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Sample records for appendix g1 papers

  1. 16 CFR Appendix G1 to Part 305 - Furnaces-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Furnaces-Gas G1 Appendix G1 to Part 305... RULEâ) Appendix G1 to Part 305—Furnaces—Gas Furnace type Range of annual fuel utilization efficiencies (AFUEs) Low High Gas Furnaces Manufactured Before the Compliance Date of DOE Regional...

  2. 16 CFR Appendix G1 to Part 305 - Furnaces-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Furnaces-Gas G1 Appendix G1 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING... Part 305—Furnaces—Gas Manufacturer's rated heating capacities (Btu's/hr.) Range of annual...

  3. 16 CFR Appendix G1 to Part 305 - Furnaces-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Furnaces-Gas G1 Appendix G1 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING... Part 305—Furnaces—Gas Manufacturer's rated heating capacities (Btu's/hr.) Range of annual...

  4. 16 CFR Appendix G1 to Part 305 - Furnaces-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Furnaces-Gas G1 Appendix G1 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING... Part 305—Furnaces—Gas Manufacturer's rated heating capacities (Btu's/hr.) Range of annual...

  5. 16 CFR Appendix G1 to Part 305 - Furnaces-Gas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Furnaces-Gas G1 Appendix G1 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING... Part 305—Furnaces—Gas Manufacturer's rated heating capacities (Btu's/hr.) Range of annual...

  6. RESEARCH PAPER: Old stellar population synthesis: new age and mass estimates for Mayall II = G1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jun; de Grijs, Richard; Fan, Zhou; Rey, Soo-Chang; Wu, Zhen-Yu; Zhou, Xu; Wu, Jiang-Hua; Jiang, Zhao-Ji; Chen, Jian-Sheng; Lee, Kyungsook; Sohn, Sangmo Tony

    2009-06-01

    Mayall II = G1 is one of the most luminous globular clusters (GCs) in M31. Here, we determine its age and mass by comparing multicolor photometry with theoretical stellar population synthesis models. Based on far- and near-ultraviolet GALEX photometry, broad-band UBVRI, and infrared JHKS 2MASS data, we construct the most extensive spectral energy distribution of G1 to date, spanning the wavelength range from 1538 to 20 000 Å. A quantitative comparison with a variety of simple stellar population (SSP) models yields a mean age which is consistent with G1 being among the oldest building blocks of M31 and having formed within ~1.7 Gyr after the Big Bang. Irrespective of the SSP model or stellar initial mass function adopted, the resulting mass estimates (of order 107 Modot) indicate that G1 is one of the most massive GCs in the Local Group. However, we speculate that the cluster's exceptionally high mass suggests that it may not be a genuine GC. Our results also suggest that G1 may contain, on average, (1.65±0.63) × 102 Lodot far-ultraviolet-bright, hot, extreme horizontal-branch stars, depending on the adopted SSP model. In addition, we demonstrate that extensive multi-passband photometry coupled with SSP analysis enables one to obtain age estimates for old SSPs that have similar accuracies as those from integrated spectroscopy or resolved stellar photometry, provided that some of the free parameters can be constrained independently.

  7. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 290 - Audit Working Papers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Audit Working Papers D Appendix D to Part 290.... 290, App. D Appendix D to Part 290—Audit Working Papers (a) Definition (1) Audit working papers... interviews and inquiries, and other available sources. Audit working papers may also include contract...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 290 - Audit Working Papers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Audit Working Papers D Appendix D to Part 290.... 290, App. D Appendix D to Part 290—Audit Working Papers (a) Definition (1) Audit working papers... interviews and inquiries, and other available sources. Audit working papers may also include contract...

  9. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 290 - Audit Working Papers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Audit Working Papers D Appendix D to Part 290.... 290, App. D Appendix D to Part 290—Audit Working Papers (a) Definition (1) Audit working papers... interviews and inquiries, and other available sources. Audit working papers may also include contract...

  10. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 290 - Audit Working Papers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Audit Working Papers D Appendix D to Part 290 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) FREEDOM.... 290, App. D Appendix D to Part 290—Audit Working Papers (a) Definition (1) Audit working...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 290 - Audit Working Papers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Audit Working Papers D Appendix D to Part 290 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) FREEDOM.... 290, App. D Appendix D to Part 290—Audit Working Papers (a) Definition (1) Audit working...

  12. Appendix A. Policy Statement and Position Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1982

    1982-01-01

    Policy statements and position papers adopted by the American Association of Dental Schools address dental education at all levels, government relations, peer review, individual and institutional freedoms and responsibilities, national health programs, a definition of interdisciplinary education, use of ionizing radiation in dental education…

  13. Appendix A: Policy Statements and Position Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1988

    1988-01-01

    Policy statements and position papers adopted by the American Association of Dental Schools, intended as recommendations and guidelines for member institutions, are presented. They cover education, research, delivery of care, health concerns, peer review, national health programs, interdisciplinary education, use of radiation, and due process.…

  14. Geothermal district G1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Geothermal District G1 includes 37 northeastern California counties and six geothermal fields: Lake City, Susanville, Litchfield, Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Electrical generation from geothermal resources occurs in three of the fields: Wendel, Amedee, and Casa Diablo. Low-temperature geothermal projects are underway throughout the district and are described in a road log format. The ten projects described are located at Big Bend, Glass Mountain, Bieber, Alturas, Cedarville, Lake City, Honey Lake Valley, Greenville, and in Sierra and Mono Counties.

  15. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA OF DOE-STD-1189-2008 APPENDIX A [FULL PAPER

    SciTech Connect

    OMBERG SK

    2008-05-14

    This paper describes the approach taken by two Fluor Hanford projects for implementing of the seismic design criteria from DOE-STD-1189-2008, Appendix A. The existing seismic design criteria and the new seismic design criteria is described, and an assessment of the primary differences provided. The gaps within the new system of seismic design criteria, which necessitate conduct of portions of work to the existing technical standards pending availability of applicable industry standards, is discussed. Two Hanford Site projects currently in the Control Decision (CD)-1 phase of design have developed an approach to implementation of the new criteria. Calculations have been performed to determine the seismic design category for one project, based on information available in early CD-1. The potential effects of DOE-STD-1189-2008, Appendix A seismic design criteria on the process of project alternatives analysis is discussed. Present of this work is expected to benefit others in the DOE Complex that may be implementing DOE-STD-1189-2008.

  16. Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamata, Masahiro; Yajima, Seiko

    2013-01-01

    An educational experiment illustrates the electrolysis of water and copper chloride to middle school science students. The electrolysis cell is composed of filter paper soaked with Na[subscript 2]SO[subscript 4] or CuCl[subscript 2] aqueous solution sandwiched, along with a sheet of platinum foil, between two coin-type lithium batteries. When the…

  17. Acute appendicitis with a neuroendocrine tumor G1 (carcinoid): pitfalls of conservative treatment.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiroyuki A; Fujimoto, Taketoshi; Kato, Yo; Sasaki, Mayumi; Ikusue, Toshikazu

    2016-08-01

    A man in his early thirties presented to our clinic with right lower abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) and ultrasonography (US) revealed a swollen appendix and an appendicolith. Abscess formation was not observed but ongoing appendiceal rupture was not ruled out. Three months after successful conservative therapy, the lumen of the apical portion was kept dilated and laparoscopic interval appendectomy was performed. No tumorous findings were observed macroscopically. However, histology revealed many tiny nests infiltrating the submucosa, muscular layer, and subserosa at the root of the appendix. An appendiceal neuroendocrine tumor G1 (NET G1; carcinoid) was diagnosed immunohistologically. Neither CT nor US visualized the tumor because of its non-tumor-forming but infiltrative growth. In conclusion, after successful conservative treatment, interval appendectomy should be considered to uncover a possible appendiceal NET G1 (carcinoid), particularly when dilatation of the distal lumen is kept under observation. PMID:27311320

