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1

A Closer Look at Self-Reported Suicide Attempts: False Positives and False Negatives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The validity of self-reported suicide attempt information is undermined by false positives (e.g., incidences without intent to die), or by unreported suicide attempts, referred to as false negatives. In a sample of 1,385 Austrian adults, we explored the occurrence of false positives and false negatives with detailed, probing questions. Removing…

Ploderl, Martin; Kralovec, Karl; Yazdi, Kurosch; Fartacek, Reinhold

2011-01-01

2

Pathological findings in clinically false-negative and false-positive neck dissections for oral carcinoma.  

PubMed Central

A series of 86 patients presenting with oral cancer underwent neck dissection (114 sides of neck), after preoperative staging by palpation under general anaesthesia and CT imaging. Detailed histopathological assessment of the surgical neck dissection specimens showed the incidence of clinically false-negative and false-positive assessments was 27% and 40%, respectively. Extranodal spread of metastatic carcinoma was present in 16% of clinically negative necks. The pathological findings provided plausible explanations for the clinical misdiagnosis in all 19 of the false-positive necks and in 13 of the 18 false-negative necks, where micrometastases or metastasis to nodes measuring less than 1.7 cm accounted for five and seven misdiagnosed cases, respectively. We conclude that the most stringent clinical protocols, even when supplemented by CT scanning, cannot be expected to achieve 100% accuracy. Detailed histopathological assessment provides the most reliable, currently available method of diagnosing cervical metastatic disease. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4

Woolgar, J. A.; Vaughan, E. D.; Scott, J.; Brown, J. S.

1994-01-01

3

FALSE POSITIVE” CLAIMS OF NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCES AND “FALSE NEGATIVE” DENIALS OF NEAR-DEATH EXPERIENCES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some persons who claim to have had near-death experiences (NDEs) fail research criteria for having had NDEs (“false positives”); others who deny having had NDEs do meet research criteria for having had NDEs (“false negatives”). The author evaluated false positive claims and false negative denials in an organization that promotes near-death research and in psychiatric outpatients. The frequency of false

BRUCE GREYSON

2005-01-01

4

Generalized site occupancy models allowing for false positive and false negative errors  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Site occupancy models have been developed that allow for imperfect species detection or ?false negative? observations. Such models have become widely adopted in surveys of many taxa. The most fundamental assumption underlying these models is that ?false positive? errors are not possible. That is, one cannot detect a species where it does not occur. However, such errors are possible in many sampling situations for a number of reasons, and even low false positive error rates can induce extreme bias in estimates of site occupancy when they are not accounted for. In this paper, we develop a model for site occupancy that allows for both false negative and false positive error rates. This model can be represented as a two-component finite mixture model and can be easily fitted using freely available software. We provide an analysis of avian survey data using the proposed model and present results of a brief simulation study evaluating the performance of the maximum-likelihood estimator and the naive estimator in the presence of false positive errors.

Royle, J. A.; Link, W. A.

2006-01-01

5

"False Positive" Claims of Near-Death Experiences and "False Negative" Denials of Near-Death Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Some persons who claim to have had near-death experiences (NDEs) fail research criteria for having had NDEs ("false positives"); others who deny having had NDEs do meet research criteria for having had NDEs ("false negatives"). The author evaluated false positive claims and false negative denials in an organization that promotes near-death…

Greyson, Bruce

2005-01-01

6

False-negative biopsy for testicular intraepithelial neoplasia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A routine biopsy of the contralateral testis obtained during orchiectomy for embryonal carcinoma in a 26-year-old patient was negative for testicular intraepithelial neoplasia (TIN; carcinoma in situ of the testis). However, a rebiopsy that was taken because of unexplained elevation of a-fetoprotein 15 months later proved to be positive for TIN. Six previously reported cases of false-negative testicular biopsies

K-P Dieckmann; F. Kaup; V. Loy

1992-01-01

7

Why negative meta-analyses may be false?  

PubMed

Results of meta-analyses are regarded as the highest level of evidence. A statistically non-significant effect size from a meta-analysis is typically considered true negative even in the presence of a statistically significant signal in individual studies, presumed to be false positive. Here we provide examples from neuroimaging, genetics and psychopharmacology of why meta-analyses may frequently yield false negative results from true positive findings. This may happen in situations when individual studies report findings in opposing directions, the sum of which yields a non-significant overall effect size. Such non-significant meta-analyses, which show statistical heterogeneity and include studies with opposing effect sizes do not provide an accurate estimate of the overall effect and may have lower heuristic value than individual studies. Over reliance on such meta-analyses may falsely identify certain potentially fruitful research avenues as blind alleys. PMID:23402721

Hajek, Tomas; Kopecek, Miloslav; Alda, Martin; Uher, Rudolf; Höschl, Cyril

2013-02-10

8

Risk factors for false positive and for false negative test results in screening with fecal occult blood testing.  

PubMed

Differences in the risk of a false negative or a false positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) across subgroups may affect optimal screening strategies. We evaluate whether subgroups are at increased risk of a false positive or a false negative FIT result, whether such variability in risk is related to differences in FIT sensitivity and specificity or to differences in prior CRC risk. Randomly selected, asymptomatic individuals were invited to undergo colonoscopy. Participants were asked to undergo one sample FIT and to complete a risk questionnaire. We identified patient characteristics associated with a false negative and false positive FIT results using logistic regression. We focused on statistically significant differences as well as on variables influencing the false positive or negative risk for which the odds ratio exceeded 1.25. Of the 1,426 screening participants, 1,112 (78%) completed FIT and the questionnaire; 101 (9.1%) had advanced neoplasia. 102 Individuals were FIT positive, 65 (64%) had a false negative FIT result and 66 (65%) a false positive FIT result. Participants at higher age and smokers had a significantly higher risk of a false negative FIT result. Males were at increased risk of a false positive result, so were smokers and regular NSAID users. FIT sensitivity was lower in females. Specificity was lower for males, smokers and regular NSAID users. FIT sensitivity was lower in women. FIT specificity was lower in males, smokers and regular NSAID users. Our results can be used for further evidence based individualization of screening strategies. PMID:23649826

Stegeman, Inge; de Wijkerslooth, Thomas R; Stoop, Esther M; van Leerdam, Monique; van Ballegooijen, M; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Fockens, Paul; Kuipers, Ernst J; Dekker, Evelien; Bossuyt, Patrick M

2013-06-25

9

False negative bone scan in a female runner.  

PubMed

Stress fractures are more prevalent in today's fitness cognizant society. Stress fractures of the femoral neck are common and present with specific symptoms and findings. The diagnosis is based on clinical history, physical exam, radiography, bone scintigraphy, and computed tomography (C.T.) scans. The triple-phase bone scan is the most sensitive test for the diagnosis of stress fractures and is considered the gold standard for the diagnosis of the occult stress fracture. This case presents a 42-yr-old female marathon runner who presented with hip pain and clinical symptoms indicating a stress fracture of the femoral neck. Initial radiographs and a triple-phase bone scan were negative. When symptoms persisted, a repeat x-ray revealed a femoral neck fracture of the superior surface. In spite of a false negative bone scan, clinical suspicion allowed appropriate treatment of this femoral neck stress fracture. Nondiagnosed stress fractures of the femoral neck may lead to severe disability, including avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Therefore, clinical index of suspicion is very important even if ancillary tests are nondiagnostic. PMID:8450719

Sterling, J C; Webb, R F; Meyers, M C; Calvo, R D

1993-02-01

10

[False positive and false negative reaction results based on an amplification of nucleic acids in infection diagnoses. Reasons and implications].  

PubMed

The paper discusses the most frequent causes of false positive and false negative results of reactions based on amplification of nucleic acids. All stages of the method are described beginning with sample collection up to the finishing of visualization of amplification product. The main aim objective of the publication is to draw doctors' attention to the necessity to interpret the result with criticism. We attempted also to demonstrate how to avoid false results. PMID:15517815

Kami?ska, Agnieszka; Dabrowska, Julia

2004-01-01

11

Image features of true positive and false negative cancers in screening mammograms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The location, tissue background and imaging characteristics of true positive and false negative screens of breast cancers have been studied. This data can aid decisions in optimizing the display of mammographic information with the objective of minimizing false negative screens. Screening mammograms for four groups of women were digitized; those with screen detected cancers, those with false negative interval cancers,

S Meeson; K C YOUNG; M G WALLIS; J COOKE; M L RAMSDALE; Coventry Breast; Coventry CV

2003-01-01

12

Memory for media: Investigation of false memories for negatively and positively charged public events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite a large body of false memory research, little has addressed the potential influence of an event's emotional content on susceptibility to false recollections. The Paradoxical Negative Emotion (PNE) hypothesis predicts that negative emotion generally facilitates memory but also heightens susceptibility to false memories. Participants were asked whether they could recall 20 “widely publicised” public events (half fictitious) ranging in

Stephen Porter; Kristian Taylor; Leanne ten Brinke

2008-01-01

13

Limited Agreement of Independent RNAi Screens for Virus-Required Host Genes Owes More to False-Negative than False-Positive Factors.  

PubMed

Systematic, genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) analysis is a powerful approach to identify gene functions that support or modulate selected biological processes. An emerging challenge shared with some other genome-wide approaches is that independent RNAi studies often show limited agreement in their lists of implicated genes. To better understand this, we analyzed four genome-wide RNAi studies that identified host genes involved in influenza virus replication. These studies collectively identified and validated the roles of 614 cell genes, but pair-wise overlap among the four gene lists was only 3% to 15% (average 6.7%). However, a number of functional categories were overrepresented in multiple studies. The pair-wise overlap of these enriched-category lists was high, ?19%, implying more agreement among studies than apparent at the gene level. Probing this further, we found that the gene lists implicated by independent studies were highly connected in interacting networks by independent functional measures such as protein-protein interactions, at rates significantly higher than predicted by chance. We also developed a general, model-based approach to gauge the effects of false-positive and false-negative factors and to estimate, from a limited number of studies, the total number of genes involved in a process. For influenza virus replication, this novel statistical approach estimates the total number of cell genes involved to be ?2,800. This and multiple other aspects of our experimental and computational results imply that, when following good quality control practices, the low overlap between studies is primarily due to false negatives rather than false-positive gene identifications. These results and methods have implications for and applications to multiple forms of genome-wide analysis. PMID:24068911

Hao, Linhui; He, Qiuling; Wang, Zhishi; Craven, Mark; Newton, Michael A; Ahlquist, Paul

2013-09-19

14

Limited Agreement of Independent RNAi Screens for Virus-Required Host Genes Owes More to False-Negative than False-Positive Factors  

PubMed Central

Systematic, genome-wide RNA interference (RNAi) analysis is a powerful approach to identify gene functions that support or modulate selected biological processes. An emerging challenge shared with some other genome-wide approaches is that independent RNAi studies often show limited agreement in their lists of implicated genes. To better understand this, we analyzed four genome-wide RNAi studies that identified host genes involved in influenza virus replication. These studies collectively identified and validated the roles of 614 cell genes, but pair-wise overlap among the four gene lists was only 3% to 15% (average 6.7%). However, a number of functional categories were overrepresented in multiple studies. The pair-wise overlap of these enriched-category lists was high, ?19%, implying more agreement among studies than apparent at the gene level. Probing this further, we found that the gene lists implicated by independent studies were highly connected in interacting networks by independent functional measures such as protein-protein interactions, at rates significantly higher than predicted by chance. We also developed a general, model-based approach to gauge the effects of false-positive and false-negative factors and to estimate, from a limited number of studies, the total number of genes involved in a process. For influenza virus replication, this novel statistical approach estimates the total number of cell genes involved to be ?2,800. This and multiple other aspects of our experimental and computational results imply that, when following good quality control practices, the low overlap between studies is primarily due to false negatives rather than false-positive gene identifications. These results and methods have implications for and applications to multiple forms of genome-wide analysis.

Wang, Zhishi; Craven, Mark; Newton, Michael A.; Ahlquist, Paul

2013-01-01

15

False negative sentinel node procedure established through palpation of the biopsy wound  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe our first false negative sentinel node biopsy after ceasing confirmatory axillary lymph node dissection in breast cancer. Palpation of the axilla through the biopsy wound prevented understaging.

P. J. Tanis; O. E. Nieweg; J. W. S. Merkus; J. L. Peterse; B. B. R. Kroon

2000-01-01

16

Sadder and Less Accurate? False Memory for Negative Material in Depression  

PubMed Central

Previous research has demonstrated that induced sad mood is associated with increased accuracy of recall in certain memory tasks; the effects of clinical depression, however, are likely to be quite different. We used the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm to examine the impact of clinical depression on erroneous recall of neutral and/or emotional stimuli. Specifically, we presented DRM lists that were highly associated with negative, neutral, or positive lures and compared participants diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and nondepressed control (CTL) participants on the accuracy of their recall of presented material and their false recall of never-presented lures. Compared with CTL participants, MDD participants recalled fewer words that had been previously presented but were more likely to falsely recall negative lures; there were no differences between MDD and CTL participants in false recall of positive or neutral lures. These findings indicate that depression is associated with false memories of negative material.

Joormann, Jutta; Teachman, Bethany A.; Gotlib, Ian H.

2012-01-01

17

Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring  

PubMed Central

Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups.

Hamel, Jennifer A.; Cocroft, Reginald B.

2012-01-01

18

Negative feedback from maternal signals reduces false alarms by collectively signalling offspring.  

PubMed

Within animal groups, individuals can learn of a predator's approach by attending to the behaviour of others. This use of social information increases an individual's perceptual range, but can also lead to the propagation of false alarms. Error copying is especially likely in species that signal collectively, because the coordination required for collective displays relies heavily on social information. Recent evidence suggests that collective behaviour in animals is, in part, regulated by negative feedback. Negative feedback may reduce false alarms by collectively signalling animals, but this possibility has not yet been tested. We tested the hypothesis that negative feedback increases the accuracy of collective signalling by reducing the production of false alarms. In the treehopper Umbonia crassicornis, clustered offspring produce collective signals during predator attacks, advertising the predator's location to the defending mother. Mothers signal after evicting the predator, and we show that this maternal communication reduces false alarms by offspring. We suggest that maternal signals elevate offspring signalling thresholds. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to show that negative feedback can reduce false alarms by collectively behaving groups. PMID:22787019

Hamel, Jennifer A; Cocroft, Reginald B

2012-07-11

19

Introducing bayesian thinking to high-throughput screening for false-negative rate estimation.  

PubMed

High-throughput screening (HTS) has been widely used to identify active compounds (hits) that bind to biological targets. Because of cost concerns, the comprehensive screening of millions of compounds is typically conducted without replication. Real hits that fail to exhibit measurable activity in the primary screen due to random experimental errors will be lost as false-negatives. Conceivably, the projected false-negative rate is a parameter that reflects screening quality. Furthermore, it can be used to guide the selection of optimal numbers of compounds for hit confirmation. Therefore, a method that predicts false-negative rates from the primary screening data is extremely valuable. In this article, we describe the implementation of a pilot screen on a representative fraction (1%) of the screening library in order to obtain information about assay variability as well as a preliminary hit activity distribution profile. Using this training data set, we then developed an algorithm based on Bayesian logic and Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the number of true active compounds and potential missed hits from the full library screen. We have applied this strategy to five screening projects. The results demonstrate that this method produces useful predictions on the numbers of false negatives. PMID:23720569

Wei, Xin; Gao, Lin; Zhang, Xiaolei; Qian, Hong; Rowan, Karen; Mark, David; Peng, Zhengwei; Huang, Kuo-Sen

2013-05-29

20

IMPROVING PRECISION AND REDUCING BIAS IN BIOLOGICAL SURVEYS: ESTIMATING FALSE-NEGATIVE ERROR RATES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of presence\\/absence data in wildlife management and biological surveys is widespread. There is a growing interest in quantifying the sources of error associated with these data. We show that false-negative errors (failure to record a species when in fact it is present) can have a significant impact on statistical estimation of habitat models using simulated data. Then we

Andrew J. Tyre; Brigitte Tenhumberg; Scott A. Field; Darren Niejalke; Kirsten Parris; Hugh P. Possingham

2003-01-01

21

New contributions to the prevalence of eating disorders in Spanish adolescents: detection of false negatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Backgrounds. – Although the epidemiology of Eating Disorders (ED) has been highly developed in Spain, further research considering false negatives and also the prevalence of these disorders in males are needed. They were the aims of the present study.Methods. – One thousand and seventy six adolescents (500 males and 576 females) participated in a two-stage survey. At the age of 13, apart

Teresa Rodríguez-Cano; Luis Beato-Fernández; Antonia Belmonte-Llario

2005-01-01

22

False-negative prostate needle biopsies: frequency, histopathologic features, and follow-up.  

PubMed

Little is known about the frequency, histopathologic characteristics, and clinical consequences of false-negative prostate biopsies, that is, biopsies classified as benign but containing adenocarcinoma or atypical suspicious glands [atypical small acinar proliferations (ASAP)]. Objective of this study was to evaluate false-negative prostate biopsy in a prostate cancer screening setting. Prostate biopsy sets of 196 participants of a screening trial, which had been reported as "benign" at initial diagnosis, followed by a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in a subsequent screening round were reviewed by 2 urologic pathologists. Adenocarcinoma was identified in 19 biopsy cores corresponding to 16 (8.2%) patients and ASAP in 24 cores, corresponding to 19 patients (9.7%). All missed prostate cancers were Gleason score 6 (3+3). After correction for patient selection, the overall false-negative biopsy rate was estimated to be 2.4%; 1.1% for prostate cancer; and 1.3% for ASAP. Clinicopathologic features at the time of initial biopsy and of subsequent prostate cancer diagnosis did not differ between patients with a false-negative or true benign biopsy. Relatively low number of atypical glands (<10 glands), intense intermingling with preexistent glands or lack of architectural disorganization were the most prominent risk factors for a false-negative diagnosis. Another potential pitfall was the presence of prostate cancer variants, as 1 adenocarcinoma was of foamy gland type and 3 of pseudohyperplastic type. Routine examination of at least 1 level of prostate biopsy sets at high magnification and awareness of histologic prostate cancer variants might reduce the risk of missing or misinterpreting a relevant lesion at prostate biopsy evaluation. PMID:19935058

Wolters, Tineke; van der Kwast, Theodorus H; Vissers, Cornelis J; Bangma, Chris H; Roobol, Monique; Schröder, Fritz H; van Leenders, Geert J L H

2010-01-01

23

A comparison of positive and negative apparent mobility measurements in hexane  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apparent mobilities of positive and negative charge carriers produced by razor-blade charge injectors have been measured for low fields (<2 kV cm?1) between grid electrodes in hexane. A comparison of the waveshapes of the positive and negative induced current transients indicates that two species of slow negative charge carrier were present in the liquid. The slower of the two

R J Taylor

1972-01-01

24

Eight false negative sentinel node procedures in breast cancer: what went wrong?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the false negative sentinel node procedures in patients with breast cancer at our institution.Methods: A total of 606 sentinel node biopsies were performed on 599 clinical N0 breast cancer patients between January 1997 and November 2001.Results: The axillary sentinel node revealed metastasis in 204 (36.1%) of the 565 patients in whom

S. H. Estourgie; O. E. Nieweg; R. A. Valdés Olmos; E. J. Th. Rutgers; J. L. Peterse; B. B. R. Kroon

2003-01-01

25

False negative fecal occult blood tests due to delayed sample return in colorectal cancer screening  

Microsoft Academic Search

Delayed return of immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) samples to a laboratory might cause false negatives because of hemoglobin degradation. Quantitative iFOBT's became increasingly more accepted in colorectal cancer screening. Therefore, we studied the effects of delay between sampling and laboratory delivery on iFOBT performance. IFOBT positivity (>or=50 ng\\/ml hemoglobin) in colorectal cancer screening participants without delay between sampling

Leo G. M. van Rossum; Anne F. van Rijn; Martijn G. H. van Oijen; Paul Fockens; Robert J. F. Laheij; Andre L. M. Verbeek; Jan B. M. J. Jansen; Evelien Dekker

2009-01-01

26

Follow-up of cases with false-negative pathologic sentinel nodes in breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The clinical practice of sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer patients started in 1999 in our hospital, to obviate\\u000a unnecessary axillary lymph node dissection. The present study examines the pathological false-negative cases on intraoperative\\u000a sentinel lymph node investigations and evaluates their outcomes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The subjects consisted of 183 cases with clinically node-negative breast cancer who had undergone sentinel node biopsy.

Takeshi Nagashima; Hiroshi Yagata; Takashi Nikaido; Fumio Horiuchi; Keiji Koda; Masaru Miyazaki

2004-01-01

27

Human papillomavirus in false negative archival cervical smears: implications for screening for cervical cancer.  

PubMed Central

AIM--To assess the value of detecting human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in false negative archival cervical smears in population based screening programmes for cervical cancer. METHODS--Cytomorphologically classified false negative archival Pap smears (n = 27) taken from 18 women up to six years before cervical cancer was diagnosed were blindly mixed with 89 smears from hospital patients with a variety of gynaecological complaints and tested for HPV by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Corresponding cervical cancer biopsy specimens were also available for HPV analysis. Neither the examining cytopathologist nor the molecular biologist was aware of the study design. RESULTS--HPV DNA was detected in the smears of 16 patients with cervical cancer missed previously by cytology. HPV 16 and 18 were found predominantly in those smears taken up to six years before the diagnosis of cervical cancer. The smears of the two remaining patients were reclassified as inadequate for cytology or contained no suitable DNA for PCR. In 15 patients the same HPV type could be found in the smears and the cervical cancer biopsy specimens. CONCLUSIONS--The results indicate that high risk HPV types can be detected in archival smears classified as false negative on cytology and that cytological screening errors may be reduced if combined with PCR testing for HPV.

Walboomers, J M; de Roda Husman, A M; Snijders, P J; Stel, H V; Risse, E K; Helmerhorst, T J; Voorhorst, F J; Meijer, C J

1995-01-01

28

The false-negative rate of sentinel node biopsy in patients with breast cancer: a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

Background/Purpose In sentinel node surgery for breast cancer, procedural accuracy is assessed by calculating the false-negative rate. It is important to measure this since there are potential adverse outcomes from missing node metastases. We performed a meta-analysis of published data to assess which method has achieved the lowest false-negative rate. Methods We found 3588 articles concerning sentinel nodes and breast cancer published from 1993 through mid-2011; 183 articles met our inclusion criteria. The studies described in these 183 articles included a total of 9306 patients. We grouped the studies by injection material and injection location. The false-negative rates were analyzed according to these groupings and also by the year in which the articles were published. Results There was significant variation in the false-negative rate over time with a trend to higher rates over time. There was significant variation related to injection material. The use of blue dye alone was associated with the highest false-negative rate. Inclusion of a radioactive tracer along with blue dye resulted in a significantly lower false-negative rate. Although there were variations in the false-negative rate according to injection location, none were significant. This meta-analysis also indicates a significant change over time in the false-negative rate. Discussion/Conclusions The use of blue dye should be accompanied by a radioactive tracer to achieve a significantly lower false-negative rate. Location of injection did not have a significant impact on the false-negative rate. Given the limitations of acquiring appropriate data, the false-negative rate should not be used as a metric for training or quality control.

Pesek, Sarah; Ashikaga, Taka; Krag, Lars Erik; Krag, David

2012-01-01

29

Microplate biochemical determination of Russian VX: influence of admixtures and avoidance of false negative results.  

PubMed

Two microplate spectroscopic methods for determination of organophosphates, based on inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, were further improved and evaluated for determination of the chemical weapon agent Russian VX (RVX) in aqueous solutions. The linear range of the Hestrin method (74.8-1120 pM) was 3.1-fold wider than that of the Ellman method (37.4-374 pM). Limits of detection and quantification of RVX for both methods were below the maximal allowable concentration of RVX in water-soluble washouts. One of the early products of RVX hydrolysis, N,N-diethylaminoethanethiol, like reduced glutathione, caused false negative results in the Ellman method at concentrations exceeding 10 ?M; individual blanks were necessary to eliminate the effect. The Hestrin method showed greater specificity (~3 orders of magnitude) for analysis of samples containing mercaptans. A major product of RVX degradation, 2,2'-dithiobis(N,N-diethylethanamine), caused significant inhibition of AChE at concentrations of ?0.1 mM (P<0.01) and had a false positive effect at higher concentrations (?2 mM). For environmental monitoring of RVX, the method based on Hestrin is preferred over that based on Ellman, principally because the former method was less sensitive to interference from major admixtures and did not give rise to potentially dangerous false negative results. PMID:22381367

Prokofieva, Daria S; Jenkins, Richard O; Goncharov, Nikolay V

2012-02-27

30

Development of peptide receptor binding assays: methods to avoid false negatives.  

PubMed

Selection of appropriate ligand receptor binding assay conditions is critical for peptides, where the possibility of obtaining false negative results is pertinent due to their inherent adsorption and instability characteristics, as well as high response-sensitivity to operational conditions. The aim of this study was thus to develop a cost-effective multivariate screening method for determination of the influence of different factors on the outcome of such studies, using (125)I-labelled vasoactive intestinal peptide binding on lung homogenate as a model. The study was divided into two parts: investigation of filtration for bound-unbound ligand separation, and screening of sample incubation variables. Experimental designs were used (including Plackett-Burman) to evaluate adsorption, total binding, non-specific binding, specific binding and (non-)specific/total binding ratio. Several significant factors were identified. For filtration, a combination of polyethylenimine and BSA filter pretreatment was best, whereas albumin-containing washing solvent negatively influenced the amount of specific bound radioligand. For sample incubation, significant effects on one or more of the studied responses were observed for several factors. Bacitracin protease inhibitor also decreased adsorption. We report here multivariate experimental designs for screening of peptide (radio)ligand receptor binding assay conditions. This approach efficiently minimizes the risk on false negative results due to inappropriate operational conditions. PMID:19706310

Vergote, Valentijn; Van Dorpe, Sylvia; Verbeken, Mathieu; Burvenich, Christian; Van de Wiele, Christophe; Banks, William A; De Spiegeleer, Bart

2009-08-23

31

False-negative dipyridamole-thallium-201 myocardial imaging after caffeine infusion  

SciTech Connect

The vasodilator effect of intravenously administered dipyridamole may be caused by an increase in endogenous plasma adenosine levels. The authors evaluated the effect of caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, on the diagnostic results of dipyridamole-201Tl myocardial imaging in eight patients with coronary artery disease. Caffeine infusion significantly attenuated the dipyridamole-induced fall in blood pressure and the accompanied increase in heart rate. The infusion of dipyridamole alone resulted in chest pain and ST-segment depressions on the electrocardiogram in four patients, whereas none of these problems occurred when the tests were repeated after caffeine. In six of eight patients, caffeine was responsible for false-negative dipyridamole-201Tl tests. Semiquantitive scores of the dipyridamole-induced 201Tl perfusion defects were decreased by caffeine from 9.0 {plus minus} 0.9 to 2.0 {plus minus} 1.1 points (p less than 0.05). Computerized analysis revealed a caffeine-mediated reduction in the percent reversibility of the images from 46% {plus minus} 16% to 6% {plus minus} 10% (p less than 0.05). They conclude that the use of caffeinated products prior to dipyridamole-201Tl testing may be responsible for false-negative findings.

Smits, P.; Corstens, F.H.; Aengevaeren, W.R.; Wackers, F.J.; Thien, T. (University Hospital Nijmegen (Netherlands))

1991-08-01

32

Minimising Immunohistochemical False Negative ER Classification Using a Complementary 23 Gene Expression Signature of ER Status  

PubMed Central

Background Expression of the oestrogen receptor (ER) in breast cancer predicts benefit from endocrine therapy. Minimising the frequency of false negative ER status classification is essential to identify all patients with ER positive breast cancers who should be offered endocrine therapies in order to improve clinical outcome. In routine oncological practice ER status is determined by semi-quantitative methods such as immunohistochemistry (IHC) or other immunoassays in which the ER expression level is compared to an empirical threshold[1], [2]. The clinical relevance of gene expression-based ER subtypes as compared to IHC-based determination has not been systematically evaluated. Here we attempt to reduce the frequency of false negative ER status classification using two gene expression approaches and compare these methods to IHC based ER status in terms of predictive and prognostic concordance with clinical outcome. Methodology/Principal Findings Firstly, ER status was discriminated by fitting the bimodal expression of ESR1 to a mixed Gaussian model. The discriminative power of ESR1 suggested bimodal expression as an efficient way to stratify breast cancer; therefore we identified a set of genes whose expression was both strongly bimodal, mimicking ESR expression status, and highly expressed in breast epithelial cell lines, to derive a 23-gene ER expression signature-based classifier. We assessed our classifiers in seven published breast cancer cohorts by comparing the gene expression-based ER status to IHC-based ER status as a predictor of clinical outcome in both untreated and tamoxifen treated cohorts. In untreated breast cancer cohorts, the 23 gene signature-based ER status provided significantly improved prognostic power compared to IHC-based ER status (P?=?0.006). In tamoxifen-treated cohorts, the 23 gene ER expression signature predicted clinical outcome (HR?=?2.20, P?=?0.00035). These complementary ER signature-based strategies estimated that between 15.1% and 21.8% patients of IHC-based negative ER status would be classified with ER positive breast cancer. Conclusion/Significance Expression-based ER status classification may complement IHC to minimise false negative ER status classification and optimise patient stratification for endocrine therapies.

Li, Qiyuan; Eklund, Aron C.; Juul, Nicolai; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Workman, Christopher T.; Richardson, Andrea L.; Szallasi, Zoltan; Swanton, Charles

2010-01-01

33

How are false negative cases perceived by mammographers? Which abnormalities are misinterpreted and which go undetected?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A radiographic 'false negative' or a case which has been 'missed' can be categorised in terms of errors of search (where gaze does not fall upon the abnormality); detection (a perceptual error where the abnormality may be physically 'seen' but remains undetected) and misinterpretation (a perceptual error whereby an abnormality, although detected, is not deemed worthy of further assessment). This study aims to investigate perceptual errors in mammographic film-reading and will focus on the later of the two error types, namely errors of misinterpretation and errors of non-detection. Previous research has shown, on a self-assessment scheme of recent and difficult breast-screening cases, that certain feature types are susceptible to errors of misinterpretation and others to errors of non-detection. This self assessment scheme, 'PERFORMS' (Personal Performance in Mammographic Screening), is undertaken by the majority (at present over 90%) of breast-screening mammographers in the UK Breast Screening Programme. The scheme is completed biannually and confidentially and participants receive immediate and detailed feedback on their performance. Feedback from the scheme includes information detailing their false negative decisions including case classifications (benign or malignant), feature type (masses, calcification, asymmetries, architectural distortions and others) and case perception error (percentage of misinterpretation and percentage of non-detection). Results from a recent round of PERFORMS (n=506), revealed that certain feature types had significantly higher percentages of error overall (including architectural distortion and asymmetries), and that these feature types also showed significant differences for error type. Implications for real-life screening practice were explored using real-life self-reported data on years of screening experience.

Scott, Hazel J.; Gale, Alastair G.; Hill, Sue

2008-04-01

34

Interference between wave modes may contribute to the apparent negative dispersion observed in cancellous bone  

PubMed Central

Previous work has shown that ultrasonic waves propagating through cancellous bone often exhibit a linear-with-frequency attenuation coefficient, but a decrease in phase velocity with frequency (negative dispersion) that is inconsistent with the causality-imposed Kramers–Kronig relations. In the current study, interfering wave modes similar to those observed in bone are shown to potentially contribute to the observed negative dispersion. Biot theory, the modified Biot–Attenborogh model, and experimental results are used to aid in simulating multiple-mode wave propagation through cancellous bone. Simulations entail constructing individual wave modes exhibiting a positive dispersion using plausible velocities and amplitudes, and then summing the individual modes to create mixed-mode output wave forms. Results of the simulations indicate that mixed-mode wave forms can exhibit negative dispersion when analyzed conventionally under the assumption that only one wave is present, even when the individual interfering waves exhibit positive dispersions in accordance with the Kramers–Kronig relations. Furthermore, negative dispersion is observed when little or no visual evidence of interference exists in the time-domain data. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for the observed negative dispersion could aid in determining the true material properties of cancellous bone, as opposed to the apparent properties measured using conventional data analysis techniques.

Anderson, Christian C.; Marutyan, Karen R.; Holland, Mark R.; Wear, Keith A.; Miller, James G.

2008-01-01

35

In vivo adulteration: excess fluid ingestion causes false-negative marijuana and cocaine urine test results.  

PubMed

Drug users can be highly motivated to obtain negative results on urine drug tests and may attempt to subvert the process by in vivo adulteration. The use of herbal products for "flushing" and "detoxification" is frequently advertised as an effective means of passing drug tests. Accordingly, a study was designed to determine the effects of ingestion of two herbal products, Naturally Klean Herbal Tea and Golden Seal root, and a diuretic medication, hydrochlorothiazide. The herbal tea was prepared in 1 gal of water as specified by the manufacturer. All other products were consumed with 1 gal of water. Two control conditions in which the subject consumed only water (1 gal; 12 oz) were included. The 1-gal liquid treatments were divided into 4-qt aliquots, and 1-qt was consumed each hour for 4 h. All treatments were begun approximately 22 h after smoking of a marijuana cigarette (3.58% THC) and 22 h after intranasal administration of cocaine hydrochloride. Following all treatments with excess fluid, creatinine and specific gravity dropped in 1.5-2.0 h to levels indicative of diluted specimens (<20 mg/dL creatinine, <1.003 specific gravity). Marijuana and cocaine metabolite concentrations by immunoassay (EMIT and TDx) also dropped rapidly, and the results frequently switched from positive to negative. By the time subjects had consumed 2 qt of any fluid, they were generally producing false-negative results. For example, ingestion of excess water produced dilute specimens (<20 mg/dL creatinine; <1.003 specific gravity) in an average time plus or minus the standard error of the mean of 1.47 +/- 0.17 h (N = 5) and 1.45 +/- 0.2 h (N = 5) following smoked marijuana and intranasal cocaine, respectively. In comparison, ingestion of Klean Tea produced dilute specimens in 1.36 +/- 0.07 h (N = 4) and 1.39 +/- 0.11 h (N = 4) following marijuana and cocaine administration. Recovery of urine test measures to pre-treatment levels occurred over a period of 8-10 h. Average detection times for marijuana metabolite appeared to be slightly shorter following ingestion of 1 gal of fluids compared with ingestion of 12 oz of water as a result of the time of testing being near the end of the cannabinoid metabolite excretion phase. Consequently, negative cannabinoid results induced by fluid ingestion rarely returned to positive after excess water was eliminated. In contrast, negative cocaine results reverted to positive quickly after the dilution effects disappeared. It was concluded that excess water ingestion can produce false-negative test results, but the claims of herbal products to be an aid in passing a urine test appear to be unfounded. PMID:9788521

Cone, E J; Lange, R; Darwin, W D

1998-10-01

36

Dimethoate affects cholinesterases in Folsomia candida and their locomotion--false negative results of an avoidance behaviour test.  

PubMed

The main mode of action of organophosphate insecticides is to inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which causes neuromuscular paralysis leading ultimately to death. The collembolan Folsomia candida is an important and standard test species in ecotoxicology, where effects on avoidance behaviour are assessed. Being related to insects they represent potential targets of insecticides such as the organophosphate dimethoate. In the present study we exposed F. candida to dimethoate having 2 main aims: 1) to assess the ability of F. candida to avoid it, and 2) to assess its effect on the cholinergic synapses to explore the link. For the latter, several sub-steps were needed: a) to characterise the existing ChE types and b) assess ChE activity (via exposure in vitro and in vivo). No avoidance was observed within the tested concentration range (0-0.32-1-3.2-10-32 mg/kg), in fact an apparent "attraction" (more animals on the spiked side) was observed. As expected, there was a significant decrease of AChE activities (AChE being the main ChE type) with an increase of dimethoate dose (IC(50)=1.4 mg/kg). Further, post-exposure video records showed that organisms were still alive in the spiked soil but lacked the locomotion ability (immobilised). The AChE inhibition correlated positively with immobilisation. Hence, this observation also showed that the apparent "attraction" behaviour observed in the avoidance test is rather a direct effect of not being able to escape due to paralysis hence a false-negative avoidance. This can constitute a confounding factor in an avoidance behaviour test and consequent interpretation, which is not accounted for at present. PMID:23246662

Pereira, Cecília M S; Novais, Sara C; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Amorim, Mónica J B

2012-12-12

37

Technetium-99m white blood cell imaging: False-negative result in salmonella osteomyelitis associated with sickle cell disease  

SciTech Connect

The authors report a case of sickle cell anemia associated osteomyelitis where the Tc-99m white blood cell imaging was negative, and bone imaging showed increased uptake in the region in question. The reasons for the possible false-negative image are discussed.

Guze, B.H.; Hawkins, R.A.; Marcus, C.S.

1989-02-01

38

HPV presence precedes abnormal cytology in women developing cervical cancer and signals false negative smears  

PubMed Central

In a retrospective case–control study, we investigated high-risk HPV DNA presence by general primer GP5+/6+ PCR in the last normal cervical smear in the patient archives (i.e. baseline smear) of 57 women who later developed cervical cancer. Also, normal cervical smears of 114 age-matched control women were analysed. High-risk HPV DNA was detected in 37 of the 57 (65%) baseline smears of the case women, and 7 (6%) of 114 smears of the control women (OR 28, 95% Cl 11–72). The HPV positive subsequent smears and cervical cancer biopsies of the case women contained the same HPV type as was detected in the baseline smear. After cytological revision, the baseline smears of 48 case women (84%) were reclassified as abnormal, 33 (69%) of which scored high-risk HPV DNA positive. Ultimately, an undisputable normal baseline smear was found in only 10 case women. In 7 (70%) of them this smear was HPV positive, whereas only 7 (7%) of 104 revised, undisputable normal smears of control women were high-risk HPV positive (OR 32, 95% Cl 6.8–153). The results showed that (1) high-risk HPV presence precedes abnormal cytology in women who develop cervical cancer, and (2) high-risk HPV testing signals false-negative smears of women at risk of cervical cancer. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com

Zielinski, G D; Snijders, P J F; Rozendaal, L; Voorhorst, F J; Linden, H C van der; Runsink, A P; Schipper, F A de; Meijer, C J L M

2001-01-01

39

False-negative results in routine combined first-trimester screening for down syndrome in Finland.  

PubMed

We analyzed the frequency and possible causes of false-negative (Fn) screening results in first-trimester combined Down syndrome screening in Finland. During the study period (May 1, 2002, to December 31, 2008), 76,949 voluntary women with singleton pregnancies participated in screening. Maternal age at screening, week of gestation, levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), free ?-human chorionic gonadotropin (f?-hCG), and nuchal translucency (NT) measurement were compared and statistically analyzed between true-positive (Tp) and Fn cases. There were a total of 188 Down syndrome cases (1:409) in the screened population; 154 confirmed Tp and 34 Fn cases. Most Fn cases (n = 25) occurred at 12 + 0 to 13 + 6 weeks' gestation and only nine Fn cases presented between 10 and 11 weeks' gestation. According to the logistic regression analysis, the NT measurement was the most powerful discriminating factor in Fn screening results and accounted for 37.2% of Fn results. The second most important factor was f?-hCG, adding 14.0% to R(2), followed by PAPP-A, which contributed a further 14.3%. The chosen parameters explain 83.9% of Fn results, but 16.1% remain due to unknown factor(s). All investigated parameters contributed to Fn screening results, but fetal NT was the most discriminating factor leading to an Fn screening result. PMID:21833895

Marttala, Jaana; Kaijomaa, Marja; Ranta, Jenni; Dahlbacka, Anna; Nieminen, Pentti; Tekay, Aydin; Kokkonen, Hannaleena; Laitinen, Paivi; Ignatius, Jaakko; Romppanen, Jarkko; Heinonen, Seppo; Jarvela, Ilkka; Heikkila, Matti; Yla-Outinen, Ari; Ulander, Veli-Matti; Hamalainen, Esa; Ryynanen, Markku

2011-08-10

40

A Highly Sensitive Telomerase Activity Assay that Eliminates False-Negative Results Caused by PCR Inhibitors.  

PubMed

An assay for telomerase activity based on asymmetric polymerase chain reaction (A-PCR) on magnetic beads (MBs) and subsequent application of cycling probe technology (CPT) is described. In this assay, the telomerase reaction products are immobilized on MBs, which are then washed to remove PCR inhibitors that are commonly found in clinical samples. The guanine-rich sequences (5'-(TTAGGG)n-3') of the telomerase reaction products are then preferentially amplified by A-PCR, and the amplified products are subsequently detected via CPT, where a probe RNA with a fluorophore at the 5' end and a quencher at the 3' end is hydrolyzed by RNase H in the presence of the target DNA. The catalyst-mediated cleavage of the probe RNA enhances fluorescence from the 5' end of the probe. The assay allowed us to successfully detect HeLa cells selectively over normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cells. Importantly, this selectivity produced identical results with regard to detection of HeLa cells in the absence and presence of excess NHDF cells; therefore, this assay can be used for practical clinical applications. The lower limit of detection for HeLa cells was 50 cells, which is lower than that achieved with a conventional telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay. Our assay also eliminated false-negative results caused by PCR inhibitors. Furthermore, we show that this assay is appropriate for screening among G-quadruplex ligands to find those that inhibit telomerase activity. PMID:24071983

Yaku, Hidenobu; Murashima, Takashi; Miyoshi, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Naoki

2013-09-25

41

Factors that affect the false-negative outcomes of fine-needle aspiration biopsy in thyroid nodules.  

