mechanisms supporting semantic and episodic memory processes. Since cerebral asymmetries tend to be reduced with age, we surmised that behavioral asymmetries in the generation of false memories would be diminished with aging. To probe this hypothesis, a lateralized version of the DRM paradigm was administered to healthy older adults (OA) and YA. During the encoding phase, lists of semantically associated words were memorized. During the retrieval session, targets (previously seen words), lures (LU) (never seen strongly semantically related words) and distracters (never seen, unrelated words) were briefly displayed either in the left or right visual fields, thus primarily stimulating the RH or LH, respectively. Participants had to decide whether the word was previously studied (Old/New), but also whether they had a strong episodic recollection (Remember) or a mere feeling of familiarity (Know) about Old words. In line with our predictions, false memories were globally higher in OA than YA, and vivid false recollections (i.e., Remember responses) were higher when LU were presented in the RH in YA, but not in OA. Additionally, we found significant correlations between YA participants' Familiarity scores and leftward attentional bias as previously evidenced using a visuospatial landmark task (Schmitz and Peigneux, 2011), an effect not present in OA. This result is in line with the hypothesis of an interplay between attentional resources allocated to visuospatial and memory processes, suggesting a memory pseudoneglect phenomenon that would be altered with aging. PMID:22818903

  4. Nearly extremal apparent horizons in simulations of merging black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelace, Geoffrey; Scheel, Mark A.; Owen, Robert; Giesler, Matthew; Katebi, Reza; Szilágyi, Béla; Chu, Tony; Demos, Nicholas; Hemberger, Daniel A.; Kidder, Lawrence E.; Pfeiffer, Harald P.; Afshari, Nousha

    2015-03-01

    The spin angular momentum S of an isolated Kerr black hole is bounded by the surface area A of its apparent horizon: 8? S?slant A, with equality for extremal black holes. In this paper, we explore the extremality of individual and common apparent horizons for merging, rapidly spinning binary black holes. We consider simulations of merging black holes with equal masses M and initial spin angular momenta aligned with the orbital angular momentum, including new simulations with spin magnitudes up to S/{{M}2}=0.994. We measure the area and (using approximate Killing vectors) the spin on the individual and common apparent horizons, finding that the inequality 8? S\\lt A is satisfied in all cases but is very close to equality on the common apparent horizon at the instant it first appears. We also evaluate the Booth-Fairhurst extremality, whose value for a given apparent horizon depends on the scaling of the horizon’s null normal vectors. In particular, we introduce a gauge-invariant lower bound on the extremality by computing the smallest value that Booth and Fairhurst’s extremality parameter can take for any scaling. Using this lower bound, we conclude that the common horizons are at least moderately close to extremal just after they appear. Finally, following Lovelace et al (2008 Phys. Rev. D 78 084017), we construct quasiequilibrium binary-black hole initial data with ‘overspun’ marginally trapped surfaces with 8? S\\gt A. We show that the overspun surfaces are indeed superextremal: our lower bound on their Booth-Fairhurst extremality exceeds unity. However, we confirm that these superextremal surfaces are always surrounded by marginally outer trapped surfaces (i.e., by apparent horizons) with 8? S\\lt A. The extremality lower bound on the enclosing apparent horizon is always less than unity but can exceed the value for an extremal Kerr black hole.

  5. Positivity, negativity, and entanglement

    E-print Network

    Perlmutter, Eric; Rota, Massimiliano

    2015-01-01

    We explore properties of the universal terms in the entanglement entropy and logarithmic negativity in 4d CFTs, aiming to clarify the ways in which they behave like the analogous entanglement measures in quantum mechanics. We show that, unlike entanglement entropy in finite-dimensional systems, the sign of the universal part of entanglement entropy is indeterminate. In particular, if and only if the central charges obey $a>c$, the entanglement across certain classes of entangling surfaces can become arbitrarily negative, depending on the geometry and topology of the surface. The negative contribution is proportional to the product of $a-c$ and the genus of the surface. Similarly, we show that in $a>c$ theories, the logarithmic negativity does not always exceed the entanglement entropy.

  6. Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig A. Martin

    \\u000a Gram-negative bacteria are responsible for a broad array of infections in both the ambulatory and hospital settings. Urinary\\u000a tract infections, otitis media, pneumonia, abdominal infections, and meningitis are among the common and serious diseases\\u000a caused by these pathogens. Beta-lactams including penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, and carbapenems, along with fluoroquinolones\\u000a and aminoglycosides, comprise the most commonly used treatment regimens for gram-negative infections.

  7. No to negative data

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, H. S.

    2008-04-01

    A frequent criticism in biology is that we don’t publish our negative data. As a result, the literature has become biased towards papers that favor specific hypotheses1. Some scientists have become so concerned about this trend that they have created journals dedicated to publishing negative results (e.g. the Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine). Personally, I don’t think they should bother. I say this because I believe negative results are not worth publishing. Rest assured that I do not include drug studies that show a lack of effectiveness towards a specific disease or condition. This type of finding is significant in a societal context, not a scientific one, and thus we all have a vested interest in seeing this type of result published. I am talking about a set of experimental results that fail to support a particular hypothesis. The problem with these types of negative results is that they don’t actually advance science. Science is a set of ideas that can be supported by observations. A negative result does not support any specific idea, but only tells you what isn’t right. Well, there are only a small number of potential hypotheses that are correct, but essentially an infinite number of ideas are not correct. I don’t want to waste my time reading a paper about what doesn’t happen, just about those things that do. I can remember a positive result because I can associate it with a specific concept. What do I do with a negative one? It is hard enough to following the current literature. A flood of negative results would make that task all but impossible

  8. A meningomyelocele with normal intracranial signs on ultrasound and false-negative amniotic fluid alpha-fetoprotein and acetylcholinesterase

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Chong Hyeok; Kang, Sang Kyu; Jin, Chan Hee; Park, Moon Sun

    2014-01-01

    Neural tube defects are the major targets of prenatal diagnoses, along with Down syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis of spina bifida is possible at second trimester of gestation through ?-fetoprotein and acetylcholinesterase biochemistry assays and ultrasound. In particular, the discovery of characteristic intracranial signs on ultrasound leads to a very high diagnosis rate. However, it is rare for spina bifida to present without intracranial signs while also showing normal values of maternal serum ?-fetoprotein, amniotic fluid ?-fetoprotein, and acetylcholinesterase. In our hospital, a fetus with spina bifida was delivered at 37+5 weeks' gestation by cesarean section, and was continually followed up over 2 years to date. PMID:24883294

  9. Reflection and transmission at the apparent horizon during gravitational collapse

    SciTech Connect

    Vaz, Cenalo [RWC, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0011 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0011 (United States); Wijewardhana, L. C. R. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0011 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    We examine the wave functionals describing the collapse of a self-gravitating dustball in an exact quantization of the gravity-dust system. We show that ingoing (collapsing) dust shell modes outside the apparent horizon must necessarily be accompanied by outgoing modes inside the apparent horizon, whose amplitude is suppressed by the square root of the Boltzmann factor at the Hawking temperature. Likewise, ingoing modes in the interior must be accompanied by outgoing modes in the exterior, again with an amplitude suppressed by the same factor. A suitable superposition of the two solutions is necessary to conserve the dust probability flux across the apparent horizon; thus, each region contains both ingoing and outgoing dust modes. If one restricts oneself to considering only the modes outside the apparent horizon then one should think of the apparent horizon as a partial reflector, the probability for a shell to reflect being given by the Boltzmann factor at the Hawking temperature determined by the mass contained within it. However, if one considers the entire wave function, the outgoing wave in the exterior is seen to be the transmission through the horizon of the interior outgoing wave that accompanies the collapsing shells. This transmission could allow information from the interior to be transferred to the exterior.

  10. Phonological False Memories in Children and Adults: Evidence for a Developmental Reversal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swannell, Ellen R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    False memories created by the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure typically show a developmental reversal whereby levels of false recall increase with age. In contrast, false memories produced by phonological lists have been shown to decrease as age increases. In the current study we show that phonological false memories, like semantic false

  11. Role of surface in apparent viscosity of glasses.

    PubMed

    Avramov, I

    2014-03-01

    Two problems have intrigued experts for a long time: The one is within the context of the legend of flowing cathedral glass windows and the second is the inaccuracy appearing in very old thermometers of famous scientists. We relate this with the role of the surface on the apparent viscosity of glasses. The apparent viscosity could deviate from the bulk viscosity if the fraction w of the surface molecules, of small samples, is sufficiently large. The effect is more prominent at low temperatures, correspondingly at high viscosities. The interpretation is within the Avramov and Milchev viscosity model, combined with the predictions of the change of heat capacity for extremely small samples. We find that the apparent glass transition temperature could depend on the sample size, in agreement with experimental observations existing in the literature. In addition to glasses, the present results could be of importance for thin films and foams. PMID:24730836

  12. Role of surface in apparent viscosity of glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avramov, I.

    2014-03-01

    Two problems have intrigued experts for a long time: The one is within the context of the legend of flowing cathedral glass windows and the second is the inaccuracy appearing in very old thermometers of famous scientists. We relate this with the role of the surface on the apparent viscosity of glasses. The apparent viscosity could deviate from the bulk viscosity if the fraction w of the surface molecules, of small samples, is sufficiently large. The effect is more prominent at low temperatures, correspondingly at high viscosities. The interpretation is within the Avramov and Milchev viscosity model, combined with the predictions of the change of heat capacity for extremely small samples. We find that the apparent glass transition temperature could depend on the sample size, in agreement with experimental observations existing in the literature. In addition to glasses, the present results could be of importance for thin films and foams.

  13. EFFECT OF PRESSURE ON THE APPARENT SPECIFIC VOLUME OF PROTEINS*

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, Paul F.; Kupke, D. W.; Beams, J. W.

    1969-01-01

    The magnetic densimeter has been employed to measure the densities and apparent specific volumes of certain proteins in aqueous solutions as a function of pressure. The method gave values in satisfactory agreement with those found in the literature for aqueous electrolyte solutions. A change in apparent specific volume of the monomeric proteins, ribonuclease and turnip yellow mosaic virus and its capsid protein, at pressures up to 400 atmospheres at 20°C was not observed within the precision of the measurements. Also, no change in the apparent specific volume of tobacco mosaic virus protein was observed as a function of these pressures whether the protein was predominantly in the polymerized or unpolymerized state. The magnetic densimeter was found to be a convenient instrument for measuring compressibilities of very small samples of solutions. PMID:5257142

  14. Fate of False Vacuum in Superconducting Flux Qubits

    E-print Network

    Ali Izadi Rad; Hesam Zandi; Mehdi Fardmanesh

    2014-11-26

    We propose a similarity between the scenario of fate of false vacuum in cosmology at early universe and the situation in where the quantum state decays in superconducting Flux qubit. This is due to the fact that both cases have two homogeneous stable equilibrium states in scalar field, which in quantum theory, could penetrate through the barrier in different possibilities and hence considered unstable decaying in time. In quantum computation, decay rate is among the most important factors in characteristics of the system like coherency, reliability, measurement fidelity, etc. In this considered potential, the decay rate from the penetrating (False vacuum) state to the stable (absolute minimum) state is achieved to leading order in Planck constant by the approach of Instanton model. In case of the superconducting flux qubit having thin barrier potential, the decay rate is calculated and its relations with actual set of parameters in flux qubit design are introduced.

  15. Hope, false hope, and self-fulfilling prophecy.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Harold A

    2005-01-01

    Hope, false hope, and self-fulfilling prophecy are important aspects in the practice of medicine for all practitioners but are especially important in the field of neurosurgery, which deals with devastating, terrifying, and often fatal illnesses. The American Board of Medical Specialties and the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education have jointly defined 6 "general competencies" that define a competent physician and should be part of the curriculum of all residency programs. One of these 6 is interpersonal and communication skills. A true test of this competence is the ability to harness the powerfully beneficial forces of hope and motivation and to avoid the destructiveness of false hope and self-fulfilling prophecy. PMID:15639539

  16. Gravitational wave background and Higgs false vacuum inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masina, Isabella

    2014-06-01

    For a narrow band of values of the top quark and Higgs boson masses, the standard model Higgs potential develops a shallow local minimum at energies of about 1016 GeV, where primordial inflation could have started in a cold metastable state. For each point of that band, the highness of the Higgs potential at the false minimum is calculable, and there is an associated prediction for the inflationary gravitational wave background, namely, for the tensor to scalar ratio r. We show that the recent measurement of r by the BICEP2 collaboration, r =0.16-0.05+0.06 at 1?, combined with the most up-to-date measurements of the top quark and Higgs boson masses, reveals that the hypothesis that a standard model shallow false minimum was the source of inflation in the early Universe is viable.