  18. Cloning of murine G1RP, a novel gene related to Drosophila melanogaster g1.

    PubMed

    Baker, S J; Reddy, E P

    2000-05-01

    To study the nature of genes that are induced during the apoptotic death of myeloid precursor cells, we performed representational difference analysis (RDA) using 32Dcl3 myeloblastic cells that were deprived of IL-3 for 24h. We have isolated a novel cDNA (g1-related protein, G1RP) that is homologous to g1, a Drosophila melanogaster zinc-finger protein that is expressed in the mesoderm. Northern blot analysis using RNAs derived from 32Dcl3 cells that have been grown in the absence of IL-3 demonstrates that the G1RP message is upregulated in these cells following the removal of IL-3, suggesting that this gene may regulate growth factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis of myeloid precursor cells. PMID:10806348

  19. Colostrogenesis: IgG1 transcytosis mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Baumrucker, Craig R; Bruckmaier, Rupert M

    2014-03-01

    Biological transport of intact proteins across epithelial cells has been documented for many absorptive and secretory tissues. Immunoglobulins were some of the earliest studied proteins in this category. The transcellular transport (transcytosis) of immunoglobulins in neonatal health and development has been recognized; the process is especially significant with ungulates because they do not transcytose immunoglobulins across the placenta to the neonate. Rather, they depend upon mammary secretion of colostrum and intestinal absorption of immunoglobulins in order to provide intestinal and systemic defense until the young ungulate develops its own humoral defense mechanisms. The neonatal dairy calf's ability to absorb immunoglobulins from colostrum is assisted by a ~24 h "open gut" phenomenon where large proteins pass the intestinal epithelial cells and enter the systemic system. However, a critical problem recognized for newborn dairy calves is that an optimum mass of colostrum Immunoglobulin G (IgG) needs to be absorbed within that 24 h window in order to provide maximal resistance to disease. Many calves do not achieve the optimum because of poor quality colostrum. While many studies have focused on calf absorption, the principal cause of the problem resides with the extreme variation (g to kg) in the mammary gland's capacity to transfer blood IgG1 into colostrum. Colostrum is a unique mammary secretory product that is formed during late pregnancy when mammary cells are proliferating and differentiating in preparation for lactation. In addition to the transcytosis of immunoglobulins, the mammary gland also concentrates a number of circulating hormones into colostrum. Remarkably, the mechanisms in the formation of colostrum in ungulates have been rather modestly studied. The mechanisms and causes of this variation in mammary gland transcytosis of IgG1 are examined, evaluated, and in some cases, explained. PMID:24474529

  20. Monoclonal immunoglobulin G1-kappa fibrillary glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Grove, P; Neale, P H; Peck, M; Schiller, B; Haas, M

    1998-01-01

    We report here a case of fibrillary glomerulonephritis arising in a 43-year-old man with a polyclonal gammopathy, who presented with progressive renal insufficiency, microscopic hematuria, and mild proteinuria (0.7 g/d). Ultrastructural studies showed deposits of randomly oriented fibrils in the glomerular mesangium and adjacent portions of some glomerular basement membranes, with a mean fibril thickness of 14.3 nm, highly consistent with fibrillary glomerulonephritis. The Congo red stain was negative on histologic sections. Immunofluorescence studies revealed strong mesangial and focal glomerular capillary staining for immunoglobulin (Ig) G, complement (C) 3, and kappa light chains, with minimal staining for IgA, IgM, C1q, or lambda light chains. The IgG present was entirely of the IgG1 subclass. This case is quite unusual for fibrillary glomerulonephritis, which typically presents with polyclonal IgG deposits and IgG4 as the dominant IgG subclass present. Monoclonal deposits are more frequently associated with immunotactoid glomerulopathy, characterized ultrastructurally by microtubule-like structures 30 to 50 nmn thick, often in parallel arrays. The present case illustrates that although fibrillary glomerulonephritis and immunotactoid glomerulopathy might be distinguishable on ultrastructural grounds, there is overlap between these two entities with respect to the potential composition of the glomerular deposits present. PMID:9556416

  1. Soluble Monomeric IgG1 Fc*

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Tianlei; Chen, Weizao; Gong, Rui; Feng, Yang; Dimitrov, Dimiter S.

    2012-01-01

    Antibody fragments are emerging as promising biopharmaceuticals because of their relatively small size and other unique properties. However, compared with full-size antibodies, these antibody fragments lack the ability to bind the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and have reduced half-lives. Fc engineered to bind antigens but preserve interactions with FcRn and Fc fused with monomeric proteins currently are being developed as candidate therapeutics with prolonged half-lives; in these and other cases, Fc is a dimer of two CH2-CH3 chains. To further reduce the size of Fc but preserve FcRn binding, we generated three human soluble monomeric IgG1 Fcs (mFcs) by using a combination of structure-based rational protein design combined with multiple screening strategies. These mFcs were highly soluble and retained binding to human FcRn comparable with that of Fc. These results provide direct experimental evidence that efficient binding to human FcRn does not require human Fc dimerization. The newly identified mFcs are promising for the development of mFc fusion proteins and for novel types of mFc-based therapeutic antibodies of small size and long half-lives. PMID:22518843

  2. 26 CFR 1.56(g)-1 - Adjusted current earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adjusted current earnings. 1.56(g)-1 Section 1.56(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Regulations Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning in 1969 and Ending in 1970 § 1.56(g)-1 Adjusted current earnings. (a) Adjustment for...

  3. 26 CFR 1.56(g)-1 - Adjusted current earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Adjusted current earnings. 1.56(g)-1 Section 1.56(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Regulations Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning in 1969 and Ending in 1970 § 1.56(g)-1 Adjusted current earnings. (a) Adjustment for...

  4. 26 CFR 1.56(g)-1 - Adjusted current earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adjusted current earnings. 1.56(g)-1 Section 1.56(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Regulations Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning in 1969 and Ending in 1970 § 1.56(g)-1 Adjusted current earnings. (a) Adjustment for...

  5. 26 CFR 1.56(g)-1 - Adjusted current earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Adjusted current earnings. 1.56(g)-1 Section 1.56(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Regulations Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning in 1969 and Ending in 1970 § 1.56(g)-1 Adjusted current earnings. (a) Adjustment for...

  6. 26 CFR 1.56(g)-1 - Adjusted current earnings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Adjusted current earnings. 1.56(g)-1 Section 1.56(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY INCOME TAX INCOME TAXES Regulations Applicable to Taxable Years Beginning in 1969 and Ending in 1970 § 1.56(g)-1 Adjusted current earnings. (a) Adjustment for...

  7. 26 CFR 301.6503(g)-1 - Suspension pending correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Suspension pending correction. 301.6503(g)-1 Section 301.6503(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Collection § 301.6503(g)-1 Suspension pending correction. The running of the periods of limitations...

  8. 26 CFR 1.167(g)-1 - Basis for depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Basis for depreciation. 1.167(g)-1 Section 1.167(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(g)-1...

  9. 26 CFR 1.149(g)-1 - Hedge bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hedge bonds. 1.149(g)-1 Section 1.149(g)-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Exemption Requirements for State and Local Bonds § 1.149(g)-1 Hedge bonds... for purposes of section 149(g) and this section. In addition, the following terms have the...