PubMed

Background. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors that affect the false-negative outcomes of fine-needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) in thyroid nodules. Methods. Thyroid nodules that underwent FNAB and surgery between August 2005 and January 2012 were analyzed. FNABs were taken from the suspicious nodules regardless of nodule size. Results. Nodules were analyzed in 2 different groups: Group 1 was the false-negatives (n = 81) and Group 2 was the remaining true-positives, true-negatives, and false-positives (n = 649). A cytopathologist attended in 559 (77%) of FNAB procedures. There was a positive correlation between the nodule size and false-negative rates, and the absence of an interpreting cytopathologist for the examination of the FNAB procedure was the most significant parameter with a 76-fold increased risk of false-negative results. Conclusion. The contribution of cytopathologists extends the time of the procedure, and this could be a difficult practice in centres with high patient turnovers. We currently request the contribution of a cytopathologist for selected patients whom should be followed up without surgery. PMID:23935616

Agcaoglu, Orhan; Aksakal, Nihat; Ozcinar, Beyza; Sarici, Inanc S; Ercan, Gulcin; Kucukyilmaz, Meltem; Yanar, Fatih; Ozemir, Ibrahim A; Kilic, Berkay; Caglayan, Kasim; Yilmazbayhan, Dilek; Salmaslioglu, Artur; Issever, Halim; Ozarmagan, Selcuk; Erbil, Yesim

2013-06-27

42

False-Negative Rate and Recovery Efficiency Performance of a Validated Sponge Wipe Sampling Method  

PubMed Central

Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces varies due to sampling and analysis methods, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. Tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge wipe method using Bacillus atrophaeus spores. Testing evaluated the effects of spore concentration and surface material on recovery efficiency (RE), false-negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD), and their uncertainties. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show roughly linear dependences of RE and FNR on surface roughness, with smoother surfaces resulting in higher mean REs and lower FNRs. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3.10 × 10?3 to 1.86 CFU/cm2). Stainless steel had the lowest mean FNR (0.123), and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD90 (?1 CFU detected 90% of the time) varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm2 on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. It may be possible to improve sampling results by considering surface roughness in selecting sampling locations and interpreting spore recovery data. Further, FNR values (calculated as a function of concentration and surface material) can be used presampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance and postsampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

Piepel, Greg F.; Boucher, Raymond; Tezak, Matt; Amidan, Brett G.; Einfeld, Wayne

2012-01-01

43

AhR/Arnt:XRE interaction: Turning false negatives into true positives in the modified yeast one-hybrid assay  

PubMed Central

Given the frequent occurrence of false negatives in yeast genetic assays, it is both interesting and practical to address the possible mechanisms of false negatives and, more important, to turn false negatives into true positives. We recently developed a modified yeast one-hybrid system (MY1H) useful for investigation of simultaneous protein–protein and protein:DNA interactions in vivo. We coexpressed the basic helix–loop–helix/Per-Arnt-Sim (bHLH/PAS) domains of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (Arnt)—namely NAhR and NArnt, respectively—which are known to form heterodimers and bind the cognate xenobiotic response element (XRE) sequence both in vitro and in vivo, as a positive control in the study of XRE-binding proteins in the MY1H system. However, we observed negative results, that is, no positive signal detected from binding of the NAhR/NArnt heterodimer and XRE site. We demonstrate that by increasing the copy number of XRE sites integrated into the yeast genome and using double GAL4 activation domains, the NAhR/NArnt heterodimer forms and specifically binds the cognate XRE sequence, an interaction that is now clearly detectable in the MY1H system. This methodology may be helpful in troubleshooting and correcting false negatives that arise from unproductive transcription in yeast genetic assays.

Chen, Gang; Shin, Jumi A.

2009-01-01

44

Occurrence of False Positive Results for the Detection of Carbapenemases in Carbapenemase-Negative Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate detection of the production of carbapenemase in Enterobacteriaceae isolates is crucial for infection control measures and the appropriate choice of antimicrobial therapy. In this study, we investigated the frequency of false positive results for the detection of carbapenemases in carbapenemase-negative Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates by the modified Hodge test (MHT). Three hundred and one E. coli

Peng Wang; Shudan Chen; Yan Guo; Zizhong Xiong; Fupin Hu; Demei Zhu; Yingyuan Zhang

2011-01-01

45

False negative findings in intraoperative SEP monitoring: analysis of 658 consecutive neurosurgical cases and review of published reports  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To determine the sensitivity of intraoperative monitoring in neurosurgical operations using somatosensory evoked potentials and to identify reasons for false negative findings and possible settings with an increased risk for monitoring failure. Methods: SEP monitoring of 658 neurosurgical operations was analysed. The target of monitoring was the function of a hemisphere in 251 cases, the brain stem in 198 cases, and the spinal cord in 209 cases. Results: In 27 cases (4.1%), monitoring was classified as false negative. Further analysis showed that five of these patients had experienced delayed neurological damage. Among the remaining 22 false negative cases, 14 had a minor neurological deficit and eight had severe neurological damage. Overall sensitivity and negative predictive value of SEP monitoring was 79% and 96%, respectively. For the detection of severe neurological damage the corresponding figures were 91% and 98%. Sensitivity of monitoring varied depending on the target of monitoring and the type of lesion. Monitoring was less likely to detect neurological damage in surgery for infratentorial tumours with brain stem compression, small lesions of the motor cortex, and small vessel damage during aneurysm surgery. Conclusions: SEP monitoring has acceptable sensitivity for detecting neurological damage during different neurosurgical procedures. Distinct settings with an increased risk of monitoring failure can be identified. In these cases measures to enhance the sensitivity of monitoring should be considered.

Wiedemayer, H; Sandalcioglu, I; Armbruster, W; Regel, J; Schaefer, H; Stolke, D

2004-01-01

46

A study of false positive and negative responses in the tube leucocyte adherence inhibition (tube LAI) assay.  

PubMed Central

A panel of 5 different breast-cancer and 2 other cancer extracts was used to clarify the false-negative responses in patients with Stage I and II breast cancer and the false-positive responses in control subjects. Most patients with Stage I and II breast cancer who had an initially negative LAI response were positive when tested against the panel. The false negatives occurred because of (1) the experimental errors of the assay; (2) changes in the antigenic strength of the extracts; (3) antigenic heterogeneity of a few tumours and (4) lack of tumour-specific reactivity of the host. 3% of control subjects had a false-positive LAI response. The leucocytes from most of these positive patients did not react to the panel of antigens, and hence the false positives appeared to result from experimental error. In-hospital patients with benign breast disease had a 12% positivity rate when initially assayed, and 63% of these patients reacted to the panel of breast-cancer antigens. Those patients with benign breast disease who reacted to the panel of breast-cancer antigens had cytophilic anti-breast-cancer antibody in their serum; their leucocyte LAI reactivity was blocked in an immunologically specific manner by serum from advanced Stage IV breast-cancer patients; their leucocytes reacted to extracts of breast cancer and not fibrocystic breast tissue; their leucocyte reactivity was blocked by isolated breast-cancer TSA that was linked to beta 2 microglobulin, but not by normal breast-tissue proteins; and the kinetics of the LAI response after excision of the breast mass was identical to that observed with breast-cancer patients after mastectomy. In these patients, the breast tissue within the breast lump expressed breast TSA similar to unequivocal breast cancer.

O'Connor, R.; MacFarlane, J. K.; Murray, D.; Thomson, D. M.

1978-01-01

47

Significant reduction in the rate of false-negative cervical smears with neural network-based technology (PAPNET Testing System).  

PubMed

False-negative cervical Pap smears may lead to disability or death from carcinoma of the uterine cervix. New computer technology has led to the development of an interactive, neural network-based vision instrument to increase the accuracy of cervical smear screening. The instrument belongs to a new class of medical devices designed to provide computer-aided diagnosis (CADx). To test the instrument's performance, 487 archival negative smears (index smears) from 228 women with biopsy-documented high-grade precancerous lesions or invasive cervical carcinoma (index women) were retrieved from the files of 10 participating laboratories that were using federally mandated quality assurance procedures. Samples of sequential negative smears (total 9,666) were retrieved as controls. The instrument was used to identify evidence of missed cytological abnormalities, including atypical squamous or glandular cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS, AGUS), low-grade or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL, HSIL) and carcinoma. Using the instrument, 98 false-negative index smears were identified in 72 of the 228 index women (31.6%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 25% to 38%). Disregarding the debatable categories of ASCUS or AGUS, there were 44 women whose false-negative smears disclosed squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) or carcinoma (19.3%; 95% CI: 14.2% to 24.4%). Unexpectedly, SILs were also identified in 127 of 9,666 control negative smears (1.3%; 95% CI: 1.1% to 1.5%). Compared with historical performance data from several participating laboratories, the instrument increased the detection rate of SILs in control smears by 25% and increased the yield of quality control rescreening 5.1 times (P < 0.0001). These data provide evidence that conventional screening and quality control rescreening of cervical smears fail to identify a substantial number of abnormalities. A significant improvement in performance of screening of cervical smears could be achieved with the use of the instrument described in this report. PMID:9343327

Koss, L G; Sherman, M E; Cohen, M B; Anes, A R; Darragh, T M; Lemos, L B; McClellan, B J; Rosenthal, D L; Keyhani-Rofagha, S; Schreiber, K; Valente, P T

1997-10-01

48

Significant reduction in the rate of false-negative cervical smears with neural network-based technology (PAPNET testing system)  

Microsoft Academic Search

False-negative cervical Pap smears may lead to disability or death from carcinoma of the uterine cervix. New computer technology has led to the development of an interactive, neural network-based vision instrument to increase the accuracy of cervical smear screening. The instrument belongs to a new class of medical devices designed to provide computer-aided diagnosis (CADx).To test the instrument's performance, 487

Leopold G Koss; Mark E Sherman; Michael B Cohen; Allen R Anes; Teresa M Darragh; Luciano B Lemos; Betty Jane McClellan; Dorothy L Rosenthal; Sedigheh Keyhani-Rofagha; Klaus Schreiber; Philip T Valente

1997-01-01

49

A gender difference in the false recall of negative words: Women DRM more than men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in susceptibility to associative memory illusions in the Deese\\/Roediger–McDermott paradigm were investigated using negative and neutral word lists. Women (n=50) and men (n=50) studied 20 lists of 12 words that were associates of a non-presented critical lure. Ten lists were associates of negatively valenced lures (e.g., cry, evil) and ten were associates of neutral lures (e.g., chair, slow).

Stephen A. Dewhurst; Rachel J. Anderson; Lauren M. Knott

2012-01-01

50

A gender difference in the false recall of negative words: Women DRM more than men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gender differences in susceptibility to associative memory illusions in the Deese\\/Roediger–McDermott paradigm were investigated using negative and neutral word lists. Women (n=50) and men (n=50) studied 20 lists of 12 words that were associates of a non-presented critical lure. Ten lists were associates of negatively valenced lures (e.g., cry, evil) and ten were associates of neutral lures (e.g., chair, slow).

Stephen A. Dewhurst; Rachel J. Anderson; Lauren M. Knott

2011-01-01

51

Performance of the Amplicor human immunodeficiency virus type 1 PCR and analysis of specimens with false-negative results.  

PubMed Central

Over a 4-year period, the Roche Amplicor kit was used in a United Kingdom reference laboratory for the detection or confirmation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 infection, particularly in infants born to HIV-infected mothers. Of 408 specimens from adults and older children tested, the 122 seronegative specimens were all Amplicor negative. Of the 286 seropositive specimens, 268 were Amplicor positive. On the basis of these results, the Amplicor assay has a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 93.7%. In addition, for 247 specimens from infants and young children, serological results may not have been diagnostic because of placental transfer of maternal antibodies. Forty-eight were Amplicor positive, and of the 199 Amplicor-negative specimens, 19 were assumed to be false negative on the basis of clinical data, serological markers (including p24 antigen), and/or results for previous or follow-up specimens. This represents a sensitivity of 75% for the Amplicor test for specimens from patients under 2 years of age. Of these 37 false-negative specimens plus 2 specimens from other laboratories, 31 could be characterized by amplifying extracted material from them by an in-house nested gag PCR spanning the Amplicor target region. The amplicons were sequenced and found to represent subtypes A (35.5%), B (22.6%), C (22.6%), D (16.1%), and G (3.2%). False-negative results by the Amplicor assay may be ascribed to low-target copy number, the physical behavior of one primer (SK462), and sequence variation in the target region of the other primer (SK431).

Barlow, K L; Tosswill, J H; Parry, J V; Clewley, J P

1997-01-01

52

Yale study finds false negative tests in breast cancer may lead to wrong drug choice:  

Cancer.gov

A team of Yale Cancer Center researchers has confirmed that between 10-20% of breast cancers classified as Estrogen Receptor (ER) negative are really positive. Understanding when and why breast cancers may be misclassified has important implications for treatment and outcomes for women diagnosed with breast cancer.

53

False negative bone scans in pediatric sepsis of the axial skeleton  

SciTech Connect

The early diagnosis of disk space infections and sacroiliitis in children can be difficult because of protean presenting symptoms, nonspecific laboratory studies, and normal plain films. Technetium phosphate scintigraphy has been reported as a diagnostic method with an accuracy of up to 100% in some series. In this case report we present two patients with negative technetium bone scans in the face of active infection, illustrating the need to pursue the diagnosis using other modalities.

Perloff, K.G.; Glancy, G.L.; Perloff, J.J.

1988-12-01

54

Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Breast Cancer: Impact of the Number of Sentinel Nodes Removed on the False-Negative Rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have demonstrated that sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy can accurately determine axillary nodal status for breast cancer, but unacceptably high false negative rates have also been reported. Attention has been focused on factors associated with improved accuracy. We have previously shown that injection of blue dye in combination with radioactive colloid reduces the false negative rate compared

Sandra L Wong; Michael J Edwards; Celia Chao; Todd M Tuttle; R Dirk Noyes; David J Carlson; Patricia B Cerrito; Kelly M McMasters

55

Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer: impact of the number of sentinel nodes removed on the false-negative rate 1 1 No competing interests declared  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:Numerous studies have demonstrated that sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy can accurately determine axillary nodal status for breast cancer, but unacceptably high false negative rates have also been reported. Attention has been focused on factors associated with improved accuracy. We have previously shown that injection of blue dye in combination with radioactive colloid reduces the false negative rate compared with

Sandra L Wong; Michael J Edwards; Celia Chao; Todd M Tuttle; R. Dirk Noyes; David J Carlson; Patricia B Cerrito; Kelly M McMasters

2001-01-01

56

False-positive results with hepatitis B virus DNA dot-hybridization in hepatitis B surface antigen-negative specimens.  

PubMed Central

Three serum samples derived from healthy hepatitis B surface antigen-negative subjects were found to be reactive for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA sequences when assayed by DNA dot-hybridization. All three results were shown to be due to the presence of sequences which reacted with residual bacterial plasmid vector sequences in the DNA probe, and no evidence of HBV markers was demonstrated in the sera. This is the first report of a false-positive result with the HBV DNA dot-hybridization assay. Images

Diegutis, P S; Keirnan, E; Burnett, L; Nightingale, B N; Cossart, Y E

1986-01-01

57

Characterization of a reduction-sensitive factor from human plasma responsible for apparent false activity in competitive assays for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen.  

PubMed

Addition of reducing agents to competitive assays for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) eliminates apparent false reactivity of specimens obtained from individuals with no prior history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and without other serological markers of HBV infection. We have purified and characterized a reduction-sensitive factor (RSF) isolated from the plasma of several volunteer blood donors. Column fractions were assayed fro anti-HBc by using a highly sensitive chemiluminescence assay with a detection of 0.15 Paul Ehrlich Institut units per ml at 50% inhibition. Gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300 indicated that reductant-sensitive samples possessed anti-HBc activity that was associated with immunoglobulin M (IgM), whereas reductant-stable activity was associated with IgG. Gel filtration followed by metal chelate affinity chromatography resulted in a 55-fold purification and demonstrated that RSF activity copurifies with IgM. RSF was recovered from a recombinant hepatitis B core antigen matrix and shown to be an IgM species by immunoblot. In addition, RSF activity coeluted with IgM protein from anti-mu-chain Sepharose. Discrepancies between enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay procedures for anti-HBc (Corzyme and Corab, respectively: Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.) appear to be due to the relative sensitivity of the enzyme immunoassay for IgM anti-HBc (sevenfold greater than the radioimmunoassay using a specific panel). The biological basis for the occurrence of low levels of nonspecific IgM anti-HBc reactivity in individuals not previously exposed to HBV remains to be elucidated. PMID:2037679

Robertson, E F; Weare, J A; Randell, R; Holland, P V; Madsen, G; Decker, R H

1991-03-01

58

Characterization of a reduction-sensitive factor from human plasma responsible for apparent false activity in competitive assays for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen.  

PubMed Central

Addition of reducing agents to competitive assays for antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) eliminates apparent false reactivity of specimens obtained from individuals with no prior history of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and without other serological markers of HBV infection. We have purified and characterized a reduction-sensitive factor (RSF) isolated from the plasma of several volunteer blood donors. Column fractions were assayed fro anti-HBc by using a highly sensitive chemiluminescence assay with a detection of 0.15 Paul Ehrlich Institut units per ml at 50% inhibition. Gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300 indicated that reductant-sensitive samples possessed anti-HBc activity that was associated with immunoglobulin M (IgM), whereas reductant-stable activity was associated with IgG. Gel filtration followed by metal chelate affinity chromatography resulted in a 55-fold purification and demonstrated that RSF activity copurifies with IgM. RSF was recovered from a recombinant hepatitis B core antigen matrix and shown to be an IgM species by immunoblot. In addition, RSF activity coeluted with IgM protein from anti-mu-chain Sepharose. Discrepancies between enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay procedures for anti-HBc (Corzyme and Corab, respectively: Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, Ill.) appear to be due to the relative sensitivity of the enzyme immunoassay for IgM anti-HBc (sevenfold greater than the radioimmunoassay using a specific panel). The biological basis for the occurrence of low levels of nonspecific IgM anti-HBc reactivity in individuals not previously exposed to HBV remains to be elucidated.

Robertson, E F; Weare, J A; Randell, R; Holland, P V; Madsen, G; Decker, R H

1991-01-01

59

Apparent Culture-Negative Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis Caused by Peptostreptococcus magnus  

PubMed Central

In two patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Peptostreptococcus magnus, blood cultures in the BacT/Alert and BACTEC 9240 systems were signal negative. The capability of the BacT/Alert system to detect various Peptostreptococcus species was assessed. P. magnus and P. anaerobius could not be detected, and subcultures remained negative. The growth in conventional media of these two species and other Peptostreptococcus species was similar.

van der Vorm, Eric R.; Dondorp, Arjen M.; van Ketel, Ruud J.; Dankert, Jacob

2000-01-01

60

Apparent Culture-Negative Prosthetic Valve Endocarditis Caused by Peptostreptococcus magnus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In two patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis due to Peptostreptococcus magnus, blood cultures in the BacT\\/Alert and BACTEC 9240 systems were signal negative. The capability of the BacT\\/Alert system to detect various Peptostreptococcus species was assessed. P. magnus and P. anaerobius could not be detected, and sub- cultures remained negative. The growth in conventional media of these two species and

ERIC R. VAN DER VORM; ARJEN M. DONDORP; RUUD J. VAN KETEL; JACOB DANKERT

2000-01-01

61

Detectability of the Eurasian otter by standard surveys: an approach using marking intensity to estimate false negative rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

False negative detections may bias the surveys for rare species and reduce the reliability of models based on the proportion of occupied patches. We assessed the detectability of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra through the standard survey method by analysing the detection history of 28 sampling stretches surveyed monthly between March 2001 and January 2003. Each survey negative for otter spraints was considered as a false negative if the otter had been recorded in the previous and/or following month (respectively, cFN and FN). Otter marking intensity (MI) (MI=N° of spraints per kilometre) was calculated and assumed to represent an index of its relative abundance. Spraints were found in 81.7% of all surveys. Yearly MI ranged from 1.02 to 101.4 spraints per kilometre. In 2002, mean MI was significantly lower than in the previous year, while no clear seasonal trend could be outlined. The minimum number of surveys required to establish the occurrence of the otter, as estimated by a probability model, was 2.6 and was inversely related to MI. For a sub-sample of 18 sampling stretches, the relation between the frequency of both cFN and FN and five variables of potential interest for otters was tested by means of stepwise linear multiple regressions, yielding two highly significant models, which both included only MI as the explanatory variable. The frequency of both FN and cFN was correlated to MI and the resulting equations used to assess the percentage of surveys positive for otters in both years. After the correction for non-detections, otter site occupancy did not vary between the 2 years, except for one river when applying the more conservative estimate of false negatives (cFN). Multiple visits and the assessing of MI should become standard components of otter surveys. This approach has broad applicability and may be applied to assess the large-scale distribution of other rare or elusive mammalian carnivores.

Balestrieri, Alessandro; Remonti, Luigi; Prigioni, Claudio

2011-01-01

62

Detectability of the Eurasian otter by standard surveys: an approach using marking intensity to estimate false negative rates.  

PubMed

False negative detections may bias the surveys for rare species and reduce the reliability of models based on the proportion of occupied patches. We assessed the detectability of the Eurasian otter Lutra lutra through the standard survey method by analysing the detection history of 28 sampling stretches surveyed monthly between March 2001 and January 2003. Each survey negative for otter spraints was considered as a false negative if the otter had been recorded in the previous and/or following month (respectively, cFN and FN). Otter marking intensity (MI) (MI=N° of spraints per kilometre) was calculated and assumed to represent an index of its relative abundance. Spraints were found in 81.7% of all surveys. Yearly MI ranged from 1.02 to 101.4 spraints per kilometre. In 2002, mean MI was significantly lower than in the previous year, while no clear seasonal trend could be outlined. The minimum number of surveys required to establish the occurrence of the otter, as estimated by a probability model, was 2.6 and was inversely related to MI. For a sub-sample of 18 sampling stretches, the relation between the frequency of both cFN and FN and five variables of potential interest for otters was tested by means of stepwise linear multiple regressions, yielding two highly significant models, which both included only MI as the explanatory variable. The frequency of both FN and cFN was correlated to MI and the resulting equations used to assess the percentage of surveys positive for otters in both years. After the correction for non-detections, otter site occupancy did not vary between the 2 years, except for one river when applying the more conservative estimate of false negatives (cFN). Multiple visits and the assessing of MI should become standard components of otter surveys. This approach has broad applicability and may be applied to assess the large-scale distribution of other rare or elusive mammalian carnivores. PMID:21080153

Balestrieri, Alessandro; Remonti, Luigi; Prigioni, Claudio

2010-11-16

63

Negative heterosis not apparent in 22-year-old hybrids of Picea mariana and Picea rubens  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work from the 1970s indicated that, relative to either parent species, crosses between red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) and black spruce (Picea mariana (Mill.) B.S.P.) were inferior with respect to both growth and photosynthesis. We re-examined the hypothesis that there is negative heterosis in hybrids of red and black spruce using 22-year-old trees in a common garden study planted on

Kurt H. Johnsen; John E. Major; Judy Loo; Donald McPhee

1998-01-01

64

Urine testing for cocaine abuse: metabolic and excretion patterns following different routes of administration and methods for detection of false-negative results.  

PubMed

Although cocaine is typically the second-most identified drug of abuse in drug-testing programs, there is surprisingly little quantitative information on excretion patterns following different routes of administration. This report details the urinary excretion and terminal elimination kinetics for cocaine and eight metabolites [benzoylecgonine (BZE), ecgonine methylester (EME), norcocaine (NCOC), benzoylnorecgonine (BNE), m-hydroxy-BZE (m-HO-BZE), p-hydroxy-BZE (p-HO-BZE), m-hydroxy-COC (m-HO-COC), and p-hydroxy-COC (p-HO-COC)]. Six healthy males were administered approximately equipotent doses of cocaine by the intravenous (IV), smoking (SM), and inhalation (IN) routes of administration. Urine specimens were collected for a minimum of three days after drug administration, screened by immunoassay (EMIT and TDX, 300 ng/mL), and analyzed by GC-MS. Mean Cmax values were generally as follows: BZE > EME > COC > BNE approximately p-HO-BZE > m-HO-BZE > m-HO-COC > NCOC > p-HO-COC. Elimination half-lives for cocaine and metabolites were generally shorter following s.m., intermediate after i.v., and longest following i.n. administration. m-HO-BZE demonstrated the longest half-life (mean range 7.0-8.9 h), and cocaine displayed the shortest (2.4-4.0 h). Mean detection times were extended progressively by lowering cutoff concentrations. The maximum increases were approximately 55% at 50 ng/mL for the TDx assay (e.g., the detection time for the last consecutive positive changed from 32.8 h to 50.6 h for i.v. cocaine) and up to 39% for GC-MS at a cutoff concentration of 40 ng/mL (e.g., the detection time for the last consecutive positive changed from 34.8 h to 48.1 h for i.v. cocaine). Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for EMIT and TDx were comparable at the 300-ng/mL cutoff concentration; but at lower cutoff concentrations, predictive values of positive results for TDx were diminished indicating a higher risk of false-positive results, that is, positive results that failed to meet administrative cutoff criteria. Detection of positive results was significantly enhanced through the use of the "Zero Threshold Criteria Method", a method developed by the authors to differentiate false-negatives from true-negatives. The method was based on establishing mean immunoassay response (MIR) baselines and variance (SD) in assays of drug-free specimens. Arbitrary thresholds (MIR + 0.5 SD, MIR + 1 SD, MIR + 2 SD) were utilized to evaluate all negative specimens. Apparent true positives were identified by the presence of BZE at or above 40% GC-MS cutoff concentrations. With these criteria, up to 111 false-negative specimens were confirmed as true-positive specimens; this was in addition to the 208 true positives detected at recommended cutoff concentrations. This represents a 50% increase in positive detection rates through the use of this methodology. Such methodology is recommended for further evaluation by drug-testing programs for enhancement of positive detection rates and as an alternative to creatinine testing for dealing with dilute specimens that test negative by initial tests, but contain quantifiable concentrations of drugs of abuse. PMID:14606991

Cone, Edward J; Sampson-Cone, Angela H; Darwin, William D; Huestis, Marilyn A; Oyler, Jonathan M

2003-10-01

65

Breast Cancer Detected on an Incident (Second or Subsequent) Round of Screening MRI: MRI Features of False-Negative Cases.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the nature of breast cancers detected in the incident round of screening MRI to determine MRI features of early breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS. From 2003 to 2012, there were 16 incident breast cancers in 15 patients on screening MRI, including nine cancers that were retrospectively identifiable on the prior MRI (false-negative [FN] cancers at prior screening examination). We evaluated the BI-RADS features of these incident cancers in previous and current MRI scans. RESULTS. Of 16 incident cancers, there were 11 mass lesions (69%), three foci (19%), and two nonmasslike enhancement lesions (13%). Of the nine FN cancers (five foci, two masses, and two nonmasslike enhancement lesions), all showed increases in size on the current examination (median, 80% increase); four lesions showed rapid uptake kinetics on prior examinations, and five lesions showed a change in kinetic pattern from slow to rapid uptake. Among the five foci, one focus was isolated and four foci were in a background of other foci, where two foci could be distinguished for their higher signal intensity. CONCLUSION. On screening MRI, any lesion that increases in size, has rapid uptake kinetics or a change in kinetic pattern, or is an isolated focus or focus showing more enhancement than other foci should be viewed with a high degree of suspicion, and a biopsy should be considered. PMID:24147491

Yamaguchi, Ken; Schacht, David; Newstead, Gillian M; Bradbury, Angela R; Verp, Marion S; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Abe, Hiroyuki

2013-11-01

66

ELECTROMAGNETISM, OPTICS, ACOUSTICS, HEAT TRANSFER, CLASSICAL MECHANICS, AND FLUID DYNAMICS: Apparently Negative Electric Polarization in Shaped Graded Dielectric Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By using a first-principles approach, we investigate the pathway of electric displacement fields in shaped graded dielectric materials existing in the form of cloaks with various shapes. We reveal a type of apparently negative electric polarization (ANEP), which is due to a symmetric oscillation of the paired electric permittivities, satisfying a sum rule. The ANEP does not occur for a spherical cloak, but appears up to maximum as a/b (the ratio between the long and short principal axis of the spheroidal cloak) is about 5/2, and eventually disappears as a/b becomes large enough corresponding to a rod-like shape. Further, the cloaking efficiency is calculated for different geometrical shapes and demonstrated to closely relate to the ANEP. The possibility of experiments is discussed. This work has relevance to dielectric shielding based on shaped graded dielectric materials.

Fan, Chun-Zhen; Gao, Yin-Hao; Gao, Yong; Huang, Ji-Ping

2010-05-01

67

False negative rate and other performance measures of a sponge-wipe surface sampling method for low contaminant concentrations.  

SciTech Connect

Recovery of spores from environmental surfaces is known to vary due to sampling methodology, techniques, spore size and characteristics, surface materials, and environmental conditions. A series of tests were performed to evaluate a new, validated sponge-wipe method. Specific factors evaluated were the effects of contaminant concentrations and surface materials on recovery efficiency (RE), false negative rate (FNR), limit of detection (LOD) - and the uncertainties of these quantities. Ceramic tile and stainless steel had the highest mean RE values (48.9 and 48.1%, respectively). Faux leather, vinyl tile, and painted wood had mean RE values of 30.3, 25.6, and 25.5, respectively, while plastic had the lowest mean RE (9.8%). Results show a roughly linear dependence of surface roughness on RE, where the smoothest surfaces have the highest mean RE values. REs were not influenced by the low spore concentrations tested (3 x 10{sup -3} to 1.86 CFU/cm{sup 2}). The FNR data were consistent with RE data, showing a trend of smoother surfaces resulting in higher REs and lower FNRs. Stainless steel generally had the lowest mean FNR (0.123) and plastic had the highest mean FNR (0.479). The LOD{sub 90} varied with surface material, from 0.015 CFU/cm{sup 2} on stainless steel up to 0.039 on plastic. Selecting sampling locations on the basis of surface roughness and using roughness to interpret spore recovery data can improve sampling. Further, FNR values, calculated as a function of concentration and surface material, can be used pre-sampling to calculate the numbers of samples for statistical sampling plans with desired performance, and post-sampling to calculate the confidence in characterization and clearance decisions.

Einfeld, Wayne; Krauter, Paula A.; Boucher, Raymond M.; Tezak, Mathew; Amidan, Brett G. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA); Piepel, Greg F. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA)

2011-05-01

68

Effects of Maternal Negativity and of Early and Recent Recurrent Depressive Disorder on Children's False Belief Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research has shown that children of depressed mothers are at risk for problems in a variety of developmental domains; however, little is known about the effects of maternal depression on children's emerging understanding of false beliefs. In this study, 3 false belief tasks were administered to 5-year-old children whose mothers had either met…

Rohrer, Lisa M.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.; Maughan, Angeline

2011-01-01

69

Dogs Cannot Bark: Event-Related Brain Responses to True and False Negated Statements as Indicators of Higher-Order Conscious Processing  

PubMed Central

The present study investigated event-related brain potentials elicited by true and false negated statements to evaluate if discrimination of the truth value of negated information relies on conscious processing and requires higher-order cognitive processing in healthy subjects across different levels of stimulus complexity. The stimulus material consisted of true and false negated sentences (sentence level) and prime-target expressions (word level). Stimuli were presented acoustically and no overt behavioral response of the participants was required. Event-related brain potentials to target words preceded by true and false negated expressions were analyzed both within group and at the single subject level. Across the different processing conditions (word pairs and sentences), target words elicited a frontal negativity and a late positivity in the time window from 600–1000 msec post target word onset. Amplitudes of both brain potentials varied as a function of the truth value of the negated expressions. Results were confirmed at the single-subject level. In sum, our results support recent suggestions according to which evaluation of the truth value of a negated expression is a time- and cognitively demanding process that cannot be solved automatically, and thus requires conscious processing. Our paradigm provides insight into higher-order processing related to language comprehension and reasoning in healthy subjects. Future studies are needed to evaluate if our paradigm also proves sensitive for the detection of consciousness in non-responsive patients.

Herbert, Cornelia; Kubler, Andrea

2011-01-01

70

Factors affecting failed localisation and false-negative rates of sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer – results of the ALMANAC validation phase  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryBackground  Despite the widespread application of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for early stage breast cancer, there is a wide variation in reported test performance characteristics. A major aim of this prospective multicentre validation study was to quantify detection and false-negative rates of SLNB and evaluate factors influencing them.Methods  Eight-hundred and fourty-two patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer underwent SLNB according to

Amit Goyal; Robert G Newcombe; Alok Chhabra; Robert E Mansel

2006-01-01

71

False Negatives in Sexual Abuse Disclosure InterviewsIncidence and Influence of Caretaker's Belief in Abuse in Cases of Accidental Abuse Discovery by Diagnosis of STD  

Microsoft Academic Search

Verbal disclosure of abuse in a specialized interview was studied in a sample of 28 children, ages 3 to menarche, who presented with purely physical complaints later diagnosed as a sexually transmitted disease, in the absence of any known prior disclosure or suspicion of sexual abuse. Only 43% gave any verbal confirmation of sexual contact. Fifty-seven percent were “false negatives.”

LOUANNE LAWSON; MARK CHAFFIN

1992-01-01

72

Detection of IgM responses to bovine respiratory syncytial virus by indirect ELISA following experimental infection and reinfection of calves: abolition of false positive and false negative results by pre-treatment of sera with protein-G agarose.  

PubMed

The IgM responses in three panels of sera generated by infection and reinfection of calves with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) were measured by indirect ELISA (I-ELISA). The effect of depleting serum IgG by pre-treatment with protein G agarose (PGA) was evaluated. Following primary infection a weak IgM response was detected in the untreated sera of 3 out of 4 calves with maternally derived antibody (MDA). Both the magnitude and duration of the specific IgM responses in these calves were increased by pre-treatment with PGA. In addition, the fourth infected calf tested gave a single positive IgM result following PGA treatment. Transient or persistent IgM responses which were abolished by pre-treatment of sera with PGA were detected in 4/8 calves following reinfection. These were considered to be false positive results, consistent with the influence of IgM rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF). One of these calves and two additional calves showed transient increases in IgM which were resistant to PGA treatment. These were considered to represent specific IgM responses to reinfection. The results indicate the ability of PGA treatment to eliminate both false positive and false negative results and emphasise the necessity for controlling the influence of IgM-RF in IgM-specific indirect ELISAs. PMID:10522785

Graham, D A; Foster, J C; Mawhinney, K A; Elvander, M; Adair, B M; Merza, M

1999-10-01

73

A mathematical model for the effect of a false-negative sentinel node biopsy on breast cancer mortality: a tool for everyday use  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the concerns of using sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is the risks of a false-negative result (FNR). We have created a mathematical\\u000a model to estimate the effects of FNR on mortality because of excess local recurrence and adjuvant therapy inappropriately\\u000a withheld. With a FNR of 9.7%, the absolute effect on 10-year mortality is estimated to be less than 0.6%

Jayant S Vaidya; John A Dewar; Douglas C Brown; Alastair M Thompson

2005-01-01

74

A Novel Finding of Sentinel Lymphatic Channels in Early Stage Breast Cancer Patients: Which May Influence Detection Rate and False-Negative Rate of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy  

PubMed Central

Background The exact lymphatic drainage pattern of the breast hasn't been explained clearly. The aim of this study was to investigate the sentinel lymphatic channels (SLCs) in the cancerous breast. Whether the type of SLCs influenced the detection rate and false-negative rate of SLNB was also assessed. Methodology and Principal Findings Mimic SLNB was performed in 110 early-stage breast cancer patients with subareolar injection of blue methylene dye intraoperatively. Postoperatively, 110 specimens of modified radical mastectomy were examined for all blue SLCs after additional injection of methylene dye in peritumoral parenchyma. Interestingly, three types of SLCs, including superficial sentinel lymphatic channel (SSLC), deep sentinel lymphatic channel (DSLC), and penetrating sentinel lymphatic channel (PSLC) were found in 107 patients. Six lymphatic drainage patterns based on the three types of SLCs were observed in these 107 patients. The proportions of the drainage pattern SSLC, DSLC, PSLC, SSLC+DSLC, SSLC+PSLC, and DSLC+PSLC in the breast were 43%, 0.9%, 15.9%, 33.6%, 3.7% and 2.8%, respectively. The lymphatic drainage pattern in the breast was a significant risk factor for unsuccessful identification of sentinel lymph nodes (P<0.001) and false-negatives in SLNB (P?=?0.034) with the subareolar injection technique. Conclusions Three kinds of SLCs are the basis of six lymphatic drainage patterns from the breast to the axilla. The type of SLCs is the factor influencing the detection rate and false-negative rate of SLNB. These findings suggest the optimal injection technique of the combination of superficial and deep injection in SLNB procedures. Future clinical studies are needed to confirm our novel findings.

Xia, Tiansong; Zha, Xiaoming; Ding, Qiang; Liu, Xiaoan; Zhao, Yi; Ling, Lijun; Chen, Lin; Wang, Shui

2012-01-01

75

Negative dispersion in bone: The role of interference in measurements of the apparent phase velocity of two temporally overlapping signals  

PubMed Central

In this study the attenuation coefficient and dispersion (frequency dependence of phase velocity) are measured using a phase sensitive (piezoelectric) receiver in a phantom in which two temporally overlapping signals are detected, analogous to the fast and slow waves typically found in measurements of cancellous bone. The phantom consisted of a flat and parallel Plexiglas™ plate into which a step discontinuity was milled. The phase velocity and attenuation coefficient of the plate were measured using both broadband and narrowband data and were calculated using standard magnitude and phase spectroscopy techniques. The observed frequency dependence of the phase velocity and attenuation coefficient exhibit significant changes in their frequency dependences as the interrogating ultrasonic field is translated across the step discontinuity of the plate. Negative dispersion is observed at specific spatial locations of the plate at which the attenuation coefficient rises linearly with frequency, a behavior analogous to that of bone measurements reported in the literature. For all sites investigated, broadband and narrowband data (3–7 MHz) demonstrate excellent consistency. Evidence suggests that the interference between the two signals simultaneously reaching the phase sensitive piezoelectric receiver is responsible for this negative dispersion.

Bauer, Adam Q.; Marutyan, Karen R.; Holland, Mark R.; Miller, James G.

2008-01-01

76

The Arden grating acuity: effect of age and optical factors in the normal patient, with prediction of the false negative rate in screening for glaucoma.  

PubMed Central

The Arden contrast sensitivity was investigated in normal persons, cataract eyes, and glaucoma patients with only plates 6 and 7 of the Arden grating set. The mean score of 90 normal eyes on plate 6 was 9.50 +/- 2.29 and on plate 7 it was 9.44 +/- 2.32. The mean scores of patients with early cataract were 14.51 +/- 2.99 on plate 6 and 13.74 +/- 3.26 on plate 7. Several patients with cataract missed the grating on plate 7. Mydriasis and miosis did not affect contrast sensitivity in normal eyes. Mydriasis significantly improved contrast sensitivity in patients with early cataract. In patients with glaucoma enlargement of the pupil from a miotic state to near normal size significantly improved contrast sensitivity. It is predicted that if plate 6 and 7 are used in mass screening for glaucoma in the elderly, there will be a false negative rate of 83% for plate 6 and 52% for plate 7. A false positive rate of 17% is predicted.

Singh, H.; Cooper, R. L.; Alder, V. A.; Crawford, G. J.; Terrell, A.; Constable, I. J.

1981-01-01

77

Standardization of Estrogen Receptor Measurement in Breast Cancer Suggests False-Negative Results Are a Function of Threshold Intensity Rather Than Percentage of Positive Cells  

PubMed Central

Purpose Recent misclassification (false negative) incidents have raised awareness concerning limitations of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in assessment of estrogen receptor (ER) in breast cancer. Here we define a new method for standardization of ER measurement and then examine both change in percentage and threshold of intensity (immunoreactivity) to assess sources for test discordance. Methods An assay was developed to quantify ER by using a control tissue microarray (TMA) and a series of cell lines in which ER immunoreactivity was analyzed by quantitative immunoblotting in parallel with the automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) method of quantitative immunofluorescence (QIF). The assay was used to assess the ER protein expression threshold in two independent retrospective cohorts from Yale and was compared with traditional methods. Results Two methods of analysis showed that change in percentage of positive cells from 10% to 1% did not significantly affect the overall number of ER-positive patients. The standardized assay for ER on two Yale TMA cohorts showed that 67.9% and 82.5% of the patients were above the 2-pg/?g immunoreactivity threshold. We found 9.1% and 19.7% of the patients to be QIF-positive/IHC-negative, and 4.0% and 0.4% to be QIF-negative/IHC-positive for a total of 13.1% and 20.1% discrepant cases when compared with pathologists' judgment of threshold. Assessment of survival for both cohorts showed that patients who were QIF-positive/pathologist-negative had outcomes similar to those of patients who had positive results for both assays. Conclusion Assessment of intensity threshold by using a quantitative, standardized assay on two independent cohorts suggests discordance in the 10% to 20% range with current IHC methods, in which patients with discrepant results have prognostic outcomes similar to ER-positive patients with concordant results.

Welsh, Allison W.; Moeder, Christopher B.; Kumar, Sudha; Gershkovich, Peter; Alarid, Elaine T.; Harigopal, Malini; Haffty, Bruce G.; Rimm, David L.

2011-01-01

78

An MTANN CAD for detection of polyps in false-negative CT colonography cases in a large multicenter clinical trial: preliminary results  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A major challenge in computer-aided detection (CAD) of polyps in CT colonography (CTC) is the detection of "difficult" polyps which radiologists are likely to miss. Our purpose was to develop a CAD scheme incorporating massive-training artificial neural networks (MTANNs) and to evaluate its performance on false-negative (FN) cases in a large multicenter clinical trial. We developed an initial polyp-detection scheme consisting of colon segmentation based on CT value-based analysis, detection of polyp candidates based on morphologic analysis, and quadratic discriminant analysis based on 3D pattern features for classification. For reduction of false-positive (FP) detections, we developed multiple expert 3D MTANNs designed to differentiate between polyps and seven types of non-polyps. Our independent database was obtained from CTC scans of 155 patients with polyps from a multicenter trial in which 15 medical institutions participated nationwide. Among them, about 45% patients received FN interpretations in CTC. For testing our CAD, 14 cases with 14 polyps/masses were randomly selected from the FN cases. Lesion sizes ranged from 6-35 mm, with an average of 10 mm. The initial CAD scheme detected 71.4% (10/14) of "missed" polyps, including sessile polyps and polyps on folds, with 18.9 (264/14) FPs per case. The MTANNs removed 75% (197/264) of the FPs without loss of any true positives; thus, the performance of our CAD scheme was improved to 4.8 (67/14) FPs per case. With our CAD scheme incorporating MTANNs, 71.4% of polyps "missed" by radiologists in the trial were detected correctly, with a reasonable number of FPs.

Suzuki, Kenji; Sheu, Ivan; Epstein, Mark; Kohlbrenner, Ryan; Lostumbo, Antonella; Rockey, Don C.; Dachman, Abraham H.

2008-04-01

79

Risks associated with magnetic resonance imaging and cervical collar in comatose, blunt trauma patients with negative comprehensive cervical spine computed tomography and no apparent spinal deficit  

PubMed Central

Introduction In blunt trauma, comatose patients (Glasgow Coma Scale score 3 to 8) with a negative comprehensive cervical spine (CS) computed tomography assessment and no apparent spinal deficit, CS clearance strategies (magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] and prolonged cervical collar use) are controversial. Methods We conducted a literature review to delineate risks for coma, CS instability, prolonged cervical collar use, and CS MRI. Results Based on our search of the literature, the numbers of functional survivor patients among those who had sustained blunt trauma were as follows: 350 per 1,000 comatose unstable patients (increased intracranial pressure [ICP], hypotension, hypoxia, or early ventilator-associated pneumonia); 150 per 1,000 comatose high-risk patients (age > 45 years or Glasgow Coma Scale score 3 to 5); and 600 per 1,000 comatose stable patients (not unstable or high risk). Risk probabilities for adverse events among unstable, high-risk, and stable patients were as follows: 2.5% for CS instability; 26.2% for increased intensive care unit complications with prolonged cervical collar use; 9.3% to 14.6% for secondary brain injury with MRI transportation; and 20.6% for aspiration during MRI scanning (supine position). Additional risk probabilities for adverse events among unstable patients were as follows: 35.8% for increased ICP with cervical collar; and 72.1% for increased ICP during MRI scan (supine position). Conclusion Blunt trauma coma functional survivor (independent living) rates are alarming. When a comprehensive CS computed tomography evaluation is negative and there is no apparent spinal deficit, CS instability is unlikely (2.5%). Secondary brain injury from the cervical collar or MRI is more probable than CS instability and jeopardizes cerebral recovery. Brain injury severity, probability of CS instability, cervical collar risk, and MRI risk assessments are essential when deciding whether CS MRI is appropriate and for determining the timing of cervical collar removal.