  17. Modality effect in false recognition: evidence from Chinese characters.

    PubMed

    Mao, Wei Bin; Yang, Zhi Liang; Wang, Lin Song

    2010-02-01

    Using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory method, Smith and Hunt ( 1998 ) first reported the modality effect on false memory and showed that false recall from DRM lists was lower following visual study than following auditory study, which led to numerous studies on the mechanism of modality effect on false memory and provided many competing explanations. In the present experiment, the authors tested the modality effect in false recognition by using a blocked presentation condition and a random presentation condition. The present experiment found a modality effect different from the results of the previous research; namely, false recognition was shown to be greater following visual study than following auditory study, especially in the blocked presentation condition rather than in the random presentation condition. The authors argued that this reversed modality effect may be due to different encoding and processing characteristics between Chinese characters and English words. Compared with English words, visual graphemes of critical lures in Chinese lists are likely to be activated and encoded in participants' minds, thus it is more difficult for participants to discriminate later inner graphemes from those items presented in visual modality. Hence visual presentation could lead to more false recognition than auditory presentation in Chinese lists. The results in the present experiment demonstrated that semantic activation occurring during the encoding and retrieve phases played an important role in modality effect in false recognition, and our findings might be explained by the activation-monitoring account. Utilisant la méthode de fausse mémoire de Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM), Smith et Hunt ( 1998 ) ont d'abord rendu compte de l'effet de modalité sur la fausse mémoire et ils ont montré que le faux rappel à partir des listes de DRM était plus faible suivant une étude visuelle plutôt qu'une étude auditive. Ceci a mené à plusieurs études sur le mécanisme de l'effet de modalité sur la fausse mémoire, lesquelles ont fourni plusieurs explications concurrentes. Dans la présente expérience, les auteurs ont testé l'effet de modalité dans la fausse reconnaissance en utilisant une condition de présentation fixe et une condition de présentation aléatoire. Cette expérience a révélé un effet de modalité différent des résultats obtenus dans les recherches antérieures. En effet, la fausse reconnaissance était plus élevée suivant une étude visuelle plutôt qu'une étude auditive, spécialement dans la condition de présentation fixe. Les auteurs suggèrent que cet effet de modalité inverse peut être dû à des caractéristiques d'encodage et de processus différentes entre les caractères chinois et les mots anglais. Comparativement aux mots anglais, les graphèmes visuels des leurres critiques dans les listes chinoises sont susceptibles d'être activés et encodés dans l'esprit des participants, rendant plus difficile de discriminer les graphèmes intériorisés plus tard de ces items présentés dans la modalité visuelle. Ainsi, la présentation visuelle pourrait mener à davantage de fausse reconnaissance que la présentation auditive dans les listes chinoises. Les résultats de la présente expérience ont démontré que l'activation sémantique se produisait durant l'encodage et que la phase de retrait jouait un rôle important dans l'effet de modalité dans la fausse reconnaissance. Nos résultats peuvent être expliqués par la théorie activation-contrôle. Utilizando el método de Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) de falsa mamoria, Smith y Hunt ( 1998 ) fueron los primeros en encontrar el efecto de modalidad en la falsa memoria y demostraron que los falsos recuerdos del listado DRM fueron más bajos después de un estudio visual que después de un estudio auditivo lo cual llevó a varios estudios sobre el mecanismo del efecto de la modalidad sobre falsos recuerdos y proporcionó varias explicaciones que compiten entre sí. En el presente trabajo, los autores estudiaron el efect

  18. Rapidly Expanding Ulnar False Aneurysm Related to a Tablet Computer.

    PubMed

    Torres-Blanco, Álvaro; Gómez-Palonés, Francisco; Ortiz-Monzón, Eduardo

    2015-07-01

    Aneurysms of the ulnar artery are rare, usually related to the hypothenar hammer syndrome and caused by repetitive blunt trauma over the hook of the hamate bone. However, rapidly expanding ulnar false aneurysms are extremely rare, and nearly all are caused by a penetrating injury. We report a singular case of rapidly expanding pseudoaneurysm caused by the repetitive use of the hypothenar eminence as the supporting point of a tablet computer. This tablet model has a notch on its posterior side that played an essential role in the pathogenesis. This report illustrate that even low-intensity trauma can be an exceptional cause of injury to the palmar portion of the ulnar artery, and subsequently, can lead to the development of these lesions. The false aneurysm was repaired by means of resection and reconstruction by an end-to-end anastomosis because a rapid diagnosis and surgical treatment can prevent further complications. PMID:25681171

  19. Analysis of False Cache Line Sharing Effects on Multicore CPUs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suntorn Sae-eung

    2010-01-01

    False sharing (FS) is a well-known problem occurring in multiprocessor systems. It results in performance degradation on multi-threaded programs running on multiprocessor environments.\\u000aWith the evolution of processor architecture over time, the multicore processor is a recent direction used by hardware designers to increase performance while avoiding heat and power walls. To fully exploit the processing power from these multicore

  20. Eye camouflage and false eyespots: chaetodontid responses to predators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen Neudecker

    1989-01-01

    Synopsis  The roles of eye camouflage and eyespots are examined within the genusChaetodon as are the various theories explaining the evolutionary significance of the brilliant colors. While eye camouflage is not\\u000a common among reef fishes, 91% of the 90 species ofChaetodon, have eyemasks (82) or black heads (4). Eye camouflage occurs concomitantly with diurnal false eyespots in 45.5% (41 of 90)

  1. Fermions bounded by kinks of false vacuum models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. de Souza Dutra; R. A. C. Correa

    2010-01-01

    In this work we address the question of existence of fermion bound-states and zero modes in the background of kinks of models presenting a structure with a false and a true vacuum. These models are important for the description of cosmological and condensed-matter systems. The spectrum of fermion bound-states on the background of kinks of a class of asymmetrical scalar

  2. [False aneurysm on dacron prosthesis, 20 years after aortofemoral bypass].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bertagni, A; Nasti, A G; Montesano, G

    2001-10-01

    A 85-year-old male developed a false, non septic, non anastomotic aneurysm, 20 years after right aorto-femoral Dacron grafting for claudication. On account of the proximity to the femoral anastomosis, and the association with a profunda femoris stenosis, a conventional surgical repair was preferred to an endovascular treatment. The patient underwent a successful aneurysm resection followed by PTFE interposition between the primary graft and the profunda femoris artery, with uneventful recovery. PMID:11692765

  3. On the false discovery rates of a frequentist: Asymptotic expansions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anirban DasGupta; Tonglin Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Consider a testing problem for the null hypothesis $H_0:\\\\theta\\\\in\\\\Theta_0$. The standard frequentist practice is to reject the null hypothesis when the p-value is smaller than a threshold value $\\\\alpha$, usually 0.05. We ask the question how many of the null hypotheses a frequentist rejects are actually true. Precisely, we look at the Bayesian false discovery rate $\\\\delta_n=P_g(\\\\theta\\\\in\\\\Theta_0|p-value<\\\\alpha)$ under a proper

  4. False-positive urine pregnancy tests--clinicians as detectives.

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Rolando; Iserson, Kenneth V; Punguyire, Damien

    2011-01-01

    Reliably diagnosing pregnancy in women presenting with nonspecific abdominal pain can be lifesaving. If diagnostic tests are unreliable, however, valuable time and resources can be wasted pursuing unnecessary and potentially harmful interventions. After four false positive-urine pregnancy tests in one week, we began investigating the laboratory's entire process involving the UPreg tests. We discovered that, as is common in resource-poor settings, the laboratory repeatedly reused test tubes. We found that the false-positive tests resulted from performing the UPreg tests in test tubes that were improperly cleaned and, for the most part, had been used immediately beforehand to test women coming into the maternity ward. Sufficient residua from the pregnant women's high ß-HCG levels had remained in the test tubes to cause subsequent false-positive results in our emergency ward patients. Although pregnancy can now be reliably diagnosed with inexpensive, disposable and simple tests, these tests must not only be used properly, but also, when used in the laboratory, be accompanied by appropriate cleaning and quality-control procedures. This is particularly essential in resource-constrained environments. PMID:22121449

  5. Reducing False Intracranial Pressure Alarms using Morphological Waveform Features

    PubMed Central

    Scalzo, Fabien; Liebeskind, David; Hu, Xiao

    2013-01-01

    False alarms produced by patient monitoring systems in intensive care units (ICU) are a major issue that causes alarm fatigue, waste of human resources, and increased patient risks. While alarms are typically triggered by manually adjusted thresholds, the trend and patterns observed prior to threshold crossing are generally not used by current systems. This study introduces and evaluates a smart alarm detection system for intracranial pressure signal (ICP) that is based on advanced pattern recognition methods. Models are trained in a supervised fashion from a comprehensive dataset of 4791 manually labelled alarm episodes extracted from 108 neurosurgical patients. The comparative analysis provided between spectral regression, kernel spectral regression, and support vector machines indicates the significant improvement of the proposed framework in detecting false ICP alarms in comparison to a threshold-based technique that is conventionally used. Another contribution of this work is to exploit an adaptive discretization to reduce the dimensionality of the input features. The resulting features lead to a decrease of 30% of false ICP alarms without compromising sensitivity. PMID:22851230

  6. Sun-glint false alarm mitigation in a maritime scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Alessandro; Riccobono, Aldo; Landini, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    Airborne hyperspectral imaging can be exploited to detect anomalous objects in the maritime scenario. Due to the objects high contrast with respect to the sea surface, detection can be easily accomplished by means of local anomaly detectors, such as the well-known Reed-Xiaoli (RX) algorithm. During the development of a real-time system for the detection of anomalous pixels, it has been noticed that the performance of detection is deeply affected by the presence of sun-glint. The reflection on the sea surface of the solar radiation produces a high density of alarms, that makes challenging the task of detecting the objects of interest. In this paper, it is introduced a strategy aimed at discriminating the sun-glint false alarms from the effective alarms related to targets of potential interest. False alarms due to glint are mitigated performing a local spatio-spectral analysis on each alarm furnished by the anomaly detector. The technique has been tested on hyperspectral images collected during a measurement campaign carried out near Pisa, Italy. The Selex ES SIMGA hyperspectral sensor was mounted on board of an airplane to collect high spectral resolution images in both the VNIR and SWIR spectral channels. Several experiments were carried out, setting up scenarios with small man-made objects deployed on the sea surface, so as to simulate search and rescue operations. The results have highlighted the effectiveness of the proposed solution in terms of mitigation of false alarms due to sun-glints on the maritime scenario.

  7. On apparent temperature in low-frequency Alfvenic turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Nariyuki, Yasuhiro [Faculty of Human Development, University of Toyama, 3190, Toyama City, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    Low-frequency, parallel propagating Alfvenic turbulence in collisionless plasmas is theoretically studied. Alfvenic turbulence is derived as an equilibrium state (Beltrami field) in the magnetohydrodynamic equations with the pressure anisotropy and multi-species of ions. It is shown that the conservation of the total 'apparent temperature' corresponds to the Bernoulli law. A simple model of the radially expanding solar wind including Alfvenic turbulence is also discussed. The conversion of the wave energy in the 'apparent temperature' into the 'real temperature' is facilitated with increasing radial distance.

  8. On apparent temperature in low-frequency Alfvénic turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nariyuki, Yasuhiro

    2012-08-01

    Low-frequency, parallel propagating Alfvénic turbulence in collisionless plasmas is theoretically studied. Alfvénic turbulence is derived as an equilibrium state (Beltrami field) in the magnetohydrodynamic equations with the pressure anisotropy and multi-species of ions. It is shown that the conservation of the total "apparent temperature" corresponds to the Bernoulli law. A simple model of the radially expanding solar wind including Alfvénic turbulence is also discussed. The conversion of the wave energy in the "apparent temperature" into the "real temperature" is facilitated with increasing radial distance.

  9. Negative regulation contributes to tissue specificity of the immunoglobulin heavy-chain enhancer.

    PubMed Central

    Imler, J L; Lemaire, C; Wasylyk, C; Wasylyk, B

    1987-01-01

    We have identified in and around the immunoglobulin heavy-chain enhancer two apparently distinct negative regulatory elements which repress immunoglobulin H enhancer, simian virus 40 enhancer, and heterologous promoter activity in fibroblasts but not in myeloma cells. We propose that in nonlymphoid cells, negative regulatory elements prevent activation of the immunoglobulin H enhancer by ubiquitous stimulatory trans-acting factors. Images PMID:3039350

  10. 47 CFR 0.560 - Penalty for false representation of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Penalty for false representation of identity. 0.560 Section 0.560 Telecommunication FEDERAL...Regulations § 0.560 Penalty for false representation of identity. Any individual who knowingly and willfully requests or...

  11. 47 CFR 0.560 - Penalty for false representation of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Penalty for false representation of identity. 0.560 Section 0.560 Telecommunication FEDERAL...Regulations § 0.560 Penalty for false representation of identity. Any individual who knowingly and willfully requests or...

  12. 47 CFR 0.560 - Penalty for false representation of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...2010-10-01 false Penalty for false representation of identity. 0.560 Section 0.560 Telecommunication FEDERAL...Regulations § 0.560 Penalty for false representation of identity. Any individual who knowingly and willfully requests or...

  13. 47 CFR 0.560 - Penalty for false representation of identity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...2011-10-01 false Penalty for false representation of identity. 0.560 Section 0.560 Telecommunication FEDERAL...Regulations § 0.560 Penalty for false representation of identity. Any individual who knowingly and willfully requests or...

  14. 75 FR 34448 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ...False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY...False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' This document extends the comment...False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' EPA is hereby extending the...

  15. 28 CFR 2.30 - False information or new criminal conduct: Discovery after release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false False information or new criminal conduct: Discovery after release. 2.30 Section 2.30...Parolees § 2.30 False information or new criminal conduct: Discovery after release. If evidence...

  16. 28 CFR 2.30 - False information or new criminal conduct: Discovery after release.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false False information or new criminal conduct: Discovery after release. 2.30 Section 2.30...Parolees § 2.30 False information or new criminal conduct: Discovery after release. If evidence...

  17. Negative energy waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lashmore-Davies, C. N.

    2005-04-01

    A brief history of the concept of negative energy waves in fluid and plasma media is given. The theory of microwave tubes is highlighted, where the small signal power theorem was first derived, which led to the interpretation of these devices in terms of the interaction of positive and negative energy waves. Three examples are described to illustrate the use of negative waves in stability problems. The first is concerned with the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in neutral fluids. The second comes from a kinetic theory of instability in a collisionless shock wave in a magnetized plasma, and the third is concerned with the effect of a resistive wall and plasma flow on the magnetohydrodynamic stability of a magnetically confined plasma. The paper ends with some general conclusions.

  18. What's in a name for memory errors? Implications and ethical issues arising from the use of the term "false memory" for errors in memory for details.

