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1

Spam Filtering Issue: FPD Research between False Positive and False Negative  

Microsoft Academic Search

According to the fact that false positive is more serious than false negative while doing spam filtering, novel email filter with feature of partial dependency (FPD) is asked urgently. This paper investigates the FPD between false positive and false negative comprehensively and proposes an advanced fitted logistic regression model for spam discrimination by introducing a coefficient function involved with the

Liu Zhen; Zhou Ming-tian

2007-01-01

2

A Closer Look at Self-Reported Suicide Attempts: False Positives and False Negatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of self-reported suicide attempt information is undermined by false positives (e.g., incidences without intent to die), or by unreported suicide attempts, referred to as false negatives. In a sample of 1,385 Austrian adults, we explored the occurrence of false positives and false negatives with detailed, probing questions. Removing…

Ploderl, Martin; Kralovec, Karl; Yazdi, Kurosch; Fartacek, Reinhold

2011-01-01

3

Statistical inference for false positive and false negative error rates in mastery testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an asymptotic inferential procedure for the estimates of the false positive and false negative error rates. Formulas and tables are described for the computations of the standard errors. A simulation study indicates that the asymptotic standard errors may be used even with samples of 25 cases as long as the Kuder-Richardson Formula 21 reliability is reasonably large.

Huynh Huynh

1980-01-01

4

Maximum Margin Classifiers with Specified False Positive and False Negative Error Rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the problem of maximum mar- gin classification given the moments of class conditional densities and the false positive and false negative error rates. Using Chebyshev inequalities, the problem can be posed as a second order cone programming prob- lem. The dual of the formulation leads to a geometric optimization problem, that of computing the distance between two

J. Saketha Nath; Chiranjib Bhattacharyya

2007-01-01

5

Prevalence of False-Positive Exercise Tests in Apparently Normal Women.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The results of exercise testing in 192 apparently healthy women were examined to assess the false-positive rate in cardiovascular response. Findings are presented. It is suggested that varying methods of testing and interpretation may account for the high rate of false positivity in some testing centers. (Author/MT)

Murray, Paul M.; Cantwell, John D.

1988-01-01

6

Generalized site occupancy models allowing for false positive and false negative errors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Site occupancy models have been developed that allow for imperfect species detection or ?false negative? observations. Such models have become widely adopted in surveys of many taxa. The most fundamental assumption underlying these models is that ?false positive? errors are not possible. That is, one cannot detect a species where it does not occur. However, such errors are possible in many sampling situations for a number of reasons, and even low false positive error rates can induce extreme bias in estimates of site occupancy when they are not accounted for. In this paper, we develop a model for site occupancy that allows for both false negative and false positive error rates. This model can be represented as a two-component finite mixture model and can be easily fitted using freely available software. We provide an analysis of avian survey data using the proposed model and present results of a brief simulation study evaluating the performance of the maximum-likelihood estimator and the naive estimator in the presence of false positive errors.

Royle, J. A.; Link, W. A.

2006-01-01

7

False-negative appendicitis at ultrasound: nature and association.  

PubMed

The objective was to describe nature and factors associated with false-negative ultrasound (US) for adult appendicitis. Patients with pathologically proven appendicitis and pre-operative US from January 2011 to May 2013 were included in this retrospective case-control study. They were divided into true-positive and false-negative groups, matched by age and gender. There were 112 patients (40 men, mean age = 40 y, 56 true positives) included. Two factors were found differ significantly: abdominal wall thickness and pain score. Greater abdominal wall thickness (18.6 mm vs. 14.9 mm, p = 0.001) and lower pain score (6.6 vs. 7.5, p = 0.018) were statistically associated with false negativity. The two groups did not differ significantly in terms of weight, height, body mass index, symptom duration, Alvarado score, US examination time, appendix position/size, perforation rate and operator. In conclusion, lower pain score and increased abdominal wall thickness are associated with false negativity in US examinations. PMID:24768483

Piyarom, Patwadee; Kaewlai, Rathachai

2014-07-01

8

False Negative probabilities in Tardos codes Antonino Simone Boris Skoric  

E-print Network

. This process is also known as `forensic watermarking'. Reliable tracing of content requires security againstFalse Negative probabilities in Tardos codes Antonino Simone · Boris Skori´c Abstract Forensic Introduction 1.1 Collusion attacks against forensic watermarking Fingerprinting provides a means for tracing

9

False Positives, False Negatives, and the Validity of the Diagnosis of Major Depression in Primary Care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results: Physician identification of depression was strongly associated with increased familiarity with the patient and the presence of suggestive clinical cues, such as history of or treatment for depression, patient distress, and presence of vegetative symptoms. Patients in the false-positive group displayed significantly higher levels of distress and impairment and were sig- nificantly more likely to have a history of

Michael S. Klinkman; James C. Coyne; Susan Gallo; Thomas L. Schwenk

1998-01-01

10

Using Sniffing Behavior to Differentiate True Negative from False Negative Responses in Trained Scent-Detection Dogs  

PubMed Central

False negatives are recorded in every chemical detection system, but when animals are used as a scent detector, some false negatives can arise as a result of a failure in the link between detection and the trained alert response, or a failure of the handler to identify the positive alert. A false negative response can be critical in certain scenarios, such as searching for a live person or detecting explosives. In this study, we investigated whether the nature of sniffing behavior in trained detection dogs during a controlled scent-detection task differs in response to true positives, true negatives, false positives, and false negatives. A total of 200 videos of 10 working detection dogs were pseudorandomly selected and analyzed frame by frame to quantify sniffing duration and the number of sniffing episodes recorded in a Go/No-Go single scent-detection task using an eight-choice test apparatus. We found that the sniffing duration of true negatives is significantly shorter than false negatives, true positives, and false positives. Furthermore, dogs only ever performed one sniffing episode towards true negatives, but two sniffing episodes commonly occurred in the other situations. These results demonstrate how the nature of sniffing can be used to more effectively assess odor detection by dogs used as biological detection devices. PMID:25214467

Mills, Daniel S.; Feugier, Alexandre; Zulch, Helen; Guest, Claire; Harris, Rob; Pike, Thomas W.

2014-01-01

11

Using sniffing behavior to differentiate true negative from false negative responses in trained scent-detection dogs.  

PubMed

False negatives are recorded in every chemical detection system, but when animals are used as a scent detector, some false negatives can arise as a result of a failure in the link between detection and the trained alert response, or a failure of the handler to identify the positive alert. A false negative response can be critical in certain scenarios, such as searching for a live person or detecting explosives. In this study, we investigated whether the nature of sniffing behavior in trained detection dogs during a controlled scent-detection task differs in response to true positives, true negatives, false positives, and false negatives. A total of 200 videos of 10 working detection dogs were pseudorandomly selected and analyzed frame by frame to quantify sniffing duration and the number of sniffing episodes recorded in a Go/No-Go single scent-detection task using an eight-choice test apparatus. We found that the sniffing duration of true negatives is significantly shorter than false negatives, true positives, and false positives. Furthermore, dogs only ever performed one sniffing episode towards true negatives, but two sniffing episodes commonly occurred in the other situations. These results demonstrate how the nature of sniffing can be used to more effectively assess odor detection by dogs used as biological detection devices. PMID:25214467

Concha, Astrid; Mills, Daniel S; Feugier, Alexandre; Zulch, Helen; Guest, Claire; Harris, Rob; Pike, Thomas W

2014-11-01

12

Limited Agreement of Independent RNAi Screens for Virus-Required Host Genes Owes More to False-Negative than False-Positive Factors  

PubMed Central

Systematic, genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) analysis is a powerful approach to identify gene functions that support or modulate selected biological processes. An emerging challenge shared with some other genome-wide approaches is that independent RNAi studies often show limited agreement in their lists of implicated genes. To better understand this, we analyzed four genome-wide RNAi studies that identified host genes involved in influenza virus replication. These studies collectively identified and validated the roles of 614 cell genes, but pair-wise overlap among the four gene lists was only 3% to 15% (average 6.7%). However, a number of functional categories were overrepresented in multiple studies. The pair-wise overlap of these enriched-category lists was high, ?19%, implying more agreement among studies than apparent at the gene level. Probing this further, we found that the gene lists implicated by independent studies were highly connected in interacting networks by independent functional measures such as protein-protein interactions, at rates significantly higher than predicted by chance. We also developed a general, model-based approach to gauge the effects of false-positive and false-negative factors and to estimate, from a limited number of studies, the total number of genes involved in a process. For influenza virus replication, this novel statistical approach estimates the total number of cell genes involved to be ?2,800. This and multiple other aspects of our experimental and computational results imply that, when following good quality control practices, the low overlap between studies is primarily due to false negatives rather than false-positive gene identifications. These results and methods have implications for and applications to multiple forms of genome-wide analysis. PMID:24068911

Wang, Zhishi; Craven, Mark; Newton, Michael A.; Ahlquist, Paul

2013-01-01

13

Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring  

PubMed Central

Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups. PMID:22787019

Hamel, Jennifer A.; Cocroft, Reginald B.

2012-01-01

14

False-negative Diffusion-weighted MR Findings in Acute Ischemic Stroke  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Lesions associated with acute stroke are often missed by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), suggesting that the sensitivity of this technique for detecting acute ischemic stroke may not be as high as initially thought. Our aim was to estimate the rate of false-negative DWI studies in patients with persistent neurologic deficit due to an ischemic stroke and to identify

Catherine Oppenheim; Ruxandra Stanescu; Didier Dormont; Sophie Crozier; Beatrice Marro; Yves Samson; Gerald Rancurel; Claude Marsault

2000-01-01

15

Equivalent cross relaxation rate image for decreasing a false negative case of sentinel lymph node biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the breast carcinamas, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) attracts attention as technique to be settled by axillary lymph node metastasis, but existence of a false negative case is a problem. Equivalent cross relaxation rate image (ECRI) is the measurement method that we can evaluate a change of organization structure quantitatively by magnetic resonance imaging. We executed axillary ECRI as

Shigeru Matsushima; Fumio Sasaki; Shuhei Sarumaru; Daisuke Ohta; Seiichi Era; Masaru Sogami; Tadashi Inaba; Yasutomi Kinosada

2003-01-01

16

Kinetic Evidence of an Apparent Negative Activation Enthalpy in an Organocatalytic Process  

PubMed Central

A combined kinetic and computational study on our tryptophan-based bifunctional thiourea catalyzed asymmetric Mannich reactions reveals an apparent negative activation enthalpy. The formation of the pre-transition state complex has been unambiguously confirmed and these observations provide an experimental support for the formation of multiple hydrogen bonding network between the substrates and the catalyst. Such interactions allow the creation of a binding cavity, a key factor to install high enantioselectivity. PMID:23990028

Han, Xiao; Lee, Richmond; Chen, Tao; Luo, Jie; Lu, Yixin; Huang, Kuo-Wei

2013-01-01

17

False-negative dipyridamole-thallium-201 myocardial imaging after caffeine infusion  

SciTech Connect

The vasodilator effect of intravenously administered dipyridamole may be caused by an increase in endogenous plasma adenosine levels. The authors evaluated the effect of caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, on the diagnostic results of dipyridamole-201Tl myocardial imaging in eight patients with coronary artery disease. Caffeine infusion significantly attenuated the dipyridamole-induced fall in blood pressure and the accompanied increase in heart rate. The infusion of dipyridamole alone resulted in chest pain and ST-segment depressions on the electrocardiogram in four patients, whereas none of these problems occurred when the tests were repeated after caffeine. In six of eight patients, caffeine was responsible for false-negative dipyridamole-201Tl tests. Semiquantitive scores of the dipyridamole-induced 201Tl perfusion defects were decreased by caffeine from 9.0 {plus minus} 0.9 to 2.0 {plus minus} 1.1 points (p less than 0.05). Computerized analysis revealed a caffeine-mediated reduction in the percent reversibility of the images from 46% {plus minus} 16% to 6% {plus minus} 10% (p less than 0.05). They conclude that the use of caffeinated products prior to dipyridamole-201Tl testing may be responsible for false-negative findings.

Smits, P.; Corstens, F.H.; Aengevaeren, W.R.; Wackers, F.J.; Thien, T. (University Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands))

1991-08-01

18

An investigation into false-negative transthoracic fine needle aspiration and core biopsy specimens.  

PubMed

Transthoracic fine needle aspiration (TFNA)/core needle biopsy (CNB) under computed tomography (CT) guidance has proved useful in the assessment of pulmonary nodules. We sought to determine the TFNA false-negative (FN) rate at our institution and identify potential causes of FN diagnoses. Medical records were reviewed from 1,043 consecutive patients who underwent CT-guided TFNA with or without CNB of lung nodules over a 5-year time period (2003-2007). Thirty-seven FN cases of "negative" TFNA/CNB with malignant outcome were identified with 36 cases available for review, of which 35 had a corresponding CNB. Cases were reviewed independently (blinded to original diagnosis) by three pathologists with 15 age- and sex-matched positive and negative controls. Diagnosis (i.e., nondiagnostic, negative or positive for malignancy, atypical or suspicious) and qualitative assessments were recorded. Consensus diagnosis was suspicious or positive in 10 (28%) of 36 TFNA cases and suspicious in 1 (3%) of 35 CNB cases, indicating potential interpretive errors. Of the 11 interpretive errors (including both suspicious and positive cases), 8 were adenocarcinomas, 1 squamous cell carcinoma, 1 metastatic renal cell carcinoma, and 1 lymphoma. The remaining 25 FN cases (69.4%) were considered sampling errors and consisted of 7 adenocarcinomas, 3 nonsmall cell carcinomas, 3 lymphomas, 2 squamous cell carcinomas, and 2 renal cell carcinomas. Interpretive and sampling error cases were more likely to abut the pleura, while histopathologically, they tended to be necrotic and air-dried. The overall FN rate in this patient cohort is 3.5% (1.1% interpretive and 2.4% sampling errors). Diagn. Cytopathol. 2014;42:1063-1068;. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24866385

Minot, Douglas M; Gilman, Elizabeth A; Aubry, Marie-Christine; Voss, Jesse S; Van Epps, Sarah G; Tuve, Delores J; Sciallis, Andrew P; Henry, Michael R; Salomao, Diva R; Lee, Peter; Carlson, Stephanie K; Clayton, Amy C

2014-12-01

19

A highly sensitive telomerase activity assay that eliminates false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors.  

PubMed

An assay for telomerase activity based on asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (A-PCR) on magnetic beads (MBs) and subsequent application of cycling probe technology (CPT) is described. In this assay, the telomerase reaction products are immobilized on MBs, which are then washed to remove PCR inhibitors that are commonly found in clinical samples. The guanine-rich sequences (5'-(TTAGGG)n-3') of the telomerase reaction products are then preferentially amplified by A-PCR, and the amplified products are subsequently detected via CPT, where a probe RNA with a fluorophore at the 5' end and a quencher at the 3' end is hydrolyzed by RNase H in the presence of the target DNA. The catalyst-mediated cleavage of the probe RNA enhances fluorescence from the 5' end of the probe. The assay allowed us to successfully detect HeLa cells selectively over normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cells. Importantly, this selectivity produced identical results with regard to detection of HeLa cells in the absence and presence of excess NHDF cells; therefore, this assay can be used for practical clinical applications. The lower limit of detection for HeLa cells was 50 cells, which is lower than that achieved with a conventional telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay. Our assay also eliminated false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors. Furthermore, we show that this assay is appropriate for screening among G-quadruplex ligands to find those that inhibit telomerase activity. PMID:24071983

Yaku, Hidenobu; Murashima, Takashi; Miyoshi, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Naoki

2013-01-01

20

False-Negative 123I-MIBG SPECT Is Most Commonly Found in SDHB-Related Pheochromocytoma or Paraganglioma with High Frequency to Develop Metastatic Disease  

PubMed Central

Objective The purpose of this study was to present the characteristics and outcome of patients with proven pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma who had false-negative 123I-MIBG SPECT. Methods Twenty one patients with false-negative 123I-MIBG SPECT, (6 males, 15 females) aged 13–55 years (mean 40.9 years) were included. We classified them according to the stage of the disease as non-metastatic or metastatic at the time of false-negative 123I-MIBG SPECT study, the location and size of the tumor, plasma and urinary catecholamine and metanephrine levels, genetic mutations, and outcome in terms of occurrence and progression of metastases and death. Results Thirteen patients were evaluated for metastatic tumors while 8 others were seen for non-metastatic disease. All primary tumors and multiple metastatic foci did not show avid 123I-MIBG uptake regardless of the tumor diameter. The majority of patients had extra-adrenal tumors with hypersecretion of normetanephrine or norepinephrine. SDHB mutation was present in 52% (n=11) of cases, RET mutation in 4% (n=1), and the rest were apparently sporadic. Twenty four percent (n=5) had metastatic disease on initial presentation. Fourteen patients were followed-up for 3–7 years. From them, 71% (n=10) had metastatic disease and majority had SDHB mutation. Nine are still alive while 5 (4 were SDHB) died due to metastatic disease. Conclusion A false-negative 123I-MIBG SPECT is frequently related to metastatic tumors and usually due to SDHB mutations with unfavourable prognosis. We, therefore, recommend that patients with false-negative 123I-MIBG SPECT be tested for SDHB mutations and to undergo more regular and close follow-up. PMID:22167067

Fonte, Jay S.; Robles, Jeremyjones F.; Chen, Clara C.; Reynolds, James; Whatley, Millie; Ling, Alexander; Mercado-Asis, Leilani B.; Adams, Karen T.; Martucii, Victoria; Fojo, Tito; Pacak, Karel

2012-01-01

21

The Hypoplastic Inferior Petrosal Sinus: A Potential Source of False-Negative Results in Petrosal Sampling for Cushing's Disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Our purpose was to describe the hypoplastic or plexiform inferior petrosal sinus as a potential cause of false-negative sampling results in patients with Cushing's disease. Five hundred and one patients with surgically proven Cushing's disease and negative or equivocal magnetic resonance imaging scans of the pituitary gland underwent petrosal sinus sampling. Four patients (0.8%) with surgically proven Cushing's disease had

JOHN L. DOPPMAN; RICHARD CHANG; EDWARD H. OLDFIELD; GEORGE CHROUSOS; CONSTANTINE A. STRATAKIS; LYNNETTE K. NIEMAN

2010-01-01

22

Technetium-99m white blood cell imaging: False-negative result in salmonella osteomyelitis associated with sickle cell disease  

SciTech Connect

The authors report a case of sickle cell anemia associated osteomyelitis where the Tc-99m white blood cell imaging was negative, and bone imaging showed increased uptake in the region in question. The reasons for the possible false-negative image are discussed.

Guze, B.H.; Hawkins, R.A.; Marcus, C.S.

1989-02-01

23

False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method  

SciTech Connect

Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10x10^-3 to 1.86 CFU/cm^2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (>1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm^2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

Krauter, Paula; Piepel, Gregory F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matthew S.; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

2012-02-01

24

False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method  

PubMed Central

Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10 × 10?3 to 1.86 CFU/cm2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (?1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions. PMID:22138998

Piepel, Greg F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

2012-01-01

25

False-negative rate and recovery efficiency performance of a validated sponge wipe sampling method.  

PubMed

Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10 × 10(-3) to 1.86 CFU/cm(2)). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD(90) (?1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm(2) on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions. PMID:22138998

Krauter, Paula A; Piepel, Greg F; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G; Einfeld, Wayne

2012-02-01

26

Influence of Age, Race, Sex, and Socioeconomic Status on False-negative Rates of Visual Fields in Glaucoma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aim: An increased frequency of false-negative rates for visual fields in glaucoma has been associated with worse visual field status. This study examines whether this finding might also vary according to age, race, sex, or socioeconomic status — demo- graphic factors unrelated to glaucoma that may affect visual field performance. Patients and Methods: This study was a retrospective observational case

Julia Song; Paul P Lee; Sandra S Stinnett; R Rand Allingham; Karanjit S Kooner

27

All That Glisters Is Not Gold: Sampling-Process Uncertainty in Disease-Vector Surveys with False-Negative and False-Positive Detections  

PubMed Central

Background Vector-borne diseases are major public health concerns worldwide. For many of them, vector control is still key to primary prevention, with control actions planned and evaluated using vector occurrence records. Yet vectors can be difficult to detect, and vector occurrence indices will be biased whenever spurious detection/non-detection records arise during surveys. Here, we investigate the process of Chagas disease vector detection, assessing the performance of the surveillance method used in most control programs – active triatomine-bug searches by trained health agents. Methodology/Principal Findings Control agents conducted triplicate vector searches in 414 man-made ecotopes of two rural localities. Ecotope-specific ‘detection histories’ (vectors or their traces detected or not in each individual search) were analyzed using ordinary methods that disregard detection failures and multiple detection-state site-occupancy models that accommodate false-negative and false-positive detections. Mean (±SE) vector-search sensitivity was ?0.283±0.057. Vector-detection odds increased as bug colonies grew denser, and were lower in houses than in most peridomestic structures, particularly woodpiles. False-positive detections (non-vector fecal streaks misidentified as signs of vector presence) occurred with probability ?0.011±0.008. The model-averaged estimate of infestation (44.5±6.4%) was ?2.4–3.9 times higher than naïve indices computed assuming perfect detection after single vector searches (11.4–18.8%); about 106–137 infestation foci went undetected during such standard searches. Conclusions/Significance We illustrate a relatively straightforward approach to addressing vector detection uncertainty under realistic field survey conditions. Standard vector searches had low sensitivity except in certain singular circumstances. Our findings suggest that many infestation foci may go undetected during routine surveys, especially when vector density is low. Undetected foci can cause control failures and induce bias in entomological indices; this may confound disease risk assessment and mislead program managers into flawed decision making. By helping correct bias in naïve indices, the approach we illustrate has potential to critically strengthen vector-borne disease control-surveillance systems. PMID:25233352

Abad-Franch, Fernando; Valenca-Barbosa, Carolina; Sarquis, Otilia; Lima, Marli M.

2014-01-01

28

Yale study finds false negative tests in breast cancer may lead to wrong drug choice:  

Cancer.gov

A team of Yale Cancer Center researchers has confirmed that between 10-20% of breast cancers classified as Estrogen Receptor (ER) negative are really positive. Understanding when and why breast cancers may be misclassified has important implications for treatment and outcomes for women diagnosed with breast cancer.

29

False negative bone scans in pediatric sepsis of the axial skeleton  

SciTech Connect

The early diagnosis of disk space infections and sacroiliitis in children can be difficult because of protean presenting symptoms, nonspecific laboratory studies, and normal plain films. Technetium phosphate scintigraphy has been reported as a diagnostic method with an accuracy of up to 100% in some series. In this case report we present two patients with negative technetium bone scans in the face of active infection, illustrating the need to pursue the diagnosis using other modalities.

Perloff, K.G.; Glancy, G.L.; Perloff, J.J.

1988-12-01

30

A Case of False Negative NIPT for Down Syndrome-Lessons Learned.  

PubMed

Down syndrome or trisomy 21 is the most common cause of prenatal chromosome abnormalities with approximately 50% of all reported chromosome conditions. With the successful introduction of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Down syndrome into routine prenatal care, it is important to understand the risks, benefits, and limitations in order to guide patients in making an informed decision. Herein, we describe the first published case report of a patient whose fetus tested "negative" for Trisomy 21 by NIPT but was diagnosed postnatally with trisomy 21. We present the importance of proper pretest and posttest genetic counseling to ensure prenatal patients are able to make informed decisions and are educated appropriately about NIPT. PMID:24649382

Smith, Meagan; Lewis, Kimberly M; Holmes, Alexandrea; Visootsak, Jeannie

2014-01-01

31

A Case of False Negative NIPT for Down Syndrome-Lessons Learned  

PubMed Central

Down syndrome or trisomy 21 is the most common cause of prenatal chromosome abnormalities with approximately 50% of all reported chromosome conditions. With the successful introduction of noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) for Down syndrome into routine prenatal care, it is important to understand the risks, benefits, and limitations in order to guide patients in making an informed decision. Herein, we describe the first published case report of a patient whose fetus tested “negative” for Trisomy 21 by NIPT but was diagnosed postnatally with trisomy 21. We present the importance of proper pretest and posttest genetic counseling to ensure prenatal patients are able to make informed decisions and are educated appropriately about NIPT. PMID:24649382

Lewis, Kimberly M.; Holmes, Alexandrea

2014-01-01

32

False negativity to carbohydrate-deficient transferrin and drugs: a clinical case  

PubMed Central

Introduction: In this work we report on the possible effect of the medical therapy on CDT concentration in a chronic alcohol abuser, with known medical history (July 2007 – April 2012) and alcohol abuse confirmed by relatives. Case history: At the end of 2007, patient displayed the following laboratory results: AST 137 U/L, ALT 120 U/L, GGT 434 U/L, MCV 101 fL and CDT 3.3%. On December 2007, after double coronary artery bypass surgery, he began a pharmacological treatment with amlodipine, perindopril, atorvastatin, isosorbide mononitrate, carvedilol, ticlopidine and pantoprazole. In the next months, until may 2011, the patient resumed alcohol abuse, as confirmed by relatives; however, CDT values were repeatedly found negative (0.8% and 1.1%) despite elevated transaminases and GGT, concurrent elevated ethyl glucuronide concentration (> 50 mg/L) and blood alcohol concentration (> 1 g/L). Alcohol consumption still continued despite increasing disulfiram doses ordered by an Alcohol Rehab Center. On May 2011, the patient was transferred to a private medical center where he currently lives. Conclusions: This study suggests the possibility that a medical therapy including different drugs may hamper the identification of chronic alcohol abusers by CDT. PMID:24627727

Vidali, Matteo; Bianchi, Vincenza; Bagnati, Marco; Atzeni, Nadia; Bianchi, Andrea Marco; Bellomo, Giorgio

2014-01-01

33

Origin of Apparent Negative Heat Capacity in Constrained Microcanonical Modeling of Excited Nuclear Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origin of negative heat capacity in certain classes of microcanonical models of phase transitions in small systems is studied. It is demonstrated that the domain of negative heat capacity appears in such calculations as a result of an unphysical discontinuity in the model phase space and, specifically, the exclusion of energetically (microcanonically) allowed micro-states filling the space between the domains corresponding to different phases. It is also shown that already a crude filling of these unphysical gaps in the model phase space results in a restoration of the concavity of the entropic curve S(E*) and thus in an elimination of the faux negative heat capacity in the phase transition region.

Quinlan, Michael; Toke, Jan; Pawelczak, Iwona; Schröder, Wolf-Udo

2007-10-01

34

Hypothetical explanations of the negative apparent effects of cloud seeding in the whitetop experiment.  

PubMed

In order to explain the apparent losses of rain ascribable to seeding at the Whitetop trial, particularly large and highly significant in the stratum E (but not in the opposite stratum W) of experimental days, it has been hypothesized that seeding causes widespread cloudiness and subsequent lowering of ground temperatures. This hypothesis is flatly contradicted by the observations: the seeded E-days (but not W-days) were uniformly less cloudy and hotter than those without seeding. Curiously, these differences prevailed not only from the scheduled time of seeding but also for several hours beforehand. The average rainfall for the 10 hr that preceded the time of seeding was investigated in eight "cells", defined by the day's wind direction to be downwind, upwind, and to the sides and "far" and "near" the center of seeding. Highly significant decreases were found in the far-upwind and far-left cells, indicating an earlymorning disparity between those E-days that later were declared as experimental to be seeded and those E-days that were declared as experimental not to be seeded. This disparity, difficult to explain by chance variation, suggests that particular caution be used in treating differences in the rainfall between seeded and not-seeded days in the Whitetop trial as having been caused by seeding. PMID:16591951

Lovasich, J L; Neyman, J; Scott, E L; Wells, M A

1971-11-01

35

Detectability of the Eurasian otter by standard surveys: an approach using marking intensity to estimate false negative rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

False negative detections may bias the surveys for rare species and reduce the reliability of models based on the proportion of occupied patches. We assessed the detectability of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra through the standard survey method by analysing the detection history of 28 sampling stretches surveyed monthly between March 2001 and January 2003. Each survey negative for otter spraints was considered as a false negative if the otter had been recorded in the previous and/or following month (respectively, cFN and FN). Otter marking intensity (MI) (MI=N° of spraints per kilometre) was calculated and assumed to represent an index of its relative abundance. Spraints were found in 81.7% of all surveys. Yearly MI ranged from 1.02 to 101.4 spraints per kilometre. In 2002, mean MI was significantly lower than in the previous year, while no clear seasonal trend could be outlined. The minimum number of surveys required to establish the occurrence of the otter, as estimated by a probability model, was 2.6 and was inversely related to MI. For a sub-sample of 18 sampling stretches, the relation between the frequency of both cFN and FN and five variables of potential interest for otters was tested by means of stepwise linear multiple regressions, yielding two highly significant models, which both included only MI as the explanatory variable. The frequency of both FN and cFN was correlated to MI and the resulting equations used to assess the percentage of surveys positive for otters in both years. After the correction for non-detections, otter site occupancy did not vary between the 2 years, except for one river when applying the more conservative estimate of false negatives (cFN). Multiple visits and the assessing of MI should become standard components of otter surveys. This approach has broad applicability and may be applied to assess the large-scale distribution of other rare or elusive mammalian carnivores.

Balestrieri, Alessandro; Remonti, Luigi; Prigioni, Claudio

2011-01-01

36

Detectability of the Eurasian otter by standard surveys: an approach using marking intensity to estimate false negative rates.  

PubMed

False negative detections may bias the surveys for rare species and reduce the reliability of models based on the proportion of occupied patches. We assessed the detectability of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra through the standard survey method by analysing the detection history of 28 sampling stretches surveyed monthly between March 2001 and January 2003. Each survey negative for otter spraints was considered as a false negative if the otter had been recorded in the previous and/or following month (respectively, cFN and FN). Otter marking intensity (MI) (MI=N° of spraints per kilometre) was calculated and assumed to represent an index of its relative abundance. Spraints were found in 81.7% of all surveys. Yearly MI ranged from 1.02 to 101.4 spraints per kilometre. In 2002, mean MI was significantly lower than in the previous year, while no clear seasonal trend could be outlined. The minimum number of surveys required to establish the occurrence of the otter, as estimated by a probability model, was 2.6 and was inversely related to MI. For a sub-sample of 18 sampling stretches, the relation between the frequency of both cFN and FN and five variables of potential interest for otters was tested by means of stepwise linear multiple regressions, yielding two highly significant models, which both included only MI as the explanatory variable. The frequency of both FN and cFN was correlated to MI and the resulting equations used to assess the percentage of surveys positive for otters in both years. After the correction for non-detections, otter site occupancy did not vary between the 2 years, except for one river when applying the more conservative estimate of false negatives (cFN). Multiple visits and the assessing of MI should become standard components of otter surveys. This approach has broad applicability and may be applied to assess the large-scale distribution of other rare or elusive mammalian carnivores. PMID:21080153

Balestrieri, Alessandro; Remonti, Luigi; Prigioni, Claudio

2011-01-01

37

Residual Antibiotics in Decontaminated Human Cardiovascular Tissues Intended for Transplantation and Risk of Falsely Negative Microbiological Analyses  

PubMed Central

We investigated the presence of antibiotics in cryopreserved cardiovascular tissues and cryopreservation media, after tissue decontamination with antibiotic cocktails, and the impact of antibiotic residues on standard tissue bank microbiological analyses. Sixteen cardiovascular tissues were decontaminated with bank-prepared cocktails and cryopreserved by two different tissue banks according to their standard operating procedures. Before and after decontamination, samples underwent microbiological analysis by standard tissue bank methods. Cryopreserved samples were tested again with and without the removal of antibiotic residues using a RESEP tube, after thawing. Presence of antibiotics in tissue homogenates and processing liquids was determined by a modified agar diffusion test. All cryopreserved tissue homogenates and cryopreservation media induced important inhibition zones on both Staphylococcus aureus- and Pseudomonas aeruginosa-seeded plates, immediately after thawing and at the end of the sterility test. The RESEP tube treatment markedly reduced or totally eliminated the antimicrobial activity of tested tissues and media. Based on standard tissue bank analysis, 50% of tissues were found positive for bacteria and/or fungi, before decontamination and 2 out of 16 tested samples (13%) still contained microorganisms after decontamination. After thawing, none of the 16 cryopreserved samples resulted positive with direct inoculum method. When the same samples were tested after removal of antibiotic residues, 8 out of 16 (50%) were contaminated. Antibiotic residues present in tissue allografts and processing liquids after decontamination may mask microbial contamination during microbiological analysis performed with standard tissue bank methods, thus resulting in false negatives. PMID:25397402

Gatto, Claudio; Manara, Sabrina; Dainese, Luca; Polvani, Gianluca; Tóthová, Jana D'Amato

2014-01-01

38

False Negatives in Sexual Abuse Disclosure InterviewsIncidence and Influence of Caretaker's Belief in Abuse in Cases of Accidental Abuse Discovery by Diagnosis of STD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verbal disclosure of abuse in a specialized interview was studied in a sample of 28 children, ages 3 to menarche, who presented with purely physical complaints later diagnosed as a sexually transmitted disease, in the absence of any known prior disclosure or suspicion of sexual abuse. Only 43% gave any verbal confirmation of sexual contact. Fifty-seven percent were “false negatives.”

LOUANNE LAWSON; MARK CHAFFIN

1992-01-01

39

False negative HIV antibody test in HIV infected children who receive early antiretroviral treatment in a resource-limited setting.  

PubMed

With the implementation of 2010 World Health Organization guidelines, the number of infants from developing countries who will initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) will increase considerably. In this study we describe the HIV antibody tests of 14 HIV infected children who initiated ART at age less than one year in a rural setting of India. The HIV rapid test was negative in seven and indeterminate in two cases, whereas the HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibody test was negative in three and indeterminate in one case. In one child who had both negative HIV rapid test and ELISA initially, HIV serology turned positive after having a virological failure to ART, suggesting the possibility of utilizing HIV serology for monitoring ART effectiveness in children who experience HIV seroreversion. In conclusion, HIV seroreversion of children with early initiation of ART is common and should be considered for avoiding misdiagnosis of HIV infection. PMID:24470936

Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Naik, Praveen K; Midde, Manoranjan; Kannan, Shanmugamari; Reddy, Raghuprakash

2012-01-01

40

False negative HIV antibody test in HIV infected children who receive early antiretroviral treatment in a resource-limited setting  

PubMed Central

With the implementation of 2010 World Health Organization guidelines, the number of infants from developing countries who will initiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) will increase considerably. In this study we describe the HIV antibody tests of 14 HIV infected children who initiated ART at age less than one year in a rural setting of India. The HIV rapid test was negative in seven and indeterminate in two cases, whereas the HIV enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) antibody test was negative in three and indeterminate in one case. In one child who had both negative HIV rapid test and ELISA initially, HIV serology turned positive after having a virological failure to ART, suggesting the possibility of utilizing HIV serology for monitoring ART effectiveness in children who experience HIV seroreversion. In conclusion, HIV seroreversion of children with early initiation of ART is common and should be considered for avoiding misdiagnosis of HIV infection. PMID:24470936

Alvarez-Uria, Gerardo; Naik, Praveen K; Midde, Manoranjan; Kannan, Shanmugamari; Reddy, Raghuprakash

2012-01-01

41

Detection of IgM responses to bovine respiratory syncytial virus by indirect ELISA following experimental infection and reinfection of calves: abolition of false positive and false negative results by pre-treatment of sera with protein-G agarose.  

PubMed

The IgM responses in three panels of sera generated by infection and reinfection of calves with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were measured by indirect ELISA (I-ELISA). The effect of depleting serum IgG by pre-treatment with protein G agarose (PGA) was evaluated. Following primary infection a weak IgM response was detected in the untreated sera of 3 out of 4 calves with maternally derived antibody (MDA). Both the magnitude and duration of the specific IgM responses in these calves were increased by pre-treatment with PGA. In addition, the fourth infected calf tested gave a single positive IgM result following PGA treatment. Transient or persistent IgM responses which were abolished by pre-treatment of sera with PGA were detected in 4/8 calves following reinfection. These were considered to be false positive results, consistent with the influence of IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF). One of these calves and two additional calves showed transient increases in IgM which were resistant to PGA treatment. These were considered to represent specific IgM responses to reinfection. The results indicate the ability of PGA treatment to eliminate both false positive and false negative results and emphasise the necessity for controlling the influence of IgM-RF in IgM-specific indirect ELISAs. PMID:10522785

Graham, D A; Foster, J C; Mawhinney, K A; Elvander, M; Adair, B M; Merza, M

1999-10-01

42

False-negative dengue cases in roraima, Brazil: an approach regarding the high number of negative results by ns1 ag kits.  

PubMed

Serum samples from 150 NS1-negative (Platelia ELISA) patients presumptively diagnosed with dengue were analyzed by the TaqMan probed real-time reverse transcription PCR (TaqMan qRT-PCR) method. The qRT-PCR positive samples were tested for serotype by semi-nested RT-PCR and a qualitative immunochromatographic assay for IgG and IgM. Molecular detection methods showed 33 (22%) positive samples out of 150 NS1-antigen negative samples. Of these, 72% were collected up to day 2 after the onset of symptoms, when diagnostic sensitivity of NS1-antigen test assays is significantly enhanced. Most of the cases were not characterized as secondary infection. Twenty-eight samples were successfully serotyped, 75% of which for DENV-4, 14% for DENV-2, 7% for DENV-3 and 4% for DENV-1. These findings reaffirm the hyperendemic situation of the state of Roraima and suggest a lower sensitivity of the NS1 test, mainly when DENV-4 is the predominant serotype. Health care providers should therefore be aware of samples tested negative by NS1 antigen assays, especially when clinical symptoms and other laboratory data results show evidence of dengue infection. PMID:25229228

Acosta, Pablo O A; Granja, Fabiana; Meneses, Cátia A; Nascimento, Ismael A S; Sousa, Débora D; Lima Júnior, Wilson P; Naveca, Felipe Gomes

2014-09-01

43

Are apparent negative effects of feeding GM MON810 maize to Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, caused by confounding factors?  

PubMed

The present study was conducted to follow up on apparent differences in growth, relative organ sizes, cellular stress and immune function in Atlantic salmon fed feed containing GM Bacillus thuringiensis maize compared with feed containing the non-modified parental maize line. Gene expression profiling on the distal intestinal segment and liver was performed by microarray, and selected genes were followed up by quantitative PCR (qPCR). In the liver, qPCR revealed some differentially regulated genes, including up-regulation of gelsolin precursor, down-regulation of ferritin heavy subunit and a tendency towards down-regulation of metallothionein (MT)-B. This, combined with the up-regulation of anti-apoptotic protein NR13 and similar tendencies for ferritin heavy chain and MT-A and -B in the distal intestine, suggests changes in cellular stress/antioxidant status. This corresponds well with and strengthens previous findings in these fish. To exclude possible confounding factors, the maize ingredients were analysed for mycotoxins and metabolites. The GM maize contained 90 ?g/kg of deoxynivalenol (DON), while the non-GM maize was below the detection limit. Differences were also observed in the metabolite profiles of the two maize varieties, some of which seemed connected to the mycotoxin level. The effects on salmon observed in the present and previous studies correspond relatively well with the effects of DON as reported in the literature for other production animals, but knowledge regarding effects and harmful dose levels in fish is scarce. Thus, it is difficult to conclude whether the observed effects are caused by the DON level or by some other aspect of the GM maize ingredient. PMID:21418706

Sissener, Nini H; Hemre, Gro-Ingunn; Lall, Santosh P; Sagstad, Anita; Petersen, Kjell; Williams, Jason; Rohloff, Jens; Sanden, Monica

2011-07-01

44

Implementation of the Bacillus cereus microbiological plate used for the screening of tetracyclines in raw milk samples with STAR protocol - the problem with false-negative results solved.  

PubMed

In antibiotic residue analyses the first step of screening is just as important as the following steps. Screening methods need to be quick and inexpensive, but above all sensitive enough to detect the antibiotic residue at or below the maximum residue limit (MRL). In the case of a positive result, the next step is conducted and further methods are used for confirmation. MRLs stated in European Union Regulation 37/2010 for tetracyclines in raw milk are: 100 µg kg(-1) for tetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for oxytetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for chlortetracycline and no limit for doxycycline because it is prohibited for use in animals from which milk is produced for human consumption. The current five-plate microbiological screening method for the detection of antibiotic residues in raw milk was found to be simple and inexpensive, but not specific, sensitive and reliable enough to detect tetracycline at MRL in routine raw milk screening procedures. Spiking samples with tetracycline at the MRL level and applying them on Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 microbiological plates often gave false-negative results, indicating that tetracyclines may have to be inactivated or masked. Tetracyclines seem to bind to a certain component in milk. Consequently, when applying samples to the B. cereus microbiological plate the antibiotic cannot inhibit the growth of B. cereus which disables the formation of inhibition zones on the test plate. After adding the appropriate amount of citric acid into the milk samples, we solved the problem of false-negative results. During the validation 79 samples of milk were spiked with tetracyclines at different concentrations: 100 µg kg(-1) for tetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for oxytetracycline, 80 µg kg(-1) for chlortetracycline and 30 µg kg(-1) for doxycycline. Concentrations used in the validation matched the requirements for MRLs (they were either at or below the MRLs) stated in European Union Regulation 37/2010. The sensitivity of the validation was 100%. PMID:25230820

Raspor Lainš?ek, P; Biasizzo, M; Henigman, U; Dolenc, J; Kirbiš, A

2014-11-01

45

Mixed Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Infections and False-Negative Results for Rifampin Resistance by GeneXpert MTB/RIF Are Associated with Poor Clinical Outcomes  

PubMed Central

The Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) assay is becoming a principal screening tool for diagnosing rifampin-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infection. However, little is known about the performance of the Xpert assay in infections with both drug-sensitive and drug-resistant strains (mixed MTBC infections). We assessed the performance of the Xpert assay for detecting rifampin resistance using phenotypic drug sensitivity testing (DST) as the reference standard in 370 patients with microbiologically proven pulmonary tuberculosis. Mixed MTBC infections were identified genetically through 24-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive-unit–variable-number tandem-repeat (MIRU-VNTR) analysis. Logistic regression was used to identify the factors associated with poor (defined as treatment failure, default, and death from any cause) or good (defined as cure or successful treatment completion) clinical outcomes. The analytic sensitivity of the Xpert assay for detecting rifampin resistance was assessed in vitro by testing cultures containing different ratios of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant organisms. Rifampin resistance was detected by the Xpert assay in 52 (14.1%) and by phenotypic DST in 55 (14.9%) patients. Mixed MTBC infections were identified in 37 (10.0%) patients. The Xpert assay was 92.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 82.4% to 97.9%) sensitive for detecting rifampin resistance and 99.7% (95% CI, 98.3% to 99.9%) specific. When restricted to patients with mixed MTBC infections, Xpert sensitivity was 80.0% (95% CI, 56.3 to 94.3%). False-negative Xpert results (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 6.6; 95% CI,1.2 to 48.2) and mixed MTBC infections (aOR, 6.5; 95% CI, 2.1 to 20.5) were strongly associated with poor clinical outcome. The Xpert assay failed to detect rifampin resistance in vitro when <90% of the organisms in the sample were rifampin resistant. Our study indicates that the Xpert assay has an increased false-negative rate for detecting rifampin resistance with mixed MTBC infections. In hyperendemic settings where mixed infections are common, the Xpert results might need further confirmation. PMID:24789181

Shin, Sanghyuk S.; Tumedi, Kefentse A.; Moeti, Keletso; Ncube, Ronald; Nicol, Mark; Collman, Ronald G.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.; Modongo, Chawangwa

2014-01-01

46

Dose-to-dose variations with single packages of counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements as a potential source of false negatives and inaccurate health risk assessments.  