Dunham, C Michael; Brocker, Brian P; Collier, B David; Gemmel, David J

2008-01-01

80

Experimental identification of specificity determinants in the domain linker of a LacI/GalR protein: Bioinformatics-based predictions generate true positives and false negatives  

PubMed Central

In protein families, conserved residues often contribute to a common general function, such as DNA-binding. However, unique attributes for each homologue (e.g. recognition of alternative DNA sequences) must arise from variation in other functionally-important positions. The locations of these “specificity determinant” positions are obscured amongst the background of varied residues that do not make significant contributions to either structure or function. To isolate specificity determinants, a number of bioinformatics algorithms have been developed. When applied to the LacI/GalR family of transcription regulators, several specificity determinants are predicted in the 18 amino acids that link the DNA-binding and regulatory domains. However, results from alternative algorithms are only in partial agreement with each other. Here, we experimentally evaluate these predictions using an engineered repressor comprising the LacI DNA-binding domain, the LacI linker, and the GalR regulatory domain (LLhG). “Wild-type” LLhG has altered DNA specificity and weaker lacO1 repression compared to LacI or a similar LacI:PurR chimera. Next, predictions of linker specificity determinants were tested, using amino acid substitution and in vivo repression assays to assess functional change. In LLhG, all predicted sites are specificity determinants, as well as three sites not predicted by any algorithm. Strategies are suggested for diminishing the number of false negative predictions. Finally, individual substitutions at LLhG specificity determinants exhibited a broad range of functional changes that are not predicted by bioinformatics algorithms. Results suggest that some variants have altered affinity for DNA, some have altered allosteric response, and some appear to have changed specificity for alternative DNA ligands.

Meinhardt, Sarah; Swint-Kruse, Liskin

2008-01-01

81

False positive tuberculosis skin test results.  

PubMed Central

The re-emergence of tuberculosis as a significant public health threat has led to greatly renewed activity in tuberculin skin testing to identify infected persons. However, even use of the preferred skin test technique (intradermal injection of purified protein derivative via the Mantoux method) can lead to either false positive or false negative results. Interpretation of a Mantoux test can be influenced by cross reactions with other mycobacteria, intertester variation, host-response variation, and product related problems. At least 25 apparent false positive purified protein derivative skin test reactions in New York State in 1992 appeared to be associated with lots of the derivative produced by one manufacturer. These unexpected skin test results led to examination of a product with an altered appearance that may have caused the unanticipated responses. After announcement of these false positive results to the press, the company removed the product from the market. Food and Drug Administration analysis later revealed particulate matter in vials of the suspected lots of purified protein derivative.

Grabau, J C; DiFerdinando, G T; Novick, L F

1995-01-01

82

Modified transition state theory and negative apparent activation energies of simple metathesis reactions: application to the reaction CH3 + HBr --> CH4 + Br.  

PubMed

A modified transition state theory (MTST) has been developed for gas-phase reactions with "negative barriers". The theory was applied to the reactions CH3 + HBr(DBr) --> CH4(CH3D) + Br (1a, 1b), which exhibit negative temperature dependences. Accurate ab initio calculations performed with coupled cluster theory extrapolated to the complete basis set limit revealed a transition state located at -2.3 kJ mol(-1) relative to the ground state of the reactants (in reaction 1a), as well as a shallow bound complex. The negative temperature dependence, the absolute values of the rate constant, and the isotope substitution effect are reproduced with good accuracy (10%), without any adjustment or fitting parameters. Analytical expressions are presented for MTST including angular momentum conservation, centrifugal barriers and tunneling. This analysis uses information about the possibly loose entrance barrier and the transition state but does not invoke a statistical intermediate complex. PMID:16509633

Krasnoperov, Lev N; Peng, Jingping; Marshall, Paul

2006-03-01

83

Development of SCAR marker specific to non-toxic Jatropha curcas L. and designing a novel multiplexing PCR along with nrDNA ITS primers to circumvent the false negative detection.  

PubMed

Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose shrub, has acquired significant economic importance for its seed oil which can be converted to biodiesel an emerging alternative to petro-diesel. In addition to the commercial value, it is also having medicinal and even high nutritional value to use as animal fodder which is limited due to the toxicity. Development of molecular marker will enable to differentiate non-toxic from toxic variety of J. curcas in a mixed population and also for quality control since the toxic components of J. curcas has deleterious effect on animals. In the present study, the efforts were made to generate the specific SCAR marker for toxic and/or non-toxic J. curcas from RAPD markers. Among the markers specific for toxic and non-toxic varieties, four were selected, purified, cloned, sequenced, and designed primers out of which one set of primers NT-JC/SCAR I/OPQ15-F and R could able to discriminate the non-toxic with toxic Jatropha by giving expected 430 bp size amplification in non-toxic variety. Furthermore, novel multiplex PCR was designed using the nrDNA ITS primers to overcome the false negatives. Present work also demonstrates utility of the conserved regions of nrDNA coding genes in ruling out the artifacts in PCR-like false negatives frequently occur in SCAR due to various reasons. The specific SCAR markers generated in the present investigation will help to distinguish non-toxic from toxic varieties of J. curcas or vice versa, and isolated marker along with designed multiplex protocol has applications in quality control for selective cultivation of non-toxic variety and will also assist in breeding and molecular mapping studies. PMID:21556845

Mastan, Shaik G; Sudheer, Pamidimarri D V N; Rahman, Hifzur; Reddy, Muppala P; Chikara, Jitendra

2012-01-01

84

MSPI False Indication Probability Simulations  

SciTech Connect

This paper examines false indication probabilities in the context of the Mitigating System Performance Index (MSPI), in order to investigate the pros and cons of different approaches to resolving two coupled issues: (1) sensitivity to the prior distribution used in calculating the Bayesian-corrected unreliability contribution to the MSPI, and (2) whether (in a particular plant configuration) to model the fuel oil transfer pump (FOTP) as a separate component, or integrally to its emergency diesel generator (EDG). False indication probabilities were calculated for the following situations: (1) all component reliability parameters at their baseline values, so that the true indication is green, meaning that an indication of white or above would be false positive; (2) one or more components degraded to the extent that the true indication would be (mid) white, and “false” would be green (negative) or yellow (negative) or red (negative). In key respects, this was the approach taken in NUREG-1753. The prior distributions examined were the constrained noninformative (CNI) prior used currently by the MSPI, a mixture of conjugate priors, the Jeffreys noninformative prior, a nonconjugate log(istic)-normal prior, and the minimally informative prior investigated in (Kelly et al., 2010). The mid-white performance state was set at ?CDF = ?10 ? 10-6/yr. For each simulated time history, a check is made of whether the calculated ?CDF is above or below 10-6/yr. If the parameters were at their baseline values, and ?CDF > 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false positive. Conversely, if one or all of the parameters are set to values corresponding to ?CDF > 10-6/yr but that time history’s ?CDF < 10-6/yr, this is counted as a false negative indication. The false indication (positive or negative) probability is then estimated as the number of false positive or negative counts divided by the number of time histories (100,000). Results are presented for a set of base case parameter values, and three sensitivity cases in which the number of FOTP demands was reduced, along with the Birnbaum importance of the FOTP.

Dana Kelly; Kurt Vedros; Robert Youngblood

2011-03-01

85

True or False  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Update introduces students to a study suggests that correcting false information can sometimes make matters worse. The researchers found that when people were told a statement was false, they remembered the statement itself much better than the warning.

Science Update (;)

2005-04-18

86

The False Aneurysm  

PubMed Central

The clinical course of 18 patients with 25 false aneurysms is reviewed. In recent years false aneurysm has been most commonly seen as a complication of arterioplastic procedures in which prosthetic arterial grafts were used. The use of indwelling needles or cannulae, particularly in patients with a wide arterial pulse pressure, can also lead to the formation of false aneurysms. In the groin, a false aneurysm is frequently mistaken for an abscess. Early diagnosis and operative repair are essential to reduce the incidence of further complications.

Baird, R. J.; Doran, M. L.

1964-01-01

87

Apparent polyamorphism and frustration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Polyamorphism in a one-component system implies the coexistence of two macroscopic amorphous condensed phases. An amorphous phase is one in which there is no long-range order, but we envisage here that the observed polyamorphism could in some cases be only `apparent'. Extensive studies of the `apparent' polyamorphism in triphenyl phosphite suggest that its apparently amorphous solid phase is actually a

Daniel Kivelson; Gilles Tarjus

2002-01-01

88

Atypical rearrangement involving 3'-IGH@ and a breakpoint at least 400 Kb upstream of an intact MYC in a CLL patient with an apparently balanced t(8;14)(q24.1;q32) and negative MYC expression.  

PubMed

The t(8;14)(q24.1;q32), the cytogenetic hallmark of Burkitt's lymphoma, is also found, but rarely, in cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Such translocation typically results in a MYC-IGH@ fusion subsequently deregulating and overexpressing MYC on der 14q32. In CLL, atypical rearrangements resulting in its gain or loss, within or outside of IGH@ or MYC locus, have been reported, but their clinical significance remains uncertain. Herein, we report a 67?year-old male with complex cytogenetic findings of apparently balanced t(8;14) and unreported complex rearrangements of IGH@ and MYC loci. His clinical, morphological and immunophenotypic features were consistent with the diagnosis of CLL.Interphase FISH studies revealed deletions of 11q22.3 and 13q14.3, and an extra copy of IGH@, indicative of rearrangement. Karyotype analysis showed an apparently balanced t(8;14)(q24.1;q32). Sequential GPG-metaphase FISH studies revealed abnormal signal patterns: rearrangement of IGH break apart probe with the 5'-IGH@ on derivative 8q24.1 and the 3'-IGH@ retained on der 14q; absence of MYC break apart-specific signal on der 8q; and, the presence of unsplit 5'-MYC-3' break apart probe signals on der 14q. The breakpoint on 8q24.1 was found to be at least 400 Kb upstream of 5' of MYC. In addition, FISH studies revealed two abnormal clones; one with 13q14.3 deletion, and the other, with concurrent 11q deletion and atypical rearrangements. Chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) detected a 7.1?Mb deletion on 11q22.3-q23.3 including ATM, a finding consistent with FISH results. While no significant copy number gain or loss observed on chromosomes 8, 12 and 13, a 455 Kb microdeletion of uncertain clinical significance was detected on 14q32.33. Immunohistochemistry showed co-expression of CD19, CD5, and CD23, positive ZAP-70 expression and absence of MYC expression. Overall findings reveal an apparently balanced t(8;14) and atypical complex rearrangements involving 3'-IGH@ and a breakpoint at least 400 Kb upstream of MYC, resulting in the relocation of the intact 5'-MYC-3' from der 8q, and apposition to 3'-IGH@ at der 14q. This case report provides unique and additional cytogenetic data that may be of clinical significance in such a rare finding in CLL. It also highlights the utility of conventional and sequential metaphase FISH in understanding complex chromosome anomalies and their association with other clinical findings in patients with CLL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first CLL reported case with such an atypical rearrangement in a patient with a negative MYC expression. PMID:23369149

Amarillo, Ina; Bui, Peter H; Kantarci, Sibel; Rao, Nagesh; Shackley, Brit S; García, Rolando; Tirado, Carlos A

2013-02-01

89

Atypical rearrangement involving 3?-IGH@ and a breakpoint at least 400 Kb upstream of an intact MYC in a CLL patient with an apparently balanced t(8;14)(q24.1;q32) and negative MYC expression  

PubMed Central

The t(8;14)(q24.1;q32), the cytogenetic hallmark of Burkitt’s lymphoma, is also found, but rarely, in cases of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Such translocation typically results in a MYC-IGH@ fusion subsequently deregulating and overexpressing MYC on der 14q32. In CLL, atypical rearrangements resulting in its gain or loss, within or outside of IGH@ or MYC locus, have been reported, but their clinical significance remains uncertain. Herein, we report a 67?year-old male with complex cytogenetic findings of apparently balanced t(8;14) and unreported complex rearrangements of IGH@ and MYC loci. His clinical, morphological and immunophenotypic features were consistent with the diagnosis of CLL. Interphase FISH studies revealed deletions of 11q22.3 and 13q14.3, and an extra copy of IGH@, indicative of rearrangement. Karyotype analysis showed an apparently balanced t(8;14)(q24.1;q32). Sequential GPG-metaphase FISH studies revealed abnormal signal patterns: rearrangement of IGH break apart probe with the 5’-IGH@ on derivative 8q24.1 and the 3’-IGH@ retained on der 14q; absence of MYC break apart-specific signal on der 8q; and, the presence of unsplit 5’-MYC-3’ break apart probe signals on der 14q. The breakpoint on 8q24.1 was found to be at least 400 Kb upstream of 5’ of MYC. In addition, FISH studies revealed two abnormal clones; one with 13q14.3 deletion, and the other, with concurrent 11q deletion and atypical rearrangements. Chromosome microarray analysis (CMA) detected a 7.1?Mb deletion on 11q22.3-q23.3 including ATM, a finding consistent with FISH results. While no significant copy number gain or loss observed on chromosomes 8, 12 and 13, a 455 Kb microdeletion of uncertain clinical significance was detected on 14q32.33. Immunohistochemistry showed co-expression of CD19, CD5, and CD23, positive ZAP-70 expression and absence of MYC expression. Overall findings reveal an apparently balanced t(8;14) and atypical complex rearrangements involving 3’-IGH@ and a breakpoint at least 400 Kb upstream of MYC, resulting in the relocation of the intact 5’-MYC-3’ from der 8q, and apposition to 3’-IGH@ at der 14q. This case report provides unique and additional cytogenetic data that may be of clinical significance in such a rare finding in CLL. It also highlights the utility of conventional and sequential metaphase FISH in understanding complex chromosome anomalies and their association with other clinical findings in patients with CLL. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first CLL reported case with such an atypical rearrangement in a patient with a negative MYC expression.

2013-01-01

90

Mars Rotate (False Color)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center features an animation of Mars rotating. The visualization was created using data collected by the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter (MOLA) on board the Mars Global Surveyor. The animation uses false color to highlight topography, specifically the Hellas Basin, Terra Meridiani, the Tharsis rise, and Lucus Planum. The site also provides still images of the same features.

Studio, Nasa/goddard S.

91

False Belief vs. False Photographs: A Test of Theory of Mind or Working Memory?  

PubMed Central

Theory of mind (ToM), the ability to reason about other people’s thoughts and beliefs, has been traditionally studied in behavioral and neuroimaging experiments by comparing performance in “false belief” and “false photograph” (control) stories. However, some evidence suggests that these stories are not matched in difficulty, complicating the interpretation of results. Here, we more fully evaluated the relative difficulty of comprehending these stories and drawing inferences from them. Subjects read false belief and false photograph stories followed by comprehension questions that probed true (“reality” questions) or false beliefs (“representation” questions) appropriate to the stories. Stories and comprehension questions were read and answered, respectively, more slowly in the false photograph than false belief conditions, indicating their greater difficulty. Interestingly, accuracy on representation questions for false photograph stories was significantly lower than for all other conditions and correlated positively with participants’ working memory span scores. These results suggest that drawing representational inferences from false photo stories is particularly difficult and places heavy demands on working memory. Extensive naturalistic practice with ToM reasoning may enable a more flexible and efficient mental representation of false belief stories, resulting in lower memory load requirements. An important implication of these results is that the differential modulation of right temporal–parietal junction (RTPJ) during ToM and “false photo” control conditions may reflect the documented negative correlation of RTPJ activity with working memory load rather than a specialized involvement in ToM processes.

Callejas, Alicia; Shulman, Gordon L.; Corbetta, Maurizio

2011-01-01

92

Individual differences in false memory from misinformation: Cognitive factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated the cognitive correlates of false memories that are induced by the misinformation paradigm. A large sample of Chinese college students (N=436) participated in a misinformation procedure and also took a battery of cognitive tests. Results revealed sizable and systematic individual differences in false memory arising from exposure to misinformation. False memories were significantly and negatively correlated with

Bi Zhu; Chuansheng Chen; Elizabeth F. Loftus; Chongde Lin; Qinghua He; Chunhui Chen; He Li; Gui Xue; Zhonglin Lu; Qi Dong

2010-01-01

93

True or False  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

If you're told that a particular drug doesn't cure arthritis, there's a good chance you'll start to think it does. That's according to Ian Skurnik at the University of Toronto and Carolyn Yoon at the University of Michigan. They found that when people were told a statement was false, they remembered the statement itself much better than the warning. This Science Update looks at the research, which leads to these findings and offers links to other resources for further inquiry. There are also links to Science Netlinks Lesson plans for use at the 9-12 grade level.

American Association for the Advancement of Science (;)

2005-04-18

94

False Memories and Persuasion Strategies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research on false memories, which has increased drastically in the past decade, has mainly focused on the cognitive influences that lead to the creation of false memories, such as the theoretical causes of decreased memory strength and source confusion. Although there is certainly a cognitive component to false memories, in this article, I argue that false memories are more likely

Juliana K. Leding

2012-01-01

95

False color viewing device  

DOEpatents

This invention consists of a viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching, the user`s eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

Kronberg, J.W.

1991-05-08

96

False color viewing device  

DOEpatents

A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage.

Kronberg, James W. (108 Independent Blvd., Aiken, SC 29801)

1992-01-01

97

False color viewing device  

DOEpatents

A viewing device for observing objects in near-infrared false-color comprising a pair of goggles with one or more filters in the apertures, and pads that engage the face for blocking stray light from the sides so that all light reaching the user's eyes come through the filters. The filters attenuate most visible light and pass near-infrared (having wavelengths longer than approximately 700 nm) and a small amount of blue-green and blue-violet (having wavelengths in the 500 to 520 nm and shorter than 435 nm, respectively). The goggles are useful for looking at vegetation to identify different species and for determining the health of the vegetation, and to detect some forms of camouflage. 7 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1992-10-20

98

Experimental Design for a Sponge-Wipe Study to Relate the Recovery Efficiency and False Negative Rate to the Concentration of a Bacillus anthracis Surrogate for Six Surface Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two concerns were raised by the Government Accountability Office following the 2001 building contaminations via letters containing Bacillus anthracis (BA). These included the: 1) lack of validated sampling methods, and 2) need to use statistical sampling to quantify the confidence of no contamination when all samples have negative results. Critical to addressing these concerns is quantifying the probability of correct

Gregory F. Piepel; Brett G. Amidan; Paula Krauter; Wayne Einfeld

2010-01-01

99

False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.|

Boman, Eugene

2009-01-01

100

False assumptions [letter].  

PubMed

Indian women do not have to be told the benefits of breast feeding or "rescued from the clutches of wicked multinational companies" by international agencies. There is no proof that breast feeding has declined in India; in fact, a 1987 survey revealed that 98% of Indian women breast feed. Efforts to promote breast feeding among the middle classes rely on such initiatives as the "baby friendly" hospital where breast feeding is promoted immediately after birth. This ignores the 76% of Indian women who give birth at home. Blaming this unproved decline in breast feeding on multinational companies distracts attention from more far-reaching and intractable effects of social change. While the Infant Milk Substitutes Act is helpful, it also deflects attention from more pressing issues. Another false assumption is that Indian women are abandoning breast feeding to comply with the demands of employment, but research indicates that most women give up employment for breast feeding, despite the economic cost to their families. Women also seek work in the informal sector to secure the flexibility to meet their child care responsibilities. Instead of being concerned about "teaching" women what they already know about the benefits of breast feeding, efforts should be made to remove the constraints women face as a result of their multiple roles and to empower them with the support of families, governmental policies and legislation, employers, health professionals, and the media. PMID:12321627

Swaminathan, M

101

Apparent telepathy in psychotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary A somewhat detailed report has been made on two patients who apparently interacted with each other in order to work out mutual pressing psychodynamic problems, utilizing some process related to mental telepathy which served to coordinate and fulfill their affective needs. The possible participation of the therapist in the “declaration à deux” was considered, and a theoretical postulation of

Reginald B. Weiler

1967-01-01

102

False memories for aggressive acts.  

PubMed

Can people develop false memories for committing aggressive acts? How does this process compare to developing false memories for victimhood? In the current research we used a simple false feedback procedure to implant false memories for committing aggressive acts (causing a black eye or spreading malicious gossip) or for victimhood (receiving a black eye). We then compared these false memories to other subjects' true memories for equivalent events. False aggressive memories were all too easy to implant, particularly in the minds of individuals with a proclivity towards aggression. Once implanted, the false memories were indistinguishable from true memories for the same events, on several dimensions, including emotional content. Implications for aggression-related memory more generally as well as false confessions are discussed. PMID:23639921

Laney, Cara; Takarangi, Melanie K T

2013-04-29

103

Reduced False Memory after Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False

Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

2009-01-01

104

Reduced False Memory after Sleep  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False

Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

2009-01-01

105

39 CFR 946.2 - Disposition of property of apparent owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Disposition of property of apparent owners. 946.2...THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION...EVIDENCE § 946.2 Disposition of property of apparent owners. Where...

2009-07-01

106

39 CFR 946.2 - Disposition of property of apparent owners.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Disposition of property of apparent owners. 946.2...THE DISPOSITION OF STOLEN MAIL MATTER AND PROPERTY ACQUIRED BY THE POSTAL INSPECTION...EVIDENCE § 946.2 Disposition of property of apparent owners. Where...

2010-07-01

107

Ego depletion results in an increase in spontaneous false memories.  

PubMed

The primary aim of the current study was to examine whether depleted cognitive resources might have ramifications for the formation of neutral and negative spontaneous false memories. To examine this, participants received neutral and negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott false memory wordlists. Also, for half of the participants, cognitive resources were depleted by use of an ego depletion manipulation (solving difficult calculations while being interfered with auditory noise). Our chief finding was that depleted cognitive resources made participants more vulnerable for the production of false memories. Our results shed light on how depleted cognitive resources affect neutral and negative correct and errant memories. PMID:23085670

Otgaar, Henry; Alberts, Hugo; Cuppens, Lesly

2012-10-17

108

Bulimia: A false self identity  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article is based on the author's clinical experience with fifteen bulimic women over the past five years. It covers the family origins, unique characteristics, internal dynamics, and treatment of bulimia. Bulimics have a cohesive, albeit pathological, identity based on the False Self. Relying on D.W. Winnicott's theory of ego splitting between the True Self and False Self, the author

Dorothy M. Jones

1985-01-01

109

Can false memories spontaneously recover?  

PubMed

Can false memories that were suppressed at one time spontaneously recover at a later time? Fuzzy trace theory and activation-monitoring theory predict that false memories in the Deese, Roediger, and McDermott (DRM) procedure become substantially reduced as list learning progresses because participants employ a memory-editing process. It follows that if the editing process is rendered less effective, false memories should spontaneously recover. We found that after DRM lists were well learned and false recognition to critical words was substantially reduced by multiple study-test trials, those false memories spontaneously recovered when participants were either rushed or delayed on a retest. We attributed the reduction in false recognition over trials to a memory-editing process that suppresses false recognition as participants gradually learn which words were in the lists and which words, though similar, were not. Rushing or delaying the participants on a retest made it more difficult for them to edit their memory, and false memories spontaneously returned. PMID:16766445

Seamon, John G; Berko, Jeffrey R; Sahlin, Brooke; Yu, Yi-Lo; Colker, Jennifer M; Gottfried, David H

2006-05-01

110

False positives in imaging genetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging genetics provides an enormous amount of functional–structural data on gene effects in living brain, but the sheer quantity of potential phenotypes raises concerns about false discovery. Here, we provide the first empirical results on false positive rates in imaging genetics.We analyzed 720 frequent coding SNPs without significant association with schizophrenia and a subset of 492 of these without association

Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg; Kristin K. Nicodemus; Michael F. Egan; Joseph H. Callicott; Venkata Mattay; Daniel R. Weinberger

2008-01-01

111

Drug testing welfare recipients—false positives, false negatives, unanticipated opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Substance abuse and dependence are among the most common psychiatric disorders among pregnant and parenting women. These disorders among welfare recipients have attracted special concern. Chemical testing has been proposed to identify illicit drug use in this population. This analysis scrutinizes the potential value of drug testing, using recent data from the Women’s Employment Study and the National Household Survey

Harold A Pollack; Sheldon Danziger; Rukmalie Jayakody; Kristin S Seefeldt

2002-01-01

112

False allegation of child abduction.  

PubMed

Cases in which a child has been falsely reported as missing or abducted can be extremely challenging to the law enforcement agencies responsible for their investigation. In the absence of a witnessed abduction or an obvious crime scene, it is difficult to determine whether a child has actually been abducted or has become a victim of a homicide and a false allegation. The purpose of this study was to examine falsely alleged kidnapping cases and identify successful investigative strategies. Sixty-one adjudicated false allegation cases involving 66 victims were analyzed. The mean age of the victim was 5 years. Victims came from generally unstable, high-risk family situations and were killed primarily by biological parents. Victims were killed because they were unwanted or viewed as an obstacle to a desired goal, or they were victims of abuse or maltreatment that ended in fatality. PMID:21361941

Canning, Kathleen E; Hilts, Mark A; Muirhead, Yvonne E

2011-03-01

113

Dividing Attention Lowers Children's but Increases Adults' False Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present study examined the impact of divided attention on children's and adults' neutral and negative true and false memories in a standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Children (7- and 11-year-olds; n = 126) and adults (n = 52) received 5 neutral and 5 negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott word lists; half of each group also received a…

Otgaar, Henry; Peters, Maarten; Howe, Mark L.

2012-01-01

114

Dividing Attention Lowers Children's but Increases Adults' False Memories  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present study examined the impact of divided attention on children's and adults' neutral and negative true and false memories in a standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott paradigm. Children (7- and 11-year-olds; n = 126) and adults (n = 52) received 5 neutral and 5 negative Deese/Roediger-McDermott word lists; half of each group also received a…

Otgaar, Henry; Peters, Maarten; Howe, Mark L.

2012-01-01

115

Cosmological apparent and trapping horizons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dynamics of particle, event, and apparent horizons in Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker space are discussed. The apparent horizon is trapping when the Ricci curvature is positive. This simple criterion coincides with the condition for the Kodama-Hayward apparent horizon temperature to be positive and also discriminates between the timelike and spacelike character of the apparent horizon. We discuss also the entropy of apparent cosmological horizons in extended theories of gravity and we use the generalized 2nd law to discard an exact solution of Brans-Dicke gravity as unphysical.

Faraoni, Valerio

2011-07-01

116

False advertising in the greenhouse?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the “greenhouse effect,” caused by

K. Banse

1991-01-01

117

Vesta - False Color Shape Model  

NASA Video Gallery

This false-color video of the giant asteroid Vesta was created from images taken by the framing camera aboard NASA's Dawn spacecraft. The colors show the elevation of surface structures with a horizontal resolution of about 750 meters per pixel. › Asteroid and Comet Watch site › Dawn mission site

Anthony Greicius

2011-09-15

118

Tunneling decay of false vortices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We consider the decay of vortices trapped in the false vacuum of a theory of scalar electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions. The potential is inspired by models with intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that completely breaks a U(1) symmetry, while in the true vacuum, the symmetry is unbroken. The false vacuum is unstable through the formation of true vacuum bubbles; however, the rate of decay can be extremely long. On the other hand, the false vacuum can contain metastable vortex solutions. These vortices contain the true vacuum inside in addition to a unit of magnetic flux and the appropriate topologically nontrivial false vacuum outside. We numerically establish the existence of vortex solutions which are classically stable; however, they can decay via tunneling. In general terms, they tunnel to a configuration which is a large, thin-walled vortex configuration that is now classically unstable to the expansion of its radius. We compute an estimate for the tunneling amplitude in the semiclassical approximation. We believe our analysis would be relevant to superconducting thin films or superfluids.

Lee, Bum-Hoon; Lee, Wonwoo; MacKenzie, Richard; Paranjape, M. B.; Yajnik, U. A.; Yeom, Dong-han

2013-10-01

119

Sleep Loss Produces False Memories  

PubMed Central

People sometimes claim with high confidence to remember events that in fact never happened, typically due to strong semantic associations with actually encoded events. Sleep is known to provide optimal neurobiological conditions for consolidation of memories for long-term storage, whereas sleep deprivation acutely impairs retrieval of stored memories. Here, focusing on the role of sleep-related memory processes, we tested whether false memories can be created (a) as enduring memory representations due to a consolidation-associated reorganization of new memory representations during post-learning sleep and/or (b) as an acute retrieval-related phenomenon induced by sleep deprivation at memory testing. According to the Deese, Roediger, McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm, subjects learned lists of semantically associated words (e.g., “night”, “dark”, “coal”,…), lacking the strongest common associate or theme word (here: “black”). Subjects either slept or stayed awake immediately after learning, and they were either sleep deprived or not at recognition testing 9, 33, or 44 hours after learning. Sleep deprivation at retrieval, but not sleep following learning, critically enhanced false memories of theme words. This effect was abolished by caffeine administration prior to retrieval, indicating that adenosinergic mechanisms can contribute to the generation of false memories associated with sleep loss.

Diekelmann, Susanne; Landolt, Hans-Peter; Lahl, Olaf; Born, Jan; Wagner, Ullrich

2008-01-01

120

Does Sleep Promote False Memories?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is constructive in nature so that it may sometimes lead to the retrieval of distorted or illusory information. Sleep facilitates accurate declarative memory consolidation but might also promote such memory distortions. We examined the influence of sleep and lack of sleep on the cerebral correlates of accurate and false recollections using fMRI. After encoding lists of semantically related word

Annabelle Darsaud; Hedwige Dehon; Olaf Lahl; Virginie Sterpenich; Mélanie Boly; Thanh Dang-Vu; Martin Desseilles; Stephen Gais; Luca Matarazzo; Frédéric Peters; Manuel Schabus; Christina Schmidt; Gilberte Tinguely; Gilles Vandewalle; André Luxen; Pierre Maquet; Fabienne Collette

2011-01-01

121

Does Sleep Promote False Memories?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is constructive in nature so that it may sometimes lead to the retrieval of distorted or illusory information. Sleep facilitates accurate declarative memory consolidation but might also promote such memory distortions. We examined the influence of sleep and lack of sleep on the cerebral correlates of accurate and false recollections using fMRI. After encoding lists of semantically related word

Annabelle Darsaud; Hedwige Dehon; Olaf Lahl; Virginie Sterpenich; Mélanie Boly; Thanh Dang-Vu; Martin Desseilles; Stephen Gais; Luca Matarazzo; Frédéric Peters; Manuel Schabus; Christina Schmidt; Gilberte Tinguely; Gilles Vandewalle; André Luxen; Pierre Maquet; Fabienne Collette

2010-01-01

122

The Psychology of False Confessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obtaining a confession is one of the most important aims of police interro- gation, and it is estimated that more than 80% of solved criminal cases are solved by a confession. However, a significant number of confessions that result in wrongful convictions are obtained through coercive questioning. This paper examines false con- fessions and discusses the psychological and social factors

Richard P. Conti

123

The effect of correlation in false discovery rate estimation  

PubMed Central

Summary The objective of this paper is to quantify the effect of correlation in false discovery rate analysis. Specifically, we derive approximations for the mean, variance, distribution and quantiles of the standard false discovery rate estimator for arbitrarily correlated data. This is achieved using a negative binomial model for the number of false discoveries, where the parameters are found empirically from the data. We show that correlation may increase the bias and variance of the estimator substantially with respect to the independent case, and that in some cases, such as an exchangeable correlation structure, the estimator fails to be consistent as the number of tests becomes large.

Schwartzman, Armin; Lin, Xihong

2011-01-01

124

14 CFR 25.943 - Negative acceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 25.943 Section 25.943 ...Powerplant General § 25.943 Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction...airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes...

2013-01-01

125

14 CFR 23.943 - Negative acceleration.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 false Negative acceleration. 23.943 Section 23.943 ...Powerplant General § 23.943 Negative acceleration. No hazardous malfunction of...airplane is operated at the negative accelerations within the flight envelopes...

2013-01-01

126

False advertising in the greenhouse?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

Banse, K.

1991-12-01

127

Developmental trends in different types of spontaneous false memories: implications for the legal field.  

PubMed

In an emerging area of memory research, it is becoming apparent that one particular type of false memory, called spontaneous false memory, follows a developmental trajectory that is the opposite of what is commonly assumed in false memory research - that is, spontaneous false memories are more likely to occur in adults than in children. The present study focused on developmental trends of different types of spontaneous false memories. Specifically, in the current study, 6-8 year-olds, 10-12 year-olds, and adults were presented with two methods to induce spontaneous false memories: (i) semantically related word lists that are commonly used to evoke spontaneous false memories [i.e, Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm]; and (ii) a video in which related details were not shown but were presented during a recognition task. The results showed that children were more likely to form false memories than adults in the video false memory paradigm, whereas DRM false memories were more evident in adults than in children. Furthermore, we found that on a general level, DRM false memories were positively related to video spontaneous false memories. We explain that stimuli that contain obvious themes attenuate or even reverse developmental trends in spontaneous false memories. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23839901

Otgaar, Henry; Howe, Mark L; Peters, Maarten; Sauerland, Melanie; Raymaekers, Linsey

2013-07-09

128

Directional variations of apparent movement  

Microsoft Academic Search

Perceptions of the direction of apparent movement have been found to be characterized by wide individual differences under the conditions of stimulation used  This diversity  indicates the extreme complexity of the interaction of the basic determinants of these perceptions. Lack of knowledge of the physiological processes underlying perceptual activity makes it impossible to explain these changes in perception, except as

C. F. Willey

1936-01-01

129

Apparent thickness of Saturn's rings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The determination of the physical thickness of Saturn's rings is crucial for a better understanding of the nature, the dynamics and the evolution of a system of colliding ring particles. Ground-based observations with electronographic cameras and CCD during the transit of the earth through the ring plane in March 1980, reveal a photometric apparent thickness of 1.4 + or -

André Brahic; Bruno Sicardy

1981-01-01

130

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false statement or forgery on the application or supporting papers...

2012-01-01

131

15 CFR 80.6 - False statements.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Commerce and Foreign Trade BUREAU OF THE CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FURNISHING PERSONAL CENSUS DATA FROM CENSUS OF POPULATION SCHEDULES § 80.6 False statements. Any false statement or forgery on the application or supporting papers...

2013-01-01

132

False identification of advertisements in recognition tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

The false identification of advertisements which have not before been published averages about 20% and ranges from a few to over 50%. Thus no general formula can be used to correct for false identification in recognition tests. In some cases false identification scores run higher than do the recognition scores of the same advertisements after they have been published.

D. B. Lucas; M. J. Murphy

1939-01-01

133

Pathways to False Allegations of Sexual Assault  

Microsoft Academic Search

Not all allegations of sexual assault are true. Unfortunately, there has been little work on understanding the prevalence of false allegations or pathways to these. This paper proposes 11 pathways to false allegations of sexual assault: (a) lying, (b) implied consent, (c) false memories, (d) intoxication, (e) antisocial personality disorder, (f) borderline personality disorder, (g) histrionic personality disorder, (h) delirium,

Jessica Engle; William ODonohue

2012-01-01

134

Can fabricated evidence induce false eyewitness testimony?  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY False information can influence people's beliefs and memories. But can fabricated evidence induce individuals to accuse another person of doing something they never did? We examined whether exposure to a fabricated video could produce false eyewitness testimony. Subjects completed a gambling task alongside a confederate subject, and later we falsely told subjects that their partner had cheated on the

Kimberley A. Wade; Sarah L. Green; Robert A. Nash

2009-01-01

135

An Association Account of False Belief Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young…

De Bruin, L. C.; Newen, A.

2012-01-01

136

Creating false memories for visual scenes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Creating false memories has become an important tool to investigate the processes underlying true memories. In the course of investigating the constructive and\\\\or reconstructive processes underlying the formation of false memories, it has become clear that paradigms are needed that can create false memories reliably in a variety of laboratory settings. In particular, neuroimaging techniques present certain constraints in terms

Michael B. Miller; Michael S. Gazzaniga

1998-01-01

137

An Association Account of False Belief Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The elicited-response false belief task has traditionally been considered as reliably indicating that children acquire an understanding of false belief around 4 years of age. However, recent investigations using spontaneous-response tasks suggest that false belief understanding emerges much earlier. This leads to a developmental paradox: if young…

De Bruin, L. C.; Newen, A.

2012-01-01

138

Removing False Paths from Combinational Modules 1  

Microsoft Academic Search

The existence of false paths complicates the task of accurate tim- ing analysis significantly. A technique to remove false paths from a combinational circuit without degrading its performance h as a prac- tical value since topological timing analysis is then good e nough to estimate the performance of false-path-free circuits accu rately. One can think of the KMS algorithm (1)

Yuji Kukimoto; Robert K. Brayton

139

Separating intrinsic and apparent anisotropy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seismic anisotropy plays a key role in studies of the Earth's rheology and deformation because of its relation to flow-induced lattice-preferred orientation (LPO) of intrinsically anisotropic minerals. In addition to LPO, small-scale heterogeneity produces apparent anisotropy that need not be related to deformation in the same way as intrinsic anisotropy. Quantitative interpretations of observed anisotropy therefore require the separation of its intrinsic and apparent components. We analyse the possibility to separate intrinsic and apparent anisotropy in media with hexagonal symmetry - typically used in surface wave tomography and SKS splitting studies. Our analysis is on the level of the wave equation, which makes it general and independent of specific data types or tomographic techniques. We find that observed anisotropy can be explained by isotropic heterogeneity when elastic parameters take specific combinations of values. In practice, the uncertainties of inferred anisotropy are large enough to ensure that such a combination is always within the error bars. It follows that commonly observed anisotropy can always be explained completely by a purely isotropic laminated medium unless all anisotropic parameters are known with unrealistic accuracy. Most importantly, minute changes in the poorly constrained P wave anisotropy and the parameter ? can switch between the possible or impossible existence of an isotropic equivalent. Important implications of our study include: (1) Intrinsic anisotropy over tomographically resolved length scales is never strictly required when reasonable error bars for anisotropic parameters are taken into account. (2) Currently available seismic observables provide weak constraints on the relative contributions of intrinsic and apparent anisotropy. (3) Therefore, seismic observables alone are not sufficient to constrain the magnitude of mantle flow. (4) Quantitative interpretations of anisotropy in terms of mantle flow require combined seismic/geodynamic inversions, as well as the incorporation of additional data such as topography, gravity and scattered waves.

Fichtner, Andreas; Kennett, Brian L. N.; Trampert, Jeannot

2013-06-01

140

Apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) syndrome.  

PubMed

Apparent mineralocorticoid excess (AME) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder due to the deficiency of 11b hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 enzyme (11beta-HSD2). Mutations in this gene affect the enzymatic activity resulting to an excess of cortisol, which causes its inappropriate access to mineralocorticoid receptor leading to inherited hypertension.This is a potentially fatal but treatable disorder. We present clinical and molecular studies on two sisters diagnosed as AME. PMID:23665601

Parvez, Yusuf; Sayed, Ola El

2013-04-01

141

Penrose inequality and apparent horizons  

SciTech Connect

A spherically symmetric spacetime is presented with an initial data set that is asymptotically flat, satisfies the dominant energy condition, and such that on this initial data M<{radical}(A/16{pi}), where M is the total mass and A is the area of the apparent horizon. This provides a counterexample to a commonly stated version of the Penrose inequality, though it does not contradict the true Penrose inequality.

Ben-Dov, Ishai [Enrico Fermi Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 S. Ellis Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 60637-1433 (United States)

2004-12-15

142

Pluto behaving badly: false beliefs and their consequences.  

PubMed

We exposed college students to suggestive materials in order to lead them to believe that, as children, they had a negative experience at Disneyland involving the Pluto character. A sizable minority of subjects developed a false belief or memory that Pluto had uncomfortably licked their ear. Suggestions about a positive experience with Pluto led to even greater acceptance of a lovable ear-licking episode. False beliefs and memories had repercussions; those seduced by the bad suggestions were not willing to pay as much for a Pluto souvenir. These findings are among the first to demonstrate that false beliefs can have repercussions for people, meaning that they can influence their later thoughts, beliefs, and behaviors. PMID:19105582

Berkowitz, Shari R; Laney, Cara; Morris, Erin K; Garry, Maryanne; Loftus, Elizabeth F

2008-01-01

143

Apparent horizons in the quasispherical Szekeres models  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The notion of an apparent horizon (AH) in a collapsing object can be carried over from the Lemaître-Tolman to the quasispherical Szekeres models in three ways: 1. Literally by the definition—the AH is the boundary of the region, in which every bundle of null geodesics has negative expansion scalar. 2. As the locus, at which null lines that are as nearly radial as possible are turned toward decreasing areal radius R. These lines are in general nongeodesic. The name “absolute apparent horizon” (AAH) is proposed for this locus. 3. As the boundary of a region, where null geodesics are turned toward decreasing R. The name “light collapse region” is proposed for this region (which is three-dimensional in every space of constant t); its boundary coincides with the AAH. The AH and AAH coincide in the Lemaître-Tolman models. In the quasispherical Szekeres models, the AH is different from (but not disjoint with) the AAH. Properties of the AAH and light collapse region are investigated, and the relations between the AAH and the AH are illustrated with diagrams using an explicit example of a Szekeres metric. It turns out that an observer who is already within the AH is, for some time, not yet within the AAH. Nevertheless, no light signal can be sent through the AH from the inside. The analogue of the AAH for massive particles is also considered.

Krasi?ski, Andrzej; Bolejko, Krzysztof

2012-06-01

144

Proactive and Retroactive Effects of Negative Suggestion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The negative effects of false information presented either prior to (proactive interference; PI) or following (retroactive interference; RI) true information was examined with word definitions (Experiment 1) and trivia facts (Experiment 2). Participants were explicitly aware of which information was true and false when shown, and true-false

Brown, Alan S.; Brown, Christine M.; Mosbacher, Joy L.; Dryden, W. Erich

2006-01-01

145

Coaching, Truth Induction, and Young Maltreated Children's False Allegations and False Denials  

PubMed Central

This study examined the effects of coaching (encouragement and rehearsal of false reports) and truth induction (a child-friendly version of the oath or general reassurance about the consequences of disclosure) on 4- to 7-year-old maltreated children’s reports (N = 198). Children were questioned using free recall, repeated yes – no questions, and highly suggestive suppositional questions. Coaching impaired children’s accuracy. For free-recall and repeated yes – no questions, the oath exhibited some positive effects, but this effect diminished in the face of highly suggestive questions. Reassurance had few positive effects and no ill effects. Neither age nor understanding of the meaning and negative consequences of lying consistently predicted accuracy. The results support the utility of truth induction in enhancing the accuracy of child witnesses’ reports.

Lyon, Thomas D.; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Quas, Jodi A.; Talwar, Victoria A.

2010-01-01

146

Neurodevelopmental Correlates of True and False Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Deese\\/Roediger--McDermott (DRM) false-memory effect has been extensively documented in psychological research. People falsely recognize critical lures or nonstudied items that are semantically associated with studied items. Behavioral research has provided evidence for age-related increases in the DRM false- recognition effect. The present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study was aimed at investigating neuro- developmental changes in brain regions associated

Pedro M. Paz-Alonso; Simona Ghetti; Sarah E. Donohue; Gail S. Goodman; Silvia A. Bunge

2008-01-01

147

Gender differences in false memory production  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated differences in false memory production between men and women, using the Deese\\/Roedgier McDermott\\u000a (DRM) paradigm. Five word lists were used (MAN, GIRL, BREAD, BLACK, HIGH) and it was predicted that males would produce more\\u000a false memories for the MAN word list while females will produce more false memories for the GIRL word list. Results did not

Grant Bauste; F. Richard Ferraro

2004-01-01

148

19 CFR 11.13 - False designations of origin and false descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. 11.13 Section 11.13...descriptions; false marking of articles of gold or silver. (a) Articles which...Articles made in whole or in part of gold or silver or alloys thereof...