    PubMed

    DePrince, Anne P; Allard, Carolyn B; Oh, Hannah; Freyd, Jennifer J

    2004-01-01

    The term "false memories" has been used to refer to suggestibility experiments in which whole events are apparently confabulated and in media accounts of contested memories of childhood abuse. Since 1992 psychologists have increasingly used the term "false memory" when discussing memory errors for details, such as specific words within lists. Use of the term to refer to errors in details is a shift in language away from other terms used historically (e.g., "memory intrusions"). We empirically examine this shift in language and discuss implications of the new use of the term "false memories." Use of the term presents serious ethical challenges to the data-interpretation process by encouraging over-generalization and misapplication of research findings on word memory to social issues. PMID:15875322

  19. Realistic artificial DNA sequences as negative controls for computational genomics

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, Juan; Smit, Arian F. A.; Hood, Leroy; Glusman, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    A common practice in computational genomic analysis is to use a set of ‘background’ sequences as negative controls for evaluating the false-positive rates of prediction tools, such as gene identification programs and algorithms for detection of cis-regulatory elements. Such ‘background’ sequences are generally taken from regions of the genome presumed to be intergenic, or generated synthetically by ‘shuffling’ real sequences. This last method can lead to underestimation of false-positive rates. We developed a new method for generating artificial sequences that are modeled after real intergenic sequences in terms of composition, complexity and interspersed repeat content. These artificial sequences can serve as an inexhaustible source of high-quality negative controls. We used artificial sequences to evaluate the false-positive rates of a set of programs for detecting interspersed repeats, ab initio prediction of coding genes, transcribed regions and non-coding genes. We found that RepeatMasker is more accurate than PClouds, Augustus has the lowest false-positive rate of the coding gene prediction programs tested, and Infernal has a low false-positive rate for non-coding gene detection. A web service, source code and the models for human and many other species are freely available at http://repeatmasker.org/garlic/. PMID:24803667

  20. Realistic artificial DNA sequences as negative controls for computational genomics.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Juan; Smit, Arian F A; Hood, Leroy; Glusman, Gustavo

    2014-07-01

    A common practice in computational genomic analysis is to use a set of 'background' sequences as negative controls for evaluating the false-positive rates of prediction tools, such as gene identification programs and algorithms for detection of cis-regulatory elements. Such 'background' sequences are generally taken from regions of the genome presumed to be intergenic, or generated synthetically by 'shuffling' real sequences. This last method can lead to underestimation of false-positive rates. We developed a new method for generating artificial sequences that are modeled after real intergenic sequences in terms of composition, complexity and interspersed repeat content. These artificial sequences can serve as an inexhaustible source of high-quality negative controls. We used artificial sequences to evaluate the false-positive rates of a set of programs for detecting interspersed repeats, ab initio prediction of coding genes, transcribed regions and non-coding genes. We found that RepeatMasker is more accurate than PClouds, Augustus has the lowest false-positive rate of the coding gene prediction programs tested, and Infernal has a low false-positive rate for non-coding gene detection. A web service, source code and the models for human and many other species are freely available at http://repeatmasker.org/garlic/. PMID:24803667

  1. APPARENT DIFFUSION DUE TO MOUNTAIN MICROSTRUCTURE IN SHALLOW WATERS

    E-print Network

    Solna, Knut

    a small random component. In the sequel we refer to the transformation of the pulse, due to uctuations cause the propagating pulse to broaden as it travels. The so called apparent di#11;usion (or pulse realization. This is con#12;rmed numerically. Numerical experiments also show that the theory describing pulse

  2. Spatial Attention and Audiovisual Interactions in Apparent Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanabria, Daniel; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Spence, Charles

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors combined the cross-modal dynamic capture task (involving the horizontal apparent movement of visual and auditory stimuli) with spatial cuing in the vertical dimension to investigate the role of spatial attention in cross-modal interactions during motion perception. Spatial attention was manipulated endogenously, either…

  3. Intravascular missile: apparent retrograde course from the left ventricle.

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, R K; Pawade, A; Prior, A L

    1988-01-01

    An air gun pellet was found in the right superior pulmonary vein after penetrating the left ventricle of a 14 year old boy. This apparent retrograde movement in the left side of the heart has not been reported previously. Images PMID:3047903

  4. Imaging malignant and apparent malignant transformation of benign gynaecological disease.

    PubMed

    Lee, A Y; Poder, L; Qayyum, A; Wang, Z J; Yeh, B M; Coakley, F V

    2010-12-01

    Common benign gynaecological diseases, such as leiomyoma, adenomyosis, endometriosis, and mature teratoma, rarely undergo malignant transformation. Benign transformations that may mimic malignancy include benign metastasizing leiomyoma, massive ovarian oedema, decidualization of endometrioma, and rupture of mature teratoma. The aim of this review is to provide a contemporary overview of imaging findings in malignant and apparent malignant transformation of benign gynaecological disease. PMID:21070909

  5. Apparent competition between parasitoids mediated by a shared hyperparasitoid

    E-print Network

    van Nouhuys, Saskya

    Apparent competition between parasitoids mediated by a shared hyperparasitoid Abstract Cocoons of the specialist parasitoid Cotesia melitaearum, which attacks the Glanville fritillary butterfly in the AÊ land not compete for resources. After the one-time addition of the second parasitoid the natural populations of C

  6. Determination of Transient Apparent Impedances of Faulted Transmission Lines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Jeyasurya; W. J. Smolinski; T. H. Vu

    1983-01-01

    The paper describes a method of determining transient apparent impedances of faulted transmission lines, as would be seen by a digital distance relay. Typical relay operating results are presented. The method described in this paper may be applied to any existing digital distance relay and digital filter algorithms, and therefore enables one to seek out what may be considered the

  7. The variation of apparent crown size and canopy heterogeneity across

    E-print Network

    Malhi, Yadvinder

    virtual globe software (e.g. Google Earth®) to determine two key structural variables: apparent mean crown generated by the light interaction model (discrete anisotropic radiative transfer, DART) using three-dimensional stand models. The effects of sun and viewing angles are explored on both model and real data. Results

  8. Mars Surface Heterogeneity From Variations in Apparent Thermal Inertia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. Putzig; M. T. Mellon

    2005-01-01

    Current techniques used in the calculation of thermal inertia from observed brightness temperatures typically assume that planetary surface properties are uniform on the scale of the instrument's observational footprint. Mixed or layered surfaces may yield different apparent thermal inertia values at different seasons or times of day due to the nonlinear relationship between temperature and thermal inertia. To obtain sufficient

  9. INTRODUCTION Unlike Earth, Venus apparently lacks plate tectonics. Thus

    E-print Network

    Jurdy, Donna M.

    INTRODUCTION Unlike Earth, Venus apparently lacks plate tectonics. Thus plumes may be an important at different scales has been attributed to plume or diapiric activ- ity on Venus. Examples of these include activity in the Beta-Atla-Themis region, Venus Audeliz Matias Donna M. Jurdy* Department of Geological

  10. Apparent horizons in D-dimensional Robinson-Trautman spacetime

    E-print Network

    Otakar Svitek

    2008-12-17

    We derive the higher dimensional generalization of Penrose-Tod equation describing apparent horizons in Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. New results concerning the existence and uniqueness of its solutions in four dimensions are proven. Namely, previous results of Tod are generalized to nonvanishing cosmological constant.

  11. Negative pressure wave-flow testing gas pipeline leak based on wavelet transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chunlong Ma; Shuhan Yu; Jinming Huo

    2010-01-01

    To solve the problem of high false alarm rate and low positioning accuracy in the gas leak location detection, a new method is designed, in which wavelet transform is used to extract gas leak negative pressure wave signal, the gas leaks and positioning can be detected by using the method of negative pressure wave combined with flow balance. An algorithm

  12. Carbon-negative biofuels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Mathews

    2008-01-01

    Current Kyoto-based approaches to reducing the earth's greenhouse gas problem involve looking for ways to reduce emissions. But these are palliative at best, and at worst will allow the problem to get out of hand. It is only through sequestration of atmospheric carbon that the problem can be solved. Carbon-negative biofuels represent the first potentially huge assault on the problem,

  13. Negative Transportation in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Ellen F.

    There is a class of verbs in French which require that their complement verb be in the indicative. However, if the matrix clause contains a negative or an interrogative, the complement verb is usually in the subjunctive, but sometimes in the indicative. Examples are the verbs "penser" and "croire" in sentences such as: 1) Elle ne croit pas que…

  14. Negative Binomial Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kyle Siegrist

    This resource consists of a Java applet and descriptive text. The applet illustrates the number of trials needed to get a specified number of successes in Bernoulli trials, in terms of random points on a discrete timeline. The applet illustrates the negative binomial distribution. The number of successes and the probability of success can be varied.

  15. Anthropological objects and negation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marie-Jeanne Borel

    1992-01-01

    Ever since Kant, the possibility of having objects of knowledge has been one of the most basic anthropological questions (“what can I know?”). For the logician, the linguist, or the semiologist who studies natural language, negation is one of these objects. However, as an operation and as a symbol, it has the paradoxical property of not being able to be

  16. The Negative Repetition Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Neil W.; Peterson, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental property of human memory is that repetition enhances memory. Peterson and Mulligan (2012) recently documented a surprising "negative repetition effect," in which participants who studied a list of cue-target pairs twice recalled fewer targets than a group who studied the pairs only once. Words within a pair rhymed, and…

  17. Negative pressure wound therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHAEL KIRBY

    2010-01-01

    D iabetic foot disease is a major global burden. Foot ulcers frequently develop complications and become chronic, representing a considerable challenge as these are typically very difficult to treat. New therapies are needed to address these wounds and there is an increasing focus on negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). This technique has been shown to accelerate wound healing and although

  18. Negative pressure wound therapy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Kirby

    2007-01-01

    iabetic foot disease is a major global burden. Foot ulcers frequently develop complications and become chronic, representing a considerable challenge as these are typically very difficult to treat. New therapies are needed to address these wounds and there is an increasing focus on negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). This technique has been shown to accelerate wound healing and although its

  19. Negative Mass Propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winterberg, F.

    Schrödinger's analysis of the Dirac equation gives a hint for the existence of negative masses hidden behind positive masses. But their use for propulsion by reducing the inertia of matter for example, in the limit of macroscopic bodied with zero rest mass, depends on a technical solution to free them from their imprisonment by positive masses. It appears that there are basically two ways this might be achieved: 1. By the application of strong electromagnetic or gravitational fields or by high particle energies. 2. By searching for places in the universe where nature has already done this separation, and from where the negative masses can be mined. The first of these two possibilities is for all practical means excluded, because if possible at all, it would depend on electromagnetic or gravitational fields with strength beyond what is technically attainable, or on extremely large likewise not attainable particle energies. With regard to the 2nd possibility, it has been observed that non-baryonic cold dark matter tends to accumulate near the center of galaxies, or places in the universe which have a large gravitational potential well. Because of the equivalence principle of general relativity, the attraction towards the center of a gravitational potential well, produced by a positive mass, is for negative masses the same as for positive masses, and large amounts of negative masses might have over billions of years been trapped in these gravitational potential wells. Now it just happens that the center of the moon is a potential well, not too deep that it cannot be reached by making a tunnel through the moon, not possible for the deeper potential well of the earth, where the temperature and pressure are too high. Making a tunnel through the moon, provided there is a good supply of negative mass, could revolutionize interstellar space flight. A sequence of thermonuclear shape charges would make such tunnel technically feasible.

  20. Bilateral eyelid erythema associated with false eyelash glue.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Tatsuya

    2013-03-01

    We report an unusual case of bilateral eyelid erythema caused by eyelash glue. A 22-year-old woman presented with a 3-day history of bilateral eyelid dermatitis after attaching false eyelashes by using latex-containing glue. Slit-lamp examination revealed erythema and swelling of the upper lids of both eyes. The skin prick test was positive for eyelash glue and her total tear IgE score was high. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of bilateral eyelid dermatitis caused by eyelash glue. PMID:22519514

  1. Mechanisms for Generating False Positives for Extrasolar Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Meadows, Victoria; Schwieterman, Edward; Luger, Rodrigo; Wordsworth, Robin; Barnes, Rory; Segura, Antigona; Claire, Mark; Virtual Planetary Laboratory

    2015-01-01

    Future mission concepts designed to look for life generally plan to search for oxygen (O2), ozone (O3), and/or methane (CH4). However, mechanisms exist for generating each of these species abiotically. In this presentation, we will review these processes, and discuss the atmospheres that result from them. In general, false positives can form in atmospheres with severe redox imbalance. This redox imbalance can also be thought of as extreme elemental composition, skewed towards very high or very low O/H ratios. Specific examples of this include: 1) loss of H through the top of a planetary atmosphere that leads to high O/H and an atmosphere rich in O2 and O3 2) atmospheres whose volcanism is O-rich and H-poor (i.e., highly oxidized), which leads to an atmosphere that with high O/H that can accumulate O3 and potentially O2 3) atmospheres in which H escape is slow, leading to low O/H and accumulation of CH4 and 4) atmospheres in which volcanic outgassing is H-rich (highly reduced), leading to low O/H and potential accumulation of CH4. Each of these cases would constitute a 'false positive' for life if O2, O3, or CH4 were detected without obtaining the chemical atmospheric context that could indicate a severe redox imbalance exists.Methods exist for discriminating between these 'false positives' where the gases arise from abiotic sources, and 'true positives' where the gases arise by biological sources. The best means of doing this is to obtain measurements of both O-rich (O2/O3) and H-rich (CH4) species, allowing identification of non-extreme O/H ratios in the atmosphere, and eliminating this abiotic source of O2, O3, and CH4. Because this is the most likely cause of abiotic production of these species, the elimination of this explanation would indicate that these gases were instead likely produced by biology.More specific methods to identify each of these false positives mechanisms also exist, but will not be discussed in detail in this presentation.

  2. Poisoning due to ingestion of Veratrum viride (false hellebore).

    PubMed

    Jaffe, A M; Gephardt, D; Courtemanche, L

    1990-01-01

    We present six cases of poisoning due to ingestion of Veratrum viride (false hellebore) and review the physiology of veratrum alkaloids. Significant bradycardia and hypotension can occur after intoxication by veratrum plants, which grow widely in swampy areas of the eastern and western United States. Nausea and vomiting also occur typically after ingestion. Atropine is the mainstay of therapy, but pressors may be required to maintain blood pressure. Cases of veratrum poisoning have not been widely reported in the emergency medicine literature. PMID:2362117

  3. Quantification of false positives within Moon Zoo crater annotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tar, P.; Thacker, N.

    2014-04-01

    The Moon Zoo citizen science project [1] allows members of the public to annotate lunar images, providing researchers with a wealth of location and size information regarding the population of small craters on the Moon. To date, approximately 4 million images have been inspected. Here, we show how a quantitative pattern recognition system can be used to estimate the quantity of contamination in Moon Zoo data from erroneous annotations. The proposed method produces not only estimates of true verses false crater annotations, but also a full error covariance, with additional conformity checks, which is essential for the meaningful interpretation of measurements, e.g. for plotting error bars.