  10. 26 CFR 1.514(g)-1 - Business lease indebtedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Business lease indebtedness. 1.514(g)-1 Section 1.514(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME... § 1.514(g)-1 Business lease indebtedness. (a) Definition. The term business lease indebtedness...

  11. 26 CFR 1.149(g)-1 - Hedge bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hedge bonds. 1.149(g)-1 Section 1.149(g)-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Exemption Requirements for State and Local Bonds § 1.149(g)-1 Hedge bonds... for purposes of section 149(g) and this section. In addition, the following terms have the...

  12. 26 CFR 1.167(g)-1 - Basis for depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Basis for depreciation. 1.167(g)-1 Section 1.167(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(g)-1...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6503(g)-1 - Suspension pending correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Suspension pending correction. 301.6503(g)-1 Section 301.6503(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Collection § 301.6503(g)-1 Suspension pending correction. The running of the periods of limitations...

  14. 26 CFR 1.167(g)-1 - Basis for depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Basis for depreciation. 1.167(g)-1 Section 1.167(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(g)-1...

  15. 26 CFR 1.149(g)-1 - Hedge bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hedge bonds. 1.149(g)-1 Section 1.149(g)-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Exemption Requirements for State and Local Bonds § 1.149(g)-1 Hedge bonds... for purposes of section 149(g) and this section. In addition, the following terms have the...

  16. 26 CFR 1.167(g)-1 - Basis for depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Basis for depreciation. 1.167(g)-1 Section 1.167(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(g)-1...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6503(g)-1 - Suspension pending correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Suspension pending correction. 301.6503(g)-1 Section 301.6503(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Collection § 301.6503(g)-1 Suspension pending correction. The running of the periods of limitations...

  18. 26 CFR 1.149(g)-1 - Hedge bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hedge bonds. 1.149(g)-1 Section 1.149(g)-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Exemption Requirements for State and Local Bonds § 1.149(g)-1 Hedge bonds... for purposes of section 149(g) and this section. In addition, the following terms have the...

  19. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-1 - Supplemental wage payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Supplemental wage payments. 31.3402(g)-1 Section 31.3402(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(g)-1 Supplemental wage payments. (a) In general...

  20. 26 CFR 301.6503(g)-1 - Suspension pending correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Suspension pending correction. 301.6503(g)-1 Section 301.6503(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Collection § 301.6503(g)-1 Suspension pending correction. The running of the periods of limitations...

  1. 26 CFR 31.3402(g)-1 - Supplemental wage payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Supplemental wage payments. 31.3402(g)-1 Section 31.3402(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3402(g)-1 Supplemental wage payments. (a) In general...

  2. 26 CFR 301.6503(g)-1 - Suspension pending correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Suspension pending correction. 301.6503(g)-1 Section 301.6503(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED... Collection § 301.6503(g)-1 Suspension pending correction. The running of the periods of limitations...

  3. 26 CFR 1.167(g)-1 - Basis for depreciation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Basis for depreciation. 1.167(g)-1 Section 1.167(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Itemized Deductions for Individuals and Corporations § 1.167(g)-1...

  4. 26 CFR 1.149(g)-1 - Hedge bonds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hedge bonds. 1.149(g)-1 Section 1.149(g)-1...) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Tax Exemption Requirements for State and Local Bonds § 1.149(g)-1 Hedge bonds... for purposes of section 149(g) and this section. In addition, the following terms have the...

  5. 26 CFR 31.3121(g)-1 - Agricultural labor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 15 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Agricultural labor. 31.3121(g)-1 Section 31.3121(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE EMPLOYMENT TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Federal Insurance Contributions Act (Chapter...

  6. 26 CFR 1.514(g)-1 - Business lease indebtedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Business lease indebtedness. 1.514(g)-1 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(g)-1 Business lease indebtedness. (a) Definition. The term business lease indebtedness means, with respect...

  7. 26 CFR 1.514(g)-1 - Business lease indebtedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Business lease indebtedness. 1.514(g)-1 Section... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations § 1.514(g)-1 Business lease indebtedness. (a) Definition. The term business lease indebtedness...

  8. 26 CFR 1.514(g)-1 - Business lease indebtedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Business lease indebtedness. 1.514(g)-1 Section 1.514(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Taxation of Business Income of Certain Exempt Organizations §...

  9. Appendix A; Appendix B

    SciTech Connect

    Dragan C. Curcija

    2006-09-15

    This is the summary page for the technical and other reports on the DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC36-94CH10604 for the period of January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2004. The progress, technical and other reports and publications are consolidated by the contracting year and also by the cooperative agreement tasks. The listing sorted by tasks is also sub-sorted by fiscal year for easier navigation. These listings are given in appendix A and Appendix B of this summary report. Individual report files are located in each fiscal year directory (i.e., FY00, FY01, etc. up to FY04). The complete listing and report files are also posted on the web site and is fully navigable by these two criteria. The web site is at: http://www.ceere.org/beep/beep{_}pubsanddownloads.html. More significant and less obvious part of deliverables are applications of this research, which are used in everyday operations of NFRC, software tools and manufacturers design practice, which has significantly changed as a result of this and related research efforts.

  10. Strategic Cell-Cycle Regulatory Features That Provide Mammalian Cells with Tunable G1 Length and Reversible G1 Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Pfeuty, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Transitions between consecutive phases of the eukaryotic cell cycle are driven by the catalytic activity of selected sets of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks). Yet, their occurrence and precise timing is tightly scheduled by a variety of means including Cdk association with inhibitory/adaptor proteins (CKIs). Here we focus on the regulation of G1-phase duration by the end of which cells of multicelled organisms must decide whether to enter S phase or halt, and eventually then, differentiate, senesce or die to obey the homeostatic rules of their host. In mammalian cells, entry in and progression through G1 phase involve sequential phosphorylation and inactivation of the retinoblastoma Rb proteins, first, by cyclin D-Cdk4,6 with the help of CKIs of the Cip/Kip family and, next, by the cyclin E-Cdk2 complexes that are negatively regulated by Cip/Kip proteins. Using a dynamical modeling approach, we show that the very way how the Rb and Cip/Kip regulatory modules interact differentially with cyclin D-Cdk4,6 and cyclin E-Cdk2 provides to mammalian cells a powerful means to achieve an exquisitely-sensitive control of G1-phase duration and fully reversible G1 arrests. Consistently, corruption of either one of these two modules precludes G1 phase elongation and is able to convert G1 arrests from reversible to irreversible. This study unveils fundamental design principles of mammalian G1-phase regulation that are likely to confer to mammalian cells the ability to faithfully control the occurrence and timing of their division process in various conditions. PMID:22558136

  11. 26 CFR 1.514(g)-1 - Business lease indebtedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Business lease indebtedness. 1.514(g)-1 Section 1... Business lease indebtedness. (a) Definition. The term business lease indebtedness means, with respect to... subsidiary corporations. (b) Examples. The rules of section 514(g) respecting business leases also...