2013-04-01

149

Emotional content of true and false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many people believe that emotional memories (including those that arise in therapy) are particularly likely to represent true events because of their emotional content. But is emotional content a reliable indicator of memory accuracy? The current research assessed the emotional content of participants’ pre-existing (true) and manipulated (false) memories for childhood events. False memories for one of three emotional childhood

Cara Laney; Elizabeth F. Loftus

2008-01-01

150

A Connectionist Model of False Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a connectionist model of false memories called the Associative Self-Organizing Network (ASON) model. Four mechanisms underlying the Constructive Memory Framework (CMF) guide the design of the ASON model, a connectionist operationalisation of the CMF. Simulation studies of experiments in the DRM paradigm reveal the ASON model to exhibit false memories. In addition, the effects of Mean Backward Associative

Saskia van Dantzig

151

Poor working memory predicts false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two studies investigated whether individual differences in simple span verbal working memory and complex working memory capacity are related to memory accuracy and susceptibility to false memory development. In Study 1, undergraduate students (N=60) were given two simple span working memory tests: forward and backward digit span. They also underwent a memory task that is known to elicit false memories

Maarten J. V. Peters; Marko Jelicic; Hilde Verbeek; Harald Merckelbach

2007-01-01

152

Supply Chain Coordination for False Failure Returns  

Microsoft Academic Search

False failure returns are products that are returned by consumers to retailers with no functional or cosmetic defect. The cost of a false failure return includes the processing actions of testing, refurbishing (if necessary), repackaging, the loss in value during the time the product spends in the reverse supply chain (a time that can exceed several months for many firms),

Mark Ferguson; Gilvan C. Souza

2006-01-01

153

ARE FALSE MEMORIES PSI-CONDUCIVE?  

Microsoft Academic Search

1 ABSTRACT: S. J. Blackmore and N. J. Rose (1997) reported an experiment that used false memory creation to generate a significant psi effect. This article reports a series of 3 experiments that attempted to replicate this effect and examines the relationship between false memory creation and paranormal belief. Experiment 1 is a faithful replication of the original. Experiment 2

Nicholas Rose; Susan Blackmore

2001-01-01

154

Creating false memories for visual scenes.  

PubMed

Creating false memories has become an important tool to investigate the processes underlying true memories. In the course of investigating the constructive and/or reconstructive processes underlying the formation of false memories, it has become clear that paradigms are needed that can create false memories reliably in a variety of laboratory settings. In particular, neuroimaging techniques present certain constraints in terms of subject response and timing of stimuli that a false memory paradigm needs to comply with. We have developed a picture paradigm which results in the false recognition of items of a scene which did not occur almost as often as the true recognition of items that did occur. It uses a single presentation of pictures with thematic, stereotypical scenes (e.g. a beach scene). Some of the exemplars from the scene were removed (e.g. a beach ball) and used as lures during an auditory recognition test. Subjects' performance on this paradigm was compared with their performance on the word paradigm reintroduced by Roediger and McDermott. The word paradigm has been useful in creating false memories in several neuroimaging studies because of the high frequency of false recognition for critical lures (words not presented but closely associated with lists of words that were presented) and the strong subjective sense of remembering accompanying these false recognitions. However, it has several limitations including small numbers of lures and a particular source confusion. The picture paradigm avoids these limitations and produces identical effects on normal subjects. PMID:9705061

Miller, M B; Gazzaniga, M S

1998-06-01

155

Do instructional warnings reduce false recognition?  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY After previously encoding lists of related words (e.g. bed, rest, awake, etc.) associated with one critical word (e.g. sleep), participants frequently falsely recognize critical words as having been previously presented. Past research indicates that warning participants of this memory illusion can reduce false recognition of critical words. However, the memory processes responsible for this reduction are not known. We

Carmen E. Westerberg; Chad J. Marsolek

2006-01-01

156

Effects of Instructions on False Recognition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Four experiments were conducted to examine the effects of various processing instructions on the rate of false recognition. The continuous single-item procedure was used, and false recognitions of four types were examined: synonyms, antonyms, nonsemantic associates, and homonyms. The instructions encouraged subjects to think of associates, usages…

Mueller, John H.; And Others

157

Illusions of Gender: Stereotypes Evoke False Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments examined whether false memories can arise from indirect stereotype associations, as revealed by the Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm. As predicted, exposure to either a list of stereotypically female roles or a list of stereotypically male roles resulted in an increase in the false recognition of stereotypically consistent roles and traits. In both of the experiments, the participants were shown

Alison P. Lenton; Irene V. Blair; Reid Hastie

2001-01-01

158

Item method directed forgetting diminishes false memory.  

PubMed

Directed forgetting may reduce DRM false memory illusion by interfering with meaning processing. Participants were presented with a list composed of six 10-word semantically associated sub-lists, and they were either (a) asked to remember all list items of (b) asked to remember all associates from sub-lists and to forget all associates from other sub-lists. All participants were requested to recall and recognise list items. Although directed forgetting effects have been previously reported only for true responses in the DRM paradigm with the list method, we also found directed forgetting for false responses with the item method. Such forgetting instructions reduced both verbatim and meaning processing, decreasing both the intrusion and the false alarm rate. These results are consistent with two-process explanations of DRM false memories, such as fuzzy-trace theory, and add to our understanding of false memory editing. PMID:16261695

Marche, Tammy A; Brainerd, Charles J; Lane, David G; Loehr, Janeen D

2005-10-01

159

SCREENING AND CONFIRMATION OF REAL-LIFE URINE SAMPLES FOR TRENBOLONE FALSE POSITIVE OR FALSE NEGATIVE? THAT'S THE QUESTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Danish National Reference Laboratory found five bovine urine samples positive for 17? - Trenbolone during screening. The samples subsequently were analysed using GC-MSn as confirmatory method. The chromatograms of suspect samples and a spiked control sample of urine showed similar results. However, full confirmation was not possible. To confirm these results the samples were sent to the European Union

S. S. Sterk; D. Ohlrich; F. Christensen; N. B. Le; M. H. Blokland; P. L. W. J. Schwillens; L. A. van Ginkel; R. W. Stephany

160

Viscoelastic properties of the false vocal fold  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The biomechanical properties of vocal fold tissues have been the focus of many previous studies, as vocal fold viscoelasticity critically dictates the acoustics and biomechanics of phonation. However, not much is known about the viscoelastic response of the ventricular fold or false vocal fold. It has been shown both clinically and in computer simulations that the false vocal fold may contribute significantly to the aerodynamics and sound generation processes of human voice production, with or without flow-induced oscillation of the false fold. To better understand the potential role of the false fold in phonation, this paper reports some preliminary measurements on the linear and nonlinear viscoelastic behavior of false vocal fold tissues. Linear viscoelastic shear properties of human false fold tissue samples were measured by a high-frequency controlled-strain rheometer as a function of frequency, and passive uniaxial tensile stress-strain response of the tissue samples was measured by a muscle lever system as a function of strain and loading rate. Elastic moduli (Young's modulus and shear modulus) of the false fold tissues were calculated from the measured data. [Work supported by NIH.

Chan, Roger W.

2001-05-01

161

Word frequency effect in false memories.  

PubMed

Fuzzy Trace Theory argues that false memories arise from a weak verbatim memory along with strong encoding of the meaning (gist). The present study simultaneously investigated the effects of the strength of both the gist and the verbatim information on false memories. Exp. 1 was carried out to compare false memories for common and rare words in recall and recognition. In Exp. 2 a control for possible testing effects was added, and participants were given a recognition test with no preceding recall test. Qualitative judgements (Remember vs Know) regarding words judged as old on the recognition test were also collected in Exp. 2. Both experiments showed that false memories were more likely when weak verbatim items occurred along with strong gist (as with common words) than only with weak gist encoding (as with rare words). Moreover, participants were more likely to choose falsely physically similar distractors for rare words than for common words. Semantically similar distractors, on the other hand, were more likely to be selected for common than for rare words. These results provide further support for the fuzzy trace theory explanation of false memories. However, some weaknesses of this model regarding false memories are also discussed. PMID:16175668

Göz, Ilyas

2005-06-01

162

7 CFR 275.13 - Review of negative cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 false Review of negative cases. 275.13 Section 275.13...QC) Reviews § 275.13 Review of negative cases. (a) General. ...selected for quality control review. These negative cases shall be reviewed to...

2010-01-01

163

7 CFR 275.13 - Review of negative cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 false Review of negative cases. 275.13 Section 275.13...QC) Reviews § 275.13 Review of negative cases. (a) General. ...selected for quality control review. These negative cases shall be reviewed to...

2009-01-01

164

5 CFR 531.410 - Reconsideration of a negative determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Reconsideration of a negative determination. 531.410 Section... § 531.410 Reconsideration of a negative determination. (a) When an agency head, or his or her designee, issues a negative determination the following...

2010-01-01

165

5 CFR 531.410 - Reconsideration of a negative determination.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 false Reconsideration of a negative determination. 531.410 Section... § 531.410 Reconsideration of a negative determination. (a) When an agency head, or his or her designee, issues a negative determination the following...

2009-01-01

166

7 CFR 996.11 - Negative aflatoxin content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negative aflatoxin content. 996.11 Section 996.11 Agriculture...STATES Definitions § 996.11 Negative aflatoxin content. Negative aflatoxin content means 15 parts per billion...

2010-01-01

167

7 CFR 996.11 - Negative aflatoxin content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Negative aflatoxin content. 996.11 Section 996.11 Agriculture...STATES Definitions § 996.11 Negative aflatoxin content. Negative aflatoxin content means 15 parts per billion...

2009-01-01

168

7 CFR 996.11 - Negative aflatoxin content.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Negative aflatoxin content. 996.11 Section 996.11 Agriculture...STATES Definitions § 996.11 Negative aflatoxin content. Negative aflatoxin content means 15 parts per billion...

2013-01-01

169

False localizing signs in traumatic brain injury  

PubMed Central

Background Hemiparesis ipsilateral to a mass-occupying lesion can be due to Kernohan-Woltman Notch Phenomenon (KWNP). This syndrome implies a false-localizing sign because clinical findings lead the examiner to an incorrect neuroanatomical diagnosis. The contralateral crus cerebri (pyramidal tract) is pressed against the tentorial incisum and a resultant hemiparesis is found on the same side of the lesion. Review A detailed literature search of false-localizing signs is presented. Conclusions Not infrequently, patients presenting to a physiatrist may have incomplete records. The existence of false localizing signs may point the physician towards the wrong underlying pathology.

MCKENNA, CRISTIN; FELLUS, JONATHAN; BARRETT, ANNA M.

2010-01-01

170

Not All False Memories Are Created Equal: The Neural Basis of False Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

False recognition, a type of memory distortion where one claims to remember something that never happened, can occur in response to items that are similar but not identical to previously seen items (i.e., related false recognition) or in response to novel items (i.e., unrelated false recognition). It is unknown whether these 2 types of memory errors arise from the same

Rachel J. Garoff-Eaton; Scott D. Slotnick; Daniel L. Schacter

2006-01-01

171

Negation As Refutation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A refutation mechanism is introduced into logic programming, dual to the usual proof mech- anism; then negation is treated via refutation. A four-valued logic is appropriate for the seman- tics: true, false, neither, both. Inconsistent programs are allowed, but inconsistencies remain localized. The four-valued logic is a well-known one, due to Belnap, and is the simplest exam- ple of Ginsberg's

Melvin Fitting

1989-01-01

172

False Assumptions Can Get You in Trouble  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this lesson, short deceptive problem stories are presented to the class and students are challenged to solve each problem by asking only yes/no questions. The key is for students to recognize: what the False Assumption is that makes the solution tricky; that many common problems are difficult to solve because we tend to assume a particular paradigm; and that science is a way to work around or through those false assumptions.

Randak, Steve

173

Neurodevelopmental correlates of true and false recognition.  

PubMed

The Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false-memory effect has been extensively documented in psychological research. People falsely recognize critical lures or nonstudied items that are semantically associated with studied items. Behavioral research has provided evidence for age-related increases in the DRM false-recognition effect. The present event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study was aimed at investigating neurodevelopmental changes in brain regions associated with true- and false-memory recognition in 8-year olds, 12-year olds, and adults. Relative to 8-year olds, adults correctly endorsed more studied items as "old" but also mistakenly endorsed more critical lures. Age-related increases in recollection were associated with changes in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) activation profile. Additionally, age-related increases in false alarms (FAs) to semantically related lures were associated with changes in the activation profile of left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, a region associated with semantic processing. Additional regions exhibiting age-related changes include posterior parietal and anterior prefrontal cortices. In summary, concomitant changes in the MTL, prefrontal cortex, and parietal cortex underlie developmental increases in true and false recognition during childhood and adolescence. PMID:18203693

Paz-Alonso, Pedro M; Ghetti, Simona; Donohue, Sarah E; Goodman, Gail S; Bunge, Silvia A

2008-01-17

174

Self-reversal and apparent magnetic excursions in Arctic sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arctic oceans have been fertile ground for the recording of apparent excursions of the geomagnetic field, implying that the high latitude field had unusual characteristics at least over the last 1-2 Myrs. Alternating field demagnetization of the natural remanent magnetization (NRM) of Core HLY0503-6JPC from the Mendeleev Ridge (Arctic Ocean) implies the presence of primary magnetizations with negative inclination apparently recording excursions in sediments deposited during the Brunhes Chron. Thermal demagnetization, on the other hand, indicates the presence of multiple (often anti-parallel) magnetization components with negative inclination components having blocking temperatures predominantly, but not entirely, below ~ 350 °C. Thermo-magnetic tests, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicate that the negative inclination components are carried by titanomaghemite, presumably formed by seafloor oxidation of titanomagnetite. The titanomaghemite apparently carries a chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) that is partially self-reversed relative to the detrital remanent magnetization (DRM) carried by the host titanomagnetite. The partial self-reversal could have been accomplished by ionic ordering during oxidation, thereby changing the balance of the magnetic moments in the ferrimagnetic sublattices.

Channell, J. E. T.; Xuan, C.

2009-06-01

175

Remedies by competitors for false advertising.  

PubMed

Patients who are victimized as a consequence of false medical advertising are not the only ones who can sue for damages. Under section 43(a) of the Lanham Act, effective November 17, 1989, anyone "who believes that he or she is or is likely to be damaged" by deceptive advertising may bring a civil action for damages (1). Competing physicians may sue other physicians who falsely advertise that they possess unique skills and achieve better results than other physicians because they employ exclusive methods of treatment or claim that certain surgical procedures they perform in the office are absolutely safe and without risk or who advertise false professional credentials to lure patients. Voluntary informed consent excludes the use of deceit. Misrepresentation through advertising deprives a patient of the right to exercise an informed consent (2). A patient who relies on a doctor's false advertising in agreeing to a procedure that causes the patient injury may sue for malpractice even if the procedure was performed without negligence. False medical advertising also exposes the advertiser to litigation by competitors for unfair competition. This article is concerned with the remedy that may be available for instituting private litigation against physicians and other health care providers who engage in untruthful advertising. PMID:2343426

Hirsch, B D; Wilcox, D P

1990-05-01

176

Comparison of compound administration methods in biochemical assays: effects on apparent compound potency using either assay-ready compound plates or pin tool-delivered compounds.  

PubMed

Compound sample preparation and delivery are the most critical steps in high-throughput screening (HTS) campaigns. Historically, several methods of compound delivery to assays have been used for HTS, including intermediate plates with prediluted compounds, assay-ready plates (ARPs) using either preplated dried compound films or nanoliter DMSO spots of compounds, as well as pin tool-delivered compounds. We and others have observed differences in apparent compound potency depending on the compound delivery method. To quantitatively measure compound potency differences due to the chosen delivery methods, we conducted a controlled study using a validated biochemical luciferase assay and compared potencies when compounds were delivered in either ARPs (using acoustic dispensed nanoliter spots) or by pin tool. Here we compare hit rates, confirmation rates, false-positive rates, and false-negative rates between the two delivery methods using the luciferase assay. We compared polystyrene (PS) and cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) plates using both delivery methods and examined whether ARPs stored at 4 °C were superior to those stored frozen at -20 °C. The data show that the choice of compound delivery method to the assay has an effect on the apparent IC(50)'s and that pin tool delivery results in more confirmed hits than preplated compounds, resulting in a lower false-negative rate. However, this effect is minimized through the use of COC plates and by obtaining plates in a "just-in-time" mode. Overall, this report provides guidance on using assay-ready compound plates and has affected the way HTS campaigns are using acoustically dispensed plates in our department. PMID:22904199

Smith, Thomas; Ho, Pei-I; Yue, Kim; Itkin, Zina; MacDougall, Damien; Paolucci, Mike; Hill, Adam; Auld, Douglas S

2012-08-17

177

Dynamics of false-vacuum bubbles  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of localized inflation is investigated by calculating the dynamics of a spherically symmetric region of false vacuum which is separated by a domain wall from an infinite region of true vacuum. For a range of initial conditions, the false-vacuum region will undergo inflation. An observer in the exterior true-vacuum region will describe the system as a black hole, while an observer in the interior will describe a closed universe which completely disconnects from the original spacetime. We suggest that this mechanism is likely to lead to an instability of Minkowski space: a region of space might undergo a quantum fluctuation into the false-vacuum state, evolving into an isolated closed universe; the black hole which remains in the original space would disappear by quantum evaporation. The formation of these isolated closed universes may also be relevant to the question of information loss in black-hole formation.

Blau, S.K.; Guendelman, E.I.; Guth, A.H.

1987-03-15

178

The impersistence of false memory persistence.  

PubMed

When subjects study lists of thematically related words they sometimes falsely recognise non-presented words related to the theme. The gist extraction account of these findings provided by fuzzy trace theory suggests that false recognition should decline substantially more slowly than true recognition across a delay. In two experiments we demonstrated that corrected recognition of targets and critical lures can decrease by equivalent amounts across a 48-hour delay. However the results for uncorrected recognition were mixed. In Experiment 1 we found evidence that uncorrected recognition of targets declined more rapidly than uncorrected recognition of critical lures. In Experiment 2, we found evidence that uncorrected recognition of targets and critical lures declined at equivalent rates. Results are discussed in terms of their implications for fuzzy trace and source monitoring accounts of false memories. PMID:11145070

Lampinen, J M; Schwartz, R M

2000-11-01

179

An investigation of false positive dosimetry results  

SciTech Connect

The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility designed for the demonstration of the safe disposal of transuranic waste. Currently, the radiation source term is confined to sealed calibration and check sources since WIPP has not received waste for disposal. For several years the WIPP Dosimetry Group has operated a Harshaw Model 8800C reader to analyze Harshaw 8801-7776 thermoluminescent cards (3 TLD-700 and 1 TLD-600) with 8805 holder. The frequency of false positive results for quarterly dosimeter exchanges is higher than desired by the Dosimetry Group management. Initial observations suggested that exposure to intense ambient sunlight may be responsible for the majority of the false positive readings for element 3. A study was designed to investigate the possibility of light leaking through the holder and inducing a signal in element 3. This paper discusses the methods and results obtained, with special emphasis placed on recommendations to reduce the frequency of light-induced false positive readings.

Lewandowski, M.A.; Davis, S.A.; Goff, T.E.; Wu, C.F.

1996-12-31

180

A picture is worth a thousand lies: Using false photographs to create false childhood memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because image-enhancing technology is readily available, people are frequently exposed to doctored images. However, in prior\\u000a research on how adults can be led to report false childhood memories, subjects have typically been exposed to personalized\\u000a and detailed narratives describing false events. Instead, we exposed 20 subjects to a false childhood event via a fake photograph\\u000a and imagery instructions. Over three

Kimberley A. Wade; Maryanne Garry; J. Don Read; D. Stephen Lindsay

2002-01-01

181

Vendor cited for false PFC savings claim  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Cynex power factor controller (PFC) vendor claiming a 60% saving was cited by the Better Business Bureau for false advertising after a user survey revealed that savings were only 20% at best. The company plans no future advertising claims, although it insists that 60% savings are possible. The inventor disagrees. (DCK)

Greenstein

1983-01-01

182

A Synchronization Account of False Recognition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We describe a computational model to explain a variety of results in both standard and false recognition. A key attribute of the model is that it uses plausible semantic representations for words, built through exposure to a linguistic corpus. A study list is encoded in the model as a gist trace, similar to the proposal of fuzzy trace theory…

Johns, Brendan T.; Jones, Michael N.; Mewhort, Douglas J. K.

2012-01-01

183

False Consciousness and Ideology in Marxist Theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article discusses the concepts of false consciousness and ideology and the relation between them as they have been used in the development of a particular aspect of Marxist theory. I trace the development from the writings of Marx and Engels to the early Frankfurt School. My aim is to underline a separation and a distinction between the use of

Ron Eyerman

1981-01-01

184

False Spider Mites of Mexico ('Tenuipalpidae: Acari').  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The bulletin includes descriptions and figures for 165 species of plant-feeding false spider mites (Tenuipalpidae) of Mexico, of which 65 are described as new to science. Less than one-third (48) of the Mexican tenuipalpids are distributed in 8 genera (Ae...

D. M. Tuttle E. W. Baker

1987-01-01

185

A direct approach to false discovery rates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple-hypothesis testing involves guarding against much more complicated errors than single-hypothesis testing. Whereas we typically control the type I error rate for a single-hypothesis test, a compound error rate is controlled for multiple-hypothesis tests. For example, controlling the false discovery rate FDR traditionally involves intricate sequential \\

John D. Storey

2002-01-01

186

Official English: A False Policy Issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Making English the official language of the United States is a false policy issue. The evidence does not support arguments that the use of English is declining or that the use of other languages debilitates the social fabric of the United States. On the contrary, attempts to impose English on the U.S. population have served historically to divide the nation.

Arturo Madrid

1990-01-01

187

False Information in Internet Auction Communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

As one of the most important features, the Internet enables individuals to make their personal thoughts and opinions easily accessible to the global community of Internet users. Numerous studies have shown that the Internet's anonymity can result in a high rate of false information, which may lead to suboptimal decisions by deceived users. Little is known what drives users to

Oliver Hinz

2007-01-01

188

Detecting false intent using eye blink measures  

PubMed Central

Eye blink measures have been shown to be diagnostic in detecting deception regarding past acts. Here we examined—across two experiments with increasing degrees of ecological validity—whether changes in eye blinking can be used to determine false intent regarding future actions. In both experiments, half of the participants engaged in a mock crime and then transported an explosive device with the intent of delivering it to a “contact” that would use it to cause a disturbance. Eye blinking was measured for all participants when presented with three types of questions: relevant to intent to transport an explosive device, relevant to intent to engage in an unrelated illegal act, and neutral questions. Experiment 1 involved standing participants watching a video interviewer with audio presented ambiently. Experiment 2 involved standing participants questioned by a live interviewer. Across both experiments, changes in blink count during and immediately following individual questions, total number of blinks, and maximum blink time length differentiated those with false intent from truthful intent participants. In response to questions relevant to intent to deliver an explosive device vs. questions relevant to intent to deliver illegal drugs, those with false intent showed a suppression of blinking during the questions when compared to the 10 s period after the end of the questions, a lower number of blinks, and shorter maximum blink duration. The results are discussed in relation to detecting deception about past activities as well as to the similarities and differences to detecting false intent as described by prospective memory and arousal.

Marchak, Frank M.

2013-01-01

189

Fate of the false vacuum: Semiclassical theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is possible for a classical field theory to have two homogeneous stable equilibrium states with different energy densities. In the quantum version of the theory, the state of higher-energy density becomes unstable through barrier penetration; it is false vacuum. This is a the first of two papers developing the qualitative and quantitative semiclassical theory of the decay of such

Sidney Coleman

1977-01-01

190

Development of the False-Memory Illusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The counterintuitive developmental trend in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) illusion (that false-memory responses increase with age) was investigated in learning-disabled and nondisabled children from the 6- to 14-year-old age range. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that because there are qualitative differences in how younger versus older children…

Brainerd, C. J.; Forrest, T. J.; Karibian, D.; Reyna, V. F.

2006-01-01

191

Gamma Oscillations Distinguish True From False Memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

To test whether distinct patterns of electro- physiological activity prior to a response can distinguish true from false memories, we analyzed intracranial elec- troencephalographic recordings while 52 patients under- going treatment for epilepsy performed a verbal free- recall task. These analyses revealed that the same pattern of gamma-band (28-100 Hz) oscillatory activity that pre- dicts successful memory formation at item

Per B. Sederberg; Andreas Schulze-Bonhage; Joseph R. Madsen; Edward B. Bromfield; Brian Litt; Armin Brandt; Michael J. Kahana

2007-01-01

192

Vendor cited for false PFC savings claim  

SciTech Connect

A Cynex power factor controller (PFC) vendor claiming a 60% saving was cited by the Better Business Bureau for false advertising after a user survey revealed that savings were only 20% at best. The company plans no future advertising claims, although it insists that 60% savings are possible. The inventor disagrees. (DCK)

Greenstein, I.

1983-08-29

193

The Psychology of Interrogations and False Confessions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wrongful convictions have increasingly gar- nished media attention both in North America and Britain. In addition to a variety of factors, instances of false confession have been identified as a contributing cause of some wrongful con- victions. As a result of this finding, social scien- tists have begun to study the interrogation process in an effort to understand the factors

Christian A. Meissner; Melissa B. Russano

194

False memories and the source monitoring framework  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reyna and Lloyd [Learn Individ Differ 9 (1997) 95.] reviewed a wide range of studies on false-memory effects, and argued that all of the findings supported fuzzy trace theory (FTT) and that many of them challenge the source monitoring framework (SMF). The present paper provides a brief overview of the SMF and corrects a number of misconceptions in Reyna and

D. Stephen Lindsay; Marcia K. Johnson

2000-01-01

195

Testing of Apparent Child Sex Offender Clustering  

Microsoft Academic Search

During a previous research project, the authors of this work noticed an apparent clustering of registered child sexual offenders as reflected by street addresses. The following research seeks to determine whether or not this effect is real or apparent. If this correlation exists, does it further relate to income levels of the neighborhood as established by the 2000 U.S. Census

Kenneth A. Clontz; J. Gayle Mericle

196

A picture is worth a thousand lies: using false photographs to create false childhood memories.  

PubMed

Because image-enhancing technology is readily available, people are frequently exposed to doctored images. However, in prior research on how adults can be led to report false childhood memories, subjects have typically been exposed to personalized and detailed narratives describing false events. Instead, we exposed 20 subjects to a false childhood event via a fake photograph and imagery instructions. Over three interviews, subjects thought about a photograph showing them on a hot air balloon ride and tried to recall the event byusing guided-imagery exercises. Fifty percent of the subjects created complete or partial false memories. The results bear on ways in which false memories can be created and also have practical implications for those involved in clinical and legal settings. PMID:12412902

Wade, Kimberley A; Garry, Maryanne; Read, J Don; Lindsay, D Stephen

2002-09-01

197

On the general false path problem in timing analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The false path problem is often referred to as the problem of detecting the longest sensitizable path (A path which is not a false path is a sensitizable path). The term “false path” is not clearly defined. In this paper, we first give a clear and precise definition of a false path. Then the general false path problem is formulated.

David Hung-Chang Du; S. H. Yen; Subbarao Ghanta

1989-01-01

198

Negative Influence  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This chapter is all about negative numbers, and how to deal with them. They're not all that difficult to understand, but for some reason people get just a little uptight when they see computations involving negative numbers. I'm guessing that the apprehension results from the view that negative numbers mean there are more rules to follow--rules you don't necessarily understand. Well, we'll try and correct that.

Robertson, William C.

2006-01-01

199

False Discovery Rate Control With Groups.  

PubMed

In the context of large-scale multiple hypothesis testing, the hypotheses often possess certain group structures based on additional information such as Gene Ontology in gene expression data and phenotypes in genome-wide association studies. It is hence desirable to incorporate such information when dealing with multiplicity problems to increase statistical power. In this article, we demonstrate the benefit of considering group structure by presenting a p-value weighting procedure which utilizes the relative importance of each group while controlling the false discovery rate under weak conditions. The procedure is easy to implement and shown to be more powerful than the classical Benjamini-Hochberg procedure in both theoretical and simulation studies. By estimating the proportion of true null hypotheses, the data-driven procedure controls the false discovery rate asymptotically. Our analysis on one breast cancer dataset confirms that the procedure performs favorably compared with the classical method. PMID:21931466

Hu, James X; Zhao, Hongyu; Zhou, Harrison H

2010-09-01

200

False Discovery Rate Control With Groups  

PubMed Central

In the context of large-scale multiple hypothesis testing, the hypotheses often possess certain group structures based on additional information such as Gene Ontology in gene expression data and phenotypes in genome-wide association studies. It is hence desirable to incorporate such information when dealing with multiplicity problems to increase statistical power. In this article, we demonstrate the benefit of considering group structure by presenting a p-value weighting procedure which utilizes the relative importance of each group while controlling the false discovery rate under weak conditions. The procedure is easy to implement and shown to be more powerful than the classical Benjamini–Hochberg procedure in both theoretical and simulation studies. By estimating the proportion of true null hypotheses, the data-driven procedure controls the false discovery rate asymptotically. Our analysis on one breast cancer dataset confirms that the procedure performs favorably compared with the classical method.

Hu, James X.; Zhao, Hongyu; Zhou, Harrison H.

2011-01-01

201

Expert system constant false alarm rate processor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirements for high detection probability and low false alarm probability in modern wide area surveillance radars are rarely met due to spatial variations in clutter characteristics. Many filtering and CFAR detection algorithms have been developed to effectively deal with these variations; however, any single algorithm is likely to exhibit excessive false alarms and intolerably low detection probabilities in a dynamically changing environment. A great deal of research has led to advances in the state of the art in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and numerous areas have been identified for application to radar signal processing. The approach suggested here, discussed in a patent application submitted by the authors, is to intelligently select the filtering and CFAR detection algorithms being executed at any given time, based upon the observed characteristics of the interference environment. This approach requires sensing the environment, employing the most suitable algorithms, and applying an appropriate multiple algorithm fusion scheme or consensus algorithm to produce a global detection decision.

Baldygo, William J.; Wicks, Michael C.

1993-10-01

202

Development of the false-memory illusion.  

PubMed

The counterintuitive developmental trend in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) illusion (that false-memory responses increase with age) was investigated in learning-disabled and nondisabled children from the 6- to 14-year-old age range. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that because there are qualitative differences in how younger versus older children and disabled versus nondisabled children connect meaning information across the words on DRM lists, certain key effects that are observed in adult studies will be absent in young children and in learning-disabled children. Data on 6 such adult effects (list strength, recall inflation, delayed inflation, delayed stability, thematic intrusion, and true-false dissociation) were used to investigate this hypothesis, and the resulting data were consistent with prediction. PMID:16953700

Brainerd, C J; Forrest, T J; Karibian, D; Reyna, V F

2006-09-01

203

False myths and legends in laboratory diagnostics.  

PubMed

Abstract Remarkable advances in understanding human biology in health and disease, propelled by technological innovations, have contributed to an increase in the number and quality of diagnostic tests. This evolving scenario has been accompanied by the proliferation of false myths and legends in laboratory diagnostics, consuming valuable human and economic resources and jeopardizing the clinical reasoning. The aim of this article is to provide a synthetic overview about some paradigmatic examples of false beliefs in laboratory diagnostics involving activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), cardiospecific troponins, ischemia modified albumin (IMA), D-dimer, prostate specific antigen (PSA), dibucaine number, Bence Jones protein (BJP), lipoprotein(a), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), potassium and reference ranges. Although the suggestive cases described in this article are not intended to be comprehensive, we hope that their description may help remove some mysticisms in laboratory diagnostics. PMID:23525875

Lippi, Giuseppe; Plebani, Mario

2013-11-01

204

Creating a false memory in the hippocampus.  

PubMed

Memories can be unreliable. We created a false memory in mice by optogenetically manipulating memory engram-bearing cells in the hippocampus. Dentate gyrus (DG) or CA1 neurons activated by exposure to a particular context were labeled with channelrhodopsin-2. These neurons were later optically reactivated during fear conditioning in a different context. The DG experimental group showed increased freezing in the original context, in which a foot shock was never delivered. The recall of this false memory was context-specific, activated similar downstream regions engaged during natural fear memory recall, and was also capable of driving an active fear response. Our data demonstrate that it is possible to generate an internally represented and behaviorally expressed fear memory via artificial means. PMID:23888038

Ramirez, Steve; Liu, Xu; Lin, Pei-Ann; Suh, Junghyup; Pignatelli, Michele; Redondo, Roger L; Ryan, Tomás J; Tonegawa, Susumu

2013-07-26

205

Gamma oscillations distinguish true from false memories.  

PubMed

To test whether distinct patterns of electrophysiological activity prior to a response can distinguish true from false memories, we analyzed intracranial electroencephalographic recordings while 52 patients undergoing treatment for epilepsy performed a verbal free-recall task. These analyses revealed that the same pattern of gamma-band (28-100 Hz) oscillatory activity that predicts successful memory formation at item encoding--increased gamma power in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and left temporal lobe--reemerges at retrieval to distinguish correct from incorrect responses. The timing of these oscillatory effects suggests that self-cued memory retrieval begins in the hippocampus and then spreads to the cortex. Thus, retrieval of true, as compared with false, memories induces a distinct pattern of gamma oscillations, possibly reflecting recollection of contextual information associated with past experience. PMID:17958703

Sederberg, Per B; Schulze-Bonhage, Andreas; Madsen, Joseph R; Bromfield, Edward B; Litt, Brian; Brandt, Armin; Kahana, Michael J

2007-11-01

206

True and False Memories in Maltreated Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences in basic memory processes between maltreated and nonmaltreated children were examined in an experiment in which middle-socioeconomic-status (SES; N 560), low-SES maltreated (N 548), and low-SES nonmaltreated (N 551) children (ages 5-7, 8-9, and 10-12 years) studied 12 Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists. Using recall and recognition measures, the results showed that both true and false memories increased with age and, contrary

Mark L. Howe; Dante Cicchetti; Sheree L. Toth; Beth M. Cerrito

2004-01-01

207

The False Recognition Effect in Criminal Profiling  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study was conducted to examine the false recognition effect in criminal profiling. Participants (N?=?83) were presented with a crime scene description and a criminal profile made up of semantically related statements. After\\u000a a one week delay, the task for each participant was to recognize statements from a suspect description that were included\\u000a in the profile, either with or without

Craig Bennell; Rebecca Mugford; Alyssa Taylor; Sarah Bloomfield; Catherine M. Wilson

2008-01-01

208

Detecting false intent using eye blink measures.  

PubMed

Eye blink measures have been shown to be diagnostic in detecting deception regarding past acts. Here we examined-across two experiments with increasing degrees of ecological validity-whether changes in eye blinking can be used to determine false intent regarding future actions. In both experiments, half of the participants engaged in a mock crime and then transported an explosive device with the intent of delivering it to a "contact" that would use it to cause a disturbance. Eye blinking was measured for all participants when presented with three types of questions: relevant to intent to transport an explosive device, relevant to intent to engage in an unrelated illegal act, and neutral questions. Experiment 1 involved standing participants watching a video interviewer with audio presented ambiently. Experiment 2 involved standing participants questioned by a live interviewer. Across both experiments, changes in blink count during and immediately following individual questions, total number of blinks, and maximum blink time length differentiated those with false intent from truthful intent participants. In response to questions relevant to intent to deliver an explosive device vs. questions relevant to intent to deliver illegal drugs, those with false intent showed a suppression of blinking during the questions when compared to the 10 s period after the end of the questions, a lower number of blinks, and shorter maximum blink duration. The results are discussed in relation to detecting deception about past activities as well as to the similarities and differences to detecting false intent as described by prospective memory and arousal. PMID:24130546

Marchak, Frank M

2013-10-11

209

49 CFR 236.785 - Position, false restrictive.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

... 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Position, false restrictive. 236.785 Section...AND APPLIANCES Definitions § 236.785 Position, false restrictive. A position of a semaphore arm that is more restrictive...

2011-10-01

210

Characteristics of false allegation adult crimes.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to identify common factors in false allegation adult crimes, by examining the dynamics involved in 30 confirmed false allegation cases. The authors conducted a comprehensive review of these adjudicated cases and then completed a collection instrument to capture offender demographics, offense characteristics, and motive. The results indicated that most false allegation crimes were committed by women (73.3%) and Caucasians (93.3%). Data indicated that more interpersonally violent allegations were primarily motivated by attention/sympathy needs (50.0%), whereas more impersonal offenses involved other motivations such as providing an alibi (16.7%) or profit (13.3%). Offenders tended to be younger, high school graduates with no higher education (43.3%). A total of 23.3% of offenders had a prior criminal history. Male offenders appeared as likely as women to be motivated by attention/sympathy; however, men tended to select more violent, nonsexual offenses (e.g., attempted murder) than women. PMID:22236499

McNamara, James J; McDonald, Sean; Lawrence, Jennifer M

2012-01-11

211

A synchronization account of false recognition.  

PubMed

We describe a computational model to explain a variety of results in both standard and false recognition. A key attribute of the model is that it uses plausible semantic representations for words, built through exposure to a linguistic corpus. A study list is encoded in the model as a gist trace, similar to the proposal of fuzzy trace theory (Brainerd & Reyna, 2002), but based on realistically structured semantic representations of the component words. The model uses a decision process based on the principles of neural synchronization and information accumulation. The decision process operates by synchronizing a probe with the gist trace of a study context, allowing information to be accumulated about whether the word did or did not occur on the study list, and the efficiency of synchronization determines recognition. We demonstrate that the model is capable of accounting for standard recognition results that are challenging for classic global memory models, and can also explain a wide variety of false recognition effects and make item-specific predictions for critical lures. The model demonstrates that both standard and false recognition results may be explained within a single formal framework by integrating realistic representation assumptions with a simple processing mechanism. PMID:22884279

Johns, Brendan T; Jones, Michael N; Mewhort, Douglas J K

2012-08-11

212

The distinctions of false and fuzzy memories.  

PubMed

Fuzzy-trace theory has recently been used to account for various types of "false memories" (Brainerd & Reyna, 1998, this issue). Although components of fuzzy-trace theory-in particular the distinction between gist and verbatim traces-overlap with distinctions made in other theories of memory, those in fuzzy-trace theory provide an illuminating account of the conditions under which semantic associates of previously seen items are erroneously recognized. However, the theory is less useful in explaining misinformation effects. Fuzzy-trace theory's differential success in accounting for these two types of errors follows from one of its central implications: whereas misinformation effects involve false memories, the erroneous recognition of related lures is due to a reliance on authentic, but underspecified, gist memories. As its name suggests, fuzzy-trace theory is best at explaining memory errors resulting from fuzzy traces. Consistent with this view, fuzzy-trace theory helps to explain another source of memory errors (verbal overshadowing of nonverbal memories) that may also be best characterized as resulting from a reliance on fuzzy, rather than false, memories. PMID:9843618

Schooler, J W

1998-11-01

213

Recollection rejection of false narrative statements.  

PubMed

Our research was focused on a false-memory editing operation that is posited in fuzzy-trace theory-recollection rejection. The main objectives were (a) to extend model-based measurement of this operation to a narrative task that ought to ensure high levels of recollection rejection and (b) to study five manipulations that ought to influence recollection rejection by affecting the accessibility of verbatim traces of narrative statements: recency of narrative presentation, narrative repetition, type of false-memory item, testing delay, and repeated testing. The results showed that the narrative task did indeed yield high levels of recollection, with an estimated 49% of gist-consistent distractors being rejected in this way on initial memory tests. Consistent with current theoretical conceptions of false-memory editing, the results also showed that recollection rejection increased as a function of manipulations that should enhance the accessibility of verbatim traces of narrative statements, with repeated testing delivering especially large increases in verbatim accessibility. PMID:16829486

Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F; Estrada, S

2006-08-01

214

Encoding apparent motion in animated mimic displays.  

PubMed

Animated mimic displays represent system components, the physical connections between components, and the analogical flow of information or resources. These displays have the potential to improve the effectiveness of both training and real-time performance. One animation technique that is particularly efficient (from a computational perspective) is color table animation, which produces a subjective impression of movement through apparent motion. Display variables likely to influence the effectiveness of apparent motion were investigated in two experiments. The primary experimental manipulations were the levels of chromatic and luminance contrast in the displays (temporal frequency and direction of apparent motion were also varied). The results suggest that both types of contrast can be used to encode apparent motion but that luminance contrast is more effective. Several additional variables likely to influence the effectiveness of animation were held constant and are discussed briefly. PMID:8163281

Bennett, K B

1993-12-01

215

Apparent precision of GPS radio occultation temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abundant atmospheric data provided by radio occultation (RO) via the Global Positioning System satellite network have improved short and long-term forecasts and have demonstrated the potential to provide a long-term, consistent, and independent climate dataset. Previous studies have already verified the consistency and reliability of the RO method, listing a range of precision estimates. Uncertainties arising during temperature retrievals, and confounding effects of atmospheric variability, have made the precision of RO temperature data difficult to determine. In this paper, we introduce the concept of apparent precision, and describe a simple, robust method for estimating the apparent temperature precision using data from the COSMIC project. We examine apparent RO temperature precision by latitude, and find it to be somewhat lower than previous estimates. We attribute this to apparent precision being a function of the true precision plus representativeness errors.

Staten, Paul W.; Reichler, Thomas

2009-12-01

216

Subtle causes of apparent non-repeatability.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Machine tools are highly deterministic, i.e., they obey cause and effect relationships that are within our ability to understand and control. There is nothing random or probabilistic about their behavior. When apparent non-repeatability occurs in routine ...

H. Hauschildt

1994-01-01

217

7 CFR 275.13 - Review of negative cases.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review of negative cases. 275.13 Section 275.13...PERFORMANCE REPORTING SYSTEM Quality Control (QC) Reviews § 275.13 Review of negative cases. (a) General. A...

2013-01-01

218

The ethical problem of false positives: a prospective evaluation of physician reporting in the medical record  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine if the medical record might overestimate the quality of care through false, and potentially unethical, documentation by physicians. Design: Prospective trial comparing two methods for measuring the quality of care for four common outpatient conditions: (1) structured reports by standardised patients (SPs) who presented unannounced to the physicians' clinics, and (2) abstraction of the medical records generated during these visits. Setting: The general medicine clinics of two veterans affairs medical centres. Participants: Twenty randomly selected physicians (10 at each site) from among eligible second and third year internal medicine residents and attending physicians. Main measurements: Explicit criteria were used to score the medical records of physicians and the reports of SPs generated during 160 visits (8 cases x 20 physicians). Individual scoring items were categorised into four domains of clinical performance: history, physical examination, treatment, and diagnosis. To determine the false positive rate, physician entries were classified as false positive (documented in the record but not reported by the SP), false negative, true positive, and true negative. Results: False positives were identified in the medical record for 6.4% of measured items. The false positive rate was higher for physical examination (0.330) and diagnosis (0.304) than for history (0.166) and treatment (0.082). For individual physician subjects, the false positive rate ranged from 0.098 to 0.397. Conclusions: These data indicate that the medical record falsely overestimates the quality of important dimensions of care such as the physical examination. Though it is doubtful that most subjects in our study participated in regular, intentional falsification, we cannot exclude the possibility that false positives were in some instances intentional, and therefore fraudulent, misrepresentations. Further research is needed to explore the questions raised but incompletely answered by this research.