  4. False-positive reduction in CAD mass detection using a competitive classification strategy.

    PubMed

    Li, L; Zheng, Y; Zhang, L; Clark, R A

    2001-02-01

    High false-positive (FP) rate remains to be one of the major problems to be solved in CAD study because too many false-positively cued signals will potentially degrade the performance of detecting true-positive regions and increase the call-back rate in CAD environment. In this paper, we proposed a novel classification method for FP reduction, where the conventional "hard" decision classifier is cascaded with a "soft" decision classification with the objective to reduce false-positives in the cases with multiple FPs retained after the "hard" decision classification. The "soft" classification takes a competitive classification strategy in which only the "best" ones are selected from the pre-classified suspicious regions as the true mass in each case. A neural network structure is designed to implement the proposed competitive classification. Comparative studies of FP reduction on a database of 79 images by a "hard" decision classification and a combined "hard"-"soft" classification method demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed classification strategy. For example, for the high FP sub-database which has only 31.7% of total images but accounts for 63.5% of whole FPs generated in single "hard" classification, the FPs can be reduced for 56% (from 8.36 to 3.72 per image) by using the proposed method at the cost of 1% TP loss (from 69% to 68%) in whole database, while it can only be reduced for 27% (from 8.36 to 6.08 per image) by simply increasing the threshold of "hard" classifier with a cost of TP loss as high as 14% (from 69% to 55%). On the average in whole database, the FP reduction by hybrid "hard"-"soft" classification is 1.58 per image as compared to 1.11 by "hard" classification at the TP costs described above. Because the cases with high dense tissue are of higher risk of cancer incidence and false-negative detection in mammogram screening, and usually generate more FPs in CAD detection, the method proposed in this paper will be very helpful in improving the performance of early detection of breast cancer with CAD. PMID:11243350

  5. False Positives in Genomic Map Assembly and Sequence Validation 1

    E-print Network

    Mishra, Bud

    negatives (wasted data) is permitted. The critical component of this algorithm is an accurate bound a solution map is close to zero, but improves suddenly to probability one as the experimental pa­ rameters by NSF Career Grant IRI­9702071, DOE Grant 25­74100­F1799, NYU Research Challenge Grant, NYU Curriculum

  6. 19th Century Spiritualism: How proponents deploy particular arguments in order to maintain belief despite negative evidence 

    E-print Network

    Rocca, Victoria

    2013-03-13

    In order to extend our understanding of the communicative practices involved in belief maintenance, the current paper examines how proponents of 19th century Spiritualism defended their beliefs despite apparent negative ...

  7. Gunshot acoustic signature specific features and false alarms reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donzier, Alain; Millet, Joel

    2005-05-01

    This paper provides a detailed analysis of the most specific parameters of gunshot signatures through models as well as through real data. The models for the different contributions to gunshot typical signature (shock and muzzle blast) are presented and used to discuss the variation of measured signatures over the different environmental conditions and shot configurations. The analysis is followed by a description of the performance requirements for gunshot detection systems, from sniper detection that was the main concern 10 years ago, to the new and more challenging conditions faced in today operations. The work presented examines the process of how systems are deployed and used as well as how the operational environment has changed. The main sources of false alarms and new threats such as RPGs and mortars that acoustic gunshot detection systems have to face today are also defined and discussed. Finally, different strategies for reducing false alarms are proposed based on the acoustic signatures. Different strategies are presented through various examples of specific missions ranging from vehicle protection to area protection. These strategies not only include recommendation on how to handle acoustic information for the best efficiency of the acoustic detector but also recommends some add-on sensors to enhance system overall performance.

  8. Controlling the local false discovery rate in the adaptive Lasso.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Joshua N; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Carroll, Raymond J; Müller, Samuel

    2013-09-01

    The Lasso shrinkage procedure achieved its popularity, in part, by its tendency to shrink estimated coefficients to zero, and its ability to serve as a variable selection procedure. Using data-adaptive weights, the adaptive Lasso modified the original procedure to increase the penalty terms for those variables estimated to be less important by ordinary least squares. Although this modified procedure attained the oracle properties, the resulting models tend to include a large number of "false positives" in practice. Here, we adapt the concept of local false discovery rates (lFDRs) so that it applies to the sequence, ?n, of smoothing parameters for the adaptive Lasso. We define the lFDR for a given ?n to be the probability that the variable added to the model by decreasing ?n to ?n-? is not associated with the outcome, where ? is a small value. We derive the relationship between the lFDR and ?n, show lFDR =1 for traditional smoothing parameters, and show how to select ?n so as to achieve a desired lFDR. We compare the smoothing parameters chosen to achieve a specified lFDR and those chosen to achieve the oracle properties, as well as their resulting estimates for model coefficients, with both simulation and an example from a genetic study of prostate specific antigen. PMID:23575212

  9. Repressed memories. When are they real? How are they false?

    PubMed

    Loftus, E F; Polage, D C

    1999-03-01

    The precise mechanisms by which such false memories are constructed awaits further research. Much is left to learn about the degree of confidence and the characteristics of false memories created in these ways. We have more to learn about the types of individuals who are particularly susceptible to these forms of suggestion, and conversely, who is resistant. As we are learning more, it is probably important to heed the cautionary tale in the data already obtained; mental health professionals, interviewers, and others need to know how much they can potentially influence participants in research, clinical, and forensic contexts and take care to avoid that influence when it might be harmful. Periodic re-reading of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, with a small substitution (change "poet" to "therapist" or to "biased interviewer"), might help keep these important ideas in mind, reminding us how hard it can sometimes be to distinguish a bush from an imagined bear: The poet's eye, in fine fanciful rolling, Doth glance from heaven to earth, from earth to heaven; And as imagination bodies forth The forms of things unknown, the poet's pen Turns them to shapes and gives to airy nothing A local habitation and a name. Such tricks hath strong imagination, that if it would but apprehend some joy, it comprehends some bringer of that joy; Or in the night, imagining some fear, How easy is a bush supposed a bear! PMID:10083945

  10. THE XO PLANETARY SURVEY PROJECT: ASTROPHYSICAL FALSE POSITIVES

    SciTech Connect

    Poleski, Radosaw [Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); McCullough, Peter R.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Burke, Christopher J.; Machalek, Pavel [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Janes, Kenneth, E-mail: rpoleski@astrouw.edu.p [Astronomy Department, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Searches for planetary transits find many astrophysical false positives as a by-product. There are four main types analyzed in the literature: a grazing-incidence eclipsing binary (EB) star, an EB star with a small radius companion star, a blend of one or more stars with an unrelated EB star, and a physical triple star system. We present a list of 69 astrophysical false positives that had been identified as candidates of transiting planets of the on-going XO survey. This list may be useful in order to avoid redundant observation and characterization of these particular candidates that have been independently identified by other wide-field searches for transiting planets. The list may be useful for those modeling the yield of the XO survey and surveys similar to it. Subsequent observations of some of the listed stars may improve mass-radius relations, especially for low-mass stars. From the candidates exhibiting eclipses, we report three new spectroscopic double-line binaries and give mass function estimations for 15 single-line spectroscopic binaries.

  11. View of 'Cape St. Mary' from 'Cape Verde' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a promontory called 'Cape St. Mary' from the from the vantage point of 'Cape Verde,' the next promontory counterclockwise around the crater's deeply scalloped rim. This view of Cape St. Mary combines several exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera into a false-color mosaic. Contrast has been adjusted to improve the visibility of details in shaded areas.

    The upper portion of the crater wall contains a jumble of material tossed outward by the impact that excavated the crater. This vertical cross-section through the blanket of ejected material surrounding the crater was exposed by erosion that expanded the crater outward from its original diameter, according to scientists' interpretation of the observations. Below the jumbled material in the upper part of the wall are layers that survive relatively intact from before the crater-causing impact. Near the base of the Cape St. Mary cliff are layers with a pattern called 'crossbedding,' intersecting with each other at angles, rather than parallel to each other. Large-scale crossbedding can result from material being deposited as wind-blown dunes.

    The images combined into this mosaic were taken during the 970th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Oct. 16, 2006). The panoramic camera took them through the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters. The false color enhances subtle color differences among materials in the rocks and soils of the scene.

  12. Estimating False Discovery Proportion Under Arbitrary Covariance Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Jianqing; Han, Xu; Gu, Weijie

    2012-01-01

    Multiple hypothesis testing is a fundamental problem in high dimensional inference, with wide applications in many scientific fields. In genome-wide association studies, tens of thousands of tests are performed simultaneously to find if any SNPs are associated with some traits and those tests are correlated. When test statistics are correlated, false discovery control becomes very challenging under arbitrary dependence. In the current paper, we propose a novel method based on principal factor approximation, which successfully subtracts the common dependence and weakens significantly the correlation structure, to deal with an arbitrary dependence structure. We derive an approximate expression for false discovery proportion (FDP) in large scale multiple testing when a common threshold is used and provide a consistent estimate of realized FDP. This result has important applications in controlling FDR and FDP. Our estimate of realized FDP compares favorably with Efron (2007)’s approach, as demonstrated in the simulated examples. Our approach is further illustrated by some real data applications. We also propose a dependence-adjusted procedure, which is more powerful than the fixed threshold procedure. PMID:24729644

  13. Six consecutive false positive cases from cell-free fetal DNA testing in a single referring centre

    PubMed Central

    Dugo, Nella; Padula, Francesco; Mobili, Luisa; Brizzi, Cristiana; D’Emidio, Laura; Cignini, Pietro; Mesoraca, Alvaro; Bizzoco, Domenico; Cima, Antonella; Giorlandino, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Introduction recent studies have proposed the introduction of cell-free fetal DNA testing (NIPT-Non Invasive Prenatal Testing) in routine clinical practice emphasizing its high sensibility and specificity. In any case, false positive and false negative findings may result from placental mosaicism, because cell-free fetal DNA originates mainly from placenta. Case we report six cases of women who underwent chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis to confirm the results from NIPT: two Turner syndromes, two Triple X, one Patau syndrome, one Edward syndrome. Results using classic cytogenetic analysis and, also, Array - Comparative Genomic Hybridization (Array CGH) the karyotype of all 5 fetuses was found to be normal. Conclusion results from NIPT must always be confirmed by invasive prenatal diagnosis. It is mandatory to inform the patient that the CVS and amniocentesis still represent the only form of prenatal diagnostic test available. PMID:25332757

  14. Apparent disappearance of Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus from Ossabaw Island, Georgia.

    PubMed

    Killmaster, Lindsay Fann; Stallknecht, David E; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Moulton, John K; Smith, Paul F; Mead, Daniel G

    2011-05-01

    Ossabaw Island, Georgia, is the only reported endemic focus of Vesicular Stomatitis New Jersey Virus (VSNJV) in the United States. Based on recent negative serologic results of white-tailed deer and feral swine and the failure to isolate VSNJV from Lutzomyia shannoni, it appears that VSNJV is no longer present at this site. This apparent disappearance does not appear to be related to a change in L. shannoni habitat, specifically to the density of tree holes in the maritime and mixed hardwood forests. We believe that the disappearance of VSNJV from Ossabaw Island is directly related to a reduction in the feral swine population and a subsequent increase in the utilization of white-tailed deer by the known vector, L. shannoni. PMID:20954866

  15. A clinically novel AIP mutation in a patient with a very large, apparently sporadic somatotrope adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Daly, Adrian F; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Thiry, Albert; Beckers, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Summary Heterozygous germline inactivating mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene lead to pituitary adenomas that most frequently present in the setting of familial isolated pituitary adenoma syndrome, usually as somatotropinomas and prolactinomas. More recently, they have been found in a significant percentage of young patients presenting with pituitary macroadenoma without any apparent family history. We describe the case of a 19-year-old man who presented with a gigantic somatotropinoma. His family history was negative. His peripheral DNA showed a heterozygous AIP mutation (p.I13N), while tumor tissue only had the mutated allele, showing loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and suggesting that the mutation caused the disease. Learning points AIP mutations may be observed in sporadic somatotrope adenomas occurring in young patients.LOH is a strong indicator that an AIP variant is disease causing.Somatotrope adenomas in carriers of AIP mutations are generally larger and more difficult to cure. PMID:25136448

  16. Line tension and reduction of apparent contact angle associated with electric double layers

    E-print Network

    Aaron Dörr; Steffen Hardt

    2014-11-05

    The line tension of an electrolyte wetting a non-polar substrate is computed analytically and numerically. The results show that, depending on the value of the apparent contact angle, positive or negative line tension values may be obtained. Furthermore, a significant difference between Young's contact angle and the apparent contact angle measured several Debye lengths remote from the three-phase contact line occurs. When applying the results to water wetting highly charged surfaces, line tension values of the same order of magnitude as found in recent experiments can be achieved. Therefore, the theory presented may contribute to the understanding of line tension measurements and points to the importance of the electrostatic line tension. Being strongly dependent on the interfacial charge density, electrostatic line tension is found to be tunable via the pH value of the involved electrolyte. As a practical consequence, the stability of nanoparticles adsorbed at fluid-fluid interfaces is predicted to be dependent on the pH value. The theory is suited for future incorporation of effects due to surfactants where even larger line tension values can be expected.

  17. Think (Gram) negative!

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family in Europe is a worrisome phenomenon. Extended spectrum betalactamase-producing Escherichia coli strains are widespread in the community and are frequently imported into the hospital. Of even more concern is the spread of carbapenem-resistant strains of Klebsiella spp. from regions where they are already endemic. Antibiotic use is a main driver of antibiotic resistance, which again increases broad spectrum antibiotic use, resulting in a vicious circle that is difficult to interrupt. The present commentary highlights important findings of a surveillance study of antimicrobial use and resistance in German ICUs over 8 years with a focus on Gram-negative resistance. PMID:20587087

  18. Positive hepatitis B virus core antibody in HIV infection--false positive or evidence of previous infection?

    PubMed

    Pallawela, S N S; Sonnex, C; Mabayoje, D; Bloch, E; Chaytor, S; Johnson, M A; Carne, C; Webster, D P

    2015-02-01

    Isolated HBV core antibody (anti-HBc) is defined as the presence of anti-HBc with a negative HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs <10?IU/l). In patients infected with HIV with isolated anti-HBc, the aim was to determine: The prevalence of isolated positive anti-HBc; The most effective method of identifying which patients have had previous Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection; The prevalence of false positive anti-HBc. HBV serology results were identified from 539 patients infected with HIV sampled between January 2010 and December 2012. In those with an isolated anti-HBc and negative anti-HBe, a second anti-HBc test was carried out using a different assay. Samples were also screened for HBV DNA. The anti-retroviral regimens at time of screening were documented. 101/539 had an isolated anti-HBc. Of these, 32 (32%) had a positive anti-HBe (including 1 equivocal) and 69(68%) were anti-HBe negative. Of those negative for anti-HBe, 32 were tested for both DNA and a second anti-HBc. Of these 26 (81%) were on cART at time of HBV testing, with 25 (78%) on ART with anti-HBV activity. The prevalence of isolated anti-HBc was 19%. Only 32% were also anti-HBe positive, whereas 97% of those anti-HBe negative were positive on a second anti-HBc assay suggesting lack of utility of anti-HBe in resolving serological quandaries. One subject (3%) had a false positive anti-HBc. There was no evidence of chronic HBV but 78% patients were on HBV-suppressive combination anti-retroviral therapy. PMID:25174739

  19. POSSIBLE DETECTION OF APPARENT SUPERLUMINAL INWARD MOTION IN MARKARIAN 421 AFTER THE GIANT X-RAY FLARE IN 2010 FEBRUARY

    SciTech Connect

    Niinuma, K. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8511 (Japan); Kino, M.; Oyama, T. [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Nagai, H. [ALMA-J Project, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Isobe, N. [Institute of Space and Astronautics, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Gabanyi, K. E. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Research Group for Physical Geodesy and Geodynamics, FOMI Satellite Geodetic Observatory Budapest, 1592 Budapest (Hungary); Hada, K. [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Koyama, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan); Asada, K. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Fujisawa, K., E-mail: niinuma@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Research Institute for Time Studies, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8511 (Japan)

    2012-11-10

    We report on the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) follow-up observations using the Japanese VLBI Network array at 22 GHz for the largest X-ray flare of TeV blazar Mrk 421 that occurred in 2010 mid-February. The total of five epochs of observations were performed at intervals of about 20 days between 2010 March 7 and May 31. No newborn component associated with the flare was seen directly in the total intensity images obtained by our multi-epoch VLBI observations. However, one jet component located at {approx}1 mas northwest from the core was able to be identified, and its proper motion can be measured as -1.66 {+-} 0.46 mas yr{sup -1}, which corresponds to an apparent velocity of -3.48 {+-} 0.97c. Here, this negative velocity indicates that the jet component was apparently moving toward the core. As the most plausible explanation, we discuss that the apparent negative velocity was possibly caused by the ejection of a new component, which could not be resolved with our observations. In this case, the obtained Doppler factor of the new component is around 10-20, which is consistent with the ones typically estimated by model fittings of spectral energy distribution for this source.

