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1

A Closer Look at Self-Reported Suicide Attempts: False Positives and False Negatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The validity of self-reported suicide attempt information is undermined by false positives (e.g., incidences without intent to die), or by unreported suicide attempts, referred to as false negatives. In a sample of 1,385 Austrian adults, we explored the occurrence of false positives and false negatives with detailed, probing questions. Removing…

Ploderl, Martin; Kralovec, Karl; Yazdi, Kurosch; Fartacek, Reinhold

2011-01-01

2

Comparison of mammography and breast infrared imaging: sensitivity, specificity, false negatives, false positives, positive predictive value and negative predictive value  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast infrared imaging (IRI) for detection of breast cancer has been unfairly maligned as having unacceptably high false positive and false negative rates. IRI actually has statistical performance characteristics that are similar to mammography. The false positive rate of 14% is about twice as high as mammography but surgical intervention is not possible (no increase in invasive procedures). Also, the

J. F. Head; C. A. Lipari; R. L. Elliott

1999-01-01

3

The neural network models for IDS based on the asymmetric costs of false negative errors and false positive errors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the asymmetric costs of false positive and negative errors to enhance the IDS performance. The proposed method utilizes the neural network model to consider the cost ratio of false negative errors to false positive errors. Compared with false positive errors, false negative errors incur a greater loss to organizations which are connected to the systems by networks.

Daejoon Joo; Taeho Hong; Ingoo Han

4

False Positive and False Negative FDG-PET Scans in Various Thoracic Diseases  

PubMed Central

Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) is being used more and more to differentiate benign from malignant focal lesions and it has been shown to be more efficacious than conventional chest computed tomography (CT). However, FDG is not a cancer-specific agent, and false positive findings in benign diseases have been reported. Infectious diseases (mycobacterial, fungal, bacterial infection), sarcoidosis, radiation pneumonitis and post-operative surgical conditions have shown intense uptake on PET scan. On the other hand, tumors with low glycolytic activity such as adenomas, bronchioloalveolar carcinomas, carcinoid tumors, low grade lymphomas and small sized tumors have revealed false negative findings on PET scan. Furthermore, in diseases located near the physiologic uptake sites (heart, bladder, kidney, and liver), FDG-PET should be complemented with other imaging modalities to confirm results and to minimize false negative findings. Familiarity with these false positive and negative findings will help radiologists interpret PET scans more accurately and also will help to determine the significance of the findings. In this review, we illustrate false positive and negative findings of PET scan in a variety of diseases. PMID:16549957

Chang, Jung Min; Goo, Jin Mo; Lee, Ho-Young; Lee, Jong Jin; Chung, June-Key; Im, Jung-Gi

2006-01-01

5

Origin of apparent negative cooperativity of F 1ATPase  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to get insight into the origin of apparent negative cooperativity observed for F1-ATPase, we compared ATPase activity and ATPMg binding of mutant subcomplexes of thermophilic F1-ATPase, ?(W463F)3?(Y341W)3? and ?(K175A\\/T176A\\/W463F)3?(Y341W)3?. For ?(W463F)3?(Y341W)3?, apparent Km's of ATPase kinetics (4.0 and 233 ?M) did not agree with apparent Km's deduced from fluorescence quenching of the introduced tryptophan residue (on the order of nM,

Sakurako Ono; Kiyotaka Y. Hara; Jun Hirao; Tadashi Matsui; Hiroyuki Noji; Masasuke Yoshida; Eiro Muneyuki

2003-01-01

6

Bayesian estimation of false-negative rate in a clinical trial of sentinel node biopsy.  

PubMed

Estimating the false-negative rate is a major issue in evaluating sentinel node biopsy (SNB) for staging cancer. In a large multicentre trial of SNB for intra-operative staging of clinically node-negative breast cancer, two sources of information on the false-negative rate are available.Direct information is available from a preliminary validation phase: all patients underwent SNB followed by axillary nodal clearance or sampling. Of 803 patients with successful sentinel node localization, 19 (2.4 per cent) were classed as false negatives. Indirect information is also available from the randomized phase. Ninety-seven (25.4 per cent) of 382 control patients undergoing axillary clearance had positive axillae. In the experimental group, 94/366 (25.7 per cent) were apparently node positive. Taking a simple difference of these proportions gives a point estimate of -0.3 per cent for the proportion of patients who had positive axillae but were missed by SNB. This estimate is clearly inadmissible. In this situation, a Bayesian analysis yields interpretable point and interval estimates. We consider the single proportion estimate from the validation phase; the difference between independent proportions from the randomized phase, both unconstrained and constrained to non-negativity; and combined information from the two parts of the study. As well as tail-based and highest posterior density interval estimates, we examine three obvious point estimates, the posterior mean, median and mode. Posterior means and medians are similar for the validation and randomized phases separately and combined, all between 2 and 3 per cent, indicating similarity rather than conflict between the two data sources. PMID:17133626

Newcombe, Robert G

2007-08-15

7

Retouched bloom filters: allowing networked applications to trade off selected false positives against false negatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Where distributed agents must share voluminous set mem- bership information, Bloom filters provide a compact, though lossy, way for them to do so. Numerous recent networking papers have examined the trade-offs between the bandwidth consumed by the transmission of Bloom filters, and the er- ror rate, which takes the form of false positives, and which rises the more the filters

Benoit Donnet; Bruno Baynat; Timur Friedman

2006-01-01

8

False fire alarms have a negative impact on UW operations False (or nuisance) alarms are very disruptive to UW operations. The alarms  

E-print Network

False fire alarms have a negative impact on UW operations False (or nuisance) alarms are very emergency. False alarms also have a negative impact on the community. Because police and fire departments vehicles out of service. This negatively impacts the City's ability to service their citizens. False fire

Wilcock, William

9

Apparent Negative Interference Due to Variation in Recombination Frequencies  

PubMed Central

Variation in recombination frequencies may lead to a bias in the estimated interference value in a linkage experiment. Depending on the pattern of variation, the bias may be toward negative interference or toward positive interference, even when there is positive interference at the cytological level. In this paper we have mainly concentrated on the case of negative interference. We use models to quantify this effect when data are derived from a backcross experiment or from the selfing of F(1) individuals. The effect is quantitatively similar in the two cases. There is an upper limit to the size the bias may reach for every given level of recombination. Two reported cases of negative interference in Drosophila and cultivated barley fall within this possible parameter range, i.e., the observed negative interference values could--at least in principle--be due solely to a variation in the recombination frequencies in the experiments. PMID:2759431

Sall, T.; Bengtsson, B. O.

1989-01-01

10

Using sniffing behavior to differentiate true negative from false negative responses in trained scent-detection dogs.  

PubMed

False negatives are recorded in every chemical detection system, but when animals are used as a scent detector, some false negatives can arise as a result of a failure in the link between detection and the trained alert response, or a failure of the handler to identify the positive alert. A false negative response can be critical in certain scenarios, such as searching for a live person or detecting explosives. In this study, we investigated whether the nature of sniffing behavior in trained detection dogs during a controlled scent-detection task differs in response to true positives, true negatives, false positives, and false negatives. A total of 200 videos of 10 working detection dogs were pseudorandomly selected and analyzed frame by frame to quantify sniffing duration and the number of sniffing episodes recorded in a Go/No-Go single scent-detection task using an eight-choice test apparatus. We found that the sniffing duration of true negatives is significantly shorter than false negatives, true positives, and false positives. Furthermore, dogs only ever performed one sniffing episode towards true negatives, but two sniffing episodes commonly occurred in the other situations. These results demonstrate how the nature of sniffing can be used to more effectively assess odor detection by dogs used as biological detection devices. PMID:25214467

Concha, Astrid; Mills, Daniel S; Feugier, Alexandre; Zulch, Helen; Guest, Claire; Harris, Rob; Pike, Thomas W

2014-11-01

11

INCIDENCE AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF FALSE-NEGATIVE SEXTANT PROSTATE BIOPSIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeSince most patients do not undergo repeat sextant prostate biopsies after a biopsy is positive for prostate cancer, the true incidence of false-negative biopsies is not well defined. We assess the incidence and clinical significance of false-negative sextant prostate biopsies in patients undergoing radical prostatectomy.

FARHANG RABBANI; NICHOLAS STROUMBAKIS; BRUCE R. KAVA; MICHAEL S. COOKSON; WILLIAM R. FAIR

1998-01-01

12

Exclusively breastfed infants at risk for false negative double blind placebo controlled milk challenge.  

PubMed

The double blind placebo controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) is the gold standard for diagnosing cow's milk allergy (CMA). However, false-negative DBPCFC have been reported. We present 2 cases with a false negative DBPCFC in exclusively breastfed infants suspected of CMA. These cases highlight the occurrence of severe allergic reactions of infants who were exclusively breastfed. Several reported causes of a false negative DBPCFC will be discussed. However, there is currently no clear understanding of the cause of a false negative DBPCFC. This paper highlights that a negative outcome of a DBFCFC must be interpreted with caution, because a severe allergic reaction might occur upon re-introduction of cow's milk. Therefore, an additional open food challenge under medical supervision is recommended in exclusively breastfed infants with a negative DBPCFC. PMID:24702875

Petrus, N C M; Kole, E A; Schoemaker, A A; van Aalderen, W M C; Sprikkelman, A B

2014-01-01

13

Limited Agreement of Independent RNAi Screens for Virus-Required Host Genes Owes More to False-Negative than False-Positive Factors  

PubMed Central

Systematic, genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) analysis is a powerful approach to identify gene functions that support or modulate selected biological processes. An emerging challenge shared with some other genome-wide approaches is that independent RNAi studies often show limited agreement in their lists of implicated genes. To better understand this, we analyzed four genome-wide RNAi studies that identified host genes involved in influenza virus replication. These studies collectively identified and validated the roles of 614 cell genes, but pair-wise overlap among the four gene lists was only 3% to 15% (average 6.7%). However, a number of functional categories were overrepresented in multiple studies. The pair-wise overlap of these enriched-category lists was high, ?19%, implying more agreement among studies than apparent at the gene level. Probing this further, we found that the gene lists implicated by independent studies were highly connected in interacting networks by independent functional measures such as protein-protein interactions, at rates significantly higher than predicted by chance. We also developed a general, model-based approach to gauge the effects of false-positive and false-negative factors and to estimate, from a limited number of studies, the total number of genes involved in a process. For influenza virus replication, this novel statistical approach estimates the total number of cell genes involved to be ?2,800. This and multiple other aspects of our experimental and computational results imply that, when following good quality control practices, the low overlap between studies is primarily due to false negatives rather than false-positive gene identifications. These results and methods have implications for and applications to multiple forms of genome-wide analysis. PMID:24068911

Wang, Zhishi; Craven, Mark; Newton, Michael A.; Ahlquist, Paul

2013-01-01

14

A gender difference in the false recall of negative words: women DRM more than men.  

PubMed

Gender differences in susceptibility to associative memory illusions in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm were investigated using negative and neutral word lists. Women (n=50) and men (n=50) studied 20 lists of 12 words that were associates of a non-presented critical lure. Ten lists were associates of negatively valenced lures (e.g., cry, evil) and ten were associates of neutral lures (e.g., chair, slow). When asked to recall the words after each list, women falsely recalled more negative lures than men, but there was no gender difference in the false recall of neutral lures. These findings suggest that women reflect on associations within negative lists to a greater degree than men and are thereby more likely to generate the negative critical lures. PMID:21432635

Dewhurst, Stephen A; Anderson, Rachel J; Knott, Lauren M

2012-01-01

15

Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring  

PubMed Central

Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups. PMID:22787019

Hamel, Jennifer A.; Cocroft, Reginald B.

2012-01-01

16

False-negative prostate needle biopsies: frequency, histopathologic features, and follow-up.  

PubMed

Little is known about the frequency, histopathologic characteristics, and clinical consequences of false-negative prostate biopsies, that is, biopsies classified as benign but containing adenocarcinoma or atypical suspicious glands [atypical small acinar proliferations (ASAP)]. Objective of this study was to evaluate false-negative prostate biopsy in a prostate cancer screening setting. Prostate biopsy sets of 196 participants of a screening trial, which had been reported as "benign" at initial diagnosis, followed by a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in a subsequent screening round were reviewed by 2 urologic pathologists. Adenocarcinoma was identified in 19 biopsy cores corresponding to 16 (8.2%) patients and ASAP in 24 cores, corresponding to 19 patients (9.7%). All missed prostate cancers were Gleason score 6 (3+3). After correction for patient selection, the overall false-negative biopsy rate was estimated to be 2.4%; 1.1% for prostate cancer; and 1.3% for ASAP. Clinicopathologic features at the time of initial biopsy and of subsequent prostate cancer diagnosis did not differ between patients with a false-negative or true benign biopsy. Relatively low number of atypical glands (<10 glands), intense intermingling with preexistent glands or lack of architectural disorganization were the most prominent risk factors for a false-negative diagnosis. Another potential pitfall was the presence of prostate cancer variants, as 1 adenocarcinoma was of foamy gland type and 3 of pseudohyperplastic type. Routine examination of at least 1 level of prostate biopsy sets at high magnification and awareness of histologic prostate cancer variants might reduce the risk of missing or misinterpreting a relevant lesion at prostate biopsy evaluation. PMID:19935058

Wolters, Tineke; van der Kwast, Theodorus H; Vissers, Cornelis J; Bangma, Chris H; Roobol, Monique; Schröder, Fritz H; van Leenders, Geert J L H

2010-01-01

17

Case Report: False Negative Serum Cryptococcal Latex Agglutination Test in a Patient with Disseminated Cryptococcal Disease.  

PubMed

A case of false-negative serum latex agglutination cryptococcal antigen (CRAG) test in a 45-year-old HIV-positive male with Cryptococcus-positive culture is described. The patient was presented to a hospital in Botswana, with breathlessness and a diffuse papular rash. His CD4 count was 25 cells/?L. Despite the suspicion for disseminated cryptococcal disease, an initial serum CRAG latex test was negative. Results of subsequent Indian ink staining, culture of cerebrospinal fluid and skin scrapings, and serum lateral flow immunoassay (LFA) were all positive for Cryptococcus neoformans. There are several possible explanations for the false-negative CRAG latex test. Given the positive LFA result, we speculate that disease may have been caused by Cryptococcus gattii, which is estimated to be responsible for between 15% and 30% of all cryptococcal diseases in Botswana. Reduced sensitivity of CRAG latex assays for detecting C gattii may lead to underdiagnosis of cryptococcal infection. PMID:25331223

Navabi, N; Montebatsi, M; Scott, M; Gluckman, S; Reid, Michael J A

2014-10-20

18

False-negative biopsy urease test in bleeding ulcers caused by the buffering effects of blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: A false-negative biopsy urease test (BUT) is common in Helicobacter pylori-associated bleeding peptic ulcers. Although blood in the stomach is thought to interfere with the biopsy urease test, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. This in vitro experiment sought to identify the blood component(s) that interfere with the biopsy urease test, and delineate the mechanism of inhibition. Methods: The modified

W. K. Leung; Joseph J. Y. Sung; Kris L. K. Siu; Francis K. L. Chan; Thomas K. W. Ling; Augustine F. B. Cheng

1998-01-01

19

False-negative biopsy urease test in bleeding ulcers caused by the buffering effects of blood  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:A false-negative biopsy urease test (BUT) is common in Helicobacter pylori-associated bleeding peptic ulcers. Although blood in the stomach is thought to interfere with the biopsy urease test, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. This in vitro experiment sought to identify the blood component(s) that interfere with the biopsy urease test, and delineate the mechanism of inhibition.Methods:The modified Hazell's microtiter test

W. K. Leung; Joseph J. Y. Sung; Kris L. K. Siu; Francis K. L. Chan; Thomas K. W. Ling; Augustine F. B. Cheng; Joseph J Y Sung

1998-01-01

20

Kinetic Evidence of an Apparent Negative Activation Enthalpy in an Organocatalytic Process  

PubMed Central

A combined kinetic and computational study on our tryptophan-based bifunctional thiourea catalyzed asymmetric Mannich reactions reveals an apparent negative activation enthalpy. The formation of the pre-transition state complex has been unambiguously confirmed and these observations provide an experimental support for the formation of multiple hydrogen bonding network between the substrates and the catalyst. Such interactions allow the creation of a binding cavity, a key factor to install high enantioselectivity. PMID:23990028

Han, Xiao; Lee, Richmond; Chen, Tao; Luo, Jie; Lu, Yixin; Huang, Kuo-Wei

2013-01-01

21

False-negative dipyridamole-thallium-201 myocardial imaging after caffeine infusion  

SciTech Connect

The vasodilator effect of intravenously administered dipyridamole may be caused by an increase in endogenous plasma adenosine levels. The authors evaluated the effect of caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, on the diagnostic results of dipyridamole-201Tl myocardial imaging in eight patients with coronary artery disease. Caffeine infusion significantly attenuated the dipyridamole-induced fall in blood pressure and the accompanied increase in heart rate. The infusion of dipyridamole alone resulted in chest pain and ST-segment depressions on the electrocardiogram in four patients, whereas none of these problems occurred when the tests were repeated after caffeine. In six of eight patients, caffeine was responsible for false-negative dipyridamole-201Tl tests. Semiquantitive scores of the dipyridamole-induced 201Tl perfusion defects were decreased by caffeine from 9.0 {plus minus} 0.9 to 2.0 {plus minus} 1.1 points (p less than 0.05). Computerized analysis revealed a caffeine-mediated reduction in the percent reversibility of the images from 46% {plus minus} 16% to 6% {plus minus} 10% (p less than 0.05). They conclude that the use of caffeinated products prior to dipyridamole-201Tl testing may be responsible for false-negative findings.

Smits, P.; Corstens, F.H.; Aengevaeren, W.R.; Wackers, F.J.; Thien, T. (University Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands))

1991-08-01

22

Brain dead or not? CT angiogram yielding false-negative result on brain death confirmation  

PubMed Central

We describe a case of severe traumatic brain injury with multiple facial and skull fractures where CT angiogram (CTA) failed to yield a definite result of brain death as an ancillary test. A 28-year-old man was admitted following a road traffic accident with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 3/15 and fixed pupils. CT brain revealed uncal herniation and diffuse cerebral oedema with associated multiple facial and skull fractures. 72?h later, his clinical condition remained the same with high intracranial pressure refractory to medical management. Clinical confirmation on brain death was not feasible owing to facial injuries. A CTA, performed to determine brain perfusion, yielded a ‘false-negative’ result. Skull fractures have possibly led to venous prominence in the cortical and deep venous drainage system. This point needs to be borne in mind while considering CTA as an ancillary test to confirm brain death. PMID:23302550

Johnston, Robyn; Kaliaperumal, Chandrasekaran; Wyse, Gerald; Kaar, George

2013-01-01

23

A highly sensitive telomerase activity assay that eliminates false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors.  

PubMed

An assay for telomerase activity based on asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (A-PCR) on magnetic beads (MBs) and subsequent application of cycling probe technology (CPT) is described. In this assay, the telomerase reaction products are immobilized on MBs, which are then washed to remove PCR inhibitors that are commonly found in clinical samples. The guanine-rich sequences (5'-(TTAGGG)n-3') of the telomerase reaction products are then preferentially amplified by A-PCR, and the amplified products are subsequently detected via CPT, where a probe RNA with a fluorophore at the 5' end and a quencher at the 3' end is hydrolyzed by RNase H in the presence of the target DNA. The catalyst-mediated cleavage of the probe RNA enhances fluorescence from the 5' end of the probe. The assay allowed us to successfully detect HeLa cells selectively over normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cells. Importantly, this selectivity produced identical results with regard to detection of HeLa cells in the absence and presence of excess NHDF cells; therefore, this assay can be used for practical clinical applications. The lower limit of detection for HeLa cells was 50 cells, which is lower than that achieved with a conventional telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay. Our assay also eliminated false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors. Furthermore, we show that this assay is appropriate for screening among G-quadruplex ligands to find those that inhibit telomerase activity. PMID:24071983

Yaku, Hidenobu; Murashima, Takashi; Miyoshi, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Naoki

2013-01-01

24

False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method  

PubMed Central

Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10 × 10?3 to 1.86 CFU/cm2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (?1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions. PMID:22138998

Piepel, Greg F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

2012-01-01

25

Classification of radiological errors in chest radiographs, using support vector machine on the spatial frequency features of false- negative and false-positive regions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aim: To optimize automated classification of radiological errors during lung nodule detection from chest radiographs (CxR) using a support vector machine (SVM) run on the spatial frequency features extracted from the local background of selected regions. Background: The majority of the unreported pulmonary nodules are visually detected but not recognized; shown by the prolonged dwell time values at false-negative regions. Similarly, overestimated nodule locations are capturing substantial amounts of foveal attention. Spatial frequency properties of selected local backgrounds are correlated with human observer responses either in terms of accuracy in indicating abnormality position or in the precision of visual sampling the medical images. Methods: Seven radiologists participated in the eye tracking experiments conducted under conditions of pulmonary nodule detection from a set of 20 postero-anterior CxR. The most dwelled locations have been identified and subjected to spatial frequency (SF) analysis. The image-based features of selected ROI were extracted with un-decimated Wavelet Packet Transform. An analysis of variance was run to select SF features and a SVM schema was implemented to classify False-Negative and False-Positive from all ROI. Results: A relative high overall accuracy was obtained for each individually developed Wavelet-SVM algorithm, with over 90% average correct ratio for errors recognition from all prolonged dwell locations. Conclusion: The preliminary results show that combined eye-tracking and image-based features can be used for automated detection of radiological error with SVM. The work is still in progress and not all analytical procedures have been completed, which might have an effect on the specificity of the algorithm.

Pietrzyk, Mariusz W.; Donovan, Tim; Brennan, Patrick C.; Dix, Alan; Manning, David J.

2011-03-01

26

Significant reduction in the rate of false-negative cervical smears with neural network-based technology (PAPNET Testing System).  

PubMed

False-negative cervical Pap smears may lead to disability or death from carcinoma of the uterine cervix. New computer technology has led to the development of an interactive, neural network-based vision instrument to increase the accuracy of cervical smear screening. The instrument belongs to a new class of medical devices designed to provide computer-aided diagnosis (CADx). To test the instrument's performance, 487 archival negative smears (index smears) from 228 women with biopsy-documented high-grade precancerous lesions or invasive cervical carcinoma (index women) were retrieved from the files of 10 participating laboratories that were using federally mandated quality assurance procedures. Samples of sequential negative smears (total 9,666) were retrieved as controls. The instrument was used to identify evidence of missed cytological abnormalities, including atypical squamous or glandular cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, AGUS), low-grade or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, HSIL) and carcinoma. Using the instrument, 98 false-negative index smears were identified in 72 of the 228 index women (31.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 25% to 38%). Disregarding the debatable categories of ASCUS or AGUS, there were 44 women whose false-negative smears disclosed squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) or carcinoma (19.3%; 95% CI: 14.2% to 24.4%). Unexpectedly, SILs were also identified in 127 of 9,666 control negative smears (1.3%; 95% CI: 1.1% to 1.5%). Compared with historical performance data from several participating laboratories, the instrument increased the detection rate of SILs in control smears by 25% and increased the yield of quality control rescreening 5.1 times (P < 0.0001). These data provide evidence that conventional screening and quality control rescreening of cervical smears fail to identify a substantial number of abnormalities. A significant improvement in performance of screening of cervical smears could be achieved with the use of the instrument described in this report. PMID:9343327

Koss, L G; Sherman, M E; Cohen, M B; Anes, A R; Darragh, T M; Lemos, L B; McClellan, B J; Rosenthal, D L; Keyhani-Rofagha, S; Schreiber, K; Valente, P T

1997-10-01

27

Yale study finds false negative tests in breast cancer may lead to wrong drug choice:  

Cancer.gov

A team of Yale Cancer Center researchers has confirmed that between 10-20% of breast cancers classified as Estrogen Receptor (ER) negative are really positive. Understanding when and why breast cancers may be misclassified has important implications for treatment and outcomes for women diagnosed with breast cancer.

28

Improved quality-control detection of false-negative Pap smears using the Autopap 300 QC system.  

PubMed

Federally-mandated quality control (QC) in Papanicolaou (Pap) smear testing requires rescreening of 10% of negative smears, to include cases selected randomly as well as smears from patients that may have a higher risk for developing cervical cancer based on clinical information. FDA approval of NeoPath's AutoPap 300 QC system (NeoPath, Inc., Redmond, WA) allows practical QC rescreening of all negatives. We tested the ability of AutoPap to help increase identification of detection errors compared to random 10%/high-risk selection. From March 1-August 30, 1997, we utilized AutoPap/high-risk status to select cases for manual rescreen, and compared the rate of identification of primary screening errors to that for the preceding year using 10% random selection/high-risk status. Of 35,027 smears accessioned, 31,240 (89.1%) were screened as negative and 7,965 were selected for manual rescreen. Of these, 353 were determined to be abnormal. Most abnormals identified by this protocol were classified as atypical squamous or glandular cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS or AGUS). However, 59 low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL) and 13 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), many with few abnormal cells, were also identified. These results represented an increase in pickup rate of false negative due to detection errors of 2.3-, 2.8- and 5.6-fold for atypical squamous or glandular cells of undetermined significance, LSIL, and HSIL, respectively, when accounting for the volume differences over the time period measured. Our findings strongly support the conclusions drawn from clinical trials of the AutoPap that false negatives due to detection error can be significantly reduced when using AutoPap as part of a routine quality control program. PMID:10086244

Marshall, C J; Rowe, L; Bentz, J S

1999-03-01

29

[Subareolar injection: a potential cause of false negative in the selective biopsy of the sentinel node in breast cancer].  

PubMed

Sentinel node biopsy has become the standard practice in lymph node staging in breast cancer in early stages. However, uncertainty remains regarding the best method of radiotracer/dye injection. Currently, the subareolar injection is being widely used because of its technical simplicity and higher rates of SN location versus the so-called deep techniques (peritumoral, intratumoral) that require greater specialization and greater use of resources in the non-palpable lesions. We present a case of a discrepancy between the two techniques that could have caused a false negative. PMID:21440959

Rioja Martín, M E; Ortega Pérez, G; Cabañas Montero, L J; Muñoz-Madero, V; Cabañas Navarro, L

2011-01-01

30

Detectability of the Eurasian otter by standard surveys: an approach using marking intensity to estimate false negative rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

False negative detections may bias the surveys for rare species and reduce the reliability of models based on the proportion of occupied patches. We assessed the detectability of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra through the standard survey method by analysing the detection history of 28 sampling stretches surveyed monthly between March 2001 and January 2003. Each survey negative for otter spraints was considered as a false negative if the otter had been recorded in the previous and/or following month (respectively, cFN and FN). Otter marking intensity (MI) (MI=N° of spraints per kilometre) was calculated and assumed to represent an index of its relative abundance. Spraints were found in 81.7% of all surveys. Yearly MI ranged from 1.02 to 101.4 spraints per kilometre. In 2002, mean MI was significantly lower than in the previous year, while no clear seasonal trend could be outlined. The minimum number of surveys required to establish the occurrence of the otter, as estimated by a probability model, was 2.6 and was inversely related to MI. For a sub-sample of 18 sampling stretches, the relation between the frequency of both cFN and FN and five variables of potential interest for otters was tested by means of stepwise linear multiple regressions, yielding two highly significant models, which both included only MI as the explanatory variable. The frequency of both FN and cFN was correlated to MI and the resulting equations used to assess the percentage of surveys positive for otters in both years. After the correction for non-detections, otter site occupancy did not vary between the 2 years, except for one river when applying the more conservative estimate of false negatives (cFN). Multiple visits and the assessing of MI should become standard components of otter surveys. This approach has broad applicability and may be applied to assess the large-scale distribution of other rare or elusive mammalian carnivores.

Balestrieri, Alessandro; Remonti, Luigi; Prigioni, Claudio

2011-01-01

31

Serum Thyroglobulin (Tg) Monitoring of Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Using Sensitive (Second-Generation) Immunometric Assays Can Be Disrupted by False-Negative and False-Positive Serum Thyroglobulin Autoantibody Misclassifications  

PubMed Central

Context: Reliable thyroglobulin (Tg) autoantibody (TgAb) detection before Tg testing for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) is critical when TgAb status (positive/negative) is used to authenticate sensitive second-generation immunometric assay (2GIMA) measurements as free from TgAb interference and when reflexing “TgAb-positive” sera to TgAb-resistant, but less sensitive, Tg methodologies (radioimmunoassay [RIA] or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry [LC-MS/MS]). Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess how different Kronus (K) vs Roche (R) TgAb method cutoffs for “positivity” influence false-negative vs false-positive serum TgAb misclassifications that may reduce the clinical utility of reflex Tg testing. Methods: Serum Tg2GIMA, TgRIA, and TgLC-MS/MS measurements for 52 TgAb-positive and 37 TgAb-negative patients with persistent/recurrent DTC were compared. A total of 1426 DTC sera with TgRIA of ?1.0 ?g/L had false-negative and false-positive TgAb frequencies determined using low Tg2GIMA/TgRIA ratios (<75%) to indicate TgAb interference. Results: TgAb-negative patients with disease displayed Tg2GIMA, TgRIA, and TgLC-MS/MS serum discordances (% coefficient of variation = 24 ± 20%, range, 0%–100%). Of the TgAb-positive patients with disease, 98% had undetectable/lower Tg2GIMA vs either TgRIA or TgLC-MS/MS (P < .01), whereas 8 of 52 (15%) had undetectable Tg2GIMA + TgLC-MS/MS associated with TgRIA of ?1.0 ?g/L. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis reported more sensitivity for TgAb method K vs R (81.9% vs 69.1%, P < .001), but receiver operating characteristic curve cutoffs (>0.6 kIU/L [K] vs >40 kIU/L [R]) had unacceptably high false-negative frequencies (22%–32%), whereas false positives approximated 12%. Functional sensitivity cutoffs minimized false negatives (13.5% [K] vs 21.3% [R], P < .01) and severe interferences (Tg2GIMA, <0.10 ?g/L) (0.7% [K] vs 2.4% [R], P < .05) but false positives approximated 23%. Conclusions: Reliable detection of interfering TgAbs is method and cutoff dependent. No cutoff eliminated both false-negative and false-positive TgAb misclassifications. Functional sensitivity cutoffs were optimal for minimizing false negatives but have inherent imprecision (20% coefficient of variation) that, exacerbated by TgAb biologic variability during DTC monitoring, could cause TgAb status to fluctuate for patients with low TgAb concentrations, prompting unnecessary Tg method changes and disrupting Tg monitoring. Laboratories using reflexing should limit Tg method changes by considering a patient's Tg + TgAb testing history in addition to current TgAb status before Tg method selection. PMID:25226290

Petrovic, Ivana; Fatemi, Shireen; LoPresti, Jonathan

2014-01-01

32

False negative rate and other performance measures of a sponge-wipe surface sampling method for low contaminant concentrations.  

SciTech Connect

Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces is known to vary due to sampling methodology, techniques, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. A series of tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge-wipe method. Specific factors evaluated were the effects of contaminant concentrations and surface materials on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD) - and the uncertainties of these quantities. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show a roughly linear dependence of surface roughness on RE, where the smoothest surfaces have the highest mean RE values. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3 x 10{sup -3} to 1.86 CFU/cm{sup 2}). The FNR data were consistent with RE data, showing a trend of smoother surfaces resulting in higher REs and lower FNRs. Stainless steel generally had the lowest mean FNR (0.123) and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD{sub 90} varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm{sup 2} on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. Selecting sampling locations on the basis of surface roughness and using roughness to interpret spore recovery data can improve sampling. Further, FNR values, calculated as a function of concentration and surface material, can be used pre-sampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance, and post-sampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

Einfeld, Wayne; Krauter, Paula A.; Boucher, Raymond M.; Tezak, Mathew; Amidan, Brett G. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA); Piepel, Greg F. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA)

2011-05-01

33

Tracking false-negative results in molecular diagnosis: proposal of a triplex-PCR based method for leishmaniasis diagnosis  

PubMed Central

Background Molecular biological methods have become increasingly relevant to the diagnosis and control of infectious diseases, such as leishmaniasis. Since various factors may affect the sensitivity of PCR assays, including DNA yield and purity, an optimal extraction method is pivotal. Losses of a parasite’s DNA during extraction may significantly impair its detection by PCR and lead to false-negative results. This study proposes a triplex PCR assay targeting the parasite’s DNA, an external control (pUC18) and an internal control (G3PD) for accurate diagnosis of leishmaniasis. Results Two primer pairs were designed to detect the plasmid pUC18 and a triplex PCR assay targeting the Leishmania braziliensis kinetoplast DNA, the external control and the internal control was standardized. The triplex PCR assay was assessed for its ability to detect the three target DNA fragments simultaneously. PCR products from pUC18 DNA resulted in bands of 368 (P1) and 316 (P2) base pairs (bp). The triplex PCR optimized with the chosen external control system (P1) allowed the simultaneous detection of the internal control (G3PD – 567 bp) as well as of small quantities (10 pg) of the target parasite’s DNA, detected by amplification of a 138 bp product. Conclusions The new tool standardized herein enables a more reliable interpretation of PCR results, mainly by contributing to quality assurance of leishmaniasis diagnosis. Furthermore, after simple standardization steps, this protocol could be applied to the diagnosis of other infectious diseases in reference laboratories. This triplex PCR enables the assessment of small losses during the DNA extraction process, problems concerning DNA degradation (sample quality) and the detection of L. braziliensis kDNA. PMID:24808911

2014-01-01

34

Effects of Maternal Negativity and of Early and Recent Recurrent Depressive Disorder on Children's False Belief Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that children of depressed mothers are at risk for problems in a variety of developmental domains; however, little is known about the effects of maternal depression on children's emerging understanding of false beliefs. In this study, 3 false belief tasks were administered to 5-year-old children whose mothers had either met…

Rohrer, Lisa M.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.; Maughan, Angeline

2011-01-01

35

Factors affecting failed localisation and false-negative rates of sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer – results of the ALMANAC validation phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground  Despite the widespread application of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for early stage breast cancer, there is a wide variation in reported test performance characteristics. A major aim of this prospective multicentre validation study was to quantify detection and false-negative rates of SLNB and evaluate factors influencing them.Methods  Eight-hundred and fourty-two patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer underwent SLNB according to

Amit Goyal; Robert G Newcombe; Alok Chhabra; Robert E Mansel

2006-01-01

36

Experimental Design for a Macrofoam-Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam-swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (culture and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated how the false negative rate depends on test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam-swab sampling at low concentrations.

Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

2014-12-05

37

Experimental Design for a Macrofoam Swab Study Relating the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to Low Concentrations of Two Bacillus anthracis Surrogates on Four Surface Materials  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the experimental design for a laboratory study to quantify the recovery efficiencies and false negative rates of a validated, macrofoam swab sampling method for low concentrations of Bacillus anthracis Sterne (BAS) and Bacillus atrophaeus (BG) spores on four surface materials (stainless steel, glass, vinyl tile, plastic light cover panel). Two analytical methods (plating/counting and polymerase chain reaction) will be used. Only one previous study has investigated false negative as a function of affecting test factors. The surrogates BAS and BG have not been tested together in the same study previously. Hence, this study will provide for completing gaps in the available information on the performance of macrofoam swab sampling at low concentrations.

Piepel, Gregory F.; Hutchison, Janine R.

2014-04-16

38

False-negative dengue cases in Roraima, Brazil: an approach regarding the high number of negative results by NS1 ag kits.  

PubMed

Serum samples from 150 NS1-negative (Platelia ELISA) patients presumptively diagnosed with dengue were analyzed by the TaqMan probed real-time reverse transcription PCR (TaqMan qRT-PCR) method. The qRT-PCR positive samples were tested for serotype by semi-nested RT-PCR and a qualitative immunochromatographic assay for IgG and IgM. Molecular detection methods showed 33 (22%) positive samples out of 150 NS1-antigen negative samples. Of these, 72% were collected up to day 2 after the onset of symptoms, when diagnostic sensitivity of NS1-antigen test assays is significantly enhanced. Most of the cases were not characterized as secondary infection. Twenty-eight samples were successfully serotyped, 75% of which for DENV-4, 14% for DENV-2, 7% for DENV-3 and 4% for DENV-1. These findings reaffirm the hyperendemic situation of the state of Roraima and suggest a lower sensitivity of the NS1 test, mainly when DENV-4 is the predominant serotype. Health care providers should therefore be aware of samples tested negative by NS1 antigen assays, especially when clinical symptoms and other laboratory data results show evidence of dengue infection. PMID:25229228

Acosta, Pablo O A; Granja, Fabiana; Meneses, Cátia A; Nascimento, Ismael A S; Sousa, Débora D; Lima Júnior, Wilson P; Naveca, Felipe Gomes

2014-01-01

39

Serum albumin and globulin analysis for hepatocellular carcinoma detection avoiding false-negative results from alpha-fetoprotein test negative subjects  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of serum albumin and globulin were employed to detect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Tentative assignments of SERS bands show specific biomolecular changes associated with cancer development. These changes include a decrease in relative amounts of tryptophan, glutamine, glycine, and serine, indicating excessive consumption of amino acids for protein duplication. Principal component analysis was also introduced to analyze the obtained spectra, resulting in both diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 100%. More importantly, it reveals that this method can detect HCC patients with alpha-fetoprotein negative test results, suggesting its great potential as a new alternative to detect HCC.

Wang, Jing; Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Juqiang; Zeng, Yongyi; Li, Ling; Huang, Zufang; Li, Buhong; Zeng, Haishan; Chen, Rong

2013-11-01

40

Control of bovine virus diarrhoea at the herd level: reducing the risk of false negatives in the detection of persistently infected cattle.  

PubMed

The need to detect and eliminate cattle persistently infected (PI) with bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is key to the control of BVD and has been shown to be very effective in eradicating BVDV from infected herds. However, because of pitfalls in the detection procedures, some PI animals can be missed and, as a result, are not identified and removal is delayed. The high prevalence of BVDV in cattle populations in some countries (such as Belgium and neighbouring countries) means there is a high risk of reinfection of a herd from which BVDV has been eradicated. Based on both practical experience and a literature study, this review considers those points that are critical to minimising the number of false negatives in the detection of PI cattle. PMID:19157928

Laureyns, Jozef; Ribbens, Stefaan; de Kruif, Aart

2010-04-01

41

Implementation of the Bacillus cereus microbiological plate used for the screening of tetracyclines in raw milk samples with STAR protocol - the problem with false-negative results solved.  

PubMed

In antibiotic residue analyses the first step of screening is just as important as the following steps. Screening methods need to be quick and inexpensive, but above all sensitive enough to detect the antibiotic residue at or below the maximum residue limit (MRL). In the case of a positive result, the next step is conducted and further methods are used for confirmation. MRLs stated in European Union Regulation 37/2010 for tetracyclines in raw milk are: 100 µg kg(-1) for tetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for oxytetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for chlortetracycline and no limit for doxycycline because it is prohibited for use in animals from which milk is produced for human consumption. The current five-plate microbiological screening method for the detection of antibiotic residues in raw milk was found to be simple and inexpensive, but not specific, sensitive and reliable enough to detect tetracycline at MRL in routine raw milk screening procedures. Spiking samples with tetracycline at the MRL level and applying them on Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 microbiological plates often gave false-negative results, indicating that tetracyclines may have to be inactivated or masked. Tetracyclines seem to bind to a certain component in milk. Consequently, when applying samples to the B. cereus microbiological plate the antibiotic cannot inhibit the growth of B. cereus which disables the formation of inhibition zones on the test plate. After adding the appropriate amount of citric acid into the milk samples, we solved the problem of false-negative results. During the validation 79 samples of milk were spiked with tetracyclines at different concentrations: 100 µg kg(-1) for tetracycline, 100 µg kg(-1) for oxytetracycline, 80 µg kg(-1) for chlortetracycline and 30 µg kg(-1) for doxycycline. Concentrations used in the validation matched the requirements for MRLs (they were either at or below the MRLs) stated in European Union Regulation 37/2010. The sensitivity of the validation was 100%. PMID:25230820

Raspor Lainš?ek, P; Biasizzo, M; Henigman, U; Dolenc, J; Kirbiš, A

2014-01-01

42

Dose-to-dose variations with single packages of counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements as a potential source of false negatives and inaccurate health risk assessments.  

PubMed

In this report, we show three examples of how the variability in dose units in single packages of counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements may contribute to a false negative screening result and inaccurate health risk assessments. We describe a counterfeit Viagra 100mg blister pack and a box of an instant coffee both containing dose units with and without an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). We also describe a purportedly herbal slimming product with capsules that mutually differed in API and impurities. The adulterated dietary supplements contained sibutramine, benzyl-sibutramine, N-desmethyl-sibutramine (DMS), N,N-didesmethyl-sibutramine (DDMS) and several other related impurities. Counterfeit medicines and adulterated dietary supplements are a health risk because their quality is unreliable. Health risks are even greater when such unreliability extends to fundamental differences between dose units in one package. Because dose-to-dose variability for these products is unpredictable, the confidence interval of a sample size is unknown. Consequently, the analyses of a selection of dose units may not be representative for the package. In the worst case, counterfeit or unauthorised medicines are not recognised as such or a health risk is not identified. In order to reduce erroneous results particular care should be taken when analysing a composite of dose units, when finding no API in a dietary supplement and when finding conformity in a suspect counterfeit medicine. PMID:24291553

Venhuis, B J; Zwaagstra, M E; Keizers, P H J; de Kaste, D

2014-02-01

43

A low false negative filter for detecting rare bird species from short video segments using a probable observation data set-based EKF method.  

PubMed

We report a new filter to assist the search for rare bird species. Since a rare bird only appears in front of a camera with very low occurrence (e.g., less than ten times per year) for very short duration (e.g., less than a fraction of a second), our algorithm must have a very low false negative rate. We verify the bird body axis information with the known bird flying dynamics from the short video segment. Since a regular extended Kalman filter (EKF) cannot converge due to high measurement error and limited data, we develop a novel probable observation data set (PODS)-based EKF method. The new PODS-EKF searches the measurement error range for all probable observation data that ensures the convergence of the corresponding EKF in short time frame. The algorithm has been extensively tested using both simulated inputs and real video data of four representative bird species. In the physical experiments, our algorithm has been tested on rock pigeons and red-tailed hawks with 119 motion sequences. The area under the ROC curve is 95.0%. During the one-year search of ivory-billed woodpeckers, the system reduces the raw video data of 29.41 TB to only 146.7 MB (reduction rate 99.9995%). PMID:20388596

Song, Dezhen; Xu, Yiliang

2010-09-01

44

False memories in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

In prior studies, it was observed that patients with schizophrenia show abnormally high knowledge corruption (i.e., high-confident errors expressed as a percentage of all high-confident responses were increased for schizophrenic patients relative to controls). The authors examined the conditions under which excessive knowledge corruption occurred using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Whereas knowledge corruption in schizophrenia was significantly greater for false-negative errors relative to controls, no group difference occurred for false-positive errors. The groups showed a comparable high degree of confidence for false-positive recognition of critical lure items. Similar to findings collected in elderly participants, patients, but not controls, showed a strong positive correlation between the number of recognized studied items and false-positive recognition of the critical lure. PMID:15099150

Moritz, Steffen; Woodward, Todd S; Cuttler, Carrie; Whitman, Jennifer C; Watson, Jason M

2004-04-01

45

MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values, and three sensitivity cases in which the number of FOTP demands was reduced, along with the Birnbaum importance of the FOTP.

Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

2011-03-01

46

Atypical rearrangement involving 3'-IGH@ and a breakpoint at least 400 Kb upstream of an intact MYC in a CLL patient with an apparently balanced t(8;14)(q24.1;q32) and negative MYC expression.  