  12. Rapid biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticides by Stenotrophomonas sp. G1.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shuyan; Chen, Yao; Wang, Daosheng; Shi, Taozhong; Wu, Xiangwei; Ma, Xin; Li, Xiangqiong; Hua, Rimao; Tang, Xinyun; Li, Qing X

    2015-10-30

    Organophosphorus insecticides have been widely used, which are highly poisonous and cause serious concerns over food safety and environmental pollution. A bacterial strain being capable of degrading O,O-dialkyl phosphorothioate and O,O-dialkyl phosphate insecticides, designated as G1, was isolated from sludge collected at the drain outlet of a chlorpyrifos manufacture plant. Physiological and biochemical characteristics and 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis suggested that strain G1 belongs to the genus Stenotrophomonas. At an initial concentration of 50 mg/L, strain G1 degraded 100% of methyl parathion, methyl paraoxon, diazinon, and phoxim, 95% of parathion, 63% of chlorpyrifos, 38% of profenofos, and 34% of triazophos in 24 h. Orthogonal experiments showed that the optimum conditions were an inoculum volume of 20% (v/v), a substrate concentration of 50 mg/L, and an incubation temperature in 40 °C. p-Nitrophenol was detected as the metabolite of methyl parathion, for which intracellular methyl parathion hydrolase was responsible. Strain G1 can efficiently degrade eight organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) and is a very excellent candidate for applications in OP pollution remediation. PMID:25938642

  13. Appendix (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... become infected. Although most people are familiar with appendicitis, it is a relatively rare disease. It is ... of the appendix (appendectomy). Recovery time for uncomplicated appendicitis is usually just three days.

  14. Compass Measurement of g1 and QCD Fits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunne, Fabienne

    2016-02-01

    We present the latest COMPASS results on the proton spin structure function g1p(x) at 200GeV. The data improve the statistical precision by a factor of ˜2 at low x. A reevaluation of the Bjorken sum rule based on COMPASS proton and deuteron data confirms its validation to a 9% accuracy. Finally, results from a global NLO QCD fit of g1 world data are shown. The extracted spin singlet distribution leads to an integrated value of 0.26 < ΔΣ < 0.34 at Q2 = 3 (GeV/c)2. The large uncertainty is mainly driven by the unknown shape of the distribution.

  15. Crack azimuths on Europa: The G1 lineament sequence revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sarid, A.R.; Greenberg, R.; Hoppa, G.V.; Brown, D.M., Jr.; Geissler, P.

    2005-01-01

    The tectonic sequence in the anti-jovian area covered by regional mapping images from Galileo's orbit E15 is determined from a study of cross-cutting relationships among lineament features. The sequence is used to test earlier results from orbit G1, based on lower resolution images, which appeared to display a progressive change in azimuthal orientation over about 90?? in a clockwise sense. Such a progression is consistent with expected stress variations that would accompany plausible non-synchronous rotation. The more recent data provide a more complete record than the G1 data did. We find that to fit the sequence into a continual clockwise change of orientation would require at least 1000?? (> 5 cycles) of azimuthal rotation. If due to non-synchronous rotation of Europa, this result implies that we are seeing back further into the tectonic record than the G1 results had suggested. The three sets of orientations found by Geissler et al. now appear to have been spaced out over several cycles, not during a fraction of one cycle. While our more complete sequence of lineament formation is consistent with non-synchronous rotation, a statistical test shows that it cannot be construed as independent evidence. Other lines of evidence do support non-synchronous rotation, but azimuths of crack sequences do not show it, probably because only a couple of cracks form in a given region in any given non-synchronous rotation period. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Reply to "Comment on the Paper ''On the Determination of Electron Polytrope Indices Within Coronal Mass Ejections in the Solar Wind'"'. Appendix 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gosling, J. T.; Riley, P.; Skoug, R. M.

    2001-01-01

    We strongly disagree with the essence of the Osherovich (hereafter Osherovich) comment on one of our papers. The following paragraphs provide the basis of our disagreement and elaborate on why we believe that none of the concluding statements in his Comment are true. Our most important point is that one can apply the model developed by Osherovich and colleagues to real data obtained at a single point in space to determine the polytropic index within magnetic clouds if and only if the highly idealized assumptions of that model conform to physical reality. There is good reason to believe that those assumptions do not provide an accurate physical description of real magnetic clouds in the spherically expanding solar wind.

  17. A Appendix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassinelli, Gianni; de Vito, Ernesto; Lahti, Pekka J.; Levrero, Alberto

    This dictionary gives the definitions and the basic properties of most of the mathematical concepts that are freely used in the book. No references are given since the material is standard. In this Appendix is a complex separable Hilbert space (see the corresponding item below).

  18. Measurement of the Structure Functions g1p and g1n with the CLAS at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect

    Yelena Prok

    2003-06-01

    Inelastic scattering using polarized nucleon targets and polarized charged lepton beams allows the extraction of the structure functions g1 and g2 which provide information on the spin structure of the nucleon. A program designed to study such processes has been underway in Jefferson Lab since 1998. A polarized electron beam, solid polarized NH3 and ND3 targets and the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer (CLAS) in Hall B were used to collect the desired data. 3 billion events were accumulated during the first run, and over 23 billion events were accumulated during the second run. The measurements cover the resonance region with unprecedented detail and add significantly to the DIS data set at low to moderate Q2 and moderate to high x.

  19. LUMIX DMC-G1 - New Pleasantness of the Camera with Interchangeable Lenses That G1 Provides -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Hiroshi; Hataji, Shinji; Morishita, Seiki; Inoue, Yoshiyuki

    Panasonic introduced in October 2008 the "LUMIX DMC-G1", which is adopting the Micro Four Thirds standard. This camera was a hot topic from the time of the announcement in September and after the sales start it was highly evaluated not only due to its small size and light weight, but also due to the compact camera like easy operation realized by the mirror-less construction and due to the performance, which is on the same level like conventional consumer SLR cameras. Within this chapter we will explain about the technology behind the high-speed AF, which was seen as difficult to realize in a system based on Live View, and the high resolution Live View Finder, as well as about the new challenge of color variations, presented for the first time for an interchangeable lens camera.

  20. Weighted G0-and G1-multi-degree reduction of Bézier curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rababah, Abedallah; Ibrahim, Salisu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, weighted G0-and G1-multi-degree reduction of Bézier curves are considered. The degree reduction of a given Bézier curve of degree n is used to write it as a Bézier curve of degree m, m < n. Exact degree reduction is not possible, and, therefore approximation methods are used. The weight function w[t] = 2t(1 - t), t ∈ [0, 1] is used with the L2 -norm in multi degree reduction with G0- and G1- continuity at the end points of the curve. Numerical results and comparisons show that the new methods suggests smaller approximation errors in the interior of the domain and proves to be competative in applications.

  1. The existence of inflection points for generalized log-aesthetic curves satisfying G1 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpagavalli, R.; Gobithaasan, R. U.; Miura, K. T.; Shanmugavel, Madhavan

    2015-12-01

    Log-Aesthetic (LA) curves have been implemented in a CAD/CAM system for various design feats. LA curves possess linear Logarithmic Curvature Graph (LCG) with gradient (shape parameter) denoted as α. In 2009, a generalized form of LA curves called Generalized Log-Aesthetic Curves (GLAC) has been proposed which has an extra shape parameter as ν compared to LA curves. Recently, G1 continuous GLAC algorithm has been proposed which utilizes the extra shape parameter using four control points. This paper discusses on the existence of inflection points in a GLAC segment satisfying G1 Hermite data and the effect of inflection point on convex hull property. It is found that the existence of inflection point can be avoided by manipulating the value of α. Numerical experiments show that the increase of α may remove the inflection point (if any) in a GLAC segment.

  2. Early Evolution of Disrupted Asteroid P/2016 G1 (PANSTARRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, F.; Licandro, J.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Pozuelos, F. J.