  20. Intelligent method of reducing BIT's false alarm based on SVM_FCA_HMM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sun Ping; Zhang Wenjin

    2011-01-01

    BIT's false alarm is one of the most important reasons of restricting testability's development. In order to decrease BIT's false alarm and develop BITE's performance, this paper discusses present situation of BIT's false alarm at first, then introduces several advanced models of reducing false alarm which are neural network, support vector machine, fuzzy clustering analysis and hidden Markov model. After

  1. Defect-assisted apparent lowering of band offsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stievenard, D.; Letartre, X.; Lannoo, M.; Ababou, S.; Guillot, G.

    1994-04-01

    We present a study of the emission of electrons from a well into the conduction band of the associated barrier. The process involved is not the usual thermionic one but a defect-assisted tunneling process, occurring from the quantum states of the well to the energy levels of the conduction band of the associated barrier, and via the energy level associated with a defect located in the barrier. This tunneling process occurs because there is band bending of the conduction band associated with the charge located in the well. This mechanism results in an apparent lowering of the band offset, which is a function of the ionization energy ?0 associated with the defect. Evidence of this effect is obtained on a AlxIn1-xAs/GayIn1-yAs/AlxIn1-xAs quantum well. The apparent offset lowering is measured using the admittance spectroscopy technique and is consistent with theory.

  2. Simple method for calculating apparent resistivity from electromagnetic sounding data

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, M.; Stark, M.

    1982-01-01

    In this note the authors have introduced a simple method for calculating apparent resistivity from frequency-domain EM sounding data. The method is sufficiently simple for in-field use, provides valuable feedback of data quality, and gives qualitative evaluation of incoming results. The apparent resistivity spectra may be interpreted with existing MT software, but since curves do not closely approximate plane-wave conditions for all frequencies, this procedure should be used with caution. The scheme may be applied easily to frequency-domain configurations other than the loop-loop setup shown here, and the application of the method to time-domain EM sounding should simply require a Fourier transform of the appropriate generalized curves.

  3. Think (Gram) negative!

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedikt Huttner; Stephan Harbarth

    2010-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of multiresistant Gram-negative bacteria of the Enterobacteriaceae family in Europe is a worrisome\\u000a phenomenon. Extended spectrum betalactamase-producing Escherichia coli strains are widespread in the community and are frequently imported into the hospital. Of even more concern is the spread\\u000a of carbapenem-resistant strains of Klebsiella spp. from regions where they are already endemic. Antibiotic use is a main

  4. Algebra Balance Scales - Negatives

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Utah State University

    2009-07-01

    This site provides a virtual balance on which the student can represent (and then solve) simple linear equations with integer answers. Conceptually, positive weights (unit-blocks and x-boxes) push the pans of the scale downward. Negative values are represented by balloons which can be attached to the pans of the scale. The student can then manipulate the weights to solve the equation while simultaneously seeing a visual display of these effects on the equation.

  5. Apparent Interfacial Fracture Toughness of Resin\\/Ceramic Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Della Bona; K. J. Anusavice; J. J. Mecholsky

    2006-01-01

    We suggest that the apparent interfacial fracture toughness (KA) may be estimated by fracture mechanics and fractography. This study tested the hypothesis that the KA of the adhesion zone of resin\\/ceramic systems is affected by the ceramic microstructure. Lithia disilicate-based (Empress2-E2) and leucite-based (Empress-E1) ceramics were surface-treated with hydrofluoric acid (HF) and\\/or silane (S), followed by an adhesive resin. Microtensile

  6. Apparent absorption of solar spectral irradiance in heterogeneous ice clouds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Sebastian Schmidt; Peter Pilewskie; Bernhard Mayer; Manfred Wendisch; Bruce Kindel; Steven Platnick; Michael D. King; Gala Wind; G. Tom Arnold; Lin Tian; Gerald Heymsfield; Heike Kalesse

    2010-01-01

    Coordinated flight legs of two aircraft above and below extended ice clouds played an important role in the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling Experiment (Costa Rica, 2007). The Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer measured up- and downward irradiance on the high-altitude (ER-2) and the low-altitude (DC-8) aircraft, which allowed deriving apparent absorption on a point-by-point basis along the flight track.

  7. Apparent life-threatening event or child abuse?

    PubMed

    Waseem, Muhammad; Pinkert, Heidi

    2006-04-01

    Children with apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs) often pose a diagnostic and management dilemma in a pediatric emergency department. Although the term ALTE is nonspecific and symptoms are vague, it may have alarming connotations and may signal serious life threatening conditions. It may be a subtle presentation of child abuse. We report an infant who was presented with an ALTE and subsequently determined to have subdural hematoma caused by nonaccidental injury. PMID:16651914

  8. Apparent competition with an exotic plant reduces native plant establishment.

    PubMed

    Orrock, John L; Witter, Martha S; Reichman, O J

    2008-04-01

    Biological invasions can change ecosystem function, have tremendous economic costs, and impact human health; understanding the forces that cause and maintain biological invasions is thus of immediate importance. A mechanism by which exotic plants might displace native plants is by increasing the pressure of native consumers on native plants, a form of indirect interaction termed "apparent competition." Using experimental exclosures, seed addition, and monitoring of small mammals in a California grassland, we examined whether exotic Brassica nigra increases the pressure of native consumers on a native bunchgrass, Nassella pulchra. Experimental plots were weeded to focus entirely on indirect effects via consumers. We demonstrate that B. nigra alters the activity of native small-mammal consumers, creating a gradient of consumption that dramatically reduces N. pulchra establishment. Previous work has shown that N. pulchra is a strong competitor, but that it is heavily seed limited. By demonstrating that consumer pressure is sufficient to curtail establishment, our work provides a mechanism for this seed limitation and suggests that, despite being a good competitor, N. pulchra cannot reestablish close to B. nigra within its old habitats because exotic-mediated consumption preempts direct competitive exclusion. Moreover, we find that apparent competition has a spatial extent, suggesting that consumers may dictate the rate of invasion and the area available for restoration, and that nonspatial studies of apparent competition may miss important dynamics. PMID:18481540

  9. Apparent kinetics of high temperature oxidative decomposition of microalgal biomass.

    PubMed

    Ali, Saad Aldin M; Razzak, Shaikh A; Hossain, Mohammad M

    2014-10-28

    The oxidative thermal characteristics of two microalgae species biomass Nannochloropsis oculta and Chlorella vulgaris have been investigated. The apparent kinetic parameters for the microalgal biomass oxidation process are estimated by fitting the experimental data to the nth order rate model. Also, the iso-conversional methods Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) were used to evaluate the apparent activation energy. The results indicate that biomass of different microalgae strains exhibit different thermal behavior and characteristics. In addition, growth parameters and medium composition can affect the biomass productivity and composition. This would have significant impact on the thermal decomposition trend of the biomass. The kinetic modeling of the oxidation reaction with direct model fitting method shows good prediction to the experimental data. The apparent activation energies estimated by KAS and FWO methods for N. oculta were 149.2 and 151.8kJ/mol, respectively, while for C. vulgaris were 214.4 and 213.4kJ/mol, respectively. PMID:25459869

  10. True and false forbidden patterns in deterministic and random dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amigó, J. M.; Zambrano, S.; Sanjuán, M. A. F.

    2007-09-01

    In this letter we discuss some properties of order patterns both in deterministic and random orbit generation. As it turns out, the orbits of one-dimensional maps have always forbidden patterns, i.e., order patterns that cannot occur, in contrast with random time series, in which any order pattern appears with probability one. However, finite random sequences may exhibit "false" forbidden patterns with non-vanishing probability. In this case, forbidden patterns decay with the sequence length, thus unveiling the random nature of the sequence. Last but not least, true forbidden patterns are robust against noise and disintegrate with a rate that depends on the noise level. These properties can be embodied in a simple method to distinguish deterministic, finite time series with very high levels of observational noise, from random ones. We present numerical evidence for white noise.

  11. Clinical Brain Death with False Positive Radionuclide Cerebral Perfusion Scans

    PubMed Central

    Venkatram, Sindhaghatta; Bughio, Sara; Diaz-Fuentes, Gilda

    2015-01-01

    Practice guidelines from the American Academy of Neurology for the determination of brain death in adults define brain death as “the irreversible loss of function of the brain, including the brainstem.” Neurological determination of brain death is primarily based on clinical examination; if clinical criteria are met, a definitive confirmatory test is indicated. The apnea test remains the gold standard for confirmation. In patients with factors that confound the clinical determination or when apnea tests cannot safely be performed, an ancillary test is required to confirm brain death. Confirmatory ancillary tests for brain death include (a) tests of electrical activity (electroencephalography (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potentials) and (b) radiologic examinations of blood flow (contrast angiography, transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD), and radionuclide methods). Of these, however, radionuclide studies are used most commonly. Here we present data from two patients with a false positive Radionuclide Cerebral Perfusion Scan (RCPS). PMID:26167307

  12. Reducing child witnesses' false reports of misinformation from parents.

    PubMed

    Poole, Debra Ann; Lindsay, D Stephen

    2002-02-01

    This study explored whether a source-monitoring training (SMT) procedure, in which children distinguished between events they recently witnessed versus events they only heard described, would help 3- to 8-year-olds to report only experienced events during a target interview. Children (N = 132) who witnessed science demonstrations and subsequently heard their parents describe nonexperienced events received SMT before or after a forensic-style interview. SMT reduced the number of false reports that 7- and 8-year-old children reported in response to direct questions but had no impact on the performance of younger children. Combined with earlier results, these data suggest a transition between 3 and 8 years of age in the strategic use of source-monitoring information to support verbal reports, such that only 7- and 8-year-olds generalize training to a difficult memory task that does not include mention of specific alternative sources. PMID:11786006

  13. False alarm recognition in hyperspectral gas plume identification

    DOEpatents

    Conger, James L. (San Ramon, CA); Lawson, Janice K. (Tracy, CA); Aimonetti, William D. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-03-29

    According to one embodiment, a method for analyzing hyperspectral data includes collecting first hyperspectral data of a scene using a hyperspectral imager during a no-gas period and analyzing the first hyperspectral data using one or more gas plume detection logics. The gas plume detection logic is executed using a low detection threshold, and detects each occurrence of an observed hyperspectral signature. The method also includes generating a histogram for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature which is detected using the gas plume detection logic, and determining a probability of false alarm (PFA) for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature based on the histogram. Possibly at some other time, the method includes collecting second hyperspectral data, and analyzing the second hyperspectral data using the one or more gas plume detection logics and the PFA to determine if any gas is present. Other systems and methods are also included.

  14. Layers of 'Cabo Frio' in 'Victoria Crater' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of 'Victoria crater' is looking southeast from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cabo Frio.' The small crater in the right foreground, informally known as 'Sputnik,' is about 20 meters (about 65 feet) away from the rover, the tip of the spectacular, layered, Cabo Frio promontory itself is about 200 meters (about 650 feet) away from the rover, and the exposed rock layers are about 15 meters (about 50 feet) tall. This is an enhanced false color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  15. Layers of 'Cape Verde' in 'Victoria Crater' (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view of Victoria crater is looking north from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cape Verde.' The dramatic cliff of layered rocks is about 50 meters (about 165 feet) away from the rover and is about 6 meters (about 20 feet) tall. The taller promontory beyond that is about 100 meters (about 325 feet) away, and the vista beyond that extends away for more than 400 meters (about 1300 feet) into the distance. This is an enhanced false color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  16. Using false colors to protect visual privacy of sensitive content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?iftçi, Serdar; Korshunov, Pavel; Akyüz, Ahmet O.; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2015-03-01

    Many privacy protection tools have been proposed for preserving privacy. Tools for protection of visual privacy available today lack either all or some of the important properties that are expected from such tools. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a simple yet effective method for privacy protection based on false color visualization, which maps color palette of an image into a different color palette, possibly after a compressive point transformation of the original pixel data, distorting the details of the original image. This method does not require any prior face detection or other sensitive regions detection and, hence, unlike typical privacy protection methods, it is less sensitive to inaccurate computer vision algorithms. It is also secure as the look-up tables can be encrypted, reversible as table look-ups can be inverted, flexible as it is independent of format or encoding, adjustable as the final result can be computed by interpolating the false color image with the original using different degrees of interpolation, less distracting as it does not create visually unpleasant artifacts, and selective as it preserves better semantic structure of the input. Four different color scales and four different compression functions, one which the proposed method relies, are evaluated via objective (three face recognition algorithms) and subjective (50 human subjects in an online-based study) assessments using faces from FERET public dataset. The evaluations demonstrate that DEF and RBS color scales lead to the strongest privacy protection, while compression functions add little to the strength of privacy protection. Statistical analysis also shows that recognition algorithms and human subjects perceive the proposed protection similarly

  17. Dynamics of false vacuum bubbles: beyond the thin shell approximation

    E-print Network

    Jakob Hansen; Dong-il Hwang; Dong-han Yeom

    2009-11-08

    We numerically study the dynamics of false vacuum bubbles which are inside an almost flat background; we assumed spherical symmetry and the size of the bubble is smaller than the size of the background horizon. According to the thin shell approximation and the null energy condition, if the bubble is outside of a Schwarzschild black hole, unless we assume Farhi-Guth-Guven tunneling, expanding and inflating solutions are impossible. In this paper, we extend our method to beyond the thin shell approximation: we include the dynamics of fields and assume that the transition layer between a true vacuum and a false vacuum has non-zero thickness. If a shell has sufficiently low energy, as expected from the thin shell approximation, it collapses (Type 1). However, if the shell has sufficiently large energy, it tends to expand. Here, via the field dynamics, field values of inside of the shell slowly roll down to the true vacuum and hence the shell does not inflate (Type 2). If we add sufficient exotic matters to regularize the curvature near the shell, inflation may be possible without assuming Farhi-Guth-Guven tunneling. In this case, a wormhole is dynamically generated around the shell (Type 3). By tuning our simulation parameters, we could find transitions between Type 1 and Type 2, as well as between Type 2 and Type 3. Between Type 2 and Type 3, we could find another class of solutions (Type 4). Finally, we discuss the generation of a bubble universe and the violation of unitarity. We conclude that the existence of a certain combination of exotic matter fields violates unitarity.