PubMed

The t(8;14)(q24.1;q32), the cytogenetic hallmark of Burkitt's lymphoma, is also found, but rarely, in cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Such translocation typically results in a MYC-IGH@ fusion subsequently deregulating and overexpressing MYC on der 14q32. In CLL, atypical rearrangements resulting in its gain or loss, within or outside of IGH@ or MYC locus, have been reported, but their clinical significance remains uncertain. Herein, we report a 67?year-old male with complex cytogenetic findings of apparently balanced t(8;14) and unreported complex rearrangements of IGH@ and MYC loci. His clinical, morphological and immunophenotypic features were consistent with the diagnosis of CLL.Interphase FISH studies revealed deletions of 11q22.3 and 13q14.3, and an extra copy of IGH@, indicative of rearrangement. Karyotype analysis showed an apparently balanced t(8;14)(q24.1;q32). Sequential GPG-metaphase FISH studies revealed abnormal signal patterns: rearrangement of IGH break apart probe with the 5'-IGH@ on derivative 8q24.1 and the 3'-IGH@ retained on der 14q; absence of MYC break apart-specific signal on der 8q; and, the presence of unsplit 5'-MYC-3' break apart probe signals on der 14q. The breakpoint on 8q24.1 was found to be at least 400 Kb upstream of 5' of MYC. In addition, FISH studies revealed two abnormal clones; one with 13q14.3 deletion, and the other, with concurrent 11q deletion and atypical rearrangements. Chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) detected a 7.1?Mb deletion on 11q22.3-q23.3 including ATM, a finding consistent with FISH results. While no significant copy number gain or loss observed on chromosomes 8, 12 and 13, a 455 Kb microdeletion of uncertain clinical significance was detected on 14q32.33. Immunohistochemistry showed co-expression of CD19, CD5, and CD23, positive ZAP-70 expression and absence of MYC expression. Overall findings reveal an apparently balanced t(8;14) and atypical complex rearrangements involving 3'-IGH@ and a breakpoint at least 400 Kb upstream of MYC, resulting in the relocation of the intact 5'-MYC-3' from der 8q, and apposition to 3'-IGH@ at der 14q. This case report provides unique and additional cytogenetic data that may be of clinical significance in such a rare finding in CLL. It also highlights the utility of conventional and sequential metaphase FISH in understanding complex chromosome anomalies and their association with other clinical findings in patients with CLL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first CLL reported case with such an atypical rearrangement in a patient with a negative MYC expression. PMID:23369149

Amarillo, Ina; Bui, Peter H; Kantarci, Sibel; Rao, Nagesh; Shackley, Brit S; García, Rolando; Tirado, Carlos A

2013-01-01

47

Atypical rearrangement involving 3?-IGH@ and a breakpoint at least 400 Kb upstream of an intact MYC in a CLL patient with an apparently balanced t(8;14)(q24.1;q32) and negative MYC expression  

PubMed Central

The t(8;14)(q24.1;q32), the cytogenetic hallmark of Burkitt’s lymphoma, is also found, but rarely, in cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Such translocation typically results in a MYC-IGH@ fusion subsequently deregulating and overexpressing MYC on der 14q32. In CLL, atypical rearrangements resulting in its gain or loss, within or outside of IGH@ or MYC locus, have been reported, but their clinical significance remains uncertain. Herein, we report a 67?year-old male with complex cytogenetic findings of apparently balanced t(8;14) and unreported complex rearrangements of IGH@ and MYC loci. His clinical, morphological and immunophenotypic features were consistent with the diagnosis of CLL. Interphase FISH studies revealed deletions of 11q22.3 and 13q14.3, and an extra copy of IGH@, indicative of rearrangement. Karyotype analysis showed an apparently balanced t(8;14)(q24.1;q32). Sequential GPG-metaphase FISH studies revealed abnormal signal patterns: rearrangement of IGH break apart probe with the 5’-IGH@ on derivative 8q24.1 and the 3’-IGH@ retained on der 14q; absence of MYC break apart-specific signal on der 8q; and, the presence of unsplit 5’-MYC-3’ break apart probe signals on der 14q. The breakpoint on 8q24.1 was found to be at least 400 Kb upstream of 5’ of MYC. In addition, FISH studies revealed two abnormal clones; one with 13q14.3 deletion, and the other, with concurrent 11q deletion and atypical rearrangements. Chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) detected a 7.1?Mb deletion on 11q22.3-q23.3 including ATM, a finding consistent with FISH results. While no significant copy number gain or loss observed on chromosomes 8, 12 and 13, a 455 Kb microdeletion of uncertain clinical significance was detected on 14q32.33. Immunohistochemistry showed co-expression of CD19, CD5, and CD23, positive ZAP-70 expression and absence of MYC expression. Overall findings reveal an apparently balanced t(8;14) and atypical complex rearrangements involving 3’-IGH@ and a breakpoint at least 400 Kb upstream of MYC, resulting in the relocation of the intact 5’-MYC-3’ from der 8q, and apposition to 3’-IGH@ at der 14q. This case report provides unique and additional cytogenetic data that may be of clinical significance in such a rare finding in CLL. It also highlights the utility of conventional and sequential metaphase FISH in understanding complex chromosome anomalies and their association with other clinical findings in patients with CLL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first CLL reported case with such an atypical rearrangement in a patient with a negative MYC expression. PMID:23369149

2013-01-01

48

Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials  

SciTech Connect

Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the probability of correct detection (PCD) (or equivalently the false negative rate FNR = 1 ? PCD). The PCD/FNR may depend on the 1) method of contaminant deposition, 2) surface concentration of the contaminant, 3) surface material being sampled, 4) sample collection method, 5) sample storage/transportation conditions, 6) sample processing method, and 7) sample analytical method. A review of the literature found 17 laboratory studies that focused on swab, wipe, or vacuum samples collected from a variety of surface materials contaminated by BA or a surrogate, and used culture methods to determine the surface contaminant concentration. These studies quantified performance of the sampling and analysis methods in terms of recovery efficiency (RE) and not PCD/FNR (which left a major gap in available information). Quantifying the PCD/FNR under a variety of conditions is a key aspect of validating sample and analysis methods, and also for calculating the confidence in characterization or clearance decisions based on a statistical sampling plan. A laboratory study was planned to partially fill the gap in PCD/FNR results. This report documents the experimental design developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for a sponge-wipe method. The study will investigate the effects on key response variables from six surface materials contaminated with eight surface concentrations of a BA surrogate (Bacillus atrophaeus). The key response variables include measures of the contamination on test coupons of surface materials tested, contamination recovered from coupons by sponge-wipe samples, RE, and PCD/FNR. The experimental design involves 16 test runs, to be performed in two blocks of eight runs. Three surface materials (stainless steel, vinyl tile, and ceramic tile) were tested in the first block, while three other surface materials (plastic, painted wood paneling, and faux leather) will be tested in the second block. The eight surface concentrations of the surrogate were randomly assigned to test runs within each block. Some of the concentrations will be very low and may present challenges for deposition, sampling, and analysis. However, such tests are needed to investigate RE and PCD/FNR over the full range of concentrations of interest. In each run, there will be 10 test coupons of each of the three surface materials. A positive control sample will be generated prior to each test sample. The positive control results will be used to 1) calculate RE values for the wipe sampling and analysis method, and 2) fit RE- and PCD-concentration equations, for each of the six surface materials. Data analyses will support 1) estimating the PCD for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 2) estimating the surface concentrations and their uncertainties of the contaminant for each combination of concentration and surface material, 3) estimating RE (%) and their uncertainties for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 4) fitting PCD-concentration and RE-concentration equations for each of the six surface materials, 5) assessing goodness-of-fit of the equations, and 6) quantifying the uncertainty in PCD and RE predictions made with the fitted equations.

Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Krauter, Paula; Einfeld, Wayne

2010-12-16

49

Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials  

SciTech Connect

Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the false negative rate (FNR). The FNR may depend on the 1) method of contaminant deposition, 2) surface concentration of the contaminant, 3) surface material being sampled, 4) sample collection method, 5) sample storage/transportation conditions, 6) sample processing method, and 7) sample analytical method. A review of the literature found 17 laboratory studies that focused on swab, wipe, or vacuum samples collected from a variety of surface materials contaminated by BA or a surrogate, and used culture methods to determine the surface contaminant concentration. These studies quantified performance of the sampling and analysis methods in terms of recovery efficiency (RE) and not FNR (which left a major gap in available information). Quantifying the FNR under a variety of conditions is a key aspect of validating sample and analysis methods, and also for calculating the confidence in characterization or clearance decisions based on a statistical sampling plan. A laboratory study was planned to partially fill the gap in FNR results. This report documents the experimental design developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for a sponge-wipe method. The testing was performed by SNL and is now completed. The study investigated the effects on key response variables from six surface materials contaminated with eight surface concentrations of a BA surrogate (Bacillus atrophaeus). The key response variables include measures of the contamination on test coupons of surface materials tested, contamination recovered from coupons by sponge-wipe samples, RE, and FNR. The experimental design involves 16 test runs, performed in two blocks of eight runs. Three surface materials (stainless steel, vinyl tile, and ceramic tile) were tested in the first block, while three other surface materials (plastic, painted wood paneling, and faux leather) were tested in the second block. The eight surface concentrations of the surrogate were randomly assigned to test runs within each block. Some of the concentrations were very low and presented challenges for deposition, sampling, and analysis. However, such tests are needed to investigate RE and FNR over the full range of concentrations of interest. In each run, there were 10 test coupons of each of the three surface materials. A positive control sample was generated at the same time as each test sample. The positive control results will be used to 1) calculate RE values for the wipe sampling and analysis method, and 2) fit RE- and FNR-concentration equations, for each of the six surface materials. Data analyses will support 1) estimating the FNR for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 2) estimating the surface concentrations and their uncertainties of the contaminant for each combination of concentration and surface material, 3) estimating RE (%) and their uncertainties for each combination of contaminant concentration and surface material, 4) fitting FNR-concentration and RE-concentration equations for each of the six surface materials, 5) assessing goodness-of-fit of the equations, and 6) quantifying the uncertainty in FNR and RE predictions made with the fitted equations.

Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Krauter, Paula; Einfeld, Wayne

2011-05-01

50

Hypnotizability, not suggestion, influences false memory development.  

PubMed

Hypnotizability influences the development of false memories. In Experiment 1, participants heard a positive or negative suggestion regarding hypnosis and then listened to 8 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm lists in a hypnotic state. Neither hypnosis nor prehypnotic suggestion affected memory. Highly hypnotizable participants were more accurate in recall and recognition. In Experiment 2, suggestions were delivered in the form of feedback. Participants heard a positive or negative suggestion about their performance prior to either the encoding or retrieval of 8 DRM lists. Neither accurate nor false memories were affected by the suggestion. Highly hypnotizable individuals recognized fewer critical lures if they received a negative suggestion about their performance. These results highlight the unusual role of hypnotizability in the creation of false memories. PMID:25365130

Dasse, Michelle N; Elkins, Gary R; Weaver, Charles A

2015-01-01

51

Diabetes: What's True and False?  

MedlinePLUS

... which are false. Eating too much sugar causes diabetes. False: Type 1 diabetes happens when the cells ... person's risk for developing the disease. People with diabetes can never eat sweets. False: You can have ...

52

Diabetes: What's True and False?  

MedlinePLUS

... Body Works Main Page The Pink Locker Society Diabetes: What's True and False? KidsHealth > Kids > Diabetes Center > ... True or False: Eating Too Much Sugar Causes Diabetes False: When kids get type 1 diabetes , it's ...

53

False color viewing device  

DOEpatents

A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1992-10-20

54

False color viewing device  

DOEpatents

A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1992-01-01

55

Linguistic Determinants of the Difficulty of True-False Test Items  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Adults read a prose passage and responded to passages based on it which were either true or false and were phrased either affirmatively or negatively. True negatives yielded most errors, followed in order by false negatives, true affirmatives, and false affirmatives. (Author/RC)

Peterson, Candida C.; Peterson, James L.

1976-01-01

56

Moon - False Color Mosaic  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This false-color mosaic was constructed from a series of 53 images taken through three spectral filters by Galileo's imaging system as the spacecraft flew over the northern regions of the Moon on December 7, 1992. The part of the Moon visible from Earth is on the left side in this view. The color mosaic shows compositional variations in parts of the Moon's northern hemisphere. Bright pinkish areas are highlands materials, such as those surrounding the oval lava-filled Crisium impact basin toward the bottom of the picture. Blue to orange shades indicate volcanic lava flows. To the left of Crisium, the dark blue Mare Tranquillitatis is richer in titanium than the green and orange maria above it. Thin mineral-rich soils associated with relatively recent impacts are represented by light blue colors; the youngest craters have prominent blue rays extending from them. The Galileo project, whose primary mission is the exploration of the Jupiter system in 1995-97, is managed for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

1992-01-01

57

False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

Boman, Eugene

2009-01-01

58

North Polar False Color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

This full resolution image contains dunes, and small areas of 'blue' which may represent fresh (ie. not dust covered) frost or ice.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 85, Longitude 235.8 East (124.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

59

Reduced False Memory after Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False

Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

2009-01-01

60

The Kepler False Positive Table  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kepler Space Telescope has detected thousands of candidate exoplanets by observing transit signals in a sample of more than 190,000 stars. Many of these transit signals are false positives, defined as a transit-like signal that is not due to a planet orbiting the target star (or a bound companion if the target is a multiple-star system). Astrophysical causes of false positives include background eclipsing binaries, planetary transits not associated with the target star, and non-planetary eclipses of the target star by stellar companions. The fraction of Kepler planet candidates that are false positives ranges from about 10% at high Galactic latitudes to 40% at low Galactic latitudes. Creating a high-reliability planet candidate catalog for statistical studies such as occurrence rate calculations requires removing clearly identified false positives.The Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive flags false positives, and will soon provide a high-level classification of false positives, but lacks detailed description of why a KOI was determined to be a false positive. The Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) examines each false positive in detail to certify that it is correctly identified as a false positive, and determines the primary reason(s) a KOI is classified as a false positive. The work of the FPWG will be published as the Kepler False Positive Table, hosted at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive.The Kepler False Positive Table provides detailed information on the evidence for background binaries, transits caused by stellar companions, and false alarms. In addition to providing insight into the Kepler false positive population, the false positive table gives information about the background binary population and other areas of astrophysical interest. Because a planet around a star not associated with the target star is considered a false positive, the false positive table likely contains further planet candidates. This poster describes the creation of the false positive table, how false positives are certified, and the logical relationship between the various types of evidence and the final false positive determination.

Bryson, Steve; Kepler False Positive Working Group

2015-01-01

61

DRUG TESTING WELFARE RECIPIENTS--FALSE POSITIVES, FALSE NEGATIVES, UNANTICIPATED OPPORTUNITIES  

E-print Network

, Director, Center on Poverty Risk and Mental Health University of Michigan. Rukmalie Jayakody Assistant Pennsylvania State University Kristin Seefeldt Senior Research Associate, Poverty Research and Training Center the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Substance Abuse Policy Research Program, the National Institute of Mental

Shyy, Wei

62

Identification and classification of skin sensitizers: identifying false positives and false negatives.  

PubMed

The first step in regulatory evaluation of substances involves the identification of their intrinsic hazards, including the potential for skin sensitization. This is, quite properly, entirely different from assessment of the risks to human health, which might arise from incorporation of substances in products. EU guidance on regulations concerning the classification of skin sensitizers suggests a range of sources of information be deployed in the hazard identification process. These include chemical structure, predictive animal tests, and various types of human data. Where the information is clear-cut, then uncertainties rarely arise. However, for some materials, discordant information arises, perhaps because the substance is on the borderline of test sensitivity and classification (sensitizing materials of insufficient potency do not classified according to the EU scheme), due to conflicting results in predictive tests or for other reasons. In this study, we review data on a number of substances where a classification decision is complicated by such discordances and seek to use these examples to demonstrate how best to make a weight of evidence decision on whether a substance should, or should not, be classified as a skin sensitizer. PMID:17026691

Basketter, David A; McFadden, John; Evans, Peter; Andersen, Klaus E; Jowsey, Ian

2006-11-01

63

Sleep deprivation and false memories.  

PubMed

Many studies have investigated factors that affect susceptibility to false memories. However, few have investigated the role of sleep deprivation in the formation of false memories, despite overwhelming evidence that sleep deprivation impairs cognitive function. We examined the relationship between self-reported sleep duration and false memories and the effect of 24 hr of total sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories. We found that under certain conditions, sleep deprivation can increase the risk of developing false memories. Specifically, sleep deprivation increased false memories in a misinformation task when participants were sleep deprived during event encoding, but did not have a significant effect when the deprivation occurred after event encoding. These experiments are the first to investigate the effect of sleep deprivation on susceptibility to false memories, which can have dire consequences. PMID:25031301

Frenda, Steven J; Patihis, Lawrence; Loftus, Elizabeth F; Lewis, Holly C; Fenn, Kimberly M

2014-09-01

64

False memory in bilinguals: does switching languages increase false memories?  

PubMed

People often receive and recount information in different languages. This experiment examined the impact of switching languages on false recall, recognition, and recognition confidence. We presented Spanish-English bilinguals with 10 lists of words associated to a critical non-presented lure, either in English or in Spanish. Each list was followed by free recall either in English or in Spanish. The final stage was a recognition test in either language. Results showed a higher proportion of veridical and false recall in English, the more dominant language, than in Spanish, the native language. Noncritical intrusions were equivalent in both languages. More importantly, false recall, false recognition, and false recognition confidence were higher across languages than within languages. The results are examined in relation to current research and interpretations of bilingual false memory. PMID:19353928

Marmolejo, Gloria; Diliberto-Macaluso, Kristen A; Altarriba, Jean Ette

2009-01-01

65

Pseudobenign prostate carcinomas: causes of false-negative biopsy results.  

PubMed

Prostate carcinomas are continuously surprising the pathologists through their multitude of variants and histological subtypes, some of them being recently described and characterized. Among these are individualized: atrophic carcinoma, foamy gland, pseudohyperplastic, microcystic, certain subtypes of ductal adenocarcinoma and hormone-treated adenocarcinoma, which because of minimal architectural and/or cytological atypia are often under-diagnosed, especially in small tissue fragments. This paper presents the morphological criteria, including information provided by some immunohistochemical markers for positive and differential diagnosis of these variants/subtypes of prostate adenocarcinoma with which the pathologist should be familiar and avoid their confusion with a series of similar histological structures or benign/premalignant lesions. PMID:22119811

Dema, Alis; T?ban, Sorina; Laz?r, Elena; Borda, Angela; L?zureanu, Codru?a; Herman, Diana; Mure?an, Anca; Cornianu, M?rioara; Anderco, Denisa; Loghin, Andrada

2011-01-01

66

Accuracy and Apparent Accuracy in Medical Testing  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Unreviewed Activity submitted in preparation for the NNN Writing with Numbers Workshop Students investigate two quantitative issues in the field of medical testing. First, students use two way tables and information about a diagnostic test's sensitivity and specificity to investigate the probability of a patient receiving a false positive result. Second, students learn about the phenomenon of referral bias in medical testing. Students use proportional reasoning to observe the effect of doctor referral rates on the apparent sensitivity and specificity of a screening tool.

Boersma, Stuart

67

False recognition without intentional learning.  

PubMed

Asked to memorize a list of semantically related words, participants often falsely recall or recognize a highly related semantic associate that has not been presented (the critical lure). Does this false memory phenomenon depend on intentional word reading and learning? In Experiment 1, participants performed a color identification task on distractor words from typical false memory lists. In Experiment 2, participants read the same words. In both experiments, the primary task was followed by a surprise recognition test for actually presented and unpresented words, including the critical lures. False alarms to critical lures were robust and quite equivalent across the two experiments. These results are consistent with an activation/monitoring account of false memory, in which processing of semantic associates can evoke false memories even when that processing is incidental. PMID:15116999

Dodd, Michael D; MacLeod, Colin M

2004-02-01

68

True, False, and Open Sentences  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

"Students first explore arithmetic sentences to decide whether they are true or false. The lesson then introduces students to sentences that are neither true nor false but are algebraic equations, also called open sentences, such as x + 3 = 7 or 2 x = 12." from Math Solutions.

Math Solutions Professional Development

2009-09-01

69

Dynamics of false vacuum bubbles in Brans-Dicke theory  

SciTech Connect

We study the dynamics of false vacuum bubbles in the Brans-Dicke theory of gravity by using the thin shell or thin wall approximation. We consider a false vacuum bubble that has a different value for the Brans-Dicke field between the inside false vacuum region and the outside true vacuum region. Within a certain limit of field values, the difference of field values makes the effective tension of the shell negative. This allows new expanding false vacuum bubbles to be seen by the outside observer, which are disallowed in Einstein gravity.

Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo [Department of Physics and BK21 Division and Center for Quantum Spacetime, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742 (Korea, Republic of); Yeom, Dong-han, E-mail: bhl@sogang.ac.kr, E-mail: warrior@sogang.ac.kr, E-mail: innocent@muon.kaist.ac.kr [Department of Physics, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-01-01

70

14 CFR 23.943 - Negative acceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 23.943 Section 23.943 ...Powerplant General § 23.943 Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction of...airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes...

2013-01-01

71

14 CFR 23.943 - Negative acceleration.  

... 2014-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 23.943 Section 23.943 ...Powerplant General § 23.943 Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction of...airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes...

2014-01-01

72

14 CFR 25.943 - Negative acceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 25.943 Section 25.943 ...Powerplant General § 25.943 Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction...airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes...

2012-01-01

73

14 CFR 23.943 - Negative acceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 23.943 Section 23.943 ...Powerplant General § 23.943 Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction of...airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes...

2010-01-01

74

14 CFR 25.943 - Negative acceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 25.943 Section 25.943 ...Powerplant General § 25.943 Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction...airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes...

2011-01-01

75

14 CFR 23.943 - Negative acceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... 2012-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 23.943 Section 23.943 ...Powerplant General § 23.943 Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction of...airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes...

2012-01-01

76

14 CFR 25.943 - Negative acceleration.  

... 2014-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 25.943 Section 25.943 ...Powerplant General § 25.943 Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction...airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes...

2014-01-01

77

14 CFR 23.943 - Negative acceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 23.943 Section 23.943 ...Powerplant General § 23.943 Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction of...airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes...

2011-01-01

78

14 CFR 25.943 - Negative acceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 25.943 Section 25.943 ...Powerplant General § 25.943 Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction...airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes...

2010-01-01

79

14 CFR 25.943 - Negative acceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 25.943 Section 25.943 ...Powerplant General § 25.943 Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction...airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes...

2013-01-01

80

Nonlinear dynamics of false bottoms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nansen from his observations in the Beaufort Sea published in 1897 noted that heat transfer from the fresh water to the arctic salt water is the only source of ice accretion during the polar summer. This transfer mechanism, unusual at first sight, is responsible for the initiation and evolution of a false bottom ice, changing ice properties to a great extent and affecting various processes while interacting with the ocean and the atmosphere. A false bottom represents a thin layer of ice which forms in summer underneath the floe where fresh water lies between the salt water and the ice. Details of how this process occurs in nature are now emerging from different laboratory and field experiments. The false bottoms appearing at the interface between the fresh and salt water as a result of double-diffusive convection normally lie below surface and under-ice melt ponds. Such false bottoms represent the only significant source of ice growth in the Arctic during the spring-summer period. Their evolution influences the mass balance of the Arctic sea-ice cover recognized as an indicator of climate change. However, the quantity, aerial extent and other properties of false bottoms are difficult to measure because coring under the surface melt ponds leads to direct mixing of surface and under-ice water. This explains why their aerial extent and overall volume is still not known despite the fact that the upper limit of the ice coverage by the false bottom is approximately half of the ice surface. The growth of false bottoms also leads to other important consequences for different physical, chemical and biological processes associated with their dynamics. This study addressed to a broad community of readers is concerned with non-linear behavior of false bottoms including their stochastic dynamics due to possible fluctuations of the main process parameters in the ocean and the atmosphere.

Nizovtseva, Irina; Alexandrov, Dmitri; Ryashko, Lev

2014-05-01

81

False memories of emotional and neutral words.  

PubMed

This study used the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm to investigate the direction and the extent to which emotional valence in semantic word lists influences the formation of false memories (FM). The experimental paradigm consisted of 1) a study phase (learning of neutral and negative lists of words semantically associated to a non-presented critical lure (CL), 2) a free recall phase, and 3) a recognition phase. Participants had to indicate whether the displayed item was "new" (new item or non-studied CL) or "old" (studied list item). CL associated with negative word lists elicited significantly more FM than CL associated with neutral word lists. This finding is in contrast to previous work showing that emotional words elicit fewer FM than neutral words. The results of our study also suggest that valence is capable of influencing emotional memory in terms of encoding and retrieval processes. PMID:18413909

El Sharkawy, Jennifer; Groth, Katarina; Vetter, Céline; Beraldi, Anna; Fast, Kristina

2008-01-01

82

“When true is false, and false is true” [Column  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Many insects and other organisms are called “false” as a common name or the Latin equivalent “pseudo-“ in their scientific names. The column explores the details of and the reasons why so many insects are given such names. Reasons include the vast biodiversity of certain groups, the historical typ...

83

Occurrence of false-positive results of inhibitor on milk samples using the Delvotest SP assay.  

PubMed

Three hundred twenty-one quarter, 207 whole udder, 310 bulk tank, and 93 tank-lorry milk samples were examined for confirmation of the presence of inhibitor by Delvotest SP assay. Four hundred twenty-six Holstein cows of no drug treatment for at least 30 days from January 1998 to September 1999 were used. Reading time was 2.50, 2.75, and 3.00 h, and results of sampling were recorded by four types according to comparison with the color of the well containing the control milk sample. False-positive outcome was identified by Delvotest SP assay in quarter (13 of 321), whole udder (9 of 207), and bulk tank milk samples (4 of 310), but was not shown on tank-lorry milk samples (0 of 93) at the reading time of 2.50 h. All of the 26 false-positive samples were negative from the examination after heat treatment at 82 degrees C for 5 min. But, two bulk tank milk samples that appeared to have positive results in LacTek and Charm II tests were positive from the test following heat treatment. Somatic cell counts (SCC) were related to the probability of a false-positive result. The more SCC increased, the more the occurrence of a false-positive result increased. In our investigations, 4 of 310 bulk tank milk samples at the reading time of 2.50 h produced false-positive results, and no false-positive results were apparent at a reading time of 2.75 h. Also, the occurrence of false-positive results in quarter and whole udder milk samples decreased when agar was cultured for 2.75 to 3.00 h. There were no false-positive results from tank-lorry milk samples. These results indicate that the Delvotest SP assay may provide a suitable means for the detection of drug residues in not only quarter and whole udder milk of cows but also in bulk tank and tank-lorry milk following reading times of 2.75 to 3.00 h. PMID:11510662

Kang, J H; Kondo, F

2001-08-01

84

The Psychology of False Confessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obtaining a confession is one of the most important aims of police interro- gation, and it is estimated that more than 80% of solved criminal cases are solved by a confession. However, a significant number of confessions that result in wrongful convictions are obtained through coercive questioning. This paper examines false con- fessions and discusses the psychological and social factors

Richard P. Conti

85

Tunneling decay of false vortices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the decay of vortices trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. The potential is inspired by models with intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that completely breaks a U(1) symmetry, while in the true vacuum, the symmetry is unbroken. The false vacuum is unstable through the formation of true vacuum bubbles; however, the rate of decay can be extremely long. On the other hand, the false vacuum can contain metastable vortex solutions. These vortices contain the true vacuum inside in addition to a unit of magnetic flux and the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum outside. We numerically establish the existence of vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they can decay via tunneling. In general terms, they tunnel to a configuration which is a large, thin-walled vortex configuration that is now classically unstable to the expansion of its radius. We compute an estimate for the tunneling amplitude in the semiclassical approximation. We believe our analysis would be relevant to superconducting thin films or superfluids.

Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han

2013-10-01

86

Chandra Images and False Color  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is the Chandra X-ray Observatory photo album website. It begins with an introduction on the electromagnetic spectrum, focusing on X-rays in particular. It also contains information on false color images. The images in this photo gallery were taken between 1999 and 2004 by the Chandra telescope. Each image includes a description and a link to more information about the object.

Lestition, Kathy

2004-07-14

87

Caffeine's effects on true and false memory.  

PubMed

Caffeine's effects on recall of word lists were investigated using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. College students were administered either 200 mg of caffeine or a 250-mg lactose placebo; after 30 min., they were tested on recall using six word lists. Words of each list were semantically related to a single word (a "critical lure") that was not presented in the list. Participants administered caffeine recalled more list words and more critical lures than participants administered lactose. Recall of list words was negatively correlated with recall of critical lures. Caffeine appears to intensify the strength of connections among list words and critical lures, thereby enhancing both true and false memory. PMID:19708406

Capek, Sarah; Guenther, R Kim

2009-06-01

88

Apparent Solar Tornado - Like Prominences  

E-print Network

Recent high-resolution observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) have reawakened interest in the old and fascinating phenomenon of solar tornado-like prominences. This class of prominences was first introduced by Pettit (1932), who studied them over many years. Observations of tornado prominences similar to the ones seen by SDO had already been documented by Secchi (1877) in his famous "Le Soleil". High resolution and high cadence multiwavelength data obtained by SDO reveal that the tornado-like appearance of these prominences is mainly an illusion due to projection effects. We discuss two different cases where prominences on the limb might appear to have a tornado-like behavior. One case of apparent vortical motions in prominence spines and barbs arises from the (mostly) 2D counterstreaming plasma motion along the prominence spine and barbs together with oscillations along individual threads. The other case of apparent rotational motion is observed in prominence cavities and results from the 3D ...

Panasenco, Olga; Velli, Marco

2013-01-01

89

39 CFR 946.2 - Disposition of property of apparent owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disposition of property of apparent owners. 946... RULES OF PROCEDURE RELATING TO THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY...SERVICE FOR USE AS EVIDENCE § 946.2 Disposition of property of apparent owners....

2010-07-01

90

Separating intrinsic and apparent anisotropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic anisotropy plays a key role in studies of the Earth's rheology and deformation because of its relation to flow-induced lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of intrinsically anisotropic minerals. In addition to LPO, small-scale heterogeneity produces apparent anisotropy that need not be related to deformation in the same way as intrinsic anisotropy. Quantitative interpretations of observed anisotropy therefore require the separation of its intrinsic and apparent components. We analyse the possibility to separate intrinsic and apparent anisotropy in media with hexagonal symmetry - typically used in surface wave tomography and SKS splitting studies. Our analysis is on the level of the wave equation, which makes it general and independent of specific data types or tomographic techniques. We find that observed anisotropy can be explained by isotropic heterogeneity when elastic parameters take specific combinations of values. In practice, the uncertainties of inferred anisotropy are large enough to ensure that such a combination is always within the error bars. It follows that commonly observed anisotropy can always be explained completely by a purely isotropic laminated medium unless all anisotropic parameters are known with unrealistic accuracy. Most importantly, minute changes in the poorly constrained P wave anisotropy and the parameter ? can switch between the possible or impossible existence of an isotropic equivalent. Important implications of our study include: (1) Intrinsic anisotropy over tomographically resolved length scales is never strictly required when reasonable error bars for anisotropic parameters are taken into account. (2) Currently available seismic observables provide weak constraints on the relative contributions of intrinsic and apparent anisotropy. (3) Therefore, seismic observables alone are not sufficient to constrain the magnitude of mantle flow. (4) Quantitative interpretations of anisotropy in terms of mantle flow require combined seismic/geodynamic inversions, as well as the incorporation of additional data such as topography, gravity and scattered waves.

Fichtner, Andreas; Kennett, Brian L. N.; Trampert, Jeannot

2013-06-01

91

Triton - False Color of 'Cantaloupe' Terrain  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Voyager violet, green, and ultraviolet images of Triton were map projected into cylindrical coordinates and combined to produce this false color terrain map. Several compositionally distinct terrain and geologic features are portrayed. At center is a gray blue unit referred to as 'cantaloupe' terrain because of its unusual topographic texture. The unit appears to predate other units to the left. Immediately adjacent to the cantaloupe terrain, is a smoother unit, represented by a reddish color, that has been dissected by a prominent fault system. This unit apparently overlies a much higher albedo material, seen farther left. A prominent angular albedo boundary separates relatively undisturbed smooth terrain from irregular patches which have been derived from breakup of the same material. Also visible at the far left are diffuse, elongated streaks, which seem to emanate from circular, often bright centered features. The parallel streaks may represent vented particulate materials blown in the same direction by winds in Triton's thin atmosphere. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

1989-01-01

92

A cautionary note: false homozygosity for BRCA2 6174delT mutation resulting from a single nucleotide polymorphism masking the wt allele.  

PubMed

Sequencing an amplification product of the terminal segment of BRCA2 exon 11 showed apparent homozygosity for the 6174delT mutation in two healthy sisters. Subsequent sequencing of an alternate overlapping amplicon revealed the presence of the 5972C >T polymorphism, which is within the standard upstream amplification primer. This mismatch was responsible for the failure to amplify the normal (5972T) allele in both sisters who were heterozygous for the 6174delT mutation. Though the unexpected finding of apparent homozygosity for the 6174delT mutation prompted re-evaluation of the assay, the potential for false negative results due to masking of a mutation-bearing allele by such a circumstance should be a cautionary note for the testing and also in the interpretation of the results published under such assay conditions. PMID:12080393

Solano, Angela R; Dourisboure, Ricardo J; Weitzel, Jeffrey; Podesta, Ernesto J

2002-06-01

93

The Distinctions of False and Fuzzy Memories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that fuzzy-trace theory has been used to understand false memories of children. Demonstrates the irony imbedded in the theory, maintaining that a central implication of fuzzy-trace theory is that some errors characterized as false memories are not really false at all. These errors, when applied to false alarms to related lures, are best…

Schooler, Jonathan W.

1998-01-01

94

Negative Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is an account of how negative numbers became part of the "vocabulary" of mathematicians and of some of the earliest appearances of negative numbers in calculations of the ancient civilizations of China, India and Greece. Although negative numbers were used in calculations, negative answers to mathematical problems were considered meaningless or impossible. The troubled history of negative numbers presented in this article shows how the simple mathematical principles taken for granted today have taken thousands of years to develop.

Howard, Jill

2009-05-01

95

Proactive and Retroactive Effects of Negative Suggestion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The negative effects of false information presented either prior to (proactive interference; PI) or following (retroactive interference; RI) true information was examined with word definitions (Experiment 1) and trivia facts (Experiment 2). Participants were explicitly aware of which information was true and false when shown, and true-false

Brown, Alan S.; Brown, Christine M.; Mosbacher, Joy L.; Dryden, W. Erich

2006-01-01

96

Preoperative and intraoperative infection workup in apparently aseptic revision shoulder arthroplasty.  

PubMed

The possibility of infection should be considered in every revision shoulder arthroplasty even in the absence of clinical symptoms and signs of infection because indolent infection is prevalent. Detection of infection in apparently aseptic failed arthroplasties poses a diagnostic challenge as the conventional principles and criteria used for hip and knee arthroplasty are not generally applicable. Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are among the infectious organisms most commonly identified in such situations. Serum inflammatory markers are essential but are often unreliable as they have poor sensitivity in the shoulder. Preoperative shoulder joint aspiration culture is an important step but is subject to high false-negative rates. Lower cutoff values of synovial fluid analysis are used for detection of periprosthetic infection than for native joint infection as demonstrated in the knee literature. Intraoperatively, frozen section should be considered when a diagnosis of infection has not been established even in the presence of clinical suspicion. Gram stain is currently not recommended because of its low sensitivity and negative predictive value. Intraoperative culture is critical and should be performed whenever there is clinical suspicion of infection. Unexpected positive intraoperative cultures are not uncommon, and 6% to 25% of them appear to represent true infection as demonstrated with positive follow-up cultures or subsequent development of infection. In revision shoulder arthroplasty, determining the presence of infection can be difficult. A standardized approach is needed to determine the best course of treatment in this particular clinical setting. PMID:25487903

Updegrove, Gary F; Armstrong, April D; Kim, H Mike

2014-12-01

97

21 CFR 868.5935 - External negative pressure ventilator.  

...false External negative pressure ventilator. 868.5935 Section 868.5935...5935 External negative pressure ventilator. (a) Identification. An external negative pressure ventilator (e.g., iron lung,...

2014-04-01

98

21 CFR 868.5935 - External negative pressure ventilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false External negative pressure ventilator. 868.5935 Section 868.5935...5935 External negative pressure ventilator. (a) Identification. An external negative pressure ventilator (e.g., iron lung,...

2011-04-01

99

21 CFR 868.5935 - External negative pressure ventilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false External negative pressure ventilator. 868.5935 Section 868.5935...5935 External negative pressure ventilator. (a) Identification. An external negative pressure ventilator (e.g., iron lung,...

2010-04-01

100

21 CFR 868.5935 - External negative pressure ventilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false External negative pressure ventilator. 868.5935 Section 868.5935...5935 External negative pressure ventilator. (a) Identification. An external negative pressure ventilator (e.g., iron lung,...

2012-04-01

101

21 CFR 868.5935 - External negative pressure ventilator.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...false External negative pressure ventilator. 868.5935 Section 868.5935...5935 External negative pressure ventilator. (a) Identification. An external negative pressure ventilator (e.g., iron lung,...

2013-04-01

102

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0607-0117) [40 FR 53232, Nov. 17,...

2013-01-01

103

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0607-0117) [40 FR 53232, Nov. 17,...

2010-01-01

104

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0607-0117) [40 FR 53232, Nov. 17,...

2012-01-01

105

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0607-0117) [40 FR 53232, Nov. 17,...

2011-01-01

106

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

...COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false... (Approved by the Office of Management and Budget under control number 0607-0117) [40 FR 53232, Nov. 17,...

2014-01-01

107

Southern Spring in False Color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

This image was collected June 25, 2003 during the southern spring season. This false color image shows both the layered ice cap and darker 'spots' that are seen only when the sun first lights the polar surface.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -82.3, Longitude 306 East (54 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2004-01-01

108

Mimas Showing False Colors #2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This false color image of Saturn's moon Mimas reveals variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

This image is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined with a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences to create the final product.

Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of the image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil.

This image was obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top.

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.

For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission visit http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov . The Cassini imaging team homepage is at http://ciclops.org .

2005-01-01

109

An Association Account of False Belief Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young…

De Bruin, L. C.; Newen, A.

2012-01-01

110

Pluto behaving badly: false beliefs and their consequences.  

PubMed

We exposed college students to suggestive materials in order to lead them to believe that, as children, they had a negative experience at Disneyland involving the Pluto character. A sizable minority of subjects developed a false belief or memory that Pluto had uncomfortably licked their ear. Suggestions about a positive experience with Pluto led to even greater acceptance of a lovable ear-licking episode. False beliefs and memories had repercussions; those seduced by the bad suggestions were not willing to pay as much for a Pluto souvenir. These findings are among the first to demonstrate that false beliefs can have repercussions for people, meaning that they can influence their later thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors. PMID:19105582

Berkowitz, Shari R; Laney, Cara; Morris, Erin K; Garry, Maryanne; Loftus, Elizabeth F

2008-01-01

111

Mimas Showing False Colors #1  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in the surface composition or the sizes of grains making up the icy soil.

The images were obtained when the Cassini spacecraft was above 25 degrees south, 134 degrees west latitude and longitude. The Sun-Mimas-spacecraft angle was 45 degrees and north is at the top.

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.

For more information about the Cassini-Huygens mission visit http://saturn.jpl.nasa.gov . The Cassini imaging team homepage is at http://ciclops.org .

2005-01-01

112

Selenographic distribution of apparent crater depth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

If apparent crater depth is a function of crater diameter, then the frequencies of crater depth and diameter should be similar and the distribution of apparent depths of craters on the lunar surface should be random. Apparent depths of complex craters, which range from 0.2 to 4.3 km on the moon, exhibit little correlation with crater diameters. Crater frequency decreases at increasing diameters, but apparent crater depth displays a Gaussian distribution. The average crater depth for all young craters is 1.8 km. The mean depth of craters on the maria is 1.3 km, and the mean depth of craters on the highlands is 2.1 km. A contour map of apparent crater depths exhibits sufficient organization to suggest that the apparent crater depth is correlated to major lunar provinces. In general, regions of shallow craters are associated with basin interiors. Greater apparent depths are associated with highland terrains.

De Hon, R. A.

1982-01-01

113

Geophysics Fatally Flawed by False Fundamental Philosophy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For two centuries scientists have failed to realize Laplace's nebular hypothesis \\(1796\\) of Earth's creation is false. As a consequence, geophysicists today are misinterpreting and miscalculating many fundamental aspects of the Earth and Solar System. Why scientists have deluded themselves for so long is a mystery. The greatest error is the assumption Earth was created 4.6 billion years ago as a molten protoplanet in its present size, shape and composition. This assumption ignores daily accretion of more than 200 tons/day of meteorites and dust, plus unknown volumes of solar insolation that created coal beds and other biomass that increased Earth's mass and diameter over time! Although the volume added daily is minuscule compared with Earth's total mass, logic and simple addition mandates an increase in mass, diameter and gravity. Increased diameter from accretion is proved by Grand Canyon stratigraphy that shows a one kilometer increase in depth and planetary radius at a rate exceeding three meters \\(10 ft\\) per Ma from start of the Cambrian \\(540 Ma\\) to end of the Permian \\(245 Ma\\)-each layer deposited onto Earth's surface. This is unequivocal evidence of passive external growth by accretion, part of a dual growth and expansion process called "Accreation" \\(creation by accretion\\). Dynamic internal core expansion, the second stage of Accreation, did not commence until the protoplanet reached spherical shape at 500-600 km diameter. At that point, gravity-powered compressive heating initiated core melting and internal expansion. Expansion quickly surpassed the external accretion growth rate and produced surface volcanoes to relieve explosive internal tectonic pressure and transfer excess mass (magma)to the surface. Then, 200-250 Ma, expansion triggered Pangaea's breakup, first sundering Asia and Australia to form the Pacific Ocean, followed by North and South America to form the Atlantic Ocean, by the mechanism of midocean ridges, linear underwater volcanoes, that enable planetary expansion the same way cranial sutures permit human skulls to grow to maturity. Expansion is shown by the Asian and Australian trenches, from Kamchatka to the Marianas, and from Samoa to the tip of Macquarie Ridge south of New Zealand, that are mirror images of the western coasts of North and South America. This is clear evidence neither the Atlantic nor the Pacific Ocean existed 250 Ma when Earth was much smaller. In just 250 Ma external accretion and internal core expansion increased Earth's diameter from 7640 km to 12,735 km and increased total surface area to 361,060,000 sq. km, the area occupied by today's oceans-oceans that did not exist 250 Ma when Earth was slightly larger than Mars is today \\(6787 km\\). The fallacy of the nebular hypothesis did not become apparent until after Oliver and Isacks introduced the concept of subduction in 1967. Subduction was based on the false assumption that Earth's diameter is constant and unchanging, and spawned the theory of Plate Tectonics that "revolutionized" geophysics in a short period of time-a "revolution" destined for failure. Evidence is presented showing all solar bodies originate as comets \\(fragments of supernovae explosions\\) captured by the Sun that become meteoroids or asteroids by external accretion of meteorites and dust from over 370 known meteor streams.\\(Terentjeva, 1964\\) Accreation replaces the nebular hypothesis and rejuvenates Carey's Earth Expansion theory that, unfortunately, was pushed aside by plate tectonics because it lacked a plausible mechanism. However, expansion carries an ultimate threat to Mankind's tenure on Earth and exploration of Mars as the future home of Mankind takes on added significance.

Myers, L. S.

2004-05-01

114

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2013-04-01

115

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2011-04-01

116

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2012-04-01

117

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2010-04-01

118

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2014-04-01

119

False vs True rupture of membranes.  

PubMed

New medical nomenclature: False rupture of membranes or False ROM and Double rupture of membranes or Double ROM are being introduced into the English language. A single caregiver found about 1% of term births and 10% of term PROM involved False ROM, in which the chorion breaks while the amnion remains intact. Diagnostically, if meconium or vernix is observed, then both the chorionic and amniotic sacs have broken. In the absence of detection of vernix or meconium, an immediate accurate diagnostic test for False ROM is lacking and differentiating between True ROM from False ROM is possible only after leaking stops, which takes hours to days. The obvious benefit of differentiating between 'True' and 'False' ROM, is that in the case of False ROM, the amnion is intact and ascending infections are likely not at increased risk, although research is lacking as to whether False ROM is associated with an increased rate of ascending infection. Three cases of False ROM are presented and avenues for future research are enumerated. PMID:25279443

Cohain, J S

2014-10-01

120

Apparent horizon in fluid-gravity duality  

SciTech Connect

This article develops a computational framework for determining the location of boundary-covariant apparent horizons in the geometry of conformal fluid-gravity duality in arbitrary dimensions. In particular, it is shown up to second order and conjectured to hold to all orders in the gradient expansion that there is a unique apparent horizon which is covariantly expressible in terms of fluid velocity, temperature, and boundary metric. This leads to the first explicit example of an entropy current defined by an apparent horizon and opens the possibility that in the near-equilibrium regime there is preferred foliation of apparent horizons for black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes.

Booth, Ivan; Heller, Michal P.; Plewa, Grzegorz; Spalinski, Michal [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, A1C 5S7 (Canada); Instituut voor Theoretische Fysica, Universiteit van Amsterdam, Science Park 904, 1090 GL Amsterdam (Netherlands); Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Hoza 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland) and Physics Department, University of Bialystok, 15-424 Bialystok (Poland)

2011-05-15

121

False positive detection of peanut residue in liquid caramel coloring using commercial ELISA kits.  