    2016-08-01

    We present deep imaging observations of activated asteroid P/2016 G1 (PANSTARRS) using the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) from 2016 late April to early June. The images are best interpreted as the result of a relatively short-duration event with an onset of about {350}-30+10 days before perihelion (i.e., around 2016 February 10), starting sharply and decreasing with {24}-7+10 days (HWHM). The results of the modeling imply that the emission of ∼1.7 × 107 kg of dust, if composed of particles of 1 μm to 1 cm in radius, is distributed following a power law of index ‑3 and having a geometric albedo of 0.15. A detailed fitting of a conspicuous westward feature in the head of the comet-like object indicates that a significant fraction of the dust was ejected along a privileged direction right at the beginning of the event, which suggests that the parent body has possibly suffered an impact followed by a partial or total disruption. From the limiting magnitude reachable with the instrumental setup, and assuming a geometric albedo of 0.15 for the parent body, an upper limit for the size of possible fragment debris of ∼50 m in radius is derived.

  3. Early Evolution of Disrupted Asteroid P/2016 G1 (PANSTARRS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, F.; Licandro, J.; Cabrera-Lavers, A.; Pozuelos, F. J.

    2016-08-01

    We present deep imaging observations of activated asteroid P/2016 G1 (PANSTARRS) using the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) from 2016 late April to early June. The images are best interpreted as the result of a relatively short-duration event with an onset of about {350}-30+10 days before perihelion (i.e., around 2016 February 10), starting sharply and decreasing with {24}-7+10 days (HWHM). The results of the modeling imply that the emission of ˜1.7 × 107 kg of dust, if composed of particles of 1 μm to 1 cm in radius, is distributed following a power law of index ‑3 and having a geometric albedo of 0.15. A detailed fitting of a conspicuous westward feature in the head of the comet-like object indicates that a significant fraction of the dust was ejected along a privileged direction right at the beginning of the event, which suggests that the parent body has possibly suffered an impact followed by a partial or total disruption. From the limiting magnitude reachable with the instrumental setup, and assuming a geometric albedo of 0.15 for the parent body, an upper limit for the size of possible fragment debris of ˜50 m in radius is derived.

  4. The disulphide bridges of a mouse immunoglobulin G1 protein

    PubMed Central

    Svasti, J.; Milstein, C.

    1972-01-01

    [35S]Cystine-labelled immunoglobulin MOPC21 (IgG1) was prepared from myeloma cells in tissue culture. Carrier myeloma protein was added and the protein was digested with pepsin. The digest was fractionated on Sephadex G-50 into two fractions, further digested with trypsin and again fractionated on Sephadex. Disulphide-bridge peptides were purified by electrophoresis and chromatography and identified by radioautography. A peptide of 96 residues was isolated, which contains both the heavy–light interchain disulphide bridge and all the inter-heavy-chain disulphide bridges. Other peptides were isolated, accounting for all the intrachain disulphide bridges (which could be placed by homology with proteins of other species), except for the variable section of the light chain. Sequences describing this missing disulphide bridge were obtained from totally reduced and alkylated light chains. Peptides related to the interchain disulphide-bridge peptide were isolated from partially reduced and alkylated myeloma protein and from totally reduced heavy chain. The interchain disulphide-bridge peptide was placed at the C-terminal position of the F(ab′)2 fragment, prepared by digestion of the protein with pepsin at pH4.0. Sequences from the heavy-chain intrachain disulphide bridges of MOPC 21 immunoglobulin are compared with homologous sequences from mouse myeloma proteins of other subclasses and proteins of other species. PMID:5073237

  5. Glyco-engineering of human IgG1-Fc through combined yeast expression and in vitro chemoenzymatic glycosylation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yadong; Li, Cishan; Huang, Wei; Li, Bing; Strome, Scott; Wang, Lai-Xi

    2009-01-01

    The presence and precise structures of the glycans attached at the Fc domain of monoclonal antibodies play an important role in determining antibody's effector functions such as antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC), complement activation, and anti-inflammatory activity. This paper describes a novel approach for glyco-engineering of human IgG1-Fc that combines high-yield expression of human IgG1-Fc in yeast and subsequent in vitro enzymatic glycosylation, using the endoglycosidase-catalyzed transglycosylation as the key reaction. Human IgG1-Fc was first overproduced in Pichia pastoris. Then the heterogeneous yeast glycans were removed by Endo-H treatment to give the GlcNAc-containing IgG1-Fc as a homodimer. Finally, selected homogeneous glycans were attached to the GlcNAc-primer in the IgG1-Fc through an endoglycosidase-catalyzed transglycosylation, using sugar oxazolines as the donor substrates. It was found that the enzymatic transglycosylation was efficient with native GlcNAc-containing IgG1-Fc homodimer without the need to denature the protein, and the reaction could proceed to completion to give homogeneous glycoforms of IgG1-Fc when excess of oligosaccharide oxazolines was used as the donor substrates. The binding of the synthetic IgG1-Fc glycoforms to the FcγIIIa receptor was also investigated. This novel glyco-engineering approach should be useful for providing various homogeneous, natural or synthetic glycoforms of IgG1-Fc for structure-function relationship studies, and for future clinical applications. PMID:18771295

  6. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1 - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... loss account. 1.904(g)-1 Section 1.904(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... States § 1.904(g)-1 Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account. For further guidance, see § 1.904(g)-1T....

  7. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1 - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... loss account. 1.904(g)-1 Section 1.904(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... the United States § 1.904(g)-1 Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account. For further guidance, see § 1.904(g)-1T....

  8. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1 - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... loss account. 1.904(g)-1 Section 1.904(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... the United States § 1.904(g)-1 Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account. For further guidance, see § 1.904(g)-1T....

  9. Preferential synthesis of the G1m(1) allotype of IgG1 in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Salier, J P; Goust, J M; Pandey, J P; Fudenberg, H H

    1981-09-18

    Quantitations of the G1m(1) and G1m(3) allotypic determinants of human immunoglobulin G were performed by radioimmunoassay on cerebrospinal fluid and serum samples from patients with multiple sclerosis and from patients with other neurological disorders. In multiple sclerosis patients that were heterozygous for these determinants, G1m(1) concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid was greatly increased-reflected by an increased ratio of G1m(1)-in comparison with that of patients with other neurological disorders. These results suggest that in the heterozygous multiple sclerosis patients, most of the plasma cells in the central nervous system that secrete oligoclonal immunoglobulin G preferentially synthesize G1m(1) IgG1 molecules. PMID:6973823

  10. Studies on properties of the xylan‑binding domain and linker sequence of xylanase XynG1‑1 from Paenibacillus campinasensis G1‑1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yihan; Huang, Lin; Li, Weiguo; Guo, Wei; Zheng, Hongchen; Wang, Jianling; Lu, Fuping

    2015-12-01

    Xylanase XynG1-1 from Paenibacillus campinasensis G1-1 consists of a catalytic domain (CD), a family 6_36 carbohydrate-binding module which is a xylan-binding domain (XBD), and a linker sequence (LS)between them. The structure of XynG1-3 from Bacillus pumilus G1-3 consists only of a CD. To investigate the functions and properties of the XBD and LS of XynG1-1, two truncated forms (XynG1-1CDL, XynG1-1CD) and three fusion derivatives (XynG1-3CDL, XynG1-3CDX and XynG1-3CDLX) were constructed and biochemically characterized. The optimum conditions for the catalytic activity of mutants of XynG1-1 and XynG1-3 were 60 °C and pH 7.0, and 55 °C and pH 8.0, respectively, the same as for the corresponding wild-type enzymes. XynGs with an XBD were stable over a broad temperature (30-80 °C)and pH range (4.0-11.0), respectively, on incubation for 3 h. Kinetic parameters (Km, kcat, kcat/Km) of XynGs were determined with soluble birchwood xylan and insoluble oat spelt xylan as substrates. XynGs with the XBD showed better affinities toward, and more efficient catalysis of hydrolysis of the insoluble substrate. The XBD had positive effects on thermostability and pH stability and a crucial function in the ability of the enzyme to bind and hydrolyze insoluble substrate. The LS had little effect on the overall stability of the xylanase and no relationship with affinities for soluble and insoluble substrates or catalytic efficiency. PMID:26467249

  11. 26 CFR 301.6501(g)-1 - Certain income tax returns of corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain income tax returns of corporations. 301.6501(g)-1 Section 301.6501(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... and Collection § 301.6501(g)-1 Certain income tax returns of corporations. (a) Trusts or...