PubMed

In this report, we show three examples of how the variability in dose units in single packages of counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements may contribute to a false negative screening result and inaccurate health risk assessments. We describe a counterfeit Viagra 100mg blister pack and a box of an instant coffee both containing dose units with and without an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). We also describe a purportedly herbal slimming product with capsules that mutually differed in API and impurities. The adulterated dietary supplements contained sibutramine, benzyl-sibutramine, N-desmethyl-sibutramine (DMS), N,N-didesmethyl-sibutramine (DDMS) and several other related impurities. Counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements are a health risk because their quality is unreliable. Health risks are even greater when such unreliability extends to fundamental differences between dose units in one package. Because dose-to-dose variability for these products is unpredictable, the confidence interval of a sample size is unknown. Consequently, the analyses of a selection of dose units may not be representative for the package. In the worst case, counterfeit or unauthorised medicines are not recognised as such or a health risk is not identified. In order to reduce erroneous results particular care should be taken when analysing a composite of dose units, when finding no API in a dietary supplement and when finding conformity in a suspect counterfeit medicine. PMID:24291553

Venhuis, B J; Zwaagstra, M E; Keizers, P H J; de Kaste, D

2014-02-01

47

False negative rate of sentinel lymph node biopsy in multicentric and multifocal breast cancers may be higher in cases with large additive tumor burden.  

PubMed

We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in multicentric/ multifocal breast cancer. In this prospective study, 23 women with multicentric/multifocal breast cancer underwent SLNB at our institution from April 2002 to February 2006. Presence of preoperative axillary metastases was confirmed by FNA. Patients underwent sub-areolar radiopharmaceutical injection +/- isosulfan blue to perform SLNB, then completion ALND. The false-negative (FN) rate of SLNB was determined based upon final pathology. Twenty women with multicentric and three with multifocal invasive carcinoma were enrolled. The SLN identification rate was 100%. The overall FN rate of SLNB was 15% (95% CI 0.0466, 0.4281). Both cases with FN SLNB had multicentric disease, pathologic stage III breast cancer and a larger tumor burden compared with the study population. SLNB using sub-areolar injection is feasible for patients with multicentric/multifocal breast cancer yet may be associated with a higher FN rate in patients with large additive tumor burden. PMID:19735388

Fearmonti, Regina M; Batista, Larissa I; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Bedrosian, Isabelle; Kuerer, Henry M; Hunt, Kelly K; Eva Singletary, S; Babiera, Gildy V

2009-01-01

48

A low false negative filter for detecting rare bird species from short video segments using a probable observation data set-based EKF method.  

PubMed

We report a new filter to assist the search for rare bird species. Since a rare bird only appears in front of a camera with very low occurrence (e.g., less than ten times per year) for very short duration (e.g., less than a fraction of a second), our algorithm must have a very low false negative rate. We verify the bird body axis information with the known bird flying dynamics from the short video segment. Since a regular extended Kalman filter (EKF) cannot converge due to high measurement error and limited data, we develop a novel probable observation data set (PODS)-based EKF method. The new PODS-EKF searches the measurement error range for all probable observation data that ensures the convergence of the corresponding EKF in short time frame. The algorithm has been extensively tested using both simulated inputs and real video data of four representative bird species. In the physical experiments, our algorithm has been tested on rock pigeons and red-tailed hawks with 119 motion sequences. The area under the ROC curve is 95.0%. During the one-year search of ivory-billed woodpeckers, the system reduces the raw video data of 29.41 TB to only 146.7 MB (reduction rate 99.9995%). PMID:20388596

Song, Dezhen; Xu, Yiliang

2010-09-01

49

Angina Relief by Ranolazine Identifies False-Negative SPECT Myocardial Perfusion Scans in Patients with Coronary Disease Demonstrated by Coronary Angiography.  

PubMed

Normal myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) reduces intermediate- or high-risk pretest probability patients to low- or intermediate-risk posttest probability, respectively, for coronary disease (CD). Since ranolazine (RAN) relieves only angina, anginal patients with normal MPI whose angina is relieved by RAN present a significant dilemma. The purpose of this retrospective chart review was to confirm the impression that coronary angiography (CA) is indicated in patients whose class 3 to 4 angina is relieved by RAN, but have normal myocardial single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) MPIs. Charts of patients with stable class 3 to 4 angina (typical and atypical) and normal MPIs (left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF] ?50% and segmental score?=?0) were reviewed. CA was done on all the patients with complete angina relief taking RAN, as well as nonresponders whose anginal etiology could not be explained. Stenoses were considered flow-restrictive when more than 70% diameter stenosis is observed by quantitative CA, or, when 50 to 70%, fractional flow reserve (FFR) measured ?0.80. RAN relieved angina in 36 of 54 (67%) patients. Of the known cases, 25 of these 36 (69%) had 43 stenoses ?50% (mean?=?66%): 15 (60%) had 1 vessel disease; 9 (36%) had multivessel disease; 18 (72%) had left anterior descending (LAD) disease; 1 (4%) had left main disease. Twenty one of 43 (49%) stenosis were?>?70%; 22 (51%) stenoses were 50 to 70% and required FFR measurement. Twenty nine of 43 stenoses (67%) were considered flow-restrictive in 18 of these 25 (72%) patients. Eight RAN nonresponders with no explanation for angina had no CD at CA. RAN angina relief is invaluable in identifying falsely negative SPECT MPI, and 50% of these patients have flow-restrictive stenoses. PMID:25317027

Murray, Gary L

2014-09-01

50

How does under-reporting of negative and inconclusive results affect the false-positive rate in meta-analysis? A simulation study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the impact of a higher publishing probability for statistically significant positive outcomes on the false-positive rate in meta-analysis. Design Meta-analyses of different sizes (N=10, N=20, N=50 and N=100), levels of heterogeneity and levels of publication bias were simulated. Primary and secondary outcome measures The type I error rate for the test of the mean effect size (ie, the rate at which the meta-analyses showed that the mean effect differed from 0 when it in fact equalled 0) was estimated. Additionally, the power and type I error rate of publication bias detection methods based on the funnel plot were estimated. Results In the presence of a publication bias characterised by a higher probability of including statistically significant positive results, the meta-analyses frequently concluded that the mean effect size differed from zero when it actually equalled zero. The magnitude of the effect of publication bias increased with an increasing number of studies and between-study variability. A higher probability of including statistically significant positive outcomes introduced little asymmetry to the funnel plot. A publication bias of a sufficient magnitude to frequently overturn the meta-analytic conclusions was difficult to detect by publication bias tests based on the funnel plot. When statistically significant positive results were four times more likely to be included than other outcomes and a large between-study variability was present, more than 90% of the meta-analyses of 50 and 100 studies wrongly showed that the mean effect size differed from zero. In the same scenario, publication bias tests based on the funnel plot detected the bias at rates not exceeding 15%. Conclusions This study adds to the evidence that publication bias is a major threat to the validity of medical research and supports the usefulness of efforts to limit publication bias. PMID:25168036

Kicinski, Michal

2014-01-01

51

Possible false-negative results on therapeutic drug monitoring of phenytoin using a particle enhanced turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay in a patient with a high level of IgM.  

PubMed

: In this report, the authors described the unusual case of a patient in whom the plasma phenytoin concentration was unexpectedly not detected on a particle-enhanced turbidimetric inhibition immunoassay (PETINIA) technique, a typical immunoassay for phenytoin. The plasma concentration was measured using PETINIA and high-performance liquid chromatography in a 69-year-old male patient treated with fosphenytoin intravenously at the standard dose for 7 days. Although the plasma concentration of phenytoin was below the limit of detection (<0.5 mcg/mL) on PETINIA after the administration of fosphenytoin, the trough plasma concentration was estimated to be between 5 and 10 mg/L on high-performance liquid chromatography. When the plasma concentrations of IgM and IgG were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the plasma IgG level was within the reference range, whereas the plasma IgM level was 2-3 times higher than the upper limit of the reference range. We concluded that the PETINIA method yielded a possible false-negative result regarding the phenytoin level in this patient, perhaps because of some hindrance to the measurement process by IgM. This case suggests that false-negative results should be considered when therapeutic drug monitoring reveals abnormally low values using PETINIA and that it is necessary to evaluate the plasma IgM level. PMID:24632808

Hirata, Kenshiro; Saruwatari, Junji; Enoki, Yuhuki; Iwata, Kazufumi; Urata, Yukino; Aizawa, Keiji; Ueda, Kentaro; Shirouzono, Takumi; Imamura, Motoki; Moriuchi, Hiroshi; Ishima, Yu; Kadowaki, Daisuke; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Hirata, Sumio; Maruyama, Toru; Fukunaga, Eiko

2014-10-01

52

MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values, and three sensitivity cases in which the number of FOTP demands was reduced, along with the Birnbaum importance of the FOTP.

Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

2011-03-01

53

Apparent absence of negative feedback in middle-aged persistent-estrous rats following luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonist treatment: relation to plasma inhibin and 17 beta-estradiol.  

PubMed

Reproductive aging in female rats is associated with a transition from regular estrous cyclicity to an anovulatory condition described as persistent estrous (PE). This PE condition is characterized by continued follicular development with elevated circulating levels of estrogen and FSH. In an attempt to investigate further the age-related changes in neuroendocrine function of PE rats, we have developed a model through which the return of hypothalamic-pituitary and ovarian function can be assessed following the withdrawal of chronic LHRH agonist suppression. Subsequent to withdrawal of continuous (2.5 micrograms/h for 12 days) LHRH agonist [DTrp6, Pro9-NHEt]-LHRH (LHRH-AG) treatment, circulating FSH concentrations in PE rats increase and remain elevated with an apparent absence of ovarian negative feedback, and these rats fail to return to estrous cyclicity. In the present studies, estrogen administration induced significant decreases in FSH secretion in PE rats following withdrawal of LHRH-AG treatment and ovariectomy (OVX), suggesting that the negative feedback response to estrogen is maintained in PE females. However, progesterone administration 2 days later failed to elicit a positive feedback response of gonadotropin secretion in PE females prior to LHRH-AG treatment, serum inhibin and 17 beta-estradiol (E2) concentrations were similar in middle-aged PE rats and young cyclic females on proestrus, while FSH levels were significantly greater in PE rats. After withdrawal of LHRH-AG treatment, plasma FSH concentrations remained elevated in PE rats as compared to young rats despite similar increases in E2. However, increases in plasma inhibin were delayed and significantly attenuated in PE rats.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8439622

Matt, D W; Dahl, K D; Sarkissian, A; Sayles, T E

1993-02-01

54

Atypical rearrangement involving 3'-IGH@ and a breakpoint at least 400 Kb upstream of an intact MYC in a CLL patient with an apparently balanced t(8;14)(q24.1;q32) and negative MYC expression.  

PubMed

The t(8;14)(q24.1;q32), the cytogenetic hallmark of Burkitt's lymphoma, is also found, but rarely, in cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Such translocation typically results in a MYC-IGH@ fusion subsequently deregulating and overexpressing MYC on der 14q32. In CLL, atypical rearrangements resulting in its gain or loss, within or outside of IGH@ or MYC locus, have been reported, but their clinical significance remains uncertain. Herein, we report a 67?year-old male with complex cytogenetic findings of apparently balanced t(8;14) and unreported complex rearrangements of IGH@ and MYC loci. His clinical, morphological and immunophenotypic features were consistent with the diagnosis of CLL.Interphase FISH studies revealed deletions of 11q22.3 and 13q14.3, and an extra copy of IGH@, indicative of rearrangement. Karyotype analysis showed an apparently balanced t(8;14)(q24.1;q32). Sequential GPG-metaphase FISH studies revealed abnormal signal patterns: rearrangement of IGH break apart probe with the 5'-IGH@ on derivative 8q24.1 and the 3'-IGH@ retained on der 14q; absence of MYC break apart-specific signal on der 8q; and, the presence of unsplit 5'-MYC-3' break apart probe signals on der 14q. The breakpoint on 8q24.1 was found to be at least 400 Kb upstream of 5' of MYC. In addition, FISH studies revealed two abnormal clones; one with 13q14.3 deletion, and the other, with concurrent 11q deletion and atypical rearrangements. Chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) detected a 7.1?Mb deletion on 11q22.3-q23.3 including ATM, a finding consistent with FISH results. While no significant copy number gain or loss observed on chromosomes 8, 12 and 13, a 455 Kb microdeletion of uncertain clinical significance was detected on 14q32.33. Immunohistochemistry showed co-expression of CD19, CD5, and CD23, positive ZAP-70 expression and absence of MYC expression. Overall findings reveal an apparently balanced t(8;14) and atypical complex rearrangements involving 3'-IGH@ and a breakpoint at least 400 Kb upstream of MYC, resulting in the relocation of the intact 5'-MYC-3' from der 8q, and apposition to 3'-IGH@ at der 14q. This case report provides unique and additional cytogenetic data that may be of clinical significance in such a rare finding in CLL. It also highlights the utility of conventional and sequential metaphase FISH in understanding complex chromosome anomalies and their association with other clinical findings in patients with CLL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first CLL reported case with such an atypical rearrangement in a patient with a negative MYC expression. PMID:23369149

Amarillo, Ina; Bui, Peter H; Kantarci, Sibel; Rao, Nagesh; Shackley, Brit S; García, Rolando; Tirado, Carlos A

2013-01-01

55

Atypical rearrangement involving 3?-IGH@ and a breakpoint at least 400 Kb upstream of an intact MYC in a CLL patient with an apparently balanced t(8;14)(q24.1;q32) and negative MYC expression  

PubMed Central

The t(8;14)(q24.1;q32), the cytogenetic hallmark of Burkitt’s lymphoma, is also found, but rarely, in cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Such translocation typically results in a MYC-IGH@ fusion subsequently deregulating and overexpressing MYC on der 14q32. In CLL, atypical rearrangements resulting in its gain or loss, within or outside of IGH@ or MYC locus, have been reported, but their clinical significance remains uncertain. Herein, we report a 67?year-old male with complex cytogenetic findings of apparently balanced t(8;14) and unreported complex rearrangements of IGH@ and MYC loci. His clinical, morphological and immunophenotypic features were consistent with the diagnosis of CLL. Interphase FISH studies revealed deletions of 11q22.3 and 13q14.3, and an extra copy of IGH@, indicative of rearrangement. Karyotype analysis showed an apparently balanced t(8;14)(q24.1;q32). Sequential GPG-metaphase FISH studies revealed abnormal signal patterns: rearrangement of IGH break apart probe with the 5’-IGH@ on derivative 8q24.1 and the 3’-IGH@ retained on der 14q; absence of MYC break apart-specific signal on der 8q; and, the presence of unsplit 5’-MYC-3’ break apart probe signals on der 14q. The breakpoint on 8q24.1 was found to be at least 400 Kb upstream of 5’ of MYC. In addition, FISH studies revealed two abnormal clones; one with 13q14.3 deletion, and the other, with concurrent 11q deletion and atypical rearrangements. Chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) detected a 7.1?Mb deletion on 11q22.3-q23.3 including ATM, a finding consistent with FISH results. While no significant copy number gain or loss observed on chromosomes 8, 12 and 13, a 455 Kb microdeletion of uncertain clinical significance was detected on 14q32.33. Immunohistochemistry showed co-expression of CD19, CD5, and CD23, positive ZAP-70 expression and absence of MYC expression. Overall findings reveal an apparently balanced t(8;14) and atypical complex rearrangements involving 3’-IGH@ and a breakpoint at least 400 Kb upstream of MYC, resulting in the relocation of the intact 5’-MYC-3’ from der 8q, and apposition to 3’-IGH@ at der 14q. This case report provides unique and additional cytogenetic data that may be of clinical significance in such a rare finding in CLL. It also highlights the utility of conventional and sequential metaphase FISH in understanding complex chromosome anomalies and their association with other clinical findings in patients with CLL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first CLL reported case with such an atypical rearrangement in a patient with a negative MYC expression. PMID:23369149

2013-01-01

56

Apparent-Dip Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews methods of determining apparent dip and highlights the use of a device which consists of a nomogram printed on a protractor. Explains how the apparent-dip calculator-protractor can be constructed and outlines the steps for its operation. (ML)

Travis, R. B.; Lamar, D. L.

1987-01-01

57

Mars Rotate (False Color)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center features an animation of Mars rotating. The visualization was created using data collected by the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on board the Mars Global Surveyor. The animation uses false color to highlight topography, specifically the Hellas Basin, Terra Meridiani, the Tharsis rise, and Lucus Planum. The site also provides still images of the same features.

Studio, Nasa/goddard S.

58

False memories and confabulation.  

PubMed

Memory distortions range from the benign (thinking you mailed a check that you only thought about mailing), to the serious (confusing what you heard after a crime with what you actually saw), to the fantastic (claiming you piloted a spaceship). We review theoretical ideas and empirical evidence about the source monitoring processes underlying both true and false memories. Neuropsychological studies show that certain forms of brain damage (such as combined frontal and medial-temporal lesions) might result in profound source confusions, called confabulations. Neuroimaging techniques provide new evidence regarding more specific links between underlying brain mechanisms and the normal cognitive processes involved in evaluating memories. One hypothesis is that the right prefrontal cortex (PFC) subserves heuristic judgments based on easily assessed qualities (such as familiarity or perceptual detail) and the left PFC (or the right and left PFC together) subserves more systematic judgments requiring more careful analysis of memorial qualities or retrieval and evaluation of additional supporting or disconfirming information. Such heuristic and systematic processes can be disrupted not only by brain damage but also, for example, by hypnosis, social demands and motivational factors, suggesting caution in the methods used by `memory exploring' professions (therapists, police officers, lawyers, etc.) in order to avoid inducing false memories. PMID:21227110

Johnson, M K; Raye, C L

1998-04-01

59

False color viewing device  

DOEpatents

A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1992-01-01

60

False color viewing device  

DOEpatents

A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1992-10-20

61

False color viewing device  

DOEpatents

This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-05-08

62

False discovery rate, sensitivity and sample size for microarray studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: In microarray data studies most researchers are keenly aware of the potentially high rate of false positives and the need to control it. One key statistical shift is the move away from the well- known P-value to false discovery rate (FDR). Less discussion perhaps has been spent on the sensitivity or the associated false negative rate (FNR). The purpose

Yudi Pawitan; Stefan Michiels; Serge Koscielny; Arief Gusnanto; Alexander Ploner

2005-01-01

63

39 CFR 946.2 - Disposition of property of apparent owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Disposition of property of apparent owners. 946.2...THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION...EVIDENCE § 946.2 Disposition of property of apparent owners. Where...

2010-07-01

64

39 CFR 946.2 - Disposition of property of apparent owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-07-01 false Disposition of property of apparent owners. 946.2...THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION...EVIDENCE § 946.2 Disposition of property of apparent owners. Where...

2012-07-01

65

39 CFR 946.2 - Disposition of property of apparent owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-07-01 false Disposition of property of apparent owners. 946.2...THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION...EVIDENCE § 946.2 Disposition of property of apparent owners. Where...

2013-07-01

66

39 CFR 946.2 - Disposition of property of apparent owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-07-01 false Disposition of property of apparent owners. 946.2...THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION...EVIDENCE § 946.2 Disposition of property of apparent owners. Where...

2011-07-01

67

Linguistic Determinants of the Difficulty of True-False Test Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults read a prose passage and responded to passages based on it which were either true or false and were phrased either affirmatively or negatively. True negatives yielded most errors, followed in order by false negatives, true affirmatives, and false affirmatives. (Author/RC)

Peterson, Candida C.; Peterson, James L.

1976-01-01

68

Ego depletion results in an increase in spontaneous false memories.  

PubMed

The primary aim of the current study was to examine whether depleted cognitive resources might have ramifications for the formation of neutral and negative spontaneous false memories. To examine this, participants received neutral and negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott false memory wordlists. Also, for half of the participants, cognitive resources were depleted by use of an ego depletion manipulation (solving difficult calculations while being interfered with auditory noise). Our chief finding was that depleted cognitive resources made participants more vulnerable for the production of false memories. Our results shed light on how depleted cognitive resources affect neutral and negative correct and errant memories. PMID:23085670

Otgaar, Henry; Alberts, Hugo; Cuppens, Lesly

2012-12-01

69

False Killer Whale Pseudorca crassidens  

E-print Network

405 False Killer Whale Pseudorca crassidens ROBIN W. BAIRD I. Characteristics and Taxonomy T he false killer whale is one of the larger members of the fam- ily Delphinidae, with adult males reaching appearance to the killer whale (Orcinus orca) but rather in skull morphology of these two species. In fact

Baird, Robin W.

70

Executive Functioning and Preschoolers' Understanding of False Beliefs, False Photographs, and False Signs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two studies were conducted to investigate the specificity of the relationship between preschoolers' emerging executive functioning skills and false belief understanding. Study 1 (N=44) showed that 3- to 5-year-olds' performance on an executive functioning task that required selective suppression of actions predicted performance on false belief…

Sabbagh, Mark A.; Moses, Louis J.; Shiverick, Sean

2006-01-01

71

Accuracy and Apparent Accuracy in Medical Testing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unreviewed Activity submitted in preparation for the NNN Writing with Numbers Workshop Students investigate two quantitative issues in the field of medical testing. First, students use two way tables and information about a diagnostic test's sensitivity and specificity to investigate the probability of a patient receiving a false positive result. Second, students learn about the phenomenon of referral bias in medical testing. Students use proportional reasoning to observe the effect of doctor referral rates on the apparent sensitivity and specificity of a screening tool.

Boersma, Stuart

72

A false sense of security  

PubMed Central

Some journals are using ineffective software to screen images for manipulation. In doing so, they are creating a false sense of security in the research community about the integrity of the image data they publish. PMID:19001132

Rossner, Mike

2008-01-01

73

Children's false memories: different false memory paradigms reveal different results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to examine whether two different false memory paradigms (DRM vs suggestion) produce similar results. In Experiment 1, 100 children from four age groups (5\\/6-year-olds, 7\\/8-year-olds, 9\\/10-year-olds, and 11\\/12-year-olds) were instructed to remember lists of semantically related words (DRM paradigm) and to complete a children's suggestibility measure (i.e. BTSS-NL). Results showed that children's false

Henry Otgaar; Ingrid Candel

2011-01-01

74

The false classification of extinction risk in noisy environments.  

PubMed

Abundance trends are the basis for many classifications of threat and recovery status, but they can be a challenge to interpret because of observation error, stochastic variation in abundance (process noise) and temporal autocorrelation in that process noise. To measure the frequency of incorrectly detecting a decline (false-positive or false alarm) and failing to detect a true decline (false-negative), we simulated stable and declining abundance time series across several magnitudes of observation error and autocorrelated process noise. We then empirically estimated the magnitude of observation error and autocorrelated process noise across a broad range of taxa and mapped these estimates onto the simulated parameter space. Based on the taxa we examined, at low classification thresholds (30% decline in abundance) and short observation windows (10 years), false alarms would be expected to occur, on average, about 40% of the time assuming density-independent dynamics, whereas false-negatives would be expected to occur about 60% of the time. However, false alarms and failures to detect true declines were reduced at higher classification thresholds (50% or 80% declines), longer observation windows (20, 40, 60 years), and assuming density-dependent dynamics. The lowest false-positive and false-negative rates are likely to occur for large-bodied, long-lived animal species. PMID:24898368

Connors, B M; Cooper, A B; Peterman, R M; Dulvy, N K

2014-07-22

75

Dynamics of false vacuum bubbles in Brans-Dicke theory  

SciTech Connect

We study the dynamics of false vacuum bubbles in the Brans-Dicke theory of gravity by using the thin shell or thin wall approximation. We consider a false vacuum bubble that has a different value for the Brans-Dicke field between the inside false vacuum region and the outside true vacuum region. Within a certain limit of field values, the difference of field values makes the effective tension of the shell negative. This allows new expanding false vacuum bubbles to be seen by the outside observer, which are disallowed in Einstein gravity.

Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo [Department of Physics and BK21 Division and Center for Quantum Spacetime, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Dong-han, E-mail: bhl@sogang.ac.kr, E-mail: warrior@sogang.ac.kr, E-mail: innocent@muon.kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-01-01

76

Bubbling the False Vacuum Away  

E-print Network

We investigate the role of nonperturbative, bubble-like inhomogeneities on the decay rate of false-vacuum states in two and three-dimensional scalar field theories. The inhomogeneities are induced by setting up large-amplitude oscillations of the field about the false vacuum as, for example, after a rapid quench or in certain models of cosmological inflation. We show that, for a wide range of parameters, the presence of large-amplitude bubble-like inhomogeneities greatly accelerates the decay rate, changing it from the well-known exponential suppression of homogeneous nucleation to a power-law suppression. It is argued that this fast, power-law vacuum decay -- known as resonant nucleation -- is promoted by the presence of long-lived oscillons among the nonperturbative fluctuations about the false vacuum. A phase diagram is obtained distinguishing three possible mechanisms for vacuum decay: homogeneous nucleation, resonant nucleation, and cross-over. Possible applications are briefly discussed.

Marcelo Gleiser; Barrett Rogers; Joel Thorarinson

2007-08-28

77

False Excuses and Moral Growth  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, many philosophers and psychologists have adopted a surprisingly positive view of dishonesty, arguing that lying to oneself and others is a necessary, healthy, and moral strategy of everyday life. This paper examines the morality of one form of dishonesty: the false excuse, understood as deception of self or others disavowing wrongdoing so as to avoid harm to

Diana Mertz Hsieh

2004-01-01

78

The Psychology of False Confessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obtaining a confession is one of the most important aims of police interro- gation, and it is estimated that more than 80% of solved criminal cases are solved by a confession. However, a significant number of confessions that result in wrongful convictions are obtained through coercive questioning. This paper examines false con- fessions and discusses the psychological and social factors

Richard P. Conti

79

Does sleep promote false memories?  

PubMed

Memory is constructive in nature so that it may sometimes lead to the retrieval of distorted or illusory information. Sleep facilitates accurate declarative memory consolidation but might also promote such memory distortions. We examined the influence of sleep and lack of sleep on the cerebral correlates of accurate and false recollections using fMRI. After encoding lists of semantically related word associates, half of the participants were allowed to sleep, whereas the others were totally sleep deprived on the first postencoding night. During a subsequent retest fMRI session taking place 3 days later, participants made recognition memory judgments about the previously studied associates, critical theme words (which had not been previously presented during encoding), and new words unrelated to the studied items. Sleep, relative to sleep deprivation, enhanced accurate and false recollections. No significant difference was observed in brain responses to false or illusory recollection between sleep and sleep deprivation conditions. However, after sleep but not after sleep deprivation (exclusive masking), accurate and illusory recollections were both associated with responses in the hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex. The data suggest that sleep does not selectively enhance illusory memories but rather tends to promote systems-level consolidation in hippocampo-neocortical circuits of memories subsequently associated with both accurate and illusory recollections. We further observed that during encoding, hippocampal responses were selectively larger for items subsequently accurately retrieved than for material leading to illusory memories. The data indicate that the early organization of memory during encoding is a major factor influencing subsequent production of accurate or false memories. PMID:20146605

Darsaud, Annabelle; Dehon, Hedwige; Lahl, Olaf; Sterpenich, Virginie; Boly, Mélanie; Dang-Vu, Thanh; Desseilles, Martin; Gais, Stephen; Matarazzo, Luca; Peters, Frédéric; Schabus, Manuel; Schmidt, Christina; Tinguely, Gilberte; Vandewalle, Gilles; Luxen, André; Maquet, Pierre; Collette, Fabienne

2011-01-01

80

Building false memories without suggestions.  

PubMed

People can come to remember doing things they have never done. The question we asked in this study is whether people can systematically come to remember performing actions they never really did, in the absence of any suggestion from the experimenter. People built LEGO vehicles, performing some steps but not others. For half the people, all the pieces needed to assemble each vehicle were laid out in order in front of them while they did the building; for the other half, the pieces were hidden from view. The next day, everyone returned for a surprise recognition test. People falsely and confidently remembered having carried out steps they did not; those who saw all the pieces while they built each vehicle were more likely to correctly remember performing steps they did perform but equally likely to falsely remember performing steps they did not. We explain our results using the source monitoring framework: People used the relationships between actions to internally generate the missing, related actions, later mistaking that information for genuine experience. PMID:22774684

Foster, Jeffrey L; Garry, Maryanne

2012-01-01

81

Apparent thickness of Saturn's rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of the physical thickness of Saturn's rings is crucial for a better understanding of the nature, the dynamics and the evolution of a system of colliding ring particles. Ground-based observations with electronographic cameras and CCD during the transit of the earth through the ring plane in March 1980, reveal a photometric apparent thickness of 1.4 + or -

André Brahic; Bruno Sicardy

1981-01-01

82

Cape Verde in False Color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A promontory nicknamed 'Cape Verde' can be seen jutting out from the walls of Victoria Crater in this false-color picture taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover took this picture on martian day, or sol, 1329 (Oct. 20, 2007), more than a month after it began descending down the crater walls -- and just 9 sols shy of its second Martian birthday on sol 1338 (Oct. 29, 2007). Opportunity landed on the Red Planet on Jan. 25, 2004. That's nearly four years ago on Earth, but only two on Mars because Mars takes longer to travel around the sun than Earth. One Martian year equals 687 Earth days.

This view was taken using three panoramic-camera filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

2007-01-01

83

Triton - False Color of 'Cantaloupe' Terrain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voyager violet, green, and ultraviolet images of Triton were map projected into cylindrical coordinates and combined to produce this false color terrain map. Several compositionally distinct terrain and geologic features are portrayed. At center is a gray blue unit referred to as 'cantaloupe' terrain because of its unusual topographic texture. The unit appears to predate other units to the left. Immediately adjacent to the cantaloupe terrain, is a smoother unit, represented by a reddish color, that has been dissected by a prominent fault system. This unit apparently overlies a much higher albedo material, seen farther left. A prominent angular albedo boundary separates relatively undisturbed smooth terrain from irregular patches which have been derived from breakup of the same material. Also visible at the far left are diffuse, elongated streaks, which seem to emanate from circular, often bright centered features. The parallel streaks may represent vented particulate materials blown in the same direction by winds in Triton's thin atmosphere. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

1989-01-01

84

Apparent Solar Tornado - Like Prominences  

E-print Network

Recent high-resolution observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) have reawakened interest in the old and fascinating phenomenon of solar tornado-like prominences. This class of prominences was first introduced by Pettit (1932), who studied them over many years. Observations of tornado prominences similar to the ones seen by SDO had already been documented by Secchi (1877) in his famous "Le Soleil". High resolution and high cadence multiwavelength data obtained by SDO reveal that the tornado-like appearance of these prominences is mainly an illusion due to projection effects. We discuss two different cases where prominences on the limb might appear to have a tornado-like behavior. One case of apparent vortical motions in prominence spines and barbs arises from the (mostly) 2D counterstreaming plasma motion along the prominence spine and barbs together with oscillations along individual threads. The other case of apparent rotational motion is observed in prominence cavities and results from the 3D ...

Panasenco, Olga; Velli, Marco

2013-01-01

85

Wormhole Thermodynamics at Apparent Horizons  

E-print Network

In this paper, we discuss the thermodynamic properties of the evolving Lorentzian wormhole. For the shape function $b(r) = r_{0}^2/r$, it is shown that the wormhole spacetime admits two apparent horizons, the inner and the outer one. The inner horizon expands while the outer contracts with the passage of time. Corresponding to these horizons, we have three types of wormholes, regular, extreme and the naked wormholes. Moreover, it is shown that the Einstein field equations can be rewritten as a first law of thermodynamics $dE=TdS+WdV$, at the apparent horizons of the wormhole, where $E=\\rho V$, $T = \\kappa/2\\pi$, $S=A/4G$, $W=(\\rho-P)/2$ and $V = {4/3}\\pi \\tilde{r}_{A+}^3$ are the total matter energy, horizon temperature, wormhole entropy, work density and the volume of the wormhole respectively.

Jamil, Mubasher

2009-01-01

86

Draft False Killer Whale Take Reduction Plan  

E-print Network

Draft False Killer Whale Take Reduction Plan Submitted on behalf of the False Killer Whale Take Street Berkeley, CA 94710 concur@concurinc.net www.concurinc.com July 19, 2010 #12;False Killer Whale Take Reduction Team Statement of Consensus July 16, 2010 We, the members of the False Killer Whale Take

87

Mood, dissociation and false memories using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Who is likely to have a false memory? Does being in a certain transient state, such as a negative mood, mean that a person is more like to have a false memory? These important questions are examined using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure. The amount of false memories was compared with people's score on a dissociation measure and by mood. Unlike

Daniel B. Wright; Helen M. Startup; Sorcha A. Mathews

2005-01-01

88

False-color Dalmatian Terrain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

Released 10 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 18, 2003 during the Southern Spring season in Noachis Terra.

The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -74, Longitude 351.9 East (8.1 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

89

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false statement or forgery on the application or supporting papers...

2013-01-01

90

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

...Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false statement or forgery on the application or supporting papers...

2014-01-01

91

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false statement or forgery on the application or supporting papers...

2010-01-01

92

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false statement or forgery on the application or supporting papers...

2011-01-01

93

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false statement or forgery on the application or supporting papers...

2012-01-01

94

Pathways to False Allegations of Sexual Assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not all allegations of sexual assault are true. Unfortunately, there has been little work on understanding the prevalence of false allegations or pathways to these. This paper proposes 11 pathways to false allegations of sexual assault: (a) lying, (b) implied consent, (c) false memories, (d) intoxication, (e) antisocial personality disorder, (f) borderline personality disorder, (g) histrionic personality disorder, (h) delirium,

Jessica Engle; William ODonohue

2012-01-01

95

Explaining the development of false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We review six explanatory dimensions of false memory in children that are relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures that induce false memories. We conclude that, despite greater fidelity to real-world false memory contexts, recent studies fail to use known techniques that separate mere acquiescence from memory

Valerie F. Reyna; Robyn Holliday; Tammy Marche

2002-01-01

96

Lasting false beliefs and their behavioral consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

False beliefs and memories can affect people's attitudes, at least in the short term. But can they produce real changes in behavior? This study explored whether falsely suggesting to subjects that they had experienced a food-related event in their childhood would lead to a change in their behavior shortly after the suggestion and up to 4 months later. We falsely

Elke Geraerts; Daniel M. Bernstein; Harald Merckelbach; Christel Linders; Linsey Raymaekers; Elizabeth F. Loftus

2008-01-01

97

False memory susceptibility is correlated with categorisation ability in humans  

PubMed Central

Our memory is often surprisingly inaccurate, with errors ranging from misremembering minor details of events to generating illusory memories of entire episodes. The pervasiveness of such false memories generates a puzzle: in the face of selection pressure for accuracy of memory, how could such systematic failures have persisted over evolutionary time? It is possible that memory errors are an inevitable by-product of our adaptive memories and that semantic false memories are specifically connected to our ability to learn rules and concepts and to classify objects by category memberships. Here we test this possibility using a standard experimental false memory paradigm and inter-individual variation in verbal categorisation ability. Indeed it turns out that the error scores are significantly negatively correlated, with those individuals scoring fewer errors on the categorisation test being more susceptible to false memory intrusions in a free recall test. A similar trend, though not significant, was observed between individual categorisation ability and false memory susceptibility in a word recognition task. Our results therefore indicate that false memories, to some extent, might be a by-product of our ability to learn rules, categories and concepts.

Hunt, Kathryn; Chittka, Lars

2014-01-01

98

False memory susceptibility is correlated with categorisation ability in humans.  

PubMed

Our memory is often surprisingly inaccurate, with errors ranging from misremembering minor details of events to generating illusory memories of entire episodes. The pervasiveness of such false memories generates a puzzle: in the face of selection pressure for accuracy of memory, how could such systematic failures have persisted over evolutionary time? It is possible that memory errors are an inevitable by-product of our adaptive memories and that semantic false memories are specifically connected to our ability to learn rules and concepts and to classify objects by category memberships. Here we test this possibility using a standard experimental false memory paradigm and inter-individual variation in verbal categorisation ability. Indeed it turns out that the error scores are significantly negatively correlated, with those individuals scoring fewer errors on the categorisation test being more susceptible to false memory intrusions in a free recall test. A similar trend, though not significant, was observed between individual categorisation ability and false memory susceptibility in a word recognition task. Our results therefore indicate that false memories, to some extent, might be a by-product of our ability to learn rules, categories and concepts. PMID:25254105

Hunt, Kathryn; Chittka, Lars

2014-01-01

99

Quantitative, False Positive, and False Negative Issues for Lateral Flow Immunoassays as Exemplified by Onsite Drug Screens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lateral flow immunoassay devices offer many advantages including convenience, economical, simplicity, and rapid result. Many lateral flow immunoassays are non-instrumental and rely on visual detection of colored lines for results, enabling easy portability and allowing testing at any time and at any place by non-technical personnel. Hence, many lateral flow immunoassay tests have been developed for use ‘‘onsite’’, ‘‘point-of-care’’, or

Raphael C. Wong; Harley Y. Tse

100

Individual differences in false memory from misinformation: cognitive factors.  

PubMed

This research investigated the cognitive correlates of false memories that are induced by the misinformation paradigm. A large sample of Chinese college students (N=436) participated in a misinformation procedure and also took a battery of cognitive tests. Results revealed sizable and systematic individual differences in false memory arising from exposure to misinformation. False memories were significantly and negatively correlated with measures of intelligence (measured with Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale), perception (Motor-Free Visual Perception Test, Change Blindness, and Tone Discrimination), memory (Wechsler Memory Scales and 2-back Working Memory tasks), and face judgement (Face Recognition and Facial Expression Recognition). These findings suggest that people with relatively low intelligence and poor perceptual abilities might be more susceptible to the misinformation effect. PMID:20623420

Zhu, Bi; Chen, Chuansheng; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lin, Chongde; He, Qinghua; Chen, Chunhui; Li, He; Xue, Gui; Lu, Zhonglin; Dong, Qi

2010-07-01

101

Geophysics Fatally Flawed by False Fundamental Philosophy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For two centuries scientists have failed to realize Laplace's nebular hypothesis \\(1796\\) of Earth's creation is false. As a consequence, geophysicists today are misinterpreting and miscalculating many fundamental aspects of the Earth and Solar System. Why scientists have deluded themselves for so long is a mystery. The greatest error is the assumption Earth was created 4.6 billion years ago as a molten protoplanet in its present size, shape and composition. This assumption ignores daily accretion of more than 200 tons/day of meteorites and dust, plus unknown volumes of solar insolation that created coal beds and other biomass that increased Earth's mass and diameter over time! Although the volume added daily is minuscule compared with Earth's total mass, logic and simple addition mandates an increase in mass, diameter and gravity. Increased diameter from accretion is proved by Grand Canyon stratigraphy that shows a one kilometer increase in depth and planetary radius at a rate exceeding three meters \\(10 ft\\) per Ma from start of the Cambrian \\(540 Ma\\) to end of the Permian \\(245 Ma\\)-each layer deposited onto Earth's surface. This is unequivocal evidence of passive external growth by accretion, part of a dual growth and expansion process called "Accreation" \\(creation by accretion\\). Dynamic internal core expansion, the second stage of Accreation, did not commence until the protoplanet reached spherical shape at 500-600 km diameter. At that point, gravity-powered compressive heating initiated core melting and internal expansion. Expansion quickly surpassed the external accretion growth rate and produced surface volcanoes to relieve explosive internal tectonic pressure and transfer excess mass (magma)to the surface. Then, 200-250 Ma, expansion triggered Pangaea's breakup, first sundering Asia and Australia to form the Pacific Ocean, followed by North and South America to form the Atlantic Ocean, by the mechanism of midocean ridges, linear underwater volcanoes, that enable planetary expansion the same way cranial sutures permit human skulls to grow to maturity. Expansion is shown by the Asian and Australian trenches, from Kamchatka to the Marianas, and from Samoa to the tip of Macquarie Ridge south of New Zealand, that are mirror images of the western coasts of North and South America. This is clear evidence neither the Atlantic nor the Pacific Ocean existed 250 Ma when Earth was much smaller. In just 250 Ma external accretion and internal core expansion increased Earth's diameter from 7640 km to 12,735 km and increased total surface area to 361,060,000 sq. km, the area occupied by today's oceans-oceans that did not exist 250 Ma when Earth was slightly larger than Mars is today \\(6787 km\\). The fallacy of the nebular hypothesis did not become apparent until after Oliver and Isacks introduced the concept of subduction in 1967. Subduction was based on the false assumption that Earth's diameter is constant and unchanging, and spawned the theory of Plate Tectonics that "revolutionized" geophysics in a short period of time-a "revolution" destined for failure. Evidence is presented showing all solar bodies originate as comets \\(fragments of supernovae explosions\\) captured by the Sun that become meteoroids or asteroids by external accretion of meteorites and dust from over 370 known meteor streams.\\(Terentjeva, 1964\\) Accreation replaces the nebular hypothesis and rejuvenates Carey's Earth Expansion theory that, unfortunately, was pushed aside by plate tectonics because it lacked a plausible mechanism. However, expansion carries an ultimate threat to Mankind's tenure on Earth and exploration of Mars as the future home of Mankind takes on added significance.

Myers, L. S.

2004-05-01

102

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2011-04-01

103

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2012-04-01

104

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2013-04-01

105

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2010-04-01

106

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2014-04-01

107

Negative Leadership.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Senior leaders must have the moral courage to modify the behavior or eliminate negative leadership in the Army. If action is not taken immediately, negative leaders and their toxic leadership style will be taught to their subordinates, the future leaders ...

D. M. Oberlander

2013-01-01

108

Poor working memory predicts false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated whether individual differences in simple span verbal working memory and complex working memory capacity are related to memory accuracy and susceptibility to false memory development. In Study 1, undergraduate students (N=60) were given two simple span working memory tests: forward and backward digit span. They also underwent a memory task that is known to elicit false memories

Maarten J. V. Peters; Marko Jelicic; Hilde Verbeek; Harald Merckelbach

2007-01-01

109

Illusions of Gender: Stereotypes Evoke False Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined whether false memories can arise from indirect stereotype associations, as revealed by the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm. As predicted, exposure to either a list of stereotypically female roles or a list of stereotypically male roles resulted in an increase in the false recognition of stereotypically consistent roles and traits. In both of the experiments, the participants were shown

Alison P. Lenton; Irene V. Blair; Reid Hastie

2001-01-01

110

Caffeine increases false memory in nonhabitual consumers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Insight into caffeine's equivocal effects on memory can be derived from work suggesting both emotional arousal and psychosocial stress increase false memory rates without increasing veridical memory. This study investigated how a range of caffeine doses affect veridical and false memory formation in nonhabitual consumers. A double-blind, repeated-measures design with caffeine (0 mg, 100 mg, 200 mg, 400 mg caffeine)

Caroline R. Mahoney; Tad T. Brunyé; Grace E. Giles; Tali Ditman; Harris R. Lieberman; Holly A. Taylor

2012-01-01

111

Emotional content of true and false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people believe that emotional memories (including those that arise in therapy) are particularly likely to represent true events because of their emotional content. But is emotional content a reliable indicator of memory accuracy? The current research assessed the emotional content of participants’ pre-existing (true) and manipulated (false) memories for childhood events. False memories for one of three emotional childhood

Cara Laney; Elizabeth F. Loftus

2008-01-01

112

Evaluation of causes of false positive Tc99m IDA scintigraphy in biliary atresia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Forty-four patients between 1 1\\/2 and 25 weeks of age with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia were evaluated by Tc-99m IDA scintigraphy for possible biliary atresia (BA). There were 21 true positives, defined as no GI activity by twenty-four hours after pretreatment with phenobarbital 5 mg\\/kg\\/day for three days. There were 15 true negatives, eight false positives and no false negatives. Causes for

D. Kumura; J. H. Miller; F. Sinatra

1985-01-01

113

False localizing signs in traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Background Hemiparesis ipsilateral to a mass-occupying lesion can be due to Kernohan-Woltman Notch Phenomenon (KWNP). This syndrome implies a false-localizing sign because clinical findings lead the examiner to an incorrect neuroanatomical diagnosis. The contralateral crus cerebri (pyramidal tract) is pressed against the tentorial incisum and a resultant hemiparesis is found on the same side of the lesion. Review A detailed literature search of false-localizing signs is presented. Conclusions Not infrequently, patients presenting to a physiatrist may have incomplete records. The existence of false localizing signs may point the physician towards the wrong underlying pathology. PMID:19557561

MCKENNA, CRISTIN; FELLUS, JONATHAN; BARRETT, ANNA M.