PubMed

Initial food industry testing in our laboratory using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods indicated that the darkest caramel color (class IV) unexpectedly contained traces of peanut protein, a potential undeclared allergen issue. Caramel production centers on the heating of sugars, often glucose, under controlled heat and chemical processing conditions with other ingredients including ammonia, sulfite, and/or alkali salts. These ingredients should not contain any traces of peanut residue. We sought to determine the reliability of commercially available peanut allergen ELISA methods for detection of apparent peanut residue in caramel coloring. Caramel color samples of classes I, II, III, and IV were obtained from 2 commercial suppliers and tested using 6 commercially available quantitative and qualitative peanut ELISA kits. Five lots of class IV caramel color were spiked with a known concentration of peanut protein from light roasted peanut flour to assess recovery of peanut residue using a spike and recovery protocol with either 15 ppm or 100 ppm peanut protein on a kit-specific basis. A false positive detection of peanut protein was found in class IV caramel colors with a range of 1.2 to 17.6 parts per million recovered in both spiked and unspiked liquid caramel color samples. ELISA kit spike/recovery results indicate that false negative results might also be obtained if peanut contamination were ever to actually exist in class IV caramel color. Manufacturers of peanut-free products often test all ingredients for peanut allergen residues using commercial ELISA kits. ELISA methods are not reliable for the detection of peanut in class IV caramel ingredients and their use is not recommended with this matrix. PMID:23647653

Stelk, T; Niemann, L; Lambrecht, D M; Baumert, J L; Taylor, S L

2013-07-01

122

An apparent hiatus in global warming?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global warming first became evident beyond the bounds of natural variability in the 1970s, but increases in global mean surface temperatures have stalled in the 2000s. Increases in atmospheric greenhouse gases, notably carbon dioxide, create an energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) even as the planet warms to adjust to this imbalance, which is estimated to be 0.5-1 W m-2 over the 2000s. Annual global fluctuations in TOA energy of up to 0.2 W m-2 occur from natural variations in clouds, aerosols, and changes in the Sun. At times of major volcanic eruptions the effects can be much larger. Yet global mean surface temperatures fluctuate much more than these can account for. An energy imbalance is manifested not just as surface atmospheric or ground warming but also as melting sea and land ice, and heating of the oceans. More than 90% of the heat goes into the oceans and, with melting land ice, causes sea level to rise. For the past decade, more than 30% of the heat has apparently penetrated below 700 m depth that is traceable to changes in surface winds mainly over the Pacific in association with a switch to a negative phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) in 1999. Surface warming was much more in evidence during the 1976-1998 positive phase of the PDO, suggesting that natural decadal variability modulates the rate of change of global surface temperatures while sea-level rise is more relentless. Global warming has not stopped; it is merely manifested in different ways.

Trenberth, Kevin E.; Fasullo, John T.

2013-12-01

123

Mood, dissociation and false memories using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure.  

PubMed

Who is likely to have a false memory? Does being in a certain transient state, such as a negative mood, mean that a person is more like to have a false memory? These important questions are examined using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure. The amount of false memories was compared with people's score on a dissociation measure and by mood. Unlike past research, which has used different procedures to explore false memories, we found that dissociation was not associated with false memories. We argue that this is because the DRM procedure requires two processes for a false memory (the generation of the critical lure and mistaking its source), while most false memory procedures only require one process (source monitoring error) because the errant information is suggested to the participant. This pattern of results suggests that only errors with the source monitoring process are associated with dissociation. We found that mood was related to false memories, but it was dependent on the specific task demands. If participants were told to recall as many words as they could, then people in a negative mood had more false memories. However, if they were told to recall as many words as they felt like recalling, then there were more false memories for people in a positive mood. This can be explained by the mood-as-input hypothesis. Results are discussed in relation to both theories and applications of memory. PMID:16131407

Wright, Daniel B; Startup, Helen M; Mathews, Sorcha A

2005-08-01

124

False beliefs about fattening foods can have healthy consequences  

PubMed Central

We suggested to 228 subjects in two experiments that, as children, they had had negative experiences with a fattening food. An additional 107 subjects received no such suggestion and served as controls. In Experiment 1, a minority of subjects came to believe that they had felt ill after eating strawberry ice cream as children, and these subjects were more likely to indicate not wanting to eat strawberry ice cream now. In contrast, we were unable to obtain these effects when the critical item was a more commonly eaten treat (chocolate chip cookie). In Experiment 2, we replicated and extended the strawberry ice cream results. Two different ways of processing the false suggestion succeeded in planting the false belief and producing avoidance of the food. These findings show that it is possible to convince people that, as children, they experienced a negative event involving a fattening food and that this false belief results in avoidance of that food in adulthood. More broadly, these results indicate that we can, through suggestion, manipulate nutritional selection and possibly even improve health. PMID:16079200

Bernstein, Daniel M.; Laney, Cara; Morris, Erin K.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

2005-01-01

125

49 CFR 520.21 - Preparation of environmental reviews, negative declarations, and notices of intent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false Preparation of environmental reviews, negative declarations...TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR CONSIDERING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Procedures § 520.21 Preparation of environmental reviews, negative...

2012-10-01

126

49 CFR 520.21 - Preparation of environmental reviews, negative declarations, and notices of intent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 false Preparation of environmental reviews, negative declarations...TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR CONSIDERING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Procedures § 520.21 Preparation of environmental reviews, negative...

2013-10-01

127

49 CFR 520.21 - Preparation of environmental reviews, negative declarations, and notices of intent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-10-01 false Preparation of environmental reviews, negative declarations...TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR CONSIDERING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Procedures § 520.21 Preparation of environmental reviews, negative...

2010-10-01

128

49 CFR 520.21 - Preparation of environmental reviews, negative declarations, and notices of intent.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 false Preparation of environmental reviews, negative declarations...TRANSPORTATION PROCEDURES FOR CONSIDERING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Procedures § 520.21 Preparation of environmental reviews, negative...

2011-10-01

129

Can False Memories Prime Problem Solutions?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task…

Howe, Mark L.; Garner, Sarah R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Ball, Linden J.

2010-01-01

130

LVIS Tree Height Cross Section (false color)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animation starts with a false-color map of tree heights north of San Jose, Costa Rica, and changes to a close-up 3D cut-away of a section of the forest, also in false color. Data from LVIS observations taken in March, 1998.

Jones, Randall; Blair, Bryan

1999-09-17

131

How Does Distinctive Processing Reduce False Recall?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

False memories arising from associatively related lists are a robust phenomenon that resists many efforts to prevent it. However, a few variables have been shown to reduce this form of false memory. Explanations for how the reduction is accomplished have focused on either output monitoring processes or constraints on access, but neither idea alone…

Hunt, R. Reed; Smith, Rebekah E.; Dunlap, Kathryn R.

2011-01-01

132

Explaining the Development of False Memories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Reviews explanatory dimensions of children's false memory relevant to forensic practice: measurement, development, social factors, individual differences, varieties of memories and memory judgments, and varieties of procedures inducing false memories. Asserts that recent studies fail to use techniques that separate acquiescence from memory…

Reyna, Valerie F.; Holliday, Robyn; Marche, Tammy

2002-01-01

133

Viscoelastic properties of the false vocal fold  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biomechanical properties of vocal fold tissues have been the focus of many previous studies, as vocal fold viscoelasticity critically dictates the acoustics and biomechanics of phonation. However, not much is known about the viscoelastic response of the ventricular fold or false vocal fold. It has been shown both clinically and in computer simulations that the false vocal fold may

Roger W. Chan

2001-01-01

134

Repetition increases false recollection in older people.  

PubMed

Aging is accompanied by an increase in false alarms on recognition tasks, and these false alarms increase with repetition in older people (but not in young people). Traditionally, this increase was thought to be due to a greater use of familiarity in older people, but it was recently pointed out that false alarms also have a clear recollection component in these people. The main objective of our study is to analyze whether the expected increase in the rate of false alarms in older people due to stimulus repetition is produced by an inadequate use of familiarity, recollection, or both processes. To do so, we carried out an associative recognition experiment using pairs of words and pairs of images (faces associated with everyday contexts), in which we analyzed whether the repetition of some of the pairs increases the rate of false alarms in older people (compared to what was found in a sample of young people), and whether this increase is due to familiarity or recollection (using a remember-know paradigm). Our results show that the increase in false alarms in older people due to repetition is produced by false recollection, calling into question both dual and single-process models of recognition. Also, older people falsely recollect details of never studied stimuli, a clear case of perceptual illusions. These results are better explained in terms of source-monitoring errors, mediated by people's retrieval expectations. PMID:25330138

Pitarque, Alfonso; Sales, Alicia; Meléndez, Juan Carlos; Algarabel, Salvador

2015-02-01

135

Mobility of Stichodactyla Gigantea Sea Anemones and Implications for Resident False Clown Anemonefish, Amphiprion Ocellaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

For reef fishes that do not move between habitat patches following settlement, habitat selection is expected during settlement. Although false clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris, are sedentary following settlement, they are not especially discriminating during settlement, and are commonly found occupying anemones at which no apparent nest site exists. In this study I report on mobility of Stichodactyla gigantea sea anemones,

Jeremy S. Mitchell

2003-01-01

136

Reducing False Positives in Runtime Analysis of Deadlocks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper presents an improvement of a standard algorithm for detecting dead-lock potentials in multi-threaded programs, in that it reduces the number of false positives. The standard algorithm works as follows. The multi-threaded program under observation is executed, while lock and unlock events are observed. A graph of locks is built, with edges between locks symbolizing locking orders. Any cycle in the graph signifies a potential for a deadlock. The typical standard example is the group of dining philosophers sharing forks. The algorithm is interesting because it can catch deadlock potentials even though no deadlocks occur in the examined trace, and at the same time it scales very well in contrast t o more formal approaches to deadlock detection. The algorithm, however, can yield false positives (as well as false negatives). The extension of the algorithm described in this paper reduces the amount of false positives for three particular cases: when a gate lock protects a cycle, when a single thread introduces a cycle, and when the code segments in different threads that cause the cycle can actually not execute in parallel. The paper formalizes a theory for dynamic deadlock detection and compares it to model checking and static analysis techniques. It furthermore describes an implementation for analyzing Java programs and its application to two case studies: a planetary rover and a space craft altitude control system.

Bensalem, Saddek; Havelund, Klaus; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

137

False recognition of instruction-set lures.  

PubMed

False remembering has been examined using a variety of procedures, including the Deese-Roediger-McDermott procedure, the false fame procedure and the two-list recognition procedure. We present six experiments in a different empirical framework examining false recognition of words included in the experimental instructions (instruction-set lures). The data show that participants' false alarm rate to instruction-set lures was twice their false alarm rate to standard lures. That result was statistically robust even when (1) the relative strength of targets to instruction-set lures was increased, (2) participants were warned about the instruction-set lures, (3) the instruction-set lures were camouflaged in the study instructions and (4) the instruction-set lures were presented verbally at study but visually at test. False recognition of instruction-set lures was only mitigated when participants were distracted between encountering the instruction-set lures and studying the training list. The results confirm the ease with which recognition succumbs to familiarity and demonstrate the robustness of false recognition. PMID:25438094

Curtis, Evan T; Chubala, Chrissy M; Spear, Jackie; Jamieson, Randall K; Hockley, William E; Crump, Matthew J C

2014-12-01

138

Viscoelastic properties of the false vocal fold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biomechanical properties of vocal fold tissues have been the focus of many previous studies, as vocal fold viscoelasticity critically dictates the acoustics and biomechanics of phonation. However, not much is known about the viscoelastic response of the ventricular fold or false vocal fold. It has been shown both clinically and in computer simulations that the false vocal fold may contribute significantly to the aerodynamics and sound generation processes of human voice production, with or without flow-induced oscillation of the false fold. To better understand the potential role of the false fold in phonation, this paper reports some preliminary measurements on the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of false vocal fold tissues. Linear viscoelastic shear properties of human false fold tissue samples were measured by a high-frequency controlled-strain rheometer as a function of frequency, and passive uniaxial tensile stress-strain response of the tissue samples was measured by a muscle lever system as a function of strain and loading rate. Elastic moduli (Young's modulus and shear modulus) of the false fold tissues were calculated from the measured data. [Work supported by NIH.

Chan, Roger W.

2001-05-01

139

[Chemotherapies of negative schizophrenia].  

PubMed

Five years ago, Goldberg claimed that negative symptoms of schizophrenia do respond to neuroleptics. This apparent discovery is, in fact, a very common way of thinking for European schools of psychiatry, specially the French one guided by Delay and Deniker. Initially focused on reserpine and some alerting phenothiazines such as thioproperazine, this opinion has been extended to benzamides in the 1970s. The analysis of the publications devoted to this point indicates that several drugs are actually considered as potent disinhibitors (i.e. active on negative symptoms of schizophrenia): Phenothiazines: As shown in the controlled studies by Itil (1971), Poirier-Littré (1988), fluphenazine and pipotiazine improve the BPRS anergia factor and the SANS score. Butyrophenones: The first description of the "imipramine like" effect of trifluperidol by Janssen (1959) initiated the studies by Gallant (1960), Fox (1963). They compared trifluperidol at low doses versus haloperidol and chlorpromazine at medium and high doses, BPRS anergia factor improved only at low doses. Diphenylbutylpiperidines (DPBP): Meltzer's review (1986) concluded to the efficacy of such drugs on negative symptoms appearing as a specific biochemical relationship effect. A definite analysis about doses leads to a very different interpretation: DPBP low doses and only low doses improved negative symptoms as much as some low doses of phenothiazines. On the opposite, DPBP, phenothiazines and butyrophenones high doses are inefficient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1683624

Petit, M; Dollfus, S

1991-01-01

140

Negative Index of Refraction Mary (Betsey) Mathew  

E-print Network

Negative Index of Refraction Mary (Betsey) Mathew La Rosa, Winter 2006 #12;1 ABSTRACT In recent index of refraction materials. Negative index of refraction was an idea first theorized by Victor of refraction because I was amazed that such an apparently simple discovery could have been made only so lately

La Rosa, Andres H.

141

7 CFR 275.13 - Review of negative cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review of negative cases. 275.13 Section 275.13...PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Quality Control (QC) Reviews § 275.13 Review of negative cases. (a) General. A...

2011-01-01

142

7 CFR 275.13 - Review of negative cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Review of negative cases. 275.13 Section 275.13...PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Quality Control (QC) Reviews § 275.13 Review of negative cases. (a) General....

2010-01-01

143

Not All False Memories Are Created Equal: The Neural Basis of False Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

False recognition, a type of memory distortion where one claims to remember something that never happened, can occur in response to items that are similar but not identical to previously seen items (i.e., related false recognition) or in response to novel items (i.e., unrelated false recognition). It is unknown whether these 2 types of memory errors arise from the same

Rachel J. Garoff-Eaton; Scott D. Slotnick; Daniel L. Schacter

2006-01-01

144

20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31 U.S.C. 3729 based on actions...

2013-04-01

145

20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31 U.S.C. 3729 based on actions...

2010-04-01

146

20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31 U.S.C. 3729 based on actions...

2011-04-01

147

20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31 U.S.C. 3729 based on actions...

2012-04-01

148

20 CFR 356.3 - False claims.  

...Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD ADMINISTRATIVE REMEDIES FOR FRAUDULENT CLAIMS OR STATEMENTS CIVIL MONETARY PENALTY INFLATION ADJUSTMENT § 356.3 False claims. In the case of penalties assessed under 31 U.S.C. 3729 based on actions...

2014-04-01

149

Review article: the false-bottom ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nansen from his observations in the Beaufort Sea published in 1897 noted that heat transfer from the fresh water (with a~temperature of 0 °C) to the arctic salt water (with a temperature of -1.6 °C) is the only source of ice accretion during the polar summer. This transfer mechanism, unusual at first sight, is responsible for the initiation and evolution of a false bottom ice, changing ice properties to a great extent and affecting various processes while interacting with the ocean and the atmosphere. The processes of false bottom ice growth from below (i.e. from the ocean to the atmosphere) become of prime importance in the era of global warming and climate change. In this review, we summarize the theoretical approaches, field and laboratory observations, conducted during more than 100 yr, in order to address the problem of false bottoms to a broad community of readers. We also discuss the recent modeling advances to which we have contributed. A "false bottom" is a thin layer of ice which forms in summer underneath the floe, where fresh water lies between the salt water and the ice. Such false bottoms represent the only significant source of ice growth in the Arctic during the spring-summer period. Their evolution influences the mass balance of the Arctic sea-ice cover, which is recognized as an indicator of climate change. However, the quantity, aerial extent and other properties of false bottoms are difficult to measure because coring under the surface melt ponds leads to direct mixing of surface and under-ice water. This explains why their aerial extent and overall volume is still not known despite the fact that the upper limit of the present-day estimate of the false bottom ice coverage is approximately half of the sea ice surface. The growth of false bottoms also leads to other important consequences for various physical, chemical and biological processes associated with their dynamics.

Alexandrov, D. V.; Jouzel, J.; Nizovtseva, I.; Ryashko, L. B.

2013-11-01

150

Apparent Thermal Conductivity Of Multilayer Insulation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical model of apparent or effective thermal conductivity between two successive layers of multilayer thermal insulation (MLI) offers potential for optimizing performance of insulation. One gains understanding of how each physical mechanism contributes to overall flow of heat through MLI blanket. Model helps analyze engineering tradeoffs among such parameters as number of layers, thicknesses of gaps between layers, types of spacers placed in gaps, weight, overall thickness, and effects of foregoing on apparent thermal conductivity through blanket.

Mcintosh, Glen E.

1995-01-01

151

False-positive results with amylase testing of citrus fruits.  

PubMed

In a case of robbery in which the criminals passed through the garden adorned with calamondin trees (Citrus madurensis), the investigators found in the grass six calamondin fruits, some undamaged, while others apparently bitten. The fruits were collected and sent to the laboratory for DNA analysis to verify the presence of saliva and robbers' DNA profile. A specific immunochromatographic strip test for saliva confirmed the presence of human salivary ?-amylase, but similar positive results were also observed for intact calamondin and other citrus fruits. Further analysis with a specific automated amylase test confirmed the absence of amylase activity. DNA quantification and typing using a specific forensic kit revealed no human DNA presence in any fruits. This case report demonstrates for the first time the occurrence of false positives when human saliva is sought on citrus fruits. PMID:24502328

Ricci, Ugo; Carboni, Ilaria; Torricelli, Francesca

2014-09-01

152

Generation of a bubble universe using a negative energy bath  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper suggests a model for a bubble universe using buildable false vacuum bubbles. We study the causal structures of collapsing false vacuum bubbles using double-null simulations. False vacuum bubbles violate the null energy condition and emit negative energy along the outgoing direction through semi-classical effects. If there are a few collapsing false vacuum bubbles and they emit negative energy to a certain region, then the region can be approximated by a negative energy bath, which means that the region is homogeneously filled by negative energy. If a false vacuum bubble is generated in the negative energy bath and the tension of the bubble effectively becomes negative in the bath, then the bubble can expand and form an inflating bubble universe. This scenario uses a set of assumptions different from those in previous studies because it does not require tunneling to unbuildable bubbles.

Hwang, Dong-il; Yeom, Dong-han

2011-08-01

153

Negative probability  

E-print Network

This article was written for the Logic in Computer Science column in the February 2015 issue of the Bulletin of the European Association for Theoretical Computer Science. The intended audience is general computer science audience. The uncertainty principle asserts a limit to the precision with which position x and momentum p of a particle can be known simultaneously. You may know the probability distributions of x and p individually but the joint distribution makes no physical sense. Yet Wigner exhibited such a joint distribution f(x,p). There was, however, a little trouble with it: some of its values were negative. Nevertheless Wigner's discovery attracted attention and found applications. There are other joint distribution, all with negative values, which produce the correct marginal distributions of x and p. But only Wigner's distribution produces the correct marginal distributions for all linear combinations of position and momentum. We offer a simple proof of the uniqueness and discuss related issues.

Andreas Blass; Yuri Gurevich

2015-02-02

154

Can false memories prime problem solutions?  

PubMed

Previous research has suggested that false memories can prime performance on related implicit and explicit memory tasks. The present research examined whether false memories can also be used to prime higher order cognitive processes, namely, insight-based problem solving. Participants were asked to solve a number of compound remote associate task (CRAT) problems, half of which had been primed by the presentation of Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists whose critical lure was also the solution to the problem. The results showed that when the critical lure: (a) was falsely recalled, CRAT problems were solved more often and significantly faster than problems that were not primed by a DRM list and (b) was not falsely recalled, CRAT problem solution rates and times were no different than when there was no DRM priming. A second experiment demonstrated that these outcomes were not a simple artifact of the inclusion of a recall test prior to the problem solving task. The implications of these results are discussed with regard to the previous literature on priming and the adaptive function of false memories. PMID:20813356

Howe, Mark L; Garner, Sarah R; Dewhurst, Stephen A; Ball, Linden J

2010-11-01

155

27 CFR 478.128 - False statement or representation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false False statement or representation. 478.128 Section 478...478.128 False statement or representation. (a) Any person who knowingly makes any false statement or representation in applying for any...

2010-04-01

156

27 CFR 478.128 - False statement or representation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... false False statement or representation. 478.128 Section 478...478.128 False statement or representation. (a) Any person who knowingly makes any false statement or representation in applying for any...

2013-04-01

157

27 CFR 478.128 - False statement or representation.  

... false False statement or representation. 478.128 Section 478...478.128 False statement or representation. (a) Any person who knowingly makes any false statement or representation in applying for any...

2014-04-01

158

MTS in false positive reduction for multi-sensor fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Mahalanobis Taguchi System (MTS) is a relatively new tool in the vehicle health maintenance domain, but has some distinct advantages in current multi-sensor implementations. The use of Mahalanobis Spaces (MS) allows the algorithm to identify characteristics of sensor signals to identify behaviors in machines. MTS is extremely powerful with the caveat that the correct variables are selected to form the MS. In this research work, 56 sensors monitor various aspects of the vehicles. Typically, using the MTS process, identification of useful variables is preceded by validation of the measurements scale. However, the MTS approach doesn't directly include any mitigating steps should the measurement scale not be validated. Existing work has performed outlier removal in construction of the MS, which can lead to better validation. In our approach, we modify the outlier removal process with more liberal definitions of outliers to better identify variables' impact prior to identification of useful variables. This subtle change substantially lowered the false positive rate due to the fact that additional variables were retained. Traditional MTS approaches identify useful variables only to the extent they provide usefulness in identifying the positive (abnormal) condition. The impact of removing false negatives is not included. Initial results show our approach can reduce false positive values while still maintaining complete fault identification for this vehicle data set.

Woodley, Robert; Gosnell, Michael; Cudney, Elizabeth

2014-05-01

159

Apparent Linear Attenuation Coefficients in Phase Contrast X-Ray Tomography  

PubMed Central

In the inline phase contrast x-ray tomography the reconstructed apparent linear attenuation coefficient values may be greatly larger than sample’s linear attenuation coefficients or even be negative. In this work we present a general formula to quantitatively relate the apparent linear attenuation coefficient values in cone-beam phase contrast tomography to sample’s linear attenuation coefficients and refractive indices. This formula overcomes the gross inaccuracy of the existing formula in the literature in analyzing high-resolution phase contrast tomography, and it will be useful for correctly interpreting and quantifying the apparent linear attenuation coefficients in cone-beam x-ray phase contrast tomography. PMID:21691420

Yan, Aimin; Wu, Xizeng

2011-01-01

160

Superluminal apparent motions in distant radio sources  

E-print Network

We derive the prediction of the standard model of superluminal radio sources for the apparent transverse velocity of a radio source located at redshift z. The apparent velocity of the source is reduced by a factor of 1 + z compared to that of a similar nearby source. The cause of this reduction is recession of the distant source due to the expansion of the universe. The apparent velocity of a source can be estimated from its redshift and proper motion using the values of the Hubble constant and the mean densities of different energy components in the universe. We derive an expression for the velocity valid for the currently favored cosmological model: a flat universe with a nonzero cosmological constant.

Michal Chodorowski

2005-01-14

161

High temperature strain gage apparent strain compensation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Once an installed strain gage is connected to a strain indicating device and the instrument is balanced, a subsequent change in temperature of the gage installation will generally produce a resistance change in the gage. This purely temperature-induced resistance will be registered by the indicating device as a strain and is referred to as 'apparent strain' to distinguish it from strain due to applied stress. One desirable technique for apparent strain compensation is to employ two identical gages with identical mounting procedures which are connected with a 'half bridge' configuration where gages see the same thermal environment but only one experiences a mechanical strain input. Their connection in adjacent arms of the bridge will then balance the thermally induced apparent strains and, in principle, only the mechanical strain remains. Two approaches that implement this technique are discussed.

Holmes, Harlan K.; Moore, T. C., Sr.

1992-01-01

162

Analysis of False Starts in Spontaneous Speech.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A primary difference between spontaneous speech and read speech concerns the use of false starts, where a speaker interrupts the flow of speech to restart his or her utterance. A study examined the acoustic aspects of such restarts in a widely-used speech database, examining approximately 1000 utterances, about 10% of which contained a restart.…

O'Shaughnessy, Douglas

163

Infants' Reasoning about Others' False Perceptions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Prior research suggests that children younger than age 3 or 4 do not understand that an agent may be deceived by an object's misleading appearance. The authors asked whether 14.5-month-olds would give evidence in a violation-of-expectation task that they understand that agents may form false perceptions. Infants first watched events in which an…

Song, Hyun-joo; Baillargeon, Renee

2008-01-01

164

Development of the False-Memory Illusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The counterintuitive developmental trend in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) illusion (that false-memory responses increase with age) was investigated in learning-disabled and nondisabled children from the 6- to 14-year-old age range. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that because there are qualitative differences in how younger versus older children…

Brainerd, C. J.; Forrest, T. J.; Karibian, D.; Reyna, V. F.

2006-01-01

165

When Distinctiveness Fails, False Memories Prevail.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Notes that fuzzy-trace theory provides a link between indices of memory performance and the theoretical processes that underlie that performance. Author argues false memories can arise because of processes that normally affect forgetting. Maintains that, to the extent that memories lose their distinctive properties, such memories may become…

Howe, Mark L.

1998-01-01

166

A Synchronization Account of False Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We describe a computational model to explain a variety of results in both standard and false recognition. A key attribute of the model is that it uses plausible semantic representations for words, built through exposure to a linguistic corpus. A study list is encoded in the model as a gist trace, similar to the proposal of fuzzy trace theory…

Johns, Brendan T.; Jones, Michael N.; Mewhort, Douglas J. K.

2012-01-01

167

How to Justify Teaching False Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We often knowingly teach false science. Such a practice conflicts with a prima facie pedagogical value placed on teaching only what is true. I argue that only a partial dissolution of the conflict is possible: the proper aim of instruction in science is not to provide an armory of facts about what things the world contains, how they interact, and…

Slater, Matthew H.

2008-01-01

168

Ectopic pregnancy in an apparently healthy bitch.  

PubMed

This case describes an extrauterine fetus that was discovered in an apparently healthy bitch 5 mo after whelping. The extrauterine fetus was surgically removed, and the bitch made a complete recovery. The topic of canine ectopic pregnancy is discussed, and a review of previously reported cases is presented. PMID:22474049

Eddey, Philip D

2012-01-01

169

Aesthetic user experience and apparent space dimensions  

Microsoft Academic Search

By the experiment, this study explores the user experience's key component, the users' aesthetic reaction (UAR). The results show that: (1) interface's UAR is made up of beauty of impression (BI), hominine beauty (HB) and beauty of material (BM); (2) BI is the strongest at the three apparent space dimensions, and can be weaken by reducing dimensions; (3) HB and

Lei Tian

2010-01-01

170

Experiences of patients with false positive results from colorectal cancer screening.  

PubMed Central

A survey was conducted to study the experiences of patients with false positive results for colorectal cancer. The study patients were participants in a randomized trial of compliance with different methods of colorectal cancer screening by faecal occult blood testing. Fifty four out of fifty six patients (96.4%) with false positive results agreed to be interviewed. An age and sex matched control group of 112 patients with negative test results was identified --92 (82.1%) returned questionnaires. Thirteen of the patients with false positive results (24.1%) and 19 controls (20.7%) were to some extent distressed by the initial letter inviting them to participate in the screening programme. Thirty seven of the patients with false positive results (68.5%) felt some degree of distress at the initial positive test result and 19 (35.2%) some distress because of delays experienced in the process of being screened. Ten false positive patients had colonoscopy and the median waiting time for this procedure was 10 days--half of the patients found this wait distressing. Nevertheless, 53 of the patients with false positive results (98.1%) felt that it had been worthwhile to have had the test. Generally, colorectal screening was as acceptable to the patients who experienced false positive results as to those with negative results. PMID:2271264

Mant, D; Fitzpatrick, R; Hogg, A; Fuller, A; Farmer, A; Verne, J; Northover, J

1990-01-01

171

Visual content of words delays negation.  

PubMed

Many studies have shown the advantage of processing visualizable words over non-visualizables due to the associated image code. The present paper reports the case of negation in which imagery could slow down processing. Negation reverses the truth value of a proposition from false to true or vice versa. Consequently, negation works only on propositions (reversing their truth value) and cannot apply directly to other forms of knowledge representation such as images (although they can be veridical or not). This leads to a paradoxical hypothesis: despite the advantage of visualizable words for general processing, the negation of clauses containing words related to the representation of an image would be more difficult than negation containing non-visualizable words. Two experiments support this hypothesis by showing that sentences with a previously negated visualizable word took longer to be read than sentences with previously negated non-visualizable words. The results suggest that a verbal code is used to process negation. PMID:25463550

Orenes, Isabel; Santamaría, Carlos

2014-11-01

172

Creating a false memory in the hippocampus.  

PubMed

Memories can be unreliable. We created a false memory in mice by optogenetically manipulating memory engram-bearing cells in the hippocampus. Dentate gyrus (DG) or CA1 neurons activated by exposure to a particular context were labeled with channelrhodopsin-2. These neurons were later optically reactivated during fear conditioning in a different context. The DG experimental group showed increased freezing in the original context, in which a foot shock was never delivered. The recall of this false memory was context-specific, activated similar downstream regions engaged during natural fear memory recall, and was also capable of driving an active fear response. Our data demonstrate that it is possible to generate an internally represented and behaviorally expressed fear memory via artificial means. PMID:23888038

Ramirez, Steve; Liu, Xu; Lin, Pei-Ann; Suh, Junghyup; Pignatelli, Michele; Redondo, Roger L; Ryan, Tomás J; Tonegawa, Susumu

2013-07-26

173

Constrained potential method for false vacuum decays  

SciTech Connect

A procedure is reported for numerical analysis of false vacuum transition in a model with multiple scalar fields. It is a refined version of the approach by Konstandin and Huber. The alteration makes it possible to tackle a class of problems that was difficult or unsolvable with the original method, i.e. those with a distant or nonexistent true vacuum. An example with an unbounded-from-below direction is presented.

Park, Jae-hyeon, E-mail: jae-hyeon.park@desy.de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestraße 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)

2011-02-01

174

Reducing false positives in molecular pattern recognition.  

PubMed

In the search for new cancer subtypes by gene expression profiling, it is essential to avoid misclassifying samples of unknown subtypes as known ones. In this paper, we evaluated the false positive error rates of several classification algorithms through a 'null test' by presenting classifiers a large collection of independent samples that do not belong to any of the tumor types in the training dataset. The benchmark dataset is available at www2.genome.rcast.u-tokyo.ac.jp/pm/. We found that k-nearest neighbor (KNN) and support vector machine (SVM) have very high false positive error rates when fewer genes (<100) are used in prediction. The error rate can be partially reduced by including more genes. On the other hand, prototype matching (PM) method has a much lower false positive error rate. Such robustness can be achieved without loss of sensitivity by introducing suitable measures of prediction confidence. We also proposed a cluster-and-select technique to select genes for classification. The nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis H test is employed to select genes differentially expressed in multiple tumor types. To reduce the redundancy, we then divided these genes into clusters with similar expression patterns and selected a given number of genes from each cluster. The reliability of the new algorithm is tested on three public datasets. PMID:15706518

Ge, Xijin; Tsutsumi, Shuichi; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Iwata, Shuichi

2003-01-01

175

A synchronization account of false recognition.  

PubMed

We describe a computational model to explain a variety of results in both standard and false recognition. A key attribute of the model is that it uses plausible semantic representations for words, built through exposure to a linguistic corpus. A study list is encoded in the model as a gist trace, similar to the proposal of fuzzy trace theory (Brainerd & Reyna, 2002), but based on realistically structured semantic representations of the component words. The model uses a decision process based on the principles of neural synchronization and information accumulation. The decision process operates by synchronizing a probe with the gist trace of a study context, allowing information to be accumulated about whether the word did or did not occur on the study list, and the efficiency of synchronization determines recognition. We demonstrate that the model is capable of accounting for standard recognition results that are challenging for classic global memory models, and can also explain a wide variety of false recognition effects and make item-specific predictions for critical lures. The model demonstrates that both standard and false recognition results may be explained within a single formal framework by integrating realistic representation assumptions with a simple processing mechanism. PMID:22884279

Johns, Brendan T; Jones, Michael N; Mewhort, Douglas J K

2012-12-01

176

The false enforcement of unpopular norms.  

PubMed

Prevailing theory assumes that people enforce norms in order to pressure others to act in ways that they approve. Yet there are numerous examples of "unpopular norms" in which people compel each other to do things that they privately disapprove. While peer sanctioning suggests a ready explanation for why people conform to unpopular norms, it is harder to understand why they would enforce a norm they privately oppose. The authors argue that people enforce unpopular norms to show that they have complied out of genuine conviction and not because of social pressure. They use laboratory experiments to demonstrate this "false enforcement" in the context of a wine tasting and an academic text evaluation. Both studies find that participants who conformed to a norm due to social pressure then falsely enforced the norm by publicly criticizing a lone deviant. A third study shows that enforcement of a norm effectively signals the enforcer's genuine support for the norm. These results demonstrate the potential for a vicious cycle in which perceived pressures to conform to and falsely enforce an unpopular norm reinforce one another. PMID:20614762

Willer, Robb; Kuwabara, Ko; Macy, Michael W

2009-09-01

177

Investigations of the Response of Swimming Paramecia to Variations in their Apparent Weight  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There is a set of micro-organisms that are small enough that they swim at low Reynolds number and large enough that gravity exerts an influence on their behavior Many protists, like paramecia, for example, exhibit negative gravi-taxis by orienting their swimming upward and negative gravi-kinesis by increasing their propulsion when swimming against their apparent weight. It is not clear whether these responses to a very weak force (about 100 pN) are active or passive. We have developed a technique, Magnetic Force Buoyancy Variation, which enables us to vary the apparent weight of the swimmers in situ. We will describe experiments on paramecia conducted at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory. In particular, we will describe how increasing the apparent weight induces paramecia to accumulate at upper surfaces. A simple force model suggests that this accumulation is a passive response.

Valles, James; Jung, Ilyong; Guevorkian, Karine; Mickalide, Harry; Wagman, Michael

2011-11-01

178

Rubber friction on (apparently) smooth lubricated surfaces  

E-print Network

We study rubber sliding friction on hard lubricated surfaces. We show that even if the hard surface appears smooth to the naked eye, it may exhibit short wavelength roughness, which may give the dominant contribution to rubber friction. That is, the observed sliding friction is mainly due to the viscoelastic deformations of the rubber by the substrate surface asperities. The presented results are of great importance for rubber sealing and other rubber applications involving (apparently) smooth surfaces.

M. Mofidi; B. Prakash; B. N. J. Persson; O. Albohl

2007-10-18

179

Separating intrinsic and apparent seismic anisotropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic anisotropy plays a key role in studies of the Earth's rheology and deformation because of its relation to flow-induced lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of intrinsically anisotropic minerals. In addition to LPO, small-scale heterogeneity produces apparent anisotropy that need not be related to deformation in the same way as intrinsic anisotropy. Quantitative interpretations of observed anisotropy therefore require the separation of its intrinsic and apparent components. We analyse the possibility of separating intrinsic and apparent anisotropy in media with hexagonal symmetry - typically used in surface wave tomography and SKS splitting studies. Our analysis is on the level of the wave equation, which makes it general and independent of specific data types. We find that commonly observed anisotropy can always be explained by a purely isotropic laminated medium unless all anisotropic parameters are known with unrealistic accuracy. Most importantly, minute changes in the poorly constrained P wave anisotropy and the parameter eta can switch between the existence or not of a laminated isotropic equivalent. Important implications of our study are: (1) Intrinsic anisotropy over tomographically resolved length scales is never strictly required when reasonable error bars for anisotropic parameters are taken into account. (2) Currently available seismic observables do not provide adequate constraints on the relative contributions of intrinsic and apparent anisotropy. (3) Therefore, seismic observables alone do not provide compelling constraints on the magnitude of mantle flow. (4) Quantitative interpretations of anisotropy in terms of mantle flow require a combined seismic/geodynamic inversion that properly accounts for the formation of both LPO and small-scale heterogeneity.

Trampert, Jeannot; Fichtner, Andreas; Kennett, Brian

2013-04-01

180

Predicting apparent Sherwood numbers for fluidized beds  

SciTech Connect

Mass transfer data of bubbling fluidized beds have been reevaluated with a new model which is completely predictive. The model is based on a two-phase approach with active bypass, formally plug flow for the suspension gas and a consideration of backmixing in the main kinetic coefficient, i.e. in the apparent particle-to-fluid Sherwood number. A good agreement with experimental results of various authors with a broad range of Reynolds numbers and particle diameters is demonstrated.

Groenewold, H.; Tsotsas, E.

1999-09-01

181

The Apparent Thermal Conductivity of Pozzolana Concrete  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent development of some lightweight construction materials, such as light concrete, can play an important role as an insulator, while maintaining sufficient levels of mechanical performance. The quality of insulation to provide depends on the climate, the exposure of the walls and also the materials used in the construction. The choice of a material to be used as an insulator, obviously, depends on its availability and its cost. This is a study of natural pozzolanas as basic components in building materials. It is intended to highlight their thermal advantage. It is economically advantageous to use pozzolana in substitution for a portion of the clinker as hydraulically active additions, as well as in compositions of lightweight concretes in the form of pozzolanic aggregate mixtures, which provide mechanical strengths that comply with current standards. A theoretical study is conducted on the apparent thermal conductivity of building materials, namely concrete containing pozzolana. Thermal modeling, apparent to that commonly used for porous materials, has been applied to pozzolana concrete. Experimental results on measurements of the apparent thermal conductivity of pozzolana concrete are reported in this study, using an approach that considers that concrete is composed of two solid ingredients, a binding matrix (hydrated cement paste) and all aggregates. A second comparative theoretical approach is used for the case where concrete consists of a solid phase and a fluid phase (air).

Bessenouci, M. Z.; Triki, N. E. Bibi; Khelladi, S.; Draoui, B.; Abene, A.

182

Apparent Solar Tornado-Like Prominences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent high-resolution observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) have reawakened interest in the old and fascinating phenomenon of solar tornado-like prominences. This class of prominences was first introduced by Pettit ( Astrophys. J. 76, 9, 1932), who studied them over many years. Observations of tornado prominences similar to the ones seen by SDO had already been documented by Secchi ( Le Soleil, 1877). High-resolution and high-cadence multiwavelength data obtained by SDO reveal that the tornado-like appearance of these prominences is mainly an illusion due to projection effects. We discuss two different cases where prominences on the limb might appear to have a tornado-like behavior. One case of apparent vortical motions in prominence spines and barbs arises from the (mostly) 2D counterstreaming plasma motion along the prominence spine and barbs together with oscillations along individual threads. The other case of apparent rotational motion is observed in a prominence cavity and results from the 3D plasma motion along the writhed magnetic fields inside and along the prominence cavity as seen projected on the limb. Thus, the "tornado" impression results either from counterstreaming and oscillations or from the projection on the plane of the sky of plasma motion along magnetic-field lines, rather than from a true vortical motion around an (apparent) vertical or horizontal axis. We discuss the link between tornado-like prominences, filament barbs, and photospheric vortices at their base.

Panasenco, Olga; Martin, Sara F.; Velli, Marco

2014-02-01

183

A Case of Apparent Contact Dermatitis Caused by Toxocara Infection  

PubMed Central

Infection from Toxocara species may give rise to a large array of clinical symptoms, including apparent manifestations of allergy such as asthma, urticaria/angioedema, and dermatitis. We report a case, thus far not described, of contact dermatitis attributed to nickel allergy but caused by Toxocara infection. The patient was a 53-year-old woman presenting from 10 years a dermatitis affecting head, neck, and thorax. Patch tests initially performed gave a positive result to nickel, but avoidance of contact with nickel did not result in recovery. The patient referred to our Allergy Service in 2010 because of dermatitis to feet. Patch testing confirmed the positive result for nickel, but expanding the investigation a positive result for IgG antibodies to Toxocara was detected by Western blotting and ELISA. Treatment with mebendazole achieved immediate efficacy on feet dermatitis. Then, two courses of treatment with albendazole resulted in complete regression of dermatitis accompanied by development of negative ELISA and Western blotting for Toxocara antibodies. This report adds another misleading presentation of Toxocara infection as apparent contact dermatitis caused by nickel and suggests bearing in mind, in cases of contact dermatitis not responding to avoidance of the responsible hapten and to medical treatment, the possible causative role of Toxocara. PMID:25580310

Makrì, Eleni; Losappio, Laura

2014-01-01

184

27 CFR 478.128 - False statement or representation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... true False statement or representation. 478.128 Section 478...478.128 False statement or representation. (a) Any person who knowingly makes any false statement or representation in applying for any...

2012-04-01

185

27 CFR 478.128 - False statement or representation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... true False statement or representation. 478.128 Section 478...478.128 False statement or representation. (a) Any person who knowingly makes any false statement or representation in applying for any...

2011-04-01

186

False discovery rates in spectral identification  

PubMed Central

Automated database search engines are one of the fundamental engines of high-throughput proteomics enabling daily identifications of hundreds of thousands of peptides and proteins from tandem mass (MS/MS) spectrometry data. Nevertheless, this automation also makes it humanly impossible to manually validate the vast lists of resulting identifications from such high-throughput searches. This challenge is usually addressed by using a Target-Decoy Approach (TDA) to impose an empirical False Discovery Rate (FDR) at a pre-determined threshold x% with the expectation that at most x% of the returned identifications would be false positives. But despite the fundamental importance of FDR estimates in ensuring the utility of large lists of identifications, there is surprisingly little consensus on exactly how TDA should be applied to minimize the chances of biased FDR estimates. In fact, since less rigorous TDA/FDR estimates tend to result in more identifications (at higher 'true' FDR), there is often little incentive to enforce strict TDA/FDR procedures in studies where the major metric of success is the size of the list of identifications and there are no follow up studies imposing hard cost constraints on the number of reported false positives. Here we address the problem of the accuracy of TDA estimates of empirical FDR. Using MS/MS spectra from samples where we were able to define a factual FDR estimator of 'true' FDR we evaluate several popular variants of the TDA procedure in a variety of database search contexts. We show that the fraction of false identifications can sometimes be over 10× higher than reported and may be unavoidably high for certain types of searches. In addition, we further report that the two-pass search strategy seems the most promising database search strategy. While unavoidably constrained by the particulars of any specific evaluation dataset, our observations support a series of recommendations towards maximizing the number of resulting identifications while controlling database searches with robust and reproducible TDA estimation of empirical FDR. PMID:23176207

2012-01-01

187

Impact of false-positive mammography on subsequent screening attendance and risk of cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: One area of concern within the largely successful UK National Health Service breast screening programme is the relatively high proportion of women showing mammographic abnormalities who undergo further diagnostic tests that prove negative. Previous studies suggest that, in addition to increasing anxiety, such false-positive mammography is associated with increased risk of subsequent interval cancer. In the present article, we

Jenny McCann; Diane Stockton; Sara Godward

2002-01-01

188

Influencing Mechanism of Apparent Space Dimensions on Interface Aesthetics and Apparent Usability  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Apparent usability (AU) and interface aesthetics are the two important factors in HCI, which are affected by the apparent\\u000a space dimension (ASD). This paper, by making two experiments, explored the influencing mechanism of ASD on them. The results\\u000a show that: 1) AU is made up of subjective feelings, operation, and cognition; 2) interface aesthetics is made up of impression\\u000a beauty,

Tian Lei; Yingbin Zhou; Xiang Li; Xiaoli Chen

189

Reducing False Negative Reads in RFID Data Streams Using an Adaptive Sliding-Window Approach  

PubMed Central

Unreliability of the data streams generated by RFID readers is among the primary factors which limit the widespread adoption of the RFID technology. RFID data cleaning is, therefore, an essential task in the RFID middleware systems in order to reduce reading errors, and to allow these data streams to be used to make a correct interpretation and analysis of the physical world they are representing. In this paper we propose an adaptive sliding-window based approach called WSTD which is capable of efficiently coping with both environmental variation and tag dynamics. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach. PMID:22666027

Massawe, Libe Valentine; Kinyua, Johnson D. M.; Vermaak, Herman

2012-01-01

190

Reducing false negative reads in RFID data streams using an adaptive sliding-window approach.  

PubMed

Unreliability of the data streams generated by RFID readers is among the primary factors which limit the widespread adoption of the RFID technology. RFID data cleaning is, therefore, an essential task in the RFID middleware systems in order to reduce reading errors, and to allow these data streams to be used to make a correct interpretation and analysis of the physical world they are representing. In this paper we propose an adaptive sliding-window based approach called WSTD which is capable of efficiently coping with both environmental variation and tag dynamics. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach. PMID:22666027

Massawe, Libe Valentine; Kinyua, Johnson D M; Vermaak, Herman

2012-01-01

191

Impact of {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Before and After Definitive Radiation Therapy in Patients With Apparently Solitary Plasmacytoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) on management of patients with apparently isolated plasmacytoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with apparently solitary plasmacytoma who underwent FDG-PET for staging or restaging were identified from a central PET database. They were either candidates for or had received definitive radiation therapy (RT). Results: Seventeen patients had initial staging scans for bone (n = 11) or soft tissue (n = 6) plasmacytomas, and 11 had PET scans after RT. Only 1 of 14 known untreated sites of plasmacytoma was not identified on staging PET (lesion sensitivity = 93%). Three plasmacytomas were excised before PET. Staging PET influenced management in 6 of 17 patients (35%) by showing multiple myeloma (n = 1), discouraging RT after complete resection (n = 1), excluding plasmacytoma at a second site (n = 1), by increasing RT fields (n = 2), or by suggesting sarcoidosis (n = 1). Fifteen of 17 patients with initial staging PET scans received definitive RT. Restaging PET scans after RT showed complete metabolic response in 8 of 11 cases and progressive disease in 2. Two patients with either no response or partial metabolic response had late responses. Staging sestamibi and PET scans were concordant in five of six occasions (one sestamibi scan was false negative). Conclusions: FDG-PET has value for staging and RT planning in plasmacytoma and potentially could have a role in response-assessment after RT. Slow resolution of FDG uptake posttreatment does not necessarily imply an adverse prognosis.