  12. 26 CFR 301.6223(g)-1 - Responsibilities of the tax matters partner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. .... 301.6223(g)-1 Section 301.6223(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....6223(g)-1 Responsibilities of the tax matters partner. (a) Notices described in section...

  13. 26 CFR 1.143(g)-1 - Requirements related to arbitrage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Requirements related to arbitrage. 1.143(g)-1 Section 1.143(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED....143(g)-1 Requirements related to arbitrage. (a) In general. Under section 143, for an issue to be...

  14. 26 CFR 25.2523(g)-1 - Special rule for charitable remainder trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... 25.2523(g)-1 Section 25.2523(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....2523(g)-1 Special rule for charitable remainder trusts. (a) In general. (1) With respect to gifts made... passing to the spouse qualifies for a marital deduction under section 2523(g) and the value of...

  15. 26 CFR 1.860G-1 - Definition of regular and residual interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definition of regular and residual interests. 1.860G-1 Section 1.860G-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860G-1 Definition of regular and residual interests....

  16. 26 CFR 301.6511(g)-1 - Special rule for partnership items of federally registered partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special rule for partnership items of federally registered partnerships. 301.6511(g)-1 Section 301.6511(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Limitations on Assessment and Collection § 301.6511(g)-1 Special rule for partnership items of...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6511(g)-1 - Special rule for partnership items of federally registered partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Special rule for partnership items of federally registered partnerships. 301.6511(g)-1 Section 301.6511(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Limitations on Assessment and Collection § 301.6511(g)-1 Special rule for partnership items of...

  18. 26 CFR 1.404(g)-1 - Deduction of employer liability payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of Plan Sufficiency and Termination of Sufficient Plans. See PBGC regulations, 29 CFR 2617.13(b) for...(g)-1 Section 1.404(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY.... § 1.404(g)-1 Deduction of employer liability payments. (a) General rule. Employer liability...

  19. 26 CFR 301.6511(g)-1 - Special rule for partnership items of federally registered partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... registered partnerships. 301.6511(g)-1 Section 301.6511(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Limitations on Assessment and Collection § 301.6511(g)-1 Special rule for partnership items of federally...(g) must also be taken into account in applying the various special periods of limitation...

  20. 26 CFR 1.430(g)-1 - Valuation date and valuation of plan assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ....430(g)-1 Section 1.430(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.430(g)-1 Valuation date... plan's valuation date and the valuation of a plan's assets for a plan year under section...

  1. 26 CFR 301.6511(g)-1 - Special rule for partnership items of federally registered partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... registered partnerships. 301.6511(g)-1 Section 301.6511(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Limitations on Assessment and Collection § 301.6511(g)-1 Special rule for partnership items of federally...(g) must also be taken into account in applying the various special periods of limitation...

  2. 26 CFR 25.2523(g)-1 - Special rule for charitable remainder trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... 25.2523(g)-1 Section 25.2523(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....2523(g)-1 Special rule for charitable remainder trusts. (a) In general. (1) With respect to gifts made... passing to the spouse qualifies for a marital deduction under section 2523(g) and the value of...

  3. 26 CFR 1.415(g)-1 - Disqualification of plans and trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disqualification of plans and trusts. 1.415(g)-1 Section 1.415(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED...(g)-1 Disqualification of plans and trusts. (a) Disqualification of plans—(1) In general....

  4. 26 CFR 1.404(g)-1 - Deduction of employer liability payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of Plan Sufficiency and Termination of Sufficient Plans. See PBGC regulations, 29 CFR 2617.13(b) for...(g)-1 Section 1.404(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY.... § 1.404(g)-1 Deduction of employer liability payments. (a) General rule. Employer liability...

  5. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1 - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sustained in other taxable years beginning after December 31, 2006, including periods covered by 26 CFR § 1... loss account. 1.904(g)-1 Section 1.904(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... the United States § 1.904(g)-1 Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account....

  6. 26 CFR 25.2523(g)-1 - Special rule for charitable remainder trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....2523(g)-1 Section 25.2523(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Deductions § 25.2523(g)-1... passing to the spouse qualifies for a marital deduction under section 2523(g) and the value of...

  7. 26 CFR 1.430(g)-1 - Valuation date and valuation of plan assets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....430(g)-1 Section 1.430(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.430(g)-1 Valuation date... plan's valuation date and the valuation of a plan's assets for a plan year under section...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6223(g)-1 - Responsibilities of the tax matters partner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. .... 301.6223(g)-1 Section 301.6223(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....6223(g)-1 Responsibilities of the tax matters partner. (a) Notices described in section...

  9. 26 CFR 301.6223(g)-1 - Responsibilities of the tax matters partner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. .... 301.6223(g)-1 Section 301.6223(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....6223(g)-1 Responsibilities of the tax matters partner. (a) Notices described in section...

  10. 26 CFR 25.2523(g)-1 - Special rule for charitable remainder trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....2523(g)-1 Section 25.2523(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ESTATE AND GIFT TAXES GIFT TAX; GIFTS MADE AFTER DECEMBER 31, 1954 Deductions § 25.2523(g)-1... passing to the spouse qualifies for a marital deduction under section 2523(g) and the value of...

  11. 26 CFR 1.414(g)-1 - Definition of plan administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definition of plan administrator. 1.414(g)-1 Section 1.414(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED...(g)-1 Definition of plan administrator. (a) In general. For purposes of part I of subchapter D...

  12. 26 CFR 301.6511(g)-1 - Special rule for partnership items of federally registered partnerships.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... registered partnerships. 301.6511(g)-1 Section 301.6511(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Limitations on Assessment and Collection § 301.6511(g)-1 Special rule for partnership items of federally...(g) must also be taken into account in applying the various special periods of limitation...

  13. 26 CFR 1.415(g)-1 - Disqualification of plans and trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disqualification of plans and trusts. 1.415(g)-1 Section 1.415(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED...(g)-1 Disqualification of plans and trusts. (a) Disqualification of plans—(1) In general....

  14. 26 CFR 301.6501(g)-1 - Certain income tax returns of corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain income tax returns of corporations. 301.6501(g)-1 Section 301.6501(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... and Collection § 301.6501(g)-1 Certain income tax returns of corporations. (a) Trusts or...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6501(g)-1 - Certain income tax returns of corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain income tax returns of corporations. 301.6501(g)-1 Section 301.6501(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... and Collection § 301.6501(g)-1 Certain income tax returns of corporations. (a) Trusts or...

  16. 26 CFR 301.6501(g)-1 - Certain income tax returns of corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain income tax returns of corporations. 301.6501(g)-1 Section 301.6501(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... and Collection § 301.6501(g)-1 Certain income tax returns of corporations. (a) Trusts or...