2010-01-01

114

21 CFR 868.5935 - External negative pressure ventilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false External negative pressure ventilator. 868...Therapeutic Devices § 868.5935 External negative pressure ventilator. (a) Identification. An external negative pressure ventilator...

2010-04-01

115

7 CFR 996.11 - Negative aflatoxin content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Negative aflatoxin content. 996.11 Section 996.11...Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... § 996.11 Negative aflatoxin content. Negative aflatoxin content...

2010-01-01

116

Creating a False Memory in the Hippocampus  

E-print Network

Memories can be unreliable. We created a false memory in mice by optogenetically manipulating memory engram–bearing cells in the hippocampus. Dentate gyrus (DG) or CA1 neurons activated by exposure to a particular context ...

Ramirez Moreno, Steve

117

False positive detection of peanut residue in liquid caramel coloring using commercial ELISA kits.  

PubMed

Initial food industry testing in our laboratory using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods indicated that the darkest caramel color (class IV) unexpectedly contained traces of peanut protein, a potential undeclared allergen issue. Caramel production centers on the heating of sugars, often glucose, under controlled heat and chemical processing conditions with other ingredients including ammonia, sulfite, and/or alkali salts. These ingredients should not contain any traces of peanut residue. We sought to determine the reliability of commercially available peanut allergen ELISA methods for detection of apparent peanut residue in caramel coloring. Caramel color samples of classes I, II, III, and IV were obtained from 2 commercial suppliers and tested using 6 commercially available quantitative and qualitative peanut ELISA kits. Five lots of class IV caramel color were spiked with a known concentration of peanut protein from light roasted peanut flour to assess recovery of peanut residue using a spike and recovery protocol with either 15 ppm or 100 ppm peanut protein on a kit-specific basis. A false positive detection of peanut protein was found in class IV caramel colors with a range of 1.2 to 17.6 parts per million recovered in both spiked and unspiked liquid caramel color samples. ELISA kit spike/recovery results indicate that false negative results might also be obtained if peanut contamination were ever to actually exist in class IV caramel color. Manufacturers of peanut-free products often test all ingredients for peanut allergen residues using commercial ELISA kits. ELISA methods are not reliable for the detection of peanut in class IV caramel ingredients and their use is not recommended with this matrix. PMID:23647653

Stelk, T; Niemann, L; Lambrecht, D M; Baumert, J L; Taylor, S L

2013-07-01

118

An apparent hiatus in global warming?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming first became evident beyond the bounds of natural variability in the 1970s, but increases in global mean surface temperatures have stalled in the 2000s. Increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide, create an energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) even as the planet warms to adjust to this imbalance, which is estimated to be 0.5-1 W m-2 over the 2000s. Annual global fluctuations in TOA energy of up to 0.2 W m-2 occur from natural variations in clouds, aerosols, and changes in the Sun. At times of major volcanic eruptions the effects can be much larger. Yet global mean surface temperatures fluctuate much more than these can account for. An energy imbalance is manifested not just as surface atmospheric or ground warming but also as melting sea and land ice, and heating of the oceans. More than 90% of the heat goes into the oceans and, with melting land ice, causes sea level to rise. For the past decade, more than 30% of the heat has apparently penetrated below 700 m depth that is traceable to changes in surface winds mainly over the Pacific in association with a switch to a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in 1999. Surface warming was much more in evidence during the 1976-1998 positive phase of the PDO, suggesting that natural decadal variability modulates the rate of change of global surface temperatures while sea-level rise is more relentless. Global warming has not stopped; it is merely manifested in different ways.

Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.

2013-12-01

119

Credible suggestions affect false autobiographical beliefs.  

PubMed

False memory implantation studies are characterised by suggestions indicating that specific unremembered events occurred, attributing suggested events to a knowledgeable source (e.g., parents), and including true events that provide evidence that this source was consulted. These characteristics create a particular retrieval context that influences how individuals come to believe that false events occurred. Two studies used a variant of implantation methods to vary the proportion of events attributed to parents and the presence of true events within the suggestion. In Study 1 participants received six false events, and were told that all or some events came from parents. Participants told that all of the events came from parents formed more and stronger false beliefs. In Study 2 participants also received two true events, and a third group was told that half of the events came from their parents. Participants given the specific ratio ("half") endorsed more false beliefs, and beliefs between the other groups no longer differed. Across both studies participants told that some events came from parents reported stronger memory phenomenology. The effect of suggestions on false beliefs in implantation studies depends partly on the credibility of suggestions derived from providing information about the source of suggested events. PMID:22537029

Scoboria, Alan; Wysman, Lauren; Otgaar, Henry

2012-07-01

120

Language Promotes False-Belief Understanding  

PubMed Central

Developmental studies have identified a strong correlation in the timing of language development and false-belief understanding. However, the nature of this relationship remains unresolved. Does language promote false-belief understanding, or does it merely facilitate development that could occur independently, albeit on a delayed timescale? We examined language development and false-belief understanding in deaf learners of an emerging sign language in Nicaragua. The use of mental-state vocabulary and performance on a low-verbal false-belief task were assessed, over 2 years, in adult and adolescent users of Nicaraguan Sign Language. Results show that those adults who acquired a nascent form of the language during childhood produce few mental-state signs and fail to exhibit false-belief understanding. Furthermore, those whose language developed over the period of the study correspondingly developed in false-belief understanding. Thus, language learning, over and above social experience, drives the development of a mature theory of mind. PMID:19515119

Pyers, Jennie E.; Senghas, Ann

2010-01-01

121

Simultaneous Genotype Calling and Haplotype Phasing Improves Genotype Accuracy and Reduces False-Positive  

E-print Network

of data from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium bipolar disorder and type 2 diabetes studies. For bipolar disorder, the genotype calls in the original study yield 25 markers with apparent false-positive association with bipolar disorder at a p

Yu, Zhaoxia

122

A direct approach to false discovery rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-hypothesis testing involves guarding against much more complicated errors than single-hypothesis testing. Whereas we typically control the type I error rate for a single-hypothesis test, a compound error rate is controlled for multiple-hypothesis tests. For example, controlling the false discovery rate FDR traditionally involves intricate sequential \\

John D. Storey

2002-01-01

123

Infants' Reasoning about Others' False Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research suggests that children younger than age 3 or 4 do not understand that an agent may be deceived by an object's misleading appearance. The authors asked whether 14.5-month-olds would give evidence in a violation-of-expectation task that they understand that agents may form false perceptions. Infants first watched events in which an…

Song, Hyun-joo; Baillargeon, Renee

2008-01-01

124

A Synchronization Account of False Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe a computational model to explain a variety of results in both standard and false recognition. A key attribute of the model is that it uses plausible semantic representations for words, built through exposure to a linguistic corpus. A study list is encoded in the model as a gist trace, similar to the proposal of fuzzy trace theory…

Johns, Brendan T.; Jones, Michael N.; Mewhort, Douglas J. K.

2012-01-01

125

Diseases of Camelina sativa (false flax)  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is renewed interest in the crucifer Camelina sativa (false flax, camelina, gold of pleasure) as an alternative oilseed crop because of its potential value for food, feed, and industrial applications. This species is adapted to canola-growing areas in many regions of the world and is generally considered to be resistant to many diseases. A review of the literature indicates

G. Séguin-Swartz; C. Eynck; R. K. Gugel; S. E. Strelkov; C. Y. Olivier; J. L. Li; H. Klein-Gebbinck; H. Borhan; C. D. Caldwell; K. C. Falk

2009-01-01

126

Vendor cited for false PFC savings claim  

SciTech Connect

A Cynex power factor controller (PFC) vendor claiming a 60% saving was cited by the Better Business Bureau for false advertising after a user survey revealed that savings were only 20% at best. The company plans no future advertising claims, although it insists that 60% savings are possible. The inventor disagrees. (DCK)

Greenstein, I.

1983-08-29

127

Intelligent hybrid approach to false identity detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combating identity fraud is prominent and urgent since false identity has become the common denominator of all serious crime. Among many identified identity attributes, personal names are commonly falsified or aliased by most criminals and terrorists. Typical approaches to such name disambiguation rely on the text-based similarity measures, which are efficient to some extent, but severely fail to handle highly

Tossapon Boongoen; Qiang Shen

2009-01-01

128

Analysis of False Starts in Spontaneous Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A primary difference between spontaneous speech and read speech concerns the use of false starts, where a speaker interrupts the flow of speech to restart his or her utterance. A study examined the acoustic aspects of such restarts in a widely-used speech database, examining approximately 1000 utterances, about 10% of which contained a restart.…

O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

129

False positive reduction for lung nodule CAD  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms 'automatically' identify lung nodules on thoracic multi-slice CT scans (MSCT) thereby providing physicians with a computer-generated 'second opinion'. While CAD systems can achieve high sensitivity, their limited specificity has hindered clinical acceptance. To overcome this problem, we propose a false positive reduction (FPR) system based on image processing and machine learning to reduce the number of false positive lung nodules identified by CAD algorithms and thereby improve system specificity. To discriminate between true and false nodules, twenty-three 3D features were calculated from each candidate nodule's volume of interest (VOI). A genetic algorithm (GA) and support vector machine (SVM) were then used to select an optimal subset of features from this pool of candidate features. Using this feature subset, we trained an SVM classifier to eliminate as many false positives as possible while retaining all the true nodules. To overcome the imbalanced nature of typical datasets (significantly more false positives than true positives), an intelligent data selection algorithm was designed and integrated into the machine learning framework, thus further improving the FPR rate. Three independent datasets were used to train and validate the system. Using two datasets for training and the third for validation, we achieved a 59.4% FPR rate while removing one true nodule on the validation datasets. In a second experiment, 75% of the cases were randomly selected from each of the three datasets and the remaining cases were used for validation. A similar FPR rate and true positive retention rate was achieved. Additional experiments showed that the GA feature selection process integrated with the proposed data selection algorithm outperforms the one without it by 5%-10% FPR rate. The methods proposed can be also applied to other application areas, such as computer-aided diagnosis of lung nodules.

Zhao, Luyin; Boroczky, Lilla; Drysdale, Jeremy; Agnihotri, Lalitha; Lee, Michael C.

2007-03-01

130

Apparent soil electrical conductivity measurements in agriculture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field-scale application of apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) to agriculture has its origin in the measurement of soil salinity, which is an arid-zone problem associated with irrigated agricultural land and with areas having shallow water tables. Apparent soil electrical conductivity is influenced by a combination of physico-chemical properties including soluble salts, clay content and mineralogy, soil water content, bulk

D. L. Corwin; S. M. Lesch

2005-01-01

131

Apparent Thermal Conductivity Of Multilayer Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical model of apparent or effective thermal conductivity between two successive layers of multilayer thermal insulation (MLI) offers potential for optimizing performance of insulation. One gains understanding of how each physical mechanism contributes to overall flow of heat through MLI blanket. Model helps analyze engineering tradeoffs among such parameters as number of layers, thicknesses of gaps between layers, types of spacers placed in gaps, weight, overall thickness, and effects of foregoing on apparent thermal conductivity through blanket.

Mcintosh, Glen E.

1995-01-01

132

False-positive treponemal serology in patients with diabetes mellitus.  

PubMed

In sera from 476 diabetic outpatients, positive reaction in the Fluorescent Treponemal Antibody-Absorption (FTA-Abs) test, a commonly used serological test for syphilis, was found in 36 of the patients. None of 100 healthy control subjects were positive in the FTA-Abs test. Additional treponemal and nontreponemal tests confirmed the diagnosis of syphilis in only three of the diabetic patients. In 10 of the 36 patients, the positive FTA-Abs reactivity appeared to be due to cross-reactivity between the treponemal antigen and Borrelia burgdorferi, which causes Lyme borreliosis. In the remaining 23 patients (5%), no other explanation for a false-positive FTA-Abs reactivity was found besides diabetes. Diabetic patients with false-positive FTA-Abs reactivity had similar degree of long-term metabolic control and prevalence of islet cell antibodies (ICA) as well as late diabetic complications as FTA-Abs negative diabetic patients, matched regarding to sex, age, type, and duration of diabetes. In conclusion, false-positive FTA-Abs reactivity is not rare in diabetic patients. The reason for this phenomenon is unknown, but could be a sign of autoimmunity of its own. Hence, in diabetic patients with FTA-Abs test indicating syphilis, the diagnosis must be verified with a combination of other tests. PMID:8167389

Brauner, A; Carlsson, B; Sundkvist, G; Ostenson, C G

1994-01-01

133

Apparent Molar Volume and Apparent Molar Expansibility of Rubidium, Cesium, and Ammonium Cyclohexylsulfamate in Aqueous Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary.  The apparent molar volume of rubidium, caesium, and ammonium cyclohexylsulfamate was determined from the density data of their\\u000a aqueous solutions at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 313.15, 323.15, and 333.15?K. From the apparent molar volume, determined at various\\u000a temperatures, the apparent molar expansibility was calculated. The limiting apparent molar volume and apparent molar expansibility\\u000a were evaluated and apportioned into their ionic components.

Cveto Klofutar; Jaka Horvat; Darja Rudan-Tasic

2006-01-01

134

Negative necrotaxis.  

PubMed

We studied necrotaxis in several strains of protists and compared the reaction of living cells in the vicinity of cells killed by a ruby laser. Negative necrotaxis was observed for the unicellular green alga Euglena gracilis, whereas Chlamydomonas was shown to exhibit positive necrotaxis. The cellular colony Pandorina morum exhibited no reaction to the killing of nearby colonies. Both the colorless cryptomonad Chilomonas paramecium and the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis exhibited negative necrotaxis following the lysis of vitally stained specimens of their own species. They also exhibited negative necrotaxis following the lysis of Euglena cells. It was also demonstrated that the cellular content of Euglena cells lysed by heat or by a mechanical procedure acts as a repellent to intact Euglena cells. These results suggest that the negative necrotaxis provoked in Euglena by the laser irradiation is probably due to the chemotactic effect produced by the release of cell content in the extracellular medium. This cell content could, according to its chemical composition, act either as a repellent, an attractant, or be inactive. The sensitivity of cells (specific or nonspecific ion channels or chemoreceptors) are also of prime importance in the process. PMID:8400315

Ragot, R

1993-01-01

135

Disclosing false identity through hybrid link analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Combating the identity problem is crucial and urgent as false identity has become a common denominator of many serious crimes,\\u000a including mafia trafficking and terrorism. Without correct identification, it is very difficult for law enforcement authority\\u000a to intervene, or even trace terrorists’ activities. Amongst several identity attributes, personal names are commonly, and\\u000a effortlessly, falsified or aliased by most criminals. Typical

Tossapon Boongoen; Qiang Shen; Chris Price

2010-01-01

136

New false color mapping for image fusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pixel-based color-mapping algorithm is presented that produces a fused false color rendering of two gray-level images representing different sensor modalities. The resulting images have a higher information content than each of the original images and retain sensor-specific image information. The unique component of each image modality is enhanced in the resulting fused color image representation. First, the common component

Alexander Toet; Jan Walraven

1996-01-01

137

Evoking false beliefs about autobiographical experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two experiments, we demonstrate that laboratory procedures can evoke false beliefs about autobiographical experience. After\\u000a shallowly processing photographs of real-world locations, participants returned 1 week (Experiments 1 and 2) or 3 weeks (Experiment\\u000a 2) later to evaluate whether they had actually visited each of a series of new and old pictured locations. Mundane and unique\\u000a scenes from an unfamiliar

Alan S. Brown; Elizabeth J. Marsh

2008-01-01

138

The False Recognition Effect in Criminal Profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to examine the false recognition effect in criminal profiling. Participants (N?=?83) were presented with a crime scene description and a criminal profile made up of semantically related statements. After\\u000a a one week delay, the task for each participant was to recognize statements from a suspect description that were included\\u000a in the profile, either with or without

Craig Bennell; Rebecca Mugford; Alyssa Taylor; Sarah Bloomfield; Catherine M. Wilson

2008-01-01

139

Evaluating promotional claims as false or misleading.  

PubMed

In light of the "false or misleading" standard resulting from the recent legal ruling, it can be concluded that a true claim is one that is both factually and analytically true. Factual truth could be based on the accuracy of the information and the sufficiency of the information. Analytical truth could be based on the scientific foundation for the claim and whether the information within the claim is presented in a balanced way. Regarding the assessment of whether a truthful claim is misleading, the evaluator could consider the relevance, consistency, and context of the information. Standards are important in medication use and medication regulation. Health care professionals who must decide whether a claim is truthful and not misleading will rely on guidance from FDA in determining how to evaluate promotional claims. As the court suggested in the case reviewed here, FDA could take the lead and provide guidance "in differentiating between misleading and false promotion, exaggerations and embellishments, and truthful or non-misleading information." Existing FDA regulations provide a foundation for such guidance. The next step for the agency would be to expand existing guidance to specifically describe how an off-label claim can be identified as either false or misleading. PMID:24128969

Brushwood, David B; Knox, Caitlin A; Liu, Wei; Jenkins, Kevin A

2013-11-01

140

Characteristics of false allegation adult crimes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify common factors in false allegation adult crimes, by examining the dynamics involved in 30 confirmed false allegation cases. The authors conducted a comprehensive review of these adjudicated cases and then completed a collection instrument to capture offender demographics, offense characteristics, and motive. The results indicated that most false allegation crimes were committed by women (73.3%) and Caucasians (93.3%). Data indicated that more interpersonally violent allegations were primarily motivated by attention/sympathy needs (50.0%), whereas more impersonal offenses involved other motivations such as providing an alibi (16.7%) or profit (13.3%). Offenders tended to be younger, high school graduates with no higher education (43.3%). A total of 23.3% of offenders had a prior criminal history. Male offenders appeared as likely as women to be motivated by attention/sympathy; however, men tended to select more violent, nonsexual offenses (e.g., attempted murder) than women. PMID:22236499

McNamara, James J; McDonald, Sean; Lawrence, Jennifer M

2012-05-01

141

Backward position shift in apparent motion.  

PubMed

We investigated the perceived position of visual targets in apparent motion. A disc moved horizontally through three positions from -10° to +10° in the far periphery (20° above fixation), generating a compelling impression of apparent motion. In the first experiment, observers compared the position of the middle of the three discs to a subsequently presented reference. Unexpectedly, observers judged its position to be shifted backward, in the direction opposite that of the motion. We then tested the middle disc in sequences of 3, 5, and 7 discs, each covering the same spatial and temporal extents (similar speeds). The backwards shift was only found for the three-disc sequence. With the extra discs approaching more continuous motion, the perceived shift was in the same direction as the apparent motion. Finally, using a localization task with constant static references, we measured the position shifts of all the disc locations for two-disc, three-disc and four-disc apparent motion sequences. The backward shift was found for the second location of all sequences. We suggest that the backward shift of the second element along an apparent motion path is due to an attraction effect induced by the initial point of the motion. PMID:24449638

Li, Hsin-Hung; Shim, Won Mok; Cavanagh, Patrick

2014-01-01

142

Psychoactive drugs and false memory: comparison of dextroamphetamine and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on false recognition  

PubMed Central

Rationale Several psychoactive drugs are known to influence episodic memory. However, these drugs’ effects on false memory, or the tendency to incorrectly remember nonstudied information, remain poorly understood. Objectives Here, we examined the effects of two commonly used psychoactive drugs, one with memory-enhancing properties (dextroamphetamine; AMP), and another with memory-impairing properties (?9-tetrahydrocannabinol; THC), on false memory using the Deese/Roediger–McDermott (DRM) illusion. Methods Two parallel studies were conducted in which healthy volunteers received either AMP (0, 10, and 20 mg) or THC (0, 7.5, and 15 mg) in within-subjects, randomized, double-blind designs. Participants studied DRM word lists under the influence of the drugs, and their recognition memory for the studied words was tested 2 days later, under sober conditions. Results As expected, AMP increased memory of studied words relative to placebo, and THC reduced memory of studied words. Although neither drug significantly affected false memory relative to placebo, AMP increased false memory relative to THC. Across participants, both drugs’ effects on true memory were positively correlated with their effects on false memory. Conclusions Our results indicate that AMP and THC have opposing effects on true memory, and these effects appear to correspond to similar, albeit more subtle, effects on false memory. These findings are consistent with previous research using the DRM illusion and provide further evidence that psychoactive drugs can affect the encoding processes that ultimately result in the creation of false memories. PMID:21647577

Ballard, Michael E.; Gallo, David A.; de Wit, Harriet

2014-01-01

143

Weighting responses in true-false examinations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using as a criterion the average of seven half-semester marks in social science subjects, weights are computed for correct and incorrect responses and for omissions. The incorrect responses are weighted slightly more heavily (.55 as compared to .50) on the negative side than are the correct responses on the positive side. Since the difference is small, the chance theory of

E. H. Staffelbach

1930-01-01

144

The foraging behavior of granivorous rodents and short-term apparent competition among seeds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The foraging behavior of a predator species is thought to be the cause of short-term apparent competition among those prey species that share the predator. Short-term apparent competition is the negative indirect effect that one prey species has on another prey species via its effects on predator foraging behavior. In theory, the density-dependent foraging behavior of gra- nivorous rodents and

Joseph A. Veech

2001-01-01

145

The difference in diffusion-weighted imaging with apparent diffusion coefficient between spontaneous and postoperative intracranial infection.  

PubMed

Abstract Background. Although the roles of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) have been accepted as the initial or confirmatory diagnostic tool for spontaneous intracranial infections, the usefulness of these has rarely been investigated in intracranial infections after a craniotomy procedure. Through an analysis of the clinico-radiological characteristics of spontaneous and postoperative intracranial infections, the authors revealed the specific factors that affect the accuracy of DWI and ADC in diagnosing intracranial infections. Methods. The authors retrospectively analyzed 67 intracranial infections confirmed using preoperative MR imaging, including the DWI, ADC and gadolium-enhanced (Gd) images, and by peroperative pus drainage. Results. In 67 enrolled patients, no or uncertain diffusion restriction on DWI and ADC was found in 9 cases (13%). All the cases showed typical peripheral enhancement on Gd images. Among nine cases without diffusion restriction, postoperative infection was seen in five cases (62.5% [5/8 postoperative infection group] vs. 6.8% [4/59 spontaneous infection group], p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, postoperative infection was the predictive factor for false-negative restriction on DWI and ADC (hazard ratio: 41.2, 95% confidential index: 2.39-710.25, p = 0.01). Conclusion. Despite the excellent availability of DWI and ADC for diagnosing spontaneous intracranial infections, negative restriction results of those images are not sufficient to exclude postoperative intracranial infection. PMID:24970588

Kim, Yeong-Jin; Moon, Kyung-Sub; Kim, Seul Kee; Kang, Seong-Ji; Lee, Kyung-Hwa; Jang, Woo-Yool; Jung, Tae-Young; Kim, In-Young; Jung, Shin

2014-12-01

146

Measurement of Water ( )Motion Apparent Diffusion  

E-print Network

Water ( )Motion Apparent Diffusion in Biological Systems JEFFREY J. NEIL. This is followed by a description of the various aspects of water motion in biological systems that should be taken with . Z .modifications to measure water motion Fig. 1 . The motion-sensitive properties of the sequence

Duncan, James S.

147

Apparent normal phenotype of Fgf6-/- mice.  

PubMed

To study the role of the sixth member of the FGF (fibroblast growth factor) family whose expression is restricted to skeletal muscle, we have derived mouse mutants with a homozygous disruption of the Fgf6 gene. The animals are viable, fertile and apparently normal, indicating that FGF6 is not required for vital functions in the laboratory mouse. PMID:9303352

Fiore, F; Planche, J; Gibier, P; Sebille, A; deLapeyrière, O; Birnbaum, D

1997-08-01

148

Control space of apparent haptic motion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present three experiments to measure the control parameter space of apparent haptic motion using a variety of stimulation attributes and body sites. In Experiment 1 we measured the range of Stimulus Onset Asynchrony (SOA) that created the percept of continuous motion between two vibrating points on the dorsal forearm and on the back by varying the

Ali Israr; Ivan Poupyrev

2011-01-01

149

Apparent Thermal Conductivities of Fiberglass Insulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with the thermal characterization of fiberglass insu lation used in baking oven applications. The apparent thermal conductivities of fiber glass bats were measured with a commercially available guarded hot plate k-tester as a function of density, thickness, hot and cold surface emissivities and mean tempera ture levels applicable to range operation and self cleaning conditions. An axisym

N. Abuaf; H. Jaster

1990-01-01

150

Astronomy Ranking Task: Apparent and Absolute Magnitude  

E-print Network

provides partial magnitude and distance information for five stars (A - E). Star Name Apparent Magnitude Instructions: Rank the brightness (from greatest to least) of each star (A ­ E) as it would appear in the night star would appear the same from Earth ___ (indicate with check mark). Carefully explain your reasoning

Farritor, Shane

151

APPARENT PULSE DIFFUSION DUE TO DISORDERED MICROSTRUCTURE  

E-print Network

component. In the sequel we refer to the transformation of the pulse due to the microscale mediumAPPARENT PULSE DIFFUSION DUE TO DISORDERED MICROSTRUCTURE A. Nachbin \\Lambda and K. Sølna y \\Lambda, and it is important to describe when and how fine scale heterogeneities interact with a traveling seismic pulse. We

Solna, Knut

152

Nucleation and evolution of false vacuum bubbles in scalar-tensor gravity  

E-print Network

In this presentation, we discuss the nucleation and subsequent evolution of false vacuum bubbles in the scalar-tensor gravity. First, we transform the scalar-tensor type theory of gravity to the standard Brans-Dicke type. Second, we transform the Brans-Dicke type theory from the Jordan frame to the Einstein frame. For a certain potential, a true vacuum bubble in the Einstein frame can be transformed to a false vacuum bubble in the Jordan frame by a conformal transformation. Thus, in the Jordan frame, the nucleation of a false vacuum bubble can be possible and its subsequent evolution can be described with the help of thin-wall approximation. False vacuum bubbles have physical importance: a set of false vacuum bubbles might generate a negative energy bath and it has further theoretical implications.

Bum-Hoon Lee; Dong-han Yeom

2011-11-01

153

Is the truth in the details? Extended narratives help distinguishing false "memories" from false "reports".  

PubMed

The present study examined the effects of fantasy proneness on false "reports" and false "memories", of existent and non-existent footage of a public event. We predicted that highly fantasy prone individuals would be more likely to stand by their initial claim of having seen a film of the event than low fantasy prone participants when prompted for more details about their experiences. Eighty creative arts students and 80 other students were asked whether they had seen CCTV footage preceding the attack on Swedish foreign minister Anna Lindh up to, and including, non-existent footage of the actual moment of the attack. If affirmative, they were probed for extended narratives of what they claimed to have seen. Overall, 64% of participants provided a false "report" by answering yes to the initial question. Of these, 30% provided no explicit details of the attack, and a further 15% retracted their initial answer in their narratives. This left 19% of the sample who appeared to have false "memories" because they provided explicit details of the actual moment of the attack. Women scored higher than men and art students scored higher than other students on fantasy proneness, but there was no effect on levels of false reporting or false "memory". Memories were rated more vivid and clear for existent compared to non-existent aspects of the event. In sum, these data suggest a more complex relationship between memory distortions and fantasy proneness than previously observed. PMID:19000104

Sjödén, Björn; Granhag, Pär Anders; Ost, James; Roos Af Hjelmsäter, Emma

2009-06-01

154

False belief in infancy: a fresh look.  

PubMed

Can infants appreciate that others have false beliefs? Do they have a theory of mind? In this article I provide a detailed review of more than 20 experiments that have addressed these questions, and offered an affirmative answer, using nonverbal 'violation of expectation' and 'anticipatory looking' procedures. Although many of these experiments are both elegant and ingenious, I argue that their results can be explained by the operation of domain-general processes and in terms of 'low-level novelty'. This hypothesis suggests that the infants' looking behaviour is a function of the degree to which the observed (perceptual novelty) and remembered or expected (imaginal novelty) low-level properties of the test stimuli - their colours, shapes and movements - are novel with respect to events encoded by the infants earlier in the experiment. If the low-level novelty hypothesis is correct, research on false belief in infancy currently falls short of demonstrating that infants have even an implicit theory of mind. However, I suggest that the use of two experimental strategies - inanimate control procedures, and self-informed belief induction - could be used in combination with existing methods to bring us much closer to understanding the evolutionary and developmental origins of theory of mind. PMID:24666559

Heyes, Cecilia

2014-09-01

155

False alarm reduction during landmine detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quadrupole Resonance sensors have the unique capability of detecting explosives from buried, plastic-cased antipersonnel and antitank landmines. The chemical specificity of this radio-frequency technique provides the potential to deliver remarkably low false alarm rates during landmine detection. This is of particular importance to deminers, who frequently come across numerous clutter items before uncovering a mine. Quadrupole Resonance is typically utilized in a confirmation mode; preceded by rapid primary scans carried out by, for example, metal detectors, ground penetrating radars or a fusion of these. Significant technical and scientific advances have resulted in the fabrication of handheld and vehicle mounted Quadrupole Resonance landmine detectors in compact, power-efficient configurations. The development work is focused on baseline sensitivity increase, as well as the achievement of high detection performance under field conditions. The mine detection capability of Quadrupole Resonance detectors has been evaluated during various blind tests. A modular handheld unit, combining primary and confirmation sensors, was designed to be operated by a single person. A series of field tests demonstrate the unique capability of Quadrupole Resonance for significant false alarm reduction.

Prado, P. J.; Chongpison, A.; Doraisamy, L.

2007-04-01

156

Apparent Linear Attenuation Coefficients in Phase Contrast X-Ray Tomography  

PubMed Central

In the inline phase contrast x-ray tomography the reconstructed apparent linear attenuation coefficient values may be greatly larger than sample’s linear attenuation coefficients or even be negative. In this work we present a general formula to quantitatively relate the apparent linear attenuation coefficient values in cone-beam phase contrast tomography to sample’s linear attenuation coefficients and refractive indices. This formula overcomes the gross inaccuracy of the existing formula in the literature in analyzing high-resolution phase contrast tomography, and it will be useful for correctly interpreting and quantifying the apparent linear attenuation coefficients in cone-beam x-ray phase contrast tomography. PMID:21691420

Yan, Aimin; Wu, Xizeng

2011-01-01

157

Siblings, language, and false belief in low-income children.  

PubMed

The authors examined the relationship between number of siblings and false belief understanding (FBU) in 94 low-income 4-5-year-olds. Previous research with middle-income children has shown a positive association between number of siblings and FBU. However, it is unclear whether having multiple siblings in low-income families is related to better FBU. Language, specifically vocabulary, was examined as a possible mediator between number of siblings and FBU as several researchers have found that language is causally related to FBU. Contrary to research with middle-income preschoolers, the authors found that number of siblings was negatively related to low-income children's FBU. This relationship was mediated by children's vocabulary skill. Suggestions for why the sibling-FB relationship may differ in low- and middle-income samples are offered. PMID:23991616

Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M Jeffrey; Guo, Ying

2013-01-01

158

Filter sterilization of highly infectious samples to prevent false negative analysis of matrix metalloproteinase activity.  

PubMed

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in the immunopathology of numerous infectious diseases. High risk samples such as those generated after infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis require filter sterilization for safe analysis of MMP concentrations. Here, we report that commercial filter membranes may cause artefacts by binding MMPs. Anopore 0.2 microM membrane filtration reduced MMP-1 concentrations to undetectable levels by zymography and Western blotting. Polypropylene 0.45 microM filtration removed some MMP-1, while Polysulphone, Durapore and Bio-inert 0.2 microM membranes did not remove MMP-1. Anopore filtration also removed all MMP-7 and -9 activity, suggesting that the conserved MMP catalytic domain binds the membrane. This study demonstrates the importance of selecting the appropriate filter in MMP analysis to avoid incorrectly excluding MMP involvement in infection-related immunopathology. PMID:16386754

Elkington, P T G; Green, J A; Friedland, J S

2006-02-20

159

Information Policy, Data Mining, and National Security: False Positives and Unidentified Negatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since 9\\/11, intelligence agencies in the United States have expanded experimentation and use of data mining and analysis techniques to combat terrorism. These efforts have generated significant privacy concerns and discussions about the appropriate balance between civil liberties and technology-aided information integration. This paper argues that while privacy discussions are important, they should be framed within a discussion of the

Terrence A. Maxwell

2005-01-01

160

Application of the passive haemagglutination test for malaria: the problem of false negatives  

PubMed Central

In a study in a population in northern Tanzania, almost all adults and schoolchildren with parasitaemia were positive in the PHA test, whereas only half of the children under 5 years of age with parasitaemia were serologically positive. A second study on infants up to the age of 18 months confirmed that many young children who could be expected to have been exposed to malaria did not have PHA-detectable antibody. PMID:4549616

Voller, A.; Meuwissen, J. H. E. T.; Goosen, T.

1974-01-01

161

Experimental investigation of false positive errors in auditory species occurrence surveys  

USGS Publications Warehouse

False positive errors are a significant component of many ecological data sets, which in combination with false negative errors, can lead to severe biases in conclusions about ecological systems. We present results of a field experiment where observers recorded observations for known combinations of electronically broadcast calling anurans under conditions mimicking field surveys to determine species occurrence. Our objectives were to characterize false positive error probabilities for auditory methods based on a large number of observers, to determine if targeted instruction could be used to reduce false positive error rates, and to establish useful predictors of among-observer and among-species differences in error rates. We recruited 31 observers, ranging in abilities from novice to expert, that recorded detections for 12 species during 180 calling trials (66,960 total observations). All observers made multiple false positive errors and on average 8.1% of recorded detections in the experiment were false positive errors. Additional instruction had only minor effects on error rates. After instruction, false positive error probabilities decreased by 16% for treatment individuals compared to controls with broad confidence interval overlap of 0 (95% CI: -46 to 30%). This coincided with an increase in false negative errors due to the treatment (26%; -3 to 61%). Differences among observers in false positive and in false negative error rates were best predicted by scores from an online test and a self-assessment of observer ability completed prior to the field experiment. In contrast, years of experience conducting call surveys was a weak predictor of error rates. False positive errors were also more common for species that were played more frequently, but were not related to the dominant spectral frequency of the call. Our results corroborate other work that demonstrates false positives are a significant component of species occurrence data collected by auditory methods. Instructing observers to only report detections they are completely certain are correct is not sufficient to eliminate errors. As a result, analytical methods that account for false positive errors will be needed, and independent testing of observer ability is a useful predictor for among-observer variation in observation error rates.

Miller, David A.W.; Weir, Linda A.; McClintock, Brett T.; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Bailey, Larissa L.; Simons, Theodore R.

2012-01-01

162

Testing Jumps via False Discovery Rate Control  

PubMed Central

Many recently developed nonparametric jump tests can be viewed as multiple hypothesis testing problems. For such multiple hypothesis tests, it is well known that controlling type I error often makes a large proportion of erroneous rejections, and such situation becomes even worse when the jump occurrence is a rare event. To obtain more reliable results, we aim to control the false discovery rate (FDR), an efficient compound error measure for erroneous rejections in multiple testing problems. We perform the test via the Barndorff-Nielsen and Shephard (BNS) test statistic, and control the FDR with the Benjamini and Hochberg (BH) procedure. We provide asymptotic results for the FDR control. From simulations, we examine relevant theoretical results and demonstrate the advantages of controlling the FDR. The hybrid approach is then applied to empirical analysis on two benchmark stock indices with high frequency data. PMID:23573190

Yen, Yu-Min

2013-01-01

163

Opportunity View of 'Lyell' Layer (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows bedrock within a stratigraphic layer informally named 'Lyell,' which is the lowermost of three layers the rover has examined at a bright band around the inside of Victoria Crater.

Opportunity used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to capture this image with low-sun angle at a local solar time of 3:21 p.m. during the rover's 1,433rd Martian day, of sol (Feb. 4, 2008).

This view combines separate images taken through the Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene.

2008-01-01

164

View from Spirit's Overwintering Position (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has this view northward from the position at the north edge of the 'Home Plate' plateau where the rover will spend its third Martian winter.

Husband Hill is on the horizon. The dark area in the middle distance is 'El Dorado' sand dune field.

Spirit used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to capture this image during the rover's 1,448th Martian day, of sol (Jan. 29, 2008).

This view combines separate images taken through the Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene.

2008-01-01

165

Opportunity View of 'Gilbert' Layer (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows bedock within a stratigraphic layer informally named 'Gilbert,' which is the rover's next target after completing an examination of three stratigtaphic layers forming a bright band around the inside of Victoria Crater. The rover will descend deeper into the crater to reach the Gilbert layer.

Opportunity used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to capture this image with low-sun angle at a local solar time of 3:30 p.m. during the rover's 1,429th Martian day, of sol (Jan. 31, 2008).

This view combines separate images taken through the Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene.

2008-01-01

166

Rubber friction on (apparently) smooth lubricated surfaces  

E-print Network

We study rubber sliding friction on hard lubricated surfaces. We show that even if the hard surface appears smooth to the naked eye, it may exhibit short wavelength roughness, which may give the dominant contribution to rubber friction. That is, the observed sliding friction is mainly due to the viscoelastic deformations of the rubber by the substrate surface asperities. The presented results are of great importance for rubber sealing and other rubber applications involving (apparently) smooth surfaces.

M. Mofidi; B. Prakash; B. N. J. Persson; O. Albohl

2007-10-18

167

Apparent Extended Body Motions in Depth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five experiments were designed to investigate the influence of three-dimensional (3-D) orientation change on apparent motion. Projections of an orientation-specific 3-D object were sequentially flashed in different locations and at different orientations. Such an occurrence could be resolved by perceiving a rotational motion in depth around an axis external to the object. Consistent with this proposal, it was found that

Heiko Hecht; Dennis R. Proffitt

1991-01-01

168

Apparent Solar Tornado-Like Prominences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent high-resolution observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) have reawakened interest in the old and fascinating phenomenon of solar tornado-like prominences. This class of prominences was first introduced by Pettit ( Astrophys. J. 76, 9, 1932), who studied them over many years. Observations of tornado prominences similar to the ones seen by SDO had already been documented by Secchi ( Le Soleil, 1877). High-resolution and high-cadence multiwavelength data obtained by SDO reveal that the tornado-like appearance of these prominences is mainly an illusion due to projection effects. We discuss two different cases where prominences on the limb might appear to have a tornado-like behavior. One case of apparent vortical motions in prominence spines and barbs arises from the (mostly) 2D counterstreaming plasma motion along the prominence spine and barbs together with oscillations along individual threads. The other case of apparent rotational motion is observed in a prominence cavity and results from the 3D plasma motion along the writhed magnetic fields inside and along the prominence cavity as seen projected on the limb. Thus, the "tornado" impression results either from counterstreaming and oscillations or from the projection on the plane of the sky of plasma motion along magnetic-field lines, rather than from a true vortical motion around an (apparent) vertical or horizontal axis. We discuss the link between tornado-like prominences, filament barbs, and photospheric vortices at their base.

Panasenco, Olga; Martin, Sara F.; Velli, Marco

2014-02-01

169

A review of the psychosocial effects of false-positive results on parents and current communication practices in newborn screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  As more states adopt expanded newborn screening for metabolic disorders, the overall number of false positives increases.\\u000a False-positive screening results have been associated with increased anxiety and stress in parents of infants who require\\u000a follow-up testing, even after the infant’s good health is confirmed. This article reviews the literature on the negative impact\\u000a of false-positive newborn screening results on parents,

J. Hewlett; S. E. Waisbren

2006-01-01

170

Interrogation and false confessions among adolescents in seven European countries. What background and psychological variables best discriminate between false confessors and non-false confessors?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aim of the study was to investigate the rate of claimed false confession during police questioning and identify variables that best discriminate between false confessors and non-false confessors. The participants were 24 627 high school students in seven countries in Europe. Out of 2726 who had been interrogated by the police as a suspect, 375 (13.8%) claimed to

Gisli Hannes Gudjonsson; Jon Fridrik Sigurdsson; Inga Dora Sigfusdottir

2009-01-01

171

[False diagnosis of tuberculosis by culture].  

PubMed

A remarkable input to the epidemiology of tuberculosis was not the only benefit of the molecular tools developed in the early nineties for Mycobacterium tuberculosis intra-species differentiation. These genotyping methods served also to unveil specimen cross-contamination, which was until then overlooked in laboratories culturing mycobacteria. This error consists in the accidental carry-over of bacilli from a specimen with high bacterial load to that, or those, processed subsequently. The ensuing detection of falsely positive cultures can result in a wrong diagnosis of tuberculosis and the initiation of a long-lasting treatment with potentially toxic drugs. This series of errors implies the mismanagement of patients, the distraction of public health system resources, and the distortion of epidemiological data. M. tuberculosis laboratory cross-contamination was detected wherever investigated systematically, with a median rate of 3% of all positive cultures. The confirmation of this error requires a critical appraisal of bacteriological, clinical, epidemiological and genotyping results. We present here a review of national and international information on laboratory cross-contamination and describe measures recommended for minimizing the risk, surveying the occurrence, and avoiding clinical consequences of this laboratory error that raises a question on the reliability of a positive culture. PMID:17628920

Alonso, Valeria; Paul, Roxana; Barrera, Lucia; Ritacco, Viviana

2007-01-01

172

Band of Bright Rock (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image captured by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows 'Cape St. Vincent,' one of the many promontories that jut out from the walls of Victoria Crater, Mars. The material at the top of the promontory consists of loose, jumbled rock, then a bit further down into the crater, abruptly transitions to solid bedrock. This transition point is marked by a bright band of rock, visible around the entire crater.

Scientists say this bright band represents what used to be the surface of Mars just before an impact formed Victoria Crater. After Opportunity begins to descend into the crater in early July 2007, it will examine the band carefully at an accessible location with a gentle slope. These investigations might help determine if the band's brighter appearance is the result of ancient interactions with the Martian atmosphere.

This image was taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera on sol 1167 (May 6, 2007). It is presented in false color to accentuate differences in surface materials.