Kim, Paul J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hicks, Rodney J. [Centre for Molecular Imaging and Translational Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Wirth, Andrew; Ryan, Gail [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Seymour, John F.; Prince, H. Miles [Department of Haematology/Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Mac Manus, Michael P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)], E-mail: michael.macmanus@petermac.org

2009-07-01

192

Quantum efficiency and false positive rate  

PubMed Central

1. This paper presents an analysis of the efficiency of performance at the absolute threshold of human vision. The data are from the same series as the previous papers (Hallett, 1969b, c) and consist of frequency-of-seeing curves, thresholds, false positive rates and equivalent background measurements, accumulated as small samples over a number of days. 2. Quantum efficiency is defined here as the ratio of the thresholds of an ideal and a real detector performing the same task with the same sampling error. This avoids the problem as to whether the frequency-of-seeing curve of the real detector is exactly a Poisson sum or not. 3. The long-term quantum efficiency can be low (about 0·04) as a result of drifts in the mean threshold. 4. The average short-term quantum efficiency is in the region of 0·1, which is roughly the physiological limit set by Rushton's (1956b) measurements of rhodopsin density in the living rods. If this is correct, then the absorption of a quantum, and not the bleaching of a rhodopsin molecule, is sufficient for the generation of a neural event. 5. Application of a simple signal/noise theory to the data gives solutions close to those suggested by Barlow (1956) and shows that false positives almost invariably arise from errors subsequent to the signal/noise decision process. PMID:5784295

Hallett, P. E.

1969-01-01

193

An Apparent Relationship Between Locoism and Lathyrism  

PubMed Central

An apparent relationship between locoism and lathyrism was investigated. Similarities reported in the literature in botanical relationship, signs produced in affected animals, and chemical characteristics were noted. It was demonstrated that the known lathyrogens, aminoacetonitrile and ?, ?-diaminobutyric acid, as well as an extract from the loco plant (expected to contain lathyrogens if present in the plant) produced many of the abortive, teratogenic and neurologic effects and signs evident in animals in true locoism. Preliminary assay of extracts from the plant suggested the presence of lathyrogens in the loco plant. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:4229933

Keeler, Richard F.; James, Lynn F.; Binns, Wayne; Shupe, James L.

1967-01-01

194

Separating intrinsic and apparent seismic anisotropy (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic anisotropy plays a key role in studies of the Earth's rheology and deformation because of its relation to flow-induced lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of intrinsically anisotropic minerals. In addition to LPO, small-scale heterogeneity produces apparent anisotropy that need not be related to deformation in the same way as intrinsic anisotropy. Quantitative interpretations of observed anisotropy therefore require the separation of its intrinsic and apparent components. We analyse the possibility of separating intrinsic and apparent anisotropy in media with hexagonal symmetry - typically used in surface wave tomography and SKS splitting studies. Our analysis is on the level of the wave equation, which makes it general and independent of specific data types. We find that commonly observed anisotropy can always be explained by a purely isotropic laminated medium unless all anisotropic parameters are known with unrealistic accuracy. Most importantly, minute changes in the poorly constrained P wave anisotropy and the parameter eta can switch between the existence or not of a laminated isotropic equivalent. Important implications of our study are: (1) Intrinsic anisotropy over tomographically resolved length scales is never strictly required when reasonable error bars for anisotropic parameters are taken into account. (2) Currently available seismic observables do not provide adequate constraints on the relative contributions of intrinsic and apparent anisotropy. (3) Therefore, seismic observables alone do not provide compelling constraints on the magnitude of mantle flow. (4) Quantitative interpretations of anisotropy in terms of mantle flow require a combined seismic/geodynamic inversion that properly accounts for the formation of both LPO and small-scale heterogeneity. Equivalence diagrams used to investigate the possibility to explain observed seismic anisotropy in terms of purely isotropic models. Earth models with elastic parameters falling into the black regions are unstable and do not exist. Anisotropic Earth models falling into the grey regions are not equivalent to a complex purely isotropic medium. For Earth models falling into the coloured regions, purely isotropic equivalents do exist. Note that the patterns of the equivalence diagrams change completely in response to only minor changes of the poorly constrained elastic parameter eta.

Fichtner, A.; Kennett, B. L.; Trampert, J.

2013-12-01

195

Apparent negative mass in QCM sensors due to punctual rigid loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quartz Crystal Microbalances (QCM) are highly sensitive piezoelectric sensors able to detect very small loads attached to them. These devices are widely employed in many applications including process control and industrial and environmental monitoring. Mass loading is usually related to frequency shift by the well-known Sauerbrey's equation, valid for thin rigid homogeneous films. However, a significant deviation from this equation can occur when the mass is not uniformly distributed over the surface. Whereas the effects of a thin film on a QCM have been thoroughly studied, there are relatively few results on punctual loads, even though particles are usually deposited randomly and non-uniformly on the resonator surface. In this work, we have studied the effect of punctual rigid loading on the resonant frequency shift of a QCM sensor, both experimentally and using finite element method (FEM). The FEM numerical analysis was done using COMSOL software, 3D modeling a linear elastic piezoelectric solid and introducing the properties of an AT-cut quartz crystal. It is shown that a punctual rigid mass deposition on the surface of a QCM sensor can lead to positive shifts of resonance frequency, contrary to Sauerbrey's equation.

Castro, P.; Resa, P.; Elvira, L.

2012-12-01

196

Adults' Memories of Childhood: True and False Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 3 experiments, the authors examined factors that, according to the source-monitoring framework, might influence false memory formation and true/false memory discernment. In Experiment 1, combined effects of warning and visualization on false childhood memory formation were examined, as were individual differences in true and false childhood…

Qin, Jianjian; Ogle, Christin M.; Goodman, Gail S.

2008-01-01

197

From False Confession to Wrongful Conviction: Seven Psychological Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A steadily increasing tide of literature has documented the existence and causes of false confession as well as the link between false confession and wrongful conviction of the innocent. This literature has primarily addressed three issues: the manner in which false confessions are generated by police interrogation, individual differences in susceptibility to interrogative influence, and the role false confessions have

Richard A. Leo; Deborah Davis

2009-01-01

198

Developmental reversals in false memory: Effects of emotional valence and arousal.  

PubMed

Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children's memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can be manipulated factorially. False memories increased with age for unpresented semantic associates of word lists, and net accuracy (the ratio of true memory to total memory) decreased with age. These surprising developmental trends were more pronounced for negatively valenced materials than for positively valenced materials, they were more pronounced for high-arousal materials than for low-arousal materials, and developmental increases in the effects of arousal were small in comparison with developmental increases in the effects of valence. These findings have ramifications for legal applications of false memory research; materials that share the emotional hallmark of crimes (events that are negatively valenced and arousing) produced the largest age increases in false memory and the largest age declines in net accuracy. PMID:20547393

Brainerd, C J; Holliday, R E; Reyna, V F; Yang, Y; Toglia, M P

2010-10-01

199

False-color composite of Oetztal, Austria  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a false-color composite of Oetztal, Austria located in the Central Alps centered at 46.8 degrees north latitude, 10.70 degrees east longitude, at the border between Switzerland (top), Italy (left) and Austria (right and bottom). The area shown is 50 kilometers (30 miles) south of Inssbruck, Austria. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperature Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) flying on the Space Shuttle Endeavour on its 14th orbit. Approximately one quarter of this image is covered by glaciers, the largest of which, Gepatschferner, is visible as a triangular yellow patch in the center of the scene. The blue areas are lakes (Gepatsch dam at center right; Lake Muta at top right) and glacier ice. The yellow areas are slopes facing the radar and areas of dry snow. Purple corresponds to slopes facing away from the radar. Yellow in the valley bottom corresponds to tree covered areas. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43890.

1994-01-01

200

'Endurance Crater's' Dazzling Dunes (false-color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity creeps farther into 'Endurance Crater,' the dune field on the crater floor appears even more dramatic. This false-color image taken by the rover's panoramic camera shows that the dune crests have accumulated more dust than the flanks of the dunes and the flat surfaces between them. Also evident is a 'blue' tint on the flat surfaces as compared to the dune flanks. This results from the presence of the hematite-containing spherules ('blueberries') that accumulate on the flat surfaces.

Sinuous tendrils of sand less than 1 meter (3.3 feet) high extend from the main dune field toward the rover. Scientists hope to send the rover down to one of these tendrils in an effort to learn more about the characteristics of the dunes. Dunes are a common feature across the surface of Mars, and knowledge gleaned from investigating the Endurance dunes close-up may apply to similar dunes elsewhere.

Before the rover heads down to the dunes, rover drivers must first establish whether the slippery slope that leads to them is firm enough to ensure a successful drive back out of the crater. Otherwise, such hazards might make the dune field a true sand trap.

2004-01-01

201

Avoiding the False Peaks in Correlation Discrimination  

SciTech Connect

Fiducials imprinted on laser beams are used to perform video image based alignment of the 192 laser beams in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In many video images, matched filtering is used to detect the location of these fiducials. Generally, the highest correlation peak is used to determine the position of the fiducials. However, when the signal to-be-detected is very weak compared to the noise, this approach totally breaks down. The highest peaks act as traps for false detection. The active target images used for automatic alignment in the National Ignition Facility are examples of such images. In these images, the fiducials of interest exhibit extremely low intensity and contrast, surrounded by high intensity reflection from metallic objects. Consequently, the highest correlation peaks are caused by these bright objects. In this work, we show how the shape of the correlation is exploited to isolate the valid matches from hundreds of invalid correlation peaks, and therefore identify extremely faint fiducials under very challenging imaging conditions.

Awwal, A S

2009-07-31

202

Association of Schistosomiasis with False-Positive HIV Test Results in an African Adolescent Population?  

PubMed Central

This study was designed to investigate the factors associated with the high rate of false-positive test results observed with the 4th-generation Murex HIV Ag/Ab Combination EIA (enzyme immunoassay) within an adolescent and young-adult cohort in northwest Tanzania. (4th-generation assays by definition detect both HIV antigen and antibody.) The clinical and sociodemographic factors associated with false-positive HIV results were analyzed for 6,940 Tanzanian adolescents and young adults. A subsample of 284 Murex assay-negative and 240 false-positive serum samples were analyzed for immunological factors, including IgG antibodies to malaria and schistosoma parasites, heterophile antibodies, and rheumatoid factor (RF) titers. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). False-positive HIV test results were associated with evidence of other infections. False positivity was strongly associated with increasing levels of Schistosoma haematobium worm IgG1, with adolescents with optical densities in the top quartile being at the highest risk (adjusted OR = 40.7, 95% CI = 8.5 to 194.2 compared with the risk for those in the bottom quartile). False positivity was also significantly associated with increasing S. mansoni egg IgG1 titers and RF titers of ?80 (adjusted OR = 8.2, 95% CI = 2.8 to 24.3). There was a significant negative association between Murex assay false positivity and the levels of S. mansoni worm IgG1 and IgG2 and Plasmodium falciparum IgG1 and IgG4. In Africa, endemic infections may affect the specificities of immunoassays for HIV infection. Caution should be used when the results of 4th-generation HIV test results are interpreted for African adolescent populations. PMID:20181896

Everett, Dean B.; Baisely, Kathy J.; McNerney, Ruth; Hambleton, Ian; Chirwa, Tobias; Ross, David A.; Changalucha, John; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Helmby, Helena; Dunne, David W.; Mabey, David; Hayes, Richard J.

2010-01-01

203

Proactive and retroactive effects of negative suggestion.  

PubMed

The negative effects of false information presented either prior to (proactive interference; PI) or following (retroactive interference; RI) true information was examined with word definitions (Experiment 1) and trivia facts (Experiment 2). Participants were explicitly aware of which information was true and false when shown, and true-false discrimination was evaluated via multiple-choice tests. Negative suggestion, defined as poorer performance on interference items than noninterference (control) items, consistently occurred when the wrong information followed the correct information (RI) but not when it preceded the correct information (PI). These effects did not change as a function of retention interval (immediate, 1 week, or 3 weeks) or number of incorrect alternatives (1 or 3). Implications of this outcome for experiencing incorrect information in both academic and nonacademic situations are considered. PMID:17087580

Brown, Alan S; Brown, Christine M; Mosbacher, Joy L; Dryden, W Erich

2006-11-01

204

Finding apparent horizons in numerical relativity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review various algorithms for finding apparent horizons in 3+1 numerical relativity. We then focus on one particular algorithm, in which we pose the apparent horizon equation H??ini+Kijninj-K=0 as a nonlinear elliptic (boundary-value) PDE on angular-coordinate space for the horizon shape function r=h(?,?), finite difference this PDE, and use Newton's method or a variant to solve the finite difference equations. We describe a method for computing the Jacobian matrix of the finite differenced H(h) sH (sh) function by symbolically differentiating the finite difference equations, giving the Jacobian elements directly in terms of the finite difference molecule coefficients used in computing sH (sh). Assuming the finite differencing scheme commutes with linearization, we show how the Jacobian elements may be computed by first linearizing the continuum H(h) equations, then finite differencing the linearized continuum equations. (This is essentially just the ``Jacobian part'' of the Newton-Kantorovich method for solving nonlinear PDEs.) We tabulate the resulting Jacobian coefficients for a number of different sH (sh) and Jacobian computation schemes. We find this symbolic differentiation method of computing the Jacobian to be much more efficient than the usual numerical-perturbation method, and also much easier to implement than is commonly thought. When solving the discrete sH (sh)=0 equations, we find that Newton's method generally shows robust convergence. However, we find that it has a small (poor) radius of convergence if the initial guess for the horizon position contains significant high-spatial-frequency error components, i.e., angular Fourier components varying as (say) cosm? with m>~8. (Such components occur naturally if spacetime contains significant amounts of high-frequency gravitational radiation.) We show that this poor convergence behavior is not an artifact of insufficient resolution in the finite difference grid; rather, it appears to be caused by a strong nonlinearity in the continuum H(h) function for high-spatial-frequency error components in h. We find that a simple ``line search'' modification of Newton's method roughly doubles the horizon finder's radius of convergence, but both the unmodified and modified methods' radia of convergence still fall rapidly with increasing spatial frequency, approximately as 1/m3/2. Further research is needed to explore more robust numerical algorithms for solving the sH (sh)=0 equations. Provided it converges, the Newton's-method algorithm for horizon finding is potentially very accurate, in practice limited only by the accuracy of the sH (sh) finite differencing scheme. Using fourth order finite differencing, we demonstrate that the error in the numerically computed horizon position shows the expected O((??)4) scaling with grid resolution ??, and is typically ~10-5(10-6) for a grid resolution of ??=?/2/50(?/2/100/). Finally, we briefly discuss the global problem of finding or recognizing the outermost apparent horizon in a slice. We argue that this is an important problem, and that no reliable algorithms currently exist for it except in spherical symmetry.

Thornburg, Jonathan

1996-10-01

205

Natural and False Color Views of Europa  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image shows two views of the trailing hemisphere of Jupiter's ice-covered satellite, Europa. The left image shows the approximate natural color appearance of Europa. The image on the right is a false-color composite version combining violet, green and infrared images to enhance color differences in the predominantly water-ice crust of Europa. Dark brown areas represent rocky material derived from the interior, implanted by impact, or from a combination of interior and exterior sources. Bright plains in the polar areas (top and bottom) are shown in tones of blue to distinguish possibly coarse-grained ice (dark blue) from fine-grained ice (light blue). Long, dark lines are fractures in the crust, some of which are more than 3,000 kilometers (1,850 miles) long. The bright feature containing a central dark spot in the lower third of the image is a young impact crater some 50 kilometers (31 miles) in diameter. This crater has been provisionally named 'Pwyll' for the Celtic god of the underworld.

Europa is about 3,160 kilometers (1,950 miles) in diameter, or about the size of Earth's moon. This image was taken on September 7, 1996, at a range of 677,000 kilometers (417,900 miles) by the solid state imaging television camera onboard the Galileo spacecraft during its second orbit around Jupiter. The image was processed by Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luftund Raumfahrt e.V., Berlin, Germany.

The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

1996-01-01

206

Dunes and Clouds in False Color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

The small greenish features in this image are sand dunes. The white feature on the right side is likely an ice cloud.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.6, Longitude 203.1 East (156.9 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

207

Blue Polar Dunes In False Color  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[figure removed for brevity, see original site]

The theme for the weeks of 1/17 and 1/24 is the north polar region of Mars as seen in false color THEMIS images. Ice/frost will typically appear as bright blue in color; dust mantled ice will appear in tones of red/orange.

The small dunes in this image are 'bluer' than the rest of the layered ice/dust units to the left.

Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 84.5, Longitude 206.6 East (153.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

2005-01-01

208

Constraining Oxygen False Positives in Planetary Atmospheres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxygen (O2) and ozone (O3) in the present Earth's atmosphere are byproducts of oxygenic photosynthesis coupled with organic carbon burial. On Earth, no known abiotic surface process would be able to generate such an atmosphere, and by extension, lifeless exoplanets are expected to be devoid of O2. As a result, molecular oxygen and ozone are often seen as convincing signposts for life. Recently, however, a number of authors have demonstrated the abiotic generation of molecular oxygen in a planetary atmosphere, either under oxidizing conditions (Hu et al., 2013) or around an M star (Tian et al., 2013). This èfalse positive', if verified, would remove oxygen and ozone from an already short list of easily detectable biosignatures. We explore oxygen false positives with our 1-D photochemical model, updated from Segura et al. (2007). Preliminary results show that if water vapor photolysis longward of ~200 nm is neglected, substantial amounts of CO and O2 can build up in the lower part of the atmosphere. Additionally, the ultimate fate of CO and O2 produced in such atmospheres is strongly dependent on the imposed lower boundary condition, with low depositional velocities corresponding to higher mixing ratios in the lower atmosphere. The deposition velocity of a gas depends on it dissolved concentration, however, and so one needs to consider the chemistry of these gases in solution. Ongoing work seeks to test the conclusions of Tian et al., (2013) by exploring this dependence on ocean chemistry and by including spectra from AD Leo (an active M-dwarf, used by Domagal-Goldman et al., (2011)) to compare with the M-dwarf spectra used by Tian et al.

Harman, C. E.; Schottelkotte, J. C.; Kasting, J. F.

2014-03-01

209

Humoural immune response and pathological analysis in patients with false immune diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis.  

PubMed

The patients with false immune diagnosis of hydatid disease were investigated for the humoural immune response to analyse the possible reasons and mechanism leading to false immune diagnosis. Two hundred and thirty-nine patients with nature-unknown cysts and 30 healthy controls were detected by immunological assays (four hydatid antigen-based immunogold filtration assay and enzyme-linked immune absorbent assay) and ultrasound. Sensitivity of and specificity of immunological assay and ultrasound were calculated, respectively. The serological diagnosis was compared with surgical pathology to screen the patients with false immune diagnosis for the immunoglobulin measurement and pathological analysis. The history and cyst characteristics were also reviewed. The results indicate the immunoglobulin has little influence on false immunodiagnosis. The false-negative immunodiagnosis was caused by the cysts' inactive status while the false positive caused by previous rupture, antigen cross-reaction. The clinical diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis requires a combination of immunodiagnosis and ultrasonography, which is the necessary complementary confirmation. PMID:24372157

Chen, X; Zhang, J; Feng, X; Chen, X; Yin, S; Wen, H; Zheng, S

2014-04-01

210

Humoural immune response and pathological analysis in patients with false immune diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis  

PubMed Central

The patients with false immune diagnosis of hydatid disease were investigated for the humoural immune response to analyse the possible reasons and mechanism leading to false immune diagnosis. Two hundred and thirty-nine patients with nature-unknown cysts and 30 healthy controls were detected by immunological assays (four hydatid antigen-based immunogold filtration assay and enzyme-linked immune absorbent assay) and ultrasound. Sensitivity of and specificity of immunological assay and ultrasound were calculated, respectively. The serological diagnosis was compared with surgical pathology to screen the patients with false immune diagnosis for the immunoglobulin measurement and pathological analysis. The history and cyst characteristics were also reviewed. The results indicate the immunoglobulin has little influence on false immunodiagnosis. The false-negative immunodiagnosis was caused by the cysts' inactive status while the false positive caused by previous rupture, antigen cross-reaction. The clinical diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis requires a combination of immunodiagnosis and ultrasonography, which is the necessary complementary confirmation. PMID:24372157

Chen, X; Zhang, J; Feng, X; Chen, X; Yin, S; Wen, H; Zheng, S

2014-01-01

211

Apparent speed increases at low luminance  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effect of luminance on apparent speed, subjects adjusted the speed of a low-luminance rotating grating (0.31 cd/m2) to match that of a high-luminance one (1260 cd/m2). Above 4 Hz, subjects overestimated the speed of the low-luminance grating. This overestimation increased as a function of temporal rate and reached 30% around 10 Hz temporal rates. The speed overestimation became significant once the lower luminance was 2.4 log units lower than the high luminance comparison. Next the role of motion smear in speed overestimation was examined. First it was shown that the length of the perceived motion smear increased at low luminances. Second, the length of the visible smear was manipulated by changing the presentation time of the stimuli. Speed overestimation was reduced at shorter presentation times. Third the speed of a blurred stimulus was compared to a stimulus with sharp edges and the blurred stimulus was judged to move faster. These results indicate that the length of motion smear following a target contributes to its perceived speed and that this leads to speed overestimation at low luminance where motion traces lengthen because of increased persistence. PMID:19146275

Vaziri-Pashkam, Maryam; Cavanagh, Patrick

2009-01-01

212

Apparent Benzene Solubility in Tetraphenylborate Slurries  

SciTech Connect

Personnel conducted testing to determine the apparent solubility of benzene in potassium tetraphenylborate (KTPB) slurries. The lack of benzene vapor pressure suppression in these tests indicate that for a 6.5 wt percent solids KTPB slurry in 4.65 M Na+ salt solution at approximately 25 degrees Celsius, no significant difference exists between the solubility of benzene in the slurry and the solubility of benzene in salt solution without KTPB solids. The work showed similar results in slurry with 6,000 mg/L sludge and 2,000 mg/L monosodium titanate added. Slurries containing tetraphenylborate decomposition intermediates (i.e., 4,200 mg/L triphenylboron (3PB), 510 mg/L diphenylborinic acid (2PB) and 1,500 mg/L phenylboric acid (1PB) or 100 mg/L tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP)) also showed no significant difference in benzene solubility form filtrate containing no KTPB solids. Slurry containing 2,000 mg/L Surfynol 420 did exhibit significant additional benzene solubility, as did irradiated slurries. The vapor pressure depression in the irradiated slurries presumably results from dissolution of biphenyl and other tetraphenylborate irradiation products in the benzene.

Swingle, R.F.; Peterson, R.A.; Crawford, C.L.

1997-11-01

213

Norms for word lists that create false memories.  

PubMed

Roediger and McDermott (1995) induced false recall and false recognition for words that were not presented in lists. They had subjects study 24 lists of 15 words that were associates of a common word (called the critical target or critical lure) that was not presented in the list. False recall and false recognition of the critical target occurred frequently in response to these lists. The purpose of the current work was to provide a set of normative data for the lists Roediger and McDermott used and for 12 others developed more recently. We tested false recall and false recognition for critical targets from 36 lists. Despite the fact that all lists were constructed to produce false remembering, the diversity in their effectiveness was large--60% or more of subjects falsely recalled window and sleep following the appropriate lists, and false recognition for these items was greater than 80%. However, the list generated from king led to 10% false recall and 27% false recognition. Possible reasons for these wide differences in effectiveness of the lists are discussed. These norms serve as a useful benchmark for designing experiments about false recall and false recognition in this paradigm. PMID:10355238

Stadler, M A; Roediger, H L; McDermott, K B

1999-05-01

214

False Memory ? False Memory: DRM Errors Are Unrelated to the Misinformation Effect  

PubMed Central

The DRM method has proved to be a popular and powerful, if controversial, way to study ‘false memories’. One reason for the controversy is that the extent to which the DRM effect generalises to other kinds of memory error has been neither satisfactorily established nor subject to much empirical attention. In the present paper we contribute data to this ongoing debate. One hundred and twenty participants took part in a standard misinformation effect experiment, in which they watched some CCTV footage, were exposed to misleading post-event information about events depicted in the footage, and then completed free recall and recognition tests. Participants also completed a DRM test as an ostensibly unrelated filler task. Despite obtaining robust misinformation and DRM effects, there were no correlations between a broad range of misinformation and DRM effect measures (mean r ?=??.01). This was not due to reliability issues with our measures or a lack of power. Thus DRM ‘false memories’ and misinformation effect ‘false memories’ do not appear to be equivalent. PMID:23573186

Ost, James; Blank, Hartmut; Davies, Joanna; Jones, Georgina; Lambert, Katie; Salmon, Kelly

2013-01-01

215

An Examination of Negative Halo Error in Ratings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A causal model of halo error (HE) is derived. Three hypotheses are formulated to explain findings of negative HE. It is suggested that apparent negative HE may have been misinferred from existing correlational measures of HE, and that positive HE is more prevalent than had previously been thought. (SLD)

Lance, Charles E.; And Others

1990-01-01

216

50 CFR 216.94 - False statements or endorsements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.94 False statements or endorsements. Any person who knowingly and willfully makes a false...

2012-10-01

217

50 CFR 216.94 - False statements or endorsements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.94 False statements or endorsements. Any person who knowingly and willfully makes a false...

2010-10-01

218

50 CFR 216.94 - False statements or endorsements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.94 False statements or endorsements. Any person who knowingly and willfully makes a false...

2011-10-01

219

50 CFR 216.94 - False statements or endorsements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Dolphin Safe Tuna Labeling § 216.94 False statements or endorsements. Any person who knowingly and willfully makes a false...

2013-10-01

220

'Lyell' Panorama inside Victoria Crater (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

During four months prior to the fourth anniversary of its landing on Mars, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined rocks inside an alcove called 'Duck Bay' in the western portion of Victoria Crater. The main body of the crater appears in the upper right of this stereo panorama, with the far side of the crater lying about 800 meters (half a mile) away. Bracketing that part of the view are two promontories on the crater's rim at either side of Duck Bay. They are 'Cape Verde,' about 6 meters (20 feet) tall, on the left, and 'Cabo Frio,' about 15 meters (50 feet) tall, on the right. The rest of the image, other than sky and portions of the rover, is ground within Duck Bay.

Opportunity's targets of study during the last quarter of 2007 were rock layers within a band exposed around the interior of the crater, about 6 meters (20 feet) from the rim. Bright rocks within the band are visible in the foreground of the panorama. The rover science team assigned informal names to three subdivisions of the band: 'Steno,' 'Smith,' and 'Lyell.'

This view combines many images taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera (Pancam) from the 1,332nd through 1,379th Martian days, or sols, of the mission (Oct. 23 to Dec. 11, 2007). Images taken through Pancam filters centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers, 535 nanometers and 432 nanometers were mixed to produce this view, which is presented in a false-color stretch to bring out subtle color differences in the scene. Some visible patterns in dark and light tones are the result of combining frames that were affected by dust on the front sapphire window of the rover's camera.

Opportunity landed on Jan. 25, 2004, Universal Time, (Jan. 24, Pacific Time) inside a much smaller crater about 6 kilometers (4 miles) north of Victoria Crater, to begin a surface mission designed to last 3 months and drive about 600 meters (0.4 mile).

2008-01-01

221

De novo and apparent de novo hepatitis B virus infection after liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The aim of this study was to clarify the aetiology of apparent de novo HBV infection after liver transplantation.Methods: Twenty out of 570 HBsAg negative patients (3.5%) became HBsAg positive after transplantation and were studied. Donor and recipient sera were retrospectively tested for HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, and HBV DNA by PCR. Donor and recipient livers were tested for HBV

Bruno Roche; Didier Samuel; Michele Gigou; Cyrille Feray; Veronique Virot; Laurent Schmets; Marie Françoise David; Jean Louis Arulnaden; Alain Bismuth; Michel Reynes; Henri Bismuth

1997-01-01

222

Finding Apparent Horizons in Numerical Relativity  

E-print Network

This paper presents a detailed discussion of the ``Newton's method'' algorithm for finding apparent horizons in 3+1 numerical relativity. We describe a method for computing the Jacobian matrix of the finite differenced $H(h)$ function by symbolically differentiating the finite difference equations, giving the Jacobian elements directly in terms of the finite difference molecule coefficients used in computing $H(h)$. Assuming the finite differencing scheme commutes with linearization, we show how the Jacobian elements may be computed by first linearizing the continuum $H(h)$ equations, then finite differencing the linearized (continuum) equations. We find this symbolic differentiation method of computing the $H(h)$ Jacobian to be {\\em much} more efficient than the usual numerical perturbation method, and also much easier to implement than is commonly thought. When solving the discrete $H(h) = 0$ equations, we find that Newton's method generally converges very rapidly. However, if the initial guess for the horizon position contains significant high-spatial-frequency error components, Newton's method has a small (poor) radius of convergence. This is {\\em not} an artifact of insufficient resolution in the finite difference grid; rather, it appears to be caused by a strong nonlinearity in the continuum $H(h)$ function for high-spatial-frequency error components in $h$. Robust variants of Newton's method can boost the radius of convergence by O(1) factors, but the underlying nonlinearity remains, and appears to worsen rapidly with increasing initial-guess-error spatial frequency. Using 4th~order finite differencing, we find typical accuracies for computed horizon positions in the $10^{-5}$ range for $\\Delta\\theta = \\frac{\\pi/2}{50}$.

Jonathan Thornburg

1996-05-16

223

The Strategic Nature of False Recognition in the DRM Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The false memory effect produced by the Deese/Roediger & McDermott (DRM) paradigm is reportedly impervious to warnings to avoid false alarming to the critical lures (D. A. Gallo, H. L. Roediger III, & K. B. McDermott, 2001). This finding has been used as strong evidence against models that attribute the false alarms to a decision process…

Miller, Michael B.; Guerin, Scott A.; Wolford, George L.

2011-01-01

224

More False Friends. Tuckische Fallen des deutsch-englishen Wortschatzes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The second guide to "false friends," or false cognates, in German and English lists and discusses more difficult terms than the first guide. An introductory section defines false friends and discusses different types, and provides a set of symbols for distinguishing them. The first major section lists, alphabetically in German, and contains notes…

Breitkreuz, Hartmut

225

Fuzzy-Trace Theory and Children's False Memories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a unified theoretical approach to children's false-memory reports that deals with both spontaneous and implanted reports. Details false recognition and misinformation models that allow researchers to determine the impact of identity judgment, nonidentity judgment, and similarity judgment in false memory reports. (LBT)

Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.

1998-01-01

226

20 CFR 702.217 - Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation...Claims Procedures Notice § 702.217 Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation...S.C. 909, if the injury results in death, shall be punished by a fine not...

2011-04-01

227

20 CFR 702.217 - Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation...Claims Procedures Notice § 702.217 Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation...S.C. 909, if the injury results in death, shall be punished by a fine not...

2013-04-01

228

20 CFR 702.217 - Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation...Claims Procedures Notice § 702.217 Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation...S.C. 909, if the injury results in death, shall be punished by a fine not...

2010-04-01

229

20 CFR 702.217 - Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation...Claims Procedures Notice § 702.217 Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation...S.C. 909, if the injury results in death, shall be punished by a fine not...

2012-04-01

230

20 CFR 702.217 - Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation.  

...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation...Claims Procedures Notice § 702.217 Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation...S.C. 909, if the injury results in death, shall be punished by a fine not...

2014-04-01

231

Compelling Untruths: Content Borrowing and Vivid False Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

False memories are sometimes accompanied by surprisingly vivid experiential detail that makes them difficult to distinguish from actual memories. Such strikingly real false memories may be produced by a process called content borrowing in which details from presented items are errantly borrowed to corroborate the occurrence of the false memory…

Lampinen, James Michael; Meier, Christopher R.; Arnal, Jack D.; Leding, Juliana K.

2005-01-01

232

Lexical Association and False Memory for Words in Two Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the relationship between language experience and false memory produced by the DRM paradigm. The word lists used in Stadler, et al. (Memory & Cognition, 27, 494-500, 1999) were first translated into Chinese. False recall and false recognition for critical non-presented targets were then tested on a group of Chinese users. The…

Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hung, Hsu-Ching

2008-01-01

233

Interaction of sleep and emotional content on the production of false memories.  

PubMed

Sleep benefits veridical memories, resulting in superior recall relative to off-line intervals spent awake. Sleep also increases false memory recall in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Given the suggestion that emotional veridical memories are prioritized for consolidation over sleep, here we examined whether emotion modulates sleep's effect on false memory formation. Participants listened to semantically related word lists lacking a critical lure representing each list's "gist." Free recall was tested after 12 hours containing sleep or wake. The Sleep group recalled more studied words than the Wake group but only for emotionally neutral lists. False memories of both negative and neutral critical lures were greater following sleep relative to wake. Morning and Evening control groups (20-minute delay) did not differ ruling out circadian accounts for these differences. These results support the adaptive function of sleep in both promoting the consolidation of veridical declarative memories and in extracting unifying aspects from memory details. PMID:23145159

McKeon, Shannon; Pace-Schott, Edward F; Spencer, Rebecca M C

2012-01-01

234

Gusev Rocks Solidified from Lava (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In recent weeks, as NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit has driven through the basin south of 'Husband Hill,' it has been traversing mainly sand and dune deposits. This week, though, Spirit has been maneuvering along the edge of an arc-shaped feature called 'Lorre Ridge' and has encountered some spectacular examples of basaltic rocks with striking textures. This panoramic camera (Pancam) image shows a group of boulders informally named 'FuYi.' These basaltic rocks were formed by volcanic processes and may be a primary constituent of Lorre Ridge and other interesting landforms in the basin.

Spirit first encountered basalts at its landing site two years ago, on a vast plain covered with solidified lava that appeared to have flowed across Gusev Crater. Later, basaltic rocks became rare as Spirit climbed Husband Hill. The basaltic rocks that Spirit is now seeing are interesting because they exhibit many small holes or vesicles, similar to some kinds of volcanic rocks on Earth. Vesicular rocks form when gas bubbles are trapped in lava flows and the rock solidifies around the bubbles. When the gas escapes, it leaves holes in the rock. The quantity of gas bubbles in rocks on Husband Hill varies considerably; some rocks have none and some, such as several here at FuYi, are downright frothy.

The change in textures and the location of the basalts may be signs that Spirit is driving along the edge of a lava flow. This lava may be the same as the basalt blanketing the plains of Spirit's landing site, or it may be different. The large size and frothy nature of the boulders around Lorre Ridge might indicate that eruptions once took place at the edge of the lava flow, where the lava interacted with the rocks of the basin floor. Scientists hope to learn more as Spirit continues to investigate these rocks.

As Earth approaches the Chinese New Year (The Year of the Dog), the Athena science team decided to use nicknames representing Chinese culture and geography to identify rocks and features investigated by Spirit during the Chinese New Year celebration period. In ancient Chinese myth, FuYi was the first great emperor and lived in the east. He explained the theory of 'Yin' and 'Yang' to his people, invented the net to catch fish, was the first to use fire to cook food, and invented a musical instrument known as the 'Se' to accompany his peoples' songs and dances. Other rocks and features are being informally named for Chinese gods, warriors, inventors, and scientists, as well as rivers, lakes, and mountains.

Spirit took this image on the rover's Martian day, or sol, 731 (Jan. 23, 2006). This is a false-color composite combining images taken with the Pancam's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

2006-01-01

235

Variability among Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists in eliciting false recall for people's names.  

PubMed

According to previous research, the variability of lists in eliciting false recall in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm is large. A list structure made by Mukai, in which people's names were used as critical lures, was used to investigate the variability of lists. The materials were composed of 6 pairs of lists, in which the critical lure and its contextually associated study item (referred to as critical presented item) were assumed to play an important role in eliciting false recall. 80 participants (M age = 21.7 yr.; SD = 2.6) were tested. The difference of the list pair in eliciting false recall was positively correlated with list pair differences in free association rate from critical presented item to critical lure (r = .82, p < .05) and negatively correlated with the length of critical lure (r = -.94, p <.01). It was shown that the variability of lists in eliciting false recall can be explained by these two factors. Moreover, the length of the lure was also negatively correlated with an index of unsuccessful source monitoring (r = -.87, p < .05). The results were discussed in terms of the activation/monitoring theory. PMID:17153826

Mukai, Akira

2006-10-01

236

Luminal-type breast cancer: correlation of apparent diffusion coefficients with the ki-67 labeling index.  

PubMed

Purpose To evaluate the correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient ( ADC apparent diffusion coefficient ) values and the Ki-67 labeling index for luminal-type (estrogen receptor-positive) breast cancer not otherwise specified ( NOS not otherwise specified ) diagnosed by means of biopsy. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study, and the requirement for informed consent was waived. Between December 2009 and December 2012, 86 patients with 86 lesions with luminal-type invasive breast cancer NOS not otherwise specified underwent magnetic resonance imaging, including dynamic contrast material-enhanced imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging with b values of 0 and 1000 sec/mm(2). Conventional measurement of the minimum and mean ADC apparent diffusion coefficient s by placing regions of interest and histogram analysis of pixel-based ADC apparent diffusion coefficient data of the entire tumor were performed by two observers independently and correlated with the Ki-67 labeling index of surgical specimens. Results For the interobserver reliability, interclass correlation coefficients for all parameters with the exception of the minimum ADC apparent diffusion coefficient exceeded 0.8, indicating almost perfect agreement. The minimum ADC apparent diffusion coefficient and mean ADC apparent diffusion coefficient and the 25th, 50th, and 75th percentiles of the histograms showed negative correlations with the Ki-67 labeling index (r = -0.49, -0.55, -0.54, -0.53, and -0.48, respectively). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for the differential diagnosis between the high-proliferation (Ki-67 ? 14; n = 44) and low-proliferation (Ki-67 < 14; n = 42) groups revealed that the most effective threshold for the mean ADC apparent diffusion coefficient was lower than 1097 × 10(-6) mm(2)/sec, with sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 71%, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was 0.81 for the mean ADC apparent diffusion coefficient . There were no significant differences in the AUC among the parameters. Conclusion Considering convenience for routine practice, the authors suggest that the mean ADC apparent diffusion coefficient of the conventional method would be practical to use for estimating the Ki-67 labeling index. © RSNA, 2014. PMID:25203132

Mori, Naoko; Ota, Hideki; Mugikura, Shunji; Takasawa, Chiaki; Ishida, Takanori; Watanabe, Gou; Tada, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Mika; Takase, Kei; Takahashi, Shoki

2015-01-01

237

The False Memory and the Mirror Effects: The Role of Familiarity and Backward Association in Creating False Recollections  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The mirror effect refers to a phenomenon where the hit rate is higher for low frequency words while the false alarm rate is higher for high frequency distractors. Using a false memory paradigm (Roediger & McDermott, 1995), we examined whether false memory for non-presented lures would be influenced by the lure's familiarity. The results revealed…

Anaki, D.; Faran, Y.; Ben-Shalom, D.; Henik, A.

2005-01-01

238

False memories to emotional stimuli are not equally affected in right- and left-brain-damaged stroke patients.  

PubMed

Previous research has attributed to the right hemisphere (RH) a key role in eliciting false memories to visual emotional stimuli. These results have been explained in terms of two right-hemisphere properties: (i) that emotional stimuli are preferentially processed in the RH and (ii) that visual stimuli are represented more coarsely in the RH. According to this account, false emotional memories are preferentially produced in the RH because emotional stimuli are both more strongly and more diffusely activated during encoding, leaving a memory trace that can be erroneously reactivated by similar but unstudied emotional items at test. If this right-hemisphere hypothesis is correct, then RH damage should result in a reduction in false memories to emotional stimuli relative to left-hemisphere lesions. To investigate this possibility, groups of right-brain-damaged (RBD, N=15), left-brain-damaged (LBD, N=15) and healthy (HC, N=30) participants took part in a recognition memory experiment with emotional (negative and positive) and non-emotional pictures. False memories were operationalized as incorrect responses to unstudied pictures that were similar to studied ones. Both RBD and LBD participants showed similar reductions in false memories for negative pictures relative to controls. For positive pictures, however, false memories were reduced only in RBD patients. The results provide only partial support for the right-hemisphere hypothesis and suggest that inter-hemispheric cooperation models may be necessary to fully account for false emotional memories. PMID:25129810

Buratto, Luciano Grüdtner; Zimmermann, Nicolle; Ferré, Perrine; Joanette, Yves; Fonseca, Rochele Paz; Stein, Lilian Milnitsky

2014-10-01

239

Glycopeptide Resistance in Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the first organisms in which acquired glycopeptide resistance was recognized.\\u000a Ever since the early reports, it has been apparent that resistance to teicoplanin is more common than that to vancomycin and\\u000a that resistance occurs mostly in species such as Staphylococcus haemolyticus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of teicoplanin for CNS usually fall over

F. Biavasco; C. Vignaroli; P. E. Varaldo

2000-01-01

240

Belief and sign, true and false: the unique of false belief reasoning.  

PubMed

For a long time, a controversy has been proposed that whether the process of theory of mind is a result of domain-specific or domain-general changes (Wellman in The handbook of childhood cognitive development. Blackwell Publication, New Jersey, 2011). This event-related potential study explored the neural time course of domain-general and domain-specific components in belief reasoning. Fourteen participants completed location transfer false belief (FB), true belief (TB), false sign (FS) and true sign (TS) tasks, in which two pictures told a story related to a dog that ran from a green into a red box. In the TB and FB tasks, a boy saw or did not see the transfer of the dog, respectively. In the FS and TS tasks, an arrow that pointed to the green box either altered its direction to the red box or did not alter following the transfer of the dog. Participants then inferred where the boy thought of, or the arrow indicated the location of the dog. FB and TB reasoning elicited lower N2 amplitudes than FS and TS reasoning, which is associated with domain-general components, the detection, and classification. The late slow wave (LSW) for FB was more positive at frontal, central, and parietal sites than FS because of the domain-specific component involved in FB reasoning. However, the LSW was less positive for TB than for FB but did not differ from the TS condition, which implies that mental representation might not be involved in TB reasoning. PMID:23975150

Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Qin; Li, Yiyuan; Long, Changquan; Li, Hong

2013-11-01

241

Malate dehydrogenase isozymes in flax genotroph leaves: Differences in apparent molecular weight and charge between and within L and S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferguson plots demonstrated that corresponding malate dehydrogenase (MDH) isozymes of Durrant's L and S flax genotrophs differ in apparent molecular weight (MW) and also in net negative charge. The MW differences explain heritable differences in electrophoretic relative mobility (Rm) between corresponding L and S isozymes. The MW for each MDH isozyme was higher for L than for S and resulted

M. A. Fieldes; B. Dixon

1988-01-01

242

On the apparent horizon in fluid-gravity duality  

E-print Network

This article develops a computational framework for determining the location of boundary-covariant apparent horizons in the geometry of conformal fluid-gravity duality in arbitrary dimensions. In particular, it is shown up to second order and conjectured to hold to all orders in the gradient expansion that there is a unique apparent horizon which is covariantly expressible in terms of fluid velocity, temperature and boundary metric. This leads to the first explicit example of an entropy current defined by an apparent horizon and opens the possibility that in the near-equilibrium regime there is preferred foliation of apparent horizons for black holes in asymptotically-AdS spacetimes.

Ivan Booth; Michal P. Heller; Grzegorz Plewa; Michal Spalinski

2011-02-14

243

Introduction Alzheimer's disease (AD) has an apparent multifactoral  

E-print Network

Introduction Alzheimer's disease (AD) has an apparent multifactoral etiology that encompasses-ADENOSYL METHIONINE: A CONNECTION BETWEEN NUTRITIONAL AND GENETIC RISK FACTORS FOR NEURODEGENERATION IN ALZHEIMER

Graves, Michael V.