  17. 26 CFR 301.6501(g)-1 - Certain income tax returns of corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain income tax returns of corporations. 301.6501(g)-1 Section 301.6501(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... and Collection § 301.6501(g)-1 Certain income tax returns of corporations. (a) Trusts or...

  18. 26 CFR 1.402(g)-1 - Limitation on exclusion for elective deferrals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... of 26 CFR Part 1). (ii) Method of allocating income. A plan may use any reasonable method for.... 1.402(g)-1 Section 1.402(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY.... § 1.402(g)-1 Limitation on exclusion for elective deferrals. (a) In general. The excess of...

  19. 26 CFR 1.143(g)-1 - Requirements related to arbitrage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Requirements related to arbitrage. 1.143(g)-1 Section 1.143(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED....143(g)-1 Requirements related to arbitrage. (a) In general. Under section 143, for an issue to be...

  20. 26 CFR 1.665(g)-1A - Capital gain distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Capital gain distribution. 1.665(g)-1A Section 1.665(g)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... Beginning on Or After January 1, 1969 § 1.665(g)-1A Capital gain distribution. For any taxable year of...

  1. 26 CFR 1.402(g)-1 - Limitation on exclusion for elective deferrals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... of 26 CFR Part 1). (ii) Method of allocating income. A plan may use any reasonable method for.... 1.402(g)-1 Section 1.402(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY.... § 1.402(g)-1 Limitation on exclusion for elective deferrals. (a) In general. The excess of...

  2. 26 CFR 301.6223(g)-1 - Responsibilities of the tax matters partner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. .... 301.6223(g)-1 Section 301.6223(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....6223(g)-1 Responsibilities of the tax matters partner. (a) Notices described in section...

  3. 26 CFR 1.665(g)-1A - Capital gain distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Capital gain distribution. 1.665(g)-1A Section 1.665(g)-1A Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... Beginning on Or After January 1, 1969 § 1.665(g)-1A Capital gain distribution. For any taxable year of...

  4. 26 CFR 1.402(g)-1 - Limitation on exclusion for elective deferrals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of 26 CFR Part 1). (ii) Method of allocating income. A plan may use any reasonable method for.... 1.402(g)-1 Section 1.402(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY.... § 1.402(g)-1 Limitation on exclusion for elective deferrals. (a) In general. The excess of...

  5. 26 CFR 1.143(g)-1 - Requirements related to arbitrage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Requirements related to arbitrage. 1.143(g)-1 Section 1.143(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED....143(g)-1 Requirements related to arbitrage. (a) In general. Under section 143, for an issue to be...

  6. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1 - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sustained in other taxable years beginning after December 31, 2006, including periods covered by 26 CFR § 1... loss account. 1.904(g)-1 Section 1.904(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... the United States § 1.904(g)-1 Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account....

  7. 26 CFR 1.143(g)-1 - Requirements related to arbitrage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Requirements related to arbitrage. 1.143(g)-1 Section 1.143(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED....143(g)-1 Requirements related to arbitrage. (a) In general. Under section 143, for an issue to be...

  8. 26 CFR 1.143(g)-1 - Requirements related to arbitrage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Requirements related to arbitrage. 1.143(g)-1 Section 1.143(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED....143(g)-1 Requirements related to arbitrage. (a) In general. Under section 143, for an issue to be...

  9. 26 CFR 25.2523(g)-1 - Special rule for charitable remainder trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... 25.2523(g)-1 Section 25.2523(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE....2523(g)-1 Special rule for charitable remainder trusts. (a) In general. (1) With respect to gifts made... passing to the spouse qualifies for a marital deduction under section 2523(g) and the value of...

  10. 26 CFR 1.404(g)-1 - Deduction of employer liability payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... of Plan Sufficiency and Termination of Sufficient Plans. See PBGC regulations, 29 CFR 2617.13(b) for...(g)-1 Section 1.404(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY.... § 1.404(g)-1 Deduction of employer liability payments. (a) General rule. Employer liability...

  11. 26 CFR 1.402(g)-1 - Limitation on exclusion for elective deferrals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of 26 CFR Part 1). (ii) Method of allocating income. A plan may use any reasonable method for....402(g)-1 Section 1.402(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY.... § 1.402(g)-1 Limitation on exclusion for elective deferrals. (a) In general. The excess of...

  12. 26 CFR 1.415(g)-1 - Disqualification of plans and trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disqualification of plans and trusts. 1.415(g)-1 Section 1.415(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED...(g)-1 Disqualification of plans and trusts. (a) Disqualification of plans—(1) In general....

  13. 26 CFR 1.860G-1 - Definition of regular and residual interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Definition of regular and residual interests. 1.860G-1 Section 1.860G-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860G-1 Definition of regular and residual interests....

  14. G1 Domain of Versican Regulates Hyaluronan Organization and the Phenotype of Cultured Human Dermal Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Merrilees, Mervyn J; Zuo, Ning; Evanko, Stephen P; Day, Anthony J; Wight, Thomas N

    2016-06-01

    Variants of versican have wide-ranging effects on cell and tissue phenotype, impacting proliferation, adhesion, pericellular matrix composition, and elastogenesis. The G1 domain of versican, which contains two Link modules that bind to hyaluronan (HA), may be central to these effects. Recombinant human G1 (rhG1) with an N-terminal 8 amino acid histidine (His) tag, produced in Nicotiana benthamiana, was applied to cultures of dermal fibroblasts, and effects on proliferation and pericellular HA organization determined. rhG1 located to individual strands of cell surface HA which aggregated into structures resembling HA cables. On both individual and aggregated strands, the spacing of attached rhG1 was similar (~120 nm), suggesting interaction between rhG1 molecules. Endogenous V0/V1, present on HA between attached rhG1, did not prevent cable formation, while treatment with V0/V1 alone, which also bound to HA, did not induce cables. A single treatment with rhG1 suppressed cell proliferation for an extended period. Treating cells for 4 weeks with rhG1 resulted in condensed layers of elongated, differentiated α actin-positive fibroblasts, with rhG1 localized to cell surfaces, and a compact extracellular matrix including both collagen and elastin. These results demonstrate that the G1 domain of versican can regulate the organization of pericellular HA and affect phenotype. PMID:27126822

  15. The flare activity of G1 718 = BD + 22 deg 3406

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugainov, P. F.

    The results of 58.8 hours of photoelectric U-band observations of the red dwarf G1 718 are presented. The observations were carried out in order to confirm the conclusion of Mahmoud and Soliman (1980) that G1 718 is experiencing high flare activity. It is shown that the mean rate of energy release from G1 718 is approximately the same as that of G1 825. Both G1 718 and G1 825 show a deviation from the correlation between mean energy release rate and luminosity which has been established for young red dwarfs. No BY Dra variations were found for G1 718. The complete observational results are given in a table.