2007-01-01

173

Earth - False Color Mosaic of the Andes  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This false-color mosaic of the central part of the Andes mountains of South America (70 degrees west longitude, 19 degrees south latitude) is made up of 42 images acquired by the Galileo spacecraft from an altitude of about 25,000 kilometers (15,000 miles). A combination of visible (green) and near-infrared (0.76 and 1.0-micron) filters was chosen for this view to separate regions with distinct vegetation and soil types. The mosaic shows the area where Chile, Peru and Bolivia meet. The Pacific Coast appears at the left of the image-- Galileo captured this view as it traveled west over the Pacific Ocean, looking back at the Andes. Lakes Titicaca and Poopo are nearly black patches at the top and center, respectively; a large light-blue area below and to the left of Lake Poopo is Salar de Uyuni, a dry salt lake some 120 kilometers (75 miles) across. These lakes lie in the Altiplano, a region between the western and eastern Andes, which are covered by clouds. The vegetation-bearing Gran Chaco plains east of the Andes appear pale green. Light-blue patches in the mountains to the north are glaciers.

1992-01-01

174

Avoiding the False Peaks in Correlation Discrimination  

SciTech Connect

Fiducials imprinted on laser beams are used to perform video image based alignment of the 192 laser beams in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In many video images, matched filtering is used to detect the location of these fiducials. Generally, the highest correlation peak is used to determine the position of the fiducials. However, when the signal to-be-detected is very weak compared to the noise, this approach totally breaks down. The highest peaks act as traps for false detection. The active target images used for automatic alignment in the National Ignition Facility are examples of such images. In these images, the fiducials of interest exhibit extremely low intensity and contrast, surrounded by high intensity reflection from metallic objects. Consequently, the highest correlation peaks are caused by these bright objects. In this work, we show how the shape of the correlation is exploited to isolate the valid matches from hundreds of invalid correlation peaks, and therefore identify extremely faint fiducials under very challenging imaging conditions.

Awwal, A S

2009-07-31

175

47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.334 Section 80.334 Telecommunication...and Safety Procedures § 80.334 False distress alerts. A distress alert is false if it was transmitted without any...

2013-10-01

176

47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.334 Section 80.334 Telecommunication...and Safety Procedures § 80.334 False distress alerts. A distress alert is false if it was transmitted without any...

2012-10-01

177

47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114...Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to false distress alerts. [68 FR 46980, Aug. 7,...

2012-10-01

178

47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114...Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to false distress alerts. [68 FR 46980, Aug. 7,...

2011-10-01

179

47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.334 Section 80.334 Telecommunication...and Safety Procedures § 80.334 False distress alerts. A distress alert is false if it was transmitted without any...

2011-10-01

180

47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114...Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to false distress alerts. [68 FR 46980, Aug. 7,...

2010-10-01

181

47 CFR 80.1114 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.1114 Section 80.1114...Communications § 80.1114 False distress alerts. The provisions of §§ 80.334 and 80.335 apply to false distress alerts. [68 FR 46980, Aug. 7,...

2013-10-01

182

47 CFR 80.334 - False distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false False distress alerts. 80.334 Section 80.334 Telecommunication...and Safety Procedures § 80.334 False distress alerts. A distress alert is false if it was transmitted without any...

2010-10-01

183

Coaching, Truth Induction, and Young Maltreated Children's False Allegations and False Denials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of coaching (encouragement and rehearsal of false reports) and truth induction (a child-friendly version of the oath or general reassurance about the consequences of disclosure) on 4- to 7-year-old maltreated children's reports (N = 198). Children were questioned using free recall, repeated yes-no questions, and…

Lyon, Thomas D.; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Quas, Jodi A.; Talwar, Victoria A.

2008-01-01

184

"John Thinks that Mary 'Feels'..." False Belief in Children across Affective and Physical Domains  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Children aged 5-8 years (N = 64) were given 3 first- and 3 second-order tasks testing their ability to represent false beliefs about physical facts, positive emotions, and negative emotions. The children were also asked to justify their responses to the test questions. Older children were more successful than younger children at both answering the…

Parker, Jessica R.; MacDonald, Christine A.; Miller, Scott A.

2007-01-01

185

Constraining Oxygen False Positives in Planetary Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen (O2) and ozone (O3) in the present Earth's atmosphere are byproducts of oxygenic photosynthesis coupled with organic carbon burial. On Earth, no known abiotic surface process would be able to generate such an atmosphere, and by extension, lifeless exoplanets are expected to be devoid of O2. As a result, molecular oxygen and ozone are often seen as convincing signposts for life. Recently, however, a number of authors have demonstrated the abiotic generation of molecular oxygen in a planetary atmosphere, either under oxidizing conditions (Hu et al., 2013) or around an M star (Tian et al., 2013). This èfalse positive', if verified, would remove oxygen and ozone from an already short list of easily detectable biosignatures. We explore oxygen false positives with our 1-D photochemical model, updated from Segura et al. (2007). Preliminary results show that if water vapor photolysis longward of ~200 nm is neglected, substantial amounts of CO and O2 can build up in the lower part of the atmosphere. Additionally, the ultimate fate of CO and O2 produced in such atmospheres is strongly dependent on the imposed lower boundary condition, with low depositional velocities corresponding to higher mixing ratios in the lower atmosphere. The deposition velocity of a gas depends on it dissolved concentration, however, and so one needs to consider the chemistry of these gases in solution. Ongoing work seeks to test the conclusions of Tian et al., (2013) by exploring this dependence on ocean chemistry and by including spectra from AD Leo (an active M-dwarf, used by Domagal-Goldman et al., (2011)) to compare with the M-dwarf spectra used by Tian et al.

Harman, C. E.; Schottelkotte, J. C.; Kasting, J. F.

2014-03-01

186

Natural and False Color Views of Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows two views of the trailing hemisphere of Jupiter's ice-covered satellite, Europa. The left image shows the approximate natural color appearance of Europa. The image on the right is a false-color composite version combining violet, green and infrared images to enhance color differences in the predominantly water-ice crust of Europa. Dark brown areas represent rocky material derived from the interior, implanted by impact, or from a combination of interior and exterior sources. Bright plains in the polar areas (top and bottom) are shown in tones of blue to distinguish possibly coarse-grained ice (dark blue) from fine-grained ice (light blue). Long, dark lines are fractures in the crust, some of which are more than 3,000 kilometers (1,850 miles) long. The bright feature containing a central dark spot in the lower third of the image is a young impact crater some 50 kilometers (31 miles) in diameter. This crater has been provisionally named 'Pwyll' for the Celtic god of the underworld.

Europa is about 3,160 kilometers (1,950 miles) in diameter, or about the size of Earth's moon. This image was taken on September 7, 1996, at a range of 677,000 kilometers (417,900 miles) by the solid state imaging television camera onboard the Galileo spacecraft during its second orbit around Jupiter. The image was processed by Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luftund Raumfahrt e.V., Berlin, Germany.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

1996-01-01

187

Negativity Bias, Negativity Dominance, and Contagion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesize that there is a general bias, based on both innate predispositions and experience, in animals and humans, to give greater weight to negative entities (e.g., events, objects, personal traits). This is manifested in 4 ways: (a) negative potency (negative entities are stronger than the equivalent positive entities), (b) steeper nega - tive gradients (the negativity of negative events

Paul Rozin; Edward B. Royzman

2001-01-01

188

Apparent negative mass in QCM sensors due to punctual rigid loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quartz Crystal Microbalances (QCM) are highly sensitive piezoelectric sensors able to detect very small loads attached to them. These devices are widely employed in many applications including process control and industrial and environmental monitoring. Mass loading is usually related to frequency shift by the well-known Sauerbrey's equation, valid for thin rigid homogeneous films. However, a significant deviation from this equation can occur when the mass is not uniformly distributed over the surface. Whereas the effects of a thin film on a QCM have been thoroughly studied, there are relatively few results on punctual loads, even though particles are usually deposited randomly and non-uniformly on the resonator surface. In this work, we have studied the effect of punctual rigid loading on the resonant frequency shift of a QCM sensor, both experimentally and using finite element method (FEM). The FEM numerical analysis was done using COMSOL software, 3D modeling a linear elastic piezoelectric solid and introducing the properties of an AT-cut quartz crystal. It is shown that a punctual rigid mass deposition on the surface of a QCM sensor can lead to positive shifts of resonance frequency, contrary to Sauerbrey's equation.

Castro, P.; Resa, P.; Elvira, L.

2012-12-01

189

Panorama from 'Cape Verde' (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this vista of 'Victoria Crater' from the viewpoint of 'Cape Verde,' one of the promontories that are part of the scalloped rim of the crater. Opportunity drove onto Cape Verde shortly after arriving at the rim of Victoria in September 2006. The view combines hundreds of exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera (Pancam). The camera began taking the component images during Opportunity's 970th Martian day, or sol, on Mars (Oct. 16, 2006). Work on the panorama continued through the solar conjunction period, when Mars was nearly behind the sun from Earth's perspective and communications were minimized. Acquisition of images for this panorama was completed on Opportunity's 991st sol (Nov. 7, 2006).

The top of Cape Verde is in the immediate foreground at the center of the image. To the left and right are two of the more gradually sloped bays that alternate with the cliff-faced capes or promontories around the rim of the crater. 'Duck Bay,' where Opportunity first reached the rim, is to the right. Beyond Duck Bay counterclockwise around the rim, the next promontory is 'Cabo Frio,' about 150 meters (500 feet) from the rover. On the left side of the panorama is 'Cape St. Mary,' the next promontory clockwise from Cape Verde and about 40 meters (130 feet) from the rover. The vantage point atop Cape Verde offered a good view of the rock layers in the cliff face of Cape St. Mary, which is about 15 meters or 50 feet tall. By about two weeks after the Pancam finished collecting the images for this panorama, Opportunity had driven to Cape St. Mary and was photographing Cape Verde's rock layers.

The far side of the crater lies about 800 meters (half a mile) away, toward the southeast.

This view combines images taken through three of the Pancam's filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet). It is presented in false color to emphasize differences among materials in the rocks and soils.

2007-01-01

190

Spirit's West Valley Panorama (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA'S Mars Exploration Rover Spirit captured this westward view from atop a low plateau where Sprit spent the closing months of 2007.

After several months near the base of the plateau called 'Home Plate' in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills range inside Gusev Crater, Spirit climbed onto the eastern edge of the plateau during the rover's 1,306th Martian day, or sol, (Sept. 5, 2007). It examined rocks and soils at several locations on the southern half of Home Plate during September and October. It was perched near the western edge of Home Plate when it used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to take the images used in this view on sols 1,366 through 1,369 (Nov. 6 through Nov. 9, 2007). With its daily solar-energy supply shrinking as Martian summer turned to fall, Spirit then drove to the northern edge of Home Plate for a favorable winter haven. The rover reached that northward-tilting site in December, in time for the fourth Earth-year anniversary of its landing on Mars. Spirit reached Mars on Jan. 4, 2004, Universal Time (Jan. 3, 2004, Pacific Standard Time). It landed at a site at about the center of the horizon in this image.

This panorama covers a scene spanning left to right from southwest to northeast. The western edge of Home Plate is in the foreground, generally lighter in tone than the more distant parts of the scene. A rock-dotted hill in the middle distance across the left third of the image is 'Tsiolkovski Ridge,' about 30 meters or 100 feet from the edge of Home Plate and about that same distance across. A bump on the horizon above the left edge of Tsiolkovski Ridge is 'Grissom Hill,' about 8 kilometers or 5 miles away. At right, the highest point of the horizon is 'Husband Hill,' to the north and about 800 meters or half a mile away.

This view combines separate images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene.

2008-01-01

191

False discovery rate: setting the probability of false claim of detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When testing multiple hypotheses in a survey—e.g. many different source locations, template waveforms, and so on—the final result consists of a set of confidence intervals, each one at a desired confidence level. But the probability that at least one of these intervals does not cover the true value increases with the number of trials. With a sufficiently large array of confidence intervals, one can be sure that at least one is missing the true value. In particular, the probability of false claim of detection becomes non-negligible. In order to compensate for this, one should increase the confidence level, at the price of reduced detection power. False discovery rate control (Benjamini Y and Hochberg Y 1995 J. R. Stat. Soc. B 57 289 300) is a relatively new statistical procedure that bounds the number of mistakes made when performing multiple hypothesis tests. We shall review this method, discussing exercise applications to the field of gravitational wave surveys.

Baggio, L.; Prodi, G. A.

2005-09-01

192

False memory ? false memory: DRM errors are unrelated to the misinformation effect.  

PubMed

The DRM method has proved to be a popular and powerful, if controversial, way to study 'false memories'. One reason for the controversy is that the extent to which the DRM effect generalises to other kinds of memory error has been neither satisfactorily established nor subject to much empirical attention. In the present paper we contribute data to this ongoing debate. One hundred and twenty participants took part in a standard misinformation effect experiment, in which they watched some CCTV footage, were exposed to misleading post-event information about events depicted in the footage, and then completed free recall and recognition tests. Participants also completed a DRM test as an ostensibly unrelated filler task. Despite obtaining robust misinformation and DRM effects, there were no correlations between a broad range of misinformation and DRM effect measures (mean r ?=?-.01). This was not due to reliability issues with our measures or a lack of power. Thus DRM 'false memories' and misinformation effect 'false memories' do not appear to be equivalent. PMID:23573186

Ost, James; Blank, Hartmut; Davies, Joanna; Jones, Georgina; Lambert, Katie; Salmon, Kelly

2013-01-01

193

False Memory ? False Memory: DRM Errors Are Unrelated to the Misinformation Effect  

PubMed Central

The DRM method has proved to be a popular and powerful, if controversial, way to study ‘false memories’. One reason for the controversy is that the extent to which the DRM effect generalises to other kinds of memory error has been neither satisfactorily established nor subject to much empirical attention. In the present paper we contribute data to this ongoing debate. One hundred and twenty participants took part in a standard misinformation effect experiment, in which they watched some CCTV footage, were exposed to misleading post-event information about events depicted in the footage, and then completed free recall and recognition tests. Participants also completed a DRM test as an ostensibly unrelated filler task. Despite obtaining robust misinformation and DRM effects, there were no correlations between a broad range of misinformation and DRM effect measures (mean r ?=??.01). This was not due to reliability issues with our measures or a lack of power. Thus DRM ‘false memories’ and misinformation effect ‘false memories’ do not appear to be equivalent. PMID:23573186

Ost, James; Blank, Hartmut; Davies, Joanna; Jones, Georgina; Lambert, Katie; Salmon, Kelly

2013-01-01

194

Evaluation of causes of false positive Tc-99m IDA scintigraphy in biliary atresia  

SciTech Connect

Forty-four patients between 1 1/2 and 25 weeks of age with conjugated hyperbilirubinemia were evaluated by Tc-99m IDA scintigraphy for possible biliary atresia (BA). There were 21 true positives, defined as no GI activity by twenty-four hours after pretreatment with phenobarbital 5 mg/kg/day for three days. There were 15 true negatives, eight false positives and no false negatives. Causes for false positives included five neonatal hepatitis and three patients with of cholestasis associated with septo-optic dyplasia. Sensitivity of this procedure was 100% and specificity was 65% with an accuracy of 82%. Recognizing septo-optic dysplasia as a cause of cholestasis clinically further increases specificity to 79% and an accuracy of 90%. In the remaining false positives with neonatal hepatitis, four had poor hepatic uptake, however two of sixteen BA cases also had poor hepatic uptake. If reduced hepatic activity is used as a criterion against BA, specificity increases to 95% but sensitivity decreases to 88%. Septo-optic dysplasia is an unusual syndrome characterized by absent septum pellucidum, hypoplasia of one or both optic nerves, and hypothalamic pituitary dysfunction. Recognition of this entity will reduce false positive interpretation. Poor hepatic uptake with no twenty-four hour GI activity is helpful in excluding BA.

Kumura, D.; Miller, J.H.; Sinatra, F.

1985-05-01

195

Apparent Molar Volume and Apparent Molar Expansibility of Lithium, Sodium, Potassium, and Tetramethylammonium Cyclohexylsulfamate in Aqueous Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The apparent molar volume of lithium, sodium, potassium, and tetramethylammonium cyclohexylsulfamate was determined from the density data of their aqueous solutions at 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 313.15, and 323.15?K. The apparent molar expansibility was calculated from the apparent molar volume at various temperatures. The limiting apparent molar volume and apparent molar expansibility were evaluated and divided into their ionic components.

Cveto Klofutar; Darja Rudan-Tasic

2005-01-01

196

NEW PROCEDURES FOR FALSE DISCOVERY CONTROL Christopher R. Genovese #  

E-print Network

NEW PROCEDURES FOR FALSE DISCOVERY CONTROL Christopher R. Genovese # Department of Statistics of Pittsburgh ABSTRACT Following Benjamini and Hochberg [2], the False Discovery Rate has emerged as a viable in functional neuroimaging. This paper reports on new methods for false discov­ ery control that can usefully

Genovese, Christopher

197

Determinants of false alarms in staging flocks of semipalmated sandpipers  

Microsoft Academic Search

False alarms occur when animals flee abruptly upon detection of a threat that subsequently proved harmless. False alarms are common in many species of birds and mammals and account for a surprisingly high proportion of all alarms. False alarms are expected to be more frequent in larger groups, where the odds of misclassifying threats are higher, and under environmental conditions

Guy Beauchamp

2010-01-01

198

Virtually True: Children's Acquisition of False Memories in Virtual Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work on human memory has shown that prompting participants with false events and self-relevant information via different types of media such as narratives, edited 2-dimensional images, and mental imagery creates false memories. This study tested a new form of media for studying false memory formation: Immersive Virtual Environment Technology (IVET). Using this tool, we examined how memory was affected

Kathryn Y. Segovia; Jeremy N. Bailenson

2009-01-01

199

Impact of {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Before and After Definitive Radiation Therapy in Patients With Apparently Solitary Plasmacytoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) on management of patients with apparently isolated plasmacytoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with apparently solitary plasmacytoma who underwent FDG-PET for staging or restaging were identified from a central PET database. They were either candidates for or had received definitive radiation therapy (RT). Results: Seventeen patients had initial staging scans for bone (n = 11) or soft tissue (n = 6) plasmacytomas, and 11 had PET scans after RT. Only 1 of 14 known untreated sites of plasmacytoma was not identified on staging PET (lesion sensitivity = 93%). Three plasmacytomas were excised before PET. Staging PET influenced management in 6 of 17 patients (35%) by showing multiple myeloma (n = 1), discouraging RT after complete resection (n = 1), excluding plasmacytoma at a second site (n = 1), by increasing RT fields (n = 2), or by suggesting sarcoidosis (n = 1). Fifteen of 17 patients with initial staging PET scans received definitive RT. Restaging PET scans after RT showed complete metabolic response in 8 of 11 cases and progressive disease in 2. Two patients with either no response or partial metabolic response had late responses. Staging sestamibi and PET scans were concordant in five of six occasions (one sestamibi scan was false negative). Conclusions: FDG-PET has value for staging and RT planning in plasmacytoma and potentially could have a role in response-assessment after RT. Slow resolution of FDG uptake posttreatment does not necessarily imply an adverse prognosis.

Kim, Paul J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hicks, Rodney J. [Centre for Molecular Imaging and Translational Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Wirth, Andrew; Ryan, Gail [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Seymour, John F.; Prince, H. Miles [Department of Haematology/Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Mac Manus, Michael P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)], E-mail: michael.macmanus@petermac.org

2009-07-01

200

Relation of CO2 Compensation Concentration to Apparent Photosynthesis in Maize 1  

PubMed Central

Significant differences in CO2 compensation concentration measured in the field among varieties of the species Zea mays L. are reported for the first time. CO2 compensation concentrations were significantly (P? 0.01) and negatively correlated with apparent photosynthesis at 300 ?l CO2/liter air. The Michaelis constant (as defined) for a leaf was significantly (P? 0.01) and positively correlated with apparent photosynthesis among varieties. While the first correlation is similar to behavior of CO2 compensation among species of different photosynthetic efficiency, the latter correlation is the converse of the behavior of Km among species. PMID:16657262

Heichel, Gary H.; Musgrave, Robert B.

1969-01-01

201

False fire alarms have a negative impact on UW operations False (or nuisance) alarms are very disruptive to UW operations. The alarms  

E-print Network

disruptive to UW operations. The alarms interrupt classes and lab experiments causing the occupants to stop protection devices and upgrading old fire protection equipment with current technology. How construction

Wilcock, William

202

Irrelevance of Figural Identity for Resolving Ambiguities in Apparent Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In order to examine the degree to which form perception affects the formation of apparent-motion experience, subjects were presented with nine ambiguous apparent-motion situations, where the elements of each single flash were various figures. (Editor)

Navon, David

1976-01-01

203

Possible autoimmune reactions following smallpox vaccination: the biologic false positive test for syphilis.  

PubMed

Due to the threat of bioterrorism, large-scale clinical trials of a new cell culture smallpox vaccine were conducted. Biologically false positive (BFR) serological reactions to viruses (hepatitis B and C, HIV) and syphilis were evaluated. BPR rapid reagin tests (RPR) to syphilis occurred in 19% and false positive tests for antibody to hepatitis B in 3.3% of 90 healthy adults undergoing primary vaccination. Most subjects (94%) were RPR-positive on Day 15 after vaccination and all seroreverted within 2 months thereafter. One subject with myocarditis was RPR-negative. One RPR-positive and 1 RPR-negative subject had elevated CK-MB enzymes without other evidence for myocarditis. PMID:19022322

Monath, Thomas P; Frey, Sharon E

2009-03-01

204

Can Reinforcement Induce Children to Falsely Incriminate Themselves?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined whether reinforcement can induce children to falsely incriminate themselves. Ninety-nine children in kindergarten\\u000a through third grade were questioned regarding the staged theft of a toy. Half received reinforcement for self-incriminating\\u000a responses. Within 4 min reinforced children made 52% false admissions of guilty knowledge concerning the theft, and 30% false\\u000a admissions of having witnessed it. Corresponding figures for controls

F. James Billings; Tanya Taylor; James Burns; Deb L. Corey; Sena Garven; James M. Wood

2007-01-01

205

Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments (modeled after J. Deese's 1959 study) revealed remarkable levels of false recall and false recognition in a list learning paradigm. In Experiment 1, subjects studied lists of 12 words (e.g., bed, rest, awake); each list was composed of associates of 1 nonpresented word (e.g., sleep). On immediate free recall tests, the nonpresented associates were recalled 40% of the

Henry L. Roediger; Kathleen B. McDermott

1995-01-01

206

Ice formation in the Arctic during summer: false-bottoms  

E-print Network

. The ablation of the sea-ice interface is caused by dissolution rather than by melting. Note that salt water hasIce formation in the Arctic during summer: false-bottoms Phan Thanh Nama,b , Pham Ngoc Dinh Alaina The only source of ice formation in the Arctic during summer is a layer of ice called false-bottoms between

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

207

[Iatrogenic false aneurysm of the splenic artery after cephalic duodenopancreatectomy].  

PubMed

Splenic artery aneurysms are rare entities with many causes. Rupture can be fatal and usually occurs when the aneurismal diameter is greater than 2 cm. Nevertheless, smaller aneurysms, especially false aneurysms, can also rupture. We report a case of iatrogenic, false aneurysm of the splenic artery subsequent to percutaneous drainage of a retrogastric collection after cephalic duodenopancreatectomy. Splenectomy enabled favorable recovery. PMID:22197585

Michel, P; Jarry, J; Pagliano, G

2012-02-01

208

False Belief Understanding in Cantonese-Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the performance of 96 Cantonese-speaking three- to five-year-old preschoolers on three false belief tasks--a deceptive object, a change of location, and an unexpected contents task encompassing a variety of task factors. Most importantly, the research examines the possibility that false belief performance depends on…

Tardif, Twila; Wellman, Henry M.; Cheung, Kar Man

2004-01-01

209

False belief understanding in Cantonese-speaking children.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the performance of 96 Cantonese-speaking three- to five-year-old preschoolers on three false belief tasks - a deceptive object, a change of location, and an unexpected contents task encompassing a variety of task factors. Most importantly, the research examines the possibility that false belief performance depends on specific linguistic factors such as the type of verb used in the test question--an explicitly false vs. a neutral belief verb. Cantonese was chosen as particularly useful for examining this question because it explicitly codes belief status as either neutral (nam5) or false (ji5wai4), and because it offers additional linguistic and cultural contrasts to research conducted on false belief with children learning English and other Indo-European languages. As expected, a strong age effect was found, as well as a significant advantage for children who received the explicit false belief (ji5wai4) wording and for those who were asked to explain rather than predict the protagonist's actions. Interestingly, there was also a strong task difference with children performing better on the deceptive object task than on the other two false belief tasks. We argue that these results point both to universal trajectories in theory of mind development and to interesting, but localized, effects of language and culture on children's false belief understanding. PMID:15658745

Tardif, Twila; Wellman, Henry M; Cheung, Kar Man

2004-11-01

210

False aneurysm of the femoral artery due to an osteochondroma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two cases of primary misdiagnosis of a posttraumatic false aneurysm are reported. In the first case a twenty-year-old patient was hospitalized under the diagnosis of a malignant soft tissue tumor five weeks after a kick against the right distal thigh. Diagnostic procedures performed in our clinic, however, led to the expectation of a false aneurysm of the femoral artery, caused

J. Ennker; J. Freyschmidt; H. Refmann; D. Dimovski

1984-01-01

211

Developing Biased Social Judgments: The False-Consensus Effect  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research with adults has demonstrated a false consensus bias, a tendency to overestimate peer agreement with one's own choices and or behaviors. Summer campers aged 7, 9, and 10 voted for their favorite camp activities and then guessed how the vote would turn out for either same-age, younger, or older peers. The results indicated a strong false consensus bias, which

Christopher G. Wetzel; Marsha D. Walton

1985-01-01

212

Asystole detected by implantable loop recorders: true or false?  

PubMed

We report a case of a false asystole detected by an implantable loop recorder a few days after its implantation. In the discussion section we try to give some hints to help cardiac electrophysiologists in distinguish true from false asystoles, in order to avoid unuseful and potentially dangerous implantations of pacemakers. PMID:24533648

Ali, Hussam; Sorgente, Antonio; Daleffe, Elisabetta; Cappato, Riccardo

2014-11-01

213

Gain-Scheduled Fault Tolerance Control Under False Identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An active fault tolerant control (FTC) law is generally sensitive to false identification since the control gain is reconfigured for fault occurrence. In the conventional FTC law design procedure, dynamic variations due to false identification are not considered. In this paper, an FTC synthesis method is developed in order to consider possible variations of closed-loop dynamics under false identification into the control design procedure. An active FTC synthesis problem is formulated into an LMI optimization problem to minimize the upper bound of the induced-L2 norm which can represent the worst-case performance degradation due to false identification. The developed synthesis method is applied for control of the longitudinal motions of FASER (Free-flying Airplane for Subscale Experimental Research). The designed FTC law of the airplane is simulated for pitch angle command tracking under a false identification case.

Shin, Jong-Yeob; Belcastro, Christine (Technical Monitor)

2006-01-01

214

Effects of Non-Differential Exposure Misclassification on False Conclusions in Hypothesis-Generating Studies  

PubMed Central

Despite the theoretical success of obviating the need for hypothesis-generating studies, they live on in epidemiological practice. Cole asserted that “… there is boundless number of hypotheses that could be generated, nearly all of them wrong” and urged us to focus on evaluating “credibility of hypothesis”. Adopting a Bayesian approach, we put this elegant logic into quantitative terms at the study planning stage for studies where the prior belief in the null hypothesis is high (i.e., “hypothesis-generating” studies). We consider not only type I and II errors (as is customary) but also the probabilities of false positive and negative results, taking into account typical imperfections in the data. We concentrate on a common source of imperfection in the data: non-differential misclassification of binary exposure classifier. In context of an unmatched case-control study, we demonstrate—both theoretically and via simulations—that although non-differential exposure misclassification is expected to attenuate real effect estimates, leading to the loss of ability to detect true effects, there is also a concurrent increase in false positives. Unfortunately, most investigators interpret their findings from such work as being biased towards the null rather than considering that they are no less likely to be false signals. The likelihood of false positives dwarfed the false negative rate under a wide range of studied settings. We suggest that instead of investing energy into understanding credibility of dubious hypotheses, applied disciplines such as epidemiology, should instead focus attention on understanding consequences of pursuing specific hypotheses, while accounting for the probability that the observed “statistically significant” association may be qualitatively spurious. PMID:25337942

Burstyn, Igor; Yang, Yunwen; Schnatter, A. Robert

2014-01-01

215

Effects of non-differential exposure misclassification on false conclusions in hypothesis-generating studies.  

PubMed

Despite the theoretical success of obviating the need for hypothesis-generating studies, they live on in epidemiological practice. Cole asserted that "… there is boundless number of hypotheses that could be generated, nearly all of them wrong" and urged us to focus on evaluating "credibility of hypothesis". Adopting a Bayesian approach, we put this elegant logic into quantitative terms at the study planning stage for studies where the prior belief in the null hypothesis is high (i.e., "hypothesis-generating" studies). We consider not only type I and II errors (as is customary) but also the probabilities of false positive and negative results, taking into account typical imperfections in the data. We concentrate on a common source of imperfection in the data: non-differential misclassification of binary exposure classifier. In context of an unmatched case-control study, we demonstrate-both theoretically and via simulations-that although non-differential exposure misclassification is expected to attenuate real effect estimates, leading to the loss of ability to detect true effects, there is also a concurrent increase in false positives. Unfortunately, most investigators interpret their findings from such work as being biased towards the null rather than considering that they are no less likely to be false signals. The likelihood of false positives dwarfed the false negative rate under a wide range of studied settings. We suggest that instead of investing energy into understanding credibility of dubious hypotheses, applied disciplines such as epidemiology, should instead focus attention on understanding consequences of pursuing specific hypotheses, while accounting for the probability that the observed "statistically significant" association may be qualitatively spurious. PMID:25337942

Burstyn, Igor; Yang, Yunwen; Schnatter, A Robert

2014-01-01

216

False recall and recognition of brand names increases over time.  

PubMed

Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, participants are presented with lists of associated words (e.g., bed, awake, night). Subsequently, they reliably have false memories for related but nonpresented words (e.g., SLEEP). Previous research has found that false memories can be created for brand names (e.g., Morrisons, Sainsbury's, Waitrose, and TESCO). The present study investigates the effect of a week's delay on false memories for brand names. Participants were presented with lists of brand names followed by a distractor task. In two between-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task either immediately or a week later. In two within-subjects experiments, participants completed a free recall task or a recognition task both immediately and a week later. Correct recall for presented list items decreased over time, whereas false recall for nonpresented lure items increased. For recognition, raw scores revealed an increase in false memory across time reflected in an increase in Remember responses. Analysis of Pr scores revealed that false memory for lures stayed constant over a week, but with an increase in Remember responses in the between-subjects experiment and a trend in the same direction in the within-subjects experiment. Implications for theories of false memory are discussed. PMID:22963741

Sherman, Susan M

2013-01-01

217

False-positive TUNEL staining observed in SV40 based transgenic murine prostate cancer models.  

PubMed

The TRAMP (Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate) and LADY (Probasin-large T antigen transgenic mouse) mice are widely used autochthonous models of prostate cancer. Both models utilise probasin promoters to direct androgen-regulated expression of oncogenic SV40 specifically to epithelial cells of the mouse prostate. The oncogenic processes and phenotypes which result mimic many features of human prostate cancer, making these transgenic mouse models useful experimental systems. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (Tdt)-mediated dUTP in situ nick end labelling (TUNEL) assay is a commonly used method for the detection of cells undergoing apoptosis. In this study, we demonstrate false-positive TUNEL staining in frozen prostate tissue from TRAMP and LADY mice, which was not observed in non-transgenic control animals and is not due to non-specific binding of labelled-dUTP substrate. The false-positive signal co-localised with large SV40 T-antigen expression. False-positive signal was apparent using multiple commercial TUNEL kits with different detection systems. These results caution against the use of the TUNEL assay for detection of apoptosis in frozen prostate tissue of large T-antigen based autochthonous transgenic models of prostate cancer. PMID:23423848

Lawrence, M D; Blyth, B J; Ormsby, R J; Tilley, W D; Sykes, P J

2013-10-01

218

40 CFR 62.4875 - Identification of sources-negative declaration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false Identification of sources-negative declaration...Emissions from Existing Primary Aluminum Plants § 62.4875 Identification of sources—negative declaration...that there are no existing primary aluminum reduction...

2013-07-01

219

Apparent-Strain Correction for Combined Thermal and Mechanical Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combined thermal and mechanical testing requires that the total strain be corrected for the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the strain gage and the specimen or apparent strain when the temperature varies while a mechanical load is being applied. Collecting data for an apparent strain test becomes problematic as the specimen size increases. If the test specimen cannot be placed in a variable temperature test chamber to generate apparent strain data with no mechanical loads, coupons can be used to generate the required data. The coupons, however, must have the same strain gage type, coefficient of thermal expansion, and constraints as the specimen to be useful. Obtaining apparent-strain data at temperatures lower than -320 F is challenging due to the difficulty to maintain steady-state and uniform temperatures on a given specimen. Equations to correct for apparent strain in a real-time fashion and data from apparent-strain tests for composite and metallic specimens over a temperature range from -450 F to +250 F are presented in this paper. Three approaches to extrapolate apparent-strain data from -320 F to -430 F are presented and compared to the measured apparent-strain data. The first two approaches use a subset of the apparent-strain curves between -320 F and 100 F to extrapolate to -430 F, while the third approach extrapolates the apparent-strain curve over the temperature range of -320 F to +250 F to -430 F. The first two approaches are superior to the third approach but the use of either of the first two approaches is contingent upon the degree of non-linearity of the apparent-strain curve.

Johnson, Theodore F.; O'Neil, Teresa L.

2007-01-01

220

The effect of Twitter exposure on false memory formation.  

PubMed

Social media sites such as Facebook and Twitter have increased drastically in popularity. However, information on these sites is not verified and may contain inaccuracies. It is well-established that false information encountered after an event can lead to memory distortion. Therefore, social media may be particularly harmful for autobiographical memory. Here, we tested the effect of Twitter on false memory. We presented participants with a series of images that depicted a story and then presented false information about the images in a scrolling feed that bore either a low or high resemblance to a Twitter feed. Confidence for correct information was similar across the groups, but confidence for suggested information was significantly lower when false information was presented in a Twitter format. We propose that individuals take into account the medium of the message when integrating information into memory. PMID:24825304

Fenn, Kimberly M; Griffin, Nicholas R; Uitvlugt, Mitchell G; Ravizza, Susan M

2014-12-01

221

Astrophysical False Positives Encountered in Wide-Field Transit Searches  

E-print Network

in tight orbits about their parent stars [for a review, see 1, 2]. Several of these projects are small these requirements. Rather, the current challenge is that of efficiently rejecting astro- physical false positives, i

222

Efficient Recovery from False State in Distributed Routing Algorithms  

E-print Network

-state-removal problem concrete, we investigate distance vector routing as an instance of this problem. Distance vector is then executed to remove remaining false state using these new distance vectors. The purge algorithm perfor

Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

223

Animals in Education: Are We Prisoners of False Sentiment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that concerns over the use of animals in science education is confounded by the unworthy introduction of false sentiment by animal rights groups, which persist in ignoring the realities of biology. (PR)

Minerney, Joseph D.

1993-01-01

224

50 CFR 216.94 - False statements or endorsements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.94 False statements or endorsements. Any person who knowingly and willfully makes a...

2010-10-01

225

7 CFR 1450.12 - Filing of false claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP) Common Provisions § 1450.12 Filing of false claims. (a) If CCC...

2013-01-01

226

7 CFR 1450.12 - Filing of false claims.  

...Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP) Common Provisions § 1450.12 Filing of false claims. (a) If CCC...

2014-01-01

227

7 CFR 1450.12 - Filing of false claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP) Common Provisions § 1450.12 Filing of false claims. (a) If CCC...

2011-01-01

228

7 CFR 1450.12 - Filing of false claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP) Common Provisions § 1450.12 Filing of false claims. (a) If CCC...

2012-01-01

229

False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals  

PubMed Central

The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants’ and age- and sex-matched controls’ susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes. PMID:24248358

Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

2013-01-01

230

False alarm mitigation techniques for hyperspectral target detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A challenging problem of major importance in hyperspectral imaging applications is the detection of subpixel objects of military and civilian interest. High false alarm thresholds are required to detect subpixel objects due to the large amount of surrounding background clutter. These high false alarm rates are unacceptable for military purposes, requiring the need for false alarm mitigation (FAM) techniques to weed out the objects of interest. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison of the implementation of these FAM techniques and their inherent benefits in the whitened detection space. The widely utilized matched filter (MF) and adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) are both based on a linear mixing model (LMM) between a background and object class. The matched filter approximates the object abundance, and the ACE measures the model error. Each of these measurements provides inadequate object separation alone, but by using both the object abundance and model error, the objects can be separated from the false alarms.

Pieper, M. L.; Manolakis, D.; Truslow, E.; Cooley, T.; Brueggeman, M.

2013-05-01

231

Attachment working models and false recall: a category structure approach  

E-print Network

of attachment theory; namely, that relationship working models influence how individuals process relationship-relevant information in general. In addition, this research contributes new knowledge regarding the generation of false memories in particular....

Wilson, Carol Leigh

2009-06-02

232

Diagnostic Accuracy of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and 123I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine for Differentiation of Multiple System Atrophy and Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Background It is often hard to differentiate Parkinson’s disease (PD) and parkinsonian variant of multiple system atrophy (MSA-P), especially in the early stages. Cardiac sympathetic denervation and putaminal rarefaction are specific findings for PD and MSA-P, respectively. Purpose We investigated diagnostic accuracy of putaminal apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) test for MSA-P and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigram for PD, especially in early-stage patients. Methods The referral standard diagnosis of PD and MSA-P were the diagnostic criteria of the United Kingdom Parkinson’s Disease Society Brain Bank Criteria and the second consensus criteria, respectively. Based on the referral standard criteria, diagnostic accuracy [area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity] of the ADC and MIBG tests was estimated retrospectively. Diagnostic accuracy of these tests performed within 3 years of symptom onset was also investigated. Results ADC and MIBG tests were performed on 138 patients (20 MSA and 118 PD). AUC was 0.95 and 0.83 for the ADC and MIBG tests, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity were 85.0% and 89.0% for MSA-P diagnosis by ADC test and 67.0% and 80.0% for PD diagnosis by MIBG test. When these tests were restricted to patients with disease duration ?3 years, the sensitivity and specificity were 75.0% and 91.4% for the ADC test (MSA-P diagnosis) and 47.7% and 92.3% for the MIBG test (PD diagnosis). Conclusions Both tests were useful in differentiating between PD and MSA-P, even in the early stages. In early-stage patients, elevated putaminal ADC was a diagnostic marker for MSA-P. Despite high specificity of the MIBG test, careful neurological history and examinations were required for PD diagnosis because of possible false-negative results. PMID:23613784

Umemura, Atsushi; Oeda, Tomoko; Hayashi, Ryutaro; Tomita, Satoshi; Kohsaka, Masayuki; Yamamoto, Kenji; Sawada, Hideyuki

2013-01-01

233

Right and Righteous: Children's Incipient Understanding and Evaluation of True and False Statements  

PubMed Central

Two studies examined young children’s early understanding and evaluation of truth-telling and lying, and the role that factuality plays in their judgments. Study 1 (104 2- to 5-year-olds) found that even the youngest children reliably accepted true statements and rejected false statements, and that older children’s ability to label true and false statements as “truth” and “lie” emerged in tandem with their positive evaluation of true statements and “truth” and their negative evaluation of false statements and “lie.” The findings suggest that children’s early preference for factuality develops into a conception of “truth” and “lie” that is linked both to factuality and moral evaluation. Study 2 (128 3- to 5-year-olds) found that, whereas young children exhibited good understanding of the association of true and false statements with “truth,” “lie,” “mistake,” “right,” and “wrong,” they showed little awareness of assumptions about speaker knowledge underlying “lie” and “mistake.” The results further support the primacy of factuality in children’s early understanding and evaluation of truth and lies. PMID:24436637

Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.; Carrick, Nathalie

2012-01-01

234

Semantic processes leading to true and false memory formation in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Encoding semantic relationships between items on word lists (semantic processing) enhances true memories, but also increases memory distortions. Episodic memory impairments in schizophrenia (SZ) are strongly driven by failures to process semantic relations, but the exact nature of these relational semantic processing deficits is not well understood. Here, we used a false memory paradigm to investigate the impact of implicit and explicit semantic processing manipulations on episodic memory in SZ. Thirty SZ and 30 demographically matched healthy controls (HC) studied Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists of semantically associated words. Half of the lists had strong implicit semantic associations and the remainder had low strength associations. Similarly, half of the lists were presented under "standard" instructions and the other half under explicit "relational processing" instructions. After study, participants performed recall and old/new recognition tests composed of targets, critical lures, and unrelated lures. HC exhibited higher true memories and better discriminability between true and false memory compared to SZ. High, versus low, associative strength increased false memory rates in both groups. However, explicit "relational processing" instructions positively improved true memory rates only in HC. Finally, true and false memory rates were associated with severity of disorganized and negative symptoms in SZ. These results suggest that reduced processing of semantic relationships during encoding in SZ may stem from an inability to implement explicit relational processing strategies rather than a fundamental deficit in the implicit activation and retrieval of word meanings from patients' semantic lexicon. PMID:23623175

Paz-Alonso, Pedro M; Ghetti, Simona; Ramsay, Ian; Solomon, Marjorie; Yoon, Jong; Carter, Cameron S; Ragland, J Daniel

2013-07-01

235

False-positive outcome and drug residue in milk samples over withdrawal times.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to identify false-positive outcomes and drug residues in milk samples over withdrawal times and to determine whether the positive results were caused by drug residues or natural inhibitors. A total of 73 milk samples over withdrawal times after the last intramammary infusion were collected from each treated quarter of cows and tested using the Delvotest SP assay. Reading time was 150, 165, and 180 min, and results of samples were recorded according to the color of the well containing the control milk sample. There were 24, 20, and 12 positive samples at the reading times of 150, 165, and 180 min, respectively. All 24 positive milk samples were heated at 82 degrees C for 5 min and retested to verify that the positive results were caused by drug residues or natural inhibitors. Twenty-one samples that exhibited positive results were negative after heat treatment, and drug residues were not identified by LacTek and Charm tests. However, 3 samples that exhibited positive results from heat treatment of 82 degrees C were positive for drugs. In our study, most positive results (89%) in the milk samples over withdrawal times were false-positive results by natural inhibitors. Moreover, the heat treatment is a fast, simple, and inexpensive method to remove false-positive results and has no effect on positive samples containing drugs. We suggest that heat treatment before screening tests is an effective way to reduce false-positive results in the milk samples. PMID:15738224

Kang, J H; Jin, J H; Kondo, F

2005-03-01

236

Endovascular repair of aortic arch false aneurysm with branched endograft.  