244

New Constraints on the False Positive Rate for Short-Period Kepler Planet Candidates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kepler space mission has discovered thousands of potential planets orbiting other stars, thereby setting the stage for in-depth studies of different populations of planets. We present new multi-wavelength transit photometry of small (Rp < 6 Earth radii), short-period (P < 6 days) Kepler planet candidates acquired with the Gran Telescopio Canarias. Multi-wavelength transit photometry allows us to search for wavelength-dependent transit depths and subsequently identify eclipsing binary false positives (which are especially prevalent at the shortest orbital periods). We combine these new observations of three candidates with previous results for five other candidates (Colón & Ford 2011 and Colón, Ford, & Morehead 2012) to provide new constraints on the false positive rate for small, close-in candidates. In our full sample, we identify four candidates as viable planets and four as eclipsing binary false positives. We therefore find a higher false positive rate for small, close-in candidates compared to the lower false positive rate of ~10% determined by other studies for the full sample of Kepler planet candidates (e.g. Fressin et al. 2013). We also discuss the dearth of known planets with periods less than ~2.5 days and radii between ~3 and 11 Earth radii (the so-called 'sub-Jovian desert'), since the majority of the candidates in our study are located in or around this 'desert.' The lack of planets with these orbital and physical properties is not expected to be due to observational bias, as short-period planets are generally easier to detect (especially if they are larger or more massive than Earth). We consider the implications of our results for the other ~20 Kepler planet candidates located in this desert. Characterizing these candidates will allow us to better understand the formation processes of this apparently rare class of planets.

Colón, Knicole D.; Morehead, Robert C.; Ford, Eric B.

2015-01-01

245

Effects of Non-Differential Exposure Misclassification on False Conclusions in Hypothesis-Generating Studies  

PubMed Central

Despite the theoretical success of obviating the need for hypothesis-generating studies, they live on in epidemiological practice. Cole asserted that “… there is boundless number of hypotheses that could be generated, nearly all of them wrong” and urged us to focus on evaluating “credibility of hypothesis”. Adopting a Bayesian approach, we put this elegant logic into quantitative terms at the study planning stage for studies where the prior belief in the null hypothesis is high (i.e., “hypothesis-generating” studies). We consider not only type I and II errors (as is customary) but also the probabilities of false positive and negative results, taking into account typical imperfections in the data. We concentrate on a common source of imperfection in the data: non-differential misclassification of binary exposure classifier. In context of an unmatched case-control study, we demonstrate—both theoretically and via simulations—that although non-differential exposure misclassification is expected to attenuate real effect estimates, leading to the loss of ability to detect true effects, there is also a concurrent increase in false positives. Unfortunately, most investigators interpret their findings from such work as being biased towards the null rather than considering that they are no less likely to be false signals. The likelihood of false positives dwarfed the false negative rate under a wide range of studied settings. We suggest that instead of investing energy into understanding credibility of dubious hypotheses, applied disciplines such as epidemiology, should instead focus attention on understanding consequences of pursuing specific hypotheses, while accounting for the probability that the observed “statistically significant” association may be qualitatively spurious. PMID:25337942

Burstyn, Igor; Yang, Yunwen; Schnatter, A. Robert

2014-01-01

246

Apparent-Strain Correction for Combined Thermal and Mechanical Testing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Combined thermal and mechanical testing requires that the total strain be corrected for the coefficient of thermal expansion mismatch between the strain gage and the specimen or apparent strain when the temperature varies while a mechanical load is being applied. Collecting data for an apparent strain test becomes problematic as the specimen size increases. If the test specimen cannot be placed in a variable temperature test chamber to generate apparent strain data with no mechanical loads, coupons can be used to generate the required data. The coupons, however, must have the same strain gage type, coefficient of thermal expansion, and constraints as the specimen to be useful. Obtaining apparent-strain data at temperatures lower than -320 F is challenging due to the difficulty to maintain steady-state and uniform temperatures on a given specimen. Equations to correct for apparent strain in a real-time fashion and data from apparent-strain tests for composite and metallic specimens over a temperature range from -450 F to +250 F are presented in this paper. Three approaches to extrapolate apparent-strain data from -320 F to -430 F are presented and compared to the measured apparent-strain data. The first two approaches use a subset of the apparent-strain curves between -320 F and 100 F to extrapolate to -430 F, while the third approach extrapolates the apparent-strain curve over the temperature range of -320 F to +250 F to -430 F. The first two approaches are superior to the third approach but the use of either of the first two approaches is contingent upon the degree of non-linearity of the apparent-strain curve.

Johnson, Theodore F.; O'Neil, Teresa L.

2007-01-01

247

Apparent mass and cross-axis apparent mass of standing subjects during exposure to vertical whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of posture and vibration magnitude on the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the standing human body during exposure to vertical vibration have been investigated. Twelve male subjects were exposed to random vertical vibration over the frequency range 2.0-20 Hz at three vibration magnitudes: 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 m s -2 rms. Subjects stood in five different postures: upright, lordotic, anterior lean, knees bent and knees more bent. The vertical acceleration at the floor and the forces in the vertical and fore-and-aft directions at the floor were used to obtain the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass. The resonance frequency of the apparent mass was significantly reduced with knees bent and knees more bent postures, but there were only minor effects on the resonance frequency by changing the position of the upper body. Considerable cross-axis apparent mass, up to about 30% of the static mass of subjects, was found. The cross-axis apparent mass was influenced by all postural changes used in the study. In all postures the resonance frequencies of the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass tended to decrease with increasing vibration magnitude. This nonlinear characteristic tended to be less clear in some postures in which subjects increased muscle tension.

Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

2006-05-01

248

On Apparent Irrational Behaviors : Interacting Structures and the Mind  

E-print Network

On Apparent Irrational Behaviors : Interacting Structures and the Mind P. Gosselin1 , A. Lotz2 explains apparently irrational or biased behaviors in a person. We argue that these actions could result contributed to this entrenchment. It was only in the face of the repeated failures of their predictions

Boyer, Edmond

249

The role of background in mediating apparent movement.  

PubMed

The spatial structure of the background upon which figures engage in apparent movement has been a neglected variable in research. In this pilot study, the presence of a sine-wave-grating as background had a strong influence on the quality of apparent movement that was perceived by 3 observers. PMID:8774023

Petersik, J T

1996-06-01

250

"Apparent Weight": A Concept that Is Confusing and Unnecessary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two recent articles make prominent use of the concept of "apparent weight." The concept of "apparent weight" leads to two confusing inconsistencies. We need to know that with very little change in our representations, we can give our students an improved understanding of "weight" without ever having to invent the appealing but confusing concept of…

Bartlett, Albert A.

2010-01-01

251

False positives complicate ancient pathogen identifications using high-throughput shotgun sequencing  

PubMed Central

Background Identification of historic pathogens is challenging since false positives and negatives are a serious risk. Environmental non-pathogenic contaminants are ubiquitous. Furthermore, public genetic databases contain limited information regarding these species. High-throughput sequencing may help reliably detect and identify historic pathogens. Results We shotgun-sequenced 8 16th-century Mixtec individuals from the site of Teposcolula Yucundaa (Oaxaca, Mexico) who are reported to have died from the huey cocoliztli (‘Great Pestilence’ in Nahautl), an unknown disease that decimated native Mexican populations during the Spanish colonial period, in order to identify the pathogen. Comparison of these sequences with those deriving from the surrounding soil and from 4 precontact individuals from the site found a wide variety of contaminant organisms that confounded analyses. Without the comparative sequence data from the precontact individuals and soil, false positives for Yersinia pestis and rickettsiosis could have been reported. Conclusions False positives and negatives remain problematic in ancient DNA analyses despite the application of high-throughput sequencing. Our results suggest that several studies claiming the discovery of ancient pathogens may need further verification. Additionally, true single molecule sequencing’s short read lengths, inability to sequence through DNA lesions, and limited ancient-DNA-specific technical development hinder its application to palaeopathology. PMID:24568097

2014-01-01

252

Sentential Negation in English  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper undertakes a detailed analysis of sentential negation in the English language with Chomsky's Government-Binding theory of Transformational Grammar as theoretical model. It distinguishes between constituent and sentential negation in English. The essay identifies the exact position of Negation phrase in an English clause structure. It…

Mowarin, Macaulay

2009-01-01

253

The fSAM Model of False Recall  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors report a new theory of false memory building upon existing associative memory models and implemented in fSAM, the first fully specified quantitative model of false recall. Participants frequently intrude unstudied critical words while recalling lists comprising their strongest semantic associates but infrequently produce other…

Kimball, Daniel R.; Smith, Troy A.; Kahana, Michael J.

2007-01-01

254

The false memory syndrome: Experimental studies and comparison to confabulations  

PubMed Central

False memories, or recollections that are factually incorrect but strongly believed, remain a source of confusion for both psychiatrists and neurologists. We propose model for false memories based on recent experimental investigations, particularly when analyzed in comparison to confabulations, which are the equivalent of false memories from neurological disease. Studies using the Deese/Roedinger–McDermott experimental paradigm indicate that false memories are associated with the need for complete and integrated memories, self-relevancy, imagination and wish fulfillment, familiarity, emotional facilitation, suggestibility, and sexual content. In comparison, confabulations are associated with the same factors except for emotional facilitation, suggestibility, and sexual content. Both false memories and confabulations have an abnormal sense of certainty for their recollections, and neuroanatomical findings implicate decreased activity in the ventromedial frontal lobe in this certainty. In summary, recent studies of false memories in comparison to confabulations support a model of false memories as internally-generated but suggestible and emotionally-facilitated fantasies or impulses, rather than repressed memories of real events. Furthermore, like confabulations, in order for false memories to occur there must be an attenuation of the normal, nonconscious, right frontal “doubt tag” regarding their certainty. PMID:21177042

Mendez, M.F.; Fras, I.A.

2011-01-01

255

Using Recall to Reduce False Recognition: Diagnostic and Disqualifying Monitoring  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Whether recall of studied words (e.g., parsley, rosemary, thyme) could reduce false recognition of related lures (e.g., basil) was investigated. Subjects studied words from several categories for a final recognition memory test. Half of the subjects were given standard test instructions, and half were instructed to use recall to reduce false

Gallo, David A.

2004-01-01

256

Ice formation in the Arctic during summer: false-bottoms  

E-print Network

. The ablation of the sea-ice interface is caused by dissolution rather than by melting. Note that salt water hasIce formation in the Arctic during summer: false-bottoms Phan Thanh Nama,b , Pham Ngoc Dinh Alaina The only source of ice formation in the Arctic during summer is a layer of ice called false-bottoms between

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

257

Effects of Aging and Education on False Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…

Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

2012-01-01

258

Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments (modeled after J. Deese's 1959 study) revealed remarkable levels of false recall and false recognition in a list learning paradigm. In Experiment 1, subjects studied lists of 12 words (e.g., bed, rest, awake); each list was composed of associates of 1 nonpresented word (e.g., sleep). On immediate free recall tests, the nonpresented associates were recalled 40% of the

Henry L. Roediger; Kathleen B. McDermott

1995-01-01

259

Associations among False Belief Understanding, Counterfactual Reasoning, and Executive Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary purposes of the present study were to clarify previous work on the association between counterfactual thinking and false belief performance to determine (1) whether these two variables are related and (2) if so, whether executive function skills mediate the relationship. A total of 92 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds completed false belief,…

Guajardo, Nicole R.; Parker, Jessica; Turley-Ames, Kandi

2009-01-01

260

Recollection Rejection: How Children Edit Their False Memories.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents new measure of children's use of an editing operation that suppresses false memories by accessing verbatim traces of true events. Application of the methodology showed that false-memory editing increased dramatically between early and middle childhood. Measure reacted appropriately to experimental manipulations. Developmental reductions…

Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.

2002-01-01

261

Do Children "DRM" Like Adults? False Memory Production in Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm was used to investigate developmental trends in accurate and false memory production. In Experiment 1, DRM lists adjusted to be more consistent with children's vocabulary were used with 2nd graders, 8th graders, and college students. Accurate and false recall and recognition increased with age, but…

Metzger, Richard L.; Warren, Amye R.; Shelton, Jill T.; Price, Jodi; Reed, Andrea W.; Williams, Danny

2008-01-01

262

Visual Distinctiveness and the Development of Children's False Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Distinctiveness effects in children's (5-, 7-, and 11-year-olds) false memory illusions were examined using visual materials. In Experiment 1, developmental trends (increasing false memories with age) were obtained using Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists presented as words and color photographs but not line drawings. In Experiment 2, when items were…

Howe, Mark L.

2008-01-01

263

Development of False Memories in Bilingual Children and Adults  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of within- versus between-languages (English-French) study and test on rates of bilingual children's and adults' true and false memories were examined. Children aged 6 through 12 and university-aged adults participated in a standard Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory task using free recall and recognition. Recall results showed…

Howe, Mark L.; Gagnon, Nadine; Thouas, Lisa

2008-01-01

264

Queue selection and switching by false clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social groups of false clown anemonefish have been described as queues because, following settlement, fish acquire social rank passively by outliving more dominant groupmates. Within each queue, reproduction is restricted to the dominant pair. Therefore, individuals should adopt tactics that maximize their likelihood of attaining social dominance. Field observations indicated that, independent of an anemone's size, postlarval false clowns are

JEREMY MITCHELL

2005-01-01

265

False belief understanding in Cantonese-speaking children.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the performance of 96 Cantonese-speaking three- to five-year-old preschoolers on three false belief tasks - a deceptive object, a change of location, and an unexpected contents task encompassing a variety of task factors. Most importantly, the research examines the possibility that false belief performance depends on specific linguistic factors such as the type of verb used in the test question--an explicitly false vs. a neutral belief verb. Cantonese was chosen as particularly useful for examining this question because it explicitly codes belief status as either neutral (nam5) or false (ji5wai4), and because it offers additional linguistic and cultural contrasts to research conducted on false belief with children learning English and other Indo-European languages. As expected, a strong age effect was found, as well as a significant advantage for children who received the explicit false belief (ji5wai4) wording and for those who were asked to explain rather than predict the protagonist's actions. Interestingly, there was also a strong task difference with children performing better on the deceptive object task than on the other two false belief tasks. We argue that these results point both to universal trajectories in theory of mind development and to interesting, but localized, effects of language and culture on children's false belief understanding. PMID:15658745

Tardif, Twila; Wellman, Henry M; Cheung, Kar Man

2004-11-01

266

False Belief Understanding in Cantonese-Speaking Children  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study investigates the performance of 96 Cantonese-speaking three- to five-year-old preschoolers on three false belief tasks--a deceptive object, a change of location, and an unexpected contents task encompassing a variety of task factors. Most importantly, the research examines the possibility that false belief performance depends on…

Tardif, Twila; Wellman, Henry M.; Cheung, Kar Man

2004-01-01

267

False ConfessionsCauses, Consequences, and Implications for Reform  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite the commonsense belief that people do not confess to crimes they did not commit, 20 to 25% of all DNA exonerations involve innocent prisoners who confessed. After distinguishing between voluntary, compliant, and internalized false confessions, this article suggests that a sequence of three processes is responsible for false confessions and their adverse consequences. First, police sometimes target innocent people

Saul M. Kassin

2008-01-01

268

False Recognition in Lewy-Body Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the false recognition phenomenon in persons with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and those with Lewy-body disease (LBD). Patients with LBD (n=10) or FTD (n=15) and their corresponding controls (n=30) were subjected to the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm to induce false recognition. Patients were…

de Boysson, C.; Belleville, S.; Phillips, N. A.; Johns, E. K.; Goupil, D.; Souchay, C.; Bouchard, R.; Chertkow, H.

2011-01-01

269

Thermodynamics of apparent horizon and modified Friedman equations  

E-print Network

Starting from the first law of thermodynamics, $dE=T_hdS_h+WdV$, at apparent horizon of a FRW universe, and assuming that the associated entropy with apparent horizon has a quantum corrected relation, $S=\\frac{A}{4G}-\\alpha \\ln \\frac{A}{4G}+\\beta \\frac{4G}{A}$, we derive modified Friedmann equations describing the dynamics of the universe with any spatial curvature. We also examine the time evolution of the total entropy including the quantum corrected entropy associated with the apparent horizon together with the matter field entropy inside the apparent horizon. Our study shows that, with the local equilibrium assumption, the generalized second law of thermodynamics is fulfilled in a region enclosed by the apparent horizon.

Ahmad Sheykhi

2010-12-02

270

Gain-Scheduled Fault Tolerance Control Under False Identification  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An active fault tolerant control (FTC) law is generally sensitive to false identification since the control gain is reconfigured for fault occurrence. In the conventional FTC law design procedure, dynamic variations due to false identification are not considered. In this paper, an FTC synthesis method is developed in order to consider possible variations of closed-loop dynamics under false identification into the control design procedure. An active FTC synthesis problem is formulated into an LMI optimization problem to minimize the upper bound of the induced-L2 norm which can represent the worst-case performance degradation due to false identification. The developed synthesis method is applied for control of the longitudinal motions of FASER (Free-flying Airplane for Subscale Experimental Research). The designed FTC law of the airplane is simulated for pitch angle command tracking under a false identification case.

Shin, Jong-Yeob; Belcastro, Christine (Technical Monitor)

2006-01-01

271

Line tension and reduction of apparent contact angle associated with electric double layers  

E-print Network

The line tension of an electrolyte wetting a non-polar substrate is computed analytically and numerically. The results show that, depending on the value of the apparent contact angle, positive or negative line tension values may be obtained. Furthermore, a significant difference between Young's contact angle and the apparent contact angle measured several Debye lengths remote from the three-phase contact line occurs. When applying the results to water wetting highly charged surfaces, line tension values of the same order of magnitude as found in recent experiments can be achieved. Therefore, the theory presented may contribute to the understanding of line tension measurements and points to the importance of the electrostatic line tension. Being strongly dependent on the interfacial charge density, electrostatic line tension is found to be tunable via the pH value of the involved electrolyte. As a practical consequence, the stability of nanoparticles adsorbed at fluid-fluid interfaces is predicted to be depend...

Dörr, Aaron

2014-01-01

272

Phencyclidine false positive induced by lamotrigine (Lamictal®) on a rapid urine toxicology screen  

PubMed Central

Background This report describes two cases with unexplained positive results for phencyclidine (PCP). Aims This case will correlate lamotrigine (Lamictal®) use with false-positive results for PCP on a rapid urine toxicology screen. Methods Case 1: A 62-year-old male arrived to the emergency department in extreme psychosis. All positive results on the urine drug screen could be accounted for except PCP. A comprehensive drug screen was performed to confirm PCP use, but returned negative. PCP was ruled out as the causative agent. The reason for the PCP false positive remained unknown. Case 2: A 49-year-old female presented to the ED with a history of seizures and depression. Despite positive PCP results on a rapid urine drug screen, PCP use was ruled out due to patient presentation and comprehensive history. Results The differential diagnosis in case 1 included PCP abuse until PCP was ruled out by a comprehensive drug screen. A literature search failed to explain a reason for false-positive results. The patient in case 2 was not psychotic, but returned a positive urinalysis result for PCP. Case 2’s presentation combined with a comprehensive history at the facility ruled out PCP use. Both patients were taking the anti-seizure medication lamotrigine with nothing else in common. Conclusion Lamotrigine has the potential to cause false-positive results for PCP on the Bio-Rad TOX/See urine toxicology screen. PMID:21373301

Peele, James; McCoy, Stacey L.; Elias, Brad

2010-01-01

273

False-positive outcome and drug residue in milk samples over withdrawal times.  

PubMed

This study was conducted to identify false-positive outcomes and drug residues in milk samples over withdrawal times and to determine whether the positive results were caused by drug residues or natural inhibitors. A total of 73 milk samples over withdrawal times after the last intramammary infusion were collected from each treated quarter of cows and tested using the Delvotest SP assay. Reading time was 150, 165, and 180 min, and results of samples were recorded according to the color of the well containing the control milk sample. There were 24, 20, and 12 positive samples at the reading times of 150, 165, and 180 min, respectively. All 24 positive milk samples were heated at 82 degrees C for 5 min and retested to verify that the positive results were caused by drug residues or natural inhibitors. Twenty-one samples that exhibited positive results were negative after heat treatment, and drug residues were not identified by LacTek and Charm tests. However, 3 samples that exhibited positive results from heat treatment of 82 degrees C were positive for drugs. In our study, most positive results (89%) in the milk samples over withdrawal times were false-positive results by natural inhibitors. Moreover, the heat treatment is a fast, simple, and inexpensive method to remove false-positive results and has no effect on positive samples containing drugs. We suggest that heat treatment before screening tests is an effective way to reduce false-positive results in the milk samples. PMID:15738224

Kang, J H; Jin, J H; Kondo, F

2005-03-01

274

[Development of semantic knowledge in children's associative false memory].  

PubMed

In the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure, false recall of a word that was not presented (the critical-lure) can be produced when participants study a list of associative words related to the critical-lure. Recently, some studies using the DRM procedure showed that young children did not produce false recall. The present study hypothesized that the children did not produce false recall in those studies because the lists of words did not reflect the children's associative knowledge. To test this possibility, the present study developed lists that reflect the associative knowledge of five-year-old children and examined false recall using the DRM procedure. The results showed that children falsely recalled the critical-lure after studying the lists that reflected the children's associative knowledge, while they did not recall the critical-lure after studying the lists that reflected adults' associative knowledge. The results indicate that children produce false recall when the lists of words reflect those children's associative knowledge. The present finding suggests that the structuring of semantic knowledge that mediates false recall of the critical-lure has developed five years of age. PMID:18402061

Nabeta, Tomohiro; Mekuta, Jun-ichi; Kamigaki, Akiko; Matsui, Gota; Park, Shin-Young; Yamazaki, Akira

2008-02-01

275

The role of associative strength in children's false memory illusions.  

PubMed

The effects of associative strength on rates of 7- and 11-year-old children's true and false memories were examined when category and Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists were used to cue the same critical lure. Backward associative strength (BAS) was varied such that the category and DRM lists had the same strength (DRM=category), DRM lists had more BAS (DRM>category), or category lists had more BAS (DRMfalse memories then BAS, not the type of relation across items in a list, should determine false memory production. The results confirmed this prediction using both recall and recognition measures: (1) both true and false memories increased with age, (2) true memory was better for category than DRM lists but there were no differences for false memory, and (3) at all ages, false memories varied predictably with changes in BAS but were unaffected by list-type manipulations. These findings are discussed in the context of models of false memory development. PMID:19031309

Howe, Mark L; Wimmer, Marina C; Blease, Katrina

2009-01-01

276

The effect of visual apparent motion on audiovisual simultaneity.  

PubMed

Visual motion information from dynamic environments is important in multisensory temporal perception. However, it is unclear how visual motion information influences the integration of multisensory temporal perceptions. We investigated whether visual apparent motion affects audiovisual temporal perception. Visual apparent motion is a phenomenon in which two flashes presented in sequence in different positions are perceived as continuous motion. Across three experiments, participants performed temporal order judgment (TOJ) tasks. Experiment 1 was a TOJ task conducted in order to assess audiovisual simultaneity during perception of apparent motion. The results showed that the point of subjective simultaneity (PSS) was shifted toward a sound-lead stimulus, and the just noticeable difference (JND) was reduced compared with a normal TOJ task with a single flash. This indicates that visual apparent motion affects audiovisual simultaneity and improves temporal discrimination in audiovisual processing. Experiment 2 was a TOJ task conducted in order to remove the influence of the amount of flash stimulation from Experiment 1. The PSS and JND during perception of apparent motion were almost identical to those in Experiment 1, but differed from those for successive perception when long temporal intervals were included between two flashes without motion. This showed that the result obtained under the apparent motion condition was unaffected by the amount of flash stimulation. Because apparent motion was produced by a constant interval between two flashes, the results may be accounted for by specific prediction. In Experiment 3, we eliminated the influence of prediction by randomizing the intervals between the two flashes. However, the PSS and JND did not differ from those in Experiment 1. It became clear that the results obtained for the perception of visual apparent motion were not attributable to prediction. Our findings suggest that visual apparent motion changes temporal simultaneity perception and improves temporal discrimination in audiovisual processing. PMID:25295594

Kwon, Jinhwan; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Miyake, Yoshihiro

2014-01-01

277

[Effects of false memories on the Concealed Information Test].  

PubMed

The effects of false memories on polygraph examinations with the Concealed Information Test (CIT) were investigated by using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, which allows participants to evoke false memories. Physiological responses to questions consisting of learned, lure, and unlearned items were measured and recorded. The results indicated that responses to lure questions showed critical responses to questions about learned items. These responses included repression of respiration, an increase in electrodermal activity, and a drop in heart rate. These results suggest that critical response patterns are generated in the peripheral nervous system by true and false memories. PMID:23214081

Zaitsu, Wataru

2012-10-01

278

False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals.  

PubMed

The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants' and age- and sex-matched controls' susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes. PMID:24248358

Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J; LePort, Aurora K R; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M; Stark, Craig E L; McGaugh, James L; Loftus, Elizabeth F

2013-12-24

279

False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals  

PubMed Central

The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants’ and age- and sex-matched controls’ susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes. PMID:24248358

Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

2013-01-01

280

Animals in Education: Are We Prisoners of False Sentiment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Asserts that concerns over the use of animals in science education is confounded by the unworthy introduction of false sentiment by animal rights groups, which persist in ignoring the realities of biology. (PR)

Minerney, Joseph D.

1993-01-01

281

False alarm mitigation techniques for hyperspectral target detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A challenging problem of major importance in hyperspectral imaging applications is the detection of subpixel objects of military and civilian interest. High false alarm thresholds are required to detect subpixel objects due to the large amount of surrounding background clutter. These high false alarm rates are unacceptable for military purposes, requiring the need for false alarm mitigation (FAM) techniques to weed out the objects of interest. The objective of this paper is to provide a comparison of the implementation of these FAM techniques and their inherent benefits in the whitened detection space. The widely utilized matched filter (MF) and adaptive cosine estimator (ACE) are both based on a linear mixing model (LMM) between a background and object class. The matched filter approximates the object abundance, and the ACE measures the model error. Each of these measurements provides inadequate object separation alone, but by using both the object abundance and model error, the objects can be separated from the false alarms.

Pieper, M. L.; Manolakis, D.; Truslow, E.; Cooley, T.; Brueggeman, M.

2013-05-01

282

The apparently stillborn infant: risk factors, incidence, and neonatal outcome.  

PubMed

We evaluated neonatal outcomes of apparently stillborn infants. The apparently stillborn neonate is born with an unexpected Apgar score of 0 at 1 minute and is subsequently successfully resuscitated. A retrospective cohort study was performed using electronic medical records for neonates >24 weeks' gestation born between 2002 and 2007. Adverse outcome was defined by the presence of seizures, encephalopathy, or death prior to hospital discharge. Differences in maternal demographics and clinical characteristics were compared between neonates with and without adverse outcomes at varying hospital settings. Ninety-three neonates were identified as apparently stillborn. Adverse outcomes occurred in 31.2% of neonates; 83.9% survived from birth to hospital discharge. Neonates with a 5-minute Apgar score <4 were significantly more likely to suffer an adverse outcome. Survival of the apparent stillborn is likely. In this cohort, neither mode of delivery nor hospital acuity level predicted outcome. PMID:20645239

Nelson, Kristi; Simonsen, Sara E; Henry, Erick; Wilder, Stephanie; Rose, Nancy C

2011-01-01

283

Apparent Ionic Charge in Electrolyte and Polyelectrolyte Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares average displacements of charged particles under thermal motion alone with those obtained by the action of an external electric field to develop a concept of "apparent charge" to approximate actual structural charge in an electrolyte solution. (SL)

Magdelenat, H.; And Others

1978-01-01

284

Pictorial encoding reduces false recognition of semantic associates  

Microsoft Academic Search

High levels of false recognition can be observed after people study lists of semantic associates that all converge on a nonpresented\\u000a lure word. To test the idea that encoding distinctive perceptual information would help to reduce false recognition, we presented\\u000a a line drawing representing each associated word during study list presentation and later tested recognition of studied words\\u000a and lure

Lana Israel; Daniel L. Schacter

1997-01-01

285

Computed tomography colonography – reasons for different and false results  

PubMed Central

Summary Computed tomography colonography (CT colonography) is one of the latest radiological methods of colorectal diagnostic imaging. Many studies confirmed a high efficacy of CT colonography in diagnosing colorectal polyps and tumors. However, this imaging method is not devoid of false diagnoses. Our paper presented the main causes of false results, causes of heterogeneity of the results among centres, as well as ways of avoiding them. PMID:22802789

Rudzi?ska, Ma?gorzata; Rudzi?ski, Janusz; Leksowski, Krzysztof

2010-01-01

286

Existence of outermost apparent horizons with product of spheres topology  

E-print Network

In this paper we find new examples of Riemannian manifolds with outermost apparent horizons with nonspherical topology, in dimensions four and above. More precisely, for any $n,m\\ge1$, we construct asymptotically flat, scalar flat Riemannian manifolds containing smooth outermost minimal hypersurfaces with topology $S^n\\times S^{m+1}$. In the context of general relativity these hypersurfaces correspond to outermost apparent horizons of black holes.

Fernando Schwartz

2007-04-18

287

Sleep Reduces False Memory in Healthy Older Adults  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of post-learning sleep and sleep architecture on false memory in healthy older adults. Design: Balanced, crossover design. False memory was induced using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm and assessed following nocturnal sleep and following a period of daytime wakefulness. Post-learning sleep structure was evaluated using polysomnography (PSG). Setting: Sleep research laboratory. Participants: Fourteen healthy older adults from the Singapore-Longitudinal Aging Brain Study (mean age ± standard deviation = 66.6 ± 4.1 y; 7 males). Measurements and Results: At encoding, participants studied lists of words that were semantically related to non-presented critical lures. At retrieval, they made “remember”/“know” and “new” judgments. Compared to wakefulness, post-learning sleep was associated with reduced “remember” responses, but not “know” responses to critical lures. In contrast, there were no significant differences in the veridical recognition of studied words, false recognition of unrelated distractors, discriminability, or response bias between the sleep and the wake conditions. More post-learning slow wave sleep was associated with greater reduction in false memory. Conclusions: In healthy older adults, sleep facilitates the reduction in false memory without affecting veridical memory. This benefit correlates with the amount of slow wave sleep in the post-learning sleep episode. Citation: Lo JC; Sim SK; Chee MW. Sleep reduces false memory in healthy older adults. SLEEP 2014;37(4):665-671. PMID:24744453

Lo, June C.; Sim, Sam K. Y.; Chee, Michael W. L.

2014-01-01

288

The role of articulatory suppression in immediate false recognition.  

PubMed

False memory for critical lures has been widely documented in long-term memory using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Recent evidence suggests that false memory effects can also be found in short-term memory (STM), supporting models that assume a strong relationship between short-term and long-term memory processes. However, no study has examined the role of articulatory suppression on immediate false memory, even though phono-articulatory factors are critically involved in STM performance and are an intrinsic part of all STM accounts. The current study proposes a novel paradigm to assess false memory effects in a STM task under both silent and articulatory suppression conditions. Using immediate serial recognition, in which participants had to judge whether two successive mixed lists of six associated and non-associated words were matched, we examined true recognition of matching lists and false recognition of mismatching lists comprising a critical lure or unrelated distractor in two experiments. Results from both experiments indicated reduced true recognition of matching lists and greater false serial recognition of mismatching lists comprising a critical lure under articulatory suppression relative to silence. These findings provide further support for some current models of verbal short-term memory, which posit a strong relationship between short-term and long-term memory processes. PMID:22032514

Macé, Anne-Laure; Caza, Nicole

2011-11-01

289

False-alarm characterization in hyperspectral gas-detection applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical cloud detection using long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral-imaging sensors has many civilian and military applications, including chemical warfare threat mitigation, environmental monitoring, and emergency response. Current capabilities are limited by variation in background clutter as opposed to the physics of photon detection, and this makes the statistical characterization of clutter and clutter-induced false alarms essential to the design of practical systems. In this exploratory work, we use hyperspectral data collected both on the ground and in the air to spectrally and spatially characterize false alarms. Focusing on two widely-used detectors, the matched filter (MF) and the adaptive cosine estimator (ACE), we compare empirical false-alarm rates to their theoretical counterparts - detector output under Gaussian, t and t-mixture distributed data - and show that these models often underestimate false-alarm rates. Next, we threshold real detection maps and show that true detections and false alarms often exhibit very different spatial behavior. To exploit this difference and understand how spatial processing affects performance, the spatial behavior of false alarms must be understood. We take a first step in this direction by showing that, although the behavior may `look' quite random, it is not well captured by the complete-spatial-randomness model. Finally, we describe how our findings impact the design of real detection systems.

DiPietro, Robert S.; Truslow, Eric; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Golowich, Steven E.; Lockwood, Ronald B.

2012-09-01

290

Children (but not adults) can inhibit false memories.  

PubMed

The role of inhibition in children's (5-, 7-, and 11-year-olds') false memory illusions in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm was examined using a list-wise directed-forgetting procedure. Children studied either a single DRM list (control) or two DRM lists in succession with a directed-remembering instruction or a directed-forgetting instruction between list presentations. The findings indicated that, like adults, children effectively suppressed the output of true memories when given a directed-forgetting instruction. Unlike adults, whose false memories are not attenuated in directed-forgetting conditions, children suppressed false memories at recall in the directed-forgetting condition. Because recognition data indicated that the children did generate false memories regardless of instruction, it appears that although adults' false memories are generated automatically and do not become part of their conscious experience, children's false memories are produced with greater effort and conscious processing, and as a result are easier to suppress at output. PMID:16313654

Howe, Mark L

2005-12-01

291

40 CFR 60.2530 - Is there an approval process for a negative declaration letter?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...false Is there an approval process for a negative declaration...Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units...2530 Is there an approval process for a negative declaration...The EPA has no formal review process for negative...

2011-07-01

292

40 CFR 60.2530 - Is there an approval process for a negative declaration letter?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Is there an approval process for a negative declaration...Compliance Times for Commercial and Industrial Solid Waste Incineration Units...2530 Is there an approval process for a negative declaration...The EPA has no formal review process for negative...

2010-07-01

293

A FALSE POSITIVE FOR OCEAN GLINT ON EXOPLANETS: THE LATITUDE-ALBEDO EFFECT  

SciTech Connect

Identifying liquid water on the surface of planets is a high priority, as this traditionally defines habitability. One proposed signature of oceans is specular reflection ('glint'), which increases the apparent albedo of a planet at crescent phases. We post-process a global climate model of an Earth-like planet to simulate reflected light curves. Significantly, we obtain glint-like phase variations even though we do not include specular reflection in our model. This false positive is the product of two generic properties: (1) for modest obliquities, a planet's poles receive less orbit-averaged stellar flux than its equator, so the poles are more likely to be covered in highly reflective snow and ice; and (2) we show that reflected light from a modest-obliquity planet at crescent phases probes higher latitudes than at gibbous phases, therefore a planet's apparent albedo will naturally increase at crescent phase. We suggest that this 'latitude-albedo effect' will operate even for large obliquities: in that case the equator receives less orbit-averaged flux than the poles, and the equator is preferentially sampled at crescent phase. Using rotational and orbital color variations to map the surfaces of directly imaged planets and estimate their obliquity will therefore be a necessary pre-condition for properly interpreting their reflected phase variations. The latitude-albedo effect is a particularly convincing glint false positive for zero-obliquity planets, and such worlds are not amenable to latitudinal mapping. This effect severely limits the utility of specular reflection for detecting oceans on exoplanets.

Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Abbot, Dorian S. [Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Voigt, Aiko [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstr. 53, D-20146, Hamburg (Germany)

2012-06-10

294

Positive and negative perfectionism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research into perfectionism has focused on clinical populations resulting in a bias towards a negativistic, pathologically inclined conceptualization. The present study investigated the possibility of distinguishing aspects of perfectionism on the basis of perceived consequences, mirroring a behavioural distinction between positive and negative reinforcement. A 40-item questionnaire, designed to measure perfectionism defined in terms of both positive and negative

L. A. Terry-Short; R. Glynn Owens; P. D. Slade; M. E. Dewey

1995-01-01

295

Positive, Zero, or Negative?  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lesson involves students using positive and negative numbers to represent quantities in real-world contexts, explaining the meaning of zero in each situation. Students will understand the positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities having opposite values.

Brown, Kathleen

2012-09-16

296

Implicit false-belief processing in the human brain.  

PubMed

Eye-movement patterns in 'Sally-Anne' tasks reflect humans' ability to implicitly process the mental states of others, particularly false-beliefs - a key theory of mind (ToM) operation. It has recently been proposed that an efficient ToM system, which operates in the absence of awareness (implicit ToM, iToM), subserves the analysis of belief-like states. This contrasts to consciously available belief processing, performed by the explicit ToM system (eToM). The frontal, temporal and parietal cortices are engaged when humans explicitly 'mentalize' about others' beliefs. However, the neural underpinnings of implicit false-belief processing and the extent to which they draw on networks involved in explicit general-belief processing are unknown. Here, participants watched 'Sally-Anne' movies while fMRI and eye-tracking measures were acquired simultaneously. Participants displayed eye-movements consistent with implicit false-belief processing. After independently localizing the brain areas involved in explicit general-belief processing, only the left anterior superior temporal sulcus and precuneus revealed greater blood-oxygen-level-dependent activity for false- relative to true-belief trials in our iToM paradigm. No such difference was found for the right temporal-parietal junction despite significant activity in this area. These findings fractionate brain regions that are associated with explicit general ToM reasoning and false-belief processing in the absence of awareness. PMID:25042446

Schneider, Dana; Slaughter, Virginia P; Becker, Stefanie I; Dux, Paul E

2014-11-01

297

Filtering False Positives Based on Server-Side Behaviors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reducing the rate of false positives is of vital importance in enhancing the usefulness of signature-based network intrusion detection systems (NIDSs). To reduce the number of false positives, a network administrator must thoroughly investigate a lengthy list of signatures and carefully disable the ones that detect attacks that are not harmful to the administrator's environment. This is a daunting task; if some signatures are disabled by mistake, the NIDS fails to detect critical remote attacks. We designed a NIDS, TrueAlarm, to reduce the rate of false positives. Conventional NIDSs alert administrators that a malicious message has been detected, regardless of whether the message actually attempts to compromise the protected server. In contrast, TrueAlarm delays the alert until it has confirmed that an attempt has been made. The TrueAlarm NIDS cooperates with a server-side monitor that observes the protected server's behavior. TrueAlarm only alerts administrators when a server-side monitor has detected deviant server behavior that must have been caused by a message detected by a NIDS. Our experimental results revealed that TrueAlarm reduces the rate of false positives. Using actual network traffic collected over 14 days, TrueAlarm produced 46 false positives, while Snort, a conventional NIDS, produced 818.

Shimamura, Makoto; Hanaoka, Miyuki; Kono, Kenji

298

34 CFR 685.215 - Discharge for false certification of student eligibility or unauthorized payment.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discharge for false certification of student eligibility... Borrower Provisions § 685.215 Discharge for false certification of student eligibility...unauthorized payment. (a) Basis for discharge —(1) False certification....

2010-07-01

299

Social environment and sex differentiation in the false clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris.  

PubMed

Plasticity in sex differentiation is known to be common in teleost fishes. Anemonefishes are protandrous; females are the largest and dominant members of social groups, displaying frequent aggressive behavior towards other members of groups. The second-ranked individuals become males and others remain as non-reproductive individuals. Here we examine the influence of social interaction in-group on sex differentiation in the false clown anemonefish, Amphiprion ocellaris, under laboratory conditions. Three juvenile anemonefish were kept in a tank for 180 days and their behaviors observed once a month. The social rank of individuals was distinguishable by their interactions in a group, with rank order clearly correlated with aggressive and appeasing behaviors. The dominant individuals occupied the shelter in the tank from the start to completion of the observation period. The body mass of dominant individuals increased compared to group-housed control fish, while third-ranked individuals showed growth suppression. The ratio of testicular tissue in gonads increased in dominant and second-ranked individuals but decreased in the third-ranked individuals. Differences in the plasma concentrations of estradiol, testosterone, and cortisol were not significant, but the concentration of 11-ketotestosterone was significantly higher in dominant individuals. These results suggest that, in false clown anemonefish, reproductive suppression of lower-ranked individuals becomes apparent in the first stage of group formation, and sex differentiation of upper-ranked individuals is gradually determined by long-term social interactions. PMID:18533742

Iwata, Eri; Nagai, Yukiko; Hyoudou, Mai; Sasaki, Hideaki

2008-02-01

300

Reflection and transmission at the apparent horizon during gravitational collapse  

SciTech Connect

We examine the wave functionals describing the collapse of a self-gravitating dustball in an exact quantization of the gravity-dust system. We show that ingoing (collapsing) dust shell modes outside the apparent horizon must necessarily be accompanied by outgoing modes inside the apparent horizon, whose amplitude is suppressed by the square root of the Boltzmann factor at the Hawking temperature. Likewise, ingoing modes in the interior must be accompanied by outgoing modes in the exterior, again with an amplitude suppressed by the same factor. A suitable superposition of the two solutions is necessary to conserve the dust probability flux across the apparent horizon; thus, each region contains both ingoing and outgoing dust modes. If one restricts oneself to considering only the modes outside the apparent horizon then one should think of the apparent horizon as a partial reflector, the probability for a shell to reflect being given by the Boltzmann factor at the Hawking temperature determined by the mass contained within it. However, if one considers the entire wave function, the outgoing wave in the exterior is seen to be the transmission through the horizon of the interior outgoing wave that accompanies the collapsing shells. This transmission could allow information from the interior to be transferred to the exterior.

Vaz, Cenalo [RWC, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0011 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0011 (United States); Wijewardhana, L. C. R. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0011 (United States)

2010-10-15

301

Kriging without negative weights  

SciTech Connect

Under a constant drift, the linear kriging estimator is considered as a weighted average of n available sample values. Kriging weights are determined such that the estimator is unbiased and optimal. To meet these requirements, negative kriging weights are sometimes found. Use of negative weights can produce negative block grades, which makes no practical sense. In some applications, all kriging weights may be required to be nonnegative. In this paper, a derivation of a set of nonlinear equations with the nonnegative constraint is presented. A numerical algorithm also is developed for the solution of the new set of kriging equations.

Szidarovszky, F.; Baafi, E.Y.; Kim, Y.C.

1987-08-01

302

Fate of the false monopoles: induced vacuum decay  

E-print Network

We study a gauge theory model where there is an intermediate symmetry breaking to a meta- stable vacuum that breaks a simple gauge group to a U (1) factor. Such models admit the existence of meta-stable magnetic monopoles, which we dub false monopoles. We prove the existence of these monopoles in the thin wall approximation. We determine the instantons for the collective coordinate that corresponds to the radius of the monopole wall and we calculate the semi-classical tunneling rate for the decay of these monopoles. The monopole decay consequently triggers the decay of the false vacuum. As the monopole mass is increased, we find an enhanced rate of decay of the false vacuum relative to the celebrated homogeneous tunneling rate due to Coleman [1].

Kumar, Brijesh; Yajnik, U A

2010-01-01

303

Blocking Mimicry Makes True and False Smiles Look the Same  

PubMed Central

Recent research suggests that facial mimicry underlies accurate interpretation of subtle facial expressions. In three experiments, we manipulated mimicry and tested its role in judgments of the genuineness of true and false smiles. Experiment 1 used facial EMG to show that a new mouthguard technique for blocking mimicry modifies both the amount and the time course of facial reactions. In Experiments 2 and 3, participants rated true and false smiles either while wearing mouthguards or when allowed to freely mimic the smiles with or without additional distraction, namely holding a squeeze ball or wearing a finger-cuff heart rate monitor. Results showed that blocking mimicry compromised the decoding of true and false smiles such that they were judged as equally genuine. Together the experiments highlight the role of facial mimicry in judging subtle meanings of facial expressions. PMID:24670316

Rychlowska, Magdalena; Cañadas, Elena; Wood, Adrienne; Krumhuber, Eva G.; Fischer, Agneta; Niedenthal, Paula M.

2014-01-01

304

False Paradoxes of Superposition in Electric and Acoustic Waves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Corrected are several misconceptions concerning the apparently "missing" energy that results when acoustic or electromagnetic waves cancel by destructive interference and the wave impedance reflected to the sources of the wave energy changes so that the input power is reduced. (Author/CS)

Levine, Richard C.

1980-01-01

305

Effectiveness of false correction strategy on science reading comprehension  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

False-correction reading strategy theoretically prompted college students to activate their prior knowledge when provided false statements linked to a portion of their biology textbook. This strategy is based in elaborative interrogation theory, which suggests that prompting readers to answer interrogatives about text students are reading increases their comprehension of that text. These interrogatives always asked "why" statements pulled from a text, one sentence in length, were "true." True statements in this study based on a text were converted by the experimenter into false statements, one sentence in length. Students were requested to rewrite each statement (n=12) on average every 200 words in a text as they were reading, converting each false statement into a true statement. These students outperformed other students requested to reread the same biology text twice (an established placebo-control strategy). These students, in turn, outperformed still other students reading an unrelated control text taken from the same textbook used only to establish a prior knowledge baseline for all students included in this study. Students participating in this study were enrolled students in an undergraduate introductory general biology course designed for non-majors. A three-group, posttest-only, randomized experimental control-group design was used to prevent pretest activation of students' prior knowledge thus increasing chances of producing evidence of false-correction effectiveness and to begin augmenting potential generalizability to science classrooms. Students' (n=357) general biology knowledge, verbal ability, and attempts to use the false correction strategy were collected and analyzed. Eight of the participants were interviewed by the researcher in a first attempt in this domain to collect data on participants' points of view about the strategy. The results of this study are not yet recommended for use in authentic school settings as further research is indicated.

Ghent, Cynthia Anne

306

Mixed directional false discovery rate control in multiple pairwise comparisons using weighted p-values.  