Dresselhaus, T; Luck, J; Peabody, J

2002-01-01

219

False-evidence ploys and interrogations: mock jurors' perceptions of false-evidence ploy type, deception, coercion, and justification.  

PubMed

We studied mock jurors' evaluations of police false-evidence ploys across two false-evidence ploy information conditions (true or false confession). Study 1 participants evaluated lists of demeanor, testimonial, and scientific ploys and rated testimonial false-evidence ploys as more coercive than demeanor false-evidence ploys. Participants in the false-confession condition rated false-evidence ploys as more deceptive than did participants in the true-confession condition. Study 2 participants evaluated false-evidence ploy types within interrogation transcripts. Participants rated testimonial false-evidence ploys as more deceptive and coercive than demeanor false-evidence ploys; participants in the true-confession condition rated false-evidence ploys as more justified. Across studies, participants reading realistic transcripts rated false-evidence ploys as more deceptive and coercive. We discuss implications for scholars, attorneys, and interrogators. PMID:22315159

Forrest, Krista D; Woody, William Douglas; Brady, Sara E; Batterman, Keller C; Stastny, Bradley J; Bruns, Jennifer A

2012-02-08

220

The False Crisis in Science Education  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the October 1999 issue of Scientific American, "The False Crisis in Science Education," by W. Wayt Gibbs and Douglas Fox, is a select, Web-enhanced article available free at the Scientific American Website. With many hyperlinks to sites pertaining to points raised in the article, the piece discusses what the authors perceive as a "largely mythical decline in the quality of science education in U.S. public schools" and the nature of the reforms that followed. Still, the article says the US could do a better job preparing children for the future.

Fox, Douglas.; Gibbs, W. W.

1999-01-01

221

False Alarm Probability in the Multiperiodicity Search  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We apply the False Alarm Probability analysis, (FAP), to the multiperiodicity search. Then we show the necessity of using the FAP method in the analysis of the astronomical time-series. We present the results obtained for 153 stars supposed or known to be pulsating variables. We examine the statistical properties of the excited frequencies and find a relation between the parameters of the fitted sine-curves and the FAP. Finally we show the application of our results to the individual stars and large samples of stars.

Molenda-?akowicz, J.

2001-12-01

222

Siblings, language, and false belief in low-income children.  

PubMed

The authors examined the relationship between number of siblings and false belief understanding (FBU) in 94 low-income 4-5-year-olds. Previous research with middle-income children has shown a positive association between number of siblings and FBU. However, it is unclear whether having multiple siblings in low-income families is related to better FBU. Language, specifically vocabulary, was examined as a possible mediator between number of siblings and FBU as several researchers have found that language is causally related to FBU. Contrary to research with middle-income preschoolers, the authors found that number of siblings was negatively related to low-income children's FBU. This relationship was mediated by children's vocabulary skill. Suggestions for why the sibling-FB relationship may differ in low- and middle-income samples are offered. PMID:23991616

Tompkins, Virginia; Farrar, M Jeffrey; Guo, Ying

223

Negative learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

New technical information may lead to scientific beliefs that diverge over time from the a posteriori right answer. We call this phenomenon, which is particularly problematic in the global change arena, negative learning. Negative\\u000a learning may have affected policy in important cases, including stratospheric ozone depletion, dynamics of the West Antarctic\\u000a ice sheet, and population and energy projections. We simulate

Michael Oppenheimer; Brian C. O’Neill; Mort Webster

2008-01-01

224

Adults' Memories of Childhood: True and False Reports  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In 3 experiments, the authors examined factors that, according to the source-monitoring framework, might influence false memory formation and true/false memory discernment. In Experiment 1, combined effects of warning and visualization on false childhood memory formation were examined, as were individual differences in true and false childhood…

Qin, Jianjian; Ogle, Christin M.; Goodman, Gail S.

2008-01-01

225

Modality effect in false recognition: Evidence from Chinese characters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the Deese\\/Roediger?McDermott (DRM) false memory method, Smith and Hunt (1998) first reported the modality effect on false memory and showed that false recall from DRM lists was lower following visual study than following auditory study, which led to numerous studies on the mechanism of modality effect on false memory and provided many competing explanations. In the present experiment, the

Wei Bin Mao; Zhi Liang Yang; Lin Song Wang

2010-01-01

226

Neural network false alarm filter, volume 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This effort identified, developed, and demonstrated a set of approaches for applying neural network learning techniques to the development of a real-time built-in test (BIT) capability to filter out false-alarms from the BIT output. Following a state-of-the-art assessment, a decision space of 19 neural network models, 9 fault report causes, and 12 common groups of BIT techniques was identified. From this space, four unique, high-potential combinations were selected for further investigation. These techniques were subsequently simulated for application to a MILSATCOM system. Detailed analyses of their strengths and weaknesses were performed along with cost/benefit analyses. This study concluded that the best candidates for neural network insertion are new systems where neural network requirements can be included in the initial system design and that a major challenge is the availability of real data for training of the networks. Volume 1 of this report documents the activities and findings of the effort, including an extensive, annotated bibliography. Volume 2 contains a tutorial overview of the neural networks, BIT techniques, and false alarm causes utilized in the final phases of this study.

Aylstock, F.; Elerin, L.; Hintz, J.; Learoyd, C.; Press, R.

1994-12-01

227

Testing jumps via false discovery rate control.  

PubMed

Many recently developed nonparametric jump tests can be viewed as multiple hypothesis testing problems. For such multiple hypothesis tests, it is well known that controlling type I error often makes a large proportion of erroneous rejections, and such situation becomes even worse when the jump occurrence is a rare event. To obtain more reliable results, we aim to control the false discovery rate (FDR), an efficient compound error measure for erroneous rejections in multiple testing problems. We perform the test via the Barndorff-Nielsen and Shephard (BNS) test statistic, and control the FDR with the Benjamini and Hochberg (BH) procedure. We provide asymptotic results for the FDR control. From simulations, we examine relevant theoretical results and demonstrate the advantages of controlling the FDR. The hybrid approach is then applied to empirical analysis on two benchmark stock indices with high frequency data. PMID:23573190

Yen, Yu-Min

2013-04-03

228

Warfarin and the apparent minor head injury.  

PubMed Central

Two cases of patients on warfarin who developed intracranial haematoma after an apparently minor head injury are described. There is a 10-fold increase in the likelihood of developing an intracranial haematoma in these patients. Recommendations are made regarding the management of this type of patient seen in the accident and emergency department.

Saab, M; Gray, A; Hodgkinson, D; Irfan, M

1996-01-01

229

Negative necrotaxis.  

PubMed

We studied necrotaxis in several strains of protists and compared the reaction of living cells in the vicinity of cells killed by a ruby laser. Negative necrotaxis was observed for the unicellular green alga Euglena gracilis, whereas Chlamydomonas was shown to exhibit positive necrotaxis. The cellular colony Pandorina morum exhibited no reaction to the killing of nearby colonies. Both the colorless cryptomonad Chilomonas paramecium and the ciliate Tetrahymena pyriformis exhibited negative necrotaxis following the lysis of vitally stained specimens of their own species. They also exhibited negative necrotaxis following the lysis of Euglena cells. It was also demonstrated that the cellular content of Euglena cells lysed by heat or by a mechanical procedure acts as a repellent to intact Euglena cells. These results suggest that the negative necrotaxis provoked in Euglena by the laser irradiation is probably due to the chemotactic effect produced by the release of cell content in the extracellular medium. This cell content could, according to its chemical composition, act either as a repellent, an attractant, or be inactive. The sensitivity of cells (specific or nonspecific ion channels or chemoreceptors) are also of prime importance in the process. PMID:8400315

Ragot, R

1993-01-01

230

Coaching, Truth Induction, and Young Maltreated Children's False Allegations and False Denials  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the effects of coaching (encouragement and rehearsal of false reports) and truth induction (a child-friendly version of the oath or general reassurance about the consequences of disclosure) on 4- to 7-year-old maltreated children's reports (N = 198). Children were questioned using free recall, repeated yes-no questions, and…

Lyon, Thomas D.; Malloy, Lindsay C.; Quas, Jodi A.; Talwar, Victoria A.

2008-01-01

231

40 CFR 62.5127 - Identification of plan-Negative Declaration  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-07-01 false Identification of plan-Negative Declaration 62.5127 Section 62...Solid Waste Incinerator (ciswi) Units-Negative Declaration § 62.5127 Identification of planâNegative Declaration May 12, 2005...

2009-07-01

232

40 CFR 62.5127 - Identification of plan-Negative Declaration  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-07-01 false Identification of plan-Negative Declaration 62.5127 Section 62...Solid Waste Incinerator (ciswi) Units-Negative Declaration § 62.5127 Identification of planâNegative Declaration May 12, 2005...

2010-07-01

233

Apparent Linear Attenuation Coefficients in Phase Contrast X-Ray Tomography  

PubMed Central

In the inline phase contrast x-ray tomography the reconstructed apparent linear attenuation coefficient values may be greatly larger than sample’s linear attenuation coefficients or even be negative. In this work we present a general formula to quantitatively relate the apparent linear attenuation coefficient values in cone-beam phase contrast tomography to sample’s linear attenuation coefficients and refractive indices. This formula overcomes the gross inaccuracy of the existing formula in the literature in analyzing high-resolution phase contrast tomography, and it will be useful for correctly interpreting and quantifying the apparent linear attenuation coefficients in cone-beam x-ray phase contrast tomography.

Yan, Aimin; Wu, Xizeng

2011-01-01

234

Developmental Reversals in False Memory: Effects of Emotional Valence and Arousal  

PubMed Central

Do the emotional valence and arousal of events distort children’s memories? Do valence and arousal modulate counterintuitive age increases in false memory? We investigated those questions in children, adolescents, and adults using the Cornell/Cortland Emotion Lists, a word list pool that induces false memories and in which valence and arousal can be manipulated factorially. False memories increased with age for unpresented semantic associates of word lists, and net accuracy (the ratio of true memory to total memory) decreased with age. These surprising developmental trends were more pronounced for negatively-valenced materials than for positively-valenced materials, they were more pronounced for high-arousal materials than for low-arousal materials, and developmental increases in the effects of arousal were small in comparison to developmental increases in the effects of valence. These findings have ramifications for legal applications of false-memory research: Materials that share the emotional hallmark of crimes (events that are negatively valenced and arousing) produced the largest age increases in false memory and the largest age declines in net accuracy.

Brainerd, C. J.; Holliday, R. E.; Reyna, V. F.; Yang, Y.; Toglia, M. P.

2010-01-01

235

True versus False Positives and Negatives on the "Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Given the importance of early intervention services for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), early diagnosis of children is critical. At present, several ASD screeners exist for young children, with the "Modified Checklist for Autism in Toddlers" ("M-CHAT") being one of the most widely researched. While the "M-CHAT" has good sensitivity…

Matson, Johnny L.; Kozlowski, Alison M.; Fitzgerald, Mary E.; Sipes, Megan

2013-01-01

236

Urine testing for norcodeine, norhydrocodone, and noroxycodone facilitates interpretation and reduces false negatives  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urine drug testing of pain patients provides objective information to health specialists regarding patient compliance, diversion, and concurrent illicit drug use. Interpretation of urine test results for semi-synthetic opiates can be difficult because of complex biotransformations of parent drug to metabolites that are also available commercially and may be abused. Normetabolites such as norcodeine, norhydrocodone and noroxycodone are unique metabolites

Edward J. Cone; Anne Zichterman; Rebecca Heltsley; David L. Black; Beverly Cawthon; Tim Robert; Frank Moser; Yale H. Caplan

2010-01-01

237

Reducing False Negative Reads in RFID Data Streams Using an Adaptive Sliding-Window Approach  

PubMed Central

Unreliability of the data streams generated by RFID readers is among the primary factors which limit the widespread adoption of the RFID technology. RFID data cleaning is, therefore, an essential task in the RFID middleware systems in order to reduce reading errors, and to allow these data streams to be used to make a correct interpretation and analysis of the physical world they are representing. In this paper we propose an adaptive sliding-window based approach called WSTD which is capable of efficiently coping with both environmental variation and tag dynamics. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

Massawe, Libe Valentine; Kinyua, Johnson D. M.; Vermaak, Herman

2012-01-01

238

False-negative dipyridamole-thallium-201 myocardial imaging after caffeine infusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

The vasodilator effect of intravenously administered dipyridamole may be caused by an increase in endogenous plasma adenosine levels. The authors evaluated the effect of caffeine, an adenosine receptor antagonist, on the diagnostic results of dipyridamole-201Tl myocardial imaging in eight patients with coronary artery disease. Caffeine infusion significantly attenuated the dipyridamole-induced fall in blood pressure and the accompanied increase in heart

Paul Smits; Frans H. M. Corstens; Wim R. M. Aengevaeren; F. J. Wackers; T. Thien

1991-01-01

239

Reducing false negative reads in RFID data streams using an adaptive sliding-window approach.  

PubMed

Unreliability of the data streams generated by RFID readers is among the primary factors which limit the widespread adoption of the RFID technology. RFID data cleaning is, therefore, an essential task in the RFID middleware systems in order to reduce reading errors, and to allow these data streams to be used to make a correct interpretation and analysis of the physical world they are representing. In this paper we propose an adaptive sliding-window based approach called WSTD which is capable of efficiently coping with both environmental variation and tag dynamics. Our experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach. PMID:22666027

Massawe, Libe Valentine; Kinyua, Johnson D M; Vermaak, Herman

2012-03-28

240

Acidic colonic microclimate--possible reason for false negative hydrogen breath tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

About 5% of normal subjects fail to produce increased hydrogen breath concentration after ingestion of the non-digestible carbohydrate lactulose (low hydrogen producers). The existence of low hydrogen producers limits the diagnostic use of hydrogen (H2) breath tests. We studied the effects of lactulose and of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) pretreatment on stool-pH and on hydrogen exhalation after oral loading with lactulose

H Vogelsang; P Ferenci; S Frotz; S Meryn; A Gangl

1988-01-01

241

Avoiding the False Peaks in Correlation Discrimination  

SciTech Connect

Fiducials imprinted on laser beams are used to perform video image based alignment of the 192 laser beams in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. In many video images, matched filtering is used to detect the location of these fiducials. Generally, the highest correlation peak is used to determine the position of the fiducials. However, when the signal to-be-detected is very weak compared to the noise, this approach totally breaks down. The highest peaks act as traps for false detection. The active target images used for automatic alignment in the National Ignition Facility are examples of such images. In these images, the fiducials of interest exhibit extremely low intensity and contrast, surrounded by high intensity reflection from metallic objects. Consequently, the highest correlation peaks are caused by these bright objects. In this work, we show how the shape of the correlation is exploited to isolate the valid matches from hundreds of invalid correlation peaks, and therefore identify extremely faint fiducials under very challenging imaging conditions.

Awwal, A S

2009-07-31

242

Skin irritation, false positives and the local lymph node assay: a guideline issue?  

PubMed

Since the formal validation and regulatory acceptance of the local lymph node assay (LLNA) there have been commentaries suggesting that the irritant properties of substances can give rise to false positives. As toxicology aspires to progress rapidly towards the age of in vitro alternatives, it is of increasing importance that issues relating to assay selectivity and performance are understood fully, and that true false positive responses are distinguished clearly from those that are simply unpalatable. In the present review, we have focused on whether skin irritation per se is actually a direct cause of true false positive results in the LLNA. The body of published work has been examined critically and considered in relation to our current understanding of the mechanisms of skin irritation and skin sensitisation. From these analyses it is very clear that, of itself, skin irritation is not a cause of false positive results. The corollary is, therefore, that limiting test concentrations in the LLNA for the purpose of avoiding skin irritation may lead, unintentionally, to false negatives. Where a substance is a true false positive in the LLNA, the classic example being sodium lauryl sulphate, explanations for that positivity will have to reach beyond the seductive, but incorrect, recourse to its skin irritation potential. PMID:21803111

Basketter, David A; Kimber, Ian

2011-07-22

243

Apparent hypodontia: A case of misdiagnosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

The case of a 12-year-old girl is reported, whose pretreatment radiograph demonstrated agenesis of two premolars and a canine and slow development of the contralateral premolars. A follow-up radiograph taken 1 year later showed initial mineralization of a tooth germ in the site of one of the apparently missing premolars. The cause, diagnosis, and treatment planning implications of delayed mineralization

Jonathan Alexander-Abt

1999-01-01

244

Apparent dispersion in transient groundwater flow  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the effects of large-scale temporal velocity fluctuations, particularly changes in the direction of flow, on solute spreading in a two-dimensional aquifer. Relations for apparent longitudinal and transverse dispersivity are developed through an analytical solution for dispersion in a fluctuating, quasi-steady uniform flow field, in which storativity is zero. For transient flow, spatial moments are evaluated from numerical

Daniel J. Goode; Leonard F. Konikow

1990-01-01

245

Apparent mass of small children: experimental measurements.  

PubMed

A test facility and protocol were developed for measuring the seated, vertical, whole-body vibration response of small children of less than 18 kg in mass over the frequency range from 1 to 45 Hz. The facility and protocol adhered to the human vibration testing guidelines of BS7085 and to current codes of ethics for research involving children. Additional procedures were also developed which are not currently defined in the guidelines, including the integral involvement of the parents and steps taken to maximize child happiness. Eight children were tested at amplitudes of 0.8 and 1.2 m/s(2) using band-limited, Gaussian, white noise acceleration signals defined over the frequency interval from 1 to 50 Hz. Driving point apparent mass modulus and phase curves were determined for all eight children at both test amplitudes. All results presented a single, principal, anti-resonance, and were similar to data reported for primates and for adult humans seated in an automotive posture which provided backrest support. The mean frequency of the apparent mass peak was 6.25 Hz for the small children, as compared to values between 6.5 - 8.5 Hz for small primates and values between 6.5 - 8.6 Hz for adults seated with backrest support. The peak value of the mean, normalized, apparent mass was 1.54 for the children, which compares to values from 1.19 to 1.45 reported in the literature for small primates and 1.28 for adults seated with backrest support. ISO standard 5982, which specifies a mean, normalized, apparent mass modulus peak of 1.50 at a frequency of 4.0 Hz for adults seated without backrest support, provides significant differences. PMID:15513719

Giacomin, J

2004-10-22

246

Educator Tools - Slides/Talking Points - True or False Answer ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Educator Tools - Slides/Talking Points - True or False Answer #2. Return to Table of Contents. ... True or False? Foodborne illness doesn't affect me. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/healtheducators

247

Using the Ancient Method of False Position to Find Solutions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Several activities that are based on the ancient method of false position, also called false assumption, are presented in this article as a way to motivate students to find the solution of literal equations in beginning algebra.

Edwards, Thomas G.

2008-01-01

248

Apparent stress scaling and statistical trends  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical relations between different earthquake parameters, such as M0 (seismic moment), ES (seismic energy), ?a (apparent stress), A (rupture area), g (average slip acceleration), are investigated. For this purpose, a kinematic earthquake model representing averaged earthquake rupture process is formulated. The model implies a scaling relationship for ?a as a function of three other parameters, related to kinematic ( M0), geometric ( A) and material ( g) source characteristics, which, according to the model, can change independently. This scaling relation is used to explain statistical trends that characterize different earthquake data sets (including micro-, small, moderate and large events) plotted in the log ?a - log M0 space, and to determine the area in this space, where typical earthquakes occur. The scaling relationship is interpreted in terms of the apparent stress minimum (i.e., the most uniform among the possible earthquake rupture patterns). It is concluded that, although the apparent stress increases on an average with increasing seismic moment, small and large earthquakes are essentially similar.

Senatorski, Piotr

2007-03-01

249

Apparent Solar Tornado-Like Prominences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent high-resolution observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) have reawakened interest in the old and fascinating phenomenon of solar tornado-like prominences. This class of prominences was first introduced by Pettit (Astrophys. J. 76, 9, 1932), who studied them over many years. Observations of tornado prominences similar to the ones seen by SDO had already been documented by Secchi (Le Soleil, 1877). High-resolution and high-cadence multiwavelength data obtained by SDO reveal that the tornado-like appearance of these prominences is mainly an illusion due to projection effects. We discuss two different cases where prominences on the limb might appear to have a tornado-like behavior. One case of apparent vortical motions in prominence spines and barbs arises from the (mostly) 2D counterstreaming plasma motion along the prominence spine and barbs together with oscillations along individual threads. The other case of apparent rotational motion is observed in a prominence cavity and results from the 3D plasma motion along the writhed magnetic fields inside and along the prominence cavity as seen projected on the limb. Thus, the "tornado" impression results either from counterstreaming and oscillations or from the projection on the plane of the sky of plasma motion along magnetic-field lines, rather than from a true vortical motion around an (apparent) vertical or horizontal axis. We discuss the link between tornado-like prominences, filament barbs, and photospheric vortices at their base.

Panasenco, Olga; Martin, Sara F.; Velli, Marco

2013-07-01

250

False discovery rate: setting the probability of false claim of detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When testing multiple hypotheses in a survey—e.g. many different source locations, template waveforms, and so on—the final result consists of a set of confidence intervals, each one at a desired confidence level. But the probability that at least one of these intervals does not cover the true value increases with the number of trials. With a sufficiently large array of confidence intervals, one can be sure that at least one is missing the true value. In particular, the probability of false claim of detection becomes non-negligible. In order to compensate for this, one should increase the confidence level, at the price of reduced detection power. False discovery rate control (Benjamini Y and Hochberg Y 1995 J. R. Stat. Soc. B 57 289 300) is a relatively new statistical procedure that bounds the number of mistakes made when performing multiple hypothesis tests. We shall review this method, discussing exercise applications to the field of gravitational wave surveys.

Baggio, L.; Prodi, G. A.

2005-09-01

251

Psychoactive drugs and false memory: comparison of dextroamphetamine and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on false recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale  Several psychoactive drugs are known to influence episodic memory. However, these drugs’ effects on false memory, or the tendency\\u000a to incorrectly remember nonstudied information, remain poorly understood.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Objectives  Here, we examined the effects of two commonly used psychoactive drugs, one with memory-enhancing properties (dextroamphetamine;\\u000a AMP), and another with memory-impairing properties (?9-tetrahydrocannabinol; THC), on false memory using the Deese\\/Roediger–McDermott (DRM) illusion.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Two

Michael E. Ballard; David A. Gallo; Harriet de Wit

252

The Strategic Nature of False Recognition in the DRM Paradigm  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The false memory effect produced by the Deese/Roediger & McDermott (DRM) paradigm is reportedly impervious to warnings to avoid false alarming to the critical lures (D. A. Gallo, H. L. Roediger III, & K. B. McDermott, 2001). This finding has been used as strong evidence against models that attribute the false alarms to a decision process…

Miller, Michael B.; Guerin, Scott A.; Wolford, George L.

2011-01-01

253

Lexical Association and False Memory for Words in Two Cultures  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the relationship between language experience and false memory produced by the DRM paradigm. The word lists used in Stadler, et al. (Memory & Cognition, 27, 494-500, 1999) were first translated into Chinese. False recall and false recognition for critical non-presented targets were then tested on a group of Chinese users. The…

Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Chiang, Wen-Chi; Hung, Hsu-Ching

2008-01-01

254

20 CFR 702.217 - Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation...Claims Procedures Notice § 702.217 Penalty for false statement, misrepresentation...S.C. 909, if the injury results in death, shall be punished by a fine not...

2013-04-01

255

Chinese Preschoolers' Implicit and Explicit False-Belief Understanding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Mandarin-speaking preschoolers in Mainland China (3- to 4-year-olds; N = 192) were tested for dissociations between anticipatory looking (AL) and verbal judgments on false-belief tasks. The dissociation between the two kinds of understanding was robust despite direct false-belief test questions using a Mandarin specific think-falsely verb and…

Wang, Bo; Low, Jason; Jing, Zhang; Qinghua, Qu

2012-01-01

256

Virtually True: Children's Acquisition of False Memories in Virtual Reality  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous work on human memory has shown that prompting participants with false events and self-relevant information via different types of media such as narratives, edited 2-dimensional images, and mental imagery creates false memories. This study tested a new form of media for studying false memory formation: Immersive Virtual Environment Technology (IVET). Using this tool, we examined how memory was affected

Kathryn Y. Segovia; Jeremy N. Bailenson

2009-01-01

257

Affect Influences False Memories at Encoding: Evidence from Recognition Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memory is susceptible to illusions in the form of false memories. Prior research found, however, that sad moods reduce false memories. The current experiment had two goals: (1) to determine whether affect influences retrieval processes, and (2) to determine whether affect influences the strength and the persistence of false memories. Happy or sad moods were induced either before or after

Justin Storbeck; Gerald L. Clore

2011-01-01

258

False Memory ? False Memory: DRM Errors Are Unrelated to the Misinformation Effect  

PubMed Central

The DRM method has proved to be a popular and powerful, if controversial, way to study ‘false memories’. One reason for the controversy is that the extent to which the DRM effect generalises to other kinds of memory error has been neither satisfactorily established nor subject to much empirical attention. In the present paper we contribute data to this ongoing debate. One hundred and twenty participants took part in a standard misinformation effect experiment, in which they watched some CCTV footage, were exposed to misleading post-event information about events depicted in the footage, and then completed free recall and recognition tests. Participants also completed a DRM test as an ostensibly unrelated filler task. Despite obtaining robust misinformation and DRM effects, there were no correlations between a broad range of misinformation and DRM effect measures (mean r ?=??.01). This was not due to reliability issues with our measures or a lack of power. Thus DRM ‘false memories’ and misinformation effect ‘false memories’ do not appear to be equivalent.

Ost, James; Blank, Hartmut; Davies, Joanna; Jones, Georgina; Lambert, Katie; Salmon, Kelly

2013-01-01

259

Apparent Geocenter Variations from IGS Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural Resources Canada's (NRCan) Geodetic Survey Division (GSD), on behalf of the International GPS Service (IGS) and its Reference Frame Working Group, combines a consistent set of station coordinates, velocities, Earth Rotation Parameters (ERP) and apparent geocenter to produce the IGS official station position/ERP solutions in the Software Independent Exchange (SINEX) format The weekly Analysis Centers (AC) solutions include estimates of weekly station coordinates, apparent geocenter positions and daily ERPs. All the AC products are required to be in a consistent reference frame. The combination of station coordinates originating from different ACs involves removing all available constraints and re-scaling the covariance information. The weekly combination generally includes estimates of coordinates for 120 to 140 globally distributed stations. While the cumulative solution currently includes approximately 280 stations, about 215 of them have complete information and reliable velocity estimates. The IGS combined products are required to be consistent with the most recent realization of ITRF (currently ITRF97, soon in ITRF2000). This is done by transforming the weekly and cumulative solutions, respectively using 7 and 14 Helmert transformation parameters (3 translations, 3 rotations, 1 scale and their respective rates). The transformation parameters are determined from a subset of 51 high quality, globally distributed and generally collocated (with other space techniques) stations, also known as Reference Frame (RF) stations. The weekly estimated IGS apparent geocenter for the period between 99/08/01 (Wk 1012) and 01/08/04 (Wk 1025) has been analyzed. The apparent X, Y and Z geocenter components were estimated with respect to the realization of ITRF97. The estimated weekly geocenter positions relied on COD, ESA and JPL SINEX solutions for the period of interest. The formal error for the weekly geocenter is about 6-8mm for the XY components and 8-10mm for the Z component. The average geocenter estimate for that period are 2mm, 4mm and -17.5 mm for the X, Y and Z components. A spectral analysis was done on each component of the weekly estimate. A bias and a drift were removed from each component of the time series. The spectral analysis on each axis showed the presence of a significant annual period with amplitude of about 4mm, 6mm and 7mm. Semi annual periods were also found for each axis with amplitude of about 3.5mm 4.5mm and 4.0mm. The position and velocity of the origin of the proposed IGS realization of ITRF2000 with respect to ITRF97 was also determined. It was estimated from the IGS97 and (proposed) IGS2000 realizations of ITRF using 50 common stations. The results indicate that with IGS2000 the Y and Z components of the IGS apparent geocenter would agree better with the IGS2000 origin. This also suggest an improved agreement between the SLR determination of the geocenter, which defines the origin for ITRF2000 and the IGS combined apparent geocenter. The presentation will show details of the analysis.

Ferland, R.

2001-12-01

260

Interaction of Sleep and Emotional Content on the Production of False Memories  

PubMed Central

Sleep benefits veridical memories, resulting in superior recall relative to off-line intervals spent awake. Sleep also increases false memory recall in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Given the suggestion that emotional veridical memories are prioritized for consolidation over sleep, here we examined whether emotion modulates sleep’s effect on false memory formation. Participants listened to semantically related word lists lacking a critical lure representing each list’s “gist.” Free recall was tested after 12 hours containing sleep or wake. The Sleep group recalled more studied words than the Wake group but only for emotionally neutral lists. False memories of both negative and neutral critical lures were greater following sleep relative to wake. Morning and Evening control groups (20-minute delay) did not differ ruling out circadian accounts for these differences. These results support the adaptive function of sleep in both promoting the consolidation of veridical declarative memories and in extracting unifying aspects from memory details.

McKeon, Shannon; Pace-Schott, Edward F.; Spencer, Rebecca M. C.

2012-01-01

261

[Screening of alloantibodies: stability of false positive results as a quality indicator].  

PubMed

Screening of alloantibodies is required before each transfusion. As part of our blood bank quality assurance, we have developed a quality indicator to monitor these false positive antibody results. We have studied 25.162 samples: sera were first screened by automated column agglutination technology (CAT). Positive results were found in 1.365 of the 25.162 samples. False positive results, ie positive screening test followed by a negative identification, were found in 271 (20%) cases. In the 116 patients remaining (43%) no factor could be evidenced. Interestingly, the percentage of patients with false positive antibody screening was stable month after month. In our experience, this percentage is very stable, it may be used as an indicator of quality laboratory and its unusual variation allows to suspect alterations of the reagents (hemolysis, loss of specificity, sensitivity). PMID:21896414

Flourié, Françoise; Duboeuf, Sébastien; Fay, Murielle; Garraud, Olivier

262

Impact of {sup 18}F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography Before and After Definitive Radiation Therapy in Patients With Apparently Solitary Plasmacytoma  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To evaluate the impact of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) on management of patients with apparently isolated plasmacytoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty-one patients with apparently solitary plasmacytoma who underwent FDG-PET for staging or restaging were identified from a central PET database. They were either candidates for or had received definitive radiation therapy (RT). Results: Seventeen patients had initial staging scans for bone (n = 11) or soft tissue (n = 6) plasmacytomas, and 11 had PET scans after RT. Only 1 of 14 known untreated sites of plasmacytoma was not identified on staging PET (lesion sensitivity = 93%). Three plasmacytomas were excised before PET. Staging PET influenced management in 6 of 17 patients (35%) by showing multiple myeloma (n = 1), discouraging RT after complete resection (n = 1), excluding plasmacytoma at a second site (n = 1), by increasing RT fields (n = 2), or by suggesting sarcoidosis (n = 1). Fifteen of 17 patients with initial staging PET scans received definitive RT. Restaging PET scans after RT showed complete metabolic response in 8 of 11 cases and progressive disease in 2. Two patients with either no response or partial metabolic response had late responses. Staging sestamibi and PET scans were concordant in five of six occasions (one sestamibi scan was false negative). Conclusions: FDG-PET has value for staging and RT planning in plasmacytoma and potentially could have a role in response-assessment after RT. Slow resolution of FDG uptake posttreatment does not necessarily imply an adverse prognosis.

Kim, Paul J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, California Pacific Medical Center, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hicks, Rodney J. [Centre for Molecular Imaging and Translational Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Wirth, Andrew; Ryan, Gail [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Seymour, John F.; Prince, H. Miles [Department of Haematology/Medical Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia); Mac Manus, Michael P. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria (Australia)], E-mail: michael.macmanus@petermac.org

2009-07-01

263

Fuzzy-trace theory and children's false memories.  

PubMed

Fuzzy-trace theory's concepts of identity judgment, nonidentity judgment, and similarity judgment provide a unified account of the false-memory phenomena that have been most commonly studied in children: false-recognition effects and misinformation effects. False-recognition effects (elevated false-alarm rates for unpresented distractors that preserve the meanings of presented targets) are due to increased rates of similarity or false identity judgment about distractors or to decreased rates of nonidentity judgment. Misinformation effects (erroneous acceptance of misleading postevent information and erroneous rejection of actual events) are also due to variability in rates of similarity, identity, and nonidentity judgment. Two experimental paradigms are presented, one for false recognition (conjoint recognition) and one for misinformation (conjoint misinformation), that allow investigators to tease apart the contributions of these processes to children's false-memory reports. Each paradigm is implemented in a mathematical model that provides numerical estimates of the processes. PMID:9843617

Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F

1998-11-01

264

False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration  

PubMed Central

Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false memory for suggested events. Results showed that conceptual elaboration of suggested events more often resulted in high confidence false memories (Experiment 1) and false memories that were accompanied by the phenomenal experience of remembering them (Experiment 2) than did surface-level processing. Moreover, conceptual elaboration consistently led to higher rates of false memory than did perceptual elaboration. The false memory effects that resulted from conceptual elaboration were highly dependent on the organization of the postevent interview questions, such that conceptual elaboration only increased false memory beyond surface level processing when participants evaluated both true and suggested information in relation to the same theme or dimension.

Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

2010-01-01

265

Warnings reduce false memories for missing aspects of events.  

PubMed

When people see movies with some parts missing, they falsely recognize many of the missing parts later. In two experiments, we examined the effect of warnings on people's false memories for these parts. In Experiment 1, warning subjects about false recognition before the movie (forewarnings) reduced false recognition, but warning them after the movie (postwarnings) reduced false recognition to a lesser extent. In Experiment 2, the effect of the warnings depended on the nature of the missing parts. Forewarnings were more effective than postwarnings in reducing false recognition of missing noncrucial parts, but forewarnings and postwarnings were similarly effective in reducing false recognition of crucial missing parts. We use the source monitoring framework to explain our results. PMID:21106471

Gerrie, Matthew P; Garry, Maryanne

2011-01-01

266

Apparent Motion Interpretation of Generic Orbits (AMIGO)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new tool, called AMIGO (`Apparent Motion Interpretation of Generic Orbits'), is presented. It provides a first kinematical classification of moving objects in a given direction of sky at any date, generating representative populations of asteroids of all classes (Near-Earth Objects, Main Belts, Trojans of the outer planets, Kuiper Belt Objects etc.), and imposing simple constraints on line of sight direction, date and orbital parameters in order for them to fall in the imaged field. The code calculates the apparent velocities of each population, and displays the generated objects as points projected into a RA-DEC velocity plane. The different groups (Main Belt asteroids, Jupiter Trojans, and so on) occupy well defined (and usually well separated, especially at opposition) regions in this plane. Plotting on the same plane the detected real objects, such plots permit to discriminate between interesting detections and non interesting ones. AMIGO is therefore of immediate help to observers. Moreover, in some cases AMIGO can also constrain the orbital parameters of the detected objects. Some applications to images obtained with the 2.2m WFI and the Asiago-Schmidt telescope will be presented. In all cases analysed so far (over more than 1000 new detections), AMIGO has always provided a reliable kinematical classification.

Marchi, S.; Migliorini, A.; Barbieri, C.; Magrin, S.

267

Apparent cyclophosphamide (cytoxan) embryopathy: a distinct phenotype?  

PubMed

Cyclophosphamide (CP) is an alkylating agent widely used in treating cancer and autoimmune disease. CP is classified as a pregnancy risk factor D drug and is teratogenic in animals, but population studies have not conclusively demonstrated teratogenicity in humans. Six isolated reports of prenatally exposed infants with various congenital anomalies exist, but to date no specific phenotype has been delineated. The purpose of this report is to document a new case of in utero CP exposure with multiple congenital anomalies and to establish an apparent CP embryopathy phenotype. The mother had systemic lupus erythematosus and cyclophosphamide exposure in the first trimester. She also took nifedipine, atenolol, clonidine, prednisone, aspirin, and potassium chloride throughout pregnancy. The infant had growth retardation and multiple anomalies including microbrachycephaly, coronal craniosynostosis, hypotelorism, shallow orbits, proptosis, blepharophimosis, small, abnormal ears, unilateral preauricular pit, broad, flat nasal bridge, microstomia, high-arched palate, micrognathia, preaxial upper limb and postaxial lower limb defects consisting of hypoplastic thumbs, and bilateral absence of the 4th and 5th toes. Chromosomes were apparently normal. The reported cases of in utero exposure to cyclosposphamide shared the following manifestations with our patient: growth deficiency, developmental delay, craniosynostosis, blepharophimosis, flat nasal bridge, abnormal ears, and distal limb defects including hypoplastic thumbs and oligodactyly. We conclude that (a) cyclophosphamide is a human teratogen, (b) a distinct phenotype exists, and (c) the safety of CP in pregnancy is in serious question. PMID:10482872

Enns, G M; Roeder, E; Chan, R T; Ali-Khan Catts, Z; Cox, V A; Golabi, M

1999-09-17

268

Adults' memories of childhood: true and false reports.  

PubMed

In 3 experiments, the authors examined factors that, according to the source-monitoring framework, might influence false memory formation and true/false memory discernment. In Experiment 1, combined effects of warning and visualization on false childhood memory formation were examined, as were individual differences in true and false childhood memories. Combining warnings and visualization led to the lowest false memory and highest true memory. Several individual difference factors (e.g., parental fearful attachment style) predicted false recall. In addition, true and false childhood memories differed (e.g., in amount of information). Experiment 2 examined relations between Deese/Roediger-McDermott task performance and false childhood memories. Deese/Roediger-McDermott performance (e.g., intrusion of unrelated words in free recall) was associated with false childhood memory, suggesting liberal response criteria in source decisions as a common underlying mechanism. Experiment 3 investigated adults' abilities to discern true and false childhood memory reports (e.g., by detecting differences in amount of information as identified in Experiment 1). Adults who were particularly successful in discerning such reports indicated reliance on event plausibility. Overall, the source-monitoring framework provided a viable explanatory framework. Implications for theory and clinical and forensic interviews are discussed. PMID:19102620

Qin, Jianjian; Ogle, Christin M; Goodman, Gail S

2008-12-01

269

Apparent negative mass in QCM sensors due to punctual rigid loading  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quartz Crystal Microbalances (QCM) are highly sensitive piezoelectric sensors able to detect very small loads attached to them. These devices are widely employed in many applications including process control and industrial and environmental monitoring. Mass loading is usually related to frequency shift by the well-known Sauerbrey's equation, valid for thin rigid homogeneous films. However, a significant deviation from this equation can occur when the mass is not uniformly distributed over the surface. Whereas the effects of a thin film on a QCM have been thoroughly studied, there are relatively few results on punctual loads, even though particles are usually deposited randomly and non-uniformly on the resonator surface. In this work, we have studied the effect of punctual rigid loading on the resonant frequency shift of a QCM sensor, both experimentally and using finite element method (FEM). The FEM numerical analysis was done using COMSOL software, 3D modeling a linear elastic piezoelectric solid and introducing the properties of an AT-cut quartz crystal. It is shown that a punctual rigid mass deposition on the surface of a QCM sensor can lead to positive shifts of resonance frequency, contrary to Sauerbrey's equation.

Castro, P.; Resa, P.; Elvira, L.

2012-12-01

270

15 CFR 930.35 - Negative determinations for proposed activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Negative determinations for proposed activities...Federal Agency Activities § 930.35 Negative determinations for proposed activities...shall provide the State agencies with a negative determination for a Federal agency...

2009-01-01

271

15 CFR 930.35 - Negative determinations for proposed activities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negative determinations for proposed activities...Federal Agency Activities § 930.35 Negative determinations for proposed activities...shall provide the State agencies with a negative determination for a Federal agency...

2010-01-01

272

Computing the apparent centroid of radar targets  

SciTech Connect

A high-frequency multibounce radar scattering code was used as a simulation platform for demonstrating an algorithm to compute the ARC of specific radar targets. To illustrate this simulation process, several targets models were used. Simulation results for a sphere model were used to determine the errors of approximation associated with the simulation; verifying the process. The severity of glint induced tracking errors was also illustrated using a model of an F-15 aircraft. It was shown, in a deterministic manner, that the ARC of a target can fall well outside its physical extent. Finally, the apparent radar centroid simulation based on a ray casting procedure is well suited for use on most massively parallel computing platforms and could lead to the development of a near real-time radar tracking simulation for applications such as endgame fuzing, survivability, and vulnerability analyses using specific radar targets and fuze algorithms.

Lee, C.E.

1996-12-31

273

False-positive Ascaris suum egg counts in pigs  

Microsoft Academic Search

False-positive Ascaris suum egg counts in pig faeces are frequently observed under both experimental and natural conditions. Data from 12 experiments with A. suum infections in pigs were summarized and showed that the percentage of false-positive faecal samples ranged from 4 to 36%. False-positive egg count values varied greatly between pigs and experiments (range 20–1060 eggs per gram faeces). Indoor

Jaap Boes; Peter Nansen; Lani S. Stephenson

1997-01-01

274

Thinking while talking: adults fail nonverbal false-belief reasoning.  

PubMed

This experiment tested the ability of 81 adult subjects to make a decision on a simple nonverbal false-belief reasoning task while concurrently either shadowing prerecorded spoken dialogue or tapping along with a rhythmic shadowing track. Our results showed that the verbal task, but not tapping, significantly disrupted false-belief reasoning, suggesting that language plays a key role in working theory of mind in adults, even when the false-belief reasoning is nonverbal. PMID:17614864

Newton, Ashley M; de Villiers, Jill G

2007-07-01

275

The Strategic Nature of False Recognition in the DRM Paradigm  

Microsoft Academic Search

The false memory effect produced by the Deese\\/Roediger & McDermott (DRM) paradigm is reportedly impervious to warnings to avoid false alarming to the critical lures (D. A. Gallo, H. L. Roediger III, & K. B. McDermott, 2001). This finding has been used as strong evidence against models that attribute the false alarms to a decision process (e.g., M. B. Miller

Michael B. Miller; Scott A. Guerin; George L. Wolford

2011-01-01

276

False Memory in a Short-Term Memory Task  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Deese\\/Roediger-McDermott (DRM; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) paradigm reliably elicits false memories for critical nonpresented words in recognition tasks. The present studies used a Sternberg (1966) task with DRM lists to determine whether false memories occur in short-term memory tasks and to assess the contribution of latency data in the measurement of false memories. Subjects studied three, five, or seven

Jennifer H. Coane; Dawn M. McBride; Bascom A. Raulerson III; J. Scott Jordan

2007-01-01

277

The effect of study modality on false recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of previous studies have shown that false recognition of critical items in the Deese\\/Roediger-McDermott paradigm\\u000a is reduced when study items are presented visually rather than auditorily; however, this effect has not been uniformly demonstrated.\\u000a We investigated three potential boundary conditions of the effect of study modality in false recognition. Experiments 1 and\\u000a 2 showed no reduction in false

Rebekah E. Smith; R. Reed Hunt; M. Patrick Gallagher

2008-01-01

278

Recollection rejection: false-memory editing in children and adults.  