PubMed

This case report describes the use of a customized branched device for the treatment of a distal anastomotic false aneurysm in an ascending to descending interposition graft in a 34-year-old Jehovah's Witness with congenital aortic arch interruption. A single branched customized stent graft device was used to successfully exclude the false aneurysm. The procedure was challenging due to the abnormal congenital anatomy. The planning, operative technique, and successful execution are described in this case report. PMID:23958071

Schiro, Andrew; Kuhan, Ganesh; Pichel, Adam; Farquharson, Finn; Murray, David; Serracino-Inglott, Ferdinand

2014-09-01

237

Computed tomography colonography - reasons for different and false results  

PubMed Central

Summary Computed tomography colonography (CT colonography) is one of the latest radiological methods of colorectal diagnostic imaging. Many studies confirmed a high efficacy of CT colonography in diagnosing colorectal polyps and tumors. However, this imaging method is not devoid of false diagnoses. Our paper presented the main causes of false results, causes of heterogeneity of the results among centres, as well as ways of avoiding them. PMID:22802789

Rudzinska, Malgorzata; Rudzinski, Janusz; Leksowski, Krzysztof

2010-01-01

238

Do Children DRM Like Adults? False Memory Production in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Deese\\/Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm was used to investigate developmental trends in accurate and false memory production. In Experiment 1, DRM lists adjusted to be more consistent with children's vocabulary were used with 2nd graders, 8th graders, and college students. Accurate and false recall and recognition increased with age, but semantic information appeared to be available to all age groups. Experiment

Richard L. Metzger; Amye R. Warren; Jill T. Shelton; Jodi Price; Andrea W. Reed; Danny Williams

2008-01-01

239

Children's understanding of false belief in humans and animals  

E-print Network

Change Task . 30 3 Nean Number of Items Correct for Human Actor and Animal Actor 30 4 Correlations Between Having a Sibling and Performance on False Belief Tasks . . . . . . . . 35 5 Correlations Between Number of Siblings and Performance on False... are designed to measure a child's understanding of how beliefs affect a person' s actions and conceptions about reality (Perner, Leekam, Wimmer, 1987; Wimmer a Perner, 1983). Frequently used are tasks that seek to measure a child' s knowledge...

Saunders, Katherine Nuttall

2012-06-07

240

Dynamic Decomposition of Apparent Power in Polyphase Unbalanced Networks  

E-print Network

Dynamic Decomposition of Apparent Power in Polyphase Unbalanced Networks with Application of dynamic phasors to construct a dynamic (time-variant) decomposition of apparent power for polyphase systems with any number of phases. Our dynamic power decom- position captures transient behavior, while

Stankoviæ, Aleksandar

241

Temporal binding during apparent movement of the human body  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alternating between static images of human bodies with an appropriate interstimulus interval (ISI) produces apparent biological motion. Here we investigate links between apparent biological motion and time perception. We presented two pictures of the initial and final positions of a human movement separated by six different ISIs. The shortest movement path between two positions was always biomechanically impossible. Participants performed

Guido Orgs; Patrick Haggard

2011-01-01

242

"Apparent Weight": A Concept that Is Confusing and Unnecessary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two recent articles make prominent use of the concept of "apparent weight." The concept of "apparent weight" leads to two confusing inconsistencies. We need to know that with very little change in our representations, we can give our students an improved understanding of "weight" without ever having to invent the appealing but confusing concept of…

Bartlett, Albert A.

2010-01-01

243

Persistence of Belief Change in the Face of Deception: The Effect of Factual Stories Revealed to Be False  

Microsoft Academic Search

Readers typically respond with anger and derogation when they discover that an author has engaged in intentional deception (representing a false story as true). Does this negative response to the author also cause individuals to correct beliefs that may have been changed by the discredited story? In this experiment (N = 160), the alleged truth status of a narrative was

Melanie C. Green; John K. Donahue

2011-01-01

244

Sleep Reduces False Memory in Healthy Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Design: Balanced, crossover design. False memory was induced using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and assessed following nocturnal sleep and following a period of daytime wakefulness. Post-learning sleep structure was evaluated using polysomnography (PSG). Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: Fourteen healthy older adults from the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study (mean age ± standard deviation = 66.6 ± 4.1 y; 7 males). Measurements and Results: At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. At retrieval, they made “remember”/“know” and “new” judgments. Compared to wakefulness, post-learning sleep was associated with reduced “remember” responses, but not “know” responses to critical lures. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the veridical recognition of studied words, false recognition of unrelated distractors, discriminability, or response bias between the sleep and the wake conditions. More post-learning slow wave sleep was associated with greater reduction in false memory. Conclusions: In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory. This benefit correlates with the amount of slow wave sleep in the post-learning sleep episode. Citation: Lo JC; Sim SK; Chee MW. Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults. SLEEP 2014;37(4):665-671. PMID:24744453

Lo, June C.; Sim, Sam K. Y.; Chee, Michael W. L.

2014-01-01

245

False Memory in Aging Resulting From Self-Referential Processing  

PubMed Central

Objectives. Referencing the self is known to enhance accurate memory, but less is known about how the strategy affects false memory, particularly for highly self-relevant information. Because older adults are more prone to false memories, we tested whether self-referencing increased false memories with age. Method. In 2 studies, older and younger adults rated adjectives for self-descriptiveness and later completed a surprise recognition test comprised of words rated previously for self-descriptiveness and novel lure words. Lure words were subsequently rated for self-descriptiveness in order to assess the impact of self-relevance on false memory. Study 2 introduced commonness judgments as a control condition, such that participants completed a recognition test on adjectives rated for commonness in addition to adjectives in the self-descriptiveness condition. Results. Across both studies, findings indicate an increased response bias to self-referencing that increased hit rates for both older and younger adults but also increased false alarms as information became more self-descriptive, particularly for older adults. Discussion. Although the present study supports previous literature showing a boost in memory for self-referenced information, the increase in false alarms, especially in older adults, highlights the potential for memory errors, particularly for information that is strongly related to the self. PMID:23576449

2013-01-01

246

A 10-year review of false aneurysms in Nottingham.  

PubMed Central

Over a 10-year period, twenty-nine patients who developed false aneurysms were reviewed retrospectively. The diagnosis was delayed for as long as 7 months in the eight patients who developed aneurysms following trauma. However, all these patients had an excellent outcome after surgery. The results were also good in patients with non-infected false aneurysms after vascular reconstruction, with 17 of the 19 patients having the affected limb saved by remedial surgery. The main principle of remedial surgery was to perform the simplest surgical procedure possible. The results in infected false aneurysms were poor and management should be considered along the lines laid down for graft infection. The incidence of false aneurysms may be reduced by the use of suitable non-absorbable sutures, prevention of tension at an anastomosis and prevention of infection. However, degeneration of the arterial wall is thought to be a major cause of false aneurysms and is, of course, beyond control. Recent technical advances such as digital subtraction angiography, labelled leucocyte scanning and computed tomography have all contributed to improvements in the management of false aneurysms. Images fig. 1 fig. 3 PMID:3415176

Berridge, D. C.; Earnshaw, J. J.; Makin, G. S.; Hopkinson, B. R.

1988-01-01

247

Thermodynamics of apparent horizon and modified Friedman equations  

E-print Network

Starting from the first law of thermodynamics, $dE=T_hdS_h+WdV$, at apparent horizon of a FRW universe, and assuming that the associated entropy with apparent horizon has a quantum corrected relation, $S=\\frac{A}{4G}-\\alpha \\ln \\frac{A}{4G}+\\beta \\frac{4G}{A}$, we derive modified Friedmann equations describing the dynamics of the universe with any spatial curvature. We also examine the time evolution of the total entropy including the quantum corrected entropy associated with the apparent horizon together with the matter field entropy inside the apparent horizon. Our study shows that, with the local equilibrium assumption, the generalized second law of thermodynamics is fulfilled in a region enclosed by the apparent horizon.

Sheykhi, Ahmad

2010-01-01

248

Thermodynamics of apparent horizon and modified Friedman equations  

E-print Network

Starting from the first law of thermodynamics, $dE=T_hdS_h+WdV$, at apparent horizon of a FRW universe, and assuming that the associated entropy with apparent horizon has a quantum corrected relation, $S=\\frac{A}{4G}-\\alpha \\ln \\frac{A}{4G}+\\beta \\frac{4G}{A}$, we derive modified Friedmann equations describing the dynamics of the universe with any spatial curvature. We also examine the time evolution of the total entropy including the quantum corrected entropy associated with the apparent horizon together with the matter field entropy inside the apparent horizon. Our study shows that, with the local equilibrium assumption, the generalized second law of thermodynamics is fulfilled in a region enclosed by the apparent horizon.

Ahmad Sheykhi

2010-12-02

249

Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds  

PubMed Central

Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for phenotypic and microevolutionary adaptations. PMID:23593131

Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

250

"John thinks that Mary feels. . ." False belief in children across affective and physical domains.  

PubMed

Children aged 5-8 years (N = 64) were given 3 first- and 3 second-order tasks testing their ability to represent false beliefs about physical facts, positive emotions, and negative emotions. The children were also asked to justify their responses to the test questions. Older children were more successful than younger children at both answering the test questions correctly and justifying their responses. On the first-order problems, performance was better on the physical fact task than on the emotions tasks; the reverse was true for the second-order problems. Children primarily used situational explanations to explain correct judgments on the physical problems, whereas mentalistic explanations were more common than situational explanations on 3 of the 4 emotions tasks. The results extend knowledge of false belief beyond the simple forms studied at the preschool level. PMID:17879511

Parker, Jessica R; MacDonald, Christine A; Miller, Scott A

2007-03-01

251

The Illusion of the Positive: The impact of natural and induced mood on older adults’ false recall  

PubMed Central

Recent research suggests that affective and motivational processes can influence age differences in memory. In the current study, we examine the impact of both natural and induced mood state on age differences in false recall. Older and younger adults performed a version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) false memory paradigm in either their natural mood state or after a positive or negative mood induction. Results indicated that, after accounting for age differences in basic cognitive function, age-related differences in positive mood during the testing session were related to increased false recall in older adults. Inducing older adults into a positive mood also exacerbated age differences in false memory. In contrast, veridical recall did not appear to be systematically influenced by mood. Together, these results suggest that positive mood states can impact older adults’ information processing and potentially increase underlying cognitive age differences. PMID:22292431

Emery, Lisa; Hess, Thomas M.; Elliot, Tonya

2012-01-01

252

A Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies in Airline Pilots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies was developed by studying high reliability flight operations. Airline pilots depend extensively on cognitive expectancies to perceive, understand, and predict actions and events. Out of 1,363 incident reports submitted by airline pilots to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aviation Safety Reporting System over a year's time, 110 reports were found to contain evidence of 127 false cognitive expectancies in pilots. A comprehensive taxonomy was developed with six categories of interest. The dataset of 127 false expectancies was used to initially code tentative taxon values for each category. Intermediate coding through constant comparative analysis completed the taxonomy. The taxonomy was used for the advanced coding of chronological context-dependent visualizations of expectancy factors, known as strands, which depict the major factors in the creation and propagation of each expectancy. Strands were mapped into common networks to detect highly represented expectancy processes. Theoretical integration established 11 sources of false expectancies, the most common expectancy errors, and those conspicuous factors worthy of future study. The most prevalent source of false cognitive expectancies within the dataset was determined to be unconscious individual modeling based on past events. Integrative analyses also revealed relationships between expectancies and flight deck automation, unresolved discrepancies, and levels of situation awareness. Particularly noteworthy were the findings that false expectancies can combine in three possible permutations to diminish situation awareness and examples of how false expectancies can be unwittingly transmitted from one person to another. The theory resulting from this research can enhance the error coding process used during aircraft line oriented safety audits, lays the foundation for developing expectancy management training programs, and will allow researchers to proffer hypotheses for human testing using flight simulators.

Cortes, Antonio I.

253

Negative ion generator  

DOEpatents

A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

Stinnett, R.W.

1984-05-08

254

The Effect of Visual Apparent Motion on Audiovisual Simultaneity  

PubMed Central

Visual motion information from dynamic environments is important in multisensory temporal perception. However, it is unclear how visual motion information influences the integration of multisensory temporal perceptions. We investigated whether visual apparent motion affects audiovisual temporal perception. Visual apparent motion is a phenomenon in which two flashes presented in sequence in different positions are perceived as continuous motion. Across three experiments, participants performed temporal order judgment (TOJ) tasks. Experiment 1 was a TOJ task conducted in order to assess audiovisual simultaneity during perception of apparent motion. The results showed that the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) was shifted toward a sound-lead stimulus, and the just noticeable difference (JND) was reduced compared with a normal TOJ task with a single flash. This indicates that visual apparent motion affects audiovisual simultaneity and improves temporal discrimination in audiovisual processing. Experiment 2 was a TOJ task conducted in order to remove the influence of the amount of flash stimulation from Experiment 1. The PSS and JND during perception of apparent motion were almost identical to those in Experiment 1, but differed from those for successive perception when long temporal intervals were included between two flashes without motion. This showed that the result obtained under the apparent motion condition was unaffected by the amount of flash stimulation. Because apparent motion was produced by a constant interval between two flashes, the results may be accounted for by specific prediction. In Experiment 3, we eliminated the influence of prediction by randomizing the intervals between the two flashes. However, the PSS and JND did not differ from those in Experiment 1. It became clear that the results obtained for the perception of visual apparent motion were not attributable to prediction. Our findings suggest that visual apparent motion changes temporal simultaneity perception and improves temporal discrimination in audiovisual processing. PMID:25295594

Kwon, Jinhwan; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Miyake, Yoshihiro

2014-01-01

255

Sleep enhances false memories depending on general memory performance.  

PubMed

Memory is subject to dynamic changes, sometimes giving rise to the formation of false memories due to biased processes of consolidation or retrieval. Sleep is known to benefit memory consolidation through an active reorganization of representations whereas acute sleep deprivation impairs retrieval functions. Here, we investigated whether sleep after learning and sleep deprivation at retrieval enhance the generation of false memories in a free recall test. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., "night", "dark", "coal", etc.), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: "black"). Free recall was tested after 9h following a night of sleep, a night of wakefulness (sleep deprivation) or daytime wakefulness. Compared with memory performance after a retention period of daytime wakefulness, both post-learning nocturnal sleep as well as acute sleep deprivation at retrieval significantly enhanced false recall of theme words. However, these effects were only observed in subjects with low general memory performance. These data point to two different ways in which sleep affects false memory generation through semantic generalization: one acts during consolidation on the memory trace per se, presumably by active reorganization of the trace in the post-learning sleep period. The other is related to the recovery function of sleep and affects cognitive control processes of retrieval. Both effects are unmasked when the material is relatively weakly encoded. PMID:20035789

Diekelmann, Susanne; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

2010-04-01

256

Sentential Negation in English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

Mowarin, Macaulay

2009-01-01

257

Line tension and reduction of apparent contact angle associated with electric double layers  

E-print Network

The line tension of an electrolyte wetting a non-polar substrate is computed analytically and numerically. The results show that, depending on the value of the apparent contact angle, positive or negative line tension values may be obtained. Furthermore, a significant difference between Young's contact angle and the apparent contact angle measured several Debye lengths remote from the three-phase contact line occurs. When applying the results to water wetting highly charged surfaces, line tension values of the same order of magnitude as found in recent experiments can be achieved. Therefore, the theory presented may contribute to the understanding of line tension measurements and points to the importance of the electrostatic line tension. Being strongly dependent on the interfacial charge density, electrostatic line tension is found to be tunable via the pH value of the involved electrolyte. As a practical consequence, the stability of nanoparticles adsorbed at fluid-fluid interfaces is predicted to be depend...

Dörr, Aaron

2014-01-01

258

False Paradoxes of Superposition in Electric and Acoustic Waves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Corrected are several misconceptions concerning the apparently "missing" energy that results when acoustic or electromagnetic waves cancel by destructive interference and the wave impedance reflected to the sources of the wave energy changes so that the input power is reduced. (Author/CS)

Levine, Richard C.

1980-01-01

259

Blocking Mimicry Makes True and False Smiles Look the Same  

PubMed Central

Recent research suggests that facial mimicry underlies accurate interpretation of subtle facial expressions. In three experiments, we manipulated mimicry and tested its role in judgments of the genuineness of true and false smiles. Experiment 1 used facial EMG to show that a new mouthguard technique for blocking mimicry modifies both the amount and the time course of facial reactions. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants rated true and false smiles either while wearing mouthguards or when allowed to freely mimic the smiles with or without additional distraction, namely holding a squeeze ball or wearing a finger-cuff heart rate monitor. Results showed that blocking mimicry compromised the decoding of true and false smiles such that they were judged as equally genuine. Together the experiments highlight the role of facial mimicry in judging subtle meanings of facial expressions. PMID:24670316

Rychlowska, Magdalena; Canadas, Elena; Wood, Adrienne; Krumhuber, Eva G.; Fischer, Agneta; Niedenthal, Paula M.

2014-01-01

260

Fate of the false monopoles: Induced vacuum decay  

SciTech Connect

We study a gauge theory model where there is an intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that breaks a simple gauge group to a U(1) factor. Such a model admits the existence of metastable magnetic monopoles, which we dub false monopoles. We prove the existence of these monopoles in the thin-wall approximation. We determine the instantons for the collective coordinate that corresponds to the radius of the monopole wall and we calculate the semiclassical tunneling rate for the decay of these monopoles. The monopole decay consequently triggers the decay of the false vacuum. As the monopole mass is increased, we find an enhanced rate of decay of the false vacuum relative to the celebrated homogeneous tunneling rate due to S. R. Coleman [Subnuclear series 13, 297 (1977).].

Kumar, Brijesh [Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, 400076 (India); Groupe de physique des particules, Departement de physique, Universite de Montreal, Case Postale 6128, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Paranjape, M. B. [Groupe de physique des particules, Departement de physique, Universite de Montreal, Case Postale 6128, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Yajnik, U. A. [Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, 400076 (India); Groupe de physique des particules, Departement de physique, Universite de Montreal, Case Postale 6128, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Department of Physics, Ernest Rutherford Physics Building, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T5 (Canada)

2010-07-15

261

A FALSE POSITIVE FOR OCEAN GLINT ON EXOPLANETS: THE LATITUDE-ALBEDO EFFECT  

SciTech Connect

Identifying liquid water on the surface of planets is a high priority, as this traditionally defines habitability. One proposed signature of oceans is specular reflection ('glint'), which increases the apparent albedo of a planet at crescent phases. We post-process a global climate model of an Earth-like planet to simulate reflected light curves. Significantly, we obtain glint-like phase variations even though we do not include specular reflection in our model. This false positive is the product of two generic properties: (1) for modest obliquities, a planet's poles receive less orbit-averaged stellar flux than its equator, so the poles are more likely to be covered in highly reflective snow and ice; and (2) we show that reflected light from a modest-obliquity planet at crescent phases probes higher latitudes than at gibbous phases, therefore a planet's apparent albedo will naturally increase at crescent phase. We suggest that this 'latitude-albedo effect' will operate even for large obliquities: in that case the equator receives less orbit-averaged flux than the poles, and the equator is preferentially sampled at crescent phase. Using rotational and orbital color variations to map the surfaces of directly imaged planets and estimate their obliquity will therefore be a necessary pre-condition for properly interpreting their reflected phase variations. The latitude-albedo effect is a particularly convincing glint false positive for zero-obliquity planets, and such worlds are not amenable to latitudinal mapping. This effect severely limits the utility of specular reflection for detecting oceans on exoplanets.

Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Abbot, Dorian S. [Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Voigt, Aiko [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstr. 53, D-20146, Hamburg (Germany)

2012-06-10

262

A False Positive for Ocean Glint on Exoplanets: The Latitude-Albedo Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Identifying liquid water on the surface of planets is a high priority, as this traditionally defines habitability. One proposed signature of oceans is specular reflection ("glint"), which increases the apparent albedo of a planet at crescent phases. We post-process a global climate model of an Earth-like planet to simulate reflected light curves. Significantly, we obtain glint-like phase variations even though we do not include specular reflection in our model. This false positive is the product of two generic properties: (1) for modest obliquities, a planet's poles receive less orbit-averaged stellar flux than its equator, so the poles are more likely to be covered in highly reflective snow and ice; and (2) we show that reflected light from a modest-obliquity planet at crescent phases probes higher latitudes than at gibbous phases, therefore a planet's apparent albedo will naturally increase at crescent phase. We suggest that this "latitude-albedo effect" will operate even for large obliquities: in that case the equator receives less orbit-averaged flux than the poles, and the equator is preferentially sampled at crescent phase. Using rotational and orbital color variations to map the surfaces of directly imaged planets and estimate their obliquity will therefore be a necessary pre-condition for properly interpreting their reflected phase variations. The latitude-albedo effect is a particularly convincing glint false positive for zero-obliquity planets, and such worlds are not amenable to latitudinal mapping. This effect severely limits the utility of specular reflection for detecting oceans on exoplanets.

Cowan, Nicolas B.; Abbot, Dorian S.; Voigt, Aiko

2012-06-01

263

The nucleation of false vacuum bubbles with compact geometries  

E-print Network

We investigate the nucleation process for the possible types of vacuum bubbles. We classify false vacuum bubbles of a self-gravitating scalar field with compact geometries. We show that there exist numerical solutions representing the tunneling from the true vacuum state to the false vacuum state. The solutions are possible only gravity taken into account. We present the analytic computations for the radius and nucleation rate of a vacuum bubble using the thin-wall approximation. We discuss possible cosmological implications of our solutions.

Bum-Hoon Lee; Chul H. Lee; Wonwoo Lee; Changheon Oh

2013-11-18

264

Apparent molal volumes, apparent molal compressibilities, and their isotope effects in aqueous and non-aqueous carbohydrate solutions  

SciTech Connect

Apparent molal volumes and compressibilities of aqueous and nonaqueous solutions including their isotope effects were investigated. The apparent molal volumes were derived from densities measured with a vibrating tube densitometer. Aqueous solution limiting apparent molal volumes and expansibilities are reported for glucose, sucrose, fructose, and myo-inositol at various temperatures. The concentration dependence of the molar volume isotope effect and the temperature dependence of the limiting values are given for glucose, sucrose, and myo-inositol. Non-aqueous limiting apparent molal volumes are reported for glucose in DMSO, DMSO-d/sub 6/, DMF, and ethylene glycol, galactose in DMSO, sucrose in DMSO and DMF, ..alpha..-methyl glucoside in DMSO, DMF, and methanol, and ..beta..-methyl glucoside in DMSO. The apparent molal adiabatic compressibility were obtained from sound speeds measured with two sing-around ultrasonic velocimeters. Aqueous limiting apparent molal adiabatic compressibilities are presented for glucose, sucrose, fructose, and myo-inositol at 15 and 25/sup 0/C. Isothermal values at 25/sup 0/ are also reported. Non-aqueous limiting apparent molal adiabatic compressibilities are given for glucose, sucrose, ..alpha..- and ..beta..-methyl glucosides in DMSO, and glucose, in DMF.

Bernal, P.J.

1984-01-01

265

Management and Conservation Article Apparent Survival and Population  

E-print Network

. For example, piping plover (Charadrius melodus) population viability models were most sensitive to variation population of the threatened western snowy plover (Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus) in coastal northern are more challenging. KEY WORDS apparent survival, Charadrius alexandrinus nivosus, demography, fecundity

Colwell, Mark

266

Short-duration Radio Bursts with Apparent Extragalactic Dispersion  

E-print Network

We present the results of the longest yet undertaken search for apparently extragalactic radio bursts at the Bleien Radio Observatory covering 21000 hours (898 days). The data were searched for events of less than 50 ms FWHM duration showing a $\

Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Monstein, Christian

2014-01-01

267

The Apparent Thermal Inertia of Layered Surfaces on Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We examine the effects of shallow layering in the martian subsurface on the diurnal and seasonal surface temperatures, and on the apparent thermal inertia as has been derived from temperature measurements and assuming soil homogeneity.

Mellon, M. T.; Putzig, N. E.

2007-03-01

268

20. VIEW OF ENLOE DAM (APPARENTLY COMPLETED), PENSTOCK UNDER CONSTRUCTION ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

20. VIEW OF ENLOE DAM (APPARENTLY COMPLETED), PENSTOCK UNDER CONSTRUCTION (LEFT, CENTER), AND THE ORIGINAL POWERHOUSE (RIGHT, CENTER). LOOKING NORTH - Enloe Dam, On Similkameen River, Oroville, Okanogan County, WA

269

Apparent Stability Constants of Magnesium and Calcium Complexes of Tricarboxylates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenazo I was used as a metallochromic indicator for the spectrophotometric determination at 560 nm to 570 nm of apparent stability constants of magnesium and calcium complexes of tricarboxylates and ADP between pH 7.4 and pH 8.0. Average values of apparent stability constants (nM) in 0.14 M Tris-HCL at pH 8.0 obtained with this method are reported sequentially for the

Jerome L. Gabriel; Tadashi Aogaichi; Charles R. Dearolf; Gerhard W. E. Plaut

1983-01-01

270

Human vertebral body apparent and hard tissue stiffness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancellous bone apparent stiffness and strength are dependent upon material properties at the tissue level and trabecular architecture. Microstructurally accurate, large-scale finite element (LS-FE) models were used to predict the experimental apparent stiffness of human vertebral cancellous bone and to estimate the trabecular hard tissue stiffness. Twenty-eight LS-FE models of cylindrical human vertebral cancellous bone specimens (8mm in diameter, 9.5mm

Fu J. Hou; Susan M. Lang; Susan J. Hoshaw; David A. Reimann; David P. Fyhrie

1998-01-01

271

A False Positive For Ocean Glint on Exoplanets: the Latitude-Albedo Effect  

E-print Network

Identifying liquid water on the surface of planets is a high priority, as this traditionally defines habitability. One proposed signature of oceans is specular reflection ("glint"), which increases the apparent albedo of a planet at crescent phases. We post-process a global climate model of an Earth-like planet to simulate reflected lightcurves. Significantly, we obtain glint-like phase variations even though we do not include specular reflection in our model. This false positive is the product of two generic properties: 1) for modest obliquities, a planet's poles receive less orbit-averaged stellar flux than its equator, so the poles are more likely to be covered in highly reflective snow and ice, and 2) we show that reflected light from a modest-obliquity planet at crescent phases probes higher latitudes than at gibbous phases, therefore a planet's apparent albedo will naturally increase at crescent phase. We suggest that this "latitude-albedo effect" will operate even for large obliquities: in that case th...

Cowan, Nicolas B; Voigt, Aiko

2012-01-01

272

An Improved Comprehensive Model for the Apparent Viscosity of Blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved comprehensive model for the apparent viscosity of blood is developed and used in simulations of the microcirculation in capillary bundles of rat spinotrapezius muscle fascia. In the microcirculation, the apparent viscosity of blood depends on the local vessel diameter, hematocrit, and shear rate. The proposed comprehensive model extends the apparent viscosity model developed by Pries, Secomb, Gaehtgens, and Gross (Circulation Research, 67, 826-834, 1990), which describes the effect of vessel diameter and hematocrit on the apparent viscosity. A shear thinning term is developed using the experimental data of Lipowsky, Usami, and Chien (Microvascular Research, 19, 297-319, 1980). Curve fits of this data can be combined with equations given in the Pries et al. work to create a system of equations that can be used to find the shear thinning factor. The simulations based on the improved apparent viscosity model use realistic vessel topology for the microvasculature, reconstructed from microscope images of tissue samples, and consider passive and active vessel properties. The numerical method is based on a Hagen-Poiseuille balance in the microvessels and a sparse matrix solver is used to obtain the solution. It was found that the inclusion of the shear factor decreases the overall flowrate in the capillary bundle. Many vessel connections in the fascia are characterized by relatively low shear rates and therefore increased apparent viscosity.

Jacobitz, Frank; Anderson, Spencer

2008-11-01

273

Identifying differentially expressed genes using false discovery rate controlling procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: DNA microarrays have recently been used for the purpose of monitoring expression levels of thousands of genes simultaneously and identifying those genes that are differentially expressed. The probability that a false identification (type I error) is committed can increase sharply when the number of tested genes gets large. Correlation between the test statistics attributed to gene co-regulation and dependency

Anat Reiner; Daniel Yekutieli; Yoav Benjamini

2003-01-01

274

Detecting False Positives in Multielement Designs: Implications for Brief Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors assessed the extent to which multielement designs produced false positives using continuous duration recording (CDR) and interval recording with 10-s and 1-min interval sizes. Specifically, they created 6,000 graphs with multielement designs that varied in the number of data paths, and the number of data points per data path, using a…

Bartlett, Sara M.; Rapp, John T.; Henrickson, Marissa L.

2011-01-01

275

Controlling the False Discovery Rate via Knockoffs Rina Foygel Barbera  

E-print Network

and replicable. This paper introduces the knockoff filter, a new variable selection procedure controlling the FDR in the statistical linear model whenever there are at least as many observations as variables. This method achieves in the classical linear model under arbitrary designs. 1.1 The false discovery rate in variable selection Suppose

Tibshirani, Ryan

276

The Nature of Children's True and False Narratives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Used various suggestive techniques in repeated interviews with preschool children to elicit narratives about true and fictional events. Found that fictional narratives contained more spontaneous details, more elaborations, and more aggressive details than true narratives. Across retellings, false narratives were less consistent but contained more…

Bruck, Maggie; Ceci, Stephen J.; Hembrooke, Helene

2002-01-01

277

Do 10-Month-Old Infants Understand Others' False Beliefs?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

As adults, we know that others' mental states, such as beliefs, guide their behavior and that these mental states can deviate from reality. Researchers have examined whether young children possess adult-like theory of mind by focusing on their understanding about others' false beliefs. The present research revealed that 10-month-old infants seemed…

Luo, Yuyan

2011-01-01

278

Context Effects and False Memory for Alcohol Words in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

This study assessed incidental recognition of Alcohol and Neutral words in adolescents who encoded the words under distraction. Participants were 171 (81 male) 10th grade students, ages 14–16 (M = 15.1) years. Testing was conducted by telephone: Participants listened to a list containing Alcohol and Neutral (Experimental – Group E, n = 92) or only Neutral (Control – Group C, n = 79) words, while counting backwards from 200 by two’s. Recognition was tested immediately thereafter. Group C exhibited higher false recognition of Neutral than Alcohol items, whereas Group E displayed equivalent false rates for both word types. The reported number of alcohol TV ads seen in the past week predicted higher false recognition of Neutral words in Group C and of Alcohol words in Group E. False memory for Alcohol words in Group E was greater in males and high anxiety sensitive participants. These context-dependent biases may contribute to exaggerations in perceived drinking norms previously found to predict alcohol misuse in young drinkers. PMID:19081200

Zack, Martin; Sharpley, Justin; Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

2011-01-01

279

Narrative dependency and the false belief task in autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have used a cognitive approach to teaching people with autism to pass false belief tasks with a broader aim of developing theory of mind abilities. However, these tasks have certain executive features that may influence performance on the tasks and the potential for generalization. The study examines the influence of narrative support and language level on the ability

Evelyn McGregor; Mark Bennett

2008-01-01

280

Hope, false hope, and self-fulfilling prophecy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hope, false hope, and self-fulfilling prophecy are important aspects in the practice of medicine for all practitioners but are especially important in the field of neurosurgery, which deals with devastating, terrifying, and often fatal illnesses. The American Board of Medical Specialties and the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education have jointly defined 6 “general competencies” that define a competent physician

Harold A. Wilkinson

2005-01-01

281

Discussion: On Methods Controlling the False Discovery Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

I would like to congratulate Sanat Sarkar for an excellent and thorough appraisal of the state of art with the controlling of false discovery rate (FDR), mostly arising in the context of multiple hypothesis testing (MHT) problems. He has indeed focused on all the major statistical aspects of the FDR\\/MHT complex, elucidating the theoretical and methodological perspectives. There are some

Pranab K. Sen

282

A generalized false discovery rate in microarray studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of identifying differentially expressed genes is considered in a microarray experiment. This motivates us to involve an appropriate multiple testing setup to high dimensional and low sample size testing problems in highly nonstandard setups. Family-wise error rate (FWER) is too conservative to control the type I error, whereas a less conservative false discovery rate has received considerable attention

Moonsu Kang; Heuiju Chun

2011-01-01

283

Young Children's Emerging Ability to Make False Statements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the origins of children's ability to make consciously false statements, a necessary component of lying. Children 2 to 5 years of age were rewarded for claiming that they saw a picture of a bird when viewing pictures of fish. They were asked outcome questions ("Do you win/lose?"), recognition questions ("Do you have a…

Ahern, Elizabeth C.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.

2011-01-01

284

The Just So Story--Obvious but False.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Considers how public opinion and entire theories of teaching reading are based in the false Just So story--Just Sound Out, and you can read. Explains why sounding out is a handicap. Suggests a better alternative, teaching by recognizing words. (SG)

Smith, Frank

2003-01-01

285

Bogus Concerns about the False Prototype Enhancement Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments addressed the mechanism responsible for the false prototype effect, the phenomenon in which a prototype gradient can be obtained in the absence of learning. Previous demonstrations of this effect have occurred solely in a single-category paradigm in which transfer patterns are assigned or not to the learning category. We tested the…

Homa, Donald; Hout, Michael C.; Milliken, Laura; Milliken, Ann Marie

2011-01-01

286

Hypnosis, false memory and multiple personality: a trinity of affinity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a discussion of the relationship between hypnosis, false memory, and multiple personality. Since Morton Prince's classic case of multiple personality (Prince 1906), only two other cases rival Prince's original work (Thigpen and Cleckley 1957, Schreiber 1973) in popularity.This paper illustrates startling new material regarding the third most famous of multiple personality cases, that of Sybil. Tape recordings

Robert W. Rieber

1999-01-01

287

Energy conservation in false twist texturing. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of using heating techniques other than contact electric heating to heat filament yarns during the False Twist Texturing Process is investigated. Laser, microwave, and infrared radiation heating are investigated. A summary of a paper, A Study of Microwave Texturing of Polyester Yarns, is included in the publication. (MCW)

Kang, T.J.; Kimrey, H.D.; Seyam, A.M.; Kaufman, F.; El-Shiekh, A.

1981-04-01

288

Art or Porn: Clear Division or False Dilemma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Art or Porn? The popular media will often choose this heading when reviewing the latest sexually explicit novel, film, or art exhibition. The underlying assumption seems to be that the work under discussion has to be one or the other, and cannot be both. But is this not a false dilemma? Can one really draw a sharp dividing line between

Hans Maes

2011-01-01

289

Art or Porn: Clear Division or False Dilemma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Art or Porn? The popular media will often choose this heading when reviewing the latest sexually explicit novel, film, or art exhibition. The underlying assumption seems to be that the work under discussion has to be one or the other, and cannot be both. But is this not a false dilemma? Can one really draw a sharp dividing line between

Hans Maes

2011-01-01

290

Auditory false perceptions are mediated by psychosis risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Auditory hallucinations exist in psychotic disorders as well as the general population. Proneness to hallucinations, as measured by positive schizotypy, predicts false perceptions during an auditory signal detection task (Barkus, Stirling, Hopkins, McKie, & Lewis, 2007). Our aim was to replicate this result and extend it by examining effects of age and sex, both important demographic predictors of psychosis.Method.

Emma Barkus; Richard Smallman; Natalie Royle; Chris Barkus; Shôn Lewis; Teresa Rushe

2011-01-01

291

Auditory false perceptions are mediated by psychosis risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction. Auditory hallucinations exist in psychotic disorders as well as the general population. Proneness to hallucinations, as measured by positive schizotypy, predicts false perceptions during an auditory signal detection task (Barkus, Stirling, Hopkins, McKie, & Lewis, 2007). Our aim was to replicate this result and extend it by examining effects of age and sex, both important demographic predictors of psychosis.Method.

Emma Barkus; Richard Smallman; Natalie Royle; Chris Barkus; Shôn Lewis; Teresa Rushe

2010-01-01

292

RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access False positive morphologic diagnoses at the  

E-print Network

. A national survey in 2010 showed a mean number of ultrasound examinations per pregnancy of 5 ± 2.5, up fromRESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access False positive morphologic diagnoses at the anomaly scan: marginal or regionally. Consequently, an increasing number of ultrasounds are performed each year in France, although

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

293

Modulation of the cortical false belief network during development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to represent false beliefs is commonly considered as to be the critical test for having a Theory of Mind (ToM). For correct predictions or explanations of other peoples' behavior it is necessary to understand that mental states are sometimes independent of reality and misrepresent the real state of the world. In contrast, when people hold true beliefs, predictions

Monika Sommer; Jörg Meinhardt; Kerstin Eichenmüller; Beate Sodian; Katrin Döhnel; Göran Hajak

2010-01-01

294

False Positive Item set Algorithm for Incremental Association Rule Discovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a dynamic database where the new transaction are inserted into the database, keeping patterns up-to-date and discovering new pattern are challenging problems of great practical importance. This may introduce new association rules and some existing association rules would become invalid. Thus, the maintenance of association rules for dynamic database is an important problem. In this paper, false positive itemset

Ratchadaporn Amornchewin; Worapoj Kreesuradej

2009-01-01

295

Siblings, Language, and False Belief in Low-Income Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors examined the relationship between number of siblings and false belief understanding (FBU) in 94 low-income 4-5-year-olds. Previous research with middle-income children has shown a positive association between number of siblings and FBU. However, it is unclear whether having multiple siblings in low-income families is related to better…

Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M. Jeffrey; Guo, Ying

2013-01-01

296

A Demonstration of Regression False Positive Selection in Data Mining  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Business analytics courses, such as marketing research, data mining, forecasting, and advanced financial modeling, have substantial predictive modeling components. The predictive modeling in these courses requires students to estimate and test many linear regressions. As a result, false positive variable selection ("type I errors") is…

Pinder, Jonathan P.

2014-01-01

297

FALSE DISCOVERIES: WINNERS AND LOSERS IN MUTUAL FUND PERFORMANCE  

Microsoft Academic Search

We use a multiple hypothesis testing framework to estimate the false discovery rate (FDR) amongst UK equity mutual funds. For all funds, we find a relatively high FDR for the best funds of 67% (at a 10% significance level), which indicates that only around 2% of all funds truly outperform their benchmarks. For the worst funds the FDR (at a

Keith Cuthbertson; Dirk Nitzsche; Niall O'Sullivan

298

Looking for Childhood Schizophrenia: Case Series of False Positives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extensive experience with the diagnosis of childhood-onset schizophrenia indicates a high rate of false positives. Most mislabeled patients have chronic disabling, affective, or behavioral disorders. The authors report the cases of three children who passed stringent initial childhood-onset schizophrenia "screens" but had no chronic psychotic…

Stayer, Catherine; Sporn, Alexandra; Gogtay, Nitin; Tossell, Julia; Lenane, Marge; Gochman, Peter; Rapoport, Judith L.

2004-01-01

299

Young Children's Difficulty Acknowledging False Belief: Realism and Deception  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was designed to help clarify some of the circumstances under which young children find it easier to acknowledge a false belief held by another person. In Experiment 1, preschoolers (mean age, 3 years; 11 months) watched a movie in which Ness had previously opened a familiar box in Jon's absence to reveal the stereotypical content, which she proceeded

Rebecca Saltmarsh; Peter Mitchell

1998-01-01

300

TCP Implementations and False Time Out Detection in OBS Networks  

E-print Network

the performance of the current TCP implementations in OBS network becomes an important issue. In a TCP/IP over OBS network, the TCP sender/receiver is connected to an OBS network through several IP routers, which form two1 TCP Implementations and False Time Out Detection in OBS Networks Xiang Yu, Chunming Qiao and Yong

Liu, Yong

301

False allegations of abuse and Munchausen syndrome by proxy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourteen children from seven families are reported for whom false allegations of abuse were made by the mother. Twelve children were alleged to have incurred sexual abuse, one both sexual and physical abuse, and one physical abuse alone. Thirteen of the children had incurred, or were currently victims of, factitious illness abuse invented by the mother. The one child with

R Meadow

1993-01-01

302

Matched False-Belief Performance during Verbal and Nonverbal Interference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language has been shown to play a key role in the development of a child's theory of mind, but its role in adult belief reasoning remains unclear. One recent study used verbal and nonverbal interference during a false-belief task to show that accurate belief reasoning in adults necessarily requires language (Newton & de Villiers, 2007). The…

Dungan, James; Saxe, Rebecca

2012-01-01

303

The Effects of Repetition on Children's True and False Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

As children are often called upon to provide testimony in court proceedings, determining the veracity of their statements is an important issue. In the course of investigation by police and social workers, children are often repeatedly interviewed about their experiences, though the impact of this repetition on children's true and false statements remains largely unexamined. The current study analysed semantic

Angela D. Evans; Megan K. Brunet; Victoria Talwar; Nicholas Bala; Rod C. L. Lindsay; Kang Lee

2011-01-01

304

The Effects of Repetition on Children's True and False Reports  

Microsoft Academic Search

As children are often called upon to provide testimony in court proceedings, determining the veracity of their statements is an important issue. In the course of investigation by police and social workers, children are often repeatedly interviewed about their experiences, though the impact of this repetition on children's true and false statements remains largely unexamined. The current study analysed semantic

Angela D. Evans; Megan K. Brunet; Victoria Talwar; Nicholas Bala; Rod C. L. Lindsay; Kang Lee

2012-01-01

305

29 CFR 1602.23 - Penalty for making of willfully false statements on reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty for making of willfully false statements on reports...Opportunity Report § 1602.23 Penalty for making of willfully false statements on reports. The making of willfully false statements on...

2010-07-01

306

29 CFR 1602.16 - Penalty for making of willfully false statements on report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty for making of willfully false statements on report...Information Report § 1602.16 Penalty for making of willfully false statements on report. The making of willfully false statements on...

2010-07-01

307

Limitation of the AccuProbe Coccidioides immitis Culture Identification Test: False-Negative Results with Formaldehyde-Killed Cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coccidioides immitis is a dimorphic fungal pathogen with distribution in the United States restricted to the Southwest. This pathogen is being increasingly recognized in parts of the world where it is not endemic in people who have a history of travel to the zone of endemicity. The safe laboratory handling of this highly infectious fungus requires a biosafety level III

SALLY G. GROMADZKI; VISHNU CHATURVEDI

2000-01-01

308

False negative HIV1 proviral DNA polymerase chain reaction in a patient with primary infection acquired in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Qualitative HIV-1 proviral DNA PCR tests have three main diagnostic applications. These include direct detection of viral sequences in the pre-seroconversion window period which may be positive up to 8 days prior to the development of HIV specific antibodies; resolution of indeterminate HIV serological tests and in the diagnosis of neonates born to seropositive mothers where maternal antibodies may

Philip Cunningham; Deborah Marriott; Claire Harris; Sara Hancock; Andrew Carr; David Cooper

2003-01-01

309

Nearly extremal apparent horizons in simulations of merging black holes  

E-print Network

The spin angular momentum $S$ of an isolated Kerr black hole is bounded by the surface area $A$ of its apparent horizon: $8\\pi S \\le A$, with equality for extremal black holes. In this paper, we explore the extremality of individual and common apparent horizons for merging, rapidly spinning binary black holes. We consider simulations of merging black holes with equal masses $M$ and initial spin angular momenta aligned with the orbital angular momentum, including new simulations with spin magnitudes up to $S/M^2 = 0.994$. We measure the area and (using approximate Killing vectors) the spin on the individual and common apparent horizons, finding that the inequality $8\\pi S A$ and for which our lower bound on their Booth-Fairhurst extremality exceeds unity. These superextremal surfaces are always surrounded by marginally outer trapped surfaces (i.e., by apparent horizons) with $8\\pi Sapparent horizon is always less than unity but can exceed the value for an e...