PubMed

In many applications, researchers are interested in making q pairwise comparisons among k test groups on the basis of m outcome variables. Often, m is very large. For example, such situations arise in gene expression microarray studies involving several experimental groups. Researchers are often not only interested in identifying differentially expressed genes between a given pair of experimental groups, but are also interested in making directional inferences such as whether a gene is up- or downregulated in one treatment group relative to another. In such situations, in addition to the usual errors such as false positive (Type I error) and false negative (Type II error), one may commit directional error (Type III error). For example, in a dose response microarray study, a gene may be declared to be upregulated in the high dose group compared to the low dose group when it is not. In this paper, we introduce a mixed directional false discovery rate (mdFDR) controlling procedure using weighted p-values to select positives in different directions. The weights are defined as the inverse of two times the proportion of either positive or negative discoveries. The proposed procedure has been proved mathematically to control the mdFDR at level ? and to have a larger power (which is defined as the expected proportion of nontrue null hypotheses) than the GSP10 procedure proposed by Guo et al. (2010). Simulation studies and real data analysis are also conducted to show the outperformance of the proposed procedure than the GSP10 procedure. PMID:25410394

Zhao, Haibing; Peddada, Shyamal D; Cui, Xinping

2015-01-01

307

Role of surface in apparent viscosity of glasses.  

PubMed

Two problems have intrigued experts for a long time: The one is within the context of the legend of flowing cathedral glass windows and the second is the inaccuracy appearing in very old thermometers of famous scientists. We relate this with the role of the surface on the apparent viscosity of glasses. The apparent viscosity could deviate from the bulk viscosity if the fraction w of the surface molecules, of small samples, is sufficiently large. The effect is more prominent at low temperatures, correspondingly at high viscosities. The interpretation is within the Avramov and Milchev viscosity model, combined with the predictions of the change of heat capacity for extremely small samples. We find that the apparent glass transition temperature could depend on the sample size, in agreement with experimental observations existing in the literature. In addition to glasses, the present results could be of importance for thin films and foams. PMID:24730836

Avramov, I

2014-03-01

308

Measurements of apparent specific heat during the devolatilization of coal  

SciTech Connect

An inverse heat transfer method for the estimation of thermo-physical properties of materials was developed to continuously measure the apparent volumetric specific heat during the heating of coal. The experimental apparatus designed for this purpose was comprised of an Infrared Gold Image Furnace capable of applying controlled heating rate in which a silica tube was inserted containing the coal specimen. Measuring the temperatures at selected positions within the sample and furnace allowed the calculation of heat transfer boundary conditions and subsequently the apparent specific heat of the sample. The apparent specific heat curve for the coal sample examined displayed a complex behavior during the softening and re-solidification period associated with series of endothermic and exothermic reactions. The heats of these reactions were extracted from the calculated enthalpy data allowing estimation of the activation energies for the individual reactions.

Strezov, V.; Lucas, J.; Osborn, S.R.; Strezov, L.

1999-07-01

309

Role of surface in apparent viscosity of glasses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two problems have intrigued experts for a long time: The one is within the context of the legend of flowing cathedral glass windows and the second is the inaccuracy appearing in very old thermometers of famous scientists. We relate this with the role of the surface on the apparent viscosity of glasses. The apparent viscosity could deviate from the bulk viscosity if the fraction w of the surface molecules, of small samples, is sufficiently large. The effect is more prominent at low temperatures, correspondingly at high viscosities. The interpretation is within the Avramov and Milchev viscosity model, combined with the predictions of the change of heat capacity for extremely small samples. We find that the apparent glass transition temperature could depend on the sample size, in agreement with experimental observations existing in the literature. In addition to glasses, the present results could be of importance for thin films and foams.

Avramov, I.

2014-03-01

310

Personality characteristics associated with susceptibility to false memories.  

PubMed

This study examined whether certain personality characteristics are associated with susceptibility to false memories. Participants first answered questions from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in order to measure various personality characteristics. They then watched a video excerpt, the simulated eyewitness event. They were next encouraged to lie about the videotaped event during an interview. A week later, some participants recognized confabulated events as being from the video. Two personality characteristics in particular--the introversion-extroversion and thinking-feeling dimensions--were associated with susceptibility to false memories. PMID:16841777

Frost, Peter; Sparrow, Sarah; Jennifer, Barry

2006-01-01

311

Pseudo-spectral apparent horizon finders: an efficient new algorithm  

E-print Network

We review the problem of finding an apparent horizon in Cauchy data (Sigma, g_ab, K_ab) in three space dimensions without symmetries. We describe a family of algorithms which includes the pseudo-spectral apparent horizon finder of Nakamura et al. and the curvature flow method proposed by Tod as special cases. We suggest that other algorithms in the family may combine the speed of the former with the robustness of the latter. A numerical implementation for Cauchy data given on a grid in Cartesian coordinates is described, and tested on Brill-Lindquist and Kerr initial data. The new algorithm appears faster and more robust than previous ones.

Carsten Gundlach

1997-10-20

312

Surgical treatment for apparent early stage endometrial cancer  

PubMed Central

Most experts would agree that the standard surgical treatment for endometrial cancer includes a hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy; however, the benefit of full surgical staging with lymph node dissection in patients with apparent early stage disease remains a topic of debate. Recent prospective data and advances in laparoscopic techniques have transformed this disease into one that can be successfully managed with minimally invasive surgery. This review will discuss the current surgical management of apparent early stage endometrial cancer and some of the new techniques that are being incorporated. PMID:24596812

2014-01-01

313

Thermodynamics on the apparent horizon in generalized gravity theories  

E-print Network

We present a general procedure to construct the first law of thermodynamics on the apparent horizon and illustrate its validity by examining it in some extended gravity theories. Applying this procedure, we can describe the thermodynamics on the apparent horizon in Randall-Sundrum braneworld imbedded in a nontrivial bulk. We discuss the mass-like function which was used to link Friedmann equation to the first law of thermodynamics and obtain its special case which gives the generalized Misner-Sharp mass in Lovelock gravity.

Shao-Feng Wu; Bin Wang; Guo-Hong Yang

2007-11-08

314

Gram-negative bacteremia  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1960s, almost all patients who developed gram-negative bacteremia during granulocytopenia died; death occurred before blood culture results were available in about 50% of cases; many patients received antibiotics that were, at best, suboptimal and frequently inactive against the invading pathogen. In the early 1970s epidemiological studies demonstrated that more than 50% of gram-negative bacteremias were caused by hospital-acquired

Stephen C. Schimpff

1993-01-01

315

No to negative data  

SciTech Connect

A frequent criticism in biology is that we don’t publish our negative data. As a result, the literature has become biased towards papers that favor specific hypotheses1. Some scientists have become so concerned about this trend that they have created journals dedicated to publishing negative results (e.g. the Journal of Negative Results in Biomedicine). Personally, I don’t think they should bother. I say this because I believe negative results are not worth publishing. Rest assured that I do not include drug studies that show a lack of effectiveness towards a specific disease or condition. This type of finding is significant in a societal context, not a scientific one, and thus we all have a vested interest in seeing this type of result published. I am talking about a set of experimental results that fail to support a particular hypothesis. The problem with these types of negative results is that they don’t actually advance science. Science is a set of ideas that can be supported by observations. A negative result does not support any specific idea, but only tells you what isn’t right. Well, there are only a small number of potential hypotheses that are correct, but essentially an infinite number of ideas are not correct. I don’t want to waste my time reading a paper about what doesn’t happen, just about those things that do. I can remember a positive result because I can associate it with a specific concept. What do I do with a negative one? It is hard enough to following the current literature. A flood of negative results would make that task all but impossible

Wiley, H. S.

2008-04-01

316

Isotropic Single Negative Metamaterials  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the application of simple, and therefore cheap, planar resonators for building 3D isotropic metamaterials. These resonators are: a broad- side-coupled split ring resonator with a magnetic response providing negative permeability; an electric dipole termi- nated by a loop inductor together with a double H-shaped resonator with an electric response providing negative permittivity. Two kinds of 3D isotropic

Pavel PROTIVA; Michal BLÁHA; Ján ZEHENTNER

317

Children's understanding of representational change and its relation to the understanding of false belief and the appearance-reality distinction.  

PubMed

This research concerns the development of children's understanding of representational change and its relation to other cognitive developments. Children were shown deceptive objects, and the true nature of the objects was then revealed. Children were then asked what they thought the object was when they first saw it, testing their understanding of representational change; what another child would think the object was, testing their understanding of false belief; and what the object looked like and really was, testing their understanding of the appearance-reality distinction. Most 3-year-olds answered the representational change question incorrectly. Most 5-year-olds did not make this error. Children's performance on the representational change question was poorer than their performance on the false-belief question. There were correlations between performance on all 3 tasks. Apparently children begin to be able to consider alternative representations of the same object at about age 4. PMID:3342716

Gopnik, A; Astington, J W

1988-02-01

318

Determining Occurrence Dynamics when False Positives Occur: Estimating the Range Dynamics of Wolves from Public Survey Data  

PubMed Central

Large-scale presence-absence monitoring programs have great promise for many conservation applications. Their value can be limited by potential incorrect inferences owing to observational errors, especially when data are collected by the public. To combat this, previous analytical methods have focused on addressing non-detection from public survey data. Misclassification errors have received less attention but are also likely to be a common component of public surveys, as well as many other data types. We derive estimators for dynamic occupancy parameters (extinction and colonization), focusing on the case where certainty can be assumed for a subset of detections. We demonstrate how to simultaneously account for non-detection (false negatives) and misclassification (false positives) when estimating occurrence parameters for gray wolves in northern Montana from 2007–2010. Our primary data source for the analysis was observations by deer and elk hunters, reported as part of the state’s annual hunter survey. This data was supplemented with data from known locations of radio-collared wolves. We found that occupancy was relatively stable during the years of the study and wolves were largely restricted to the highest quality habitats in the study area. Transitions in the occupancy status of sites were rare, as occupied sites almost always remained occupied and unoccupied sites remained unoccupied. Failing to account for false positives led to over estimation of both the area inhabited by wolves and the frequency of turnover. The ability to properly account for both false negatives and false positives is an important step to improve inferences for conservation from large-scale public surveys. The approach we propose will improve our understanding of the status of wolf populations and is relevant to many other data types where false positives are a component of observations. PMID:23840372

Miller, David A. W.; Nichols, James D.; Gude, Justin A.; Rich, Lindsey N.; Podruzny, Kevin M.; Hines, James E.; Mitchell, Michael S.

2013-01-01

319

Replication levels, false presences and the estimation of the presence/absence from eDNA metabarcoding data.  

PubMed

Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding is increasingly used to study the present and past biodiversity. eDNA analyses often rely on amplification of very small quantities or degraded DNA. To avoid missing detection of taxa that are actually present (false negatives), multiple extractions and amplifications of the same samples are often performed. However, the level of replication needed for reliable estimates of the presence/absence patterns remains an unaddressed topic. Furthermore, degraded DNA and PCR/sequencing errors might produce false positives. We used simulations and empirical data to evaluate the level of replication required for accurate detection of targeted taxa in different contexts and to assess the performance of methods used to reduce the risk of false detections. Furthermore, we evaluated whether statistical approaches developed to estimate occupancy in the presence of observational errors can successfully estimate true prevalence, detection probability and false-positive rates. Replications reduced the rate of false negatives; the optimal level of replication was strongly dependent on the detection probability of taxa. Occupancy models successfully estimated true prevalence, detection probability and false-positive rates, but their performance increased with the number of replicates. At least eight PCR replicates should be performed if detection probability is not high, such as in ancient DNA studies. Multiple DNA extractions from the same sample yielded consistent results; in some cases, collecting multiple samples from the same locality allowed detecting more species. The optimal level of replication for accurate species detection strongly varies among studies and could be explicitly estimated to improve the reliability of results. PMID:25327646

Ficetola, Gentile F; Pansu, Johan; Bonin, Aurélie; Coissac, Eric; Giguet-Covex, Charline; De Barba, Marta; Gielly, Ludovic; Lopes, Carla M; Boyer, Frédéric; Pompanon, François; Rayé, Gilles; Taberlet, Pierre

2014-10-18

320

Determining Occurrence Dynamics when False Positives Occur: Estimating the Range Dynamics of Wolves from Public Survey Data.  

PubMed

Large-scale presence-absence monitoring programs have great promise for many conservation applications. Their value can be limited by potential incorrect inferences owing to observational errors, especially when data are collected by the public. To combat this, previous analytical methods have focused on addressing non-detection from public survey data. Misclassification errors have received less attention but are also likely to be a common component of public surveys, as well as many other data types. We derive estimators for dynamic occupancy parameters (extinction and colonization), focusing on the case where certainty can be assumed for a subset of detections. We demonstrate how to simultaneously account for non-detection (false negatives) and misclassification (false positives) when estimating occurrence parameters for gray wolves in northern Montana from 2007-2010. Our primary data source for the analysis was observations by deer and elk hunters, reported as part of the state's annual hunter survey. This data was supplemented with data from known locations of radio-collared wolves. We found that occupancy was relatively stable during the years of the study and wolves were largely restricted to the highest quality habitats in the study area. Transitions in the occupancy status of sites were rare, as occupied sites almost always remained occupied and unoccupied sites remained unoccupied. Failing to account for false positives led to over estimation of both the area inhabited by wolves and the frequency of turnover. The ability to properly account for both false negatives and false positives is an important step to improve inferences for conservation from large-scale public surveys. The approach we propose will improve our understanding of the status of wolf populations and is relevant to many other data types where false positives are a component of observations. PMID:23840372

Miller, David A W; Nichols, James D; Gude, Justin A; Rich, Lindsey N; Podruzny, Kevin M; Hines, James E; Mitchell, Michael S

2013-01-01

321

Retrieval conditions and false recognition: testing the distinctiveness heuristic.  

PubMed

High levels of false recognition are observed after people study lists of semantic associates that all converge on a nonpresented lure word. In previous experiments, we have found that orienting participants to encode distinctive information about study list items by presenting them as pictures as opposed to words produces marked reductions in false recognition. We have suggested that these reductions reflect the operation of a distinctiveness heuristic: Participants demand access to detailed pictorial information in order to support a positive recognition decision. The present experiments provide additional evidence on this point and allow us to distinguish between the distinctiveness heuristic account and an alternative account based on the impoverished encoding of relational information that occurs when one is studying pictures. In Experiment 1, even when only half of the items in a study list were presented as pictures, a general suppression of false recognition was observed that could be attributable to impoverished encoding of relational information. Experiment 2 provided a critical test of the distinctiveness heuristic account: We manipulated test instructions and found that differences in false recognition rates between picture and word encoding were attenuated in a retrieval condition that did not encourage reliance on a distinctiveness heuristic. PMID:11848606

Schacter, D L; Cendan, D L; Dodson, C S; Clifford, E R

2001-12-01

322

Are emotionally charged lures immune to false memory?  

PubMed

Using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott task and E. Tulving's (1985) remember-know judgments for recognition memory, the authors explored whether emotional words can show the false memory effect. Participants studied lists containing nonemotional, orthographic associates (e.g., cape, tape, ripe; part, perk, dark) of either emotional (e.g., rape) or nonemotional (e.g., park) critical lures. This setup produced significant false "remembering" of emotional lures, even though initially no emotional words appeared at study. When 3 emotional nonlure words appeared at study, emotional-lure false recognition more than doubled. However, when these 3 study words also appeared on the recognition test, false memory for the emotional lures was reduced. Across experiments, participants misremembered nonemotional lures more often than they did emotional lures, but they were more likely to rate emotional lures as "remembered," once they had been recognized as "old." The authors discuss findings in light of J. J. Freyd and D. H. Gleave's (1996) criticisms of this task. PMID:11294435

Pesta, B J; Murphy, M D; Sanders, R E

2001-03-01

323

The role of rehearsal and generation in false memory creation.  

PubMed

The current research investigated one possible mechanism underlying false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In the DRM paradigm, participants who study lists of related words (e.g., "table, sitting, bench ...") frequently report detailed memories for the centrally related but non-presented critical lure (e.g., "chair"). One possibility is that participants covertly call to mind the critical non-presented lure during the study phase, and later misattribute memory for this internally generated event to its external presentation. To investigate this, the DRM paradigm was modified to allow collection of on-line thoughts during the study phase. False recognition increased following generation during study. False recognition also increased following study of longer lists; this effect was partially explained by the fact that longer lists were more likely to elicit generations of the critical lure during study. Generation of the lure during study contributes to later false recognition, although it does not explain the entire effect. PMID:15724363

Marsh, Elizabeth J; Bower, Gordon H

2004-11-01

324

An investigation of false memory in perceptual implicit tasks.  

PubMed

Reports of critical lure priming in perceptual implicit tasks [e.g., McKone, E., & Murphy, B. (2000). Implicit false memory: Effects of modality and multiple study presentations on long-lived semantic priming. Journal of Memory and Language, 43, 89-109] using the Deese-Roediger-McDermott [Roediger, H. L., III, & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21, 803-814] procedure have suggested availability of the lexical form of lure items at study. Three experiments were conducted to further explore "false" implicit priming in perceptual tests. In Experiments 1 and 3, implicit and explicit stem completion tests were given in the DRM procedure with semantic lists; in Experiment 2, a graphemic response test was used in a similar design. For all experiments, explicit instructions resulted in reliable false memory, while implicit instructions resulted in priming for list items and no priming for lure items. Priming for lure items was evident for "test-aware" subjects only in Experiment 1 and in a combined analysis for all three experiments. These results establish boundary conditions for priming for critical lures and indicate that access to the lexical form of critical lures may not occur under incidental learning conditions when strong controls against explicit retrieval are implemented. PMID:16510106

McBride, Dawn M; Coane, Jennifer H; Raulerson, Bascom A

2006-11-01

325

The Relative Merits of Multiple True-False Achievement Tests.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A 100-item five-choice multiple choice (MC) biology final exam was converted to multiple choice true-false (MTF) form to yield two content-parallel test forms comprised of the two item types. Students found the MTF items easier and preferred MTF over MC; the MTF subtests were more reliable. (Author/GK)

Frisbie, David A.; Sweeney, Daryl C.

1982-01-01

326

The Multiple True-False Item Format: A Status Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Literature related to the multiple true-false (MTF) item format is reviewed. Each answer cluster of a MTF item may have several true items and the correctness of each is judged independently. MTF tests appear efficient and reliable, although they are a bit harder than multiple choice items for examinees. (SLD)

Frisbie, David A.

1992-01-01

327

Hyperspectral matched filter with false-alarm mitigation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the fundamental challenges for a hyperspectral imaging surveillance system is the detection of sub-pixel objects in background clutter. The background surrounding the object, which acts as interference, provides the major obstacle to successful detection. One algorithm that is widely used in hyperspectral detection and successfully suppresses the background in many situations is the matched filter detector. However, the matched filter also produces false alarms in many situations. We use three simple and well-established concepts--the target-background replacement model, the matched filter, and Mahalanobis distance--to develop the matched filter with false alarm mitigation (MF-FAM), a dual-threshold detector capable of eliminating many matched filter false alarms. We compare this algorithm to the mixture tuned matched filter (MTMF), a popular approach to matched filter false alarm mitigation found in the ENVI® software environment. The two algorithms are shown to produce nearly identical results using real hyperspectral data, but the MF-FAM is shown to be operationally, computationally, and theoretically simpler than the MTMF.

Dipietro, Robert S.; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Lockwood, Ronald B.; Cooley, Thomas; Jacobson, John

2012-01-01

328

Narrative Access and Production in Preschoolers' False Belief Reasoning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Five experiments examined three-year olds' ability to complete a false belief task that was manipulated in terms of their grasp of the narrative base. Children who failed a traditional task succeeded if they narrated the book version back to the experimenter. The results suggest that the structure of three-year olds' event memories is central to…

Lewis, Charlie; And Others

1994-01-01

329

Detecting False Positives in Multielement Designs: Implications for Brief Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors assessed the extent to which multielement designs produced false positives using continuous duration recording (CDR) and interval recording with 10-s and 1-min interval sizes. Specifically, they created 6,000 graphs with multielement designs that varied in the number of data paths, and the number of data points per data path, using a…

Bartlett, Sara M.; Rapp, John T.; Henrickson, Marissa L.

2011-01-01

330

False vacuum decay in a brane world cosmological model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The false vacuum decay in a brane world model is studied in this work. We investigate the vacuum decay via the Coleman-de Luccia instanton, derive explicit approximative expressions for the Coleman-de Luccia instanton which is close to a Hawking-Moss instanton and compare the results with those already obtained within Einstein's theory of relativity.

Demetrian, Michal

2006-05-01

331

False Choices: Why School Vouchers Threaten Our Children's Future.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A voucher system of schooling would destroy the few democratic gains made in public education in recent years, worsen inequalities that already permeate education, and block opportunities for meaningful reform. Articles included in this special issue are: (1) an introduction, "Why We Are Publishing False Choices" ("Rethinking Schools" Editorial…

Lowe, Robert, Ed.; Miner, Barbara, Ed.

1992-01-01

332

Counterfactual Thinking and False Belief: The Role of Executive Function  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the current study was to examine further the relationship between counterfactual thinking and false belief (FB) as examined by Guajardo and Turley-Ames ("Cognitive Development, 19" (2004) 53-80). More specifically, the current research examined the importance of working memory and inhibitory control in understanding the relationship…

Drayton, Stefane; Turley-Ames, Kandi J.; Guajardo, Nicole R.

2011-01-01

333

12. VIEW OF SPACE BETWEEN EAST FALSE PARTITION WALL IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF SPACE BETWEEN EAST FALSE PARTITION WALL IN CLEAN ROOM (102) AND EAST WALL OF VEHICLE SUPPORT BUILDING SHOWING PREFILTER NEAR SOUTH WALL - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

334

A Competitive Nonverbal False Belief Task for Children and Apes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A nonverbal false belief task was administered to children (mean age 5 years) and two great ape species: chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") and bonobos ("Pan paniscus"). Because apes typically perform poorly in cooperative contexts, our task was competitive. Two versions were run: in both, a human competitor witnessed an experimenter hide a reward in…

Krachun, Carla; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

2009-01-01

335

Recognition memory impairments caused by false recognition of novel objects.  

PubMed

A fundamental assumption underlying most current theories of amnesia is that memory impairments arise because previously studied information either is lost rapidly or is made inaccessible (i.e., the old information appears to be new). Recent studies in rodents have challenged this view, suggesting instead that under conditions of high interference, recognition memory impairments following medial temporal lobe damage arise because novel information appears as though it has been previously seen. Here, we developed a new object recognition memory paradigm that distinguished whether object recognition memory impairments were driven by previously viewed objects being treated as if they were novel or by novel objects falsely recognized as though they were previously seen. In this indirect, eyetracking-based passive viewing task, older adults at risk for mild cognitive impairment showed false recognition to high-interference novel items (with a significant degree of feature overlap with previously studied items) but normal novelty responses to low-interference novel items (with a lower degree of feature overlap). The indirect nature of the task minimized the effects of response bias and other memory-based decision processes, suggesting that these factors cannot solely account for false recognition. These findings support the counterintuitive notion that recognition memory impairments in this memory-impaired population are not characterized by forgetting but rather are driven by the failure to differentiate perceptually similar objects, leading to the false recognition of novel objects as having been seen before. PMID:23937183

Yeung, Lok-Kin; Ryan, Jennifer D; Cowell, Rosemary A; Barense, Morgan D

2013-11-01

336

Narrative dependency and the false belief task in autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several studies have used a cognitive approach to teaching people with autism to pass false belief tasks with a broader aim of developing theory of mind abilities. However, these tasks have certain executive features that may influence performance on the tasks and the potential for generalization. The study examines the influence of narrative support and language level on the ability

Evelyn McGregor; Mark Bennett

2008-01-01

337

Digital Camera Identification from Images Estimating False Acceptance Probability  

E-print Network

, time and date, to detect image forgeries and ma- nipulations, reverse-engineer cameras and more introduced a large number of image forensic tools [4] that can reveal forgeries. Forensic analysisDigital Camera Identification from Images ­ Estimating False Acceptance Probability Miroslav Goljan

Fridrich, Jessica

338

False vacuum decay in a brane world cosmological model  

E-print Network

The false vacuum decay in a brane world model is studied in this work. We investigate the vacuum decay via the Coleman-de Luccia instanton, derive explicit approximative expressions for the Coleman-de Luccia instanton which is close to a Hawking-Moss instanton and compare the results with those already obtained within Einstein's theory of relativity.

Michal Demetrian

2006-01-12

339

Direct Instruction vs. Arts Integration: A False Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author takes on what he considers to be the false dichotomy between direct instruction and arts integration. He contends that at a time when national issues of sustainability and conservation of energy and resources become ever more urgent, it is time that those committed to quality arts education stop squandering time, money,…

Aprill, Arnold

2010-01-01

340

Transplant Renal Artery False Aneurysm: Case Report and Literature Review  

PubMed Central

This is a case report of a 59 years old male who had a commercial non-related living renal transplantation for his end stage renal insufficiency secondary to adult polycystic kidney disease. He suffered an immediate and early post-operative bleeding, which was managed conservatively. He was presented at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital four months after his transplant with abdominal pain, nausea, loss of appetite and a rise in serum creatinine levels. Ultrasonography and angiography have shown a 4 cm false aneurysm of the transplant renal artery at the anastomotic site with the external iliac artery. Surgical exploration with resection of the false aneurysm and reanastomosis of the donor renal artery to the external iliac artery was carried out successfully with preservation of the renal allograft. This is a rare case of an extra-renal false aneurysm at the anastomotic site of the transplant renal artery to the external iliac artery four months after renal allotransplantation. Literature review on the management and outcome of false aneurysms after renal transplant was carried out. PMID:22043364

Al-Wahaibi, Khalifa N.; Aquil, Shahid; Al-Sukaiti, Rashid; Al-Riyami, Dawood; Al-Busaidi, Qassim

2010-01-01

341

Matched False-Belief Performance during Verbal and Nonverbal Interference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Language has been shown to play a key role in the development of a child's theory of mind, but its role in adult belief reasoning remains unclear. One recent study used verbal and nonverbal interference during a false-belief task to show that accurate belief reasoning in adults necessarily requires language (Newton & de Villiers, 2007). The…

Dungan, James; Saxe, Rebecca

2012-01-01

342

Context Effects and False Memory for Alcohol Words in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

This study assessed incidental recognition of Alcohol and Neutral words in adolescents who encoded the words under distraction. Participants were 171 (81 male) 10th grade students, ages 14–16 (M = 15.1) years. Testing was conducted by telephone: Participants listened to a list containing Alcohol and Neutral (Experimental – Group E, n = 92) or only Neutral (Control – Group C, n = 79) words, while counting backwards from 200 by two’s. Recognition was tested immediately thereafter. Group C exhibited higher false recognition of Neutral than Alcohol items, whereas Group E displayed equivalent false rates for both word types. The reported number of alcohol TV ads seen in the past week predicted higher false recognition of Neutral words in Group C and of Alcohol words in Group E. False memory for Alcohol words in Group E was greater in males and high anxiety sensitive participants. These context-dependent biases may contribute to exaggerations in perceived drinking norms previously found to predict alcohol misuse in young drinkers. PMID:19081200

Zack, Martin; Sharpley, Justin; Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

2011-01-01

343

Looking for Childhood Schizophrenia: Case Series of False Positives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extensive experience with the diagnosis of childhood-onset schizophrenia indicates a high rate of false positives. Most mislabeled patients have chronic disabling, affective, or behavioral disorders. The authors report the cases of three children who passed stringent initial childhood-onset schizophrenia "screens" but had no chronic psychotic…

Stayer, Catherine; Sporn, Alexandra; Gogtay, Nitin; Tossell, Julia; Lenane, Marge; Gochman, Peter; Rapoport, Judith L.

2004-01-01

344

Using Story Contexts to Bias Children's True and False Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The effects of embedding standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists into stories whose context biased interpretation either toward or away from the overall themes of the DRM lists on both true and false recognition were investigated with 7- and 11-year-olds. These biased story contexts were compared with the same children's susceptibility to…

Howe, Mark L.; Wilkinson, Samantha

2011-01-01

345

Neural Activity during Encoding Predicts False Memories Created by Misinformation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

False memories are often demonstrated using the misinformation paradigm, in which a person's recollection of a witnessed event is altered after exposure to misinformation about the event. The neural basis of this phenomenon, however, remains unknown. The authors used fMRI to investigate encoding processes during the viewing of an event and…

Okado, Yoko; Stark, Craig E. L.

2005-01-01

346

Forward Association, Backward Association, and the False-Memory Illusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false-memory illusion, forward associative strength (FAS) is unrelated to the strength of the illusion; this is puzzling, because high-FAS lists ought to share more semantic features with critical unpresented words than should low-FAS lists. The authors show that this null result is probably a truncated range…

Brainerd, C. J.; Wright, Ron

2005-01-01

347

Fermat Numbers: A False Conjecture Leads to Fun and Fascination  

E-print Network

1 Introduction The French mathematician Pierre de Fermat (1601­1665) was a veritable giant of numberFermat Numbers: A False Conjecture Leads to Fun and Fascination B. A. Sethuraman February 13, 2013 fea- tured his work: the first issue reviewed a book ([1]) on the history of what is known as "Fermat

Sethuraman, Al

348

Lymphocystis disease in cultured false clown anemonefish ( Amphiprion ocellaris)  

Microsoft Academic Search

False clown anemonefish (Amphiprion ocellaris) is one of the most famous marine ornamental fish which have a highly economic value in Thailand. The affected fish showed external lesions of irregular white nodules in various sizes on skin, fins and mouth. Histopathological finding revealed clusters of lymphocystis hypertrophied cell with thick smooth hyaline capsule. The infected cell showed an enlarged nucleus

Nopadon Pirarat; Watanyoo Pratakpiriya; Krisaya Jongnimitpaiboon; Kasemsri Sajjawiriyakul; Channarong Rodkhum; Nantarika Chansue

2011-01-01

349

A Demonstration of Regression False Positive Selection in Data Mining  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Business analytics courses, such as marketing research, data mining, forecasting, and advanced financial modeling, have substantial predictive modeling components. The predictive modeling in these courses requires students to estimate and test many linear regressions. As a result, false positive variable selection ("type I errors") is…

Pinder, Jonathan P.

2014-01-01

350

Avoiding False Claims of Child Sexual Abuse: Empty Promises.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Responds to previous article by Fincham, Beach, Moore, and Diener (this issue) on child sexual abuse. Focuses on importance of recognizing that attempts to reduce probability of false claims of child abuse would result in increasing probability of missing true claims of child abuse. Offers hypothesis-testing framework as useful heuristic for…

Pezdek, Kathy

1994-01-01

351

Juror Beliefs About Police Interrogations, False Confessions, and Expert Testimony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been a rapid expansion in research on police interrogations and false confessions, little is known about the beliefs of potential jurors as to these issues. In collaboration with a trial research firm, we recruited 461 jury-eligible men and women who matched the demographic characteristics of jury pools in several states. Surrogate jurors responded to questions and statements

Mark Costanzo; Netta Shaked-Schroer; Katherine Vinson

2010-01-01

352

Falsos amigos en lexicografica bilingue (False Cognates in Bilingual Lexicology).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Examines patterns of discrepancies in English and Spanish spelling, at the phonetic and morphological level, that result in orthographic false cognates. Twenty-two patterns are revealed at the phonetic level and 21 patterns are revealed at the morphological level (derivational affixes)--7 in prefixes and 12 in suffixes. (MLS)

Prado, Marcial

1989-01-01

353

The False Radiants - a Simulation of the Meteor Sky  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have made a simple simulation of July meteor observations. This artificial database includes the sporadic meteors and also events from known meteor showers: the Perseids, the Aquarids complex, the alpha-Capricornids, the July Pegasids and the Sagittarids. We found out that meteors from known radiants could not produce a false radiant in Delphinus constellation.

Wi?niewski, M.; Puzio, A.

354

Observed changes in false springs over the contiguous United States  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

warming fosters an earlier spring green-up that may bring potential benefits to agricultural systems. However, advances in green-up timing may leave early stage vegetation growth vulnerable to cold damage when hard freezes follow green-up resulting in a false spring. Spatiotemporal patterns of green-up dates, last spring freezes, and false springs were examined across the contiguous United States from 1920 to 2013. Results indicate widespread earlier green-up and last spring freeze dates over the period. Observed changes in these dates were asymmetric with the last spring freeze date advancing to earlier in the year relative to green-up date. Although regionally variable, these changes resulted in a reduction in false springs, notably over the past 20 years, except across the intermountain western United States where the advance in green-up timing outpaced that of the last spring freeze. A sensitivity experiment shows that observed decreases in false springs are consistent with a warming climate.

Peterson, Alexander G.; Abatzoglou, John T.

2014-03-01

355

The use of surrogate species in risk assessment: using life history data to safeguard against false negatives.  

PubMed

The use of surrogate species is an important tool in predicting the effects of management decisions or the establishment of protective measures for endangered/threatened species. While relying on a handful of model species to predict the fate of scores of distantly related target species has been criticized, a quantitative measure linking life history traits and population predictions has been sorely missing. We derive here a closed-form expression aimed at determining conditions under which sublethal effects of a toxicant on surrogate species population outcomes will reliably predict outcomes of target (listed) species. We develop a critical threshold in fecundity reduction above which the surrogate species outcomes indicate positive population growth, while the listed species is driven to extinction. Thus we have established a means of determining conditions under which we are prone to making a "Type II" error in assessing ecological risk using surrogate species. Finally, we use the derived expression and life history data to compare outcomes from four different commonly used fish surrogate species (round goby, fathead minnow, smallmouth bass, cutthroat trout) and their target listed species (Chinook and Coho salmon). We illustrate that all four surrogate species fail to predict population outcomes for the listed species in cases of as little as 15% fecundity reduction due to toxicant exposure. Furthermore, surrogate species reliability is a function of toxicant level, so that some species are reliable at some levels but not at others. We discuss the implications of these findings, and outline further analyses that occur as a natural extension of the criteria developed here. PMID:20136742

Banks, John E; Ackleh, Azmy S; Stark, John D

2010-02-01

356

Using mass spectrometry to detect hydrolysed gluten in beer that is responsible for false negatives by ELISA.  

PubMed

Gluten is the collective name for a class of proteins found in wheat, rye, barley and oats. Eating gluten triggers an inappropriate auto-immune reaction in ?70 million people globally affected by coeliac disease, where the gut reacts to gluten proteins and this triggers an immune response, resulting in intestinal inflammation and damage. Gluten-free foods are now commonplace, however, it is difficult to accurately determine the gluten content of products claiming to be gluten-free using current methodologies as the antibodies are non-specific, show cross-reactivity and have different affinities for the different classes of gluten. The measurement of gluten in processed products is further confounded by modifications to the proteins that occur during processing and in some case hydrolysis of the proteins. In this study, LC-MS/MS was used to profile whole beer, and two beer fractions representing hydrolysed hordeins (<30kDa) and hordein peptide fragments (<10kDa). Subsequently, multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) MS enabled the relative quantification of selected peptide fragments in beer and revealed that certain classes of hordein were prone to hydrolysis (B- and D-hordein). Furthermore, select beers contained very high levels of gluten-derived fragments. Strikingly, those beers that contained high levels of B-hordein fragments gave near zero values by ELISA. The hydrolysed fragments that persist in beer show a dose-dependent suppression of ELISA measurement of gluten despite using a hordein standard for calibration of the assay. The development of MS-based methodology for absolute quantification of gluten is required for the accurate assessment of gluten, including hydrolysed forms, in food and beverages to support the industry, legislation and to protect consumers suffering from CD. PMID:25454134

Colgrave, Michelle L; Goswami, Hareshwar; Blundell, Malcolm; Howitt, Crispin A; Tanner, Gregory J

2014-11-28

357

To what extent could we detect field defects? an empirical study of false negatives in static bug finding tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

Software defects can cause much loss. Static bug-finding tools are believed to help detect and remove defects. These tools are designed to find programming errors; but, do they in fact help prevent actual defects that occur in the field and reported by users? If these tools had been used, would they have detected these field defects, and generated warnings that

Ferdian Thung; Lucia; David Lo; Lingxiao Jiang; Foyzur Rahman; Premkumar T. Devanbu

2012-01-01

358

Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals  

E-print Network

Negative refraction without negative index in metallic photonic crystals Chiyan Luo, Steven G: It is shown that certain metallic photonic crystals can enable negative refraction and subwavelength imaging negative values of and µ," Sov. Phys. Usp. 10, 509-514 (1968). 5. J. B. Pendry, "Negative refraction makes

359

Nearly extremal apparent horizons in simulations of merging black holes  

E-print Network

The spin angular momentum $S$ of an isolated Kerr black hole is bounded by the surface area $A$ of its apparent horizon: $8\\pi S \\le A$, with equality for extremal black holes. In this paper, we explore the extremality of individual and common apparent horizons for merging, rapidly spinning binary black holes. We consider simulations of merging black holes with equal masses $M$ and initial spin angular momenta aligned with the orbital angular momentum, including new simulations with spin magnitudes up to $S/M^2 = 0.994$. We measure the area and (using approximate Killing vectors) the spin on the individual and common apparent horizons, finding that the inequality $8\\pi S horizon at the instant it first appears. We also introduce a gauge-invariant lower bound on the extremality by computing the smallest value that Booth and Fairhurst's extremality parameter can take for any scaling. Using this lower bound, we conclude that the common horizons are at least moderately close to extremal just after they appear. Finally, following Lovelace et al. (2008), we construct quasiequilibrium binary-black-hole initial data with "overspun" marginally trapped surfaces with $8\\pi S > A$ and for which our lower bound on their Booth-Fairhurst extremality exceeds unity. These superextremal surfaces are always surrounded by marginally outer trapped surfaces (i.e., by apparent horizons) with $8\\pi Shorizon is always less than unity but can exceed the value for an extremal Kerr black hole. (Abstract abbreviated.)

Geoffrey Lovelace; Mark A. Scheel; Robert Owen; Matthew Giesler; Reza Katebi; Bela Szilagyi; Tony Chu; Nicholas Demos; Daniel A. Hemberger; Lawrence E. Kidder; Harald P. Pfeiffer; Nousha Afshari

2014-11-26

360

ESTABLISHEMENT OF CRACK INDEXES BY ELECTRICAL APPARENT RESISTIVITY DATA  

E-print Network

ESTABLISHEMENT OF CRACK INDEXES BY ELECTRICAL APPARENT RESISTIVITY DATA A. Samouelian (1,2), I 6759, 45067 Orleans Cedex 2 France. Soil cracks, whose formation are associated to natural climate phenomena, play an im- portant role in water and gas transfer. Detecting cracks by non

Boyer, Edmond

361

Apparent horizons in Clifton-Mota-Barrow inhomogeneous universe  

E-print Network

We analyze the apparent horizon dynamics in the inhomogeneous Clifton-Mota-Barrow solution of Brans-Dicke theory. This solution models a central matter configuration embedded in a cosmological background. In certain regions of the parameter space we find solutions exhibiting dynamical creation or merging of two horizons.

Vincenzo Vitagliano; Valerio Faraoni; Thomas P. Sotiriou; Stefano Liberati

2013-02-28

362

Motion Processing and From-from-Apparent-Motion in Infancy  

E-print Network

/VPC) and discrimination paradigms. Infants in both paradigms extracted shape from apparent motion given luminance cues alone, and color and luminance cues co-varying; but failed to extract shape given color cues alone (Studies 1-2). Given only color cues, infants required...

Hirshkowitz, Amy

2014-08-05

363

Bias of apparent tracer ages in heterogeneous environments.  

PubMed

The interpretation of apparent ages often assumes that a water sample is composed of a single age. In heterogeneous aquifers, apparent ages estimated with environmental tracer methods do not reflect mean water ages because of the mixing of waters from many flow paths with different ages. This is due to nonlinear variations in atmospheric concentrations of the tracer with time resulting in biases of mixed concentrations used to determine apparent ages. The bias of these methods is rarely reported and has not been systematically evaluated in heterogeneous settings. We simulate residence time distributions (RTDs) and environmental tracers CFCs, SF6 , (85) Kr, and (39) Ar in synthetic heterogeneous confined aquifers and compare apparent ages to mean ages. Heterogeneity was simulated as both K-field variance (?(2) ) and structure. We demonstrate that an increase in heterogeneity (increase in ?(2) or structure) results in an increase in the width of the RTD. In low heterogeneity cases, widths were generally on the order of 10 years and biases generally less than 10%. In high heterogeneity cases, widths can reach 100?s of years and biases can reach up to 100%. In cases where the temporal variations of atmospheric concentration of individual tracers vary, different patterns of bias are observed for the same mean age. We show that CFC-12 and CFC-113 ages may be used to correct for the mean age if analytical errors are small. PMID:23550995

McCallum, James L; Cook, Peter G; Simmons, Craig T; Werner, Adrian D

2014-01-01

364

Apparent horizons in D-dimensional Robinson-Trautman spacetime  

SciTech Connect

We derive the higher dimensional generalization of Penrose-Tod equation describing apparent horizons in Robinson-Trautman spacetimes. New results concerning the existence and uniqueness of its solutions in four dimensions are proven. Namely, previous results of Tod [1] are generalized to nonvanishing cosmological constant.

Svitek, Otakar [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 180 00 Praha 8 (Czech Republic)

2009-05-01

365

Discovery of an Apparent Nova in M81  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the discovery of an apparent nova in M81 on a co-added 1600-s narrow-band H-alpha CCD image taken with the 2.5-m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) + WFC at La Palma under ~2.4" seeing on 2015 Jan. 15.126 UT.

Hornoch, K.; Alfaro, M. Diaz; Ordonez-Etxeberria, I.; Vaduvescu, O.

2015-01-01

366

Apparent optical density of the scattering medium: influence of scattering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative analysis of manifestation of finite absorption in scattering media is carried out for different detection geometries. Reflectance spectra were studied for phantom scattering media containing blood and melanin as absorbers. Apparent optical density spectra of phantom media are compared with similar spectra of water solutions of the blood and melanin for same concentrations of absorbers. The influence of scattering

Irina A. Kiseleva; Yurii P. Sinichkin

2002-01-01

367

Apparent digestible energy value of crude glycerol fed to pigs  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The apparent digestible energy of crude glycerol, a co-product of biodiesel production, was determined in two studies conducted at the Iowa State University Swine Nutrition Research Farm, Ames, IA. In the first study, 24 barrows with an average body weight of 11.0 kg were fed 376 g/d of a basal corn...

368

Apparent temperature dependence on localized atmospheric water vapor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The atmosphere is a critical factor in remote sensing. Radiance from a target must pass through the air column to reach the sensor. The atmosphere alters the radiance reaching the sensor by attenuating the radiance from the target via scattering and absorption and by introducing an upwelling radiance. In the thermal infrared, these effects will introduce errors in the derived apparent temperature of the target if not properly accounted for. The temperature error is defined as the difference between the target leaving apparent temperature and observed apparent temperature. The effects of the atmosphere must be understood in order to develop methods to compensate for this error. Different atmospheric components will affect the radiation passing through it in different ways. Certain components may be more important than others depending on the remote sensing application. The authors are interested in determining the actual temperature of the superstructure that composes a mechanical draft cooling tower (MDCT), hence water vapor is the primary constituent of concern. The tower generates a localized water vapor plume located between the target and sensor. The MODTRAN radiative transfer code is used to model the effects of a localized exhaust plume from a MDCT in the longwave infrared. The air temperature and dew point depression of the plume and the thickness of the plume are varied to observe the effect on the apparent temperature error. In addition, the general atmospheric conditions are varied between two standard MODTRAN atmospheres to study any effect that ambient conditions have on the apparent temperature error. The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Image Generation (DIRSIG) modeling tool is used to simulate the radiance reaching a thermal sensor from a target after passing through the water vapor plume. The DIRSIG results are validated against the MODTRAN results. This study shows that temperature errors of as much as one Kelvin can be attributed to the presence of a localized water vapor plume.

Montanaro, Matthew; Salvaggio, Carl; Brown, Scott D.; Messinger, David W.; Garrett, Alfred J.

2008-04-01

369

False ventricular tachycardia alarm suppression in the ICU based on the discrete wavelet transform in the ECG signal.  

PubMed

Over the past few years, reducing the number of false positive cardiac monitor alarms (FA) in the intensive care unit (ICU) has become an issue of the utmost importance. In our work, we developed a robust methodology that, without the need for additional non-ECG waveforms, suppresses false positive ventricular tachycardia (VT) alarms without resulting in false negative alarms. Our approach is based on features extracted from the ECG signal 20 seconds prior to a triggered alarm. We applied a multi resolution wavelet transform to the ECG data 20seconds prior to the alarm trigger, extracted features from appropriately chosen scales and combined them across all available leads. These representations are presented to a L1-regularized logistic regression classifier. Results are shown in two datasets of physiological waveforms with manually assessed cardiac monitor alarms: the MIMIC II dataset, where we achieved a false alarm (FA) suppression of 21% with zero true alarm (TA) suppression; and a dataset compiled by UCSF and General Electric, where a 36% FA suppression was achieved with a zero TA suppression. The methodology described in this work could be implemented to reduce the number of false monitor alarms in other arrhythmias. PMID:25172188

Salas-Boni, Rebeca; Bai, Yong; Harris, Patricia Rae Eileen; Drew, Barbara J; Hu, Xiao

2014-01-01

370

Positive About Negative Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article is devoted to the mathematical topic of negative numbers and provides a series of primary resources designed to familiarize children with the notion of counting on either side of a central point. The article presents that the activities listed should be played sequentially to build precursory ideas in understanding negative numbers. All the games discussed in the article are linked on the page and have been cataloged separately: Incy Wincy Spider, Tug of War, Swimming Pool, Tug Harder, First Connect Three and lastly Sea Level.