PubMed

Mechanisms for editing false events out of memory reports have fundamental implications for theories of false memory and for best practice in applied domains in which false reports must be minimized (e.g., forensic psychological interviews, sworn testimony). A mechanism posited in fuzzy-trace theory, recollection rejection, is considered. A process analysis of false-memory editing is presented, which assumes that false-but-gist-consistent events (e.g., the word SOFA, when the word COUCH was experienced) sometimes cue the retrieval of verbatim traces of the corresponding true events (COUCH), generating mismatches that counteract the high familiarity of false-but-gist-consistent events. Empirical support comes from 2 qualitative phenomena: recollective suppression of semantic false memory and inverted-U relations between retrieval time and semantic false memory. Further support comes from 2 quantitative methodologies: conjoint recognition and receiver operating characteristics. The analysis also predicts a novel false-memory phenomenon (erroneous recollection rejection), in which true events are inappropriately edited out of memory reports. PMID:14599242

Brainerd, C J; Reyna, V F; Wright, Ron; Mojardin, A H

2003-10-01

279

Negativity Bias, Negativity Dominance, and Contagion  

Microsoft Academic Search

We hypothesize that there is a general bias, based on both innate predispositions and experience, in animals and humans, to give greater weight to negative entities (e.g., events, objects, personal traits). This is manifested in 4 ways: (a) negative potency (negative entities are stronger than the equivalent positive entities), (b) steeper nega - tive gradients (the negativity of negative events

Paul Rozin; Edward B. Royzman

2001-01-01

280

Belief and sign, true and false: the unique of false belief reasoning.  

PubMed

For a long time, a controversy has been proposed that whether the process of theory of mind is a result of domain-specific or domain-general changes (Wellman in The handbook of childhood cognitive development. Blackwell Publication, New Jersey, 2011). This event-related potential study explored the neural time course of domain-general and domain-specific components in belief reasoning. Fourteen participants completed location transfer false belief (FB), true belief (TB), false sign (FS) and true sign (TS) tasks, in which two pictures told a story related to a dog that ran from a green into a red box. In the TB and FB tasks, a boy saw or did not see the transfer of the dog, respectively. In the FS and TS tasks, an arrow that pointed to the green box either altered its direction to the red box or did not alter following the transfer of the dog. Participants then inferred where the boy thought of, or the arrow indicated the location of the dog. FB and TB reasoning elicited lower N2 amplitudes than FS and TS reasoning, which is associated with domain-general components, the detection, and classification. The late slow wave (LSW) for FB was more positive at frontal, central, and parietal sites than FS because of the domain-specific component involved in FB reasoning. However, the LSW was less positive for TB than for FB but did not differ from the TS condition, which implies that mental representation might not be involved in TB reasoning. PMID:23975150

Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Qin; Li, Yiyuan; Long, Changquan; Li, Hong

2013-08-23

281

Proactive and retroactive effects of negative suggestion.  

PubMed

The negative effects of false information presented either prior to (proactive interference; PI) or following (retroactive interference; RI) true information was examined with word definitions (Experiment 1) and trivia facts (Experiment 2). Participants were explicitly aware of which information was true and false when shown, and true-false discrimination was evaluated via multiple-choice tests. Negative suggestion, defined as poorer performance on interference items than noninterference (control) items, consistently occurred when the wrong information followed the correct information (RI) but not when it preceded the correct information (PI). These effects did not change as a function of retention interval (immediate, 1 week, or 3 weeks) or number of incorrect alternatives (1 or 3). Implications of this outcome for experiencing incorrect information in both academic and nonacademic situations are considered. PMID:17087580

Brown, Alan S; Brown, Christine M; Mosbacher, Joy L; Dryden, W Erich

2006-11-01

282

Apparent life-threatening events: an update.  

PubMed

Based on strong research evidence, the most common causes of apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs) are gastroesophageal reflux, lower respiratory tract infection, and seizure. • The minimum initial diagnostic panel for ALTE should include complete blood cell (CBC) count with differential; blood levels of C-reactive protein,glucose, sodium, potassium, urea, calcium,magnesium, ammonia, lactate, and pyruvate; arterial blood gas determination, urinalysis, and toxicology screen; electrocardiography; and assessments for Bordetella pertussis and respiratory syncytial virus in season. • Other testing should be done based on the infant’s clinical presentation and clinician’s degree of suspicion.• Most infants should be hospitalized for cardiorespiratory monitoring for 23 hours after an ALTE. • There is strong evidence that newborns are at higher risk of ALTE and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)within the first 24 hours after birth and therefore should be frequently monitored as much as possible while room sharing with their mothers. • Evidence suggests that maternal smoking may place an infant for higher risk of SIDS after an ALTE. PMID:22855928

Fu, Linda Y; Moon, Rachel Y

2012-08-01

283

Apparent speed increases at low luminance  

PubMed Central

To investigate the effect of luminance on apparent speed, subjects adjusted the speed of a low-luminance rotating grating (0.31 cd/m2) to match that of a high-luminance one (1260 cd/m2). Above 4 Hz, subjects overestimated the speed of the low-luminance grating. This overestimation increased as a function of temporal rate and reached 30% around 10 Hz temporal rates. The speed overestimation became significant once the lower luminance was 2.4 log units lower than the high luminance comparison. Next the role of motion smear in speed overestimation was examined. First it was shown that the length of the perceived motion smear increased at low luminances. Second, the length of the visible smear was manipulated by changing the presentation time of the stimuli. Speed overestimation was reduced at shorter presentation times. Third the speed of a blurred stimulus was compared to a stimulus with sharp edges and the blurred stimulus was judged to move faster. These results indicate that the length of motion smear following a target contributes to its perceived speed and that this leads to speed overestimation at low luminance where motion traces lengthen because of increased persistence.

Vaziri-Pashkam, Maryam; Cavanagh, Patrick

2009-01-01

284

Curved apparent motion induced by amodal completion  

PubMed Central

We investigated whether amodal completion can bias apparent motion (AM) to deviate from its default straight path toward a longer curved path, which would violate the well-established principle that AM follows the shortest possible path. Observers viewed motion sequences of two alternating rectangular tokens positioned at the ends of a semicircular occluder, with varying interstimulus intervals (ISIs; 100–500 ms). At short ISIs, observers tended to report simple straight-path motion—that is, outside the occluder. But at long ISIs, they became increasingly likely to report a curved-path motion behind the occluder. This tendency toward reporting curved-path motion was influenced by the shape of tokens, display orientation, the gap between tokens and the occluder, and binocular depth cues. Our results suggest that the visual system tends to minimize unexplained absence of a moving object, as well as its path length, such that AM deviates from the shortest path when amodal integration of motion trajectory behind the curved occluder can account for the objective invisibility of the object during the ISI.

Feldman, Jacob; Singh, Manish

2012-01-01

285

Overload behavior and apparent efficiencies in chromatography.  

PubMed

Over the last 50 years, many analysts have attempted to analyze column overloading by measuring the drop of the column HETP with increasing sample size and to predict elution band profiles from overloaded columns by combining the influences of the thermodynamic overloading and of axial dispersion, using a simplistic perturbation model. This approach violates the principle of mass conservation. The results of the predictions do not agree with those of exact calculations made with the equilibrium-dispersive (ED) model of chromatography for constant axial dispersion. The plots of the reduced apparent column efficiency N/N(kin), versus the injected concentration, logC?, or the injected mass, logm?, may provide useful information only regarding the onset of overloading of any particular column but they are meaningless to compare the overloading behavior of columns packed with different packing materials, unless the columns used satisfy impractical requirements (same efficiency, same retention factors, and sample sizes used proportional to the volume of stationary phase in the column). PMID:22835691

Gritti, Fabrice; Guiochon, Georges

2012-07-20

286

Study Modality and False Recall: The Influence of Resource Availability  

PubMed Central

False memories occur when individuals mistakenly report an event as having taken place when that event did not in fact occur. The DRM (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) paradigm provides an effective technique for creating and investigating false memories. In this paradigm participants study a list of words (e.g., SOUR, CANDY,…) that are highly associated to a non-presented critical item (e.g., SWEET). The study phase is followed by a test of memory for the study list words. Researchers typically find very high levels of false recall of the critical non-presented item. However, the likelihood of falsely remembering the non-presented critical items can be reduced by presenting studied associates visually rather than auditorally (e.g. Smith & Hunt, 1998). This is referred to as the modality effect in false memory. The current study investigated the role of resource availability in the expression of this modality effect in false recall. In Experiment 1 false recall was reduced in the visual study presentation condition relative to the auditory condition for participants with higher working memory capacity, but not for participants with lower working memory capacity. In Experiment 2 the effect of study modality on false recall was eliminated by the addition of a divided attention task at encoding. Both studies support the proposal that resource availability plays a role in the expression of the modality effect in the DRM paradigm (Smith, Lozito, & Bayen, 2005).

Smith, Rebekah E.; Engle, Randall W.

2010-01-01

287

Effects of Aging and Education on False Memory  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…

Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

2012-01-01

288

Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two experiments (modeled after J. Deese's 1959 study) revealed remarkable levels of false recall and false recognition in a list learning paradigm. In Experiment 1, subjects studied lists of 12 words (e.g., bed, rest, awake); each list was composed of associates of 1 nonpresented word (e.g., sleep). On immediate free recall tests, the nonpresented associates were recalled 40% of the

Henry L. Roediger; Kathleen B. McDermott

1995-01-01

289

False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false

Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

2011-01-01

290

Influences of intentional and unintentional forgetting on false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2 experiments, we examined the interplay of 2 types of memory errors: forgetting and false memory— errors of omission and commission, respectively. We examined the effects of 2 manipulations known to inhibit retrieval of studied words— directed forgetting and part-list cuing— on the false recall of an unstudied \\

Daniel R. Kimball; Robert A. Bjork

2002-01-01

291

ESD Avoiding Circuits for Solving OTP Memory Falsely Programmed Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

One-time program (OTP) memories are programmed for memory design without electrostatic discharge (ESD) stresses. However, in reality, ESD events are not selective and thus ESD currents can falsely program OTP memory cells. Many integrated circuit (IC) designers focus only on improving OTP memory control architectures to avoid memory being falsely programmed without mentioning the ESD-introduced memory errors. This article investigates

Shao-Chang Huang; Ke-Horng Chen; Hsin-Ming Chen; Ming-Chou Ho; Rick Shih-Jye Shen

2010-01-01

292

Discussion affects memory for true and false childhood events  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Although people often reminisce about their past experiences, little research has assessed how discussion might influence people's autobiographical memories. There were two major aims to this study: first, to assess how adults' memories for genuine childhood experiences might be affected by discussion, and second, to extend research on false memories by exploring how memories for false events might be

Lauren French; Rachel Sutherland; Maryanne Garry

2006-01-01

293

False Memories for Suggestions: The Impact of Conceptual Elaboration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Relatively little attention has been paid to the potential role that reflecting on the meaning and implications of suggested events (i.e., conceptual elaboration) might play in promoting the creation of false memories. Two experiments assessed whether encouraging repeated conceptual elaboration, would, like perceptual elaboration, increase false

Zaragoza, Maria S.; Mitchell, Karen J.; Payment, Kristie; Drivdahl, Sarah

2011-01-01

294

Individual differences and the creation of false childhood memories.  

PubMed

We investigated if college students will create false childhood memories, the role of self-knowledge in memory creation, and if there are reliable individual differences related to memory creation. Based on information obtained from parents, we asked college students about several true childhood experiences. We also asked each student about one false event and presented the false event as if it was based on parent information. We asked the students to describe all events in two interviews separated by one day. When participants could not recall an event (whether true or false), we encouraged them to think about related self-knowledge and to try to imagine the event. In an unrelated experimental session, the students were administered four cognitive/personality scales: the Creative Imagination Scale (CIS), the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), and the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale (SDS). We found that approximately 25% of the students created false childhood memories. Participants who made connections to related self-knowledge in the first interview were more likely to create false memories. We also found that the CIS and the DES were positively related to memory creation. Factors that decrease one's ability to engage in reality monitoring are related to the acceptance of false events and the creation of false memories. PMID:9640430

Hyman, I E; Billings, F J

1998-01-01

295

False recollection of emotional pictures in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) can reduce the effects of emotional content on memory for studied pictures, but less is known about false memory. In healthy adults, emotionally arousing pictures can be more susceptible to false memory effects than neutral pictures, potentially because emotional pictures share conceptual similarities that cause memory confusions. We investigated these effects in AD patients and healthy controls.

David A. Gallo; Katherine T. Foster; Jessica T. Wong; David A. Bennett

2010-01-01

296

A sensory signature that distinguishes true from false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human behavioral studies show that there is greater sensory\\/perceptual detail associated with true memories than false memories. We therefore hypothesized that true recognition of abstract shapes would elicit greater visual cortical activation than would false recognition. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants studied exemplar shapes and later made recognition memory decisions (“old” or “new”) concerning studied exemplars (old shapes),

Daniel L Schacter; Scott D Slotnick

2004-01-01

297

False Recognition in Lewy-Body Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The primary goal of this study was to evaluate the false recognition phenomenon in persons with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and those with Lewy-body disease (LBD). Patients with LBD (n=10) or FTD (n=15) and their corresponding controls (n=30) were subjected to the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm to induce false recognition. Patients…

de Boysson, C.; Belleville, S.; Phillips, N. A.; Johns, E. K.; Goupil, D.; Souchay, C.; Bouchard, R.; Chertkow, H.

2011-01-01

298

The effect of distinctive visual information on false recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using the false memory paradigm (Deese, 1959), recently revived by Roediger and McDermott (1995), we examined the effect on true and false recognition of presenting study items in unusual looking fonts. In one condition, each font was associated with a single study item. In a second condition, each font was presented 12 times per study list, randomly distributed across several

Jason Arndt; Lynne M. Reder

2003-01-01

299

Providing information about diagnostic features at retrieval reduces false recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the following study, participants encoded blocked DRM word lists and we varied whether they received information before test about the utility of mnemonic features that potentially discriminate between veridical and false memories. The results of three experiments revealed that this manipulation successfully reduced false recognition of critical theme words. We also found that this manipulation was effective for younger

Cristine C. Roussel; Jeffrey J. Starns; Diane Villa; Jill D. Alonzo

2008-01-01

300

False Allegations of Abuse and Neglect when Parents Separate  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: The 1998 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS-98) is the first national study to document the rate of intentionally false allegations of abuse and neglect investigated by child welfare services in Canada. This paper provides a detailed summary of the characteristics associated with intentionally false

Trocme, Nico; Bala, Nicholas

2005-01-01

301

Theoretical Commentary: The Role of Criterion Shift in False Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

H. L. Roediger and K. B. McDermott (1995) reintroduced a paradigm originally developed by Deese (1959). According to the authors, the paradigm provides a technique for the creation of false memories. The paradigm is reliable and easy to implement. Because of these characteristics and the current interest in false memories, the paradigm has been used in many recent studies. The

Michael B. Miller; George L. Wolford

1999-01-01

302

Associative false recognition occurs without strategic criterion shifts.  

PubMed

In the DRM (Deese/Roediger and McDermott) false memory paradigm, subjects studied lists of words associated with nonpresented critical words. They were tested in one of four instructional conditions. In a standard condition, subjects were not warned about the DRM Effect. In three other conditions, they were told to avoid false recognition of critical words. One group was warned before study of the lists (affecting encoding and retrieval processes), and two groups were warned after study (affecting only retrieval processes). Replicating prior work, the warning before study considerably reduced false recognition. The warning after study also reduced false recognition, but only when critical items had never been studied; when critical items were studied in half the lists so that subjects had to monitor memory for their presence or absence, the warning after study had little effect on false recognition. Because warned subjects were trying to avoid false recognition, the high levels of false recognition in the latter condition cannot be due to strategically guessing that critical test items were studied. False memories in the DRM paradigm are not caused by such liberal criterion shifts. PMID:11700910

Gallo, D A; Roediger, H L; McDermott, K B

2001-09-01

303

On the Dual Effects of Repetition on False Recognition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of study-list repetition on false recognition of semantic associates were examined using aging (Experiment 1) and recognition time pressure (Experiment 2). Participants studied word lists, each of which was composed of high associates to a single, unstudied word (the critical lure). Under normal testing circumstances, young adult participants (ages 19–26) falsely endorsed fewer critical lures associated with lists

Aaron S. Benjamin

2001-01-01

304

False Positive Newborn Screening Results Are Not Always Benign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our goal was to assess the impact on families of receiving abnormal newborn screening results. Patients and Methods: We conducted telephone interviews with parents of 3 groups of children who had received abnormal newborn screening results: (1) false positive but otherwise healthy (FP, n = 28), (2) true positive (TP, n = 20), and (3) false positive with other

D. R. Morrison; E. W. Clayton

2011-01-01

305

Working memory predicts the rejection of false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between working memory capacity (WMC) and false memories in the memory conjunction paradigm was explored. Previous research using other paradigms has shown that individuals high in WMC are not as likely to experience false memories as low-WMC individuals, the explanation being that high-WMC individuals are better able to engage in source monitoring. In the memory conjunction paradigm participants

Juliana K. Leding

2012-01-01

306

Long-Term Psychosocial Consequences of False-Positive Screening Mammography  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE Cancer screening programs have the potential of intended beneficial effects, but they also inevitably have unintended harmful effects. In the case of screening mammography, the most frequent harm is a false-positive result. Prior efforts to measure their psychosocial consequences have been limited by short-term follow-up, the use of generic survey instruments, and the lack of a relevant benchmark—women with breast cancer. METHODS In this cohort study with a 3-year follow-up, we recruited 454 women with abnormal findings in screening mammography over a 1-year period. For each woman with an abnormal finding on a screening mammogram (false and true positives), we recruited another 2 women with normal screening results who were screened the same day at the same clinic. These participants were asked to complete the Consequences of Screening in Breast Cancer—a validated questionnaire encompassing 12 psychosocial outcomes—at baseline, 1, 6, 18, and 36 months. RESULTS Six months after final diagnosis, women with false-positive findings reported changes in existential values and inner calmness as great as those reported by women with a diagnosis of breast cancer (? = 1.15; P = .015; and ? = 0.13; P = .423, respectively). Three years after being declared free of cancer, women with false-positive results consistently reported greater negative psychosocial consequences compared with women who had normal findings in all 12 psychosocial outcomes (? >0 for 12 of 12 outcomes; P <.01 for 4 of 12 outcomes). CONCLUSION False-positive findings on screening mammography causes long-term psychosocial harm: 3 years after a false-positive finding, women experience psychosocial consequences that range between those experienced by women with a normal mammogram and those with a diagnosis of breast cancer.

Brodersen, John; Siersma, Volkert Dirk

2013-01-01

307

Negative ion flow at Titan  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During numerous Titan encounters, when oriented in the local ram direction, the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer's electron sensor, ELS, has detected negatively charged ions in the moon's ionosphere. For many of these encounters, CAPS was actuating, i.e. the instrument was rocked back and forth across the local ram direction, and therefore only sensed ions periodically. During some encounters, it is clear that some negative ion populations do not arrive at the spacecraft from the direction anticipated for ions at rest with respect to Titan, implying motion of the ions within Titan's ionosphere. The relatively high rate at which CAPS-ELS scans across its energy range compared to the rate at which the sensor is actuated leads to oversampling, allowing more information to be extracted concerning the negative ion flow direction than is at first apparent. Here, we present an analysis for several encounters of the negative ion signatures observed during actuation, and report on our attempt to secure the negative ion flow direction from these signatures. The implications of the results for the determination of negative ion winds are discussed.

Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.; Wellbrock, A.

2011-12-01

308

Chinese preschoolers' implicit and explicit false-belief understanding.  

PubMed

Mandarin-speaking preschoolers in Mainland China (3- to 4-year-olds; N= 192) were tested for dissociations between anticipatory looking (AL) and verbal judgments on false-belief tasks. The dissociation between the two kinds of understanding was robust despite direct false-belief test questions using a Mandarin specific think-falsely verb and despite participants living in a culture that promotes early self-control. Children showed coherent AL across different belief-formation scenarios. Manipulation of inhibitory demand in the false-belief task did not affect preschoolers' verbal judgments any more than their AL, and yet separate measures executive function correlated only with direct judgments and not looking responses. The findings are discussed in terms of an implicit-explicit cognitive systems account of false-belief understanding. PMID:22429037

Wang, Bo; Low, Jason; Jing, Zhang; Qinghua, Qu

2011-07-18

309

On the difference in the apparent barrier height of inhomogeneous Schottky diodes with a Gaussian distribution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The differences in the calculated apparent Schottky barrier heights as obtained from different approaches assuming a Gaussian distribution model of barrier potential are discussed. A modified theoretical expression for the saturation current and consequently a new expression for the apparent barrier height, evaluated numerically, are proposed. The current-voltage (I-V) expression obtained is subsequently used to generate I-V curves. An adequate genetic algorithm has been used to extract diode parameters. While the previous approaches used may lead to an unphysical negative apparent barrier height at low temperatures, or may suggest the existence of a lowest critical temperature up to which the apparent barrier height can be calculated, our approach presented here yields results for the apparent barrier height in good agreement with the extracted values at different temperatures. Therefore, it is concluded that the temperature dependence of the apparent Schottky barrier height can be successfully explained with the presently proposed approach, the detailed aspects of which are presented in this contribution.

Rouag, N.; Boussouar, L.; Toumi, S.; Ouennoughi, Z.; Djouadi, M. A.

2007-04-01

310

Decoy methods for assessing false positives and false discovery rates in shotgun proteomics.  

PubMed

The potential of getting a significant number of false positives (FPs) in peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs) obtained by proteomic database search has been well-recognized. Among the attempts to assess FPs, the concomitant use of target and decoy databases is widely practiced. By adjusting filtering criteria, FPs and false discovery rate (FDR) can be controlled at a desired level. Although the target-decoy approach is gaining in popularity, subtle differences in decoy construction (e.g., reversing vs stochastic methods), rate calculation (e.g., total vs unique PSMs), or searching (separate vs composite) do exist among various implementations. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of these differences on FP and FDR estimations using a rat kidney protein sample and the SEQUEST search engine as an example. On the effects of decoy construction, we found that, when a single scoring filter (XCorr) was used, stochastic methods generated a higher estimation of FPs and FDR than sequence reversing methods, likely due to an increase in unique peptides. This higher estimation could largely be attenuated by creating decoy databases similar in effective size but not by a simple normalization with a unique-peptide coefficient. When multiple filters were applied, the differences seen between reversing and stochastic methods significantly diminished, suggesting multiple filterings reduce the dependency on how a decoy is constructed. For a fixed set of filtering criteria, FDR and FPs estimated by using unique PSMs were almost twice those using total PSMs. The higher estimation seemed to be dependent on data acquisition setup. As to the differences between performing separate or composite searches, in general, FDR estimated from the separate search was about three times that from the composite search. The degree of difference gradually decreased as the filtering criteria became more stringent. Paradoxically, the estimated true positives in separate search were higher when multiple filters were used. By analyzing a standard protein mixture, we demonstrated that the higher estimation of FDR and FPs in the separate search likely reflected an overestimation, which could be corrected with a simple merging procedure. Our study illustrates the relative merits of different implementations of the target-decoy strategy, which should be worth contemplating when large-scale proteomic biomarker discovery is to be attempted. PMID:19061407

Wang, Guanghui; Wu, Wells W; Zhang, Zheng; Masilamani, Shyama; Shen, Rong-Fong

2009-01-01

311

Phencyclidine false positive induced by lamotrigine (Lamictal(R)) on a rapid urine toxicology screen  

PubMed Central

Background This report describes two cases with unexplained positive results for phencyclidine (PCP). Aims This case will correlate lamotrigine (Lamictal®) use with false-positive results for PCP on a rapid urine toxicology screen. Methods Case 1: A 62-year-old male arrived to the emergency department in extreme psychosis. All positive results on the urine drug screen could be accounted for except PCP. A comprehensive drug screen was performed to confirm PCP use, but returned negative. PCP was ruled out as the causative agent. The reason for the PCP false positive remained unknown. Case 2: A 49-year-old female presented to the ED with a history of seizures and depression. Despite positive PCP results on a rapid urine drug screen, PCP use was ruled out due to patient presentation and comprehensive history. Results The differential diagnosis in case 1 included PCP abuse until PCP was ruled out by a comprehensive drug screen. A literature search failed to explain a reason for false-positive results. The patient in case 2 was not psychotic, but returned a positive urinalysis result for PCP. Case 2’s presentation combined with a comprehensive history at the facility ruled out PCP use. Both patients were taking the anti-seizure medication lamotrigine with nothing else in common. Conclusion Lamotrigine has the potential to cause false-positive results for PCP on the Bio-Rad TOX/See urine toxicology screen.

Peele, James; McCoy, Stacey L.; Elias, Brad

2010-01-01

312

False-positive buprenorphine EIA urine toxicology results due to high dose morphine: a case report.  

PubMed

In monitoring a patient with chronic pain who was taking high-dose morphine and oxycodone with weekly urine enzymatic immunoassay (EIA) toxicology testing, the authors noted consistent positives for buprenorphine. The patient was not taking buprenorphine, and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GCMS) testing on multiple samples revealed no buprenorphine, indicating a case of false-positive buprenorphine EIAs in a high-dose opiate case. The authors discontinued oxycodone for a period of time and then discontinued morphine. Urine monitoring with EIAs and GCMS revealed false-positive buprenorphine EIAs, which remained only when the patient was taking morphine. When taking only oxycodone and no morphine, urine samples became buprenorphine negative. When morphine was reintroduced, false-positive buprenorphine results resumed. Medical practitioners should be aware that high-dose morphine (with morphine urine levels turning positive within the 15,000 to 28,000 mg/mL range) may produce false-positive buprenorphine EIAs with standard urine EIA toxicology testing. PMID:23244551

Tenore, Peter L

2012-01-01

313

Semantic processes leading to true and false memory formation in schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Encoding semantic relationships between items on word lists (semantic processing) enhances true memories, but also increases memory distortions. Episodic memory impairments in schizophrenia (SZ) are strongly driven by failures to process semantic relations, but the exact nature of these relational semantic processing deficits is not well understood. Here, we used a false memory paradigm to investigate the impact of implicit and explicit semantic processing manipulations on episodic memory in SZ. Thirty SZ and 30 demographically matched healthy controls (HC) studied Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists of semantically associated words. Half of the lists had strong implicit semantic associations and the remainder had low strength associations. Similarly, half of the lists were presented under "standard" instructions and the other half under explicit "relational processing" instructions. After study, participants performed recall and old/new recognition tests composed of targets, critical lures, and unrelated lures. HC exhibited higher true memories and better discriminability between true and false memory compared to SZ. High, versus low, associative strength increased false memory rates in both groups. However, explicit "relational processing" instructions positively improved true memory rates only in HC. Finally, true and false memory rates were associated with severity of disorganized and negative symptoms in SZ. These results suggest that reduced processing of semantic relationships during encoding in SZ may stem from an inability to implement explicit relational processing strategies rather than a fundamental deficit in the implicit activation and retrieval of word meanings from patients' semantic lexicon. PMID:23623175

Paz-Alonso, Pedro M; Ghetti, Simona; Ramsay, Ian; Solomon, Marjorie; Yoon, Jong; Carter, Cameron S; Ragland, J Daniel

2013-04-25

314

False-Negative and False-Positive ECG Diagnoses of Q Wave Myocardial Infarction in the Presence of Right Bundle-Branch Block  

Microsoft Academic Search

Right bundle-branch block (RBBB) has not traditionally been seen as an obstacle to ECG diagnosis of Q wave myocardial infarction (MI) – in clinical electrocardiography and vectorcardiography – because this conduction disturbance is not believed to cause significant alterations in the spatial orientation of initial excitation wavefronts. In the era of large-scale clinical trials, however, where serial ECG analysis is

Ihor Gussak; R. Scott Wright; Preben Bjerregaard; Bernard R. Chaitman; Sophia H. Zhou; Stephen C. Hammill; Stephen L. Kopecky

2000-01-01

315

Neural activity during encoding predicts false memories created by misinformation.  

PubMed

False memories are often demonstrated using the misinformation paradigm, in which a person's recollection of a witnessed event is altered after exposure to misinformation about the event. The neural basis of this phenomenon, however, remains unknown. We used fMRI to investigate encoding processes during the viewing of an event and misinformation to see whether neural activity during either encoding phase could predict what would be remembered. fMRI data were collected as participants studied eight vignettes (Original Event phase). Shortly afterward, participants studied the same vignettes during scanning, but with changes to several details, serving as the misinformation (Misinformation phase). Two days later, their memories for the Original Event were assessed. Activity that subsequently led to true and false memories was examined during both encoding phases. Two interaction patterns between encoding phase (Original Event and Misinformation) and type of memory (true and false) were observed in MTL and PFC regions. In the left hippocampus tail and perirhinal cortex, a predictive item-encoding pattern was observed. During the Original Event phase, activity was greater for true than false memories, whereas during the Misinformation phase, activity was greater for false than true memories. In other regions, a pattern suggestive of source encoding was observed, in which activity for false memories was greater during the Original Event phase than the Misinformation phase. Together, these results suggest that encoding processes play a critical role in determining true and false memory outcome in misinformation paradigms. PMID:15687227

Okado, Yoko; Stark, Craig E L

316

Re-attendance after false-positive screening mammography: a population-based study in the Netherlands.  

PubMed

Background:In the current study, mammography adherence of women who had experienced a false-positive referral is evaluated, with emphasis on the probability of receiving surveillance mammography outside the national screening programme.Methods:We included 424?703 consecutive screens and collected imaging, biopsy and surgery reports of 3463 women who experienced a false-positive referral. Adherence to screening, both in and outside the screening programme, was evaluated.Results:Two years after the false-positive referral, overall screening adherence was 94.6%, with 64.7% of women returning to the national screening programme, compared with 94.9% of women re-attending the screening programme after a negative screen (P<0.0001). Four years after the false-positive screen, the overall adherence had decreased to 85.2% (P<0.0001) with a similar proportion of the women re-attending the screening programme (64.4%) and a lower proportion (20.8%) having clinical surveillance mammography. Women who had experienced a false-positive screen at their first screening round were less likely to adhere to mammography than women with an abnormal finding at one of the following screening rounds (92.4% vs 95.5%, P<0.0001).Conclusion:Overall screening adherence after previous false-positive referral was comparable to the re-attendance rate of women with a negative screen at 2-year follow-up. Overall adherence decreased 4 years after previous false-positive referral from 94.6% to 85.2%, with a relatively high estimate of women who continue with clinical surveillance mammography (20.8%). Women with false-positive screens should be made aware of the importance to re-attend future screening rounds, as a way to improve the effectiveness of the screening programme. PMID:24052045

Setz-Pels, W; Duijm, L E M; Coebergh, J W; Rutten, M; Nederend, J; Voogd, A C

2013-09-19

317

Epidemiologic surveillance to detect false-positive Mycobacterium tuberculosis cultures.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to investigate the ability of potential indices from epidemiologic surveillance to detect false-positive cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). All clinical specimens for mycobacterial culture from April 1 to August 31, 2010, were reviewed. Single-positive cultures without relevant clinical and pathologic information were categorized as suspected false-positive cultures. Genotyping methods were used to confirm false-positive cultures. The performance of epidemiologic surveillance indices to detect potential false-positive cultures was evaluated. A total of 14,462 specimens were sent to the laboratory and 214 batches were processed in 107 work days (average 67.6 specimens per batch, ranging from 21 to 130 specimens per batch). Seventy-one single-positive cultures were identified, among which 5 cultures of multidrug-resistant MTB in 1 batch were false-positive, confirmed by genotyping methods. Epidemiologic surveillance with statistical process control charts for single-positive cultures per day showed good performance in epidemiologic surveillance. The false-positive rate was 38.5% in the 13 potential false-positive cultures according to the statistical process control chart for single-positive cultures per day. Although the incidence of tuberculous disease is high in Taiwan, clustering of multidrug-resistant MTB in 1 batch or clustering of single-positive cultures still suggested the occurrence of false-positive MTB cultures. Therefore, epidemiologic surveillance for the clustering of single-positive cultures with the statistical process control chart could be used to monitor the occurrence of false-positive results. PMID:22705229

Lee, Meng-Rui; Chung, Kuei-Pin; Chen, Wei-Ting; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Lee, Li-Na; Yu, Chong-Jen; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Luh, Kwen-Tay

2012-06-16

318

Rapid HIV testing using Determine™ HIV 1/2 antibody tests: is there a difference between the visual appearance of true- and false-positive tests?  

PubMed

HIV point-of-care tests (POCTs) give occasional false positive results, causing unnecessary patient anxiety. We aimed to elicit whether false- and true-positive POCTs differed visually. Seventeen false- and 17 true-positive serum samples were randomized into pairs, comprising one false- and one true-positive sample. Two independent readers identified each POCT as negative or positive and compared line strength between pairs. Six further readers graded line strength, 0-5, from POCT photographs. All true-positive samples were identified positive and 8/17 false-positive samples negative, on repeat testing of stored sera. Eight out of the 9 remaining false-positive tests were described as having weaker pigment uptake than their paired true-positive POCT. Mean grade of line strength was 4.2 in true- and 0.9 in false-positive samples, on photographic evaluation. These results suggest false-positive POCTs may differ visually from true-positive POCTs. If larger studies confirm these findings, we may be able to alleviate anxiety in low risk patients with faintly positive POCTs awaiting their confirmatory laboratory result, where the possibility of a false-positive result could be emphasized. PMID:23033518

Sacks, R; Omodele-Lucien, A; Whitbread, N; Muir, D; Smith, A

2012-09-01

319

Polarization discrimination between repeater false-target and radar target  

Microsoft Academic Search

High fidelity repeater false-target badly affects a radar system’s detecting, tracking, and data processing. It is an available\\u000a approach of confronting false-target for radar that discriminates firstly and then eliminates. Whereas for the technique progress\\u000a about the repeater false-target jam, it is more and more difficult to discriminate this jam in the time-domain, frequency-domain,\\u000a or space-domain. The technique using polarization

Longfei Shi; Xuesong Wang; Shunping Xiao

2009-01-01

320

Response priming with apparent motion primes.  

PubMed

Response priming refers to the finding that a prime stimulus preceding a target stimulus influences the response to the following target stimulus. Typically, responses are faster and more accurate if the prime calls for the same response as the target (i.e., compatible trials), as compared with the situation where primes and targets trigger different responses (i.e., incompatible trials). However, the effect depends on presentational and temporal parameters such as the stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of prime and target, or prime duration. Until now, the special role of moving stimuli was largely ignored. In the present research, experiments were conducted using clearly visible moving dots as primes and static arrows as targets. Essentially, with short SOAs up to 200 ms, participants responded faster to compatible targets. In contrast, with SOAs above 200 ms, participants responded faster to incompatible targets. The results were compared with response priming with static primes. Here, a different pattern of results emerged, with faster responses to compatible than incompatible targets at a long SOA of 300 ms. Overall, the experiments provide evidence for the existence of an inhibitory mechanism in action control when (distracting) motion stimuli are present. Results could be explained with slight changes to different accounts of negative response priming effects, as well as theories of attention. PMID:22526718

Bermeitinger, Christina

2012-04-20

321

Photorealistic images of objects in effective negative-index materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a ray-tracing approach, we calculate photorealistic images and simple movies of objects in a material with negative index of refraction. Our results show several surprising and drastic effects, for example reversal of apparent object velocity, extreme distortions of object shape, and even apparent loss of connectivity of simple objects. The material presented aims at giving both researchers and laymen

Gunnar Dolling; Martin Wegener; Stefan Linden; Christoph Hormann

2006-01-01

322

The "False Memory" DefenseUsing Disinformation and Junk Science In and Out of Court.  

PubMed

This article describes a seemingly sophisticated, but mostly contrived and often erroneous ?false memory? defense, and compares it in a brief review to what the science says about the effect of trauma on memory. Child sexual abuse is widespread and dissociative/traumatic amnesia for it is common. Accused, convicted and self-confessed child molesters and their advocates have crafted a strategy that tries to negate their abusive, criminal behavior, which we can call a ?false memory? defense. Each of 22 of the more commonly used components of this defense is described and discussed with respect to what the science says about them. Armed with this knowledge, survivors, their clinicians, and their attorneys will be better able to refute this defense of disinformation. PMID:17521991

Whitfield, C L

2000-01-01

323

Analysis of constant false alarm rate sidelobe canceller criterion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this final report, the constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detection criterion for a sidelobe canceller (SLC) system, introduced in the last quarterly progress report, is found completely and analyzed. This new detection test for radar exhibits the desirable CFAR property that its probability of a false alarm (PFA) is functionally independent of the covariance of the actual noise field encountered. As a consequence, such a CFAR SLC system is ideally suited to cope with the newly evolving smart jammer threat to radar. An important objective, set in the last quarterly progress report, was to find both the false alarm and signal detection probabilities of this test. The first and most important of these two goals has been met. The probability of a false alarm (or PFA) of this CFAR SLC detection criterion is derived in closed form in this report. The success in finding the PFA is due primarily to the use of a generalization of Cochran's theorem.

Reed, I. S.; Brennan, L. E.

1985-05-01

324

Animals in Education: Are We Prisoners of False Sentiment?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Asserts that concerns over the use of animals in science education is confounded by the unworthy introduction of false sentiment by animal rights groups, which persist in ignoring the realities of biology. (PR)|

Minerney, Joseph D.

1993-01-01

325

7 CFR 1450.12 - Filing of false claims.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE PROGRAM (BCAP) Common Provisions § 1450.12 Filing of false claims. (a) If CCC...

2013-01-01

326

Educator Tools - Slides/Talking Points - True or False ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... True or False? Foodborne illness isn't a serious issue; Foodborne illness doesn't affect me; ... Foodborne illness doesn't affect me. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/resourcesforyou/healtheducators

327

38 CFR 21.9740 - False, late, or missing reports.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Pursuit of Courses § 21.9740 False, late, or missing reports. (a) Eligible individual....

2013-07-01

328

Incomplete and False Identification Distributions: Group Screening Models.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors previously derived the distribution of the number of items observed to be defective in samples from a finite population, when false identification of defectives as well as incomplete identification is taken into account. The corresponding dist...

S. Kotz N. L. Johnson

1981-01-01

329

Biloculate false aneurysm of the right ventricle after cardiac surgery.  

PubMed Central

A case of a 12-year-old boy who had double false aneurysms of the right ventricle after incomplete closed pulmonary valvotomy six years earlier is presented. The aneurysms were successfully treated surgically, and the aetiology is discussed. Images

Samarrai, A A; McCloy, R; Ablett, M B

1976-01-01

330

27 CFR 555.162 - False statement or representation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Unlawful Acts, Penalties, Seizures and Forfeitures § 555.162 False statement or representation. Any person who knowingly withholds information or...

2011-04-01

331

27 CFR 555.163 - False entry in record.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE EXPLOSIVES COMMERCE IN EXPLOSIVES Unlawful Acts, Penalties, Seizures and Forfeitures § 555.163 False entry in record. Any licensed importer, licensed manufacturer, licensed...

2011-04-01

332

7 CFR 28.961 - False and misleading information.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Cotton Fiber and Processing Tests Fiber and Processing Tests § 28.961 False and misleading information. The publication or...

2013-01-01

333

True or False: How Smart Are You about Cosmetics?  

MedlinePLUS

... Enter Search terms Most Popular Searches Home Food Drugs Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products True or False: How Smart are You About Cosmetics? FDA Home Cosmetics Resources ...

334

False-positive oral fluid rapid HIV tests--New York City, 2005-2008.  

PubMed

The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (NYC DOHMH) operates 10 sexually transmitted disease (STD) walk-in clinics offering various free services, including confidential or anonymous testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In January 2004, the STD clinics introduced on-site rapid HIV testing of finger-stick whole-blood specimens using the OraQuick(R) brand test (OraSure Technologies, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania). In March 2005, the clinics replaced finger-stick whole-blood testing with oral fluid testing with the OraQuick Advance Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test. The clinics use Western blot confirmatory tests on serum to confirm all whole-blood or oral fluid reactive (i.e., preliminary positive) rapid tests. In late 2005, an unexpected increase in the number of false-positive oral fluid tests occurred, but the increase subsided after several months. In December 2005, while the cluster of false-positive oral fluid test results was being investigated, the NYC DOHMH Bureau of STD Control suspended oral fluid testing in the clinics for 3 weeks and replaced it with finger-stick whole-blood rapid testing, which produced no false-positive test results. On December 21, 2005, NYC DOHMH resumed oral fluid rapid testing but also introduced the use of immediate follow-up finger-stick whole-blood testing, using a second OraQuick test, after any reactive oral fluid test result. In late 2007, another larger increase in the incidence of false-positive oral fluid rapid test results was observed. The cause for the episodic increases in false-positive oral fluid tests has not yet been determined. NYC DOHMH has again suspended the use of oral fluid testing in STD clinics, and finger-stick whole-blood testing is the only rapid HIV test being used in this setting. These findings underscore the importance of confirming all reactive HIV tests, both from oral fluid and whole-blood specimens. In addition, the results suggest that the NYC DOHMH strategy of following up reactive oral fluid test results with an immediate finger-stick whole-blood test reduced the number of apparent false-positive oral fluid test results and might be a useful strategy in other settings and locations. PMID:18566566

2008-06-20

335

Counterfactual Reasoning and False Belief Understanding in Children with Autism  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Sally-Anne task used to assess children’s understanding of false belief has traditionally been conceptualized as a test of mental state understanding in that it asks the child where a protagonist thinks an object is located when the protagonist has a false belief about the object’s location. However, a recent logical analysis by Peterson and Riggs identifies a strategy for

Donald M. Peterson; Dermot M. Bowler

2000-01-01

336

Analysis of Postsurgical Aortic False Aneurysm in 27 Patients  

PubMed Central

Aortic false aneurysm is a rare complication after cardiac surgery. In recent years, improved results have been reported in regard to the surgical management of these high-risk lesions. We retrospectively examined 28 consecutive cases (in 27 patients) of postsurgical aortic false aneurysm diagnosed at our institution from May 1999 through December 2011. Twenty-four patients underwent reoperation. Cardiopulmonary bypass was instituted before sternotomy in 15 patients (63%). Isolated repair of the aortic false aneurysm was performed in 15 patients. Four patients (including one who had already undergone repeat false-aneurysm repair) declined surgery in favor of clinical monitoring. Eleven patients were asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. In the other 16, the main cause was infection in 7, and previous operation for acute aortic dissection in 9. The in-hospital mortality rate was 16.6% (4 patients, 3 of whom had infective false aneurysms). Relevant postoperative sequelae were noted in 7 patients (29%). The cumulative 1-year and 5-year survival rates were 83% and 62%, respectively. The 4 patients who did not undergo reoperation were alive at a median interval of 23 months (range, 9–37 mo). Two underwent imaging evaluations; in one, computed tomography revealed an 8-mm increase of the false aneurysm's maximal diameter at 34 months. Aortic false aneurysm can develop silently. Surgical procedures should be proposed even to asymptomatic patients because of the unpredictable evolution of the condition. Radical aortic-graft replacement should be chosen rather than simple repair, because recurrent false aneurysm is possible.