Lovelace, Geoffrey; Owen, Robert; Giesler, Matthew; Katebi, Reza; Szilagyi, Bela; Chu, Tony; Demos, Nicholas; Hemberger, Daniel A; Kidder, Lawrence E; Pfeiffer, Harald P; Afshari, Nousha

2014-01-01

310

Apparent absorption of solar spectral irradiance in heterogeneous ice clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coordinated flight legs of two aircraft above and below extended ice clouds played an important role in the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling Experiment (Costa Rica, 2007). The Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer measured up- and downward irradiance on the high-altitude (ER-2) and the low-altitude (DC-8) aircraft, which allowed deriving apparent absorption on a point-by-point basis along the flight track. Apparent absorption is the vertical divergence of irradiance, calculated from the difference of net flux at the top and bottom of a cloud. While this is the only practical method of deriving absorption from aircraft radiation measurements, it differs from true absorption when horizontal flux divergence is nonzero. Differences between true and apparent absorption are inevitable in any inhomogeneous atmosphere, especially clouds. We show, for the first time, the spectral shape of measured apparent absorption and compare with results from a three-dimensional radiative transfer model. The model cloud field is created from optical thickness and effective radius retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator and from reflectivity profiles from the Cloud Radar System, both on board the ER-2. Although the spectral shape is reproduced by the model calculations, the measured apparent absorption in the visible spectral range is higher than the model results along extended parts of the flight leg. This is possibly due to a net loss of photons into neighboring cirrus-free areas that are not contained within the model domain.

Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Pilewskie, Peter; Mayer, Bernhard; Wendisch, Manfred; Kindel, Bruce; Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Wind, Gala; Arnold, G. Tom; Tian, Lin; Heymsfield, Gerald; Kalesse, Heike

2010-05-01

311

Modality effect in false recognition: evidence from Chinese characters.  

PubMed

Using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory method, Smith and Hunt ( 1998 ) first reported the modality effect on false memory and showed that false recall from DRM lists was lower following visual study than following auditory study, which led to numerous studies on the mechanism of modality effect on false memory and provided many competing explanations. In the present experiment, the authors tested the modality effect in false recognition by using a blocked presentation condition and a random presentation condition. The present experiment found a modality effect different from the results of the previous research; namely, false recognition was shown to be greater following visual study than following auditory study, especially in the blocked presentation condition rather than in the random presentation condition. The authors argued that this reversed modality effect may be due to different encoding and processing characteristics between Chinese characters and English words. Compared with English words, visual graphemes of critical lures in Chinese lists are likely to be activated and encoded in participants' minds, thus it is more difficult for participants to discriminate later inner graphemes from those items presented in visual modality. Hence visual presentation could lead to more false recognition than auditory presentation in Chinese lists. The results in the present experiment demonstrated that semantic activation occurring during the encoding and retrieve phases played an important role in modality effect in false recognition, and our findings might be explained by the activation-monitoring account. Utilisant la méthode de fausse mémoire de Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM), Smith et Hunt ( 1998 ) ont d'abord rendu compte de l'effet de modalité sur la fausse mémoire et ils ont montré que le faux rappel à partir des listes de DRM était plus faible suivant une étude visuelle plutôt qu'une étude auditive. Ceci a mené à plusieurs études sur le mécanisme de l'effet de modalité sur la fausse mémoire, lesquelles ont fourni plusieurs explications concurrentes. Dans la présente expérience, les auteurs ont testé l'effet de modalité dans la fausse reconnaissance en utilisant une condition de présentation fixe et une condition de présentation aléatoire. Cette expérience a révélé un effet de modalité différent des résultats obtenus dans les recherches antérieures. En effet, la fausse reconnaissance était plus élevée suivant une étude visuelle plutôt qu'une étude auditive, spécialement dans la condition de présentation fixe. Les auteurs suggèrent que cet effet de modalité inverse peut être dû à des caractéristiques d'encodage et de processus différentes entre les caractères chinois et les mots anglais. Comparativement aux mots anglais, les graphèmes visuels des leurres critiques dans les listes chinoises sont susceptibles d'être activés et encodés dans l'esprit des participants, rendant plus difficile de discriminer les graphèmes intériorisés plus tard de ces items présentés dans la modalité visuelle. Ainsi, la présentation visuelle pourrait mener à davantage de fausse reconnaissance que la présentation auditive dans les listes chinoises. Les résultats de la présente expérience ont démontré que l'activation sémantique se produisait durant l'encodage et que la phase de retrait jouait un rôle important dans l'effet de modalité dans la fausse reconnaissance. Nos résultats peuvent être expliqués par la théorie activation-contrôle. Utilizando el método de Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) de falsa mamoria, Smith y Hunt ( 1998 ) fueron los primeros en encontrar el efecto de modalidad en la falsa memoria y demostraron que los falsos recuerdos del listado DRM fueron más bajos después de un estudio visual que después de un estudio auditivo lo cual llevó a varios estudios sobre el mecanismo del efecto de la modalidad sobre falsos recuerdos y proporcionó varias explicaciones que compiten entre sí. En el presente trabajo, los autores estudiaron el efect

Mao, Wei Bin; Yang, Zhi Liang; Wang, Lin Song

2010-02-01

312

The cognitive neuroscience of true and false memories.  

PubMed

Of central relevance to the recovered/false memory debate is understanding the factors that cause us to believe that a mental experience is a memory of an actual past experience. According to the source monitoring framework (SMF), memories are attributions that we make about our mental experiences based on their subjective qualities, our prior knowledge and beliefs, our motives and goals, and the social context. From this perspective, we discuss cognitive behavioral studies using both objective (e.g., recognition, source memory) and subjective (e.g., ratings of memory characteristics) measures that provide much information about the encoding, revival and monitoring processes that yield both true and false memories. The chapter also considers how neuroimaging findings, especially from functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, are contributing to our understanding of the relation between memory and reality. PMID:22303763

Johnson, Marcia K; Raye, Carol L; Mitchell, Karen J; Ankudowich, Elizabeth

2012-01-01

313

The Gravitational Wave Background and Higgs False Vacuum Inflation  

E-print Network

For a narrow band of values of the top quark and Higgs boson masses, the Standard Model Higgs potential develops a shallow local minimum at energies of about $10^{16}$ GeV, where primordial inflation could have started in a cold metastable state. For each point of that band, the highness of the Higgs potential at the false minimum is calculable, and there is an associated prediction for the inflationary gravitational wave background, namely for the tensor to scalar ratio $r$. We show that the recent measurement of $r$ by the BICEP2 collaboration, $r=0.16 _{-0.05}^{+0.06}$ at $1\\sigma$, combined with the most up-to-date measurements of the top quark and Higgs boson masses, reveals that the hypothesis that a Standard Model shallow false minimum was the source of inflation in the early Universe is viable.

Masina, Isabella

2014-01-01

314

Analysis for chemical agent breakdown products: Avoiding IMPA false positives  

SciTech Connect

Cleanup of DOD sites where chemical warfare agents have been used or stored presents a number of unique problems. Isopropylmethylphosphonic Acid (IMPA), a degradation product of Sarin (GB), is one important contaminant to be monitored at many such sites. IMPA has historically been determined by Army Environmental Center (AEC) method UT02, an ion chromatography method. This method is prone to serious interference problems which can lead an inexperienced analyst to report false positive results. A study of interferences present in groundwater samples taken from a US military installation was undertaken. The interference problems were identified, and techniques were developed which minimize the problem in most samples. These techniques have been used by the authors in several large studies at DOD sites, and have virtually eliminated false positive problems.

Ives, K.M.; Markowitz, V. [GP Environmental Services, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1996-12-31

315

Positive and negative perfectionism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research into perfectionism has focused on clinical populations resulting in a bias towards a negativistic, pathologically inclined conceptualization. The present study investigated the possibility of distinguishing aspects of perfectionism on the basis of perceived consequences, mirroring a behavioural distinction between positive and negative reinforcement. A 40-item questionnaire, designed to measure perfectionism defined in terms of both positive and negative

L. A. Terry-Short; R. Glynn Owens; P. D. Slade; M. E. Dewey

1995-01-01

316

The representation of “false cognates” in the bilingual lexicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

The results of repetition priming studies with homographs such asbank suggest that semantic constraints restrict priming to the specific meaning invoked during the study phase. Cross-language\\u000a priming studies with “false cognates” (words with similar form but unrelated meanings) suggest that form similarity may be\\u000a sufficient to support repetition priming, and they do not therefore support this claim. The relevant studies

Erin Lalor; Kim Kirsner

2001-01-01

317

Nursing behavior in captive false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nursing behavior of two false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) calves born at SeaWorld Florida was observed continually during the first 13 weeks of life. Nursing parameters, including total nursing time (mins\\/week), time spent nursing (mins\\/hour), suckles\\/hour, bouts\\/hour, suckles\\/ bout, suckle duration (secs) and bout duration (secs), peaked during the first week of life then slowly diminished. Mean nursing amount

Steven T. Clark; Daniel K. Odell

318

Memory distortion following exposure to false information in hypnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

92 Ss preselected for hypnotic responsiveness on the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility––Form A were tested in strict application of the real–simulating model of hypnosis to examine the hypothesis that hypnotic Ss distinctively incorporate false material into their memories when that material is introduced after, rather than before, hypnotic induction. Both real (n?=?46) and simulating (n?=?46) Ss were either

Peter W. Sheehan; Lyn Grigg; Terry McCann

1984-01-01

319

Inside Interrogation: The Lie, The Bluff, and False Confessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a less deceptive variant of the false evidence ploy, interrogators often use the bluff tactic, whereby they pretend\\u000a to have evidence to be tested without further claiming that it necessarily implicates the suspect. Three experiments were\\u000a conducted to assess the impact of the bluff on confession rates. Using the Kassin and Kiechel (Psychol Sci 7:125–128, 1996) computer crash paradigm,

Jennifer T. Perillo; Saul M. Kassin

2011-01-01

320

False learning function of an acoustic signal classifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In works on statistical pattern recognition that use learning and examination, results of the learning depend not only on the feature efficiencies, but also on the proportion between the capacity of the decision rule, length of the learning sample, and number of features. It is usually difficult to calculate the recognition errors, which connect these basic quantities for a particular classifier, while the calculations are approximate and do not clearly characterize the results obtained in the process of the study. The purpose of this work is to develop a simple, clear, and efficient technique for the experimental estimation of the expected classification errors of the recognition engine employed in learning. The algorithm produces a sample of random noise segments, which is included in the recognition algorithm instead of the features of real signals. Portions of this uniform sample imitate different classes. The false learning function is produced as a result of a successive increase in the number of random features used in the recognition. The corresponding growth of the probability of recognizing artificial classes in such a false learning depends on the length of the learning sample and on the capacity of the decision rule employed. The main result of this work is the false learning function proposed for any particular classifier. The function is obtained for the same length of the learning sample as that of the one used to recognize real signals. The validity of results obtained in real signals can be estimated by comparing this function with experimental signal recognition probabilities with the same number of features. The simple false learning function is useful to characterize the validity of any experimental results on the statistical signal recognition in acoustics, seismoacoustics, and hydroacoustics; in speech recognition; in medical and industrial diagnostics; in radar; and in other fields.

Goncharov, A. N.

2004-09-01

321

On Negative Mass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Schwarzschild solution to the matter free, spherically symmetric Einstein equations has one free parameter, the mass. But the mass can be of any sign. What is the meaning of the negative mass solutions? The answer to this question for the case of a pure Schwarzschild negative mass black solution is still elusive, however, in this essay, we will consider negative mass solutions within a Schwarzschild-de Sitter geometry. We show that there exist reasonable configurations of matter, bubbles of distributions of matter, that satisfy the dominant energy condition everywhere, that are nonsingular and well behaved everywhere, but correspond to the negative mass Schwarzschild-de Sitter geometry outside the matter distribution. These negative mass bubbles could occur as the end state of a quantum tunneling transition.

Belletête, Jonathan; Paranjape, M. B.

2013-06-01

322

Young children's difficulty acknowledging false belief: realism and deception.  

PubMed

This study was designed to help clarify some of the circumstances under which young children find it easier to acknowledge a false belief held by another person. In Experiment 1, preschoolers (mean age, 3 years; 11 months) watched a movie in which Ness had previously opened a familiar box in Jon's absence to reveal the stereotypical content, which she proceeded to replace with an atypical item. In a second movie, the box was seen to house an atypical content all along. Half the children watched Ness play the script in a neutral manner, while the rest watched her play it in a deceptive manner. There was a highly significant improvement in acknowledging Jon's false belief when children saw the stereotypical content of the box preliminary to its exchange for something atypical. In contrast, children gained no benefit from the way Ness played the script. The effect was replicated in a second experiment in which children were involved directly in the task. We conclude that presenting a physical instantiation of a false belief helps children to a small but reliable extent to correctly report that belief. PMID:9584068

Saltmarsh, R; Mitchell, P

1998-04-01

323

Reducing false intracranial pressure alarms using morphological waveform features.  

PubMed

False alarms produced by patient monitoring systems in intensive care units are a major issue that causes alarm fatigue, waste of human resources, and increased patient risks. While alarms are typically triggered by manually adjusted thresholds, the trend and patterns observed prior to threshold crossing are generally not used by current systems. This study introduces and evaluates, a smart alarm detection system for intracranial pressure signal (ICP) that is based on advanced pattern recognition methods. Models are trained in a supervised fashion from a comprehensive dataset of 4791 manually labeled alarm episodes extracted from 108 neurosurgical patients. The comparative analysis provided between spectral regression, kernel spectral regression, and support vector machines indicates the significant improvement of the proposed framework in detecting false ICP alarms in comparison to a threshold-based technique that is conventionally used. Another contribution of this work is to exploit an adaptive discretization to reduce the dimensionality of the input features. The resulting features lead to a decrease of 30% of false ICP alarms without compromising sensitivity. PMID:22851230

Scalzo, Fabien; Liebeskind, David; Hu, Xiao

2013-01-01

324

Thermodynamics on the apparent horizon in generalized gravity theories  

E-print Network

We present a general procedure to construct the first law of thermodynamics on the apparent horizon and illustrate its validity by examining it in some extended gravity theories. Applying this procedure, we can describe the thermodynamics on the apparent horizon in Randall-Sundrum braneworld imbedded in a nontrivial bulk. We discuss the mass-like function which was used to link Friedmann equation to the first law of thermodynamics and obtain its special case which gives the generalized Misner-Sharp mass in Lovelock gravity.

Shao-Feng Wu; Bin Wang; Guo-Hong Yang

2007-11-08

325

When plausibility manipulations work: an examination of their role in the development of false beliefs and memories.  

PubMed

In the current study we examined whether prevalence information and imagery encoding influence participants' general plausibility, personal plausibility, belief, and memory ratings for suggested childhood events. Results showed decreases in general and personal plausibility ratings for low prevalence events when encoding instructions were not elaborate; however, instructions to repeatedly imagine suggested events elicited personal plausibility increases for low-prevalence events, evidence that elaborate imagery negated the effect of our prevalence manipulation. We found no evidence of imagination inflation or false memory construction. We discuss critical differences in researchers' manipulations of plausibility and imagery that may influence results of false memory studies in the literature. In future research investigators should focus on the specific nature of encoding instructions when examining the development of false memories. PMID:22694108

Bays, Rebecca B; Zabrucky, Karen M; Gagne, Phill

2012-01-01

326

Determining Occurrence Dynamics when False Positives Occur: Estimating the Range Dynamics of Wolves from Public Survey Data  

PubMed Central

Large-scale presence-absence monitoring programs have great promise for many conservation applications. Their value can be limited by potential incorrect inferences owing to observational errors, especially when data are collected by the public. To combat this, previous analytical methods have focused on addressing non-detection from public survey data. Misclassification errors have received less attention but are also likely to be a common component of public surveys, as well as many other data types. We derive estimators for dynamic occupancy parameters (extinction and colonization), focusing on the case where certainty can be assumed for a subset of detections. We demonstrate how to simultaneously account for non-detection (false negatives) and misclassification (false positives) when estimating occurrence parameters for gray wolves in northern Montana from 2007–2010. Our primary data source for the analysis was observations by deer and elk hunters, reported as part of the state’s annual hunter survey. This data was supplemented with data from known locations of radio-collared wolves. We found that occupancy was relatively stable during the years of the study and wolves were largely restricted to the highest quality habitats in the study area. Transitions in the occupancy status of sites were rare, as occupied sites almost always remained occupied and unoccupied sites remained unoccupied. Failing to account for false positives led to over estimation of both the area inhabited by wolves and the frequency of turnover. The ability to properly account for both false negatives and false positives is an important step to improve inferences for conservation from large-scale public surveys. The approach we propose will improve our understanding of the status of wolf populations and is relevant to many other data types where false positives are a component of observations. PMID:23840372

Miller, David A. W.; Nichols, James D.; Gude, Justin A.; Rich, Lindsey N.; Podruzny, Kevin M.; Hines, James E.; Mitchell, Michael S.

2013-01-01

327

Kriging without negative weights  

SciTech Connect

Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.

Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

1987-08-01

328

Negative tandem mirror  

SciTech Connect

A tandem mirror configuration can be created by combining hot electron end cell plasmas with neutral beam pumping. A region of large negative potential formed in each end cell confines electrons in the central cell. The requirement of charge neutrality causes the central cell potential to become negative with respect to ground in order to confine ions as well as electrons. We discuss the method of producing and calculating the desired axial potential profile, and show the calculated axial potential profile and plasma parameters for a negative configuration of TMX-Upgrade.

Poulsen, P.; Allen, S.L.; Casper, T.A.; Grubb, D.P.; Jong, R.A.; Nexsen, W.E.; Porter, G.D.; Simonen, T.C.

1981-11-30

329

On the apparent molar volumes of nonelectrolytes in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apparent molar volumes of aqueous solutions of argon and xenon have been calculated using a previously developed comprehensive equation of state for nonelectrolyte systems. The equation consists of a virial expansion truncated after the fourth virial coefficient and a closed-form term approximating higher coefficients. Mixing rules are based on the composition dependence of virial coefficients, which is known from statistical

Andrzej Anderko; John P. Chan; Kenneth S. Pitzer

1993-01-01

330

Apparently Ipsilateral Parkinsonism in a Patient with Chronic Subdural Hematoma  

PubMed Central

Symptomatic parkinsonism secondary to ipsilateral lesion is rarely reported. Although the contribution of the contralateral lesions was assumed in some cases, the pathomechanism remains undetermined. Herein we report a patient with a subdural hematoma, who developed parkinsonism in the ipsilateral hemibody. Structural and functional imaging suggests the contralateral dopaminergic dysfunction as the major culprit of apparently ipsilateral parkinsonism. PMID:24868408

Roh, Tae Hwan; Lee, Dokyung; Hong, Il Ki; Kim, Deog Yoon; Ahn, Tae-Beom

2012-01-01

331

An Apparent Paradox: Catt's Anomaly  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Catt's anomaly is a sort of "thought experiment" (a "gedankenexperiment") where electrons seem to travel at the speed of light. Although its author argued with conviction for many years, it has a clear and satisfactory solution and it can be considered indubitably just an apparent paradox. Nevertheless, it is curious and…

Pieraccini, M.; Selleri, S.

2013-01-01

332

Determination of apparent activation energy of concrete by isothermal calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent works at our laboratory, instrumentations have been developed to carry out calorimetric tests on concrete in isothermal conditions, which give much information. The objective of this article is, on the basis of this technique, to study the validity of the Arrhenius law and to determine the evolution of apparent activation energy of the concrete. This parameter is necessary

H. Kada-Benameur; E. Wirquin; B. Duthoit

2000-01-01

333

The Observers' Paradox: Apparent Computational Complexity in Physical Systems  

E-print Network

The Observers' Paradox: Apparent Computational Complexity in Physical Systems John F. Kolen to these descriptions and then argue that neither type can be an intrinsic property of the underlying physical system of physical phenomena, up to and including cognition. #12;The Observers' Paradox 3 The daily warmth we

Pollack, Jordan B.

334

The Observers' Paradox: Apparent Computational Complexity in Physical Systems  

E-print Network

The Observers' Paradox: Apparent Computational Complexity in Physical Systems John F. Kolen to these descriptions and then argue that neither type can be an intrinsic property of the underlying physical system of physical phenomena, up to and including cognition. #12; The Observers' Paradox 3 The daily warmth we

Pollack, Jordan B.

335

INTRODUCTION Unlike Earth, Venus apparently lacks plate tectonics. Thus  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTION Unlike Earth, Venus apparently lacks plate tectonics. Thus plumes may be an important at different scales has been attributed to plume or diapiric activ- ity on Venus. Examples of these include activity in the Beta-Atla-Themis region, Venus Audeliz Matias Donna M. Jurdy* Department of Geological

Jurdy, Donna M.

336

Apparent horizons in D-dimensional Robinson-Trautman spacetime  

SciTech Connect

We derive the higher dimensional generalization of Penrose-Tod equation describing apparent horizons in Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. New results concerning the existence and uniqueness of its solutions in four dimensions are proven. Namely, previous results of Tod [1] are generalized to nonvanishing cosmological constant.

Svitek, Otakar [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

2009-05-01

337

ANNUAL REPRODUCTION, DEPENDENCY PERIOD, AND APPARENT GESTATION PERIOD  

E-print Network

by Johnson and Jameson 3 indi- cates annual reproduction in at least some Prince William Sound sea ottersNOTES ANNUAL REPRODUCTION, DEPENDENCY PERIOD, AND APPARENT GESTATION PERIOD IN TWO CALIFORNIAN SEA the reproductive cycle included a 7.5 mo gestation period; Bara- bash-Nikiforov (1935) estimated an 8-9 mo gesta

338

Spatial Attention and Audiovisual Interactions in Apparent Motion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors combined the cross-modal dynamic capture task (involving the horizontal apparent movement of visual and auditory stimuli) with spatial cuing in the vertical dimension to investigate the role of spatial attention in cross-modal interactions during motion perception. Spatial attention was manipulated endogenously, either…

Sanabria, Daniel; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Spence, Charles

2007-01-01

339

APPARENT WATER OPTICAL PROPERTIES AT THE CARIBBEAN TIME SERIES STATION  

E-print Network

APPARENT WATER OPTICAL PROPERTIES AT THE CARIBBEAN TIME SERIES STATION Roy A. Armstrong, Jose M of Orinoco River water reaching the CaTS station. Multi-year time series recorded at CaTS depict seasonal of Puerto Rico Mayagüez, Puerto Rico 00681 ABSTRACT The Caribbean Time Series, located 28 nautical miles

Gilbes, Fernando

340

APPARENT DIFFUSION DUE TO MOUNTAIN MICROSTRUCTURE IN SHALLOW WATERS  

E-print Network

a small random component. In the sequel we refer to the transformation of the pulse, due to uctuations cause the propagating pulse to broaden as it travels. The so called apparent di#11;usion (or pulse realization. This is con#12;rmed numerically. Numerical experiments also show that the theory describing pulse

Solna, Knut

341

ASSESSING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF APPARENT CORRELATIONS BETWEEN RADIO AND GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR FLUXES  

SciTech Connect

Whether or not a correlation exists between the radio and gamma-ray flux densities of blazars is a long-standing question, and one that is difficult to answer confidently because of various observational biases, which may either dilute or apparently enhance any intrinsic correlation between radio and gamma-ray luminosities. We introduce a novel method of data randomization to evaluate quantitatively the effect of these biases and to assess the intrinsic significance of an apparent correlation between radio and gamma-ray flux densities of blazars. The novelty of the method lies in a combination of data randomization in luminosity space (to ensure that the randomized data are intrinsically, and not just apparently, uncorrelated) and significance assessment in flux space (to explicitly avoid Malmquist bias and automatically account for the limited dynamical range in both frequencies). The method is applicable even to small samples that are not selected with strict statistical criteria. For larger samples we describe a variation of the method in which the sample is split in redshift bins, and the randomization is applied in each bin individually; this variation is designed to yield the equivalent to luminosity-function sampling of the underlying population in the limit of very large, statistically complete samples. We show that for a smaller number of redshift bins, the method yields a worse significance, and in this way it is conservative: although it may fail to confirm an existing intrinsic correlation in a small sample that cannot be split into many redshift bins, it will not assign a stronger, artificially enhanced significance. We demonstrate how our test performs as a function of number of sources, strength of correlation, and number of redshift bins used, and we show that while our test is robust against common-distance biases and associated false positives for uncorrelated data, it retains the power of other methods in rejecting the null hypothesis of no correlation for correlated data.

Pavlidou, V.; Richards, J. L.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; King, O. G.; Pearson, T. J.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reeves, R.; Stevenson, M. A. [California Institute of Technology, Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Angelakis, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Zensus, J. A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn 53121 (Germany); Giroletti, M. [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, Bologna (Italy); Reimer, A. [Institut fuer Astro- und Teilchenphysik and Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leopold-Franzes-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innsbruck,Austria (Austria); Healey, S. E.; Romani, R. W.; Shaw, M. S. [Department of Physics/KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

2012-06-01

342

Distribution of extant populations of Quadrula mitchelli (false spike)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The False Spike, Quadrula mitchelli (Simpson 1896), is a rare species of mussel endemic to Central Texas and the Rio Grande drainage (Howells 2010). This species was thought to have been extinct until the discovery of several live individuals in the Guadalupe River and a fresh dead individual in the San Saba River in 2011 (Randklev et al. 2012; Randklev et al. in press). Since then, this species has been reported at several other locations within its historic range (Sowards et al. in press; Tsakiris and Randklev 2013; Mabe and Kennedy 2013). Here, we report on the current known distribution of this species.

Randklev, Charles R.; Tsakiris, Eric; Howells, Robert G.; Groce, Julie; Johnson, Matthew S.; Bergmann, Joseph; Robertson, Clint; Blair, Andy; Littrell, Brad; Johnson, Nathan

2013-01-01

343

No to negative data  

SciTech Connect

A frequent criticism in biology is that we don’t publish our negative data. As a result, the literature has become biased towards papers that favor specific hypotheses1. Some scientists have become so concerned about this trend that they have created journals dedicated to publishing negative results (e.g. the Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine). Personally, I don’t think they should bother. I say this because I believe negative results are not worth publishing. Rest assured that I do not include drug studies that show a lack of effectiveness towards a specific disease or condition. This type of finding is significant in a societal context, not a scientific one, and thus we all have a vested interest in seeing this type of result published. I am talking about a set of experimental results that fail to support a particular hypothesis. The problem with these types of negative results is that they don’t actually advance science. Science is a set of ideas that can be supported by observations. A negative result does not support any specific idea, but only tells you what isn’t right. Well, there are only a small number of potential hypotheses that are correct, but essentially an infinite number of ideas are not correct. I don’t want to waste my time reading a paper about what doesn’t happen, just about those things that do. I can remember a positive result because I can associate it with a specific concept. What do I do with a negative one? It is hard enough to following the current literature. A flood of negative results would make that task all but impossible

Wiley, H. S.

2008-04-01

344

Vers une rehabilitation des vitesses de groupe negatives?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By means of a fully temporal (non spectral) analysis, the conditions of propagation without distortion of a linear slowly varying pulse through an absorbing dispersive gas are carefully discussed. A special attention is paid to the apparent pulse advance related to negative group velocities and higher order corrections to the pulse shape are given.

Macke, Bruno

1984-04-01

345

Global parameter optimization for maximizing radioisotope detection probabilities at fixed false alarm rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today there is a tremendous amount of interest in systems that can detect radiological or nuclear threats. Many of these systems operate in extremely high throughput situations where delays caused by false alarms can have a significant negative impact. Thus, calculating the tradeoff between detection rates and false alarm rates is critical for their successful operation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have long been used to depict this tradeoff. The methodology was first developed in the field of signal detection. In recent years it has been used increasingly in machine learning and data mining applications. It follows that this methodology could be applied to radiological/nuclear threat detection systems. However many of these systems do not fit into the classic principles of statistical detection theory because they tend to lack tractable likelihood functions and have many parameters, which, in general, do not have a one-to-one correspondence with the detection classes. This work proposes a strategy to overcome these problems by empirically finding parameter values that maximize the probability of detection for a selected number of probabilities of false alarm. To find these parameter values a statistical global optimization technique that seeks to estimate portions of a ROC curve is proposed. The optimization combines elements of simulated annealing with elements of genetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms were chosen because they can reduce the risk of getting stuck in local minima. However classic genetic algorithms operate on arrays of Booleans values or bit strings, so simulated annealing is employed to perform mutation in the genetic algorithm. The presented initial results were generated using an isotope identification algorithm developed at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The algorithm has 12 parameters: 4 real-valued and 8 Boolean. A simulated dataset was used for the optimization study; the "threat" set of spectra contained 540 SNM and industrial signatures, and the "benign" set of spectra contained 240 NORM and medical signatures. As compared to a random parameter search, the statistical optimization was able to able to find parameters that yield significantly higher probabilities of detection for all probabilities of false alarm from 0 to 0.1 (and equal to for probabilities of false alarm greater than 0.1), in a relatively small number of iterations. The number of iterations used, 1000, is also many fewer than would be required for a reasonable systematic search of the parameter space.

Portnoy, David; Feuerbach, Robert; Heimberg, Jennifer

2011-10-01

346

ON THE LOW FALSE POSITIVE PROBABILITIES OF KEPLER PLANET CANDIDATES  

SciTech Connect

We present a framework to conservatively estimate the probability that any particular planet-like transit signal observed by the Kepler mission is in fact a planet, prior to any ground-based follow-up efforts. We use Monte Carlo methods based on stellar population synthesis and Galactic structure models, and report false positive probabilities (FPPs) for every Kepler Object of Interest, assuming a 20% intrinsic occurrence rate of close-in planets in the radius range 0.5 R{sub +} < R{sub p} < 20 R{sub +}. Nearly 90% of the 1235 candidates have FPP <10%, and over half have FPP <5%. This probability varies with the magnitude and Galactic latitude of the target star, and with the depth of the transit signal-deeper signals generally have higher FPPs than shallower signals. We establish that a single deep high-resolution image will be an effective follow-up tool for the shallowest (Earth-sized) transits, providing the quickest route toward probabilistically validating the smallest candidates by potentially decreasing the FPP of an Earth-sized transit around a faint star from >10% to <1%. Since Kepler has detected many more planetary signals than can be positively confirmed with ground-based follow-up efforts in the near term, these calculations will be crucial to using the ensemble of Kepler data to determine population characteristics of planetary systems. We also describe how our analysis complements the Kepler team's more detailed BLENDER false positive analysis for planet validation.

Morton, Timothy D.; Johnson, John Asher, E-mail: tdm@astro.caltech.edu, E-mail: johnjohn@astro.caltech.edu [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

2011-09-10

347

Estimating False Discovery Proportion Under Arbitrary Covariance Dependence*  

PubMed Central

Multiple hypothesis testing is a fundamental problem in high dimensional inference, with wide applications in many scientific fields. In genome-wide association studies, tens of thousands of tests are performed simultaneously to find if any SNPs are associated with some traits and those tests are correlated. When test statistics are correlated, false discovery control becomes very challenging under arbitrary dependence. In the current paper, we propose a novel method based on principal factor approximation, which successfully subtracts the common dependence and weakens significantly the correlation structure, to deal with an arbitrary dependence structure. We derive an approximate expression for false discovery proportion (FDP) in large scale multiple testing when a common threshold is used and provide a consistent estimate of realized FDP. This result has important applications in controlling FDR and FDP. Our estimate of realized FDP compares favorably with Efron (2007)’s approach, as demonstrated in the simulated examples. Our approach is further illustrated by some real data applications. We also propose a dependence-adjusted procedure, which is more powerful than the fixed threshold procedure. PMID:24729644

Fan, Jianqing; Han, Xu; Gu, Weijie

2012-01-01

348

A unified approach to false discovery rate estimation  

PubMed Central

Background False discovery rate (FDR) methods play an important role in analyzing high-dimensional data. There are two types of FDR, tail area-based FDR and local FDR, as well as numerous statistical algorithms for estimating or controlling FDR. These differ in terms of underlying test statistics and procedures employed for statistical learning. Results A unifying algorithm for simultaneous estimation of both local FDR and tail area-based FDR is presented that can be applied to a diverse range of test statistics, including p-values, correlations, z- and t-scores. This approach is semipararametric and is based on a modified Grenander density estimator. For test statistics other than p-values it allows for empirical null modeling, so that dependencies among tests can be taken into account. The inference of the underlying model employs truncated maximum-likelihood estimation, with the cut-off point chosen according to the false non-discovery rate. Conclusion The proposed procedure generalizes a number of more specialized algorithms and thus offers a common framework for FDR estimation consistent across test statistics and types of FDR. In comparative study the unified approach performs on par with the best competing yet more specialized alternatives. The algorithm is implemented in R in the "fdrtool" package, available under the GNU GPL from and from the R package archive CRAN. PMID:18613966

Strimmer, Korbinian

2008-01-01

349

Local false discovery rate facilitates comparison of different microarray experiments.  

PubMed

The local false discovery rate (LFDR) estimates the probability of falsely identifying specific genes with changes in expression. In computer simulations, LFDR <10% successfully identified genes with changes in expression, while LFDR >90% identified genes without changes. We used LFDR to compare different microarray experiments quantitatively: (i) Venn diagrams of genes with and without changes in expression, (ii) scatter plots of the genes, (iii) correlation coefficients in the scatter plots and (iv) distributions of gene function. To illustrate, we compared three methods for pre-processing microarray data. Correlations between methods were high (r = 0.84-0.92). However, responses were often different in magnitude, and sometimes discordant, even though the methods used the same raw data. LFDR complements functional assessments like gene set enrichment analysis. To illustrate, we compared responses to ultraviolet radiation (UV), ionizing radiation (IR) and tobacco smoke. Compared to unresponsive genes, genes responsive to both UV and IR were enriched for cell cycle, mitosis, and DNA repair functions. Genes responsive to UV but not IR were depleted for cell adhesion functions. Genes responsive to tobacco smoke were enriched for detoxification functions. Thus, LFDR reveals differences and similarities among experiments. PMID:19825981

Hong, Wan-Jen; Tibshirani, Robert; Chu, Gilbert

2009-12-01

350

View of 'Cape St. Mary' from 'Cape Verde' (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a promontory called 'Cape St. Mary' from the from the vantage point of 'Cape Verde,' the next promontory counterclockwise around the crater's deeply scalloped rim. This view of Cape St. Mary combines several exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera into a false-color mosaic. Contrast has been adjusted to improve the visibility of details in shaded areas.

The upper portion of the crater wall contains a jumble of material tossed outward by the impact that excavated the crater. This vertical cross-section through the blanket of ejected material surrounding the crater was exposed by erosion that expanded the crater outward from its original diameter, according to scientists' interpretation of the observations. Below the jumbled material in the upper part of the wall are layers that survive relatively intact from before the crater-causing impact. Near the base of the Cape St. Mary cliff are layers with a pattern called 'crossbedding,' intersecting with each other at angles, rather than parallel to each other. Large-scale crossbedding can result from material being deposited as wind-blown dunes.

The images combined into this mosaic were taken during the 970th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Oct. 16, 2006). The panoramic camera took them through the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters. The false color enhances subtle color differences among materials in the rocks and soils of the scene.

2006-01-01

351

Digital Camera Identification from Images - Estimating False Acceptance Probability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photo-response non-uniformity noise present in output signals of CCD and CMOS sensors has been used as fingerprint to uniquely identify the source digital camera that took the image. The same fingerprint can establish a link between images according to their common source. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art identification method and discuss its practical issues. In the camera identification task, when formulated as a binary hypothesis test, a decision threshold is set on correlation between image noise and modulated fingerprint. The threshold determines the probability of two kinds of possible errors: false acceptance and missed detection. We will focus on estimation of the false acceptance probability that we wish to keep very low. A straightforward approach involves testing a large number of different camera fingerprints against one image or one camera fingerprint against many images from different sources. Such sampling of the correlation probability distribution is time consuming and expensive while extrapolation of the tails of the distribution is still not reliable. A novel approach is based on cross-correlation analysis and peak-to-correlation-energy ratio.

Goljan, Miroslav

352

False positivity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase measurement in urine.  

PubMed

Although enzymuria tends to be associated to renal injury, there are no studies that have evaluated the presence of the enzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) spectrophotometry in the urine using a non-nephrotoxic agent (Nerium oleander) in order to evaluate the possibility of false positive results. The urinary GGT/urinary creatinine concentration ratio (uGGT/uCr) of 10 healthy dogs was calculated and posteriorly confronted with data from clinical evaluation, hematological and serum biochemical profiles, creatinine clearance (CrC), urinalysis, urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPC), electrocardiogram, systemic blood pressure (SBP) and light and electron microscopy. The results for kidney histology, SBP, UPC and CrC were not significantly different in any of the time-points analyzed. However, uGGT/uCr was significantly higher when measured 4 hours and 24 hours after administration of N. oleander. The measurement of the urinary GGT enzyme, as performed in many studies, yielded false positive results in dogs poisoned by a non-nephrotoxic agent. PMID:24456228

Crivellenti, Leandro Zuccolotto; Mesa, Javier Sousa; Meirelles, Adriana Érica Wilkes Burton; Borin Crivellenti, Sofia; Mireya, Edna Gomes; Canola, Julio Carlos; Hatayde, Mário Roberto; Santana, Aureo Evangelista; Dantas, Márcio; Silva, Gyl Eanes Barros

2014-05-01

353

Residency, Habitat Use and Sexual Segregation of White Sharks, Carcharodon carcharias in False Bay, South Africa  

PubMed Central

White sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are threatened apex predators and identification of their critical habitats and how these are used are essential to ensuring improved local and ultimately global white shark protection. In this study we investigated habitat use by white sharks in False Bay, South Africa, using acoustic telemetry. 56 sharks (39 female, 17 male), ranging in size from 1.7–5 m TL, were tagged with acoustic transmitters and monitored on an array of 30 receivers for 975 days. To investigate the effects of season, sex and size on habitat use we used a generalized linear mixed effects model. Tagged sharks were detected in the Bay in all months and across all years, but their use of the Bay varied significantly with the season and the sex of the shark. In autumn and winter males and females aggregated around the Cape fur seal colony at Seal Island, where they fed predominantly on young of the year seals. In spring and summer there was marked sexual segregation, with females frequenting the Inshore areas and males seldom being detected. The shift from the Island in autumn and winter to the Inshore region in spring and summer by females mirrors the seasonal peak in abundance of juvenile seals and of migratory teleost and elasmobranch species respectively. This study provides the first evidence of sexual segregation at a fine spatial scale and demonstrates that sexual segregation in white sharks is not restricted to adults, but is apparent for juveniles and sub-adults too. Overall, the results confirm False Bay as a critical area for white shark conservation as both sexes, across a range of sizes, frequent the Bay on an annual basis. The finding that female sharks aggregate in the Inshore regions when recreational use peaks highlights the need for ongoing shark-human conflict mitigation strategies. PMID:23383052

Kock, Alison; O'Riain, M. Justin; Mauff, Katya; Meyer, Michael; Kotze, Deon; Griffiths, Charles

2013-01-01

354

Occurrence of False-Positive Most Probable Number Tests for Fecal Streptococci in Marine Waters1  

PubMed Central

By the use of the most probable number technique with azide dextrose and ethyl violet azide broths for enterococci, the common occurrence of false-positive tests was noted when marine and estuarine waters were sampled. Organisms isolated included a marine bacterium, gram-positive and gram-negative nonmarine bacteria, and yeasts. All cultures were capable of growth in azide-dextrose, ethyl violet-azide, and KF broths. Representative isolates grew in media containing 0.08% NaN3. The tentatively accepted most probable number method for fecal streptococci is thus of dubious value in assessment of sewage pollution levels in estuarine waters. All positive tubes must be examined microscopically for the presence of nonstreptococcal forms. PMID:4983956

Buck, John D.

1969-01-01

355

Prenatal Ultrasound Screening: False Positive Soft Markers May Alter Maternal Representations and Mother-Infant Interaction  

PubMed Central

Background In up to 5% of pregnancies, ultrasound screening detects a “soft marker” (SM) that places the foetus at risk for a severe abnormality. In most cases, prenatal diagnostic work-up rules out a severe defect. We aimed to study the effects of false positive SM on maternal emotional status, maternal representations of the infant, and mother-infant interaction. Methodology and Principal Findings Utilizing an extreme-case prospective case control design, we selected from a group of 244 women undergoing ultrasound, 19 pregnant women whose foetus had a positive SM screening and a reassuring diagnostic work up, and 19 controls without SM matched for age and education. In the third trimester of pregnancy, within one week after delivery, and 2 months postpartum, we assessed anxiety, depression, and maternal representations. Mother-infant interactions were videotaped during feeding within one week after delivery and again at 2 months postpartum and coded blindly using the Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB) scales. Anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher at all assessment points in the SM group. Maternal representations were also different between SM and control groups at all study time. Perturbations to early mother-infant interactions were observed in the SM group. These dyads showed greater dysregulation, lower maternal sensitivity, higher maternal intrusive behaviour and higher infant avoidance. Multivariate analysis showed that maternal representation and depression at third trimester predicted mother-infant interaction. Conclusion False positive ultrasound screenings for SM are not benign and negatively affect the developing maternal-infant attachment. Medical efforts should be directed to minimize as much as possible such false diagnoses, and to limit their psychological adverse consequences. PMID:22292077

Viaux-Savelon, Sylvie; Dommergues, Marc; Rosenblum, Ouriel; Bodeau, Nicolas; Aidane, Elizabeth; Philippon, Odile; Mazet, Philippe; Vibert-Guigue, Claude; Vauthier-Brouzes, Daniele; Feldman, Ruth; Cohen, David

2012-01-01

356

28 CFR 2.30 - False information or new criminal conduct: Discovery after release.  

...2014-07-01 false False information or new criminal conduct: Discovery after release. 2.30 Section 2.30...Parolees § 2.30 False information or new criminal conduct: Discovery after release. If evidence...

2014-07-01

357

25 CFR 700.541 - Fraud or false statement in a Government matter.  

...false Fraud or false statement in a Government matter. 700.541 Section 700.541 Indians ...541 Fraud or false statement in a Government matter. “Whoever, in any matter within the jurisdiction of any department or...

2014-04-01

358

75 FR 34448 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on False or Misleading Pesticide Product...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...on False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY...False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' This document extends the comment...False or Misleading Pesticide Product Brand Names.'' EPA is hereby extending...

2010-06-17

359

47 CFR 80.335 - Procedures for canceling false distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... false Procedures for canceling false distress alerts. 80.335 Section 80.335 Telecommunication...335 Procedures for canceling false distress alerts. If a distress alert is inadvertently transmitted, the following...

2012-10-01

360

47 CFR 80.335 - Procedures for canceling false distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... false Procedures for canceling false distress alerts. 80.335 Section 80.335 Telecommunication...335 Procedures for canceling false distress alerts. If a distress alert is inadvertently transmitted, the following...

2011-10-01

361

47 CFR 80.335 - Procedures for canceling false distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Procedures for canceling false distress alerts. 80.335 Section 80.335 Telecommunication...335 Procedures for canceling false distress alerts. If a distress alert is inadvertently transmitted, the following...

2010-10-01

362

47 CFR 80.335 - Procedures for canceling false distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false Procedures for canceling false distress alerts. 80.335 Section 80.335 Telecommunication...335 Procedures for canceling false distress alerts. If a distress alert is inadvertently transmitted, the following...