Woodham, Liz

2011-01-01

371

Young Children’s Emerging Ability to Make False Statements  

PubMed Central

This study examined the origins of children’s ability to make consciously false statements, a necessary component of lying. Children 2 to 5 years of age were rewarded for claiming that they saw a picture of a bird when viewing pictures of fish. They were asked outcome questions (“Do you win/lose?”), recognition questions (“Do you have a bird/fish?”), and recall questions (“What do you have?”), which were hypothesized to vary in difficulty depending on the need for consciousness of falsity (less for outcome questions) and self-generation of an appropriate response (more for recall questions). The youngest children (2½ to 3½ years old) were above chance on outcome questions, but it was not until age 3½ that children performed above chance on recognition questions or were capable of maintaining false claims across question types. Findings have implications for understanding the emergence of deception in young children. PMID:21244149

Ahern, Elizabeth C.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.

2012-01-01

372

Investigating true and false confessions within a novel experimental paradigm.  

PubMed

The primary goal of the current study was to develop a novel experimental paradigm with which to study the influence of psychologically based interrogation techniques on the likelihood of true and false confessions. The paradigm involves guilty and innocent participants being accused of intentionally breaking an experimental rule, or "cheating." In the first demonstration of this paradigm, we explored the influence of two common police interrogation tactics: minimization and an explicit offer of leniency, or a "deal." Results indicated that guilty persons were more likely to confess than innocent persons, and that the use of minimization and the offer of a deal increased the rate of both true and false confessions. Police investigators are encouraged to avoid interrogation techniques that imply or directly promise leniency, as they appear to reduce the diagnostic value of any confession that is elicited. PMID:15943675

Russano, Melissa B; Meissner, Christian A; Narchet, Fadia M; Kassin, Saul M

2005-06-01

373

False discovery rates for rare variants from sequenced data.  

PubMed

The detection of rare deleterious variants is the preeminent current technical challenge in statistical genetics. Sorting the deleterious from neutral variants at a disease locus is challenging because of the sparseness of the evidence for each individual variant. Hierarchical modeling and Bayesian model uncertainty are two techniques that have been shown to be promising in pinpointing individual rare variants that may be driving the association. Interpreting the results from these techniques from the perspective of multiple testing is a challenge and the goal of this article is to better understand their false discovery properties. Using simulations, we conclude that accurate false discovery control cannot be achieved in this framework unless the magnitude of the variants' risk is large and the hierarchical characteristics have high accuracy in distinguishing deleterious from neutral variants. PMID:25556339

Capanu, Marinela; Seshan, Venkatraman E

2015-02-01

374

[False aneurysm on dacron prosthesis, 20 years after aortofemoral bypass].  

PubMed

A 85-year-old male developed a false, non septic, non anastomotic aneurysm, 20 years after right aorto-femoral Dacron grafting for claudication. On account of the proximity to the femoral anastomosis, and the association with a profunda femoris stenosis, a conventional surgical repair was preferred to an endovascular treatment. The patient underwent a successful aneurysm resection followed by PTFE interposition between the primary graft and the profunda femoris artery, with uneventful recovery. PMID:11692765

Illuminati, G; Bertagni, A; Nasti, A G; Montesano, G

2001-10-01

375

Eye camouflage and false eyespots: chaetodontid responses to predators  

Microsoft Academic Search

Synopsis  The roles of eye camouflage and eyespots are examined within the genusChaetodon as are the various theories explaining the evolutionary significance of the brilliant colors. While eye camouflage is not\\u000a common among reef fishes, 91% of the 90 species ofChaetodon, have eyemasks (82) or black heads (4). Eye camouflage occurs concomitantly with diurnal false eyespots in 45.5% (41 of 90)

Stephen Neudecker

1989-01-01

376

False-vacuum decay in generalized extended inflation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

False-vacuum decay was studied in context of generalized extended inflationary theories, and the bubble nucleation rates was computed for these theories in the limit of G(sub N) yields 0. It was found that the time dependence of the nucleation rate can be exponentially strong through the time dependence of the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field. This can have a pronounced effect on whether extended inflation can be successfully implemented.

Holman, Richard; Kolb, Edward W.; Vadas, Sharon L.; Wang, Yun

1990-01-01

377

Nursing behavior in captive false killer whales (Pseudorca crassidens)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nursing behavior of two false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) calves born at SeaWorld Florida was observed continually during the first 13 weeks of life. Nursing parameters, including total nursing time (mins\\/week), time spent nursing (mins\\/hour), suckles\\/hour, bouts\\/hour, suckles\\/ bout, suckle duration (secs) and bout duration (secs), peaked during the first week of life then slowly diminished. Mean nursing amount

Steven T. Clark; Daniel K. Odell

378

Children's understanding of false belief in humans and animals  

E-print Network

Belief Tasks . . . . . . . . . . 36 6 Correlations Between Number of Pets and Performance on False Belief Tasks . . . . . . INTRODUCTION How and when do children come to understand their own mental states and those of others'? How do they distinguish... were recruited from one of eight local area preschools that had pets in the classroom areas. Included in the pets of the eleven classrooms used were three guinea pigs, two rabbits, two hamsters, two fish, two hedgehogs, two mice, one gerbil, and one...

Saunders, Katherine Nuttall

2012-06-07

379

Inside Interrogation: The Lie, The Bluff, and False Confessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a less deceptive variant of the false evidence ploy, interrogators often use the bluff tactic, whereby they pretend\\u000a to have evidence to be tested without further claiming that it necessarily implicates the suspect. Three experiments were\\u000a conducted to assess the impact of the bluff on confession rates. Using the Kassin and Kiechel (Psychol Sci 7:125–128, 1996) computer crash paradigm,

Jennifer T. Perillo; Saul M. Kassin

2011-01-01

380

SETI Pulse Detection Algorithm: Analysis of False-alarm Rates  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some earlier work by the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) Science Working Group (SWG) on the derivation of spectrum analyzer thresholds for a pulse detection algorithm based on an analysis of false alarm rates is extended. The algorithm previously analyzed was intended to detect a finite sequence of i periodically spaced pulses that did not necessarily occupy the entire observation interval. This algorithm would recognize the presence of such a signal only if all i-received pulse powers exceeded a threshold T(i): these thresholds were selected to achieve a desired false alarm rate, independent of i. To simplify the analysis, it was assumed that the pulses were synchronous with the spectrum sample times. This analysis extends the earlier effort to include infinite and/or asynchronous pulse trains. Furthermore, to decrease the possibility of missing an extraterrestrial intelligence signal, the algorithm was modified to detect a pulse train even if some of the received pulse powers fall below the threshold. The analysis employs geometrical arguments that make it conceptually easy to incorporate boundary conditions imposed on the derivation of the false alarm rates. While the exact results can be somewhat complex, simple closed form approximations are derived that produce a negligible loss of accuracy.

Levitt, B. K.

1983-01-01

381

Inside interrogation: the lie, the bluff, and false confessions.  

PubMed

Using a less deceptive variant of the false evidence ploy, interrogators often use the bluff tactic, whereby they pretend to have evidence to be tested without further claiming that it necessarily implicates the suspect. Three experiments were conducted to assess the impact of the bluff on confession rates. Using the Kassin and Kiechel (Psychol Sci 7:125-128, 1996) computer crash paradigm, Experiment 1 indicated that bluffing increases false confessions comparable to the effect produced by the presentation of false evidence. Experiment 2 replicated the bluff effect and provided self-reports indicating that innocent participants saw the bluff as a promise of future exoneration which, paradoxically, made it easier to confess. Using a variant of the Russano et al. (Psychol Sci 16:481-486, 2005) cheating paradigm, Experiment 3 replicated the bluff effect on innocent suspects once again, though a ceiling effect was obtained in the guilty condition. Results suggest that the phenomenology of innocence can lead innocents to confess even in response to relatively benign interrogation tactics. PMID:20734122

Perillo, Jennifer T; Kassin, Saul M

2011-08-01

382

Negative pressure wound therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

iabetic foot disease is a major global burden. Foot ulcers frequently develop complications and become chronic, representing a considerable challenge as these are typically very difficult to treat. New therapies are needed to address these wounds and there is an increasing focus on negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). This technique has been shown to accelerate wound healing and although its

Michael Kirby

2007-01-01

383

Negative pressure wound therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

D iabetic foot disease is a major global burden. Foot ulcers frequently develop complications and become chronic, representing a considerable challenge as these are typically very difficult to treat. New therapies are needed to address these wounds and there is an increasing focus on negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). This technique has been shown to accelerate wound healing and although

MICHAEL KIRBY

2010-01-01

384

Negative Binomial Experiment  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This resource consists of a Java applet and descriptive text. The applet illustrates the number of trials needed to get a specified number of successes in Bernoulli trials, in terms of random points on a discrete timeline. The applet illustrates the negative binomial distribution. The number of successes and the probability of success can be varied.

Siegrist, Kyle

385

Inventing Negative Numbers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this quick time video segment from Cyberchase, viewers learn about extending a vertical number line below zero as they watch the CyberSquad rescue the Cyberspace Council, which is being held captive by Hacker in a tall building. This video is also featured in the lesson plan: "Introducing Negative Numbers" (cataloged separately). Teaching Tips and a transcript are included.

2008-10-10

386

Global parameter optimization for maximizing radioisotope detection probabilities at fixed false alarm rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Today there is a tremendous amount of interest in systems that can detect radiological or nuclear threats. Many of these systems operate in extremely high throughput situations where delays caused by false alarms can have a significant negative impact. Thus, calculating the tradeoff between detection rates and false alarm rates is critical for their successful operation. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves have long been used to depict this tradeoff. The methodology was first developed in the field of signal detection. In recent years it has been used increasingly in machine learning and data mining applications. It follows that this methodology could be applied to radiological/nuclear threat detection systems. However many of these systems do not fit into the classic principles of statistical detection theory because they tend to lack tractable likelihood functions and have many parameters, which, in general, do not have a one-to-one correspondence with the detection classes. This work proposes a strategy to overcome these problems by empirically finding parameter values that maximize the probability of detection for a selected number of probabilities of false alarm. To find these parameter values a statistical global optimization technique that seeks to estimate portions of a ROC curve is proposed. The optimization combines elements of simulated annealing with elements of genetic algorithms. Genetic algorithms were chosen because they can reduce the risk of getting stuck in local minima. However classic genetic algorithms operate on arrays of Booleans values or bit strings, so simulated annealing is employed to perform mutation in the genetic algorithm. The presented initial results were generated using an isotope identification algorithm developed at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. The algorithm has 12 parameters: 4 real-valued and 8 Boolean. A simulated dataset was used for the optimization study; the "threat" set of spectra contained 540 SNM and industrial signatures, and the "benign" set of spectra contained 240 NORM and medical signatures. As compared to a random parameter search, the statistical optimization was able to able to find parameters that yield significantly higher probabilities of detection for all probabilities of false alarm from 0 to 0.1 (and equal to for probabilities of false alarm greater than 0.1), in a relatively small number of iterations. The number of iterations used, 1000, is also many fewer than would be required for a reasonable systematic search of the parameter space.

Portnoy, David; Feuerbach, Robert; Heimberg, Jennifer

2011-10-01

387

Dynamical apparent horizons in inhomogeneous Brans-Dicke universes  

E-print Network

The presence and evolution of apparent horizons in a two-parameter family of spherically symmetric, time-dependent solutions of Brans-Dicke gravity are analyzed. These solutions were introduced to model space- and time-varying gravitational couplings and are supposed to represent central objects embedded in a spatially flat universe. We find that the solutions possess multiple evolving apparent horizons, both black hole horizons covering a central singularity and cosmological ones. It is not uncommon for two of these horizons to merge, leaving behind a naked singularity covered only by a cosmological horizon. Two characteristic limits are also explicitly worked out: the limit where the theory reduces to general relativity and the limit where the solutions become static. The physical relevance of this family of solutions is discussed.

Valerio Faraoni; Vincenzo Vitagliano; Thomas P. Sotiriou; Stefano Liberati

2012-05-17

388

Crystalloids in apparent autophagic plastids: remnants of plastids or peroxisomes?  

PubMed

Plant macroautophagy is carried out by autophagosome-type organelles. Recent evidence suggests that plastids also can carry out macroautophagy. The double membrane at the surface of plastids apparently invaginates, forming an intraplastidial space. This space contains a portion of cytoplasm that apparently becomes degraded. Here we report, in Tillandsia sp. and Aechmaea sp., the presence of almost square or diamond-shaped crystalloids inside what seems the intraplastidial space of autophagous plastids. The same type of crystalloids were observed in chloroplasts and other plastids, but were not found in the cytoplasm or the vacuole. Peroxisomes contained smaller and more irregularly shaped crystalloids compared to the ones observed in 'autophagous' plastids. It is hypothesized that plastids are able to sequester chloroplasts and other plastids. PMID:25462964

Papini, Alessio; van Doorn, Wouter G

2015-02-01

389

Apparent temperature of fragments in the breakup of spectator residues  

SciTech Connect

Assuming the sequential decay of particle unstable primary fragments for light fragment production and the direct two body decay for heavy fragment production, we analyze the apparent temperature (the inverse logarithmic slope of kinetic energy distributions) of fragments in the breakup of spectator residues. Unlike other models it is independent of the projectile energy. Mass numbers obtained for the particle unstable primary fragments in the reactions of projectile proton and targets of Kr, Ag, and Xe are in the range 14-18.

Masuda, N.; Nitto, T.; Uchiyama, F.

1986-12-01

390

Corrections of surface fissure effect on apparent resistivity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) is a useful tool to detect and track water flow paths in the subsoil. However, measurements are strongly affected by subsurface heterogeneities such as fissures of different sizes and genesis (shrinking-swelling, macropores and deformation). In this work, we focus on surface fissures characterized by dimensions lower than the interelectrode spacing and correct their effect on apparent resistivity pseudo-sections by incorporating fissure geometry in the topography. We show that fissures with depths greater than 0.10 times the interelectrode spacing for a dipole-dipole array and equal to 0.16 for the gradient array and the Wenner-Schlumberger arrays create significant anomalies (greater than 5 per cent) in the pseudo-section. Surface fissure widths and dip angles have little effect with respect to the fissure depths which can increase the apparent resistivity up to 200 per cent. The clogging of the fissures with water or soil material decreases the anomaly effect linearly with the percentage of filling. The correction of apparent resistivity values is possible for relatively simple fissure geometries and only requires a manual survey of the surface fissures. It allows to improve the quality of the inverted resistivity section by mitigating the inversion artefacts and therefore a better interpretation.

Gance, J.; Sailhac, P.; Malet, J.-P.

2015-02-01

391

Apparent kinetics of high temperature oxidative decomposition of microalgal biomass.  

PubMed

The oxidative thermal characteristics of two microalgae species biomass Nannochloropsis oculta and Chlorella vulgaris have been investigated. The apparent kinetic parameters for the microalgal biomass oxidation process are estimated by fitting the experimental data to the nth order rate model. Also, the iso-conversional methods Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose (KAS) and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa (FWO) were used to evaluate the apparent activation energy. The results indicate that biomass of different microalgae strains exhibit different thermal behavior and characteristics. In addition, growth parameters and medium composition can affect the biomass productivity and composition. This would have significant impact on the thermal decomposition trend of the biomass. The kinetic modeling of the oxidation reaction with direct model fitting method shows good prediction to the experimental data. The apparent activation energies estimated by KAS and FWO methods for N. oculta were 149.2 and 151.8kJ/mol, respectively, while for C. vulgaris were 214.4 and 213.4kJ/mol, respectively. PMID:25459869

Ali, Saad Aldin M; Razzak, Shaikh A; Hossain, Mohammad M

2014-10-28

392

Apparent survival rates of forest birds in eastern Ecuador revisited: improvement in precision but no change in estimates.  

PubMed

Knowledge of survival rates of Neotropical landbirds remains limited, with estimates of apparent survival available from relatively few sites and species. Previously, capture-mark-recapture models were used to estimate apparent survival of 31 species (30 passerines, 1 Trochilidae) from eastern Ecuador based on data collected from 2001 to 2006. Here, estimates are updated with data from 2001-2012 to determine how additional years of data affect estimates; estimates for six additional species are provided. Models assuming constant survival had highest support for 19 of 31 species when based on 12 years of data compared to 27 when based on six; models incorporating effects of transients had the highest support for 12 of 31 species compared to four when based on 12 and six years, respectively. Average apparent survival based on the most highly-supported model (based on model averaging, when appropriate) was 0.59 (± 0.02 SE) across 30 species of passerines when based on 12 years and 0.57 (± 0.02) when based on six. Standard errors of survival estimates based on 12 years were approximately half those based on six years. Of 31 species in both data sets, estimates of apparent survival were somewhat lower for 13, somewhat higher for 17, and remained unchanged for one; confidence intervals for estimates based on six and 12 years of data overlapped for all species. Results indicate that estimates of apparent survival are comparable but more precise when based on longer-term data sets; standard error of the estimates was negatively correlated with numbers of captures (rs ?=?-0.72) and recaptures (rs ?=?-0.93, P<0.001 in both cases). Thus, reasonable estimates of apparent survival may be obtained with relatively few years of data if sample sizes are sufficient. PMID:24312519

Blake, John G; Loiselle, Bette A

2013-01-01

393

Apparent Survival Rates of Forest Birds in Eastern Ecuador Revisited: Improvement in Precision but No Change in Estimates  

PubMed Central

Knowledge of survival rates of Neotropical landbirds remains limited, with estimates of apparent survival available from relatively few sites and species. Previously, capture-mark-recapture models were used to estimate apparent survival of 31 species (30 passerines, 1 Trochilidae) from eastern Ecuador based on data collected from 2001 to 2006. Here, estimates are updated with data from 2001-2012 to determine how additional years of data affect estimates; estimates for six additional species are provided. Models assuming constant survival had highest support for 19 of 31 species when based on 12 years of data compared to 27 when based on six; models incorporating effects of transients had the highest support for 12 of 31 species compared to four when based on 12 and six years, respectively. Average apparent survival based on the most highly-supported model (based on model averaging, when appropriate) was 0.59 (± 0.02 SE) across 30 species of passerines when based on 12 years and 0.57 (± 0.02) when based on six. Standard errors of survival estimates based on 12 years were approximately half those based on six years. Of 31 species in both data sets, estimates of apparent survival were somewhat lower for 13, somewhat higher for 17, and remained unchanged for one; confidence intervals for estimates based on six and 12 years of data overlapped for all species. Results indicate that estimates of apparent survival are comparable but more precise when based on longer-term data sets; standard error of the estimates was negatively correlated with numbers of captures (rs?=??0.72) and recaptures (rs?=??0.93, P<0.001 in both cases). Thus, reasonable estimates of apparent survival may be obtained with relatively few years of data if sample sizes are sufficient. PMID:24312519

Blake, John G.; Loiselle, Bette A.

2013-01-01

394

Line tension and reduction of apparent contact angle associated with electric double layers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The line tension of an electrolyte wetting a non-polar substrate is computed analytically and numerically. The results show that, depending on the value of the apparent contact angle, positive or negative line tension values may be obtained. Furthermore, a significant difference between Young's contact angle and the apparent contact angle measured several Debye lengths remote from the three-phase contact line occurs. When applying the results to water wetting highly charged surfaces, line tension values of the same order of magnitude as found in recent experiments can be achieved. Therefore, the theory presented may contribute to the understanding of line tension measurements and points to the importance of the electrostatic line tension. Being strongly dependent on the interfacial charge density, electrostatic line tension is found to be tunable via the pH value of the involved electrolyte. As a practical consequence, the stability of nanoparticles adsorbed at fluid-fluid interfaces is predicted to be dependent on the pH value. The theory is suited for future incorporation of effects due to surfactants where even larger line tension values can be expected.

Dörr, Aaron; Hardt, Steffen

2014-08-01

395

Effect of surface fissure on apparent resistivity measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fissures are features of interest, prone to create preferential flow path, modifying locally the soil hydrogeological behavior. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) is a suitable tool to monitor such preferential flow path. However, this technique is not efficient in the presence of surface fissure, due to a bad resistivity recovering around the fissure vicinity during the inversion process. Therefore, we propose a description of fissure effect on raw apparent resistivity on three resistivity arrays. The purposes of the study are multiple. First, we aim at making ERT users aware of surface fissure effect, and propose a first help to interpret basically resistivity pseudo sections. Second, we propose to ERT users to automatically conduct a surface fissure survey on the studied profile, in order to consider each fissure in a forward DC model and to suppress their effect. Finally, this study is only a first step toward 2D fissure shape inversion, and time-lapse monitoring of fissure drying and filling. In this study, we create a fissure model based on different geomorphological descriptors. After describing the FEM-DC forward modeling strategy, we investigate the fissure effect on pseudo section of apparent resistivity for a Wenner-Schlumberger (WS), a dipole-dipole (DD) and a gradient (GRAD) array. We determine a fissure detectability threshold for each array and perform a sensitivity analysis on the different fissure parameters (position, width, depth, dip angles...). The crack filling or drying effect is also investigated. The possibility to remove fissure effect and to propose a first interpretation of time-lapse data is illustrated on real data. This study show again the higher sensitivity of the DD array compared to the GRAD and WS arrays. Not only the maximal amplitude in the pseudo section is higher for the DD array, but also the anomaly pattern created by the fissure is much larger for this acquisition geometry. The minimal depth detectable for the DD array is 0.1 times the electrode spacing, and 0.16 for the GRAD and WS arrays. Globally, fissure opening width and dip angle have little impact compared to the fissure depth which can make vary apparent resistivity for more than 200 %. Apparent resistivities quantitative and qualitative interpretation is very difficult in this case and fissure geometry effect must be removed from apparent resistivity pseudo-section. The fissure water filling tends to suppress linearly the topographic effect with the percentage of filling. The conductive effect, produced by the addition of conductive water in the fissure, interacts constructively with fissure effect, but is less pronounced (maximum 15 % compared to the 60% of the fissure shape effect).

Sailhac, P.; Gance, J.; Malet, J.

2013-12-01

396

Residency, Habitat Use and Sexual Segregation of White Sharks, Carcharodon carcharias in False Bay, South Africa  

PubMed Central

White sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are threatened apex predators and identification of their critical habitats and how these are used are essential to ensuring improved local and ultimately global white shark protection. In this study we investigated habitat use by white sharks in False Bay, South Africa, using acoustic telemetry. 56 sharks (39 female, 17 male), ranging in size from 1.7–5 m TL, were tagged with acoustic transmitters and monitored on an array of 30 receivers for 975 days. To investigate the effects of season, sex and size on habitat use we used a generalized linear mixed effects model. Tagged sharks were detected in the Bay in all months and across all years, but their use of the Bay varied significantly with the season and the sex of the shark. In autumn and winter males and females aggregated around the Cape fur seal colony at Seal Island, where they fed predominantly on young of the year seals. In spring and summer there was marked sexual segregation, with females frequenting the Inshore areas and males seldom being detected. The shift from the Island in autumn and winter to the Inshore region in spring and summer by females mirrors the seasonal peak in abundance of juvenile seals and of migratory teleost and elasmobranch species respectively. This study provides the first evidence of sexual segregation at a fine spatial scale and demonstrates that sexual segregation in white sharks is not restricted to adults, but is apparent for juveniles and sub-adults too. Overall, the results confirm False Bay as a critical area for white shark conservation as both sexes, across a range of sizes, frequent the Bay on an annual basis. The finding that female sharks aggregate in the Inshore regions when recreational use peaks highlights the need for ongoing shark-human conflict mitigation strategies. PMID:23383052

Kock, Alison; O’Riain, M. Justin; Mauff, Katya; Meÿer, Michael; Kotze, Deon; Griffiths, Charles

2013-01-01

397

Eliminating false positive C4 sugar tests on New Zealand Manuka honey.  

PubMed

Carbon isotope analyses (delta(13)C) of some New Zealand Manuka honeys show that they often fail the internationally recognised Association of Official Analytical Chemists sugar test (AOAC method 998.12) which detects added C(4) sugar, although these honeys are from unadulterated sources. Failure of these high value products is detrimental to the New Zealand honey industry, not only in lost export revenue, but also in brand and market reputation damage. The standard AOAC test compares the carbon isotope value of the whole honey and corresponding protein isolated from the same honey. Differences between whole honey and protein delta(13)C values should not be greater than +1.0 per thousand, as it indicates the possibility of adulteration with syrups or sugars from C(4) plants such as high fructose corn syrup or cane sugar.We have determined that during the standard AOAC method, pollen and other insoluble components are isolated with the flocculated protein. These non-protein components have isotope values which are considerably different from those of the pure protein, and can shift the apparent delta(13)C value of protein further away from the delta(13)C value of the whole honey, giving a false positive result for added C(4) sugar. To eliminate a false positive C(4) sugar test for Manuka honey, prior removal of pollen and other insoluble material from the honey is necessary to ensure that only the pure protein is isolated. This will enable a true comparison between whole honey and protein delta(13)C isotopes. Furthermore, we strongly suggest this modification to the AOAC method be universally adopted for all honey C(4) sugar tests. PMID:20635333

Rogers, Karyne M; Somerton, Kerry; Rogers, Pamela; Cox, Julie

2010-08-30

398

A new approach to the "apparent survival" problem: estimating true survival rates from mark-recapture studies.  

PubMed

Survival estimates generated from live capture-mark-recapture studies may be negatively biased due to the permanent emigration of marked individuals from the study area. In the absence of a robust analytical solution, researchers typically sidestep this problem by simply reporting estimates using the term "apparent survival." Here, we present a hierarchical Bayesian multistate model designed to estimate true survival by accounting for predicted rates of permanent emigration. Initially we use dispersal kernels to generate spatial projections of dispersal probability around each capture location. From these projections, we estimate emigration probability for each marked individual and use the resulting values to generate bias-adjusted survival estimates from individual capture histories. When tested using simulated data sets featuring variable detection probabilities, survival rates, and dispersal patterns, the model consistently eliminated negative biases shown by apparent survival estimates from standard models. When applied to a case study concerning juvenile survival in the endangered Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis), bias-adjusted survival estimates increased more than twofold above apparent survival estimates. Our approach is applicable to any capture-mark-recapture study design and should be particularly valuable for organisms with dispersive juvenile life stages. PMID:22919897

Gilroy, James J; Virzi, Thomas; Boulton, Rebecca L; Lockwood, Julie L

2012-07-01

399

POSSIBLE DETECTION OF APPARENT SUPERLUMINAL INWARD MOTION IN MARKARIAN 421 AFTER THE GIANT X-RAY FLARE IN 2010 FEBRUARY  

SciTech Connect

We report on the very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) follow-up observations using the Japanese VLBI Network array at 22 GHz for the largest X-ray flare of TeV blazar Mrk 421 that occurred in 2010 mid-February. The total of five epochs of observations were performed at intervals of about 20 days between 2010 March 7 and May 31. No newborn component associated with the flare was seen directly in the total intensity images obtained by our multi-epoch VLBI observations. However, one jet component located at {approx}1 mas northwest from the core was able to be identified, and its proper motion can be measured as -1.66 {+-} 0.46 mas yr{sup -1}, which corresponds to an apparent velocity of -3.48 {+-} 0.97c. Here, this negative velocity indicates that the jet component was apparently moving toward the core. As the most plausible explanation, we discuss that the apparent negative velocity was possibly caused by the ejection of a new component, which could not be resolved with our observations. In this case, the obtained Doppler factor of the new component is around 10-20, which is consistent with the ones typically estimated by model fittings of spectral energy distribution for this source.

Niinuma, K. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8511 (Japan); Kino, M.; Oyama, T. [Mizusawa VLBI Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Nagai, H. [ALMA-J Project, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan); Isobe, N. [Institute of Space and Astronautics, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Yoshinodai, Chuo, Sagamihara 252-5210 (Japan); Gabanyi, K. E. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Research Group for Physical Geodesy and Geodynamics, FOMI Satellite Geodetic Observatory Budapest, 1592 Budapest (Hungary); Hada, K. [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Koyama, S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8654 (Japan); Asada, K. [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Fujisawa, K., E-mail: niinuma@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Research Institute for Time Studies, Yamaguchi University, Yamaguchi 753-8511 (Japan)

2012-11-10

400

76 FR 36320 - Rules of Practice in Proceedings Relative to False Representation and Lottery Orders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Practice in Proceedings Relative to False Representation and Lottery Orders AGENCY: Postal...for proceedings relative to false representation and lottery orders. The primary purpose...practice in proceedings relative to false representation and lottery orders (76 FR...

2011-06-22

401

Negative refraction and superconductivity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We discuss exotic properties of charged hydrodynamical systems, in the broken superconducting phase, probed by electromagnetic waves. Motivated by general arguments from hydrodynamics, we observe that negative refraction, namely the propagation in opposite directions of the phase velocities and of the energy flux, is expected for low enough frequencies. We corroborate this general idea by analyzing a holographic superconductor in the AdS/CFT correspondence, where the response functions can be explicitly computed. We study the dual gravitational theory both in the probe and in the backreacted case. We find that, while in the first case the refractive index is positive at every frequency, in the second case there is negative refraction at low enough frequencies. This is in agreement with hydrodynamic considerations.

Amariti, Antonio; Forcella, Davide; Mariotti, Alberto; Siani, Massimo

2011-10-01

402

Negative Refraction and Superconductivity  

E-print Network

We discuss exotic properties of charged hydrodynamical systems, in the broken superconducting phase, probed by electromagnetic waves. Motivated by general arguments from hydrodynamics, we observe that negative refraction, namely the propagation in opposite directions of the phase velocities and of the energy flux, is expected for low enough frequencies. We corroborate this general idea by analyzing a holographic superconductor in the AdS/CFT correspondence, where the response functions can be explicitly computed. We study the dual gravitational theory both in the probe and in the backreacted case. We find that, while in the first case the refractive index is positive at every frequency, in the second case there is negative refraction at low enough frequencies. This is in agreement with hydrodynamic considerations.

Antonio Amariti; Davide Forcella; Alberto Mariotti; Massimo Siani

2011-07-06

403

Realistic artificial DNA sequences as negative controls for computational genomics  

PubMed Central

A common practice in computational genomic analysis is to use a set of ‘background’ sequences as negative controls for evaluating the false-positive rates of prediction tools, such as gene identification programs and algorithms for detection of cis-regulatory elements. Such ‘background’ sequences are generally taken from regions of the genome presumed to be intergenic, or generated synthetically by ‘shuffling’ real sequences. This last method can lead to underestimation of false-positive rates. We developed a new method for generating artificial sequences that are modeled after real intergenic sequences in terms of composition, complexity and interspersed repeat content. These artificial sequences can serve as an inexhaustible source of high-quality negative controls. We used artificial sequences to evaluate the false-positive rates of a set of programs for detecting interspersed repeats, ab initio prediction of coding genes, transcribed regions and non-coding genes. We found that RepeatMasker is more accurate than PClouds, Augustus has the lowest false-positive rate of the coding gene prediction programs tested, and Infernal has a low false-positive rate for non-coding gene detection. A web service, source code and the models for human and many other species are freely available at http://repeatmasker.org/garlic/. PMID:24803667

Caballero, Juan; Smit, Arian F. A.; Hood, Leroy; Glusman, Gustavo

2014-01-01

404

Algebra Balance Scales - Negatives  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provides a virtual balance on which the student can represent (and then solve) simple linear equations with integer answers. Conceptually, positive weights (unit-blocks and x-boxes) push the pans of the scale downward. Negative values are represented by balloons which can be attached to the pans of the scale. The student can then manipulate the weights to solve the equation while simultaneously seeing a visual display of these effects on the equation.

University, Utah S.

2009-07-01

405

Negative-weight percolation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a percolation problem on lattices (graphs, networks), with edge weights drawn from disorder distributions that allow for weights (or distances) of either sign, i.e. including negative weights. We are interested in whether there are spanning paths or loops of total negative weight. This kind of percolation problem is fundamentally different from conventional percolation problems, e.g. it does not exhibit transitivity, hence, no simple definition of clusters, and several spanning paths/loops might coexist in the percolation regime at the same time. Furthermore, to study this percolation problem numerically, one has to perform a non-trivial transformation of the original graph and apply sophisticated matching algorithms. Using this approach, we study the corresponding percolation transitions on large square, hexagonal and cubic lattices for two types of disorder distributions and determine the critical exponents. The results show that negative-weight percolation (NWP) is in a different universality class compared to conventional bond/site percolation. On the other hand, NWP seems to be related to the ferromagnet/spin-glass transition of random-bond Ising systems, at least in two dimensions.

Melchert, O.; Hartmann, A. K.

2008-04-01

406

Small maritime target detection through false color fusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an algorithm that produces a fused false color representation of a combined multiband IR and visual imaging system for maritime applications. Multispectral IR imaging techniques are increasingly deployed in maritime operations, to detect floating mines or to find small dinghies and swimmers during search and rescue operations. However, maritime backgrounds usually contain a large amount of clutter that severely hampers the detection of small targets. Our new algorithm deploys the correlation between the target signatures in two different IR frequency bands (3-5 and 8-12 ?m) to construct a fused IR image with a reduced amount of clutter. The fused IR image is then combined with a visual image in a false color RGB representation for display to a human operator. The algorithm works as follows. First, both individual IR bands are filtered with a morphological opening top-hat transform to extract small details. Second, a common image is extracted from the two filtered IR bands, and assigned to the red channel of an RGB image. Regions of interest that appear in both IR bands remain in this common image, while most uncorrelated noise details are filtered out. Third, the visual band is assigned to the green channel and, after multiplication with a constant (typically 1.6) also to the blue channel. Fourth, the brightness and colors of this intermediate false color image are renormalized by adjusting its first order statistics to those of a representative reference scene. The result of these four steps is a fused color image, with naturalistic colors (bluish sky and grayish water), in which small targets are clearly visible.

Toet, Alexander; Wu, Tirui

2008-04-01

407

Quantification of false positives within Moon Zoo crater annotations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Moon Zoo citizen science project [1] allows members of the public to annotate lunar images, providing researchers with a wealth of location and size information regarding the population of small craters on the Moon. To date, approximately 4 million images have been inspected. Here, we show how a quantitative pattern recognition system can be used to estimate the quantity of contamination in Moon Zoo data from erroneous annotations. The proposed method produces not only estimates of true verses false crater annotations, but also a full error covariance, with additional conformity checks, which is essential for the meaningful interpretation of measurements, e.g. for plotting error bars.

Tar, P.; Thacker, N.

2014-04-01

408

The effects of experimentally induced stress on false recognition.  

PubMed

The fallibility of memory has become an issue of considerable practical and theoretical importance. Here we studied the impact of experimentally induced stress on the ability of human participants to accurately recognise words presented on a list. We found that stress selectively disrupted participants' ability to distinguish words that were presented for study from critical lure words that were semantically related, but not presented for study. This finding indicates that stress, possibly through its impact on the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex, can potentiate false memories. PMID:11747571

Payne, Jessica D; Nadel, Lynn; Allen, John J B; Thomas, Kevin G F; Jacobs, W Jake

2002-01-01

409

False vacuum decay in Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmologies  

SciTech Connect

We examine the bubble nucleation rate in a first-order phase transition taking place in a background Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmology. We compute the leading order terms in the nucleation rate when the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field is large (i.e., late times) by means of a Weyl rescaling of the fields in the theory. We find that despite the fact that the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field (hence the effective gravitational constant) has a time dependence in the false vacuum, at late times the nucleation rate is time independent. 21 refs.

Holman, R.; Wang, Yun (Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Kolb, E.W.; Vadas, S.L. (Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA) Chicago Univ., IL (USA)); Weinberg, E.J. (Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA). Dept. of Physics)

1989-12-01

410

Mechanisms for Generating False Positives for Extrasolar Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future mission concepts designed to look for life generally plan to search for oxygen (O2), ozone (O3), and/or methane (CH4). However, mechanisms exist for generating each of these species abiotically. In this presentation, we will review these processes, and discuss the atmospheres that result from them. In general, false positives can form in atmospheres with severe redox imbalance. This redox imbalance can also be thought of as extreme elemental composition, skewed towards very high or very low O/H ratios. Specific examples of this include: 1) loss of H through the top of a planetary atmosphere that leads to high O/H and an atmosphere rich in O2 and O3 2) atmospheres whose volcanism is O-rich and H-poor (i.e., highly oxidized), which leads to an atmosphere that with high O/H that can accumulate O3 and potentially O2 3) atmospheres in which H escape is slow, leading to low O/H and accumulation of CH4 and 4) atmospheres in which volcanic outgassing is H-rich (highly reduced), leading to low O/H and potential accumulation of CH4. Each of these cases would constitute a 'false positive' for life if O2, O3, or CH4 were detected without obtaining the chemical atmospheric context that could indicate a severe redox imbalance exists.Methods exist for discriminating between these 'false positives' where the gases arise from abiotic sources, and 'true positives' where the gases arise by biological sources. The best means of doing this is to obtain measurements of both O-rich (O2/O3) and H-rich (CH4) species, allowing identification of non-extreme O/H ratios in the atmosphere, and eliminating this abiotic source of O2, O3, and CH4. Because this is the most likely cause of abiotic production of these species, the elimination of this explanation would indicate that these gases were instead likely produced by biology.More specific methods to identify each of these false positives mechanisms also exist, but will not be discussed in detail in this presentation.

Domagal-Goldman, Shawn; Meadows, Victoria; Schwieterman, Edward; Luger, Rodrigo; Wordsworth, Robin; Barnes, Rory; Segura, Antigona; Claire, Mark; Virtual Planetary Laboratory

2015-01-01

411

False vacuum decay in Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmologies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The bubble nucleation rate in a first-order phase transition taking place in a background Jordan-Brans-Dicke cosmology is examined. The leading order terms in the nucleation rate when the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field is large (i.e., late times) are computed by means of a Weyl rescaling of the fields in the theory. It is found that despite the fact that the Jordan-Brans-Dicke field (hence the effective gravitational constant) has a time dependence in the false vacuum at late times the nucleation rate is time independent.

Holman, Richard; Kolb, Edward W.; Vadas, Sharon L.; Wang, Yun; Weinberg, Erick J.

1989-01-01

412

Mechanisms for Generating False Positives for Extrasolar Life  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Future mission concepts designed to look for life generally plan to search for oxygen (O2), ozone (O3), and/or methane (CH4). However, mechanisms exist for generating each of these species abiotically. In this presentation, we will review these processes, and discuss the atmospheres that result from them. In general, false positives can form in atmospheres with severe redox imbalance. This redox imbalance can also be thought of as extreme elemental composition, skewed towards very high or very low O/H ratios. Specific examples of this include: 1) loss of H through the top of a planetary atmosphere that leads to high O/H and an atmosphere rich in O2 and O3 2) atmospheres whose volcanism is O-rich and H-poor (i.e., highly oxidized), which leads to an atmosphere that with high O/H that can accumulate O3 and potentially O2 3) atmospheres in which H escape is slow, leading to low O/H and accumulation of CH4 and 4) atmospheres in which volcanic outgassing is H-rich (highly reduced), leading to low O/H and potential accumulation of CH4. Each of these cases would constitute a “false positive” for life if O2, O3, or CH4 were detected without obtaining the chemical atmospheric context that could indicate a severe redox imbalance exists.Methods exist for discriminating between these “false positives” where the gases arise from abiotic sources, and “true positives” where the gases arise by biological sources. The best means of doing this is to obtain measurements of both O-rich (O2/O3) and H-rich (CH4) species, allowing identification of non-extreme O/H ratios in the atmosphere, and eliminating this abiotic source of O2, O3, and CH4. Because this is the most likely cause of abiotic production of these species, the elimination of this explanation would indicate that these gases were instead likely produced by biology.More specific methods to identify each of these false positives mechanisms also exist, but will not be discussed in detail in this presentation.

Virtual Planetary Laboratory

2015-01-01

413

The role of phantom recollection in false recall.  

PubMed

Although high levels of phantom recollection (illusory vivid experience of the prior "presentation" of unpresented items) have been found for false recognition, little is known about phantom recollection in recall. We examined this issue with Deese/Roediger-McDermott lists using two paradigms: repeated recall and conjoint recall. High levels of phantom recollection were observed with both standard behavioral measures and the parameters of fuzzy-trace theory's dual-recall model. In addition, phantom recollection and the true recollection that accompanies presented items appear to involve different retrieval processes, because they were dissociated by manipulations such as number of recall tests and list strength. PMID:22371165

Marche, Tammy A; Brainerd, C J

2012-08-01

414

Investigating True and False Confessions Within a Novel Experimental Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT—The primary,goal of the current study was to develop,a novel experimental,paradigm,with which,to study the influence of psychologically based interrogation techniques on the likelihood of true and false confessions. The paradigm,involves guilty and innocent participants being accused,of intentionally breaking,an experimental rule,or‘‘cheating.’’Inthefirstdemonstrationofthispara- digm,we exploredthe influenceoftwo commonpoliceinter- rogation,tactics: minimization,and,an explicit offer of leniency, or a ‘‘deal.’’Results indicated that guilty persons weremorelikelytoconfessthaninnocent persons,andthat theuseofminimizationandtheofferofadealincreasedthe

Melissa B. Russano; Christian A. Meissner; Fadia M. Narchet; Saul M. Kassin

2005-01-01

415

False Memory for Trauma-Related DRM Lists in Adolescents and Adults with Histories of Child Sexual Abuse  

PubMed Central

The purpose of the present research was to examine Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory for trauma-related and nontrauma-related lists in adolescents and adults with and without documented histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). Individual differences in psychopathology and adult attachment were also explored. Participants were administered free recall and recognition tests after hearing CSA, negative, neutral, and positive DRM lists. In free recall, CSA and negative lists produced the most false memory. In sharp contrast, for recognition, CSA lists enjoyed the highest d’ scores. CSA-group adolescents who evinced greater PTSD symptoms had higher rates of false memory compared to: 1) nonCSA-group adolescents with higher PTSD symptom scores (free recall), and 2) CSA-group adolescents with lower PTSD symptom scores (recognition). Regression analyses revealed that individuals with higher PTSD scores and greater fearful-avoidant attachment tendencies showed less proficient memory monitoring for CSA lists. Implications for trauma and memory development and for translational research are discussed. PMID:23786687

Goodman, Gail S.; Ogle, Christin M.; Block, Stephanie D.; Harris, LaTonya S.; Larson, Rakel P.; Augusti, Else-Marie; Cho, Young Il; Beber, Jonathan; Timmer, Susan; Urquiza, Anthony

2014-01-01

416

West Greenland harbour porpoises assayed for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii: false positives with the direct agglutination method.  

PubMed

We assayed blood/tissue fluid samples from 20 harbour porpoises Phocoena phocoena from western Greenland coastal waters for antibodies against the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii by the direct agglutination test (DAT). Nine individuals (45%) were interpreted to be seropositive at 1:40 dilution and 4 (20%) were seropositive up to 1:160. Samples from these individuals were assayed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and tissue samples of the DAT-positive animals were tested by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). Results from both methods were negative, suggesting the absence of infection in the tested animals. After chloroform clean-up, all were negative when re-assayed by DAT. We concluded that infection with T. gondii was absent in all 20 animals, despite the initially positive DAT results, and that the false positives resulted from non-specific adherence to tachyzoites in the DAT assay which could be removed by the chloroform clean-up method. Our results suggest that detecting antibodies against T. gondii using the DAT or the modified agglutination technique, particularly on samples from Arctic marine animals which often are rich in lipids, may lead to false positive results. For such samples, the use of ELISA or PCR on available tissue samples may be advocated as confirmatory tests in order to avoid false positives and overestimating seroprevalence. PMID:24695231

Blanchet, Marie-Anne; Godfroid, Jacques; Breines, Eva Marie; Heide-Jørgensen, Mads-Peter; Nielsen, Nynne Hjort; Hasselmeier, Ilka; Iversen, Maria; Jensen, Silje-Kristin; Åsbakk, Kjetil

2014-04-01

417

Conservation strategies for species affected by apparent competition.  