Malvindi, Pietro Giorgio; Cappai, Antioco; Raffa, Giuseppe Maria; Barbone, Alessandro; Basciu, Alessio; Citterio, Enrico; Ornaghi, Diego; Tarelli, Giuseppe; Settepani, Fabrizio

2013-01-01

337

Children's Divergent Thinking Improves When They Understand False Beliefs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research utilized longitudinal and cross-sectional methods to investigate the relation between the development of a representational theory of mind and children's growing ability to search their own minds for appropriate problem solutions. In the first experiment, 59 preschool children were given 3 false-belief tasks and a divergent-thinking task. Those children who passed false-belief tasks produced significantly more items, as

Thomas Suddendorf; Claire M. Fletcher-Flinn

1999-01-01

338

Analysis of postsurgical aortic false aneurysm in 27 patients.  

PubMed

Aortic false aneurysm is a rare complication after cardiac surgery. In recent years, improved results have been reported in regard to the surgical management of these high-risk lesions. We retrospectively examined 28 consecutive cases (in 27 patients) of postsurgical aortic false aneurysm diagnosed at our institution from May 1999 through December 2011. Twenty-four patients underwent reoperation. Cardiopulmonary bypass was instituted before sternotomy in 15 patients (63%). Isolated repair of the aortic false aneurysm was performed in 15 patients. Four patients (including one who had already undergone repeat false-aneurysm repair) declined surgery in favor of clinical monitoring. Eleven patients were asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis. In the other 16, the main cause was infection in 7, and previous operation for acute aortic dissection in 9. The in-hospital mortality rate was 16.6% (4 patients, 3 of whom had infective false aneurysms). Relevant postoperative sequelae were noted in 7 patients (29%). The cumulative 1-year and 5-year survival rates were 83% and 62%, respectively. The 4 patients who did not undergo reoperation were alive at a median interval of 23 months (range, 9-37 mo). Two underwent imaging evaluations; in one, computed tomography revealed an 8-mm increase of the false aneurysm's maximal diameter at 34 months. Aortic false aneurysm can develop silently. Surgical procedures should be proposed even to asymptomatic patients because of the unpredictable evolution of the condition. Radical aortic-graft replacement should be chosen rather than simple repair, because recurrent false aneurysm is possible. PMID:23914017

Malvindi, Pietro Giorgio; Cappai, Antioco; Raffa, Giuseppe Maria; Barbone, Alessandro; Basciu, Alessio; Citterio, Enrico; Ornaghi, Diego; Tarelli, Giuseppe; Settepani, Fabrizio

2013-01-01

339

Script knowledge enhances the development of children's false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether script knowledge contributes to the development of children's false memories. Sixty 7-year-old and 60 11-year-old children listened to false narratives describing either a high-knowl- edge event (i.e., fingers being caught in a mousetrap) or a low-knowledge event (i.e., receiving a rectal enema) that were similar in terms of plausibility and pleasantness. Moreover, half of the children in

Henry Otgaar; Ingrid Candel; Alan Scoboria; Harald Merckelbach

2009-01-01

340

Associative false recognition occurs without strategic criterion shifts  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the DRM (Deese\\/Roediger and McDermott) false memory paradigm, subjects studied lists of words associated with nonpresented\\u000a critical words. They were tested in one of four instructional conditions. In a standard condition, subjects were not warned\\u000a about the DRM Effect. In three other conditions, they were told to avoid false recognition of critical words. One group was\\u000a warned before study

David A. Gallo; Henry L. Roediger; Kathleen B. McDermott

2001-01-01

341

An investigation of false memory in perceptual implicit tasks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reports of critical lure priming in perceptual implicit tasks [e.g., McKone, E., & Murphy, B. (2000). Implicit false memory: Effects of modality and multiple study presentations on long-lived semantic priming. Journal of Memory and Language, 43, 89–109] using the Deese–Roediger–McDermott [Roediger, H. L., III, & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of

Dawn M. McBride; Jennifer H. Coane; Bascom A. Raulerson

2006-01-01

342

Part-list cuing and the dynamics of false recall  

Microsoft Academic Search

False recall of an unpresented critical word after studying its semantic associates can be reduced substantially if the strongest\\u000a and earliest-studied associates are presented as part-list cues during testing (Kimball & Bjork, 2002). To disentangle episodic\\u000a and semantic contributions to this decline in false recall, we factorially manipulated the cues’ serial position and their\\u000a strength of association to the critical

Daniel R. Kimball; Elizabeth L. Bjork; Robert A. Bjork; Troy A. Smith

2008-01-01

343

Study Modality and False Recall: The Influence of Resource Availability  

Microsoft Academic Search

False memories occur when individuals mistakenly report an event as having taken place when that event did not in fact occur. The DRM (Deese, 1959; Roediger & McDermott, 1995) paradigm provides an effective technique for creating and investigating false memories. In this paradigm participants study a list of words (e.g., SOUR, CANDY,…) that are highly associated to a non-presented critical

Rebekah E. Smith; Randall W. Engle

2010-01-01

344

Do Children DRM Like Adults? False Memory Production in Children  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Deese\\/Roediger–McDermott (DRM) paradigm was used to investigate developmental trends in accurate and false memory production. In Experiment 1, DRM lists adjusted to be more consistent with children's vocabulary were used with 2nd graders, 8th graders, and college students. Accurate and false recall and recognition increased with age, but semantic information appeared to be available to all age groups. Experiment

Richard L. Metzger; Amye R. Warren; Jill T. Shelton; Jodi Price; Andrea W. Reed; Danny Williams

2008-01-01

345

Neural correlates of true memory, false memory, and deception.  

PubMed

We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine whether neural activity can differentiate between true memory, false memory, and deception. Subjects heard a series of semantically related words and were later asked to make a recognition judgment of old words, semantically related nonstudied words (lures for false recognition), and unrelated new words. They were also asked to make a deceptive response to half of the old and unrelated new words. There were 3 main findings. First, consistent with the notion that executive function supports deception, 2 types of deception (pretending to know and pretending not to know) recruited prefrontal activity. Second, consistent with the sensory reactivation hypothesis, the difference between true recognition and false recognition was found in the left temporoparietal regions probably engaged in the encoding of auditorily presented words. Third, the left prefrontal cortex was activated during pretending to know relative to correct rejection and false recognition, whereas the right anterior hippocampus was activated during false recognition relative to correct rejection and pretending to know. These findings indicate that fMRI can detect the difference in brain activity between deception and false memory despite the fact that subjects respond with "I know" to novel events in both processes. PMID:18372290

Abe, Nobuhito; Okuda, Jiro; Suzuki, Maki; Sasaki, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Tetsuya; Mori, Etsuro; Tsukada, Minoru; Fujii, Toshikatsu

2008-03-27

346

False-alarm characterization in hyperspectral gas-detection applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical cloud detection using long-wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral-imaging sensors has many civilian and military applications, including chemical warfare threat mitigation, environmental monitoring, and emergency response. Current capabilities are limited by variation in background clutter as opposed to the physics of photon detection, and this makes the statistical characterization of clutter and clutter-induced false alarms essential to the design of practical systems. In this exploratory work, we use hyperspectral data collected both on the ground and in the air to spectrally and spatially characterize false alarms. Focusing on two widely-used detectors, the matched filter (MF) and the adaptive cosine estimator (ACE), we compare empirical false-alarm rates to their theoretical counterparts - detector output under Gaussian, t and t-mixture distributed data - and show that these models often underestimate false-alarm rates. Next, we threshold real detection maps and show that true detections and false alarms often exhibit very different spatial behavior. To exploit this difference and understand how spatial processing affects performance, the spatial behavior of false alarms must be understood. We take a first step in this direction by showing that, although the behavior may `look' quite random, it is not well captured by the complete-spatial-randomness model. Finally, we describe how our findings impact the design of real detection systems.

DiPietro, Robert S.; Truslow, Eric; Manolakis, Dimitris G.; Golowich, Steven E.; Lockwood, Ronald B.

2012-09-01

347

[Chronic constrictive pericarditis complicating an apparently stable rheumatoid arthritis. Report of a new case (author's transl)].  

PubMed

The authors report a case of constrictive pericarditis complicating an apparently stable sero-negative rhumatoïd arthritis, a rarely described pathological association. The patient had a serious polyserositis due to an extremely marked and inflammatory pericardial constriction. The rhumatoïd origin was confirmed by pericardial effusion, histological and immunofluorescent studies. The inflammatory pericardial process rendered pericardiectomy virtually impossible and resulted in a fatal outcome. PMID:225806

Hourdebaigt-Larrusse, P; Degusseau, B; Segond, P; Guerinon, J; Perlès, C; Soulié, J; Grivaux, M

348

De novo and apparent de novo hepatitis B virus infection after liver transplantation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The aim of this study was to clarify the aetiology of apparent de novo HBV infection after liver transplantation.Methods: Twenty out of 570 HBsAg negative patients (3.5%) became HBsAg positive after transplantation and were studied. Donor and recipient sera were retrospectively tested for HBsAg, anti-HBs, anti-HBc, and HBV DNA by PCR. Donor and recipient livers were tested for HBV

Bruno Roche; Didier Samuel; Michele Gigou; Cyrille Feray; Veronique Virot; Laurent Schmets; Marie Françoise David; Jean Louis Arulnaden; Alain Bismuth; Michel Reynes; Henri Bismuth

1997-01-01

349

47 CFR 76.981 - Negative option billing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Negative option billing. 76.981 Section 76.981 Telecommunication...TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.981 Negative option billing. (a) A cable operator shall not...

2011-10-01

350

A Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies in Airline Pilots  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Theory of False Cognitive Expectancies was developed by studying high reliability flight operations. Airline pilots depend extensively on cognitive expectancies to perceive, understand, and predict actions and events. Out of 1,363 incident reports submitted by airline pilots to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Aviation Safety Reporting System over a year's time, 110 reports were found to contain evidence of 127 false cognitive expectancies in pilots. A comprehensive taxonomy was developed with six categories of interest. The dataset of 127 false expectancies was used to initially code tentative taxon values for each category. Intermediate coding through constant comparative analysis completed the taxonomy. The taxonomy was used for the advanced coding of chronological context-dependent visualizations of expectancy factors, known as strands, which depict the major factors in the creation and propagation of each expectancy. Strands were mapped into common networks to detect highly represented expectancy processes. Theoretical integration established 11 sources of false expectancies, the most common expectancy errors, and those conspicuous factors worthy of future study. The most prevalent source of false cognitive expectancies within the dataset was determined to be unconscious individual modeling based on past events. Integrative analyses also revealed relationships between expectancies and flight deck automation, unresolved discrepancies, and levels of situation awareness. Particularly noteworthy were the findings that false expectancies can combine in three possible permutations to diminish situation awareness and examples of how false expectancies can be unwittingly transmitted from one person to another. The theory resulting from this research can enhance the error coding process used during aircraft line oriented safety audits, lays the foundation for developing expectancy management training programs, and will allow researchers to proffer hypotheses for human testing using flight simulators.

Cortes, Antonio I.

351

Polyphase apparent power and power factor under distorted waveform conditions  

SciTech Connect

Apparent power has no unique meaning when used to describe polyphase nonsinusoidal systems. Several different definitions are discussed in the paper. Implications of this ambiguity on power factor calculations, revenue metering, and compensation are shown. The time-domain based method of defining and measuring the apparent power is discussed. The paper points out the necessity of a critical revision of terms relating to apparent power in the IEEE Standard Dictionary.

Filipski, P.S. (National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada))

1991-07-01

352

False memory and importance: Can we prioritize encoding without consequence?  

PubMed

Given the large amount of information that we encounter, we often must prioritize what information we attempt to remember. Although critical for everyday functioning, relatively little research has focused on how people prioritize the encoding of information. Recent research has shown that people can and do selectively remember information assigned with higher, relative to lower, importance. However, the mechanisms underlying this prioritization process and the consequences of these processes are still not well understood. In the present study, we sought to better understand these prioritization processes and whether implementing these processes comes at the cost of memory accuracy, by increasing false memories. We used a modified form of the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, in which participants studied DRM lists, with each list paired with low, medium, or high point values. In Experiment 1, encoding higher values led to more false memories than did encoding lower values, possibly because prioritizing information enhanced relational processing among high-value words. In Experiment 2, disrupting relational processing selectively reduced false memories for high-value words. Finally, in Experiment 3, facilitating relational processing selectively increased false memories for low-value words. These findings suggest that while prioritizing information can enhance true memory, this process concomitantly increases false memories. Furthermore, the mechanism underlying these prioritization processes depends on the ability to successfully engage in relational processing. Thus, how we prioritize the encoding of incoming information can come at a cost in terms of accurate memory. PMID:23576217

Bui, Dung C; Friedman, Michael C; McDonough, Ian M; Castel, Alan D

2013-10-01

353

False recollection of emotional pictures in Alzheimer's disease.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's Disease (AD) can reduce the effects of emotional content on memory for studied pictures, but less is known about false memory. In healthy adults, emotionally arousing pictures can be more susceptible to false memory effects than neutral pictures, potentially because emotional pictures share conceptual similarities that cause memory confusions. We investigated these effects in AD patients and healthy controls. Participants studied pictures and their verbal labels, and then picture recollection was tested using verbal labels as retrieval cues. Some of the test labels had been associated with a picture at study, whereas other had not. On this picture recollection test, we found that both AD patients and controls incorrectly endorsed some of the test labels that had not been studied with pictures. These errors were associated with medium to high levels of confidence, indicating some degree of false recollection. Critically, these false recollection judgments were greater for emotional compared to neutral items, especially for positively valenced items, in both AD patients and controls. Dysfunction of the amygdala and hippocampus in early AD may impair recollection, but AD did not disrupt the effect of emotion on false recollection judgments. PMID:20727904

Gallo, David A; Foster, Katherine T; Wong, Jessica T; Bennett, David A

2010-08-19

354

Structure and bioactivity of steroidal saponins isolated from the roots of Chamaelirium luteum (false unicorn).  

PubMed

Phytochemical investigation of Chamaelirium luteum ("false unicorn") resulted in the isolation of 15 steroidal glycosides. Twelve of these (1, 2, 4-9, 11-13, and 15) are apparently unique to this species, and eight of these (6-9, 11-13, and 15) are previously unreported compounds; one (15) possesses a new steroidal aglycone. In addition, the absolute configuration of (23R,24S)-chiograsterol A (10) was defined, and its full spectroscopic characterization is reported for the first time. The structures and configurations of the saponins were determined using a combination of multistage mass spectrometry (MS(n)), 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and chemical degradation. The antiproliferative activity of nine compounds obtained in the present work, and eight related compounds generated in previous work, was compared in six human tumor cell lines, with aglycones 3 and 10 and related derivatives 16, 17, 19, and 20 all displaying significant antiproliferative activity. PMID:22880631

Challinor, Victoria L; Stuthe, Julia M U; Parsons, Peter G; Lambert, Lynette K; Lehmann, Reginald P; Kitching, William; De Voss, James J

2012-08-10

355

Negative indefinites in Afrikaans  

Microsoft Academic Search

This dissertation is concerned with the syntactic and semantic status of negative indefinites in Afrikaans. The problem posed by negative indefinites is that their interpretation appears to differ across double negation (DN) and negative concord (NC) languages. With respect to negative indefinites, Afrikaans displays features that distinguish it from both typical NC and typical DN languages. Contrary to most NC

K. M. Huddlestone

2010-01-01

356

A FALSE POSITIVE FOR OCEAN GLINT ON EXOPLANETS: THE LATITUDE-ALBEDO EFFECT  

SciTech Connect

Identifying liquid water on the surface of planets is a high priority, as this traditionally defines habitability. One proposed signature of oceans is specular reflection ('glint'), which increases the apparent albedo of a planet at crescent phases. We post-process a global climate model of an Earth-like planet to simulate reflected light curves. Significantly, we obtain glint-like phase variations even though we do not include specular reflection in our model. This false positive is the product of two generic properties: (1) for modest obliquities, a planet's poles receive less orbit-averaged stellar flux than its equator, so the poles are more likely to be covered in highly reflective snow and ice; and (2) we show that reflected light from a modest-obliquity planet at crescent phases probes higher latitudes than at gibbous phases, therefore a planet's apparent albedo will naturally increase at crescent phase. We suggest that this 'latitude-albedo effect' will operate even for large obliquities: in that case the equator receives less orbit-averaged flux than the poles, and the equator is preferentially sampled at crescent phase. Using rotational and orbital color variations to map the surfaces of directly imaged planets and estimate their obliquity will therefore be a necessary pre-condition for properly interpreting their reflected phase variations. The latitude-albedo effect is a particularly convincing glint false positive for zero-obliquity planets, and such worlds are not amenable to latitudinal mapping. This effect severely limits the utility of specular reflection for detecting oceans on exoplanets.

Cowan, Nicolas B. [Center for Interdisciplinary Exploration and Research in Astrophysics and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northwestern University, 2131 Tech Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Abbot, Dorian S. [Department of Geophysical Sciences, University of Chicago, 5734 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Voigt, Aiko [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Bundesstr. 53, D-20146, Hamburg (Germany)

2012-06-10

357

Fuzzy-trace theory and false memory: new frontiers.  

PubMed

We describe the origins of fuzzy-trace theory, including Piagetian, interference, information-processing, and judgment and decision-making influences. The contrasting properties of gist and verbatim memory serve as its foundation and, in recent models of spontaneous and implanted false memories, explain seemingly contradictory developmental trends, such as reverse developmental findings, differential time courses for true and false memories, and conflicting effects of trace strength. However, approaches that integrate fuzzy-trace theory with neurological, social, emotional, and motivational perspectives are needed. A method for accomplishing this integration, using the recent models, is introduced and new research that spans these perspectives is discussed. Relations to other contemporary theories, especially source-monitoring and dual-process theories, are also explained. We conclude by rejecting the notion that spontaneous false memories are actually "true" and distinguish gist and verbatim senses of the term "true" that have different consequences in real life. PMID:9843625

Reyna, V F; Brainerd, C J

1998-11-01

358

False positives in psychiatric diagnosis: implications for human freedom.  

PubMed

Current symptom-based DSM and ICD diagnostic criteria for mental disorders are prone to yielding false positives because they ignore the context of symptoms. This is often seen as a benign flaw because problems of living and emotional suffering, even if not true disorders, may benefit from support and treatment. However, diagnosis of a disorder in our society has many ramifications not only for treatment choice but for broader social reactions to the diagnosed individual. In particular, mental disorders impose a sick role on individuals and place a burden upon them to change; thus, disorders decrease the level of respect and acceptance generally accorded to those with even annoying normal variations in traits and features. Thus, minimizing false positives is important to a pluralistic society. The harmful dysfunction analysis of disorder is used to diagnose the sources of likely false positives, and propose potential remedies to the current weaknesses in the validity of diagnostic criteria. PMID:20232254

Wakefield, Jerome C

2010-02-01

359

Fate of the false monopoles: Induced vacuum decay  

SciTech Connect

We study a gauge theory model where there is an intermediate symmetry breaking to a metastable vacuum that breaks a simple gauge group to a U(1) factor. Such a model admits the existence of metastable magnetic monopoles, which we dub false monopoles. We prove the existence of these monopoles in the thin-wall approximation. We determine the instantons for the collective coordinate that corresponds to the radius of the monopole wall and we calculate the semiclassical tunneling rate for the decay of these monopoles. The monopole decay consequently triggers the decay of the false vacuum. As the monopole mass is increased, we find an enhanced rate of decay of the false vacuum relative to the celebrated homogeneous tunneling rate due to S. R. Coleman [Subnuclear series 13, 297 (1977).].

Kumar, Brijesh [Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, 400076 (India); Groupe de physique des particules, Departement de physique, Universite de Montreal, Case Postale 6128, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Paranjape, M. B. [Groupe de physique des particules, Departement de physique, Universite de Montreal, Case Postale 6128, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Yajnik, U. A. [Physics Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, 400076 (India); Groupe de physique des particules, Departement de physique, Universite de Montreal, Case Postale 6128, succursale Centre-ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada); Department of Physics, Ernest Rutherford Physics Building, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2T5 (Canada)

2010-07-15

360

False allegations of abuse and Munchausen syndrome by proxy.  

PubMed Central

Fourteen children from seven families are reported for whom false allegations of abuse were made by the mother. Twelve children were alleged to have incurred sexual abuse, one both sexual and physical abuse, and one physical abuse alone. Thirteen of the children had incurred, or were currently victims of, factitious illness abuse invented by the mother. The one child with no history of factitious illness abuse had a sibling who had incurred definite factitious illness abuse. The false allegations of abuse did not occur in the context of parental separation, divorce, or custody disputes concerning the children. They occurred in the context of Munchausen syndrome by proxy abuse. The age of the children, 3 to 9 years, was older than the usual age for Munchausen syndrome by proxy abuse. The mother was the source of the false allegations and was the person who encouraged or taught six of the children to substantiate allegations of sexual abuse.

Meadow, R

1993-01-01

361

Identification of Background False Positives from Kepler Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Kepler Mission was launched on 2009 March 6 to perform a photometric survey of more than 100,000 dwarf stars to search for Earth-size planets with the transit technique. The reliability of the resulting planetary candidate list relies on the ability to identify and remove false positives. Major sources of astrophysical false positives are planetary transits and stellar eclipses on background stars. We describe several new techniques for the identification of background transit sources that are separated from their target stars, indicating an astrophysical false positive. These techniques use only Kepler photometric data. We describe the concepts and construction of these techniques in detail as well as their performance and relative merits.

Bryson, Stephen T.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Twicken, Joseph D.; Clarke, Bruce; Rowe, Jason; Caldwell, Douglas; Batalha, Natalie; Mullally, Fergal; Haas, Michael R.; Tenenbaum, Peter

2013-08-01

362

Occurrence of false-positive results in three paratuberculosis - ELISAs performed in a tuberculous herd.  

PubMed

The interference of bovine tuberculosis (TB) on the efficacy of paratuberculosis (PTB) diagnostic tests has been evaluated. A group of 32 tuberculous cows identified by both intradermal tests and gamma-interferon assay, 16 of them confirmed by the recovery of M.bovis from tissues, was tested by three different PTB- ELISAs, being two commercials and one in-house. The rest of the adult animals of the herds, totalizing 216 TB-negative animals, were also tested as a control group. Fecal culture for PTB was negative in all animals, but seven (21.8%) tuberculous cows produced false-positive reactions when tested by various PTB-ELISAs, leading to a misdiagnosis. Tuberculosis impairs the specificity of serological tests for paratuberculosis diagnosis and should be considered for the reliability of PTB control programs. PMID:19333771

Lilenbaum, W; Marassi, C D; Varges, R; Medeiros, L; Oelemann, W M R; Fonseca, L S

2009-03-31

363

Negative-ion generator  

DOEpatents

This negative ion generator comprises a magnetically insulated transmission line having at least one hole in the cathode to permit negative ions to escape the transmission line, and a device for removing electrons from the negative ion flow.

Stinnett, R.W.

1982-02-11

364

False alarm analysis (preliminary) horizon infrared surveillance sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A brief overview of the HISS (horizon infrared surveillance sensor) program and signal processing are given. The false alarm rate (FAR) is defined. A summary of the statistics for all the data analyzed, is presented. An examination of parts of the image that caused the most significant false alarms is provided. For each clutter type, the steps that could be taken to further reduce the FAR, are discussed. Clutter cases considered included sky with and without clouds, solar sea glint ranging from mild to moderate, land with structures, and a flock of birds. A summary of the impact of the clutter observed during testing is provided.

Hepfer, Kenneth

1994-09-01

365

[A false positive reaction to lactose in polycarbohydrate media].  

PubMed

In combined media for primary identification Salmonella typhi are detectable by the lactose test only within a certain range of proteolytic activities, which fact is explained by specific features of these media. Reduced proteolytic activity and thiosulfate reductase activity in S. typhi cultures resulted in false-positive lactose test and false-positive hydrogen sulfide production test, this leading to identification of these cultures as Escherichia in accordance with the universally acknowledged classification scheme. Taking this feature into consideration, the author has additionally isolated 20 typical S. typhi strains of the 22 cultures isolated in the laboratory. PMID:1715952

Podpletennaia, I M

1991-01-01

366

Anchoring effects in the development of false childhood memories.  

PubMed

When people receive descriptions or doctored photos of events that never happened, they often come to remember those events. But if people receive both a description and a doctored photo, does the order in which they receive the information matter? We asked people to consider a description and a doctored photograph of a childhood hot air balloon ride, and we varied which medium they saw first. People who saw a description first reported more false images and memories than did people who saw a photo first, a result that fits with an anchoring account of false childhood memories. PMID:20081163

Wade, Kimberley A; Garry, Maryanne; Nash, Robert A; Harper, David N

2010-02-01

367

Can the false-discovery rate be misleading?  

PubMed Central

The decoy-database approach is currently the gold standard for assessing the confidence of identifications in shotgun proteomic experiments. Here we demonstrate that what might appear to be a good result under the decoy-database approach for a given false-discovery rate could be, in fact, the product of overfitting. This problem has been overlooked until now and could lead to obtaining boosted identification numbers whose reliability does not correspond to the expected false-discovery rate. To remedy this, we are introducing a modified version of the method, termed a semi-labeled decoy approach, which enables the statistical determination of an overfitted result.

Barboza, Rodrigo; Cociorva, Daniel; Xu, Tao; Barbosa, Valmir C; Perales, Jonas; Valente, Richard H; Franca, Felipe M G; Yates, John R; Carvalho, Paulo C

2012-01-01

368

Personality characteristics associated with susceptibility to false memories.  

PubMed

This study examined whether certain personality characteristics are associated with susceptibility to false memories. Participants first answered questions from the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator in order to measure various personality characteristics. They then watched a video excerpt, the simulated eyewitness event. They were next encouraged to lie about the videotaped event during an interview. A week later, some participants recognized confabulated events as being from the video. Two personality characteristics in particular--the introversion-extroversion and thinking-feeling dimensions--were associated with susceptibility to false memories. PMID:16841777

Frost, Peter; Sparrow, Sarah; Jennifer, Barry

2006-01-01

369

Apparent mass and cross-axis apparent mass of standing subjects during exposure to vertical whole-body vibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of posture and vibration magnitude on the vertical apparent mass and the fore-and-aft cross-axis apparent mass of the standing human body during exposure to vertical vibration have been investigated. Twelve male subjects were exposed to random vertical vibration over the frequency range 2.0 20 Hz at three vibration magnitudes: 0.125, 0.25 and 0.5 m s-2 rms. Subjects stood in five different postures: upright, lordotic, anterior lean, knees bent and knees more bent. The vertical acceleration at the floor and the forces in the vertical and fore-and-aft directions at the floor were used to obtain the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass. The resonance frequency of the apparent mass was significantly reduced with knees bent and knees more bent postures, but there were only minor effects on the resonance frequency by changing the position of the upper body. Considerable cross-axis apparent mass, up to about 30% of the static mass of subjects, was found. The cross-axis apparent mass was influenced by all postural changes used in the study. In all postures the resonance frequencies of the apparent mass and the cross-axis apparent mass tended to decrease with increasing vibration magnitude. This nonlinear characteristic tended to be less clear in some postures in which subjects increased muscle tension.

Subashi, G. H. M. J.; Matsumoto, Y.; Griffin, M. J.

2006-05-01

370

Axillary recurrence after negative sentinel lymph node biopsy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has almost totally replaced axillary lymph node dissection as the first-line axillary procedure\\u000a for node-negative breast cancer. SLNB has a false-negative rate of 0–22%, and regional nodal recurrence is a major concern\\u000a after SLNB. In this study, we assessed axillary recurrence and risk factors in breast cancer patients 40 months after negative\\u000a SLNB. Methods Of

Hee Jeong Kim; Byung Ho Son; Eun Wha Park; Woo Sung Lim; Jin Young Seo; Mi Ae Jang; Bo Kyong Ku; Sei Hyun Ahn

2009-01-01

371

"Apparent Weight": A Concept that Is Confusing and Unnecessary  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two recent articles make prominent use of the concept of "apparent weight." The concept of "apparent weight" leads to two confusing inconsistencies. We need to know that with very little change in our representations, we can give our students an improved understanding of "weight" without ever having to invent the appealing but confusing concept of…

Bartlett, Albert A.

2010-01-01

372

Universe bounded by apparent horizon: an irreversible thermodynamic prescription  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we study universe bounded by apparent horizon as an irreversible thermodynamical system. Using the non equilibrium thermodynamical technique, the modified entropy variation on the apparent horizon has been evaluated in general. Two dark energy models are presented and results are analyzed.

Chakraborty, Subenoy; Biswas, Atreyee

2013-01-01

373

Multiple Weather Factors Affect Apparent Survival of European Passerine Birds  

PubMed Central

Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for phenotypic and microevolutionary adaptations.

Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M.; Fiedler, Wolfgang

2013-01-01

374

Multiple weather factors affect apparent survival of European passerine birds.  

PubMed

Weather affects the demography of animals and thus climate change will cause local changes in demographic rates. In birds numerous studies have correlated demographic factors with weather but few of those examined variation in the impacts of weather in different seasons and, in the case of migrants, in different regions. Using capture-recapture models we correlated weather with apparent survival of seven passerine bird species with different migration strategies to assess the importance of selected facets of weather throughout the year on apparent survival. Contrary to our expectations weather experienced during the breeding season did not affect apparent survival of the target species. However, measures for winter severity were associated with apparent survival of a resident species, two short-distance/partial migrants and a long-distance migrant. Apparent survival of two short distance migrants as well as two long-distance migrants was further correlated with conditions experienced during the non-breeding season in Spain. Conditions in Africa had statistically significant but relatively minor effects on the apparent survival of the two long-distance migrants but also of a presumably short-distance migrant and a short-distance/partial migrant. In general several weather effects independently explained similar amounts of variation in apparent survival for the majority of species and single factors explained only relatively low amounts of temporal variation of apparent survival. Although the directions of the effects on apparent survival mostly met our expectations and there are clear predictions for effects of future climate we caution against simple extrapolations of present conditions to predict future population dynamics. Not only did weather explains limited amounts of variation in apparent survival, but future demographics will likely be affected by changing interspecific interactions, opposing effects of weather in different seasons, and the potential for phenotypic and microevolutionary adaptations. PMID:23593131

Salewski, Volker; Hochachka, Wesley M; Fiedler, Wolfgang

2013-04-08

375

Prudential Standing Limitations on Lanham Act False Advertising Claims  

Microsoft Academic Search

Section 43(a) of the Lanham Act provides a federal cause of action for false advertising. There is considerable disagreement among the federal circuit courts over the proper way to determine standing under this statute. Much of the disagreement centers on how the plaintiff's status as a direct competitor of the defendant should affect the standing inquiry. This Note argues that

Gregory Apgar

2008-01-01

376

12. VIEW OF SPACE BETWEEN EAST FALSE PARTITION WALL IN ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. VIEW OF SPACE BETWEEN EAST FALSE PARTITION WALL IN CLEAN ROOM (102) AND EAST WALL OF VEHICLE SUPPORT BUILDING SHOWING PREFILTER NEAR SOUTH WALL - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Vehicle Support Building, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

377

Detecting False Positives in Multielement Designs: Implications for Brief Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors assessed the extent to which multielement designs produced false positives using continuous duration recording (CDR) and interval recording with 10-s and 1-min interval sizes. Specifically, they created 6,000 graphs with multielement designs that varied in the number of data paths, and the number of data points per data path, using a…

Bartlett, Sara M.; Rapp, John T.; Henrickson, Marissa L.

2011-01-01

378

The role of sleep in false memory formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Memories are not stored as exact copies of our experiences. As a result, remembering is subject not only to memory failure, but to inaccuracies and distortions as well. Although such distortions are often retained or even enhanced over time, sleep’s contribution to the development of false memories is unknown. Here, we report that a night of sleep increases both veridical

Jessica D. Payne; Daniel L. Schacter; Ruth E. Propper; Li-Wen Huang; Erin J. Wamsley; Matthew A. Tucker; Matthew P. Walker; Robert Stickgold

2009-01-01

379

Detecting False Positives in Multielement Designs: Implications for Brief Assessments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The authors assessed the extent to which multielement designs produced false positives using continuous duration recording (CDR) and interval recording with 10-s and 1-min interval sizes. Specifically, they created 6,000 graphs with multielement designs that varied in the number of data paths, and the number of data points per data path, using a…

Bartlett, Sara M.; Rapp, John T.; Henrickson, Marissa L.

2011-01-01

380

Counterfactual Conditionals and False Belief: A Developmental Dissociation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The objective of this study was to explore factors that affect the difficulty of counterfactual reasoning in 3-5-year-old children and to shed light on the reason why counterfactual reasoning relates to understanding false belief [Cognitive Development, 13 (1998) 73-90]. Using travel scenarios, the difference between simple scenarios, in which…

Perner, Josef; Sprung, Manuel; Steinkogler, Bettina

2004-01-01

381

How do our brain hemispheres cooperate to avoid false memories?  

PubMed

Memories are not always as reliable as they may appear. The occurrence of false memories can be reduced, however, by enhancing the cooperation between the two brain hemispheres. Yet is the communication from left to right hemisphere as helpful as the information transfer from right to left? To address this question, 72 participants were asked to learn 16 word lists. Applying the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm, the words in each list were associated with an unpresented prototype word. In the test condition, learned words and corresponding prototypes were presented along with non-associated new words, and participants were asked to indicate which of the words they recognized. Crucially, both study and test words were projected to only one hemisphere in order to stimulate each hemisphere separately. It was found that false recognitions occurred significantly less often when the right hemisphere studied and the left hemisphere recognized the stimuli. Moreover, only the right-to-left direction of interhemispheric communication reduced false memories significantly, whereas left-to-right exchange did not. Further analyses revealed that the observed reduction of false memories was not due to an enhanced discrimination sensitivity, but to a stricter response bias. Hence, the data suggest that interhemispheric cooperation does not improve the ability to tell old and new apart, but rather evokes a conservative response tendency. Future studies may narrow down in which cognitive processing steps interhemispheric interaction can change the response criterion. PMID:22245145

Bergert, Susanne

2011-12-19

382

Neural correlates of true and false belief reasoning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Belief reasoning plays a central role in making inferences about other people's mental states. The ability to reason about false beliefs is considered as a critical test for having a Theory of Mind (ToM). There is some controversy as to whether it is the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) or the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) that is centrally involved in belief reasoning.

Monika Sommer; Katrin Döhnel; Beate Sodian; Jörg Meinhardt; Claudia Thoermer; Göran Hajak

2007-01-01

383

Semantic versus phonological false recognition in aging and Alzheimers diseaseq  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with Alzheimers disease (AD) have been found to exhibit lower levels of false recognition of semantic associates compared with healthy older adults. Because these patients may show impaired performance of episodic and semantic memory tasks, this finding could be explained by deficits in episodic memory, semantic memory, or both. The authors adapted a paradigm for comparison of semantic versus

Andrew E. Budson; Alison L. Sullivan; Kirk R. Daffner; Daniel L. Schacterc

384

Statistical Enroute Filtering of Injected False Data in Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

ó In a large-scale sensor network individual sensors are subject to security compromises. A compromised node can be used to inject bogus sensing reports. If undetected, these bogus reports would be forwarded to the data collection point (i.e. the sink). Such attacks by compromised nodes can result in not only false alarms but also the depletion of the nite amount

Fan Ye; Haiyun Luo; Songwu Lu; Lixia Zhang

2004-01-01

385

Dynamically Controlling False Sharing in Distributed Shared Memory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Distributed shared memory (DSM) alleviates the need to program message passing explicitlyon a distributed-memory machine. In order to reduce memory latency, a DSM replicates copiesof data. This paper examines several current approaches to controlling thrashing caused by falsesharing in a DSM. Then it introduces a novel memory consistency protocol, writer-owns, whichdetects and eliminates false sharing at run time. In iterative

Vincent W. Freeh; Gregory R. Andrews

1996-01-01

386

They're All False!--Or Are They?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Fifteen true-false statements are provided that are to be used to spur discussion and arguments about the concept of motion. Each statement is carefully worded to sound plausible, but each one attacks some misunderstanding common to students who are encountering Newton's mechanics for the first time. (KR)|

Payne, Mark M.

1991-01-01

387

False categories in cognition: the Not-The-Liver fallacy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on an increasingly frequent error committed in cognition research that at best slows progress, and at worse leads to self-perpetuating false claims and misguided research. The error involves how we identify meaningful processes and categories on the basis of data. Examples are given from three areas of cognition: (1) memory, where the misconception has fueled the popular

Felice L. Bedford

1997-01-01

388

Identifying differentially expressed genes using false discovery rate controlling procedures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Motivation: DNA microarrays have recently been used for the purpose of monitoring expression levels of thousands of genes simultaneously and identifying those genes that are differentially expressed. The probability that a false identification (type I error) is committed can increase sharply when the number of tested genes gets large. Correlation between the test statistics attributed to gene co-regulation and dependency

Anat Reiner; Daniel Yekutieli; Yoav Benjamini

2003-01-01

389

Art or Porn: Clear Division or False Dilemma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

:Art or Porn? The popular media will often choose this heading when reviewing the latest sexually explicit novel, film, or art exhibition. The underlying assumption seems to be that the work under discussion has to be one or the other, and cannot be both. But is this not a false dilemma? Can one really draw a sharp dividing line between

Hans Maes

2011-01-01

390

Art or Porn: Clear Division or False Dilemma?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Art or Porn? The popular media will often choose this heading when reviewing the latest sexually explicit novel, film, or art exhibition. The underlying assumption seems to be that the work under discussion has to be one or the other, and cannot be both. But is this not a false dilemma? Can one really draw a sharp dividing line between

Hans Maes

2011-01-01

391

Confabulation, delusion, and anosognosia: Motivational factors and false claims  

Microsoft Academic Search

False claims are a key feature of confabulation, delusion, and anosognosia. In this paper we consider the role of motivational factors in such claims. We review motivational accounts of each symptom and consider the evidence adduced in support of these accounts. In our view the evidence is strongly suggestive of a role for motivational factors in each domain. Before concluding,

Ryan McKay; Marcel Kinsbourne

2010-01-01

392

Modulation of the cortical false belief network during development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability to represent false beliefs is commonly considered as to be the critical test for having a Theory of Mind (ToM). For correct predictions or explanations of other peoples' behavior it is necessary to understand that mental states are sometimes independent of reality and misrepresent the real state of the world. In contrast, when people hold true beliefs, predictions

Monika Sommer; Jörg Meinhardt; Kerstin Eichenmüller; Beate Sodian; Katrin Döhnel; Göran Hajak

2010-01-01

393

Neural Activity during Encoding Predicts False Memories Created by Misinformation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|False memories are often demonstrated using the misinformation paradigm, in which a person's recollection of a witnessed event is altered after exposure to misinformation about the event. The neural basis of this phenomenon, however, remains unknown. The authors used fMRI to investigate encoding processes during the viewing of an event and…

Okado, Yoko; Stark, Craig E. L.

2005-01-01

394

Context effects and false memory for alcohol words in adolescents.  

PubMed

This study assessed incidental recognition of Alcohol and Neutral words in adolescents who encoded the words under distraction. Participants were 171 (87 male) 10th grade students, ages 14-16 (M=15.1) years. Testing was conducted by telephone: Participants listened to a list containing Alcohol and Neutral (Experimental--Group E, n=92) or only Neutral (Control--Group C, n=79) words, while counting backwards from 200 by two's. Recognition was tested immediately thereafter. Group C exhibited higher false recognition of Neutral than Alcohol items, whereas Group E displayed equivalent false rates for both word types. The reported number of alcohol TV ads seen in the past week predicted higher false recognition of Neutral words in Group C and of Alcohol words in Group E. False memory for Alcohol words in Group E was greater in males and high anxiety sensitive participants. These context-dependent biases may contribute to exaggerations in perceived drinking norms previously found to predict alcohol misuse in young drinkers. PMID:19081200

Zack, Martin; Sharpley, Justin; Dent, Clyde W; Stacy, Alan W

2008-11-21

395

Matched False-Belief Performance during Verbal and Nonverbal Interference  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Language has been shown to play a key role in the development of a child's theory of mind, but its role in adult belief reasoning remains unclear. One recent study used verbal and nonverbal interference during a false-belief task to show that accurate belief reasoning in adults necessarily requires language (Newton & de Villiers, 2007). The…

Dungan, James; Saxe, Rebecca

2012-01-01

396

Bogus Concerns about the False Prototype Enhancement Effect  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two experiments addressed the mechanism responsible for the false prototype effect, the phenomenon in which a prototype gradient can be obtained in the absence of learning. Previous demonstrations of this effect have occurred solely in a single-category paradigm in which transfer patterns are assigned or not to the learning category. We tested the…

Homa, Donald; Hout, Michael C.; Milliken, Laura; Milliken, Ann Marie

2011-01-01

397

Looking for Childhood Schizophrenia: Case Series of False Positives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Extensive experience with the diagnosis of childhood-onset schizophrenia indicates a high rate of false positives. Most mislabeled patients have chronic disabling, affective, or behavioral disorders. The authors report the cases of three children who passed stringent initial childhood-onset schizophrenia "screens" but had no chronic psychotic…

Stayer, Catherine; Sporn, Alexandra; Gogtay, Nitin; Tossell, Julia; Lenane, Marge; Gochman, Peter; Rapoport, Judith L.

2004-01-01

398

Improved Variable Index constant false alarm rate radar processors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the cases when the statistical distribution of range return samples are not known, constant false alarm rate (CFAR) processors can be used. Cell Averaging (CA) CFAR radar processors which have the best performance in Gaussian homogeneous environments, exhibits performance degradation in the presence of an interfering target or in regions of abrupt change in the backround clutter power. The

Y. C. U?n; K. M. U?ner

2010-01-01

399

First impression versus second thought in true-false tests  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis of changes of answers in true-false test responses, under ordinary circumstances and under instruction to record both first impression and second thought, shows that correct changes are more frequent than incorrect changes. This performance is not found with a few individuals or with a few questions only.

M. L. Lowe; C. C. Crawford

1929-01-01

400

Young Children's Emerging Ability to Make False Statements  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study examined the origins of children's ability to make consciously false statements, a necessary component of lying. Children 2 to 5 years of age were rewarded for claiming that they saw a picture of a bird when viewing pictures of fish. They were asked outcome questions ("Do you win/lose?"), recognition questions ("Do you have a…

Ahern, Elizabeth C.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.

2011-01-01

401

Television Produces More False Recognition for News Than Newspapers  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this experiment, we examined whether media format and the presence of relevant photographs influence the probability of false recognition for media content. We told participants that we were interested in what makes news interesting and asked them to watch 3 televised broadcasts or read 3 news articles that appeared with or without a photo depicting a relevant aspect of

Jacqueline L. Austin; Deryn M. Strange

2012-01-01

402

Production of wormholes in the decay of the false vacuum  

SciTech Connect

Tunneling processes leading to the decay of the false vacuum are studied in the theory of a scalar field interacting with gravity. It is shown that in the theory with conformal coupling (the action containing the term (1/12)Rphi/sup 2/) bubbles with wormhole geometry can be produced, whereas this is impossible in the theory with minimal coupling.