  18. Epidemiology of smear - negative tuberculosis in ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Kehinde Aderemi, Oludiran; Dada-Adegbola, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Inadequate case detection has been identified as one of the reasons for high burden of tuberculosis (TB) in the world especially in poor resourced countries of Africa and Asia. This retrospective laboratory study involving the review of specimens processed at the TB laboratory of the Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University College Hospital, Ibadan, Nigeria was carried out over a period of five years (January 2006-December 2010) to access the epidemiology of smear-negative TB. Of the 3468 specimens processed, 2,175 (62.7%) were from males while a lower percentage (37.3%)1293 were from females, giving a M:F = 1:0.37. Over half of the specimens, 2,046 (59.0%) were from patients aged 21 to 60 years, 392 (11.3%) from 11 to 20 years, 825 (23.8%) from 60 years and above while 205 (5.9%) were from age 1-10 years. Most of the 2,663 (76.8%) specimens processed were sputum while 201 (5.8%) were gastric washings. Three hundred and nine (8.9%) were smear positive while 392 (11.3%) out of the 3468 specimens processed were culture positive. However, 83 (2.6%) of the 3159 smear-negative specimens were culture positive (false negative) while 66 (21.4%) of the 309 smear-positive specimens were negative for culture (false positive). The majority, 3010 (86.8%) were smear and culture negative while 309 (8.9%) were positive for both tests. Of the 83 false negative specimens, 51 were sputum samples representing (61.4%), 19 (22.9%) were gastric washings while 13 (15.7%) were from extra-pulmonary sites (CSF, aspirates, ascitic fluids, etc). The findings of 2.6% smear-negative but culture positive (false negative) specimens in this study reveals that culture of specimens in addition to smear microscopy from suspected cases is necessary as a diagnostic /confirmatory tool for tuberculosis. PMID:24381723

  19. False positive reactivity of recombinant, diagnostic, glycoproteins produced in High Five insect cells: effect of glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Kathy; Narang, Someet; Pattabhi, Sowmya; Yushak, Melinda L; Khan, Azra; Lin, Seh-Ching; Plemons, Robert; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Tsang, Victor C W

    2008-01-31

    Baculovirus-mediated expression of recombinant proteins for use in diagnostic assays is commonplace. We expressed a diagnostic antigen for cysticercosis, GP50, caused by the larval stage of Taenia solium, in both High Five and Sf9 insect cells. Upon evaluation of the specificity of recombinant GP50 (rGP50) in a western blot assay, we observed that 12.5% (21/168) of the serum samples from persons with a variety of parasitic infections other than cysticercosis reacted positive when rGP50 was produced in High Five cells. The same samples reacted negative when rGP50 was produced in Sf9 cells. The false positive reactivities of these other parasitic infection sera were abolished when rGP50, expressed in High Five cells, was deglycosylated. In addition, the same sera that reacted with rGP50 from High Five cells also reacted with recombinant human transferrin (rhTf) when expressed in High Five cells, but not Sf9 cells. High Five cells, but not Sf9 cells, modify many glycoproteins with a core alpha(1,3)-fucose. This same modification is found in the glycoproteins of several parasitic worms and is known to be immunogenic. Since the distribution of these worms is widespread and millions of people are infected, the use of recombinant proteins with N-linked glycosylation produced in High Five cells for diagnostic antigens is likely to result in a number of false positive reactions and a decrease in assay specificity. PMID:17868684

  20. Customized Reference Ranges for Laboratory Values Decrease False Positive Alerts in Intensive Care Unit Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kilickaya, Oguz; Schmickl, Christopher; Ahmed, Adil; Pulido, Juan; Onigkeit, James; Kashani, Kianoush; Gajic, Ognjen; Herasevich, Vitaly; Pickering, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background Traditional electronic medical record (EMR) interfaces mark laboratory tests as abnormal based on standard reference ranges derived from healthy, middle-aged adults. This yields many false positive alerts with subsequent alert-fatigue when applied to complex populations like hospitalized, critically ill patients. Novel EMR interfaces using adjusted reference ranges customized for specific patient populations may ameliorate this problem. Objective To compare accuracy of abnormal laboratory value indicators in a novel vs traditional EMR interface. Methods Laboratory data from intensive care unit (ICU) patients consecutively admitted during a two-day period were recorded. For each patient, available laboratory results and the problem list were sent to two mutually blinded critical care experts, who marked the values about which they would like to be alerted. All disagreements were resolved by an independent super-reviewer. Based on this gold standard, we calculated and compared the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) of customized vs traditional abnormal value indicators. Results Thirty seven patients with a total of 1341 laboratory results were included. Experts’ agreement was fair (kappa?=?0.39). Compared to the traditional EMR, custom abnormal laboratory value indicators had similar sensitivity (77% vs 85%, P?=?0.22) and NPV (97.1% vs 98.6%, P?=?0.06) but higher specificity (79% vs 61%, P<0.001) and PPV (28% vs 11%, P<0.001). Conclusions Reference ranges for laboratory values customized for an ICU population decrease false positive alerts. Disagreement among clinicians about which laboratory values should be indicated as abnormal limits the development of customized reference ranges. PMID:25233485

  1. Identifying apparent velocity changes in cross correlated microseism noise data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friderike Volk, Meike; Bean, Christopher; Lokmer, Ivan; Pérez, Nemesio; Ibáñez, Jesús

    2015-04-01

    Currently there is a strong interest of using cross correlation of ambient noise to retrieve Green's functions. These are usually used to calculate the seismic wave velocity of the subsurface and therefore can be used for subsurface imaging or monitoring of various geological settings where we expect rapid velocity changes (e.g. reservoirs or volcanoes). The assumption of this method is that the wavefields which are correlated must be diffuse. This criterion is fulfilled if the ambient noise sources are uniformly distributed or the scattering in the medium is high enough to mitigate any source directivity. The location of the sources is usually unknown and it can change in time. These temporal and spatial variations of the microseism noise sources may lead to changes in the retrieved Green's functions, and so, to the apparent changes in seismic wave velocities. To further investigate the apparent changes in Green's functions we undertook an active seismic experiment in Tenerife lasting three months. A small airgun was used as an active source and was shooting repeatedly every 15 minutes. The shots and the microseism noise were recorded at several seismic stations at the same time. That data set gives us the opportunity to compare the changes in seismic wave velocity recovered through cross correlation of ambient noise and changes we measure through active shots from the airgun. The aim is to distinguish between apparent seismic velocity changes and seismic velocity changes caused by changes in the medium. We also use the data set to track the direction of the microseism noise sources to see if changes which are only recovered through cross correlation can be related to temporal and spatial variations of the microseism noise sources.

  2. Estimation of Scaled Seismic Energy, Apparent Stress and Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltay, A. S.; Prieto, G. A.; Beroza, G. C.

    2008-12-01

    Measurements of seismic energy from scattered coda waves indicate that apparent stress increases with increasing seismic moment, a consequential result for several reasons. For one, it may constrain possible forms of fault weakening with increasing slip. Moreover, if larger earthquakes more efficiently generate energy than their smaller counterparts, strong ground motion from large events would be more intense than anticipated from the extrapolation of smaller events. The relatively sparse strong motion data set does not seem to support this conclusion, leading us to reexamine seismic energy estimates and apparent stress. Our approach to the energy estimation is two-fold. The first technique, an empirical Green's function method, creates spectral ratios of co-located events, so that path and site terms need not be removed. The second method follows Mayeda et al. [2003] in making coda wave corrected spectra accounting for both path and site terms. This method is of particular interest as events occurring over a broad region can be compared, and past results using this technique have shown strong scaling of energy with moment. Using the two energy estimation methods, we compare results from a large data set in California spanning several networks. We find no strong departure from constant scaled energy in our data, which spans a range of Mw 3.0 - 7.1. In particular, we investigate several events in Southern California that have anomalous apparent stress, both low and high. Understanding the origin of high and low stress events and their relationship to acceleration is important for understanding the contribution of source effects to strong ground motion variability. To further quantify the relationship between energy and acceleration, we make direct measurements of acceleration from strong motion recordings of earthquakes. We also consider the relationship developed by Hanks and McGuire [1981] relating RMS acceleration to stress drop and corner frequency. Using our previous estimates of scaled energy, we compare predictions of RMS acceleration with observation.

  3. Conservation strategies for species affected by apparent competition.

    PubMed

    Wittmer, Heiko U; Serrouya, Robert; Elbroch, L Mark; Marshall, Andrew J

    2013-04-01

    Apparent competition is an indirect interaction between 2 or more prey species through a shared predator, and it is increasingly recognized as a mechanism of the decline and extinction of many species. Through case studies, we evaluated the effectiveness of 4 management strategies for species affected by apparent competition: predator control, reduction in the abundances of alternate prey, simultaneous control of predators and alternate prey, and no active management of predators or alternate prey. Solely reducing predator abundances rapidly increased abundances of alternate and rare prey, but observed increases are likely short-lived due to fast increases in predator abundance following the cessation of control efforts. Substantial reductions of an abundant alternate prey resulted in increased predation on endangered huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus) deer in Chilean Patagonia, which highlights potential risks associated with solely reducing alternate prey species. Simultaneous removal of predators and alternate prey increased survival of island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) in California (U.S.A.) above a threshold required for population recovery. In the absence of active management, populations of rare woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) continued to decline in British Columbia, Canada. On the basis of the cases we examined, we suggest the simultaneous control of predators and alternate prey is the management strategy most likely to increase abundances and probabilities of persistence of rare prey over the long term. Knowing the mechanisms driving changes in species' abundances before implementing any management intervention is critical. We suggest scientists can best contribute to the conservation of species affected by apparent competition by clearly communicating the biological and demographic forces at play to policy makers responsible for the implementation of proposed management actions. PMID:23282104

  4. Reaction rates and apparent toxicity of Houston Ship Channel water 

    E-print Network

    Schneider, Peter William

    1969-01-01

    was the Warburg Constant yolume Respirometer manometric method and the second technique was the conventional BOD dilution method using the standard BOD glass bottle. Tests were run on samples of water taken from the Houston Ship Channel. Tests showed... that the specific rate of reaction constant varies with both the depth and the location of the sample. Apparent toxic or inhibitory effects as defined in the thesis were also fo' nd to be present in many samples. The conditions prevailing , prior to the sampling...

  5. Systematic effects in apparent proper motion of radio sources

    E-print Network

    O. Titov

    2008-05-08

    The galactocentric rotation of the Solar system generates the systematic effect in proper motions known as 'secular aberration drift'. This tiny effect (about five microseconds per year) in the quasar proper motion can be measured by VLBI. However, the motions of relativistic jets from the active extragalactic nuclei can reach several hundred microseconds per year and mimic the proper motion of the observed radio sources. These apparent motions exceed the secular aberration drift by factor of 10-100. In this paper we search the ways to overcome the difficulties and discuss our estimates of the secular aberration drift using OCCAM software.

  6. A case of immunohistochemical false positive staining caused by incompatibility between a CD4 antibody and an autostainer

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Ikuo; Sugihara, Nao; Yunokizaki, Hiroshi; Abe, Takashi; Hirota, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Precise immunophenotyping of tumor cells by immunohistochemistry is complementary to morphological examination. It is critical for the correct histopathological diagnosis of lymphomas. In this paper, we report a case of T-cell lymphoma whose histopathological diagnosis was confounded by an immunohistochemical pitfall: a false positive caused by incompatibility between an antibody and an autostainer. In this case, based on CD4 immunohistochemistry of the affected lymph nodes, the T-cell lymphoma was diagnosed as CD4-positive at the onset, while it appeared discordantly to be CD4-negative at the second relapse. We noticed that CD4 antibodies and autostainers of different suppliers (designated as suppliers X and Y) were used in an unqualified combination in immunohistochemistry at the onset: that is, the combination of an antibody supplied by X and an autostainer supplied by Y (designated as X-Y combination) was used at the onset. On the other hand, the Y-Y combination was at the second relapse. At the second relapse, flow cytometry of the affected lymph node showed infiltration of CD4-negative T-cell lymphoma. We reasoned that CD4 immunonegativity obtained by the Y-Y combination at the second relapse was specific, while CD4 immunopositivity by the X-Y combination at the onset was false positive. Immunohistochemical reexamination of the lymph node at the onset proved to be CD4-negative by not only the Y-Y but also X-X combinations, confirming our final diagnosis of nodal relapse of CD4-negative T-cell lymphoma. This case illustrates the importance of using compatible combinations of antibodies and autostainers in diagnostic immunohistochemistry. PMID:25755812

  7. Possible Meteorites in the Martian Hills (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    From its winter outpost at 'Low Ridge' inside Gusev Crater, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this spectacular, color mosaic of hilly, sandy terrain and two potential iron meteorites. The two light-colored, smooth rocks about two-thirds of the way up from the bottom of the frame have been labeled 'Zhong Shan' and 'Allan Hills.'

    The two rocks' informal names are in keeping with the rover science team's campaign to nickname rocks and soils in the area after locations in Antarctica. Zhong Shang is an Antarctic base that the People's Republic of China opened on Feb. 26, 1989, at the Larsemann Hills in Prydz Bay in East Antarctica. Allan Hills is a location where researchers have found many Martian meteorites, including the controversial ALH84001, which achieved fame in 1996 when NASA scientists suggested that it might contain evidence for fossilized extraterrestrial life. Zhong Shan was the given name of Dr. Sun Yat-sen (1866-1925), known as the 'Father of Modern China.' Born to a peasant family in Guangdong, Sun moved to live with his brother in Honolulu at age 13 and later became a medical doctor. He led a series of uprisings against the Qing dynasty that began in 1894 and eventually succeeded in 1911. Sun served as the first provisional president when the Republic of China was founded in 1912.