PubMed

Apparent competition is an indirect interaction between 2 or more prey species through a shared predator, and it is increasingly recognized as a mechanism of the decline and extinction of many species. Through case studies, we evaluated the effectiveness of 4 management strategies for species affected by apparent competition: predator control, reduction in the abundances of alternate prey, simultaneous control of predators and alternate prey, and no active management of predators or alternate prey. Solely reducing predator abundances rapidly increased abundances of alternate and rare prey, but observed increases are likely short-lived due to fast increases in predator abundance following the cessation of control efforts. Substantial reductions of an abundant alternate prey resulted in increased predation on endangered huemul (Hippocamelus bisulcus) deer in Chilean Patagonia, which highlights potential risks associated with solely reducing alternate prey species. Simultaneous removal of predators and alternate prey increased survival of island foxes (Urocyon littoralis) in California (U.S.A.) above a threshold required for population recovery. In the absence of active management, populations of rare woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) continued to decline in British Columbia, Canada. On the basis of the cases we examined, we suggest the simultaneous control of predators and alternate prey is the management strategy most likely to increase abundances and probabilities of persistence of rare prey over the long term. Knowing the mechanisms driving changes in species' abundances before implementing any management intervention is critical. We suggest scientists can best contribute to the conservation of species affected by apparent competition by clearly communicating the biological and demographic forces at play to policy makers responsible for the implementation of proposed management actions. PMID:23282104

Wittmer, Heiko U; Serrouya, Robert; Elbroch, L Mark; Marshall, Andrew J

2013-04-01

418

The apparent and true peak flattenings of flat galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomical Observatory, Kiev State University, ul Glushkova 6, Kiev, 252127 Ukraine Special Astrophysical Observatory, Russian Academy of Sciences Nizhnii Arkhyz Russia Abstract - A sample of some 4455 flat spiral edge-on galaxies was used to derive exponentially decreasing distribution functions of apparent (v) and true (y) axial ratios. The peak values of v and y for the full sample and subsamples, defined by the Hubble type, were estimated. A peak of y = 25.8 can be used in theoretical models of the formation and stability of flat spiral systems.

Kudrya, Yu. N.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Karachentseva, V. E.; Parnovskii, S. L.

1994-01-01

419

Observations of an apparent SN in NGC 2276  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Federico Manzini (SAS obs., IAUC A12) report the observation by Alessandro Dimai, Cortina (Italy), and Marco Migliardi, Tour Tour (France), of an apparent SN in NGC 2276 (m. = +17.1), on four unfiltered CCD images taken on 2005 august 25.1 (lim. magn. about +19,5) with the 0.5-m "Ullrich" telescope of the Col Druscié observatory (Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy). The observation is confirmed by other three unfiltered CCD images, taken on 2005 august 26.13 (m = +16.8 and limiting magnitude about +19.8), with the same telescope on behalf of the CROSS (Col drusciè Remote Observatory Supernovae Search) program.

Manzini, F.; Dimai, A.; Migliardi, M.

2005-08-01

420

On the dual effects of repetition on false recognition.  

PubMed

The effects of study-list repetition on false recognition of semantic associates were examined using aging (Experiment 1) and recognition time pressure (Experiment 2). Participants studied word lists, each of which was composed of high associates to a single, unstudied word (the critical lure). Under normal testing circumstances, young adult participants (ages 19-26) falsely endorsed fewer critical lures associated with lists that had been presented multiple times than lists presented only once. However, young participants tested under time pressure and older participants (ages 67-85) endorsed a greater number of critical items associated with lists presented thrice than with lists presented once. The results suggest dual bases for the recognition decision, one of which is based on the rapid spread of activation within domains of semantic similarity and the other of which functions to attribute that activation to likely sources and set appropriate decision criteria. The latter capacity is compromised both under conditions of time pressure and in the elderly. PMID:11486927

Benjamin, A S

2001-07-01

421

THE XO PLANETARY SURVEY PROJECT: ASTROPHYSICAL FALSE POSITIVES  

SciTech Connect

Searches for planetary transits find many astrophysical false positives as a by-product. There are four main types analyzed in the literature: a grazing-incidence eclipsing binary (EB) star, an EB star with a small radius companion star, a blend of one or more stars with an unrelated EB star, and a physical triple star system. We present a list of 69 astrophysical false positives that had been identified as candidates of transiting planets of the on-going XO survey. This list may be useful in order to avoid redundant observation and characterization of these particular candidates that have been independently identified by other wide-field searches for transiting planets. The list may be useful for those modeling the yield of the XO survey and surveys similar to it. Subsequent observations of some of the listed stars may improve mass-radius relations, especially for low-mass stars. From the candidates exhibiting eclipses, we report three new spectroscopic double-line binaries and give mass function estimations for 15 single-line spectroscopic binaries.

Poleski, Radosaw [Astronomical Observatory, University of Warsaw, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); McCullough, Peter R.; Valenti, Jeff A.; Burke, Christopher J.; Machalek, Pavel [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Janes, Kenneth, E-mail: rpoleski@astrouw.edu.p [Astronomy Department, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

2010-07-15

422

Estimating False Discovery Proportion Under Arbitrary Covariance Dependence*  

PubMed Central

Multiple hypothesis testing is a fundamental problem in high dimensional inference, with wide applications in many scientific fields. In genome-wide association studies, tens of thousands of tests are performed simultaneously to find if any SNPs are associated with some traits and those tests are correlated. When test statistics are correlated, false discovery control becomes very challenging under arbitrary dependence. In the current paper, we propose a novel method based on principal factor approximation, which successfully subtracts the common dependence and weakens significantly the correlation structure, to deal with an arbitrary dependence structure. We derive an approximate expression for false discovery proportion (FDP) in large scale multiple testing when a common threshold is used and provide a consistent estimate of realized FDP. This result has important applications in controlling FDR and FDP. Our estimate of realized FDP compares favorably with Efron (2007)’s approach, as demonstrated in the simulated examples. Our approach is further illustrated by some real data applications. We also propose a dependence-adjusted procedure, which is more powerful than the fixed threshold procedure. PMID:24729644

Fan, Jianqing; Han, Xu; Gu, Weijie

2012-01-01

423

Photoreceptor twist: a solution to the false-color problem.  

PubMed Central

In bees and many other insects the majority of photoreceptors are twisted like a corkscrew. Here we show that this structural feature of insect eyes-whose very existence was a source of dispute for several years-is necessary for reliable encoding of information about color. Light reflected from waxy plant surfaces is partially linearly polarized. Moreover, insect photoreceptor membranes are dichroic and thus sensitive to the polarized glare originating from plant surfaces. Taken together, these two phenomena create a serious false-color problem: in the bee's trichromatic color vision system, the color values of a particular part of a plant could be affected not only by the spectral but also by the polarization properties of the reflecting surface. As demonstrated by spectroscopic measurements and optical analyses, the hue of color of a given surface of a plant would change dramatically with the direction of illumination and the bee's line of sight, if the bee possessed straight and thus highly "polarization-sensitive" photoreceptors. However, this false-color problem is overcome completely in photoreceptors that are twisted by exactly the amount we have found to occur in the worker-bee's eye. PMID:11607379

Wehner, R; Bernard, G D

1993-01-01

424

Controlling the local false discovery rate in the adaptive Lasso.  

PubMed

The Lasso shrinkage procedure achieved its popularity, in part, by its tendency to shrink estimated coefficients to zero, and its ability to serve as a variable selection procedure. Using data-adaptive weights, the adaptive Lasso modified the original procedure to increase the penalty terms for those variables estimated to be less important by ordinary least squares. Although this modified procedure attained the oracle properties, the resulting models tend to include a large number of "false positives" in practice. Here, we adapt the concept of local false discovery rates (lFDRs) so that it applies to the sequence, ?n, of smoothing parameters for the adaptive Lasso. We define the lFDR for a given ?n to be the probability that the variable added to the model by decreasing ?n to ?n-? is not associated with the outcome, where ? is a small value. We derive the relationship between the lFDR and ?n, show lFDR =1 for traditional smoothing parameters, and show how to select ?n so as to achieve a desired lFDR. We compare the smoothing parameters chosen to achieve a specified lFDR and those chosen to achieve the oracle properties, as well as their resulting estimates for model coefficients, with both simulation and an example from a genetic study of prostate specific antigen. PMID:23575212

Sampson, Joshua N; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Carroll, Raymond J; Müller, Samuel

2013-09-01

425

False positivity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase measurement in urine.  

PubMed

Although enzymuria tends to be associated to renal injury, there are no studies that have evaluated the presence of the enzyme gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) spectrophotometry in the urine using a non-nephrotoxic agent (Nerium oleander) in order to evaluate the possibility of false positive results. The urinary GGT/urinary creatinine concentration ratio (uGGT/uCr) of 10 healthy dogs was calculated and posteriorly confronted with data from clinical evaluation, hematological and serum biochemical profiles, creatinine clearance (CrC), urinalysis, urine protein/creatinine ratio (UPC), electrocardiogram, systemic blood pressure (SBP) and light and electron microscopy. The results for kidney histology, SBP, UPC and CrC were not significantly different in any of the time-points analyzed. However, uGGT/uCr was significantly higher when measured 4 hours and 24 hours after administration of N. oleander. The measurement of the urinary GGT enzyme, as performed in many studies, yielded false positive results in dogs poisoned by a non-nephrotoxic agent. PMID:24456228

Crivellenti, Leandro Zuccolotto; Mesa, Javier Sousa; Meirelles, Adriana Érica Wilkes Burton; Borin Crivellenti, Sofia; Mireya, Edna Gomes; Canola, Julio Carlos; Hatayde, Mário Roberto; Santana, Aureo Evangelista; Dantas, Márcio; Silva, Gyl Eanes Barros

2014-05-01

426

False cardiac arrests: the right time to turn away?  

PubMed Central

Aim Cardiac arrest teams may be activated only to find that the patient does not require cardiac or respiratory resuscitation. Members of the cardiac arrest team are drawn from medical personnel with other responsibilities who may disperse quickly, leaving ongoing care of the patient to existing ward staff. The outcome for such false cardiac arrests, however, is rarely reported. The objective of this study was to determine the causes of false cardiac arrest team alerts (FCAs) and to assess the outcome of these patients relative to the general hospital population. Setting Tertiary care hospital. Participants Patients subject to a cardiac arrest call who were found not to require basic or advanced cardiac life support on arrival. Results In 512 events over a 1?year period, patients suffering FCAs were more likely to survive compared to patients suffering cardiac arrest (15% vs 73%, odds ratio (OR) 14.95; ?2 p?0.0001), but significantly less likely to survive than the general hospitalised population (73% vs 97%, OR 14.15; ?2 p?0.0001). The cause of the FCA was often minimised as collapse or vasovagal syncope; in 58% (87/150) of cases no further action was taken by the attending medical team. Patients suffering FCAs tended to be long?stay patients with a worse outcome at weekends. Conclusion In areas lacking a medical alert, outreach or patient at risk system, particular attention should be paid to optimising care of those suffering FCAs. PMID:17488866

Kenward, Gary; Robinson, Alan; Bradburn, Sandra; Steeds, Richard

2007-01-01

427

False recollections and the congruence of suggested information.  

PubMed

In two experiments, congruence of postevent information was manipulated in order to explore its role in the misinformation effect. Congruence of a detail was empirically defined as its compatibility (or match) with a concrete event. Based on this idea it was predicted that a congruent suggested detail would be more easily accepted than an incongruent one. In Experiments 1 and 2 two factors(congruence and truth value ) were manipulated within-subjects, and a two-alternative forced-choice recognition test was used followed by phenomenological judgements. Furthermore, in the second experiment participants were asked to describe four critical items (two seen and two suggested details)to explore differences and similarities between real and unreal memories. Both experiments clearly showed that the congruence of false information caused a robust misinformation effect, so that congruent information was much more accepted than false incongruent information. Furthermore, congruence increased the descriptive and phenomenological similarities between perceived and suggested memories, thus contributing to the misleading effect. PMID:17891682

Pérez-Mata, Nieves; Diges, Margarita

2007-10-01

428

The 'Appar' Flax Release: Origin, Distinguishing Characteristics, And Use; And A Native Alternative  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article summarizes information on the taxonomy of 'Appar', a perennial blue flax cultivar (Linum perenne L. [Linaceae]), and characteristics that distinguish it from native Lewis flax (Linum lewisii Pursh [Linaceae]). 'Appar' apparently originated as a European flax that escaped from garden cultivation. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis places 'Appar' with other collections of European Linum perenne and separates

Rosemary L Pendleton; Stanley G Kitchen; E Durant McArthur; Joann E Mudge

2008-01-01

429

Police Officer Schema of Sexual Assault Reports: Real Rape, Ambiguous Cases, and False Reports.  

PubMed

While extensive research has studied sexual assault reporting behaviors and described negative experiences with the criminal justice system among victim-survivors, fewer studies have explored police officer attitudes, knowledge, and thought processes that may affect victims' perceptions of negative interactions and unsatisfactory outcomes within reported sexual assault cases. This study explores police officer understanding of the definition of sexual assault and characteristics that influence their perceptions and response. Ten police officers were interviewed within one police department in a midsized city in the Great Lakes region. The study uses a modified grounded theory approach. Findings suggest that officers employ distinct schema of reported sexual assaults. Case characteristics, perceived credibility of the victim, and types of evidence formed categorizations of false reports, ambiguous cases, and legitimate sexual assaults. Police officers describe the ways in which perceptions of the case may or may not influence the response and point to areas for improvement within police procedure. The study findings provide insight into recommendations for improved police interviewing and response to reported sexual assaults. PMID:25395222

Venema, Rachel M

2014-11-12

430

The Correlation between Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Tumor Cellularity in Patients: A Meta-Analysis  

PubMed Central

Objective To perform a meta-analysis exploring the correlation between the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and tumor cellularity in patients. Materials and Methods We searched medical and scientific literature databases for studies discussing the correlation between the ADC and tumor cellularity in patients. Only studies that were published in English or Chinese prior to November 2012 were considered for inclusion. Summary correlation coefficient (r) values were extracted from each study, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed to investigate potential heterogeneity. Results Of 189 studies, 28 were included in the meta-analysis, comprising 729 patients. The pooled r for all studies was ?0.57 (95% CI: ?0.62, ?0.52), indicating notable heterogeneity (P<0.001). After the sensitivity analysis, two studies were excluded, and the pooled r was ?0.61 (95% CI: ?0.66, ?0.56) and was not significantly heterogeneous (P?=?0.127). Regarding tumor type subgroup analysis, there were sufficient data to support a strong negative correlation between the ADC and cellularity for brain tumors. There was no notable evidence of publication bias. Conclusions There is a strong negative correlation between the ADC and tumor cellularity in patients, particularly in the brain. However, larger, prospective studies are warranted to validate these findings in other cancer types. PMID:24244402

Bao, Jing; Xia, Yunbao; Zhang, Jiuquan; Zhang, Lin; Huang, Xuequan; Wang, Jian

2013-01-01

431

Lack of linkage of apparently dominant cleft lip (palate) to two candidate chromosomal regions.  

PubMed

Two regions were chosen for linkage studies to cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL[P]) because they are break points of a balanced translocation in a patient with severe bilateral facial clefting. We used dinucleotide repeats to test chromosomal regions 1q21 and 22q11.2 for such linkage. We studied three families with apparently dominantly inherited CL(P). Families #1 and #2 are local Caucasian families that have not been previously reported; family #3 is a Belgian family that has been previously published [DePaepe, 1989]. Significant evidence against close linkage of the dinucleotide repeats (D1S104, D22S156, D22S264) with CL(P) using a dominant model was obtained. Three other candidate regions were tested (2q37,4q31, and 8p) with the dinucleotide repeats PAX3, D4S175, and LPL respectively. The LOD scores generated at these three loci are not statistically significant for demonstrating negative linkage at these regions. However, they may be used with other informative families in the future, since LOD scores for the same model of inheritance may be added together. Negative or neutral LOD scores were generated at all informative loci using an autosomal dominant model with decreased penetrance. PMID:7635931

Pierpont, J W; Storm, A L; Erickson, R P; Kohn, B R; Pettijohn, L; DePaepe, A

1995-01-01

432

What factors underlie children's susceptibility to semantic and phonological false memories? investigating the roles of language skills and auditory short-term memory.  

PubMed

Two experiments investigated the cognitive skills that underlie children's susceptibility to semantic and phonological false memories in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott procedure (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995). In Experiment 1, performance on the Verbal Similarities subtest of the British Ability Scales (BAS) II (Elliott, Smith, & McCulloch, 1997) predicted correct and false recall of semantic lures. In Experiment 2, performance on the Yopp-Singer Test of Phonemic Segmentation (Yopp, 1988) did not predict correct recall, but inversely predicted the false recall of phonological lures. Auditory short-term memory was a negative predictor of false recall in Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2. The findings are discussed in terms of the formation of gist and verbatim traces as proposed by fuzzy trace theory (Reyna & Brainerd, 1998) and the increasing automaticity of associations as proposed by associative activation theory (Howe, Wimmer, Gagnon, & Plumpton, 2009). PMID:24632322

McGeown, Sarah P; Gray, Eleanor A; Robinson, Jamey L; Dewhurst, Stephen A

2014-06-01

433

Pore fluid pressure, apparent friction, and Coulomb failure  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Many recent studies of stress-triggered seismicity rely on a fault failure model with a single free parameter, the apparent coefficient of friction, presumed to be a material constant with possible values 0 ? ?? ? 1. These studies may present a misleading view of fault strength and the role of pore fluid pressure in earthquake failure. The parameter ?? is intended to incorporate the effects of both friction and pore pressure, but is a material constant only if changes in pore fluid pressure induced by changes in stress are proportional to the normal stress change across the potential failure plane. Although specific models of fault zones permit such a relation, neither is it known that fault zones within the Earth behave this way, nor is this behavior expected in all cases. In contrast, for an isotropic homogeneous poroelastic model the pore pressure changes are proportional to changes in mean stress, ?? is not a material constant, and ?? ? ?? ? +?. Analysis of the change in Coulomb failure stress for tectonically loaded reverse and strike-slip faults shows considerable differences between these two pore pressure models, suggesting that such models might be distinguished from one another using observations of triggered seismicity (e.g., aftershocks). We conclude that using the constant apparent friction model exclusively in studies of Coulomb failure stress is unwise and could lead to significant errors in estimated stress change and seismic hazard.

Beeler, N.M.; Simpson, R.W.; Hickman, S.H.; Lockner, D.A.

2000-01-01

434

Modeling a space-variant cortical representation for apparent motion.  

PubMed

Receptive field sizes of neurons in early primate visual areas increase with eccentricity, as does temporal processing speed. The fovea is evidently specialized for slow, fine movements while the periphery is suited for fast, coarse movements. In either the fovea or periphery discrete flashes can produce motion percepts. Grossberg and Rudd (1989) used traveling Gaussian activity profiles to model long-range apparent motion percepts. We propose a neural model constrained by physiological data to explain how signals from retinal ganglion cells to V1 affect the perception of motion as a function of eccentricity. Our model incorporates cortical magnification, receptive field overlap and scatter, and spatial and temporal response characteristics of retinal ganglion cells for cortical processing of motion. Consistent with the finding of Baker and Braddick (1985), in our model the maximum flash distance that is perceived as an apparent motion (Dmax) increases linearly as a function of eccentricity. Baker and Braddick (1985) made qualitative predictions about the functional significance of both stimulus and visual system parameters that constrain motion perception, such as an increase in the range of detectable motions as a function of eccentricity and the likely role of higher visual processes in determining Dmax. We generate corresponding quantitative predictions for those functional dependencies for individual aspects of motion processing. Simulation results indicate that the early visual pathway can explain the qualitative linear increase of Dmax data without reliance on extrastriate areas, but that those higher visual areas may serve as a modulatory influence on the exact Dmax increase. PMID:23922444

Wurbs, Jeremy; Mingolla, Ennio; Yazdanbakhsh, Arash

2013-01-01

435

Positive hepatitis B virus core antibody in HIV infection-false positive or evidence of previous infection?  

PubMed

Isolated HBV core antibody (anti-HBc) is defined as the presence of anti-HBc with a negative HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs <10?IU/l). In patients infected with HIV with isolated anti-HBc, the aim was to determine: The prevalence of isolated positive anti-HBc; The most effective method of identifying which patients have had previous Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection; The prevalence of false positive anti-HBc. HBV serology results were identified from 539 patients infected with HIV sampled between January 2010 and December 2012. In those with an isolated anti-HBc and negative anti-HBe, a second anti-HBc test was carried out using a different assay. Samples were also screened for HBV DNA. The anti-retroviral regimens at time of screening were documented. 101/539 had an isolated anti-HBc. Of these, 32 (32%) had a positive anti-HBe (including 1 equivocal) and 69(68%) were anti-HBe negative. Of those negative for anti-HBe, 32 were tested for both DNA and a second anti-HBc. Of these 26 (81%) were on cART at time of HBV testing, with 25 (78%) on ART with anti-HBV activity. The prevalence of isolated anti-HBc was 19%. Only 32% were also anti-HBe positive, whereas 97% of those anti-HBe negative were positive on a second anti-HBc assay suggesting lack of utility of anti-HBe in resolving serological quandaries. One subject (3%) had a false positive anti-HBc. There was no evidence of chronic HBV but 78% patients were on HBV-suppressive combination anti-retroviral therapy. J. Med. Virol. 87:208-212, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25174739

Pallawela, S N S; Sonnex, C; Mabayoje, D; Bloch, E; Chaytor, S; Johnson, M A; Carne, C; Webster, D P

2015-02-01

436

Polarized negative ions  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a survey of methods, commonly in use or under development, to produce beams of polarized negative ions for injection into accelerators. A short summary recalls how the hyperfine interaction is used to obtain nuclear polarization in beams of atoms. Atomic-beam sources for light ions are discussed. If the best presently known techniques are incorporated in all stages of the source, polarized H/sup -/ and D/sup -/ beams in excess of 10 ..mu..A can probably be achieved. Production of polarized ions from fast (keV) beams of polarized atoms is treated separately for atoms in the H(25) excited state (Lamb-Shift source) and atoms in the H(1S) ground state. The negative ion beam from Lamb-Shift sources has reached a plateau just above 1 ..mu..A, but this beam current is adequate for many applications and the somewhat lower beam current is compensated by other desirable characteristics. Sources using fast polarized ground state atoms are in a stage of intense development. The next sections summarize production of polarized heavy ions by the atomic beam method, which is well established, and by optical pumping, which has recently been demonstrated to yield very large nuclear polarization. A short discussion of proposed ion sources for polarized /sup 3/He/sup -/ ions is followed by some concluding remarks.

Haeberli, W.

1981-04-01

437

Negative Pressure Wound Therapy  

PubMed Central

Executive Summary Objective This review was conducted to assess the effectiveness of negative pressure wound therapy. Clinical Need: Target Population and Condition Many wounds are difficult to heal, despite medical and nursing care. They may result from complications of an underlying disease, like diabetes; or from surgery, constant pressure, trauma, or burns. Chronic wounds are more often found in elderly people and in those with immunologic or chronic diseases. Chronic wounds may lead to impaired quality of life and functioning, to amputation, or even to death. The prevalence of chronic ulcers is difficult to ascertain. It varies by condition and complications due to the condition that caused the ulcer. There are, however, some data on condition-specific prevalence rates; for example, of patients with diabetes, 15% are thought to have foot ulcers at some time during their lives. The approximate community care cost of treating leg ulcers in Canada, without reference to cause, has been estimated at upward of $100 million per year. Surgically created wounds can also become chronic, especially if they become infected. For example, the reported incidence of sternal wound infections after median sternotomy is 1% to 5%. Abdominal surgery also creates large open wounds. Because it is sometimes necessary to leave these wounds open and allow them to heal on their own (secondary intention), some may become infected and be difficult to heal. Yet, little is known about the wound healing process, and this makes treating wounds challenging. Many types of interventions are used to treat wounds. Current best practice for the treatment of ulcers and other chronic wounds includes debridement (the removal of dead or contaminated tissue), which can be surgical, mechanical, or chemical; bacterial balance; and moisture balance. Treating the cause, ensuring good nutrition, and preventing primary infection also help wounds to heal. Saline or wet-to-moist dressings are reported as traditional or conventional therapy in the literature, although they typically are not the first line of treatment in Ontario. Modern moist interactive dressings are foams, calcium alginates, hydrogels, hydrocolloids, and films. Topical antibacterial agents—antiseptics, topical antibiotics, and newer antimicrobial dressings—are used to treat infection. The Technology Being Reviewed Negative pressure wound therapy is not a new concept in wound therapy. It is also called subatmospheric pressure therapy, vacuum sealing, vacuum pack therapy, and sealing aspirative therapy. The aim of the procedure is to use negative pressure to create suction, which drains the wound of exudate (i.e., fluid, cells, and cellular waste that has escaped from blood vessels and seeped into tissue) and influences the shape and growth of the surface tissues in a way that helps healing. During the procedure, a piece of foam is placed over the wound, and a drain tube is placed over the foam. A large piece of transparent tape is placed over the whole area, including the healthy tissue, to secure the foam and drain the wound. The tube is connected to a vacuum source, and fluid is drawn from the wound through the foam into a disposable canister. Thus, the entire wound area is subjected to negative pressure. The device can be programmed to provide varying degrees of pressure either continuously or intermittently. It has an alarm to alert the provider or patient if the pressure seal breaks or the canister is full. Negative pressure wound therapy may be used for patients with chronic and acute wounds; subacute wounds (dehisced incisions); chronic, diabetic wounds or pressure ulcers; meshed grafts (before and after); or flaps. It should not be used for patients with fistulae to organs/body cavities, necrotic tissue that has not been debrided, untreated osteomyelitis, wound malignancy, wounds that require hemostasis, or for patients who are taking anticoagulants. Review Strategy The inclusion criteria were as follows: Randomized controlled trial (RCT) with a sample size of 20 or more Human s

2006-01-01

438

Layers of 'Cape Verde' in 'Victoria Crater' (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view of Victoria crater is looking north from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cape Verde.' The dramatic cliff of layered rocks is about 50 meters (about 165 feet) away from the rover and is about 6 meters (about 20 feet) tall. The taller promontory beyond that is about 100 meters (about 325 feet) away, and the vista beyond that extends away for more than 400 meters (about 1300 feet) into the distance. This is an enhanced false color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

2006-01-01

439

Layers of 'Cabo Frio' in 'Victoria Crater' (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This view of 'Victoria crater' is looking southeast from 'Duck Bay' towards the dramatic promontory called 'Cabo Frio.' The small crater in the right foreground, informally known as 'Sputnik,' is about 20 meters (about 65 feet) away from the rover, the tip of the spectacular, layered, Cabo Frio promontory itself is about 200 meters (about 650 feet) away from the rover, and the exposed rock layers are about 15 meters (about 50 feet) tall. This is an enhanced false color rendering of images taken by the panoramic camera (Pancam) on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity during the rover's 952nd sol, or Martian day, (Sept. 28, 2006) using the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

2006-01-01

440

False color image of Safsaf Oasis in southern Egypt  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is a false color image of the uninhabited Safsaf Oasis in southern Egypt near the Egypt/Sudan border. It was produced from data obtained from the L-band and C-band radars that are part of the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar onboard the Shuttle Endeavour on April 9, 1994. The image is centered at 22 degrees North latitude, 29 degrees East longitude. It shows detailed structures of bedrock, and the dark blue sinuous lines are braided channels that occupy part of an old broad river valley. Virtually everything visible on this radar composite image cannot be seen either when standing on the ground or when viewing photographs or satellite images such as Landsat. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43920.

1994-01-01

441

False-color composite image of Raco, Michigan  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image is a false color composite of Raco, Michigan, centered at 46.39 north latitude and 84.88 east longitude. This image was acquired by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) on the 20th orbit of the Shuttle Endeavour. The area shown is approximately 20 kilometers by 50 kilometers. Raco is located at the eastern end of Michigan's upper peninsula, west of Sault Ste. Marie and south of Whitefish Bay on Lake Superior. In this color representation, darker areas in the image are smooth surfaces such as frozen lakes and other non-forested areas. The colors are related to the types of trees and the brightness is related to the amount of plant material covering the surface, called forest biomass. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory alternative photo number is P-43882.

1994-01-01

442

Daisy in Full Bloom on 'Mazatzal' (False Color)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This image from NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows a daisy pattern created by the rover's rock abrasion tool on a rock dubbed 'Mazatzal.' The pattern was made as the rover brushed dust away from a large enough area of the surface of the wind-scalloped, volcanic rock to match the field of view of the rover's miniature thermal emission spectrometer. As Spirit ground into the surface with the diamond cutting teeth of the rock abrasion tool, a mineral-filled fracture in the rock suggested the possible presence of past water. The circles cut by the tool are about 5 centimeters (2 inches) in diameter.

Spirit acquired this image on Sol 86 (March 31, 2004) with the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters. The image is presented here in false color that is used to bring out subtle color differences.

2004-01-01

443

False alarm recognition in hyperspectral gas plume identification  

DOEpatents

According to one embodiment, a method for analyzing hyperspectral data includes collecting first hyperspectral data of a scene using a hyperspectral imager during a no-gas period and analyzing the first hyperspectral data using one or more gas plume detection logics. The gas plume detection logic is executed using a low detection threshold, and detects each occurrence of an observed hyperspectral signature. The method also includes generating a histogram for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature which is detected using the gas plume detection logic, and determining a probability of false alarm (PFA) for all occurrences of each observed hyperspectral signature based on the histogram. Possibly at some other time, the method includes collecting second hyperspectral data, and analyzing the second hyperspectral data using the one or more gas plume detection logics and the PFA to determine if any gas is present. Other systems and methods are also included.

Conger, James L. (San Ramon, CA); Lawson, Janice K. (Tracy, CA); Aimonetti, William D. (Livermore, CA)

2011-03-29

444

Distinguishing true from false positives in genomic studies: p values.  

PubMed

Distinguishing true from false positive findings is a major challenge in human genetic epidemiology. Several strategies have been devised to facilitate this, including the positive predictive value (PPV) and a set of epidemiological criteria, known as the "Venice" criteria. The PPV measures the probability of a true association, given a statistically significant finding, while the Venice criteria grade the credibility based on the amount of evidence, consistency of replication and protection from bias. A vast majority of journals use significance thresholds to identify the true positive findings. We studied the effect of p value thresholds on the PPV and used the PPV and Venice criteria to define usable thresholds of statistical significance. Theoretical and empirical analyses of data published on AlzGene show that at a nominal p value threshold of 0.05 most "positive" findings will turn out to be false if the prior probability of association is below 0.10 even if the statistical power of the study is higher than 0.80. However, in underpowered studies (0.25) with a low prior probability of 1 × 10(-3), a p value of 1 × 10(-5) yields a high PPV (>96 %). Here we have shown that the p value threshold of 1 × 10(-5) gives a very strong evidence of association in almost all studies. However, in the case of a very high prior probability of association (0.50) a p value threshold of 0.05 may be sufficient, while for studies with very low prior probability of association (1 × 10(-4); genome-wide association studies for instance) 1 × 10(-7) may serve as a useful threshold to declare significance. PMID:23371043

Broer, Linda; Lill, Christina M; Schuur, Maaike; Amin, Najaf; Roehr, Johannes T; Bertram, Lars; Ioannidis, John P A; van Duijn, Cornelia M

2013-02-01

445

Veillonella, Firmicutes: Microbes disguised as Gram negatives  

PubMed Central

The Firmicutes represent a major component of the intestinal microflora. The intestinal Firmicutes are a large, diverse group of organisms, many of which are poorly characterized due to their anaerobic growth requirements. Although most Firmicutes are Gram positive, members of the class Negativicutes, including the genus Veillonella, stain Gram negative. Veillonella are among the most abundant organisms of the oral and intestinal microflora of animals and humans, in spite of being strict anaerobes. In this work, the genomes of 24 Negativicutes, including eight Veillonella spp., are compared to 20 other Firmicutes genomes; a further 101 prokaryotic genomes were included, covering 26 phyla. Thus a total of 145 prokaryotic genomes were analyzed by various methods to investigate the apparent conflict of the Veillonella Gram stain and their taxonomic position within the Firmicutes. Comparison of the genome sequences confirms that the Negativicutes are distantly related to Clostridium spp., based on 16S rRNA, complete genomic DNA sequences, and a consensus tree based on conserved proteins. The genus Veillonella is relatively homogeneous: inter-genus pair-wise comparison identifies at least 1,350 shared proteins, although less than half of these are found in any given Clostridium genome. Only 27 proteins are found conserved in all analyzed prokaryote genomes. Veillonella has distinct metabolic properties, and significant similarities to genomes of Proteobacteria are not detected, with the exception of a shared LPS biosynthesis pathway. The clade within the class Negativicutes to which the genus Veillonella belongs exhibits unique properties, most of which are in common with Gram-positives and some with Gram negatives. They are only distantly related to Clostridia, but are even less closely related to Gram-negative species. Though the Negativicutes stain Gram-negative and possess two membranes, the genome and proteome analysis presented here confirm their place within the (mainly) Gram positive phylum of the Firmicutes. Further studies are required to unveil the evolutionary history of the Veillonella and other Negativicutes. PMID:24976898

Vesth, Tammi; Ozen, Asl?; Andersen, Sandra C.; Kaas, Rolf Sommer; Lukjancenko, Oksana; Bohlin, Jon; Nookaew, Intawat; Wassenaar, Trudy M.; Ussery, David W.

2013-01-01

446

False Memories in Children and Adults: Age, Distinctiveness, and Subjective Experience.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Investigated developmental trends associated with the Deese/Roediger-McDermott false-memory effect, the role of distinctive information, and subjective experience of true/false memories. Found that 5-year-olds recalled more false memories than adults but no age differences in recognition of critical lures. Distinctive information reduced false

Ghetti, Simona; Qin, Jianjian; Goodman, Gail S.

2002-01-01

447

Understanding of Speaker Certainty and False-Belief Reasoning: A Comparison of Japanese and German Preschoolers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It has been repeatedly shown that when asked to identify a protagonist's false belief on the basis of his false statement, English-speaking 3-year-olds dismiss the statement and fail to attribute to him a false belief. In the present studies, we tested 3-year-old Japanese children in a similar task, using false statements accompanied by…

Matsui, Tomoko; Rakoczy, Hannes; Miura, Yui; Tomasello, Michael

2009-01-01

448

False Positivity of Non-Targeted Infections in Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests: The Case of Human African Trypanosomiasis  

PubMed Central

Background In endemic settings, diagnosis of malaria increasingly relies on the use of rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). False positivity of such RDTs is poorly documented, although it is especially relevant in those infections that resemble malaria, such as human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). We therefore examined specificity of malaria RDT products among patients infected with Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood samples of 117 HAT patients and 117 matched non-HAT controls were prospectively collected in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Reference malaria diagnosis was based on real-time PCR. Ten commonly used malaria RDT products were assessed including three two-band and seven three-band products, targeting HRP-2, Pf-pLDH and/or pan-pLDH antigens. Rheumatoid factor was determined in PCR negative subjects. Specificity of the 10 malaria RDT products varied between 79.5 and 100% in HAT-negative controls and between 11.3 and 98.8% in HAT patients. For seven RDT products, specificity was significantly lower in HAT patients compared to controls. False positive reactions in HAT were mainly observed for pan-pLDH test lines (specificities between 13.8 and 97.5%), but also occurred frequently for the HRP-2 test line (specificities between 67.9 and 98.8%). The Pf-pLDH test line was not affected by false-positive lines in HAT patients (specificities between 97.5 and 100%). False positivity was not associated to rheumatoid factor, detected in 7.6% of controls and 1.2% of HAT patients. Conclusions/Significance Specificity of some malaria RDT products in HAT was surprisingly low, and constitutes a risk for misdiagnosis of a fatal but treatable infection. Our results show the importance to assess RDT specificity in non-targeted infections when evaluating diagnostic tests. PMID:23638201

Gillet, Philippe; Mumba Ngoyi, Dieudonné; Lukuka, Albert; Kande, Viktor; Atua, Benjamin; van Griensven, Johan; Muyembe, Jean-Jacques; Jacobs, Jan; Lejon, Veerle

2013-01-01

449

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

Leung, Ka-Ngo (Hercules, CA); Ehlers, Kenneth W. (Alamo, CA)

1984-01-01

450

Negative ion source  

DOEpatents

An ionization vessel is divided into an ionizing zone and an extraction zone by a magnetic filter. The magnetic filter prevents high-energy electrons from crossing from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. A small positive voltage impressed on a plasma grid, located adjacent an extraction grid, positively biases the plasma in the extraction zone to thereby prevent positive ions from migrating from the ionizing zone to the extraction zone. Low-energy electrons, which would ordinarily be dragged by the positive ions into the extraction zone, are thereby prevented from being present in the extraction zone and being extracted along with negative ions by the extraction grid. Additional electrons are suppressed from the output flux using ExB drift provided by permanent magnets and the extractor grid electrical field.

Leung, K.N.; Ehlers, K.W.

1982-08-06

451

An Apparently Classical Case Report of Sturge-Weber Syndrome.  

PubMed

Sturge-Weber syndrome is a rare, sporadic, congenital neurocutaneous syndrome, likely due to abnormal development of the cephalic microvasculature. Symptoms and signs depend on the extent and location of the venous dysplasia. We describe a case of a 33-year-old woman presenting with drug-resistant epilepsy, chronic headache, and recurring nonepileptic seizures. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans showed severe frontoparietal right hemisphere atrophy, prevalent right frontoparietal leptomeningeal enhancement, circumscribed angioma of the left rolandic sulcus, and prominent deep venous system. We report an apparently classical Sturge-Weber syndrome and hypothesize a shared pathophysiologic mechanism for clinical symptoms. We speculate that all the main symptoms observed in our patient could be the expression of a functional imbalance between the atrophic right hemisphere and the hyperexcitable left cortex. PMID:25392004

Giannantoni, Nadia Mariagrazia; Della Marca, Giacomo; Vollono, Catello

2014-11-11

452

Apparent voluminosity of casein micelles determined by rheometry.  

PubMed

The voluminosity of casein micelles was studied by means of static rheometry. In concentrated casein micelle suspensions with fluid-like flow properties to random-close packing, the reduced viscosity was obtained and linked via the Krieger-Dougherty model of volume fraction effect. The temperature dependency of hydration was fitted in a wide temperature (5°C???35°C) and mass fraction range (0.01?w?0.16). The results of our study suggested that the voluminosity of casein micelles decreased with increasing temperature and asymptotically reached a plateau (?>30°C) as a consequence of the protein swelling and decreasing water immobilization. The obtained apparent voluminosity of native casein micelles dispersed in UF permeate was 5.0 ml g(-1) at 5°C, 4.1 ml g(-1) at 20°C, and 3.7 ml g(-1) at 35°C. PMID:22918047

Nöbel, Stefan; Weidendorfer, Konrad; Hinrichs, Jörg

2012-11-15

453

Thermodynamics of Evolving Lorentzian Wormhole at Apparent and Event Horizons  

E-print Network

We have investigated the non-static Lorentzian Wormhole model in presence of anisotropic pressure. We have presented some exact solutions of Einstein equations for anisotropic pressure case. Introducing two EoS parameters we have shown that these solutions give very rich dynamics of the universe yielding to the different expansion history of it in the $r$ - direction and in the $T$ - direction. The corresponding explicit forms of the shape function $b(r)$ is presented.We have shown that the Einstein's field equations and unified first law are equivalent for the dynamical wormhole model. The first law of thermodynamics has been derived by using the Unified first law. The physical quantities including surface gravity and the temperature are derived for the wormhole. Here we have obtained all the results without any choice of the shape function. The validity of generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics has been examined at apparent and event horizons for the evolving Lorentzian wormhole.

Ujjal Debnath; Mubasher Jamil; R. Myrzakulov; M. Akbar

2012-02-06

454

Motion capture of stationary lines by apparently moving terminators.  

PubMed

Several studies and observations of a new form of motion capture are reported: frames containing identical rows of evenly spaced vertical lines are alternated in a standard apparent-motion paradigm. However, one vertical line in the first frame has short horizontal 'terminators' attached; the terminators are shifted to a different line in the second frame. Alternation that includes an unpatterned, nonzero interstimulus interval results in perceived motion of a vertical line along with the terminators. This motion can 'cross over' other stationary vertical lines and persists when light-filled interstimulus intervals and gaps between lines and terminators are introduced. It can also be obtained with different line sizes and spacings. The present motion capture does not appear to rely on a global-frame effect. Alternative explanations are considered. PMID:10615470

Petersik, J T

1999-01-01

455

On the apparent CO2 absorption by alkaline soils  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alkaline soils in the Gubantonggut Desert were recently demonstrated socking away large quantities of CO2 in an abiotic form. This demands a better understanding of abiotic CO2 exchange in alkaline sites. Reaction of CO2 with the moisture or dew in the soil was conjectured as a potential mechanism. The main goal of this study is to determine the extent to which the dew deposition modulates Land-Atmosphere CO2 exchange at highly alkaline sites (pH ~ 10). Experiments were conducted at the most barren sites (canopy coverage < 5%) to cut down uncertainty. Dew quantities and soil CO2 fluxes were measured using a micro-lysimeters and an automated flux system (LI-COR, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA), respectively. There is an evident increase of dew deposition in nocturnal colder temperatures and decrease in diurnal warmer temperatures. Variations of soil CO2 flux are almost contrary, but the increase in diurnal warmer temperatures is obscure. It was shown that the accumulation and evaporation of dew in the soil motivates the apparent absorption and release of CO2. It was demonstrated that dew amounts in the soil has an exponential relation with the part in Fc beyond explanations of the worldwide utilized Q10 model. Therefore dew deposition in highly alkaline soils exerted a potential CO2 sink and can partly explain the apparent CO2 absorption. This implied a crucial component in the net ecosystem carbon balance (NECB) at alkaline sites which occupies approximately 5% of the Earth's land surface (7 million km). Further explorations for its mechanisms and representativeness over other arid climate systems have comprehensive perspectives in the quaternary research.

Chen, X.; Wang, W. F.

2014-02-01

456

Negation as a Specializing Operator  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel operator, based on the negation, for specializing the hypotheses inductively generated by any system that learns structural descriptions from positive and negative examples or, equivalently, learns intensional definitions of logical relations. Such a specializing operator adds the negation of one or more literals of a misclassified example to the Horn clause representation of an inconsistent

Floriana Esposito; Donato Malerba; Giovanni Semeraro

1993-01-01

457

Negativity bias and basic values.  

PubMed

Basic values explain more variance in political attitudes and preferences than other personality and sociodemographic variables. The values most relevant to the political domain are those likely to reflect the degree of negativity bias. Value conflicts that represent negativity bias clarify differences between what worries conservatives and liberals and suggest that relations between ideology and negativity bias are linear. PMID:24970450

Schwartz, Shalom H

2014-06-01

458

Factors affecting spatial variation of annual apparent Q?? of soil respiration in two warm temperate forests.  

PubMed

A range of factors has been identified that affect the temperature sensitivity (Q?? values) of the soil-to-atmosphere CO? flux. However, the factors influencing the spatial distribution of Q?? values within warm temperate forests are poorly understood. In this study, we examined the spatial variation of Q?? values and its controlling factors in both a naturally regenerated oak forest (OF) and a pine plantation (PP). Q?? values were determined based on monthly soil respiration (R(S)) measurements at 35 subplots for each stand from Oct. 2008 to Oct. 2009. Large spatial variation of Q?? values was found in both OF and PP, with their respective ranges from 1.7 to 5.12 and from 2.3 to 6.21. In PP, fine root biomass (FR) (R?=?0.50, P?=?0.002), non-capillary porosity (NCP) (R?=?0.37, P?=?0.03), and the coefficients of variation of soil temperature at 5 cm depth (CV of T?) (R?=?-0.43, P?=?0.01) well explained the spatial variance of Q??. In OF, carbon pool lability reflected by light fractionation method (LLFOC ) well explained the spatial variance of Q?? (R?=?-0.35, P?=?0.04). Regardless of forest type, LLFOC and FR correlation with the Q?? values were significant and marginally significant, respectively; suggesting a positive relationship between substrate availability and apparent Q?? values. Parameters related to gas diffusion, such as average soil water content (SWC) and NCP, negatively or positively explained the spatial variance of Q?? values. Additionally, we observed significantly higher apparent Q?? values in PP compared to OF, which might be partly attributed to the difference in soil moisture condition and diffusion ability, rather than different substrate availabilities between forests. Our results suggested that both soil chemical and physical characters contributed to the observed large Q?? value variation. PMID:23717560

Luan, Junwei; Liu, Shirong; Wang, Jingxin; Zhu, Xueling

2013-01-01

459

The influence of captopril, the nitrates and propranolol on apparent liver blood flow.  

PubMed

Indocyanine green estimated apparent liver blood flow was measured in normal volunteers following glyceryl trinitrate, propranolol, isosorbide mononitrate and captopril. Glyceryl trinitrate and propranolol significantly reduced apparent liver blood flow. Isosorbide mononitrate did not alter apparent liver blood flow or produce an additional reduction in apparent liver blood flow when combined with propranolol. Captopril did not alter apparent liver blood flow despite a significant fall in mean arterial pressure and rise in plasma renin activity. Captopril and isosorbide mononitrate if shown to reduce portal pressure, do so without a fall in apparent liver blood flow. PMID:3921045

Shepherd, A N; Hayes, P C; Jacyna, M; Morrison, L; Bouchier, I A

1985-03-01

460

Fabricated bodies: a model for the somatic false self.  

PubMed

This paper draws attention to a particular use of the body, one in which basic psychical security is achieved through a radical detachment from body vitality, necessitating the creation of a coercive regime of psychosomatic control and autostimulation for purposes of artificial enlivenment of the self. When the personality is organized predominantly along the lines of a systematic dissociation (and then pseudo-integration) of the mental and the somatic realms of psychical life, the psyche-soma undergoes a far-reaching transmutation: the desiring body is eclipsed and replaced with a fabricated body. Clinical observation of this set-up is obscured by the fact that, in these cases, the body is deployed in a 'realistic' manner, rather than in a recognizably symptomatic way. It is, ind