Lavrelashvili, G.V.

1987-01-01

403

Direct Instruction vs. Arts Integration: A False Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|In this article, the author takes on what he considers to be the false dichotomy between direct instruction and arts integration. He contends that at a time when national issues of sustainability and conservation of energy and resources become ever more urgent, it is time that those committed to quality arts education stop squandering time,…

Aprill, Arnold

2010-01-01

404

Juror Beliefs About Police Interrogations, False Confessions, and Expert Testimony  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although there has been a rapid expansion in research on police interrogations and false confessions, little is known about the beliefs of potential jurors as to these issues. In collaboration with a trial research firm, we recruited 461 jury-eligible men and women who matched the demographic characteristics of jury pools in several states. Surrogate jurors responded to questions and statements

Mark Costanzo; Netta Shaked-Schroer; Katherine Vinson

2010-01-01

405

The fSAM Model of False Recall  

PubMed Central

The authors report a new theory of false memory building upon existing associative memory models and implemented in fSAM, the first fully specified quantitative model of false recall. Participants frequently intrude unstudied critical words while recalling lists comprising their strongest semantic associates but infrequently produce other extralist and prior-list intrusions. The authors developed the theory by simulating recall of such lists, using factorial combinations of semantic mechanisms operating at encoding, retrieval, or both stages. During encoding, unstudied words' associations to list context were strengthened in proportion to their strength of semantic association either to each studied word or to all co-rehearsed words. During retrieval, words received preference in proportion to their strength of semantic association to the most recently recalled single word or multiple words. The authors simulated all intrusion types and veridical recall for lists varying in semantic association strength among studied and critical words from the same and different lists. Multiplicative semantic encoding and retrieval mechanisms performed well in combination. Using such combined mechanisms, the authors also simulated several core findings from the Deese–Roediger–McDermott paradigm literature, including developmental patterns, specific list effects, association strength effects, and true–false correlations. These results challenge existing false-memory theories.

Kimball, Daniel R.; Smith, Troy A.; Kahana, Michael J.

2009-01-01

406

Looking for Childhood Schizophrenia: Case Series of False Positives.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Extensive experience with the diagnosis of childhood-onset schizophrenia indicates a high rate of false positives. Most mislabeled patients have chronic disabling, affective, or behavioral disorders. The authors report the cases of three children who passed stringent initial childhood-onset schizophrenia "screens" but had no chronic psychotic…

Stayer, Catherine; Sporn, Alexandra; Gogtay, Nitin; Tossell, Julia; Lenane, Marge; Gochman, Peter; Rapoport, Judith L.

2004-01-01

407

Context Effects and False Memory for Alcohol Words in Adolescents  

PubMed Central

This study assessed incidental recognition of Alcohol and Neutral words in adolescents who encoded the words under distraction. Participants were 171 (81 male) 10th grade students, ages 14–16 (M = 15.1) years. Testing was conducted by telephone: Participants listened to a list containing Alcohol and Neutral (Experimental – Group E, n = 92) or only Neutral (Control – Group C, n = 79) words, while counting backwards from 200 by two’s. Recognition was tested immediately thereafter. Group C exhibited higher false recognition of Neutral than Alcohol items, whereas Group E displayed equivalent false rates for both word types. The reported number of alcohol TV ads seen in the past week predicted higher false recognition of Neutral words in Group C and of Alcohol words in Group E. False memory for Alcohol words in Group E was greater in males and high anxiety sensitive participants. These context-dependent biases may contribute to exaggerations in perceived drinking norms previously found to predict alcohol misuse in young drinkers.

Zack, Martin; Sharpley, Justin; Dent, Clyde W.; Stacy, Alan W.

2011-01-01

408

A Competitive Nonverbal False Belief Task for Children and Apes  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A nonverbal false belief task was administered to children (mean age 5 years) and two great ape species: chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") and bonobos ("Pan paniscus"). Because apes typically perform poorly in cooperative contexts, our task was competitive. Two versions were run: in both, a human competitor witnessed an experimenter hide a reward…

Krachun, Carla; Carpenter, Malinda; Call, Josep; Tomasello, Michael

2009-01-01

409

Screening for subclinical Cushing's syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus: low false-positive rates with nocturnal salivary cortisol.  

PubMed

The diagnosis of subclinical Cushing's syndrome (SCS) is important, but its relative rarity amongst patients with common metabolic disorders requires a simple test with a low false-positive rate. Using nocturnal salivary cortisol (NSC), which we first validated in patients with suspected and proven Cushing's syndrome, we screened 106 overweight patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, a group at high risk of SCS and nontumoral hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis perturbations. Our hypothesis was that a lower false-positive rate with NSC was likely, compared with that reported with the dexamethasone suppression test (DST) (10-20%), currently the foundation of diagnosis of SCS. No participant had clinically apparent Cushing's syndrome. Three participants had an elevated NSC but further testing excluded SCS. In this study, NSC had a lower false-positive rate (3%) than previously reported for the DST. Given the reported excellent performance of NSC in detection of hypercortisolism, the low false-positive rate in SCS suggests NSC may be superior to the DST for SCS screening. The NSC and DST should be compared directly in metabolic disorder patients; although our data suggest the patient group will need to be substantially larger to definitively determine the optimal screening test. PMID:20119887

Gagliardi, L; Chapman, I M; O'Loughlin, P; Torpy, D J

2010-01-29

410

Determining Occurrence Dynamics when False Positives Occur: Estimating the Range Dynamics of Wolves from Public Survey Data  

PubMed Central

Large-scale presence-absence monitoring programs have great promise for many conservation applications. Their value can be limited by potential incorrect inferences owing to observational errors, especially when data are collected by the public. To combat this, previous analytical methods have focused on addressing non-detection from public survey data. Misclassification errors have received less attention but are also likely to be a common component of public surveys, as well as many other data types. We derive estimators for dynamic occupancy parameters (extinction and colonization), focusing on the case where certainty can be assumed for a subset of detections. We demonstrate how to simultaneously account for non-detection (false negatives) and misclassification (false positives) when estimating occurrence parameters for gray wolves in northern Montana from 2007–2010. Our primary data source for the analysis was observations by deer and elk hunters, reported as part of the state’s annual hunter survey. This data was supplemented with data from known locations of radio-collared wolves. We found that occupancy was relatively stable during the years of the study and wolves were largely restricted to the highest quality habitats in the study area. Transitions in the occupancy status of sites were rare, as occupied sites almost always remained occupied and unoccupied sites remained unoccupied. Failing to account for false positives led to over estimation of both the area inhabited by wolves and the frequency of turnover. The ability to properly account for both false negatives and false positives is an important step to improve inferences for conservation from large-scale public surveys. The approach we propose will improve our understanding of the status of wolf populations and is relevant to many other data types where false positives are a component of observations.

Miller, David A. W.; Nichols, James D.; Gude, Justin A.; Rich, Lindsey N.; Podruzny, Kevin M.; Hines, James E.; Mitchell, Michael S.

2013-01-01

411

Objective verifications and false alarm analyses of western North Pacific tropical cyclone event forecasts by the ECMWF 32-day ensemble  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An objective tropical cyclone (TC) track analog verification technique has been developed to select all ensemble storm tracks predicted by the ECMWF 32-day ensemble that match the overall Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) post-season best-tracks. Ensemble storms within specified time and space differences of each JTWC track are first extracted as potential analogs, and four metrics of shortest distance, average distance, distance at formation time, and distance at ending time are calculated. An objective quality measure that assesses the overall track similarity between the potential analogs and each JTWC track is calculated in terms of membership functions for the four track metrics. Weighting factors multiplying these membership functions are adjusted to match with the quality measures for the ECMWF ensemble storm forecasts in a previous subjective evaluation. Objective verifications for the 2009 and 2010 seasons have been summarized in terms of Hits, Misses, False Alarms, and Correct Negatives that no TC would be present in the western North Pacific. The most important result is that the ECMWF ensemble was able to predict nearly all of the TCs in both seasons with only a small number of Misses that generally were short-lived tropical depressions. Good performance in terms of Correct Negatives was achieved during the 2010 season. False alarms are defined to be all ensemble storms that could not be matched any JTWC tracks within the specified thresholds. Evaluations of the characteristics of the false alarms indicate seasonal and geographic biases and that about 50% of the false alarm in the Week 1 forecasts originate from the initial the initial conditions in the model. A minimum of false alarms created in Week 2 forecasts is attributed to the decrease in horizontal resolution in the model that occurs at day 10. A steady and nearly uniform increase in false alarms in the Week 3 and Week 4 forecasts may be attributed to net convective heating in response to persistent environmental forcing in the tropics.

Tsai, Hsiao-Chung; Elsberry, Russell L.; Jordan, Mary S.; Vitart, Frédéric

2013-08-01

412

Lateralized processing of false memories and pseudoneglect in aging.  

PubMed

Aging is associated with higher propensity to false memories and decreased retrieval of previously studied items. When young adults (YA) perform on a lateralized version of the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, the right cerebral hemisphere (RH) is more sensitive than the left (LH) to false memories, suggesting hemispheric imbalance in the cerebral mechanisms supporting semantic and episodic memory processes. Since cerebral asymmetries tend to be reduced with age, we surmised that behavioral asymmetries in the generation of false memories would be diminished with aging. To probe this hypothesis, a lateralized version of the DRM paradigm was administered to healthy older adults (OA) and YA. During the encoding phase, lists of semantically associated words were memorized. During the retrieval session, targets (previously seen words), lures (LU) (never seen strongly semantically related words) and distracters (never seen, unrelated words) were briefly displayed either in the left or right visual fields, thus primarily stimulating the RH or LH, respectively. Participants had to decide whether the word was previously studied (Old/New), but also whether they had a strong episodic recollection (Remember) or a mere feeling of familiarity (Know) about Old words. In line with our predictions, false memories were globally higher in OA than YA, and vivid false recollections (i.e., Remember responses) were higher when LU were presented in the RH in YA, but not in OA. Additionally, we found significant correlations between YA participants' Familiarity scores and leftward attentional bias as previously evidenced using a visuospatial landmark task (Schmitz and Peigneux, 2011), an effect not present in OA. This result is in line with the hypothesis of an interplay between attentional resources allocated to visuospatial and memory processes, suggesting a memory pseudoneglect phenomenon that would be altered with aging. PMID:22818903

Schmitz, Rémy; Dehon, Hedwige; Peigneux, Philippe

2012-06-29

413

Malate dehydrogenase isozymes in flax genotroph leaves: Differences in apparent molecular weight and charge between and within L and S  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ferguson plots demonstrated that corresponding malate dehydrogenase (MDH) isozymes of Durrant's L and S flax genotrophs differ in apparent molecular weight (MW) and also in net negative charge. The MW differences explain heritable differences in electrophoretic relative mobility (Rm) between corresponding L and S isozymes. The MW for each MDH isozyme was higher for L than for S and resulted

M. A. Fieldes; B. Dixon

1988-01-01

414

Apparent digestion and apparent retention of lipid and fatty acids in Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua) fed increasing dietary lipid levels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the present study was to investigate how different dietary lipid levels affect growth, liver lipid deposition, apparent digestibility, apparent retention and utilization of total lipid and fatty acids in Atlantic cod. Individually tagged cod, with an average weight of 360 g, were randomly distributed in nine tanks, 49 fish per tank. Five diets with increasing dietary lipid level

Jon Øvrum Hansen; Gerd Marit Berge; Marie Hillestad; Åshild Krogdahl; Trina F. Galloway; Halvor Holm; Jørgen Holm; Bente Ruyter

2008-01-01

415

Frequency dependence of apparent ultrasonic backscatter from human cancellous bone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study examines the frequency dependence of apparent ultrasonic backscatter from human cancellous bone as quantified by the apparent backscatter transfer function (ABTF). The term 'apparent' means that the backscatter signals are not compensated for the frequency-dependent effects of diffraction and attenuation. Backscatter measurements were performed in vitro on 22 specimens of bone using five transducers ranging in centre frequency from 1 to 10 MHz. The ABTF was measured at multiple sites and spatially averaged. The resulting spatially averaged ABTF (in dB) generally was a monotonically decreasing, quasi-linear function of frequency over the analysis bandwidth of the study (0.6-9.1 MHz). The apparent backscattered power tended to decrease with specimen density and become more strongly frequency dependent. Three parameters were determined from the spatially averaged ABTF. Apparent integrated backscatter (AIB) was determined by frequency averaging the spatially averaged ABTF. The frequency slope of apparent backscatter (FSAB) and the zero frequency intercept of apparent backscatter (FIAB) were determined from the slope and intercept of the spatially averaged ABTF, respectively. AIB and FSAB demonstrated moderate to good linear correlations with specimen density (|r| = 0.570-0.933). Correlations with density were weaker for the intercept-based parameter FIAB (|r| = 0.299-0.676).

Hoffmeister, Brent K.

2011-02-01

416

Phonological False Memories in Children and Adults: Evidence for a Developmental Reversal  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

False memories created by the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure typically show a developmental reversal whereby levels of false recall increase with age. In contrast, false memories produced by phonological lists have been shown to decrease as age increases. In the current study we show that phonological false memories, like semantic false

Swannell, Ellen R.; Dewhurst, Stephen A.

2012-01-01

417

When false recognition is unopposed by true recognition: Gist-based memory distortion in Alzheimer's disease  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors examined false recognition of semantic associates in patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD), older adults, and young adults using a paradigm that provided rates of false recognition after single and multiple exposures to word lists. Using corrected false recognition scores to control for unrelated false alarms, the authors found that (a) the level of false recognition after a

Andrew E. Budson; Kirk R. Daffner; Rahul Desikan; Daniel L. Schacter

2000-01-01

418

False memories are hard to inhibit: differential effects of directed forgetting on accurate and false recall in the DRM procedure.  

PubMed

Directed forgetting research shows that people can inhibit the retrieval of words that they were previously instructed to forget. The present research applied the directed forgetting procedure to the Deese/Roediger and McDermott (DRM) recall task to determine if directed forgetting instructions have similar or different effects on accurate and false memory. After studying lists of semantically related words, some participants were told to forget those lists, whereas other participants were not. All participants were then shown additional lists to remember. Following study, all participants were asked to free recall as many of the studied words as possible, including those they were previously instructed to forget. Directed forgetting instructions inhibited the accurate recall of studied words, but not the false recall of nonstudied critical words, whether measured by a within-participant or between-participants design. Contrary to an implicit activation hypothesis, false memories survived instructions to forget. These findings were reviewed in terms of fuzzy trace theory and the activation/monitoring approach to false memory. PMID:12097208

Seamon, John G; Luo, Chun R; Shulman, Elizabeth P; Toner, Sarah K; Caglar, Selin

2002-07-01

419

False Paradoxes of Superposition in Electric and Acoustic Waves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Corrected are several misconceptions concerning the apparently "missing" energy that results when acoustic or electromagnetic waves cancel by destructive interference and the wave impedance reflected to the sources of the wave energy changes so that the input power is reduced. (Author/CS)|

Levine, Richard C.

1980-01-01

420

False Paradoxes of Superposition in Electric and Acoustic Waves.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Corrected are several misconceptions concerning the apparently "missing" energy that results when acoustic or electromagnetic waves cancel by destructive interference and the wave impedance reflected to the sources of the wave energy changes so that the input power is reduced. (Author/CS)

Levine, Richard C.

1980-01-01

421

Product design and apparent usability. The influence of novelty in product appearance.  

PubMed

This research enhances our understanding of the relationship between aesthetics and usability by investigating the effects of novelty in product appearance on the apparent usability of a product. In two experimental studies using washing machines and digital cameras as stimuli, we systematically manipulated the level of novelty (low vs. high) in the product appearance by changing the product's color or shape. Participants were presented with one of these product appearances and a list of the product's technical specifications. Next, participants indicated how difficult or easy they expected the usage of the product to be. Our findings demonstrate that because people associate a high level of novelty with technological advancement, novelty in a product appearance negatively affects their expectations of a product's usability at the point of sale. Furthermore, novices are more likely to use the level of novelty as a cue for a product's apparent usability than experts. PMID:22512790

Mugge, Ruth; Schoormans, Jan P L

2012-04-17

422

CDF b-tagging: Measuring efficiency and false positive rate  

SciTech Connect

The CDF experiment has developed several high p{sub T} b-jet identification tools for the Run II physics program at the Tevatron. Herein we describe in detail one such b-tagging tool that exploits the long- lifetime of the b quark by identifying decay vertices significantly displaced from the primary interaction point. The b-tag efficiency is extracted from a b enriched data sample; the method is described, including a discussion of the important systematic effects. The data-driven measurement of the false positive tag rate is also described, as well as an explanation of how the per-jet false positive rate is used to predict the background contribution to the selected sample. Finally we conclude with a discussion of issues that have proven critical for b-tagging at CDF and should be given attention as we prepare b-tagging tools for LHC experiments.

Neu, Christopher; /Pennsylvania U.

2006-06-01

423

Expected Power for the False Discovery Rate with Independence  

PubMed Central

The Benjamini–Hochberg procedure is widely used in multiple comparisons. Previous power results for this procedure have been based on simulations. This article produces theoretical expressions for expected power. To derive them, we make assumptions about the number of hypotheses being tested, which null hypotheses are true, which are false, and the distributions of the test statistics under each null and alternative. We use these assumptions to derive bounds for multiple dimensional rejection regions. With these bounds and a permanent based representation of the joint density function of the largest p-values, we use the law of total probability to derive the distribution of the total number of rejections. We derive the joint distribution of the total number of rejections and the number of rejections when the null hypothesis is true. We give an analytic expression for the expected power for a false discovery rate procedure that assumes the hypotheses are independent.

GLUECK, D. H.; MULLER, K. E.; KARIMPOUR-FARD, A.; HUNTER, L.

2010-01-01

424

Existence of an Apparent Metabolic Block in Human Granulation Tissue.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The existence of an apparent metabolic block in the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, found at the height of phosphofructokinase in rabbit granulation tissue, was confirmed also in human granulation tissue obtained from severely burned patients. Unlike the case wi...

T. Hayashi T. G. Blocker W. W. Nowinski

1965-01-01

425

48 CFR 14.407-2 - Apparent clerical mistakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...before award. The contracting officer first shall obtain from the bidder a verification of the bid intended. Examples of apparent mistakes areâ (1...Obviously incorrect discounts (for example, 1 percent 10 days, 2 percent 20...

2011-10-01

426

48 CFR 14.407-2 - Apparent clerical mistakes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...before award. The contracting officer first shall obtain from the bidder a verification of the bid intended. Examples of apparent mistakes areâ (1...Obviously incorrect discounts (for example, 1 percent 10 days, 2 percent 20...

2012-10-01

427

Fermions tunneling from apparent horizon of FRW universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the paper [R.-G. Cai, L.-M. Cao, Y.-P. Hu, arXiv: 0809.1554], the scalar particles' Hawking radiation from the apparent horizon of Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe was investigated by using the tunneling formalism. They obtained the Hawking temperature associated with the apparent horizon, which was extensively applied in investigating the relationship between the first law of thermodynamics and Friedmann equations. In this Letter, we calculate fermions' Hawking radiation from the apparent horizon of FRW universe via tunneling formalism. Applying WKB approximation to the general covariant Dirac equation in FRW spacetime background, the radiation spectrum and Hawking temperature of apparent horizon are correctly recovered, which supports the arguments presented in the paper [R.-G. Cai, L.-M. Cao, Y.-P. Hu, arXiv: 0809.1554].

Li, Ran; Ren, Ji-Rong; Shi, Dun-Fu

2009-01-01

428

Intravascular missile: apparent retrograde course from the left ventricle.  

PubMed Central

An air gun pellet was found in the right superior pulmonary vein after penetrating the left ventricle of a 14 year old boy. This apparent retrograde movement in the left side of the heart has not been reported previously. Images

Lamb, R K; Pawade, A; Prior, A L

1988-01-01

429

False Lines in X-Ray Grating Spectra  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of the arrangement of slits, x-ray source and diffraction grating generally employed in x-ray spectroscopy, certain false lines may be obtained on the photographic plate in addition to those due to defects in the grating. Spectrograms of such spurious lines having their origin in a non-uniformfocal spot or reflection fromslit faces, as well as those due to certain grating

J. M. Cork

1930-01-01

430

Counterfactual conditionals and false belief: a developmental dissociation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to explore factors that affect the difficulty of counterfactual reasoning in 3–5-year-old children and to shed light on the reason why counterfactual reasoning relates to understanding false belief [Cognitive Development, 13 (1998) 73–90]. Using travel scenarios, the difference between simple scenarios, in which each departure point led to exactly one destination, and complex scenarios,

Josef Perner; Manuel Sprung; Bettina Steinkogler

2004-01-01

431

Factors that determine false recall: A multiple regression analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, subjects study lists of words that are designed to elicit the recall of an\\u000a associatively related critical item. The 55 lists we have developed provide levels of false recall ranging from .01 to .65,\\u000a and understanding this variability should provide a key to understanding this memory illusion. Using a simultaneous multiple\\u000a regression analysis, we assessed

Henry L. Roediger; Jason M. Watson; Kathleen B. McDermott; David A. Gallo

2001-01-01

432

False positives in psychiatric diagnosis: implications for human freedom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current symptom-based DSM and ICD diagnostic criteria for mental disorders are prone to yielding false positives because they\\u000a ignore the context of symptoms. This is often seen as a benign flaw because problems of living and emotional suffering, even\\u000a if not true disorders, may benefit from support and treatment. However, diagnosis of a disorder in our society has many ramifications

Jerome C. Wakefield

2010-01-01

433

Forward Association, Backward Association, and the False-Memory Illusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the Deese-Roediger-McDermott false-memory illusion, forward associative strength (FAS) is unrelated to the strength of the illusion; this is puzzling, because high-FAS lists ought to share more semantic features with critical unpresented words than should low-FAS lists. The authors show that this null result is probably a truncated range artifact. When FAS and its complement, backward associative strength (BAS), were

C. J. Brainerd; Ron Wright

2005-01-01

434

Identity Preservation and False Labeling in the Food Supply Chain  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper I address two issues pertaining to the market differentiation between non-genetically modified (non-GM) and genetically modified (GM) food varieties. First, I provide a cost-efficiency explanation of the discrepancy between the observed shares of identity preserved non-GM variety and the total supply of the variety. Second, I show that when products can be falsely labeled as non-GM, the

Alexander E. Saak

2002-01-01

435

Backward associative strength determines source attributions given to false memories  

Microsoft Academic Search

Source attributions for falsely remembered material were investigated in two experiments. A male and a female speaker each\\u000a presented either an entire word list or half of the items from each of multiple Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists commonly\\u000a used in this paradigm. In the latter condition the tendency of each list half to activate a nonpresented, critical list theme\\u000a item was

Jason L. Hicks; Thomas W. Hancock

2002-01-01

436

False Forward-Looking Statements and the PSLRA's Safe Harbor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Voluntary public disclosure of soft information—corporate projections and predictions and other forward-looking statements—is now the norm, following a brief learning curve after the enactment of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act’s safe harbor for forward-looking information in 1995. As a consequence, allegations of false forward-looking statements are also quite standard in today’s class action securities fraud pleading. This work addresses

Ann Morales Olazabal

2011-01-01

437

76 FR 36320 - Rules of Practice in Proceedings Relative to False Representation and Lottery Orders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...952 Rules of Practice in Proceedings Relative to False Representation and Lottery Orders...adopting revised rules for proceedings relative to false representation and lottery orders...the rules of practice in proceedings relative to false representation and lottery...

2011-06-22

438

76 FR 13937 - Rules of Practice in Proceedings Relative to False Representation and Lottery Orders  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...952 Rules of Practice in Proceedings Relative to False Representation and Lottery Orders...to adopt revised rules for proceedings relative to false representation and lottery orders...RULES OF PRACTICE IN PROCEEDINGS RELATIVE TO FALSE REPRESENTATION AND LOTTERY...

2011-03-15

439

A False Rejection Oriented Threat Model for the Design of Biometric Authentication Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For applications like Terrorist Watch Lists and Smart Guns, a false rejection is more critical than a false acceptance. In this paper a new threat model focusing on false rejections is presented, and the \\

Ileana Buhan; Asker Bazen; Pieter Hartel; Raymond Veldhuis

2005-01-01

440

A False Rejection Oriented Threat Model for the Design of Biometric Authentication Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

For applications like Terrorist Watch Lists and Smart Guns, a false rejection is more critical than a false acceptance. In this paper a new threat model focusing on false rejections is presented, and the \\

Ileana Buhan; Asker M. Bazen; Pieter H. Hartel; Raymond N. J. Veldhuis

2006-01-01

441

13 CFR 142.5 - What is a false claim or statement?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

13 Business Credit and...2010-01-01 false What is a false claim or statement? 142.5...Section 142.5 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION...142.5 What is a false claim or statement?...

2010-01-01

442

13 CFR 142.5 - What is a false claim or statement?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

13 Business Credit and...2009-01-01 false What is a false claim or statement? 142.5...Section 142.5 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION...142.5 What is a false claim or statement?...

2009-01-01

443

13 CFR 142.5 - What is a false claim or statement?  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

13 Business Credit and...2012-01-01 false What is a false claim or statement? 142.5...Section 142.5 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION...142.5 What is a false claim or statement?...

2012-01-01

444

47 CFR 80.335 - Procedures for canceling false distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Procedures for canceling false distress alerts. 80.335 Section 80.335...Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures...335 Procedures for canceling false distress alerts. If a distress alert is...

2010-10-01

445

47 CFR 80.335 - Procedures for canceling false distress alerts.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Procedures for canceling false distress alerts. 80.335 Section 80.335...Safety Watch Requirements and Procedures Distress, Alarm, Urgency and Safety Procedures...335 Procedures for canceling false distress alerts. If a distress alert is...

2009-10-01

446

Human vertebral body apparent and hard tissue stiffness  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cancellous bone apparent stiffness and strength are dependent upon material properties at the tissue level and trabecular architecture. Microstructurally accurate, large-scale finite element (LS-FE) models were used to predict the experimental apparent stiffness of human vertebral cancellous bone and to estimate the trabecular hard tissue stiffness. Twenty-eight LS-FE models of cylindrical human vertebral cancellous bone specimens (8mm in diameter, 9.5mm

Fu J. Hou; Susan M. Lang; Susan J. Hoshaw; David A. Reimann; David P. Fyhrie

1998-01-01

447

Misguided multiplication: creating false memories with numbers rather than words.  

PubMed

We built Deese (1959)/Roediger and McDermott (1995) (DRM) false memory lists composed of multiplication problems rather than words. Half these lists contained table-related, near neighbors (e.g., 3 x 7 = ??, 3 x 9 = ??) of a missing multiplication answer lure (e.g., 24). The other half contained problems unrelated to the lure (e.g., 5 x 5 = ??, 11 x 3 = ??). Participants solved each problem in a single list and then took immediate recognition (Experiment 1) or recall and then recognition tests (Experiment 2) for the answers. Many people misremembered that the lure was an answer to a study-phase problem, but only when solving the study list that contained the lure's neighbors. False memory was also greater for some list-lure combinations than others, as seen previously with words. We have thus demonstrated that numbers can also produce false memory, and we use the mental math and DRM task literatures to explain these results. PMID:11407424

Pesta, B J; Sanders, R E; Murphy, M D

2001-04-01

448

False belief and the refusal of medical treatment.  

PubMed Central

May a doctor treat a patient, despite that patient's refusal, when in his professional opinion treatment is necessary? This is the dilemma which must from time to time confront most physicians. An examination of the validity of such a refusal is provided by the present authors who use the case history of a patient refusing treatment, for cancer as well as for a fractured hip, to evaluate the grounds for intervention in such circumstances. In such a situation the patient is said to have a 'false belief' and it is the doctor's duty to try to change that belief in the patient's interest. The false belief is considered here in terms of the liberty principle, the patient's mental competence and on what is called the 'harm principle' (harm to other individuals or to society). Finally the concept of paternalism is examined. The authors conclude that the doctor must attempt to change a false belief, and if this fails he must examine the patient's mental competence to make the decision to refuse treatment. But in the last analysis the doctor may be under an obligation to respect the patient's refusal. Readers might like to look at (or read again) the papers on 'Liberty' and 'Conscience' published in this Journal under the heading Analysis.

Faden, R; Faden, A

1977-01-01

449

An Improved Comprehensive Model for the Apparent Viscosity of Blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An improved comprehensive model for the apparent viscosity of blood is developed and used in simulations of the microcirculation in capillary bundles of rat spinotrapezius muscle fascia. In the microcirculation, the apparent viscosity of blood depends on the local vessel diameter, hematocrit, and shear rate. The proposed comprehensive model extends the apparent viscosity model developed by Pries, Secomb, Gaehtgens, and Gross (Circulation Research, 67, 826-834, 1990), which describes the effect of vessel diameter and hematocrit on the apparent viscosity. A shear thinning term is developed using the experimental data of Lipowsky, Usami, and Chien (Microvascular Research, 19, 297-319, 1980). Curve fits of this data can be combined with equations given in the Pries et al. work to create a system of equations that can be used to find the shear thinning factor. The simulations based on the improved apparent viscosity model use realistic vessel topology for the microvasculature, reconstructed from microscope images of tissue samples, and consider passive and active vessel properties. The numerical method is based on a Hagen-Poiseuille balance in the microvessels and a sparse matrix solver is used to obtain the solution. It was found that the inclusion of the shear factor decreases the overall flowrate in the capillary bundle. Many vessel connections in the fascia are characterized by relatively low shear rates and therefore increased apparent viscosity.

Jacobitz, Frank; Anderson, Spencer

2008-11-01

450

Variation in the apparent density of human mandibular bone with age and dental status  

PubMed Central

This study examines the variability in the anatomy of mandibles of differing ages and different stages of tooth loss. Mandibles from individuals between 19 and 96 y were sectioned into 2 mm thick vertical plane-parallel slices and cleaned of marrow and periosteum. The apparent density (mass per unit volume in g/ml) from midline (MID) and mental foramen region (MF) sites was determined by weighing the slices and dividing by a volume calculated as the product of section thickness and the mean area of the 2 sides of the section. The cortical thickness of the inferior border and the basal and alveolar bone heights were measured in radiographs of the slices. Mandibular apparent density was negatively correlated with the cross sectional area (midline r=?0.48, mental foramen r=?0.45), and at the midline was significantly greater in edentulous than in dentate individuals (means (± s.e.m.) edentulous n=13: 1.43 (±0.07) g/ml; dentate n=17: 1.27 (±0.04) g/ml, P<0.05). Where a large enough age range was available, mandibular apparent bone density showed a significant increase with age (midline males: r=0.53, n=18) especially for dentate individuals (r=0.91, n=8). There was a correlation between the apparent densities at the two sites in the same mandible (r=0.64), with the values obtained for the midline being significantly greater than for the mental foramen region (midline 1.34 (±0.04) g/ml; mental foramen 1.19 (±0.04) g/ml, P<0.001, paired t test). The mandible shows great interindividual variability, but there may be a considerable reduction in cross sectional girth of the mandible following tooth loss, and, unlike postcranial sites, an increase in apparent density with age.

KINGSMILL, V. J.; BOYDE, A.

1998-01-01

451

Recollection and familiarity in negative schizophrenia.  

PubMed

Using the "remember-know" procedure to assess recognition memory, previous studies yielded evidence of impaired recollection but intact familiarity in schizophrenia patients. However, so far, the recognition memory performance of schizophrenia patients has not yet been analysed using the dual-process signal detection model (DPSD) by Yonelinas [Yonelinas, A. P. (2001). Components of episodic memory: The contribution of recollection and familiarity. Philosophical Transactions of Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 356(1413), 1363-1374], which accurately accounts for response and memory bias. Also, clinical symptoms have not yet been taken into account. Based on findings from neuropsychological and neurobiological research we hypothesized that high negative symptoms might be associated with a profile of impaired recollection and spared familiarity. The recognition memory performance of 22 schizophrenia patients scoring higher or lower on the negative symptoms subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was assessed by means of a word list discrimination task. Following the rationale of the dual-process signal detection model, estimates of recollection and familiarity were derived. The recollection estimate, derived by the DPSD model, was lower in patients with more severe negative symptomatology compared with both the patients with lower negative symptoms scores and healthy individuals. Familiarity was not affected if IQ was partialled out. Furthermore, the results yielded increased false alarm rates in patients with negative schizophrenia. The findings confirm an association of negative symptoms and recollection impairment in schizophrenia. PMID:15993449

Thoma, Patrizia; Zoppelt, Diana; Wiebel, Burkhard; Daum, Irene

2005-07-01

452

Negative Electrode Composition.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A secondary electrochemical cell and a negative electrode composition for use therewith comprising a positive electrode containing an active material of a chalcogen or a transition metal chalcogenide, a negative electrode containing a lithium-aluminum all...

T. D. Kaun A. A. Chilenskas

1980-01-01

453

Negative-ion states  

SciTech Connect

In this brief review, we discuss some of the properties of atomic and molecular negative ions and their excited states. Experiments involving photon reactions with negative ions and polar dissociation are summarized. 116 references, 14 figures.

Compton, R.N.

1982-01-01

454

Negative ion generator  

DOEpatents

A negative ion generator is formed from a magnetically insulated transmission line having a coating of graphite on the cathode for producing negative ions and a plurality of apertures on the opposed anode for the release of negative ions. Magnetic insulation keeps electrons from flowing from the cathode to the anode. A transverse magnetic field removes electrons which do escape through the apertures from the trajectory of the negative ions. 8 figs.

Stinnett, R.W.

1984-05-08

455

Negative Absolute Temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is pointed out that there are a few physical systems whose temperature when measured on an absolute scale can assume negative values. Such temperatures are not colder than absolute zero; a system with a negative temperature can give heat to one at an infinite temperature and is therefore hotter. The mechanism for such negative temperatures is described, the main

Warren G. Proctor

1978-01-01

456

Negative acoustic index metamaterial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic metamaterials utilizing periodic deep subwavelength resonators can attain negative acoustic properties unavailable in nature. We have developed a negative acoustic index metamaterial for water that combines Helmholtz and rod-spring resonators to control effective bulk modulus and mass density, respectively. Effective properties extracted from full-wave simulations of our metamaterial show that negative real components of bulk modulus and density occur

L. Fok; X. Zhang

2011-01-01

457

Prenatal Ultrasound Screening: False Positive Soft Markers May Alter Maternal Representations and Mother-Infant Interaction  

PubMed Central

Background In up to 5% of pregnancies, ultrasound screening detects a “soft marker” (SM) that places the foetus at risk for a severe abnormality. In most cases, prenatal diagnostic work-up rules out a severe defect. We aimed to study the effects of false positive SM on maternal emotional status, maternal representations of the infant, and mother-infant interaction. Methodology and Principal Findings Utilizing an extreme-case prospective case control design, we selected from a group of 244 women undergoing ultrasound, 19 pregnant women whose foetus had a positive SM screening and a reassuring diagnostic work up, and 19 controls without SM matched for age and education. In the third trimester of pregnancy, within one week after delivery, and 2 months postpartum, we assessed anxiety, depression, and maternal representations. Mother-infant interactions were videotaped during feeding within one week after delivery and again at 2 months postpartum and coded blindly using the Coding Interactive Behavior (CIB) scales. Anxiety and depression scores were significantly higher at all assessment points in the SM group. Maternal representations were also different between SM and control groups at all study time. Perturbations to early mother-infant interactions were observed in the SM group. These dyads showed greater dysregulation, lower maternal sensitivity, higher maternal intrusive behaviour and higher infant avoidance. Multivariate analysis showed that maternal representation and depression at third trimester predicted mother-infant interaction. Conclusion False positive ultrasound screenings for SM are not benign and negatively affect the developing maternal-infant attachment. Medical efforts should be directed to minimize as much as possible such false diagnoses, and to limit their psychological adverse consequences.

Viaux-Savelon, Sylvie; Dommergues, Marc; Rosenblum, Ouriel; Bodeau, Nicolas; Aidane, Elizabeth; Philippon, Odile; Mazet, Philippe; Vibert-Guigue, Claude; Vauthier-Brouzes, Daniele; Feldman, Ruth; Cohen, David

2012-01-01

458

ASSESSING THE SIGNIFICANCE OF APPARENT CORRELATIONS BETWEEN RADIO AND GAMMA-RAY BLAZAR FLUXES  

SciTech Connect

Whether or not a correlation exists between the radio and gamma-ray flux densities of blazars is a long-standing question, and one that is difficult to answer confidently because of various observational biases, which may either dilute or apparently enhance any intrinsic correlation between radio and gamma-ray luminosities. We introduce a novel method of data randomization to evaluate quantitatively the effect of these biases and to assess the intrinsic significance of an apparent correlation between radio and gamma-ray flux densities of blazars. The novelty of the method lies in a combination of data randomization in luminosity space (to ensure that the randomized data are intrinsically, and not just apparently, uncorrelated) and significance assessment in flux space (to explicitly avoid Malmquist bias and automatically account for the limited dynamical range in both frequencies). The method is applicable even to small samples that are not selected with strict statistical criteria. For larger samples we describe a variation of the method in which the sample is split in redshift bins, and the randomization is applied in each bin individually; this variation is designed to yield the equivalent to luminosity-function sampling of the underlying population in the limit of very large, statistically complete samples. We show that for a smaller number of redshift bins, the method yields a worse significance, and in this way it is conservative: although it may fail to confirm an existing intrinsic correlation in a small sample that cannot be split into many redshift bins, it will not assign a stronger, artificially enhanced significance. We demonstrate how our test performs as a function of number of sources, strength of correlation, and number of redshift bins used, and we show that while our test is robust against common-distance biases and associated false positives for uncorrelated data, it retains the power of other methods in rejecting the null hypothesis of no correlation for correlated data.

Pavlidou, V.; Richards, J. L.; Max-Moerbeck, W.; King, O. G.; Pearson, T. J.; Readhead, A. C. S.; Reeves, R.; Stevenson, M. A. [California Institute of Technology, Owens Valley Radio Observatory, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Angelakis, E.; Fuhrmann, L.; Zensus, J. A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Bonn 53121 (Germany); Giroletti, M. [INAF Istituto di Radioastronomia, Bologna (Italy); Reimer, A. [Institut fuer Astro- und Teilchenphysik and Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Leopold-Franzes-Universitaet Innsbruck, Innsbruck,Austria (Austria); Healey, S. E.; Romani, R. W.; Shaw, M. S. [Department of Physics/KIPAC, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

2012-06-01

459

Mitochondrial genome deletion aids in the identification of false- and true-negative prostate needle core biopsy specimens.  

PubMed

We report the usefulness of a 3.4-kb mitochondrial genome deletion (3.4 mtdelta) for molecular definition of benign, malignant, and proximal to malignant (PTM) prostate needle biopsy specimens. The 3.4 mtdelta was identified through long-extension polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of frozen prostate cancer samples. A quantitative PCR assay was developed to measure the levels of the 3.4 mtdelta in clinical samples. For normalization, amplifications of a nuclear target and total mitochondrial DNA were included. Cycle threshold data from these targets were used to calculate a score for each biopsy sample. In a pilot study of 38 benign, 29 malignant, and 41 PTM biopsy specimens, the difference between benign and malignant core biopsy specimens was well differentiated (P & .0001), with PTM indistinguishable from malignant samples (P = .833). Results of a larger study were identical. In comparison with histopathologic examination for benign and malignant samples, the sensitivity and specificity were 80% and 71%, respectively, and the area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was 0.83 for the deletion. In a blinded external validation study, the sensitivity and specificity were 83% and 79%, and the area under the ROC curve was 0.87. The 3.4 mtdelta may be useful in defining malignant, benign, and PTM prostate tissues. PMID:18089489

Maki, Jennifer; Robinson, Kerry; Reguly, Brian; Alexander, Jude; Wittock, Roy; Aguirre, Andrea; Diamandis, Eleftherios P; Escott, Nicholas; Skehan, Anthony; Prowse, Owen; Thayer, Robert E; Froberg, M Kent; Wilson, Michael J; Maragh, Samantha; Jakupciak, John P; Wagner, Paul D; Srivastava, Sudhir; Dakubo, Gabriel D; Parr, Ryan L

2008-01-01

460

Reflection and transmission at the apparent horizon during gravitational collapse  

SciTech Connect

We examine the wave functionals describing the collapse of a self-gravitating dustball in an exact quantization of the gravity-dust system. We show that ingoing (collapsing) dust shell modes outside the apparent horizon must necessarily be accompanied by outgoing modes inside the apparent horizon, whose amplitude is suppressed by the square root of the Boltzmann factor at the Hawking temperature. Likewise, ingoing modes in the interior must be accompanied by outgoing modes in the exterior, again with an amplitude suppressed by the same factor. A suitable superposition of the two solutions is necessary to conserve the dust probability flux across the apparent horizon; thus, each region contains both ingoing and outgoing dust modes. If one restricts oneself to considering only the modes outside the apparent horizon then one should think of the apparent horizon as a partial reflector, the probability for a shell to reflect being given by the Boltzmann factor at the Hawking temperature determined by the mass contained within it. However, if one considers the entire wave function, the outgoing wave in the exterior is seen to be the transmission through the horizon of the interior outgoing wave that accompanies the collapsing shells. This transmission could allow information from the interior to be transferred to the exterior.

Vaz, Cenalo [RWC, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0011 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0011 (United States); Wijewardhana, L. C. R. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221-0011 (United States)

2010-10-15

461

Apparent absorption of solar spectral irradiance in heterogeneous ice clouds  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coordinated flight legs of two aircraft above and below extended ice clouds played an important role in the Tropical Composition, Cloud and Climate Coupling Experiment (Costa Rica, 2007). The Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer measured up- and downward irradiance on the high-altitude (ER-2) and the low-altitude (DC-8) aircraft, which allowed deriving apparent absorption on a point-by-point basis along the flight track. Apparent absorption is the vertical divergence of irradiance, calculated from the difference of net flux at the top and bottom of a cloud. While this is the only practical method of deriving absorption from aircraft radiation measurements, it differs from true absorption when horizontal flux divergence is nonzero. Differences between true and apparent absorption are inevitable in any inhomogeneous atmosphere, especially clouds. We show, for the first time, the spectral shape of measured apparent absorption and compare with results from a three-dimensional radiative transfer model. The model cloud field is created from optical thickness and effective radius retrievals from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Airborne Simulator and from reflectivity profiles from the Cloud Radar System, both on board the ER-2. Although the spectral shape is reproduced by the model calculations, the measured apparent absorption in the visible spectral range is higher than the model results along extended parts of the flight leg. This is possibly due to a net loss of photons into neighboring cirrus-free areas that are not contained within the model domain.

Schmidt, K. Sebastian; Pilewskie, Peter; Mayer, Bernhard; Wendisch, Manfred; Kindel, Bruce; Platnick, Steven; King, Michael D.; Wind, Gala; Arnold, G. Tom; Tian, Lin; Heymsfield, Gerald; Kalesse, Heike

2010-05-01

462

Residency, habitat use and sexual segregation of white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias in False Bay, South Africa.  

PubMed

White sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) are threatened apex predators and identific