    The Zhong Shan and Allan Hills rocks, at the left and right, respectively, have unusual morphologies and miniature thermal emission spectrometer signatures that resemble those of a rock known as 'Heat Shield' at the Meridiani site explored by Spirit's twin, Opportunity. Opportunity's analyses revealed Heat Shield to be an iron meteorite.

    Spirit acquired this false-color image on the rover's 872nd Martian day, or sol (June 16, 2006), using exposures taken through three of the panoramic camera's filters, centered on wavelengths of 750 nanometers, 530 nanometers, and 430 nanometers. The image is presented in false color to emphasize differences among materials in the rocks and soil.

  8. A prominent colour front in False Bay, South Africa: Cross-frontal structure, composition and origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldron, H. N.; Wainman, C. K.; Waldron, M. E.; Whittle, C.; Brundrit, G. B.

    2008-05-01

    Colour fronts are a frequent occurrence in False Bay, South Africa, and their occurrence has been the subject of previous study and anecdotal conjecture. The opportunity arose to make a cross-frontal study of this feature in November 2005. Photographs were taken and, subsequently, satellite imagery was obtained. Measurements were made of temperature, salinity, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, suspended solids, plant nutrients and chlorophyll a. Cross-frontal comparisons were also made on particulate material using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and elemental dispersive x-ray (EDX) analysis. Frontal waters were milky white-green in colour, in stark contrast to the adjacent clearer, green-blue waters. The milky white-green water (MW-GW) was found to be warmer, (apparently) less saline, more turbid, richer in nitrate and silicate and had a higher chlorophyll a concentration. The dissolved oxygen signal was less pronounced, both water types being supersaturated. Paradoxically, in spite of the higher turbidity in the MW-GW, both water types had similar weights of suspended solids, although the MW-GW material was found to be more abundant and fragmentary when compared with its green-blue water (G-BW) counterpart. The MW-GW was rich in calcium whereas the G-BW was silicon enriched. The central findings of this study are that the strong southerly, onshore wind conditions prior to MW-GW formation introduced calcium-rich, fine particulates into the waters of the surf-zone. The sources of these particulates are thought to be the sea bed sediments and the sea/land interface. The particulates are close to neutral buoyancy enabling the MW-GW to persist over the time-scale of days. A mechanism reinforced by the warming of this water in the nearshore zone. The water was then advected by wind-forcing and subsequently, its own inertia around the north-west corner of False Bay, at which stage it was easily observed and sampled. It is suggested that the eventual collapse of the front was due to the slowing down of inertial movement in combination with the passive sinking of fine particulates and evaporative cooling resulting in downward convection.

  9. Negative Ion Excited States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mead, Roy D.

    This dissertation describes high-resolution tunable laser photodetachment studies of both valence and dipole -bound excited states of negative ions. Also discussed is a merged laser-ion beam photodetachment spectrometer. The photodetachment cross section of C(,2)('-) displays many sharp resonances, due to excitation of autodetaching levels of the B('2)(SIGMA)(,u)('+) valence state lying above the onset of the (C(,2) + e) continuum. The positions of approximately 1,000 resonances were measured, allowing the spectroscopic constants of the ground X('2)(SIGMA)(,g)('+) and excited B('2)(SIGMA)(,u)('+) states to be determined, including spin-rotation constants. The previously unobserved A('2)(PI)(,u) state has been characterized by deperturbation analysis. Strong A-X transitions are predicted near 2.5 microns. The widths of C(,2)('-) resonances with v = 6 -10 and J = 1-60 have also been measured, providing autodetachment rates as a function of both rotation and vibration, ranging from 10('8) to 10('11) s('-1). The first conclusive observation of an entirely new class of states, called dipole-bound or dipole-supported states, is discussed for the case of acetaldehyde enolate (vinyl oxide) negative ion. In these novel states, the extra electron is weakly bound ((TURN)5 cm('-1)) in a very diffuse orbital ((TURN)100 (ANGSTROM)) by the dipole moment of the neutral core. Weak electric fields (< 70 V/cm) are found to rapidly detach the dipole-bound electron. These dipole-bound states resemble Rydberg states of neutrals, but differ from Rydbergs in many important respects. They should be present for all neutrals with dipole moments > 2 Debye. The merged laser-ion beam (also known as coaxial -beams) spectrometer has 0.0005 cm('-1) resolution in the visible region, simultaneously achieving very high sensitivity. It employs quadrupole beam deflectors to merge and laser and negative ion beams, and can scan spectra either by scanning the laser frequency or the Doppler shift of the ion beam. Both electrons and neutral photodetachment products are detected. Even very low energy electrons (< 20 meV) are collected and counted, and the collector may be adjusted to collect either all electrons or only low energy electrons as needed.

  10. Negation, Polarity, and Deontic Modals

    E-print Network

    Iatridou, Sabine

    Universal deontic modals may vary with respect to whether they scope over or under negation. For instance, English modals like must and should take wide scope with respect to negation; modals like have to and need to take ...

  11. Panic, Suffocation False Alarms, Separation Anxiety and Endogenous Opioids

    PubMed Central

    Preter, Maurice; Klein, Donald F.

    2008-01-01

    This review paper presents an amplification of the suffocation false alarm theory (SFA) of spontaneous panic (Klein, 1993). SFA postulates the existence of an evolved physiologic suffocation alarm system that monitors information about potential suffocation. Panic attacks maladaptively occur when the alarm is erroneously triggered. That panic is distinct from Cannon’s emergency fear response and Selye’s General Alarm Syndrome is shown by the prominence of intense air hunger during these attacks. Further, panic sufferers have chronic sighing abnormalities outside of the acute attack. Another basic physiologic distinction between fear and panic is the counter-intuitive lack of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation in panic. Understanding panic as provoked by indicators of potential suffocation, such as fluctuations in pCO2 and brain lactate, as well as environmental circumstances fits the observed respiratory abnormalities. However, that sudden loss, bereavement and childhood separation anxiety are also antecedents of “spontaneous” panic requires an integrative explanation. Because of the opioid system’s central regulatory role in both disordered breathing and separation distress, we detail the role of opioidergic dysfunction in decreasing the suffocation alarm threshold. We present results from our laboratory where the naloxone-lactate challenge in normals produces supportive evidence for the endorphinergic defect hypothesis in the form of a distress episode of specific tidal volume hyperventilation paralleling challenge-produced and clinical panic. PMID:17765379

  12. False fame prevented: avoiding fluency effects without judgmental correction.

    PubMed

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2010-05-01

    Three studies show a way to prevent fluency effects independently of judgmental correction strategies by identifying and procedurally blocking the sources of fluency variations, which are assumed to be embodied in nature. For verbal stimuli, covert pronunciations are assumed to be the crucial source of fluency gains. As a consequence, blocking such pronunciation simulations through a secondary oral motor task decreased the false-fame effect for repeatedly presented names of actors (Experiment 1) as well as prevented increases in trust due to repetition for brand names and names of shares in the stock market (Experiment 2). Extending this evidence beyond repeated exposure, we demonstrated that blocking oral motor simulations also prevented fluency effects of word pronunciation on judgments of hazardousness (Experiment 3). Concerning the realm of judgment correction, this procedural blocking of (biasing) associative processes is a decontamination method not considered before in the literature, because it is independent of exposure control, mood, motivation, and post hoc correction strategies. The present results also have implications for applied issues, such as advertising and investment decisions. PMID:20438220

  13. True or false: do 5-year-olds understand belief?

    PubMed

    Fabricius, William V; Boyer, Ty W; Weimer, Amy A; Carroll, Kathleen

    2010-11-01

    In 3 studies (N = 188) we tested the hypothesis that children use a perceptual access approach to reason about mental states before they understand beliefs. The perceptual access hypothesis predicts a U-shaped developmental pattern of performance in true belief tasks, in which 3-year-olds who reason about reality should succeed, 4- to 5-year-olds who use perceptual access reasoning should fail, and older children who use belief reasoning should succeed. The results of Study 1 revealed the predicted pattern in 2 different true belief tasks. The results of Study 2 disconfirmed several alternate explanations based on possible pragmatic and inhibitory demands of the true belief tasks. In Study 3, we compared 2 methods of classifying individuals according to which 1 of the 3 reasoning strategies (reality reasoning, perceptual access reasoning, belief reasoning) they used. The 2 methods gave converging results. Both methods indicated that the majority of children used the same approach across tasks and that it was not until after 6 years of age that most children reasoned about beliefs. We conclude that because most prior studies have failed to detect young children's use of perceptual access reasoning, they have overestimated their understanding of false beliefs. We outline several theoretical implications that follow from the perceptual access hypothesis. PMID:21058830

  14. HOME INSECURITY: NO ALARMS, FALSE ALARMS, AND SIGINT

    SciTech Connect

    Lamb, Logan M [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The market share of home security systems has substantially increased as vendors incorporate more desirable features: intrusion detection, automation, wireless, and LCD touch panel controls. Wireless connectivity allows vendors to manufacture cheaper, more featureful products that require little to no home modification to install. Consumer win, since adding devices is easier. The result: an ostensibly more secure, convenient, and connected home for a larger number of citizens. Sadly, this hypothesis is flawed; the idea of covering a home with more security sensors does not translate into a more secure home. Additionally, the number of homes using these vulnerable systems is large, and the growth rate is increasing producing a even larger problem. In this talk, I will demonstrate a generalized approach for compromising three systems: ADT, the largest home security dealer in North America; Honeywell, one of the largest manufacturers of security devices; and Vivint, a top 5 security dealer. We will suppress alarms, create false alarms, and collect artifacts that facilitate tracking the movements of individuals in their homes.

  15. Implementing an apparent-horizon finder in three dimensions

    E-print Network

    Thomas W. Baumgarte; Gregory B. Cook; Mark A. Scheel; Stuart L. Shapiro; Saul A. Teukolsky

    1996-06-06

    Locating apparent horizons is not only important for a complete understanding of numerically generated spacetimes, but it may also be a crucial component of the technique for evolving black-hole spacetimes accurately. A scheme proposed by Libson et al., based on expanding the location of the apparent horizon in terms of symmetric trace-free tensors, seems very promising for use with three-dimensional numerical data sets. In this paper, we generalize this scheme and perform a number of code tests to fully calibrate its behavior in black-hole spacetimes similar to those we expect to encounter in solving the binary black-hole coalescence problem. An important aspect of the generalization is that we can compute the symmetric trace-free tensor expansion to any order. This enables us to determine how far we must carry the expansion to achieve results of a desired accuracy. To accomplish this generalization, we describe a new and very convenient set of recurrence relations which apply to symmetric trace-free tensors.

  16. Genetic Overlap between Apparently Sporadic Motor Neuron Diseases

    PubMed Central

    van Blitterswijk, Marka; Vlam, Lotte; van Es, Michael A.; van der Pol, W-Ludo; Hennekam, Eric A. M.; Dooijes, Dennis; Schelhaas, Helenius J.; van der Kooi, Anneke J.; de Visser, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Progressive muscular atrophy (PMA) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are devastating motor neuron diseases (MNDs), which result in muscle weakness and/or spasticity. We compared mutation frequencies in genes known to be associated with MNDs between patients with apparently sporadic PMA and ALS. A total of 261 patients with adult-onset sporadic PMA, patients with sporadic ALS, and control subjects of Dutch descent were obtained at national referral centers for neuromuscular diseases in The Netherlands. Sanger sequencing was used to screen these subjects for mutations in the coding regions of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1), angiogenin (ANG), fused in sarcoma/translated in liposarcoma (FUS/TLS), TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TARDBP), and multivesicular body protein 2B (CHMP2B). In our cohort of PMA patients we identified two SOD1 mutations (p.D90A, p.I113T), one ANG mutation (p.K17I), one FUS/TLS mutation (p.R521H), one TARDBP mutation (p.N352S), and one novel CHMP2B mutation (p.R69Q). The mutation frequency of these genes was similar in sporadic PMA (2.7%) and ALS (2.0%) patients, and therefore, our findings demonstrate a genetic overlap between apparently sporadic PMA and ALS. PMID:23155438

  17. Evaluation of apparent fracture toughness of articular cartilage and hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yinghua; Rennerfeldt, Deena A; Friis, Elizabeth A; Gehrke, Stevin H; Detamore, Michael S

    2014-04-01

    Recently, biomaterials-based tissue-engineering strategies, including the use of hydrogels, have offered great promise for repairing articular cartilage. Mechanical failure testing in outcome analyses is of crucial clinical importance to the success of engineered constructs. Interpenetrating networks (IPNs) are gaining more attention, due to their superior mechanical integrity. This study provided a combination testing method of apparent fracture toughness, which was applied to both articular cartilage and hydrogels. The apparent fracture toughnesses of two groups, hydrogels and articular cartilage, were evaluated based on the modified single-edge notch test and ASTM standards on the single-edge notch test and compact tension test. The results demonstrated that the toughness for articular cartilage (348?±?43 MPa/mm(½) ) was much higher than that for hydrogels. With a toughness value of 10.8?±?1.4 MPa/mm(½) , IPNs of agarose and poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEG-DA) looked promising. The IPNs were 1.4 times tougher than PEG-DA alone, although still over an order of magnitude less tough than cartilage. A new method was developed to evaluate hydrogels and cartilage in a manner that enabled a more relevant direct comparison for fracture testing of hydrogels for cartilage tissue engineering. Moreover, a target toughness value for cartilage of using this direct comparison method has been identified (348?±?43 MPa/mm(½) ), and the toughness discrepancy to be overcome between hydrogels and cartilage has been quantified. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24700577

  18. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

    1984-12-04

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field. 14 figs.