2013-10-01

363

On the apparent molar volumes of nonelectrolytes in water  

SciTech Connect

Apparent molar volumes of aqueous solutions of argon and xenon have been calculated using a previously developed comprehensive equation of state for nonelectrolyte systems. The equation consists of a virial expansion truncated after the fourth virial coefficient and a closed-form term approximating higher coefficients. Mixing rules are based on the composition dependence of virial coefficients, which is known from statistical mechanics. The equation accurately represents vapor-liquid and gas-gas equilibria for the Ar + H[sub 2]O and Xe + H[sub 2]O systems over wide ranges of pressure and temperature using two binary parameters. With the binary parameters determined from phase equilibrium data, the equation accurately predicts apparent molar volumes V[sub [phi

Anderko, A.; Chan, J.P.; Pitzer, K.S. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States))

1993-04-01

364

The Apparent Velocity and Acceleration of Relativistically Moving Objects  

E-print Network

Although special relativity limits the actual velocity of a particle to $c$, the velocity of light, the observed velocity need not be the same as the actual velocity as the observer is only aware of the position of a particle at the time in the past when it emits the detected signal. We consider the apparent speed and acceleration of a particle in two cases, one when the particle is moving with a constant speed and the other when it is moving with a constant acceleration. One curious feature of our results is that in both cases, if the actual velocity of the particle approaches $c$, then the apparent velocity approaches infinity when it is moving toward the observer and $c/2$ when it is moving away from the observer.

Austen Berlet; Dennis G. C. McKeon; Farrukh Chishtie; Martin Houde

2011-02-22

365

Estimating Phosphorus Concentrations Following Alum Treatment Using Apparent Settling Velocity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent settling velocity (Vs) is a term used in empirical, steady-state, mass-balance lake models to represent the net phosphorus flux from the water column. The Vollenweider (1969) mixed-reactor lake model was rearranged and used to calculate Vs values for total phosphorus (TP) for three lakes treated with alum to reduce the internal flux of P to the water column

John C. Panuska; Dale M. Robertson

1999-01-01

366

Characterizing soil spatial variability with apparent soil electrical conductivity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatial characterization of the variability of soil physico-chemical properties is a fundamental element of (i) soil quality assessment, (ii) modeling non-point source pollutants in soil, and (iii) site-specific crop management. Apparent soil electrical conductivity (ECa) is a quick, reliable measurement that is frequently used for the spatio-temporal characterization of edaphic (e.g., salinity, water content, texture, and bulk density) and anthropogenic

D. L. Corwin; S. M. Lesch

2005-01-01

367

Increase in Apparent Compressibility of Cytochrome c upon Oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent molal adiabatic compressibilities of ferri- and ferrocytochrome c have been determined from measurements of density and sound velocity. The values found were +2.99× 10-8 and -2.40× 10-8 cm5 mol-1 dyne-1 for the ferri and ferro forms, respectively. Experiments were performed on identical solutions containing either the oxidized or reduced form of the protein. Solutions of ferricytochrome c were

Don Eden; James B. Matthew; Joseph J. Rosa; Frederic M. Richards

1982-01-01

368

APPARENT BOTTOM FEEDING BY HUMPBACK WHALES ON STELLWAGEN BANK  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, on Stellwagen Bank off eastern Massachusetts, U.S.A., apparently bottom feed on northern sand lance, Am- modytes,dubius. The feeding,behavior,is characterized,by,the whales,brushing the bottom in depths of less than 40 m, causing sand lance burrowed in the bottom,to be flushed,up into the water,column.,The greatest densities of sand lance were in beds of shells and shell debris, termed

James H. W. Hain; Sara L. Ellis; Robert D. Kenney; Phillip J. Clapham; Belinda K. Gray; Mason T. Weinrich; Ivar G. Babb

1995-01-01

369

Ghosts as Negative Spinors  

E-print Network

We study the the properties of a BRST ghost degree of freedom complementary to a two-state spinor. We show that the ghost may be regarded as a unit carrier of negative entropy. We construct an irreducible representation of the su(2) Lie algebra with negative spin, equal to -1/2, on the ghost state space and discuss the representation of finite SU(2) group elements. The Casimir operator J^2 of the combined spinor-ghost system is nilpotent and coincides with the BRST operator Q. Using this, we discuss the sense in which the positive and negative spin representations cancel in the product to give an effectively trivial representation. We compute an effective dimension, equal to 1/2, and character for the ghost representation and argue that these are consistent with this cancellation.

Andre van Tonder

2002-07-11

370

Ethanol effects on apparent solubility of poorly soluble drugs in simulated intestinal fluid.  

PubMed

Ethanol intake can lead to an unexpected and possibly problematic increase in the bioavailability of druglike compounds. In this work we investigated the effect of ethanol on the apparent solubility and dissolution rate of poorly soluble compounds in simulated intestinal fluid representing a preprandial state. A series of 22 structurally diverse, poorly soluble compounds were measured for apparent solubility and intrinsic dissolution rate (37 °C) in phosphate buffer pH 6.5 (PhB6.5) and fasted state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF, pH 6.5) with and without ethanol at 5% v/v or 20% v/v. The obtained data were used to understand for which molecules ethanol results in an increased apparent solubility and, therefore, may increase the amount of drug absorbed. In FaSSIF20%ethanol 59% of the compounds displayed >3-fold higher apparent solubility than in pure FaSSIF, whereas the effects of 5% ethanol on solubility, in most cases, were negligible. Acidic and neutral compounds were more solubilized by the addition of ethanol than by lecithin/taurocholate aggregates, whereas bases showed a more substance-specific response to the additives in the buffer. The stronger solubilizing capacity of ethanol as compared to the mixed lipid aggregates in FaSSIF was further identified through Spearman rank analyses, which showed a stronger relationship between FaSSIF20%ethanol and PhB6.5,20%ethanol (rS of 0.97) than FaSSIF20%ethanol and FaSSIF (rS of 0.86). No relationships were found between solubility changes in media containing ethanol and single physicochemical properties, but multivariate data analysis showed that inclusion of ethanol significantly reduced the negative effect of compound lipophilicity on solubility. For this data set the higher concentration of ethanol gave a dose number (Do) <1 for 30% of the compounds that showed incomplete dissolution in FaSSIF. Significant differences were shown in the melting point, lipophilicity, and dose profiles between the compounds having a Do < 1 and Do > 1, with the latter having higher absolute values in all three parameters. In conclusion, this study showed that significant effects of ethanol on apparent solubility in the preprandial state can be expected for lipophilic compounds. The results herein indicate that acidic and neutral compounds are more sensitive to the addition of ethanol than to the mixed lipid aggregates present in the fasted intestine. PMID:22651218

Fagerberg, Jonas H; Al-Tikriti, Yassir; Ragnarsson, Gert; Bergström, Christel A S

2012-07-01

371

Rover's Wheel Churns Up Bright Martian Soil (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this mosaic on the mission's 1,202nd Martian day, or sol (May 21, 2007), while investigating the area east of the elevated plateau known as 'Home Plate' in the 'Columbia Hills.' The mosaic shows an area of disturbed soil, nicknamed 'Gertrude Weise' by scientists, made by Spirit's stuck right front wheel.

The trench exposed a patch of nearly pure silica, with the composition of opal. It could have come from either a hot-spring environment or an environment called a fumarole, in which acidic, volcanic steam rises through cracks. Either way, its formation involved water, and on Earth, both of these types of settings teem with microbial life.

The image is presented here in false color that is used to bring out subtle differences in color.

2009-01-01

372

Layers of 'Cabo Frio' in 'Victoria Crater' (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view of 'Victoria crater' is looking southeast from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cabo Frio.' The small crater in the right foreground, informally known as 'Sputnik,' is about 20 meters (about 65 feet) away from the rover, the tip of the spectacular, layered, Cabo Frio promontory itself is about 200 meters (about 650 feet) away from the rover, and the exposed rock layers are about 15 meters (about 50 feet) tall. This is an enhanced false color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

2006-01-01

373

False-positive tangible outcomes of functional analyses.  

PubMed

Functional analysis (FA) methodology is the most precise method for identifying variables that maintain problem behavior. Occasionally, however, results of an FA may be influenced by idiosyncratic sensitivity to aspects of the assessment conditions. For example, data from several studies suggest that inclusion of a tangible condition during an FA may be prone to a false-positive outcome, although the extent to which tangible reinforcement routinely produces such outcomes is unknown. We examined susceptibility to tangible reinforcement by determining whether a new response was acquired more readily when exposed to a tangible contingency relative to others commonly used in an FA (Study 1), and whether problem behavior known not to have a social function nevertheless emerged when exposed to tangible reinforcement (Study 2). Results indicated that inclusion of items in the tangible condition should be done with care and that selection should be based on those items typically found in the individual's environment. PMID:22219526

Rooker, Griffin W; Iwata, Brian A; Harper, Jill M; Fahmie, Tara A; Camp, Erin M

2011-01-01

374

Dynamics of false vacuum bubbles: beyond the thin shell approximation  

E-print Network

We numerically study the dynamics of false vacuum bubbles which are inside an almost flat background; we assumed spherical symmetry and the size of the bubble is smaller than the size of the background horizon. According to the thin shell approximation and the null energy condition, if the bubble is outside of a Schwarzschild black hole, unless we assume Farhi-Guth-Guven tunneling, expanding and inflating solutions are impossible. In this paper, we extend our method to beyond the thin shell approximation: we include the dynamics of fields and assume that the transition layer between a true vacuum and a false vacuum has non-zero thickness. If a shell has sufficiently low energy, as expected from the thin shell approximation, it collapses (Type 1). However, if the shell has sufficiently large energy, it tends to expand. Here, via the field dynamics, field values of inside of the shell slowly roll down to the true vacuum and hence the shell does not inflate (Type 2). If we add sufficient exotic matters to regularize the curvature near the shell, inflation may be possible without assuming Farhi-Guth-Guven tunneling. In this case, a wormhole is dynamically generated around the shell (Type 3). By tuning our simulation parameters, we could find transitions between Type 1 and Type 2, as well as between Type 2 and Type 3. Between Type 2 and Type 3, we could find another class of solutions (Type 4). Finally, we discuss the generation of a bubble universe and the violation of unitarity. We conclude that the existence of a certain combination of exotic matter fields violates unitarity.

Jakob Hansen; Dong-il Hwang; Dong-han Yeom

2009-08-03

375

[Munchhausen syndrome by proxy revealed by falsely toxic methotrexate levels].  

PubMed

Methotrexate is an antifolate drug used intravenously at high-dose in acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). Therapeutic drug monitoring is required to identify patients at risk of developing toxicity and to control folinic acid rescue. We report a case of Münchausen syndrome by proxy revealed by high and persistent falsely toxic methotrexate plasmatic levels. A 12?year-old child was treated with chemotherapy including methotrexate every 70?days for an ALL. The last methotrexate plasmatic level was 0.15??mol/L at the 72th hour of the infusion. Then, he was treated by oral rout low-dose methotrexate. Ten days after methotrexate infusion, the patient consulted for asthenia, vomiting and presented a mucositis. Methotrexate plasmatic level was 2323??mol/L. Renal function was normal. All drugs' intake was stopped. Folinic acid rescue was instituted. Even though there was no clinical sign of toxicity, therapeutic drug monitoring showed persistent high methotrexate plasmatic levels. Investigations eliminated measurement errors and pharmacokinetic problems. A deliberate methotrexate addition in each child blood sample brought by the mother was highly suspected. We confirmed this hypothesis by measuring methotrexate plasmatic levels in three samples: one brought by the mother, the second brought by the child's doctor and the last collected in our laboratory. Methotrexate plasmatic levels were respectively over 10,000??mol/L (first sample) and lower than 0.02??mol/L (the two others). The diagnosis of Munchausen's syndrome by proxy revealed by falsely toxic methotrexate plasmatic levels was made and the mother was addressed to the psychiatric department. PMID:22484536

Charfi, Rim; Trabelsi, Sameh; Salouage, Issam; Gaïes, Emna; Jebabli, Nadia; Lakhal, Mohamed; Klouz, Anis

2012-01-01

376

Negative corona ‘tufts’  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although the formation of bright spots (‘tufts’, ‘beads’) by negative wire corona is known, images of this phenomenon are not available in the literature. The images presented in this paper show that there are mechanisms that result in the formation of regular structures from negative corona ‘tufts’. Though ‘tufts’ of different intensity can co-exist, they ‘prefer’ neighbors of the same intensity. When the current density per unit of wire length is high, the ‘tufts’ ‘repel’ each other, and the brighter these ‘tufts’ are, the stronger this ‘repulsion’.

Gutsol, Alexander F.; Pyle, Walter R.

2014-10-01

377

Positive About Negative Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is devoted to the mathematical topic of negative numbers and provides a series of primary resources designed to familiarize children with the notion of counting on either side of a central point. The article presents that the activities listed should be played sequentially to build precursory ideas in understanding negative numbers. All the games discussed in the article are linked on the page and have been cataloged separately: Incy Wincy Spider, Tug of War, Swimming Pool, Tug Harder, First Connect Three and lastly Sea Level.

Woodham, Liz

2011-01-01

378

Measuring the apparent phase speed of propagating EUV disturbances  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Propagating disturbances of the EUV emission intensity are commonly observed over a variety of coronal structures. Parameters of these disturbances, particularly the observed apparent (image-plane projected) propagation speed, are important tools for MHD coronal seismology. Aims: We design and test tools to reliably measure the apparent phase speed of propagating disturbances in imaging data sets. Methods: We designed cross-fitting technique (CFT), 2D coupled fitting (DCF) and best similarity match (BSM) to measure the apparent phase speed of propagating EUV disturbances in the running differences of time-distance plots (R) and background-removed and normalised time-distance plots (D). Results: The methods were applied to the analysis of quasi-periodic EUV disturbances propagating at a coronal fan-structure of active region NOAA11330 on 27 Oct. 2011, observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on SDO in the 171 Å bandpass. The noise propagation in the AIA image processing was estimated, resulting in the preliminary estimation of the uncertainties in the AIA image flux. This information was used in measuring the apparent phase speed of the propagating disturbances with the CFT, DCF and BSM methods, which gave consistent results. The average projected speed is measured at 47.6 ± 0.6 km s-1 and 49.0 ± 0.7 km s-1 for R and D, with the corresponding periods at 179.7 ± 0.2 s and 179.7 ± 0.3 s, respectively. We analysed the effects of the lag time and the detrending time in the running difference processing and the background-removed plot, on the measurement of the speed, and found that they are fairly weak. Conclusions: The CFT, DCF and BSM methods are found to be reliable techniques for measuring the apparent (projected) phase speed. The samples of larger effective spatial length are more suitable for these methods. Time-distance plots with background removal and normalisation allow for more robust measurements, with little effect of the choice of the detrending time. Cross-fitting technique provides reliable measurements on good samples (e.g. samples with large effective detection length and recurring features). 2D coupled-fitting is found to be sensitive to the initial guess for parameters of the 2D fitting function. Thus DCF is only optimised in measuring one of the parameters (the phase speed in our application), while the period is poorly measured. Best similarity measure is robust for all types of samples and very tolerant to image pre-processing and regularisation (smoothing).

Yuan, D.; Nakariakov, V. M.

2012-07-01

379

Further Evidence for Nonspecificity of Theory of Mind in Preschoolers: Training and Transferability in the Understanding of False Beliefs and False Signs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a training study, the authors addressed whether or not preschoolers' difficulty with false belief is due to a domain-specific problem with mental states. Following Slaughter's (1998) design, 57 children who failed a false-belief (FB) pretest received two sessions of training on either an FB, false sign (FS), or control task. All children were…

Iao, Lai-Sang; Leekam, Susan; Perner, Josef; McConachie, Helen

2011-01-01

380

The Role of the Counterfactually Satisfied Desire in the Lag between False-Belief and False-Emotion Attributions in Children Aged 4-7  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A robust lag was evidenced between the attribution to an individual of a false belief about the world and the attribution of the false emotion associated with this false belief (Bradmetz & Schneider, 1999). This lag was unexpected in the frame of current theories of mind which consider that emotion has a rational cognitive basis. The present paper…

Bradmetz, Joel; Schneider, Roland

2004-01-01

381

False positives in multiplex PCR-based next-generation sequencing have unique signatures.  

PubMed

Next-generation sequencing shows great promise by allowing rapid mutational analysis of multiple genes in human cancers. Recently, we implemented the multiplex PCR-based Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel (>200 amplicons in 50 genes) to evaluate EGFR, KRAS, and BRAF in lung and colorectal adenocarcinomas. In 10% of samples, automated analysis identified a novel G873R substitution mutation in EGFR. By examining reads individually, we found this mutation in >5% of reads in 50 of 291 samples and also found similar events in 18 additional amplicons. These apparent mutations are present only in short reads and within 10 bases of either end of the read. We therefore hypothesized that these were from panel primers promiscuously binding to nearly complementary sequences of nontargeted amplicons. Sequences around the mutations matched primer binding sites in the panel in 18 of 19 cases, thus likely corresponding to panel primers. Furthermore, because most primers did not show this effect, we demonstrated that next-generation sequencing may be used to better design multiplex PCR primers through iterative elimination of offending primers to minimize mispriming. Our results indicate the need for careful sequence analysis to avoid false-positive mutations that can arise in multiplex PCR panels. The AmpliSeq Cancer panel is a valuable tool for clinical diagnostics, provided awareness of potential artifacts. PMID:25017478

McCall, Chad M; Mosier, Stacy; Thiess, Michele; Debeljak, Marija; Pallavajjala, Aparna; Beierl, Katie; Deak, Kristen L; Datto, Michael B; Gocke, Christopher D; Lin, Ming-Tseh; Eshleman, James R

2014-09-01

382

Negative Transportation in French.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

There is a class of verbs in French which require that their complement verb be in the indicative. However, if the matrix clause contains a negative or an interrogative, the complement verb is usually in the subjunctive, but sometimes in the indicative. Examples are the verbs "penser" and "croire" in sentences such as: 1) Elle ne croit pas que…

Prince, Ellen F.

383

Negative Mass Propulsion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Schrödinger's analysis of the Dirac equation gives a hint for the existence of negative masses hidden behind positive masses. But their use for propulsion by reducing the inertia of matter for example, in the limit of macroscopic bodied with zero rest mass, depends on a technical solution to free them from their imprisonment by positive masses. It appears that there are basically two ways this might be achieved: 1. By the application of strong electromagnetic or gravitational fields or by high particle energies. 2. By searching for places in the universe where nature has already done this separation, and from where the negative masses can be mined. The first of these two possibilities is for all practical means excluded, because if possible at all, it would depend on electromagnetic or gravitational fields with strength beyond what is technically attainable, or on extremely large likewise not attainable particle energies. With regard to the 2nd possibility, it has been observed that non-baryonic cold dark matter tends to accumulate near the center of galaxies, or places in the universe which have a large gravitational potential well. Because of the equivalence principle of general relativity, the attraction towards the center of a gravitational potential well, produced by a positive mass, is for negative masses the same as for positive masses, and large amounts of negative masses might have over billions of years been trapped in these gravitational potential wells. Now it just happens that the center of the moon is a potential well, not too deep that it cannot be reached by making a tunnel through the moon, not possible for the deeper potential well of the earth, where the temperature and pressure are too high. Making a tunnel through the moon, provided there is a good supply of negative mass, could revolutionize interstellar space flight. A sequence of thermonuclear shape charges would make such tunnel technically feasible.

Winterberg, F.

384

A clinically novel AIP mutation in a patient with a very large, apparently sporadic somatotrope adenoma  

PubMed Central

Summary Heterozygous germline inactivating mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein (AIP) gene lead to pituitary adenomas that most frequently present in the setting of familial isolated pituitary adenoma syndrome, usually as somatotropinomas and prolactinomas. More recently, they have been found in a significant percentage of young patients presenting with pituitary macroadenoma without any apparent family history. We describe the case of a 19-year-old man who presented with a gigantic somatotropinoma. His family history was negative. His peripheral DNA showed a heterozygous AIP mutation (p.I13N), while tumor tissue only had the mutated allele, showing loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and suggesting that the mutation caused the disease. Learning points AIP mutations may be observed in sporadic somatotrope adenomas occurring in young patients.LOH is a strong indicator that an AIP variant is disease causing.Somatotrope adenomas in carriers of AIP mutations are generally larger and more difficult to cure. PMID:25136448

Daly, Adrian F; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Thiry, Albert; Beckers, Albert

2014-01-01

385

Line tension and reduction of apparent contact angle associated with electric double layers  

E-print Network

The line tension of an electrolyte wetting a non-polar substrate is computed analytically and numerically. The results show that, depending on the value of the apparent contact angle, positive or negative line tension values may be obtained. Furthermore, a significant difference between Young's contact angle and the apparent contact angle measured several Debye lengths remote from the three-phase contact line occurs. When applying the results to water wetting highly charged surfaces, line tension values of the same order of magnitude as found in recent experiments can be achieved. Therefore, the theory presented may contribute to the understanding of line tension measurements and points to the importance of the electrostatic line tension. Being strongly dependent on the interfacial charge density, electrostatic line tension is found to be tunable via the pH value of the involved electrolyte. As a practical consequence, the stability of nanoparticles adsorbed at fluid-fluid interfaces is predicted to be dependent on the pH value. The theory is suited for future incorporation of effects due to surfactants where even larger line tension values can be expected.

Aaron Dörr; Steffen Hardt

2014-11-05

386

Acute appendicitis due to Cytomegalovirus in an apparently immunocompetent patient: a case report  

PubMed Central

Introduction In healthy subjects, Cytomegalovirus infection can be asymptomatic or manifest as mononucleosis syndrome, but organ disease has also been reported. However, in immunocompromised patients this infection can lead to its most significant and severe disease and even mortality. When Cytomegalovirus causes a gastrointestinal tract infection, it more commonly manifests with luminal tract disease and is usually characterized by ulcerative lesions. Appendicitis is a rare manifestation, and has been reported mainly in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients or patients with other causes of immunocompromise. Case presentation The authors report on a case of acute primary Cytomegalovirus infection complicated with acute appendicitis due to Cytomegalovirus in an apparently immunocompetent 24-year-old Caucasian man also suffering from primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis. Diagnosis was based on clinical manifestations, serology results, as well as microbiological and histological findings. Treatment consisted of surgery and anti-Cytomegalovirus therapy. Conclusions Cytomegalovirus should be included among the etiologic agents of acute appendicitis in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis. Currently, there are no definitive data regarding the frequency of Cytomegalovirus appendicitis and the role of anti-Cytomegalovirus treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-negative and apparently immunocompetent subjects. PMID:24612821

2014-01-01

387

Conservation strategies for species affected by apparent competition.  

PubMed

Apparent competition is an indirect interaction between 2 or more prey species through a shared predator, and it is increasingly recognized as a mechanism of the decline and extinction of many species. Through case studies, we evaluated the effectiveness of 4 management strategies for species affected by apparent competition: predator control, reduction in the abundances of alternate prey, simultaneous control of predators and alternate prey, and no active management of predators or alternate prey. Solely reducing predator abundances rapidly increased abundances of alternate and rare prey, but observed increases are likely short-lived due to fast increases in predator abundance following the cessation of control efforts. Substantial reductions of an abundant alternate prey resulted in increased predation on endangered huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus) deer in Chilean Patagonia, which highlights potential risks associated with solely reducing alternate prey species. Simultaneous removal of predators and alternate prey increased survival of island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) in California (U.S.A.) above a threshold required for population recovery. In the absence of active management, populations of rare woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) continued to decline in British Columbia, Canada. On the basis of the cases we examined, we suggest the simultaneous control of predators and alternate prey is the management strategy most likely to increase abundances and probabilities of persistence of rare prey over the long term. Knowing the mechanisms driving changes in species' abundances before implementing any management intervention is critical. We suggest scientists can best contribute to the conservation of species affected by apparent competition by clearly communicating the biological and demographic forces at play to policy makers responsible for the implementation of proposed management actions. PMID:23282104

Wittmer, Heiko U; Serrouya, Robert; Elbroch, L Mark; Marshall, Andrew J

2013-04-01

388

Apparent thermal inertia and the surface heterogeneity of Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal inertia derivation techniques generally assume that surface properties are uniform at horizontal scales below the footprint of the observing instrument and to depths of several decimeters. Consequently, surfaces with horizontal or vertical heterogeneity may yield apparent thermal inertia which varies with time of day and season. To investigate these temporal variations, we processed three Mars years of Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer observations and produced global nightside and dayside seasonal maps of apparent thermal inertia. These maps show broad regions with diurnal and seasonal differences up to 200 J m -2 K -1s -1/2 at mid-latitudes (60° S to 60° N) and 600 J m -2 K -1s -1/2 or greater in the polar regions. We compared the seasonal mapping results with modeled apparent thermal inertia and created new maps of surface heterogeneity at 5° resolution, delineating regions that have thermal characteristics consistent with horizontal mixtures or layers of two materials. The thermal behavior of most regions on Mars appears to be dominated by layering, with upper layers of higher thermal inertia (e.g., duricrusts or desert pavements over fines) prevailing in mid-latitudes and upper layers of lower thermal inertia (e.g., dust-covered rock, soils with an ice table at shallow depths) prevailing in polar regions. Less common are regions dominated by horizontal mixtures, such as those containing differing proportions of rocks, sand, dust, and duricrust or surfaces with divergent local slopes. Other regions show thermal behavior that is more complex and not well-represented by two-component surface models. These results have important implications for Mars surface geology, climate modeling, landing-site selection, and other endeavors that employ thermal inertia as a tool for characterizing surface properties.

Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Mellon, Michael T.

2007-11-01

389

Apparent Survival Rates of Forest Birds in Eastern Ecuador Revisited: Improvement in Precision but No Change in Estimates  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of survival rates of Neotropical landbirds remains limited, with estimates of apparent survival available from relatively few sites and species. Previously, capture-mark-recapture models were used to estimate apparent survival of 31 species (30 passerines, 1 Trochilidae) from eastern Ecuador based on data collected from 2001 to 2006. Here, estimates are updated with data from 2001-2012 to determine how additional years of data affect estimates; estimates for six additional species are provided. Models assuming constant survival had highest support for 19 of 31 species when based on 12 years of data compared to 27 when based on six; models incorporating effects of transients had the highest support for 12 of 31 species compared to four when based on 12 and six years, respectively. Average apparent survival based on the most highly-supported model (based on model averaging, when appropriate) was 0.59 (± 0.02 SE) across 30 species of passerines when based on 12 years and 0.57 (± 0.02) when based on six. Standard errors of survival estimates based on 12 years were approximately half those based on six years. Of 31 species in both data sets, estimates of apparent survival were somewhat lower for 13, somewhat higher for 17, and remained unchanged for one; confidence intervals for estimates based on six and 12 years of data overlapped for all species. Results indicate that estimates of apparent survival are comparable but more precise when based on longer-term data sets; standard error of the estimates was negatively correlated with numbers of captures (rs?=??0.72) and recaptures (rs?=??0.93, P<0.001 in both cases). Thus, reasonable estimates of apparent survival may be obtained with relatively few years of data if sample sizes are sufficient. PMID:24312519

Blake, John G.; Loiselle, Bette A.

2013-01-01

390

Apparent survival rates of forest birds in eastern Ecuador revisited: improvement in precision but no change in estimates.  

PubMed

Knowledge of survival rates of Neotropical landbirds remains limited, with estimates of apparent survival available from relatively few sites and species. Previously, capture-mark-recapture models were used to estimate apparent survival of 31 species (30 passerines, 1 Trochilidae) from eastern Ecuador based on data collected from 2001 to 2006. Here, estimates are updated with data from 2001-2012 to determine how additional years of data affect estimates; estimates for six additional species are provided. Models assuming constant survival had highest support for 19 of 31 species when based on 12 years of data compared to 27 when based on six; models incorporating effects of transients had the highest support for 12 of 31 species compared to four when based on 12 and six years, respectively. Average apparent survival based on the most highly-supported model (based on model averaging, when appropriate) was 0.59 (± 0.02 SE) across 30 species of passerines when based on 12 years and 0.57 (± 0.02) when based on six. Standard errors of survival estimates based on 12 years were approximately half those based on six years. Of 31 species in both data sets, estimates of apparent survival were somewhat lower for 13, somewhat higher for 17, and remained unchanged for one; confidence intervals for estimates based on six and 12 years of data overlapped for all species. Results indicate that estimates of apparent survival are comparable but more precise when based on longer-term data sets; standard error of the estimates was negatively correlated with numbers of captures (rs ?=?-0.72) and recaptures (rs ?=?-0.93, P<0.001 in both cases). Thus, reasonable estimates of apparent survival may be obtained with relatively few years of data if sample sizes are sufficient. PMID:24312519

Blake, John G; Loiselle, Bette A

2013-01-01

391

Discovery of Two Apparent Novae in M81  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of two apparent novae in the M81 galaxy on a co-added 1600-s, narrow-band H-alpha CCD image taken with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) + WFC at La Palma in ~1.5" seeing on 2013 June 3.905 UT. The new objects are visible on individual 400-s frames and well visible on the co-added image (see the finding chart linked below), but are not present on numerous narrow-band H-alpha archival images from the INT down to a limiting magnitude as faint as H-alpha = 22.7.

Hornoch, K.; McCormac, J.; Vaduvescu, O.

2013-06-01

392

Discovery of an Apparent Nova in M81  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of an apparent nova in the M81 galaxy on a co-added 2000-s narrow-band H-alpha CCD image taken with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) + WFC at La Palma in ~1.4" seeing on Apr. 5.946 UT. The new object is visible on individual 400-s frames and well visible on the co-added image (see the finding chart linked below), but is not present on numerous narrow-band H-alpha archival images from the INT down to limiting magnitude as faint as H-alpha = 21.7.

Hornoch, K.; Vaduvescu, O.; Gonzalez, A.

2013-04-01

393

Discovery of Three Apparent Novae in M81  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of three apparent novae in the M81 galaxy on a co-added 3200-s narrow-band H-alpha CCD image taken with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) + WFC at La Palma in ~1.4" seeing on Feb. 25.132 UT. The new objects are visible on individual 400-s frames and well visible on the co-added image (see the finding chart linked below), but are not present on numerous narrow-band H-alpha archival images from the INT down to limiting magnitude as faint as H-alpha = 22.5.

Hornoch, K.; Vaduvescu, O.; Oers, P. van

2013-02-01

394

Apparent slant of moving targets on T.V. screens.  

PubMed

When moving a vertical black and white bar pattern horizontally across a T.V. screen there appears to exist a slant of the pattern depending on movement velocity. Subjects were asked to compensate this geometrical distortion by adjusting a potentiometer. Results show a clear difference between theoretical and actual data where apparent slant of the vertical pattern was always smaller than calculated. Further research work should be done in order to investigate the influence of this effect on the perception of electronically generated and displayed scenes. PMID:4049748

Distelmaier, H; Doerfel, G

1985-01-01

395

An apparent flea-allergy dermatitis in kids and lambs.  

PubMed

Heavy infestation of lambs in two herds and kids in one herd with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis felis, accompanied by severe anaemia, eosinophilia and exudative dermatitis, is described. Flea infestation was more widespread during the summer months, when optimal climatic conditions for flea development prevail. The clinical and histological findings are discussed in the light of the pertinent literature. Recovery of the affected animals and normalization of the haematological values were observed after the insecticide treatment. Flea-allergic dermatitis is apparently the cause of the skin lesions in the lambs and kids. PMID:9360467

Yeruham, I; Rosen, S; Perl, S

1997-09-01

396

Empirical null and false discovery rate analysis in neuroimaging.  

PubMed

Current strategies for thresholding statistical parametric maps in neuroimaging include control of the family-wise error rate, control of the false discovery rate (FDR) and thresholding of the posterior probability of a voxel being active given the data, the latter derived from a mixture model of active and inactive voxels. Correct inference using any of these criteria depends crucially on the specification of the null distribution of the test statistics. In this article we show examples from fMRI and DTI data where the theoretical null distribution does not match well the observed distribution of the test statistics. As a solution, we introduce the use of an empirical null, a null distribution empirically estimated from the data itself, allowing for global corrections of theoretical null assumptions. The theoretical null distributions considered are normal, t, chi(2) and F, all commonly encountered in neuroimaging. The empirical null estimate is accompanied by an estimate of the proportion of non-active voxels in the data. Based on the two-class mixture model, we present the equivalence between the strategies of controlling FDR and thresholding posterior probabilities in the context of neuroimaging and show that the FDR estimates derived from the empirical null can be seen as empirical Bayes estimates. PMID:18547821

Schwartzman, Armin; Dougherty, Robert F; Lee, Jongho; Ghahremani, Dara; Taylor, Jonathan E

2009-01-01

397

False-Positive Head-Impulse Test in Cerebellar Ataxia  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to compare the findings of the bedside head-impulse test (HIT), passive head rotation gain, and caloric irrigation in patients with cerebellar ataxia (CA). In 16 patients with CA and bilaterally pathological bedside HIT, vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) gains were measured during HIT and passive head rotation by scleral search coil technique. Eight of the patients had pathologically reduced caloric responsiveness, while the other eight had normal caloric responses. Those with normal calorics showed a slightly reduced HIT gain (mean?±?SD: 0.73?±?0.15). In those with pathological calorics, gains 80 and 100?ms after the HIT as well as the passive rotation VOR gains were significantly lower. The corrective saccade after head turn occurred earlier in patients with pathological calorics (111?±?62?ms after onset of the HIT) than in those with normal calorics (191?±?17?ms, p?=?0.0064). We identified two groups of patients with CA: those with an isolated moderate HIT deficit only, probably due to floccular dysfunction, and those with combined HIT, passive rotation, and caloric deficit, probably due to a peripheral vestibular deficit. From a clinical point of view, these results show that the bedside HIT alone can be false-positive for establishing a diagnosis of a bilateral peripheral vestibular deficit in patients with CA. PMID:23162531

Kremmyda, Olympia; Kirchner, Hanni; Glasauer, Stefan; Brandt, Thomas; Jahn, Klaus; Strupp, Michael

2012-01-01

398

Sulfur-Rich Rocks and Dirt (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's Mars Rover Spirit has been analyzing sulfur-rich rocks and surface materials in the 'Columbia Hills' in Gusev Crater on Mars. This image of a very soft, nodular, layered rock nicknamed 'Peace' in honor of Martin Luther King Jr. shows a 4.5-centimeter-wide (1.8-inch-wide) hole Spirit ground into the surface with the rover's rock abrasion tool. The high sulfur content of the rock measured by Spirit's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer and its softness measured by the abrasion tool are probably evidence of past alteration by water. Spirit's panoramic camera took this false-color image on martian day, or sol, 381 (Jan. 27, 2005), using Pancam filters at wavelengths of 750, 530, and 430 nanometers. Darker red hues in the image correspond to greater concentrations of oxidized soil and dust. Bluer hues correspond to sulfur-rich rock excavated or exposed by the abrasion tool and not as heavily coated with soils or not as highly oxidized.

2005-01-01

399

After Attempted Sample Delivery on Sol 60, False Color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view from the Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander on the mission's 60th Martian day, or sol, (July 26, 2008) was taken after the lander's scoop sprinkled a soil sample over Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer (TEGA).

The upper part of the picture shows the robotic arm scoop parked open-face down above the TEGA after delivery. The TEGA doors farthest to the right were open to receive the sample into one of TEGA's eight ovens. Not enough material reached the oven to allow an analysis to begin. Some of the soil sample can be seen at the bottom of the adjacent pair of doors.

This view is presented in false color, which makes the reddish color of the soil-sample material easy to see.

The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

2008-01-01

400

False-color composite image of Prince Albert, Canada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a false color composite of Prince Albert, Canada, centered at 53.91 north latitude and 104.69 west longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on the 20th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. The area is located 40 km north and 30 km east of the town of Prince Albert in the Saskatchewan province of Canada. The image covers the area east of the Candle Lake, between gravel surface highways 120 and 106 and west of 106. The area in the middle of the image covers the entire Nipawin (Narrow Hills) provincial park. The look angle of the radar is 30 degrees and the size of the image is approximately 20 kilometers by 50 kilometers (12 by 30 miles). Most of the dark areas in the image are the ice-covered lakes in the region. The dark area on the top right corner of the image is the White Gull Lake north of the intersection of Highway 120 and 913. The right middle part of the image shows Lake Ispuchaw and Lower Fishing Lake

1994-01-01

401

Three frequency false-color image of Prince Albert, Canada  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a three-frequency, false color image of Prince Albert, Canada, centered at 53.91 north latitude and 104.69 west longitude. It was produced using data from the X-band, C-band and L-band radars that comprise the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR). SIR-C/X-SAR acquired this image on the 20th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. The area is located 40 km north and 30 km east of the town of Prince Albert in the Saskatchewan province of Canada. The image covers the area east of the Candle Lake, between gravel surface highways 120 and 106 and west of 106. The area in the middle of the image covers the entire Nipawin (Narrow Hills) provincial park. Most of the dark blue areas in the image are the ice covered lakes. The dark area on the top right corner of the image is the White Gull Lake north of the intersection of highway 120 and 913. The right middle part of the image shows Lake Ispuchaw and Lower Fishing Lake. The deforested areas are shown by light

1994-01-01

402

Neural mechanisms of semantic interference and false recognition in short-term memory  

E-print Network

Neural mechanisms of semantic interference and false recognition in short-term memory Alexandra S Keywords: False memory Short-term memory Interference Cognitive control VLPFC DLPFC Decades of research the neural mechanisms subserving true and false retrieval from long-term memory. Recently, false short-term

403

29 CFR 1602.33 - Penalty for making of willfully false statements on report.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Penalty for making of willfully false statements on report...Information Report § 1602.33 Penalty for making of willfully false statements on report. The making of willfully false statements on report...

2010-07-01

404

Negative Emissions Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although `negative emissions' of carbon dioxide need not, in principle, involve use of biological processes to draw carbon out of the atmosphere, such `agricultural' sequestration' is the only known way to remove carbon from the atmosphere on time scales comparable to the time scale for anthropogenic increases in carbon emissions. In order to maintain the `negative emissions' the biomass must be used in such a way that the resulting carbon dioxide is separated and permanently sequestered. Two options for sequestration are in the topsoil and via geologic carbon sequestration. The former has multiple benefits, but the latter also is needed. Thus, although geologic carbon sequestration is viewed skeptically by some environmentalists as simply a way to keep using fossil fuels---it may be a key part of reversing accelerating climate forcing if rapid climate change is beginning to occur. I will first review the general approach of agricultural sequestration combined with use of resulting biofuels in a way that permits carbon separation and then geologic sequestration as a negative emissions technology. Then I discuss the process that is the focus of my company---the EPRIDA cycle. If deployed at a sufficiently large scale, it could reverse the increase in CO2 concentrations. I also estimate of benefits --carbon and other---of large scale deployment of negative emissions technologies. For example, using the EPRIDA cycle by planting and soil sequestering carbon in an area abut In 3X the size of Texas would remove the amount of carbon that is being accumulated worldwide each year. In addition to the atmospheric carbon removal, the EPRIDA approach also counters the depletion of carbon in the soil---increasing topsoil and its fertility; reduces the excess nitrogen in the water by eliminating the need for ammonium nitrate fertilizer and reduces fossil fuel reliance by providing biofuel and avoiding natural gas based fertilizer production.

Day, Danny

2006-04-01

405

Coagulase-negative staphylococci.  

PubMed

Coagulase-negative staphylococci, long considered to be harmless commensals or contaminants, have emerged as major pathogens as medical technology has advanced. They are a major cause of intravenous-catheter-associated bacteremia, endocarditis, otitis media, and infection of joint prostheses, vascular grafts, cardiac pacemakers, cerebrospinal fluid shunts, postoperative wounds, the urinary tract, and the eye. Therapy includes removal of infected foreign bodies and administration of appropriate antimicrobial agents. PMID:3282318

Neihart, R E; Fried, J S; Hodges, G R

1988-04-01

406

A new approach to the "apparent survival" problem: estimating true survival rates from mark-recapture studies.  

PubMed

Survival estimates generated from live capture-mark-recapture studies may be negatively biased due to the permanent emigration of marked individuals from the study area. In the absence of a robust analytical solution, researchers typically sidestep this problem by simply reporting estimates using the term "apparent survival." Here, we present a hierarchical Bayesian multistate model designed to estimate true survival by accounting for predicted rates of permanent emigration. Initially we use dispersal kernels to generate spatial projections of dispersal probability around each capture location. From these projections, we estimate emigration probability for each marked individual and use the resulting values to generate bias-adjusted survival estimates from individual capture histories. When tested using simulated data sets featuring variable detection probabilities, survival rates, and dispersal patterns, the model consistently eliminated negative biases shown by apparent survival estimates from standard models. When applied to a case study concerning juvenile survival in the endangered Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis), bias-adjusted survival estimates increased more than twofold above apparent survival estimates. Our approach is applicable to any capture-mark-recapture study design and should be particularly valuable for organisms with dispersive juvenile life stages. PMID:22919897

Gilroy, James J; Virzi, Thomas; Boulton, Rebecca L; Lockwood, Julie L

2012-07-01

407

Pore fluid pressure, apparent friction, and Coulomb failure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many recent studies of stress-triggered seismicity rely on a fault failure model with a single free parameter, the apparent coefficient of friction, presumed to be a material constant with possible values 0 ? ?? ? 1. These studies may present a misleading view of fault strength and the role of pore fluid pressure in earthquake failure. The parameter ?? is intended to incorporate the effects of both friction and pore pressure, but is a material constant only if changes in pore fluid pressure induced by changes in stress are proportional to the normal stress change across the potential failure plane. Although specific models of fault zones permit such a relation, neither is it known that fault zones within the Earth behave this way, nor is this behavior expected in all cases. In contrast, for an isotropic homogeneous poroelastic model the pore pressure changes are proportional to changes in mean stress, ?? is not a material constant, and ?? ? ?? ? +?. Analysis of the change in Coulomb failure stress for tectonically loaded reverse and strike-slip faults shows considerable differences between these two pore pressure models, suggesting that such models might be distinguished from one another using observations of triggered seismicity (e.g., aftershocks). We conclude that using the constant apparent friction model exclusively in studies of Coulomb failure stress is unwise and could lead to significant errors in estimated stress change and seismic hazard.

Beeler, N.M.; Simpson, R.W.; Hickman, S.H.; Lockner, D.A.

2000-01-01

408

Apparent Yield Strength of Hot-Pressed SiCs  

SciTech Connect

Apparent yield strengths (YApp) of four hot-pressed silicon carbides (SiC-B, SiC-N,SiC-HPN, and SiC-SC-1RN) were estimated using diamond spherical or Hertzian indentation. The von Mises and Tresca criteria were considered. The developed test method was robust, simple and quick to execute, and thusly enabled the acquisition of confident sampling statistics. The choice of indenter size, test method, and method of analysis are described. The compressive force necessary to initiate apparent yielding was identified postmortem using differential interference contrast (or Nomarski) imaging with an optical microscope. It was found that the YApp of SiC-HPN (14.0 GPa) was approximately 10% higher than the equivalently valued YApp of SiC-B, SiC-N, and SiC-SC-1RN. This discrimination in YApp shows that the use of this test method could be insightful because there were no differences among the average Knoop hardnesses of the four SiC grades.

Daloz, William L [ORNL; Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Jadaan, Osama M. [University of Wisconsin, Platteville

2008-01-01

409

Influence of multisensory graviceptive information on the apparent zenith.  

PubMed

We studied the contribution of vestibular and somatosensory/proprioceptive stimulation to the perception of the apparent zenith (AZ). Experiment 1 involved rotation on a centrifuge and settings of the AZ. Subjects were supine on the centrifuge, and their body position was varied in relation to the rotation axis so that the gravitoinertial resultant force at the otoliths was 1 or 1.2 g with the otolith organs positioned 50 or 100 cm from the axis of rotation. Their legs were also positioned in different configurations, flexed and elevated or extended, to create different distributions of blood and lymph. Experiment 2 involved (a) settings of the AZ for subjects positioned supine with legs fully extended or legs flexed and elevated to create a torsoward shift of blood and (b) settings of the subjective visual vertical for subjects horizontally positioned on their sides with legs extended or bent. Experiment 3 had subjects in the same body configurations as in Experiment 2 indicate when they were horizontal as they were rotated in pitch or roll about an inter-aural or naso-occipital axis. The experimental results for all three experiments demonstrated that both visual localization and apparent body horizontal are jointly determined by multimodal combinations of otolithic and somatosensory/proprioceptive stimulation. No evidence was found for non-overlapping or exclusive mechanisms determining one or the other. The subjective postural horizontal and AZ were affected in similar ways by comparable manipulations. PMID:21140138

Carriot, J; Cian, C; Paillard, A; Denise, P; Lackner, J R

2011-02-01

410

SIGNIFICANCE OF SALMONELLAE ISOLATED FROM APPARENTLY HEALTHY MICE.  

PubMed

Morello, Josephine A. (Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, Mass.), Teresa A. DiGenio, and Edgar E. Baker. Significance of salmonellae isolated from apparently healthy mice. J. Bacteriol. 89:1460-1464. 1965.-Three species of Salmonella were isolated from three groups of apparently healthy laboratory mice. The host-parasite relationship of one of these, a mutant S. typhimurium (lacks I and i antigens), was studied to determine the significance of these pathogens. Mice were fed undiluted broth cultures, and the infection was followed by means of fecal and organ cultures and a hemolytic serological test. Tissue invasion occurred during the early stages of the disease, but, within 1 week, the organism usually was localized in the intestinal tract. After 1 month, most of the mice had eliminated the organism completely. Antibody response to this organism was generally variable. Conditions of stress, including heat, cold, and cortisone administration, did not precipitate more severe disease in infected animals. The infection was maintained for longer periods of time in animals housed in groups than in those in individual cages. The presence of such salmonellae in laboratory animals appears to be of limited significance. PMID:14291580

MORELLO, J A; DIGENIO, T A; BAKER, E E

1965-06-01

411

Southern Half of Spirit's 'Bonestell' Panorama (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This 180-degree panorama shows the southward vista from the location where Spirit is spending its third Martian winter inside Mars' Gusev Crater. The rover's overwintering location is on the northern edge of a low plateau informally called 'Home Plate,' which is about 80 meters or 260 feet in diameter.

This view combines 168 different exposures taken with Spirit's panoramic Camera (Pancam) 42 pointings with 4 filters at each pointing. Spirit took the first of these frames during the mission's 1,477th Martian day, or sol, (February 28, 2008) two weeks after the rover made its last move to reach the location where it would stop driving for the winter. Solar energy at Gusev Crater is so limited during the Martian winter that Spirit does not generate enough electricity to drive, nor even enough to take many images per day. The last frame for this mosaic was taken on Sol 1599 (July 2, 2008). The rover team plans for Spirit to finish taking images for the northern half of the scene during the Martian spring.

The northwestern edge of Home Plate is visible in the right foreground. The blockier, more sharply shadowed texture there is layered sandstone whose layering is tilted inward toward the edge of the Home Plate platform. A dark rock on top of Home Plate in that area is a porous volcanic basalt unlike rocks nearby. The northeastern edge of Home Plate is visible in the left foreground. Spirit first climbed onto Home Plate on that region, in early 2006.

Rover tracks from driving by Spirit are visible on Home plate in the center and right of the image. These were made during Spirit's second exploration on top of the plateau, which began when Spirit climbed onto the southern edge of Home Plate in September, 2007.

In the center foreground, the turret of tools at the end of Spirit's robotic arm appears in duplicate because the arm was repositioned between the days when the images making up that part of the mosaic were taken.

On the horizon, the highest point is 'McCool Hill.' This is one of the seven larger hills in the Columbia Hills range. Home Plate is in the inner basin of the range, between McCool Hill to the south and 'Husband Hill' to the north. To the right of McCool Hill, in the center of the image and closer to Home Plate, is a smaller hill capped with a light-toned outcrop. This hill is called 'Von Braun,' and it is a possible destination the rover team has discussed for the next season of driving by Spirit, after the solar energy level increases in the Martian spring. The flat horizon in the right-hand portion of the panorama is the basaltic plain onto which Spirit landed on Jan. 4, 2004.

This is a false-color, red-green-blue composite panorama generated from images taken through the Pancam's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters. The false color enhances visibility of differences among the types of rock and soil material in the image.

2008-01-01

412

Six consecutive false positive cases from cell-free fetal DNA testing in a single referring centre  

PubMed Central

Introduction recent studies have proposed the introduction of cell-free fetal DNA testing (NIPT-Non Invasive Prenatal Testing) in routine clinical practice emphasizing its high sensibility and specificity. In any case, false positive and false negative findings may result from placental mosaicism, because cell-free fetal DNA originates mainly from placenta. Case we report six cases of women who underwent chorionic villus sampling (CVS) or amniocentesis to confirm the results from NIPT: two Turner syndromes, two Triple X, one Patau syndrome, one Edward syndrome. Results using classic cytogenetic analysis and, also, Array - Comparative Genomic Hybridization (Array CGH) the karyotype of all 5 fetuses was found to be normal. Conclusion results from NIPT must always be confirmed by invasive prenatal diagnosis. It is mandatory to inform the patient that the CVS and amniocentesis still represent the only form of prenatal diagnostic test available. PMID:25332757

Dugo, Nella; Padula, Francesco; Mobili, Luisa; Brizzi, Cristiana; D'Emidio, Laura; Cignini, Pietro; Mesoraca, Alvaro; Bizzoco, Domenico; Cima, Antonella; Giorlandino, Claudio

2014-01-01

413

Why perversion?: 'False love' and the perverse pact.  

PubMed

In this paper, the author works with the awareness that perversion is a socially, historically and theologically loaded term, at the same time as it may be the latest frontier in psychoanalysis, both clinically, and in relation to contemporary art and culture which emphasize the perverse. Positioning itself against tendencies to deny the existence of a category of 'perversion' or, inversely, to abuse it for the power that accrues from the act of diagnosing, she also points to other liabilities in the history of the treatment of this term, such as the narrowing down of perversion to the exclusively sexual domain, or, alternatively, the overextension of it to polymorphously erotic practices that enhance sexual excitement. The paradoxes of perversion and the difficulties of distinguishing the perverse from the non-perverse are addressed. The case is also made that, in order to understand perversion, one must unlink it from the narrow notion of sexual practice and see what is involved on a deeper level--an approach initiated when psychoanalysis turned to perversion as a defense against psychotic anxieties, and began considering the necessary place of perversion in the transference--countertransference. Two features common to both sexual and non-sexual perverse relations are the seductive and bribing aspects of perversion, and its means-ends reversal. Perversion is a haven for the disguising of hatred and suspicion as excitement and (false) love. Displaced child and beating father, entitled child and seductive mother, are both prototypes of psychoanalytic reflection on parents who excite, deceive and corrupt their children and establish perverse pacts with them. The notion of the perverse pact is foregrounded in Alice's analysis, where first the resurrection and then the dismantling of such a pact were effected through various analytic means. PMID:16096075

Stein, Ruth

2005-06-01

414

Apparent failure of brain heart infusion broth to cultivate meningococci from clinically infected patients.  

PubMed

Brain Heart Infusion broth is a widely used medium for the isolation of pathogenic bacteria from body fluids. Cerebro spinal fluid and blood inoculated into this medium from clinically meningitic infants infected with Neisseria meningitidis appeared not to support the growth of this organism. In laboratory experiments the broth did not support the growth of Neisseria meningitidis unless adequately vented and with addition of blood. Thorough mixing was necessary to disperse microcolonies that formed in the base blood layer of blood cultures. When this was done they were isolated using standard sub-culture techniques. Broths used for specimens other than blood must be used with blood or a blood supplement if this organism is suspected, and should be incubated aerobically or vented to 5% carbon dioxide, and thoroughly mixed. Awareness of these deficiencies may prevent false negative results. PMID:2119472

Glaister, D; Athersuch, R

1990-07-01

415

The 'Appar' Flax Release: Origin, Distinguishing Characteristics, And Use; And A Native Alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes information on the taxonomy of 'Appar', a perennial blue flax cultivar (Linum perenne L. [Linaceae]), and characteristics that distinguish it from native Lewis flax (Linum lewisii Pursh [Linaceae]). 'Appar' apparently originated as a European flax that escaped from garden cultivation. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis places 'Appar' with other collections of European Linum perenne and separates

Rosemary L Pendleton; Stanley G Kitchen; E Durant McArthur; Joann E Mudge

2008-01-01

416

Measurement of the B stretchy="false">¯s0?Ds-Ds+ and B stretchy="false">¯s0?D-Ds+ Effective Lifetimes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first measurement of the effective lifetime of the B stretchy="false">¯s0 meson in the decay B stretchy="false">¯s0?Ds-Ds+ is reported using a proton-proton collision data set, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1, collected by the LHCb experiment. The measured value of the B stretchy="false">¯s0?Ds-Ds+ effective lifetime is 1.379±0.026±0.017 ps, where the uncertainties are statistical and systematic, respectively. This lifetime translates into a measurement of the decay width of the light B stretchy="false">¯s0 mass eigenstate of ?L=0.725±0.014±0.009 ps-1. The B stretchy="false">¯s0 lifetime is also measured using the flavor-specific B stretchy="false">¯s0?D-Ds+ decay to be 1.52±0.15±0.01 ps.

Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A., Jr.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bonis, I.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorosz, P.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garosi, P.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Hafkenscheid, T. W.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Klaver, S.; Kochebina, O.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lowdon, P.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luisier, J.; Luo, H.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.

2014-03-01

417

Further Evidence for Nonspecificity of Theory of Mind in Preschoolers: Training and Transferability in the Understanding of False Beliefs and False Signs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a training study, the authors addressed whether or not preschoolers' difficulty with false belief is due to a domain-specific problem with mental states. Following Slaughter's (1998) design, 57 children who failed a false-belief (FB) pretest received two sessions of training on either an FB, false sign (FS), or control task. All children were then posttested on theory-of-mind, FS, and

Lai-Sang Iao; Susan Leekam; Josef Perner; Helen McConachie

2011-01-01

418

Death due to apparent intravenous injection of tapentadol.  

PubMed

This case report describes a 34-year-old male who died as the result of tapentadol toxicity. This case apparently represents the first reported description of a death because of this drug. The toxicologic features of this case, namely concentrations of tapentadol in the femoral blood and heart blood, 1.05 and 3.20 mg/L, respectively, may assist other individuals in evaluating deaths where tapentadol concentration is a factor. Analysis of the blood based upon enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed no other substance of significance, only nicotine and cotinine, and the autopsy findings were consistent with an opiate-type drug overdose, and indicated no competing cause of death. PMID:23083009

Kemp, Walter; Schlueter, Scott; Smalley, Elizabeth

2013-01-01

419

Thermodynamics of Evolving Lorentzian Wormhole at Apparent and Event Horizons  

E-print Network

We have investigated the non-static Lorentzian Wormhole model in presence of anisotropic pressure. We have presented some exact solutions of Einstein equations for anisotropic pressure case. Introducing two EoS parameters we have shown that these solutions give very rich dynamics of the universe yielding to the different expansion history of it in the $r$ - direction and in the $T$ - direction. The corresponding explicit forms of the shape function $b(r)$ is presented.We have shown that the Einstein's field equations and unified first law are equivalent for the dynamical wormhole model. The first law of thermodynamics has been derived by using the Unified first law. The physical quantities including surface gravity and the temperature are derived for the wormhole. Here we have obtained all the results without any choice of the shape function. The validity of generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics has been examined at apparent and event horizons for the evolving Lorentzian wormhole.

Ujjal Debnath; Mubasher Jamil; R. Myrzakulov; M. Akbar

2012-02-06

420

Thermodynamics of Evolving Lorentzian Wormhole at Apparent and Event Horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the non-static Lorentzian Wormhole model in presence of anisotropic pressure. We have presented some exact solutions of Einstein equations for anisotropic pressure case. Introducing two EoS parameters we have shown that these solutions give very rich dynamics of the universe yielding to the different expansion history of it in the r - direction and in the T - direction. The corresponding explicit forms of the shape function b(r) is presented.We have shown that the Einstein's field equations and unified first law are equivalent for the dynamical wormhole model. The first law of thermodynamics has been derived by using the Unified first law. The physical quantities including surface gravity and the temperature are derived for the wormhole. Here we have obtained all the results without any choice of the shape function. The validity of generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics has been examined at apparent and event horizons for the evolving Lorentzian wormhole.

Debnath, Ujjal; Jamil, Mubasher; Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Akbar, M.

2014-05-01

421

The apparent hysteresis in hormone-agonist relationships  

PubMed Central

It has been noted in multiple studies that the calcium–PTH axis, among others, is subject to an apparent hysteresis. We sought to explain a major component of the observed phenomenon by constructing a simple mathematical model of a hormone and secretagogue system with concentration dependent secretion and containing two delays. We constructed profiles of the hormone–agonist axis in this model via four types of protocols, three of which emulating experiments from the literature, and observed a delay- and load-dependent hysteresis that is an expected mathematical artifact of the system described. In particular, the delay associated with correction allows for over-secretion of the hormone influencing the corrective mechanism; thus rate dependence is an artifact of the corrective mechanism, not a sensitivity of the gland to the magnitude of change. From these observations, the detected hysteresis is due to delays inherent in the systems being studied, not in the secretory mechanism. PMID:22154846

Pruett, William A.; Hester, Robert L.; Coleman, Thomas G.

2011-01-01

422

Apparent shape of super-spinning black holes  

E-print Network

We consider the possibility that astrophysical Black Holes (BHs) can violate the Kerr bound; i.e., they can have angular momentum greater than BH mass, $J > M$. We discuss implications on the BH apparent shape. Even if the bound is violated by a small amount, the shadow cast by the BH changes significantly (it is $\\sim$ an order of magnitude smaller) from the case with $J \\le M$ and can be used as a clear observational signature in the search for super--spinning BHs. We discuss briefly recent observations in the mm range of the super--massive BH at the Center of the Galaxy, speculating on the possibility that it might violate the Kerr bound.

Cosimo Bambi; Katherine Freese

2008-12-07

423

Timing of the apparent effects of cloud seeding.  

PubMed

The average hourly precipitation amounts, on 96 experimental days without cloud seeding in the Whitetop experiment, show a marked maximum between 4 and 7 o'clock in the afternoon, presumably reflecting the convection activity caused by heating of the ground occurring during an earlier period. No such maximum is observed on the 102 days with seeding. The hypothetical explanation presupposes that seeding with silver iodide creates early general cloudiness, which prevents ground temperatures from rising to levels usually attained on days without seeding. This hypothesis may explain not only the mechanism of the loss in rain in the Whitetop experiment, apparently induced by seeding, but also may explain certain phenomena noticed in the Grossversuch III experiment. PMID:17777000

Lovasich, J L; Neyman, J; Scott, E L; Smith, J A

1969-08-29

424

Munchausen stridor-a strong false alarm of anaphylaxis.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of anaphylaxis is often based on reported symptoms which may not be accurate and lead to major psychosocial and financial impacts. We describe two adult patients who were diagnosed as having recurrent anaphylaxis witnessed by multiple physicians based on recurrent laryngeal symptoms. The claimed cause was foods in one and drugs in the other. We questioned the diagnosis because of absent documentation of objective findings to support anaphylaxis, and the symptoms occurred during skin testing though the test sites were not reactive. Our initial skin testing with placebos reproduced the symptoms without objective findings. Subsequent skin tests with the suspected allergens were negative yet reproduced the symptoms without objective findings. Disclosing the test results markedly displeased one patient but reassured the other who subsequently tolerated the suspected allergen. In conclusion, these 2 patients' symptoms and evaluation were not supportive of their initial diagnosis of recurrent anaphylaxis. The compatible diagnosis was Munchausen stridor which requires psychiatric evaluation and behavior modification, but often rejected by patients. PMID:25374759

Bahna, Sami L; Oldham, Jennifer L

2014-11-01

425

Susceptibility to false memories in patients with ACoA aneurysm.  

PubMed

We examined ACoA patients regarding their susceptibility to a range of false memory phenomena. We targeted provoked confabulation, false recall and false recognition in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott-paradigm (DRM-paradigm) as well as false recognition in a mirror reading task. ACoA patients produced more provoked confabulations and more false recognition in mirror reading than comparison subjects. Conversely, false recall/false recognition in the DRM-paradigm were similar in patients and controls. Whereas the former two indices of false memories were correlated, no relationship was revealed with the DRM-paradigm. Our results suggest that rupture of ACoA aneurysm leads to an increased susceptibility to a subset of false memories types. PMID:20488196

Borsutzky, Sabine; Fujiwara, Esther; Brand, Matthias; Markowitsch, Hans J

2010-08-01

426

Apparent threshold of lead's effect on child intelligence  

SciTech Connect

The developing human brain is perhaps the most sensitive of the many targets of lead toxicity. This particular sensitivity is a driving factor in setting health and environmental standards for lead. A recent compilation of studies of the association between lead and IQ has shown a consistent dose-response pattern across the range of reported exposures. In surveying the neurotoxicity of lead in humans and animals, there has been speculation of the existence of a threshold for these effects which may become apparent at lower lead levels. In that context we examined our data of tooth lead and IQ scores to determine whether there was any apparent threshold for this effect. This cohort's lead levels are among the lowest documented and provide the opportunity to extend downward the range of interest. Family factors are the strongest predictors of a child's intelligence, in particular the parent's intelligence. We therefore followed the model of Perino and Ernhart (1974) by examining whether at various levels of lead there is a disruption of the usual association between family and child intelligence. As noted by Bellinger and Needleman (1983), a difference in the correlations between parental and child intelligence in two groups, high and low lead, may be an artifact of other relationships among the predictor variables. Accordingly, they recommend a more appropriate test that would search for differences in the IQ deficits according to lead level, where the IQ deficit is the difference between a child's observed IQ and the IQ predicted from all available information about the child aside from lead. This is especially appropriate when the lead exposure correlates with the family's educational background. We examined our data this way. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

Rabinowitz, M.B. (Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States) National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China)); Wang, J.D.; Soong, W.T. (National Taiwan Univ., Taipei (China))

1992-05-01

427

On the apparent CO2 absorption by alkaline soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkaline soils in the Gubantonggut Desert were recently demonstrated socking away large quantities of CO2 in an abiotic form. This demands a better understanding of abiotic CO2 exchange in alkaline sites. Reaction of CO2 with the moisture or dew in the soil was conjectured as a potential mechanism. The main goal of this study is to determine the extent to which the dew deposition modulates Land-Atmosphere CO2 exchange at highly alkaline sites (pH ~ 10). Experiments were conducted at the most barren sites (canopy coverage < 5%) to cut down uncertainty. Dew quantities and soil CO2 fluxes were measured using a micro-lysimeters and an automated flux system (LI-COR, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA), respectively. There is an evident increase of dew deposition in nocturnal colder temperatures and decrease in diurnal warmer temperatures. Variations of soil CO2 flux are almost contrary, but the increase in diurnal warmer temperatures is obscure. It was shown that the accumulation and evaporation of dew in the soil motivates the apparent absorption and release of CO2. It was demonstrated that dew amounts in the soil has an exponential relation with the part in Fc beyond explanations of the worldwide utilized Q10 model. Therefore dew deposition in highly alkaline soils exerted a potential CO2 sink and can partly explain the apparent CO2 absorption. This implied a crucial component in the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) at alkaline sites which occupies approximately 5% of the Earth's land surface (7 million km). Further explorations for its mechanisms and representativeness over other arid climate systems have comprehensive perspectives in the quaternary research.

Chen, X.; Wang, W. F.

2014-02-01

428

Polarized negative ions  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ beams in excess of 10 ..mu..A can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1 ..mu..A, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized /sup 3/He/sup -/ ions is followed by some concluding remarks.

Haeberli, W.

1981-04-01

429

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient without apparent immunosuppression  

PubMed Central

An 80-year-old man with no history of an immune-compromising disorder was diagnosed with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). He presented with dysphagia and left-sided weakness; magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated marked signal abnormality in the subcortical white matter of the left frontal lobe and in the posterior limb of the right internal capsule. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was negative for John Cunningham (JC) virus. On brain biopsy, foamy macrophages infiltrating the white matter were identified, staining positive for anti-simian virus 40 antibodies. Postoperatively, PCR for JC viral DNA in the CSF was positive, establishing the diagnosis of PML. Extensive investigation for an occult immunocompromising disorder was negative. The patient's neurologic deficits rapidly increased throughout his hospital stay, and he died 3.5 months after his diagnosis. PMID:20920200

2010-01-01

430

Negative Pressure Wound Therapy  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective This review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of negative pressure wound therapy. Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Many wounds are difficult to heal, despite medical and nursing care. They may result from complications of an underlying disease, like diabetes; or from surgery, constant pressure, trauma, or burns. Chronic wounds are more often found in elderly people and in those with immunologic or chronic diseases. Chronic wounds may lead to impaired quality of life and functioning, to amputation, or even to death. The prevalence of chronic ulcers is difficult to ascertain. It varies by condition and complications due to the condition that caused the ulcer. There are, however, some data on condition-specific prevalence rates; for example, of patients with diabetes, 15% are thought to have foot ulcers at some time during their lives. The approximate community care cost of treating leg ulcers in Canada, without reference to cause, has been estimated at upward of $100 million per year. Surgically created wounds can also become chronic, especially if they become infected. For example, the reported incidence of sternal wound infections after median sternotomy is 1% to 5%. Abdominal surgery also creates large open wounds. Because it is sometimes necessary to leave these wounds open and allow them to heal on their own (secondary intention), some may become infected and be difficult to heal. Yet, little is known about the wound healing process, and this makes treating wounds challenging. Many types of interventions are used to treat wounds. Current best practice for the treatment of ulcers and other chronic wounds includes debridement (the removal of dead or contaminated tissue), which can be surgical, mechanical, or chemical; bacterial balance; and moisture balance. Treating the cause, ensuring good nutrition, and preventing primary infection also help wounds to heal. Saline or wet-to-moist dressings are reported as traditional or conventional therapy in the literature, although they typically are not the first line of treatment in Ontario. Modern moist interactive dressings are foams, calcium alginates, hydrogels, hydrocolloids, and films. Topical antibacterial agents—antiseptics, topical antibiotics, and newer antimicrobial dressings—are used to treat infection. The Technology Being Reviewed Negative pressure wound therapy is not a new concept in wound therapy. It is also called subatmospheric pressure therapy, vacuum sealing, vacuum pack therapy, and sealing aspirative therapy. The aim of the procedure is to use negative pressure to create suction, which drains the wound of exudate (i.e., fluid, cells, and cellular waste that has escaped from blood vessels and seeped into tissue) and influences the shape and growth of the surface tissues in a way that helps healing. During the procedure, a piece of foam is placed over the wound, and a drain tube is placed over the foam. A large piece of transparent tape is placed over the whole area, including the healthy tissue, to secure the foam and drain the wound. The tube is connected to a vacuum source, and fluid is drawn from the wound through the foam into a disposable canister. Thus, the entire wound area is subjected to negative pressure. The device can be programmed to provide varying degrees of pressure either continuously or intermittently. It has an alarm to alert the provider or patient if the pressure seal breaks or the canister is full. Negative pressure wound therapy may be used for patients with chronic and acute wounds; subacute wounds (dehisced incisions); chronic, diabetic wounds or pressure ulcers; meshed grafts (before and after); or flaps. It should not be used for patients with fistulae to organs/body cavities, necrotic tissue that has not been debrided, untreated osteomyelitis, wound malignancy, wounds that require hemostasis, or for patients who are taking anticoagulants. Review Strategy The inclusion criteria were as follows: Randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a sample size of 20 or more Human s

2006-01-01

431

Is it time to sound an alarm about false-positive cell-free DNA testing for fetal aneuploidy?  

PubMed

Testing cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in maternal blood samples has been shown to have very high sensitivity for the detection of fetal aneuploidy with very low false-positive results in high-risk patients who undergo invasive prenatal diagnosis. Recent observation in clinical practice of several cases of positive cfDNA tests for trisomy 18 and trisomy 13, which were not confirmed by cytogenetic testing of the pregnancy, may reflect a limitation of the positive predictive value of this quantitative testing, particularly when it is used to detect rare aneuploidies. Analysis of a larger number of false-positive cases is needed to evaluate whether these observations reflect the positive predictive value that should be expected. Infrequently, mechanisms (such as low percentage mosaicism or confined placental mosaicism) might also lead to positive cfDNA testing that is not concordant with standard prenatal cytogenetic diagnosis. The need to explore these and other possible causes of false-positive cfDNA testing is exemplified by 2 of these cases. Additional evaluation of cfDNA testing in clinical practice and a mechanism for the systematic reporting of false-positive and false-negative cases will be important before this test is offered widely to the general population of low-risk obstetric patients. In the meantime, incorporating information about the positive predictive value in pretest counseling and in clinical laboratory reports is recommended. These experiences reinforce the importance of offering invasive testing to confirm cfDNA results before parental decision-making. PMID:23529082

Mennuti, Michael T; Cherry, Athena M; Morrissette, Jennifer J D; Dugoff, Lorraine

2013-11-01

432

RHD positive haplotypes in D negative Europeans  

PubMed Central

Background Blood group genotyping is increasingly utilized for prenatal diagnosis and after recent transfusions, but still lacks the specificity of serology. In whites, the presence of antigen D is predicted, if two or more properly selected RHD-specific polymorphism are detected. This prediction must fail, if an antigen D negative RHD positive allele is encountered. Excluding RHD? and CdeS frequent only in individuals of African descent, most of these alleles are unknown and the population frequency of any such allele has not been determined. Methods We screened 8,442 antigen D negative blood donations by RHD PCR-SSP. RHD PCR positive samples were further characterized by RHD exon specific PCR-SSP or sequencing. The phenotype of the identified alleles was checked and their frequencies in Germans were determined. Results We detected 50 RHD positive samples. Fifteen samples harbored one of three new Del alleles. Thirty samples were due to 14 different D negative alleles, only 5 of which were previously known. Nine of the 14 alleles may have been generated by gene conversion in cis, for which we proposed a mechanism triggered by hairpin formation of chromosomal DNA. The cumulative population frequency of the 14 D negative alleles was 1:1,500. Five samples represented a D+/- chimera, a weak D and three partial D, which had been missed by routine serology; two recipients transfused with blood of the D+/- chimera donor became anti-D immunized. Conclusion The results of this study allowed to devise an improved RHD genotyping strategy, the false-positive rate of which was lower than 1:10,000. The number of characterized RHD positive antigen D negative and Del alleles was more than doubled and their population frequencies in Europe were defined. PMID:11495631

Wagner, Franz F; Frohmajer, Alexander; Flegel, Willy A

2001-01-01

433

D-Star Panorama by Opportunity (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rovers have been getting smarter as they get older. This view from Opportunity shows the tracks left by a drive executed with more onboard autonomy than has been used on any other drive by a Mars rover.

Opportunity made the curving, 15.8-meter (52-foot) drive during its 1,160th Martian day, or sol (April 29, 2007). It was testing a navigational capability called 'Field D-star,' which enables the rover to plan optimal long-range drives around any obstacles in order to travel the most direct safe route to the drive's designated destination. Opportunity and its twin, Spirit, did not have this capability until the third year after their January 2004 landings on Mars. Earlier, they could recognize hazards when they approached them closely, then back away and try another angle, but could not always find a safe route away from hazards. Field D-Star and several other upgrades were part of new onboard software uploaded from Earth in 2006. The Sol 1,160 drive by Opportunity was a Martian field test of Field D-Star and also used several other features of autonomy, including visual odometry to track the rover's actual position after each segment of the drive, avoidance of designated keep-out zones, and combining information from two sets of stereo images to consider a wide swath of terrain in analyzing the route.

Two days later, on Sol 1,162, (May 1, 2007), Opportunity was still at the location it reached during that drive, and the rover's panoramic camera (Pancam) took the exposures combined into this image.

Victoria Crater is in the background, at the top of the image. The Sol 1,160 drive began at the place near the center of the image where tracks overlap each other. Tracks farther away were left by earlier drives nearer to the northern rim of the crater. For scale, the distance between the parallel tracks left by the rover's wheels is about 1 meter (39 inches) from the middle of one track to the middle of the other. The rocks in the center foreground are roughly 7 to 10 centimeters (3 to 4 inches) tall. The rover could actually drive over them easily, but for this test, settings in the onboard hazard-detection software were adjusted to make these smaller rocks be considered dangerous to the rover. The patch of larger rocks to the right was set as a keep-out zone. The location from which this image was taken is where the rover stopped driving to communicate with Earth. A straight line from the starting point to the destination would be 11 meters (36 feet). Opportunity plotted and followed a smoothly curved, efficient path around the rocks, always keeping the rover in safe areas.

This view combines separate images taken through the Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers. It is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene.

2008-01-01

434

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

1982-08-06

435

Do `negative' temperatures exist?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A modification of the second law is required for a system with a bounded density of states and not the introduction of a `negative' temperature scale. The ascending and descending branches of the entropy versus energy curve describe particle and hole states, having thermal equations of state that are given by the Fermi and logistic distributions, respectively. Conservation of energy requires isentropic states to be isothermal. The effect of adiabatically reversing the field is entirely mechanical because the only difference between the two states is their energies. The laws of large and small numbers, leading to the normal and Poisson approximations, characterize statistically the states of infinite and zero temperatures, respectively. Since the heat capacity also vanishes in the state of maximum disorder, the third law can be generalized in systems with a bounded density of states: the entropy tends to a constant as the temperature tends to either zero or infinity.

Lavenda, B. H.

1999-06-01

436

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

1984-01-01

437

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field. 14 figs.

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

1984-12-04

438

Negative Optical Torque  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light carries angular momentum, and as such it can exert torques on material objects. Applications of these opto-mechanical effects were limited initially due to their smallness in magnitude, but later becomes powerful and versatile after the invention of laser. Novel and practical approaches for harvesting light for particle rotation have since been demonstrated, where the structure is always subjected to a positive optical torque along a certain axis if the incident angular momentum has a positive projection on the same axis. We report here an interesting phenomenon of ``negative optical torque'', meaning that incoming photons carrying angular momentum rotate an object in the opposite sense. Surprisingly this can be realized quite straightforwardly in simple planar structures. Field retardation is a necessary condition and discrete rotational symmetry of material object plays an important role. The optimal conditions are explored and explained.

Chen, Jun; Ng, Jack; Ding, Kun; Fung, Kin Hung; Lin, Zhifang; Chan, C. T.

2014-09-01

439

Primitive Virtual Negative Charge  

E-print Network

Physical fields, such as gravity and electromagnetic field, are interpreted as results from rearrangement of vacuum particles to get the equilibrium of net charge density and net mass density in 4-dimensional complex space. Then, both fields should interact to each other in that physical interaction is considered as a field-to-field interaction. Hence, Mass-Charge interaction is introduced with primitive-virtual negative charge defined for the mass. With the concept of Mass-Charge interaction electric equilibrium of the earth is discussed, especially about the electric field and magnetic field of the earth. For unsettled phenomena related with the earth's gravity, such as antigravity phenomenon, gravity anomalies during the solar eclipses, the connection between geomagnetic storms and earthquakes, etc., possible explanations are discussed.

Kiyoung Kim

2008-11-04

440

Primitive Virtual Negative Charge  

E-print Network

Physical fields, such as gravity and electromagnetic field, are interpreted as results from rearrangement of vacuum particles to get the equilibrium of net charge density and net mass density in 4-dimensional complex space. Then, both fields should interact to each other in that physical interaction is considered as a field-to-field interaction. Hence, Mass-Charge interaction is introduced with primitive-virtual negative charge defined for the mass. With the concept of Mass-Charge interaction electric equilibrium of the earth is discussed, especially about the electric field and magnetic field of the earth. For unsettled phenomena related with the earth's gravity, such as antigravity phenomenon, gravity anomalies during the solar eclipses, the connection between geomagnetic storms and earthquakes, etc., possible explanations are discussed.

Kim, Kiyoung

2008-01-01

441

Same or different? ERP correlates of pretense and false belief reasoning in children.  

PubMed

Pretend play, emerging at about 18months, and explicit false belief (FB) understanding, arising around 4years, constitute two pivotal milestones in the development of a Theory of Mind since both involve the ability to separate real from non-real content. The developmental lag has evoked vivid discussion with respect to whether or not pretense (PT) involves a metarepresentational understanding similar to FB. However, in children PT and FB have not yet been contrasted on a neural level to reveal whether they are subserved by the same neurocognitive mechanism. Therefore, the present event-related potential (ERP) study compared PT to a FB and to a non-mental control condition in 6- to 8-year-old children. Results revealed distinct ERP components for PT and FB. PT elicited a parietal P2, which was assumed to reflect the detection of incongruence, and a negative frontal slow wave (290-600ms), which was associated with the identification of the intention underlying the pretend behavior. In contrast, FB evoked the characteristic positive fronto-central late slow wave (290-920ms) that is supposed to indicate metarepresentation. Further, the broad distribution of the anterior slow-wave patterns associated with PT and FB reasoning was assumed to reflect the ongoing structural development and neural specialization of the respective areas, indicating the developmental progress in conceptualizing the mental domain. Given the differences in latency, polarity, and topography, PT and FB seem to rely on distinct neural substrates in children. The early negative frontal slow wave indicates that for PT reasoning children may use simple mentalizing processes such as intention processing, whereas the late positive slow-wave shows that for FB children may engage in metarepresentational processing. Therefore, the present findings seem to substantiate theoretical accounts postulating simple mentalistic reasoning for PT in children. PMID:23806717

Kühn-Popp, N; Sodian, B; Sommer, M; Döhnel, K; Meinhardt, J

2013-09-17

442

Baird et al. 2008 false killer whale movements Movements of satellite-tagged false killer whales around the main Hawaiian Islands  

E-print Network

Baird et al. 2008 false killer whale movements 1 Movements of satellite-tagged false killer whales movements relative to stock boundaries and the long-line fishery exclusion boundary, satellite tags were uncertainty regarding movements of individuals and the status of this population, however, due primarily

Baird, Robin W.

443

47 CFR 0.560 - Penalty for false representation of identity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Penalty for false representation of identity. 0.560 Section 0.560...COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Privacy Act Regulations § 0...Penalty for false representation of identity. Any individual who...

2010-10-01

444

47 CFR 0.560 - Penalty for false representation of identity.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Penalty for false representation of identity. 0.560 Section 0.560...COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Privacy Act Regulations § 0...Penalty for false representation of identity. Any individual who...

2011-10-01

445

Veillonella, Firmicutes: Microbes disguised as Gram negatives  

PubMed Central

The Firmicutes represent a major component of the intestinal microflora. The intestinal Firmicutes are a large, diverse group of organisms, many of which are poorly characterized due to their anaerobic growth requirements. Although most Firmicutes are Gram positive, members of the class Negativicutes, including the genus Veillonella, stain Gram negative. Veillonella are among the most abundant organisms of the oral and intestinal microflora of animals and humans, in spite of being strict anaerobes. In this work, the genomes of 24 Negativicutes, including eight Veillonella spp., are compared to 20 other Firmicutes genomes; a further 101 prokaryotic genomes were included, covering 26 phyla. Thus a total of 145 prokaryotic genomes were analyzed by various methods to investigate the apparent conflict of the Veillonella Gram stain and their taxonomic position within the Firmicutes. Comparison of the genome sequences confirms that the Negativicutes are distantly related to Clostridium spp., based on 16S rRNA, complete genomic DNA sequences, and a consensus tree based on conserved proteins. The genus Veillonella is relatively homogeneous: inter-genus pair-wise comparison identifies at least 1,350 shared proteins, although less than half of these are found in any given Clostridium genome. Only 27 proteins are found conserved in all analyzed prokaryote genomes. Veillonella has distinct metabolic properties, and significant similarities to genomes of Proteobacteria are not detected, with the exception of a shared LPS biosynthesis pathway. The clade within the class Negativicutes to which the genus Veillonella belongs exhibits unique properties, most of which are in common with Gram-positives and some with Gram negatives. They are only distantly related to Clostridia, but are even less closely related to Gram-negative species. Though the Negativicutes stain Gram-negative and possess two membranes, the genome and proteome analysis presented here confirm their place within the (mainly) Gram positive phylum of the Firmicutes. Further studies are required to unveil the evolutionary history of the Veillonella and other Negativicutes. PMID:24976898

Vesth, Tammi; Ozen, Asl?; Andersen, Sandra C.; Kaas, Rolf Sommer; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Bohlin, Jon; Nookaew, Intawat; Wassenaar, Trudy M.; Ussery, David W.

2013-01-01

446

Normalization, testing, and false discovery rate estimation for RNA-sequencing data.  

PubMed

We discuss the identification of genes that are associated with an outcome in RNA sequencing and other sequence-based comparative genomic experiments. RNA-sequencing data take the form of counts, so models based on the Gaussian distribution are unsuitable. Moreover, normalization is challenging because different sequencing experiments may generate quite different total numbers of reads. To overcome these difficulties, we use a log-linear model with a new approach to normalization. We derive a novel procedure to estimate the false discovery rate (FDR). Our method can be applied to data with quantitative, two-class, or multiple-class outcomes, and the computation is fast even for large data sets. We study the accuracy of our approaches for significance calculation and FDR estimation, and we demonstrate that our method has potential advantages over existing methods that are based on a Poisson or negative binomial model. In summary, this work provides a pipeline for the significance analysis of sequencing data. PMID:22003245

Li, Jun; Witten, Daniela M; Johnstone, Iain M; Tibshirani, Robert

2012-07-01

447

Apparent Transition Behavior of Widely-Used Turbulence Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spalart-Allmaras and the Menter SST kappa-omega turbulence models are shown to have the undesirable characteristic that, for fully turbulent computations, a transition region can occur whose extent varies with grid density. Extremely fine two-dimensional grids over the front portion of an airfoil are used to demonstrate the effect. As the grid density is increased, the laminar region near the nose becomes larger. In the Spalart-Allmaras model this behavior is due to convergence to a laminar-behavior fixed point that occurs in practice when freestream turbulence is below some threshold. It is the result of a feature purposefully added to the original model in conjunction with a special trip function. This degenerate fixed point can also cause nonuniqueness regarding where transition initiates on a given grid. Consistent fully turbulent results can easily be achieved by either using a higher freestream turbulence level or by making a simple change to one of the model constants. Two-equation kappa-omega models, including the SST model, exhibit strong sensitivity to numerical resolution near the area where turbulence initiates. Thus, inconsistent apparent transition behavior with grid refinement in this case does not appear to stem from the presence of a degenerate fixed point. Rather, it is a fundamental property of the kappa-omega model itself, and is not easily remedied.

Rumsey, Christopher L.

2006-01-01

448

Tuning for temporal interval in human apparent motion detection.  

PubMed

Detection of apparent motion in random dot patterns requires correlation across time and space. It has been difficult to study the temporal requirements for the correlation step because motion detection also depends on temporal filtering preceding correlation and on integration at the next levels. To specifically study tuning for temporal interval in the correlation step, we performed an experiment in which prefiltering and postintegration were held constant and in which we used a motion stimulus containing coherent motion for a single interval value only. The stimulus consisted of a sparse random dot pattern in which each dot was presented in two frames only, separated by a specified interval. On each frame, half of the dots were refreshed and the other half was a displaced reincarnation of the pattern generated one or several frames earlier. Motion energy statistics in such a stimulus do not vary from frame to frame, and the directional bias in spatiotemporal correlations is similar for different interval settings. We measured coherence thresholds for left-right direction discrimination by varying motion coherence levels in a Quest staircase procedure, as a function of both step size and interval. Results show that highest sensitivity was found for an interval of 17-42 ms, irrespective of viewing distance. The falloff at longer intervals was much sharper than previously described. Tuning for temporal interval was largely, but not completely, independent of step size. The optimal temporal interval slightly decreased with increasing step size. Similarly, the optimal step size decreased with increasing temporal interval. PMID:17461670

Bours, Roger J E; Stuur, Sanne; Lankheet, Martin J M

2007-01-01

449

Apparent Transition Behavior of Widely-Used Turbulence Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Spalart-Allmaras and the Menter SST k-omega turbulence models are shown to have the undesirable characteristic that, for fully turbulent computations, a transition region can occur whose extent varies with grid density. Extremely fine two-dimensional grids over the front portion of an airfoil are used to demonstrate the effect. As the grid density is increased, the laminar region near the nose becomes larger. In the Spalart-Allmaras model this behavior is due to convergence to a laminar-behavior fixed point that occurs in practice when freestream turbulence is below some threshold. It is the result of a feature purposefully added to the original model in conjunction with a special trip function. This degenerate fixed point can also cause non-uniqueness regarding where transition initiates on a given grid. Consistent fully turbulent results can easily be achieved by either using a higher freestream turbulence level or by making a simple change to one of the model constants. Two-equation k-omega models, including the SST model, exhibit strong sensitivity to numerical resolution near the area where turbulence initiates. Thus, inconsistent apparent transition behavior with grid refinement in this case does not appear to stem from the presence of a degenerate fixed point. Rather, it is a fundamental property of the k-omega model itself, and is not easily remedied.

Rumsey, Christopher L.

2007-01-01

450

Pathogen diversity and hidden regimes of apparent competition  

PubMed Central

Competition through cross-reacting host immune responses, a form of apparent competition, is a major driver of pathogen evolution and diversity. Most models of pathogens have focused on intraspecific interactions to explain observed patterns. Two recent experiments suggested that Haemophilus influenzae, a common nasopharyngeal colonizer of humans, might alter the immune environment in a way that favors otherwise less fit serotypes of another common pathogen, pneumococcus. Using a computational model, we demonstrate that H. influenzae, if it consistently raises the fitness of the less fit serotypes, can strongly promote pneumococcal diversity. However, the effects of H. influenzae are so sensitive to the prevalence of H. influenzae that this species is unlikely to be the main driver of serotype coexistence. Interactions that significantly affect diversity could furthermore be extremely difficult to detect through co-occurrence analysis alone. These results suggest that small differences in strains’ adaptations to different immunological regimes, which are shaped by coinfections with other pathogens, can have dramatic effects on strain dynamics and patterns of phenotypic variation. Studies of microbial communities might therefore benefit from the use of varied approaches to infer the presence of indirect interactions. PMID:23234842

Cobey, Sarah; Lipsitch, Marc

2013-01-01

451

Solar cycle dependence of the apparent radius of the Sun  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Visual astrometric observations of the Sun covering the second and first part of solar cycles 22 and 23 respectively, have been carried out during the last 13 years with the Danjon astrolabe of Santiago, Chile. These observations give, among other solar parameters, an absolute value of the Sun's apparent radius. We report here the results obtained from 4092 homogeneous radius measurements at 30o and 60o zenith distances. The data set shows at both zenith distances a significant radius variation in phase with magnetic activity. Moreover, the observations at 30o, which are less affected by atmospheric noise, give a significantly higher correlation coefficient between radius variation and sunspot numbers. Other investigations of solar radius variations during the last decades based on different observing techniques, as well as two analyses of historical data, are commented. Most of them show also positive correlations between radius variation and solar activity. With the noted exception of Calern, France, the results obtained at other astrolabe stations during recent years are in agreement with Santiago. The discrepancy between Calern and Santiago and its probable cause are discussed.

Noël, F.

2004-01-01

452

Numerical calculation of apparent IR radiation of cloud  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The infrared detection has been one of important approaches for aerial target detection, but the existence of clouds in the sky makes target detection diff