  19. Negative ion source

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01

    An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

  20. Modelling apparent low thermal inertia by layered structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Akari; Toyota, Takenori; Kurita, Kei

    2013-04-01

    Thermal inertia of planetary surface is a physical property that controls the diurnal and seasonal cycles in the surface temperature. At the same time it provides a unique window into geologic structure of the surface and the nature of geologic processes that shapes the planetary surface. Especially on Mars, it has been extensively derived from spacecraft remote-sensing observations. It shows existence of the area with very low thermal inertia in the equatorial and middle latitudes, which at the same time display complicated heterogeneous characteristics(Putzig and Mellon, 2007). This is one of the enigma about the surface state of Mars. Physical interpretation about the origin of this heterogeneous nature of the thermal inertia is needed. In this study, we discuss a possibility of apparent low thermal inertia when there exists a layered structure having contrasting thermal conductivities based on laboratory experiments. The layered structure we examined in the experiments are an acrylic plate(3.2mm , 5mm , 10mm in thickness) on top of Polystyrene foam block or vesiculated particle layer. In both cases the lower layer has lower thermal conductivity. They are heated periodically by a infrared lump from above(period from 10 to 600 sec.). We measured the temperature at the surface, bottom of the acrylic plate and inside the lower Polystyrene foam and the granular layer using the thermocouples and infrared thermometer. From amplitude of temperature variation, we estimated the thermal inertia. The important controlling factor in this experimental design is a thermal relaxation time of the surface layer, which is controlled by period of the applied heating cycle and the thickness. At the fixed layer thickness thermal structure changes drastically between the periods below and above the relaxation time. We estimated variation of apparent thermal inertia with period. In a homogeneous semi-infinite layer the amplitude of variation of the surface temperature induced by periodic heating under controlled situation is proportional to square root of the period and inversely proportional to the thermal inertia(Wang et al 2010). We utilized their formula to determine apparent thermal inertia. At the periods below thermal relaxation time unique value for thermal inertia was obtained while above the relaxation time it decreases even below the value of the lower layer. This is caused by the effect of finite layer thickness,which reduces thermal gradient in the surface layer. This leads to apparent low thermal inertia value. In our experiments we can demonstrate a simple layered structure; a thin layer having higher thermal conductivity on top of a layer with low thermal conductivity can produce apparent low thermal inertia. In the martian situation the thermal inertia is obtained mostly by diurnal heating cycle, which has a penetration depth(Thermal relaxation depth) of several to 10 cm. We discuss several geological processes to produce layered structure in this depth range in the presentation.

  1. The effects of false physiological feedback on tumescence and cognitive domains in sexually functional and dysfunctional men.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jay M; Clark, Robert; Sbrocco, Tracy; Lewis, Evelyn L

    2009-08-01

    A false feedback paradigm was used to produce a discrepancy between expected and "actual" tumescence among 57 sexually dysfunctional and 58 sexually functional men randomly assigned to one of four false tumescence feedback conditions: negative (NEG), neutral (NEU), positive (POS), or no (NO) feedback. Participants predicted an erection score before viewing an erotic film and then received false tumescence feedback based on this score. Tumescence and cognitive ratings were obtained before and after the feedback. It was predicted that discrepancies would differ between dysfunctional and functional participants such that functional participants would have the ability to overcome discrepancies, whereas dysfunctional participants would not. As expected, POS decreased tumescence for dysfunctional participants and NO did not influence tumescence for either group. Unexpectedly, NEU decreased tumescence for dysfunctional participants and NEG decreased tumescence for functional participants. Despite tumescence changes, cognitive ratings generally followed the feedback that was given. These results only partially support current models of sexual dysfunction and behavioral regulation. Anxiety, self-focused attention, cognitive interference, and unexpectedness of the feedback could not account for the partial support. However, most feedback that was outside of the realm of the status quo for both functional and dysfunctional participants did decrease tumescence, despite outcome expectancies. These results suggest that both functional and dysfunctional men may be at risk for erectile failure should feedback about their performance be discrepant from what they expect. Prevention and treatment should focus on preparing men for occasional erectile failure and on helping them overcome discrepant feedback. PMID:18561016

  2. Probability of axillary lymph node metastasis when sentinel lymph node biopsy is negative in women with clinically node negative breast cancer: a bayesian approach

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takahiro Okamoto; Kiyomi Yamazaki; Masako Kanbe; Hitomi Kodama; Yoko Omi; Akiko Kawamata; Rumi Suzuki; Yuka Igari; Reiko Tanaka; Masatoshi lihara; Yukio Ito; Tatsuo Sawada; Toshio Nishikawa; Masako Maki; Kiyoko Kusakabe; Norio Mitsuhashi; Takao Obara

    2005-01-01

    Background  Although sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is highly accurate in predicting axillary nodal status in patients with breast\\u000a cancer, it has been shown that the procedure is associated with a few false negative results. The risk of leaving metastatic\\u000a nodes behind in the axillary basin when SLNB is negative should be estimated for an individual patient if SLNB is performed

  3. Merosin-negative congenital muscular dystrophy: diffusion-weighted imaging findings of brain.

    PubMed

    Alkan, Alpay; Sigirci, Ahmet; Kutlu, Ramazan; Aslan, Mehmet; Doganay, Selim; Yakinci, Cengiz

    2007-05-01

    Merosin-negative congenital muscular dystrophy is a rare genetic disease of childhood involving the central and peripheral nervous system. There were high signal intensities throughout the centrum semiovale, periventricular, and sub-cortical white matters on T2-weighted images in a 4-year-old girl with merosin-negative congenital muscular dystrophy. An apparent diffusion coefficient map revealed increased signal intensity and apparent diffusion coefficient values in the periventricular and deep white matters. It may be attributable to increased water content in the white matter because of an abnormal blood-brain barrier rather than to decreased or abnormal myelination. PMID:17690079

  4. Ice Layer Cross-Section In False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

    This image of shows a cross sectional view of the ice layers. Note the subtle peach banding on the left side of the image. The time variation that the bands represent is not yet understood.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 83.5, Longitude 118.2 East (241.8 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. E4 True and false color hot spot mosaic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    True and false color views of Jupiter from NASA's Galileo spacecraft show an equatorial 'hotspot' on Jupiter. These images cover an area 34,000 kilometers by 11,000 kilometers (about 21,100 by 6,800 miles). The top mosaic combines the violet and near infrared continuum filter images to create an image similar to how Jupiter would appear to human eyes. Differences in coloration are due to the composition and abundances of trace chemicals in Jupiter's atmosphere. The bottom mosaic uses Galileo's three near-infrared wavelengths displayed in red, green, and blue) to show variations in cloud height and thickness. Bluish clouds are high and thin, reddish clouds are low, and white clouds are high and thick. The dark blue hotspot in the center is a hole in the deep cloud with an overlying thin haze. The light blue region to the left is covered by a very high haze layer. The multicolored region to the right has overlapping cloud layers of different heights. Galileo is the first spacecraft to distinguish cloud layers on Jupiter.

    North is at the top. The mosaic covers latitudes 1 to 10 degrees and is centered at longitude 336 degrees west. The smallest resolved features are tens of kilometers in size. These images were taken on December 17, 1996, at a range of 1.5 million kilometers (about 930,000 miles) by the Solid State Imaging camera system aboard Galileo. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at: http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at: http:/ /www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo.

  6. False-Color View of a 'Rat' Hole Trail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This view from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera is a false-color composite rendering of the first seven holes that the rover's rock abrasion tool dug on the inner slope of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover was about 12 meters (about 39 feet) down into the crater when it acquired the images combined into this mosaic. The view is looking back toward the rim of the crater, with the rover's tracks visible. The tailings around the holes drilled by the rock abrasion tool, or 'Rat,' show evidence for fine-grained red hematite similar to what was observed months earlier in 'Eagle Crater' outcrop holes.

    Last week, viewers were asked to try seeing as many holes as they could from a black-and-white, navigation-camera image (PIA06716). Most viewers will find it far easier to see the seven holes in this exaggerated color image; the same is true for scientists who are studying the holes from millions of miles away.

    Starting from the uppermost pictured (closest to the crater rim) to the lowest, the rock abrasion tool hole targets are called 'Tennessee,' 'Cobblehill,' 'Virginia,' 'London,' 'Grindstone,' 'Kettlestone,' and 'Drammensfjorden.' Opportunity drilled these holes on sols 138 (June 13, 2004), 143 (June 18), 145 (June 20), 148 (June 23), 151 (June 26), 153 (June 28) and 161 (July 7), respectively. Each hole is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter.

    This image was generated using the panoramic camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. It was taken on sol 173 (July 19).

  7. Negational categorization and intergroup behavior.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chen-Bo; Phillips, Katherine W; Leonardelli, Geoffrey J; Galinsky, Adam D

    2008-06-01

    Individuals define themselves, at times, as who they are (e.g., a psychologist) and, at other times, as who they are not (e.g., not an economist). Drawing on social identity, optimal distinctiveness, and balance theories, four studies examined the nature of negational identity relative to affirmational identity. One study explored the conditions that increase negational identification and found that activating the need for distinctiveness increased the accessibility of negational identities. Three additional studies revealed that negational categorization increased outgroup derogation relative to affirmational categorization and the authors argue that this effect is at least partially due to a focus on contrasting the self from the outgroup under negational categorization. Consistent with this argument, outgroup derogation following negational categorization was mitigated when connections to similar others were highlighted. By distinguishing negational identity from affirmational identity, a more complete picture of collective identity and intergroup behavior can start to emerge. PMID:18391025

  8. Drawing Insight from Pictures: The Development of Concepts of False Drawing and False Belief in Children with Deafness, Normal Hearing, and Autism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Candida C. Peterson

    2002-01-01

    Theory-of-mind concepts in children with deafness, autism, and normal development ( N ? 154) were exam- ined in three experiments using a set of standard inferential false-belief tasks and matched sets of tasks involv- ing false drawings. Results of all three experiments replicated previously published findings by showing that primary school children with deafness or autism, aged 6 to 13

  9. The Effects of Age and Dementia of the Alzheimer's Type on Phonological False Memories

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mitchell S. Sommers; Lisa M. Huff

    2003-01-01

    The authors conducted 3 experiments that examined the effects of age and dementia of the Alzheimer's type (DAT) on phonological false memories. In addition, the study was designed to investigate the role of inhibitory control in mediating phonological false memories. In Experiment 1, both young-old and old-old participants exhibited increased susceptibility to false remembering, compared with young adults. In Experiment

  10. Preschoolers' Processing of False Beliefs Within the Context of Picture Book Reading

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Mabel Riggio; Kimberly W. Cassidy

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study examined preschoolers' processing of false belief situations presented in published picture books. Children were read one story with a plot that revolved around a single false belief occurrence and one story with multiple false belief occurrences. Children's narrative retellings of the stories were utilized as a measure of their processing of the stories. Story effects

  11. Examination of the Relationship between False-Belief Understanding and Referential Communication Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maridaki-Kassotaki, Katerina; Antonopoulou, Katerina

    2011-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to examine the relation between false-belief understanding and referential communication skills. The ability of 76 children aged 5 years to attribute false beliefs to themselves and others was examined with three false-belief tasks. The referential communication skills of the same children were assessed with two…

  12. Using a False Biofeedback Methodology to Explore Relationships between Learners' Affect, Metacognition, and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strain, Amber Chauncey; Azevedo, Roger; D'Mello, Sidney K.

    2013-01-01

    We used a false-biofeedback methodology to manipulate physiological arousal in order to induce affective states that would influence learners' metacognitive judgments and learning performance. False-biofeedback is a method used to induce physiological arousal (and resultant affective states) by presenting learners with audio stimuli of false heart…

  13. A dynamic cache sub-lock design to reduce false sharing

    E-print Network

    Kadiyala, Murali

    1995-01-01

    of it is needed by any one processor. This is known as the false sharing problem. This research presents a dynamic sub-block coherence protocol which minimizes false sharing by trying to dynamically locate the point of false reference. Sharing traffic...

  14. Continuity from an Implicit to an Explicit Understanding of False Belief from Infancy to Preschool Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoermer, Claudia; Sodian, Beate; Vuori, Maria; Perst, Hannah; Kristen, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    An implicit understanding of false belief indicated by anticipatory looking has been shown to be significantly correlated with performance on explicit false-belief tasks in 3- and 4-year-old children (Low, 2010). Recent evidence from infant research indicates, however, that implicit false-belief understanding guides infants' expectations about…

  15. Line-transect Abundance Estimates of False Killer Whales (Pseudorca crassidens)

    E-print Network

    Line-transect Abundance Estimates of False Killer Whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in the Pelagic. Line-transect abundance estimates of false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens) in the pelagic region Science Center Administrative Report H-12-02 Line-transect Abundance Estimates of False Killer Whales

  16. Gesture as a Window on Children's Beginning Understanding of False Belief

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephanie M. Carlson; Antoinette Wong; Margaret Lemke; Caron Cosser

    2005-01-01

    Children's understanding of false belief has come to serve as a hallmark of theory of mind. Understand- ing false beliefs requires one to appreciate the dis- tinction between mind and world and to view the mind as a representational device that sometimes gets things wrong (Dennett, 1979; Premack & Woodruff, 1978). Extensive research on false belief tasks has yielded two

  17. Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Now You See Them, Now You Don't!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Robyn E.; Brainerd, Charles J.; Reyna, Valerie F.

    2011-01-01

    A developmental reversal in false memory is the counterintuitive phenomenon of higher levels of false memory in older children, adolescents, and adults than in younger children. The ability of verbatim memory to suppress this age trend in false memory was evaluated using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Seven and 11-year-old children…

  18. Revisiting the rise and fall of false recall: Presentation rate effects depend on retention interval

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Troy A. Smith; Daniel R. Kimball

    2012-01-01

    Leading theories of false memory predict that veridical and false recall of lists of semantically associated words can be dissociated by varying the presentation speed during study. Specifically, as presentation rate increases from milliseconds to seconds, veridical recall is predicted to increase monotonically while false recall is predicted to show a rapid rise and then a slow decrease—a pattern shown

  19. Random variability explains apparent global clustering of large earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Michael, A.J.

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of 5 Mw ? 8.5 earthquakes since 2004 has created a debate over whether or not we are in a global cluster of large earthquakes, temporarily raising risks above long-term levels. I use three classes of statistical tests to determine if the record of M ? 7 earthquakes since 1900 can reject a null hypothesis of independent random events with a constant rate plus localized aftershock sequences. The data cannot reject this null hypothesis. Thus, the temporal distribution of large global earthquakes is well-described by a random process, plus localized aftershocks, and apparent clustering is due to random variability. Therefore the risk of future events has not increased, except within ongoing aftershock sequences, and should be estimated from the longest possible record of events.

  20. Apparent intravoxel fibre population dispersion (FPD) using spherical harmonics.

    PubMed

    Assemlal, Haz-Edine; Campbell, Jennifer; Pike, Bruce; Siddiqi, Kaleem

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI) modeling methods recover networks of neuronal fibres, using a heuristic extraction of their local orientation. In this paper, we present a method for computing the apparent intravoxel Fibre Population Dispersion (FPD), which conveys the manner in which distinct fibre populations are partitioned within the same voxel. We provide a statistical analysis, without any prior assumptions on the number or size of these fibre populations, using an analytical formulation of the diffusion signal autocorrelation function in the spherical harmonics basis. We also propose to extract features of the FPD obtained in the group of rotations, using several metrics based on unit quaternions. We show results on simulated data and on physical phantoms, that demonstrate the effectiveness of the FPD to reveal regions with crossing tracts, in contrast to the standard anisotropy measures. PMID:21995025