  16. G1-checkpoint function including a cyclin-dependent kinase 2 regulatory pathway as potential determinant of 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01)-induced apoptosis and G1-phase accumulation.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, T; Sugiyama, K; Shimizu, M; Tamaoki, T; Akinaga, S

    1999-12-01

    7-Hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01), which was originally identified as a protein kinase C selective inhibitor, is currently in clinical trials as an anti-cancer drug. We previously showed that UCN-01 induced preferential G1-phase accumulation in tumor cells and this effect was associated with the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein and its regulatory factors, such as cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and CDK inhibitors p21Cip1/WAF1 and p27Kip1. We demonstrate here that G1-phase accumulation was induced by UCN-01 in Rb-proficient cell lines (WiDr and HCT116 human colon carcinomas and WI-38 human lung fibroblast), and it was accompanied by dephosphorylation of Rb. In addition, UCN-01-induced G1-phase accumulation was also demonstrated in a Rb-defective cell line (Saos-2 human osteosarcoma), but not in a simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed cell line (WI-38 VA13). Apoptosis was induced by UCN-01 in the two Rb-deficient cell lines, but not in the other Rb-proficient cell lines. These observations suggest that G1-checkpoint function might be important for cell survival during UCN-01 treatment. In addition, there may be a UCN-01-responsive factor in the G1-checkpoint machinery other than Rb which is targeted by SV40. Further studies revealed a correlation between UCN-01-induced G1-phase accumulation and reduction of cellular CDK2 kinase activity. This reduction was strictly dependent on down-regulation of the Thr160-phosphorylated form of CDK2 protein, and coincided in part with up-regulation of p27Kip1, but it was independent of the level of the p21Cip1/WAF1 protein. These results suggest that G1-checkpoint function, including a CDK2-regulatory pathway, may be a significant determinant of the sensitivity of tumor cells to UCN-01. PMID:10665655

  17. Most of the G1 period in hamster cells is eliminated by lengthening the S period.

    PubMed Central

    Stancel, G M; Prescott, D M; Liskay, R M

    1981-01-01

    Two Chinese hamster cell lines, G1+-1 and CHO, have been grown in the presence of low concentrations of hydroxyurea to determine how a slowing DNA synthesis (i.e., a lengthening of the S period) affects the length of the G1 period. Hydroxyurea concentrations of approximately 10 microM do not alter the generation times of these cell lines but do cause increases in S with corresponding decreases in G1. In both cell lines, 10 microM hydroxyurea reduces G1 to an absolute value of 1 hr, which represents decreases of 70% (G1+-1) and 60% (CHO) from control values. Higher concentrations of hydroxyurea increase the generation times and lengths of S for both cell lines but do not reduce G1 below the minimum value of 1 hr. These observations indicate that the majority of G1 is expendable and most of G1 therefore cannot contain specific events required for the initiation of DNA synthesis. This result supports the hypothesis that G1 is a portion of the cell growth cycle but not of the chromosome cycle. PMID:6947230

  18. A two-stage approach in solving the state probabilities of the multi-queue M/G/1 model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mu-Song; Yen, Hao-Wei

    2016-04-01

    The M/G/1 model is the fundamental basis of the queueing system in many network systems. Usually, the study of the M/G/1 is limited by the assumption of single queue and infinite capacity. In practice, however, these postulations may not be valid, particularly when dealing with many real-world problems. In this paper, a two-stage state-space approach is devoted to solving the state probabilities for the multi-queue finite-capacity M/G/1 model, i.e. q-M/G/1/Ki with Ki buffers in the ith queue. The state probabilities at departure instants are determined by solving a set of state transition equations. Afterward, an embedded Markov chain analysis is applied to derive the state probabilities with another set of state balance equations at arbitrary time instants. The closed forms of the state probabilities are also presented with theorems for reference. Applications of Little's theorem further present the corresponding results for queue lengths and average waiting times. Simulation experiments have demonstrated the correctness of the proposed approaches.

  19. Molecular Basis for the Dissociation Dynamics of Protein A-Immunoglobulin G1 Complex

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fu-Feng; Huang, Bo; Dong, Xiao-Yan; Sun, Yan

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus protein A (SpA) is the most popular affinity ligand for immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1). However, the molecular basis for the dissociation dynamics of SpA-IgG1 complex is unclear. Herein, coarse-grained (CG) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with the Martini force field were used to study the dissociation dynamics of the complex. The CG-MD simulations were first verified by the agreement in the structural and interactional properties of SpA and human IgG1 (hIgG1) in the association process between the CG-MD and all-atom MD at different NaCl concentrations. Then, the CG-MD simulation studies focused on the molecular insight into the dissociation dynamics of SpA-hIgG1 complex at pH 3.0. It is found that there are four steps in the dissociation process of the complex. First, there is a slight conformational adjustment of helix II in SpA. This is followed by the phenomena that the electrostatic interactions provided by the three hot spots (Glu143, Arg146 and Lys154) of helix II of SpA break up, leading to the dissociation of helix II from the binding site of hIgG1. Subsequently, breakup of the hydrophobic interactions between helix I (Phe132, Tyr133 and His137) in SpA and hIgG1 occurs, resulting in the disengagement of helix I from its binding site of hIgG1. Finally, the non-specific interactions between SpA and hIgG1 decrease slowly till disappearance, leading to the complete dissociation of the SpA-hIgG1 complex. This work has revealed that CG-MD coupled with the Martini force field is an effective method for studying the dissociation dynamics of protein-protein complex. PMID:23776704

  20. FoxG1 and TLE2 act cooperatively to regulate ventral telencephalon formation

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Martin; Bonev, Boyan; Lindsay, Jennefer; Lea, Robert; Panagiotaki, Niki; Houart, Corinne; Papalopulu, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    FoxG1 is a conserved transcriptional repressor that plays a key role in the specification, proliferation and differentiation of the telencephalon, and is expressed from the earliest stages of telencephalic development through to the adult. How the interaction with co-factors might influence the multiplicity and diversity of FoxG1 function is not known. Here, we show that interaction of FoxG1 with TLE2, a Xenopus tropicalis co-repressor of the Groucho/TLE family, is crucial for regulating the early activity of FoxG1. We show that TLE2 is co-expressed with FoxG1 in the ventral telencephalon from the early neural plate stage and functionally cooperates with FoxG1 in an ectopic neurogenesis assay. FoxG1 has two potential TLE binding sites: an N-terminal eh1 motif and a C-terminal YWPMSPF motif. Although direct binding seems to be mediated by the N-terminal motif, both motifs appear important for functional synergism. In the neurogenesis assay, mutation of either motif abolishes functional cooperation of TLE2 with FoxG1, whereas in the forebrain deletion of both motifs renders FoxG1 unable to induce the ventral telencephalic marker Nkx2.1. Knocking down either FoxG1 or TLE2 disrupts the development of the ventral telencephalon, supporting the idea that endogenous TLE2 and FoxG1 work together to specify the ventral telencephalon. PMID:20356955

  1. A hyperactive transcriptional state marks genome reactivation at the mitosis-G1 transition.

    PubMed

    Hsiung, Chris C-S; Bartman, Caroline R; Huang, Peng; Ginart, Paul; Stonestrom, Aaron J; Keller, Cheryl A; Face, Carolyne; Jahn, Kristen S; Evans, Perry; Sankaranarayanan, Laavanya; Giardine, Belinda; Hardison, Ross C; Raj, Arjun; Blobel, Gerd A

    2016-06-15

    During mitosis, RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and many transcription factors dissociate from chromatin, and transcription ceases globally. Transcription is known to restart in bulk by telophase, but whether de novo transcription at the mitosis-G1 transition is in any way distinct from later in interphase remains unknown. We tracked Pol II occupancy genome-wide in mammalian cells progressing from mitosis through late G1. Unexpectedly, during the earliest rounds of transcription at the mitosis-G1 transition, ∼50% of active genes and distal enhancers exhibit a spike in transcription, exceeding levels observed later in G1 phase. Enhancer-promoter chromatin contacts are depleted during mitosis and restored rapidly upon G1 entry but do not spike. Of the chromatin-associated features examined, histone H3 Lys27 acetylation levels at individual loci in mitosis best predict the mitosis-G1 transcriptional spike. Single-molecule RNA imaging supports that the mitosis-G1 transcriptional spike can constitute the maximum transcriptional activity per DNA copy throughout the cell division cycle. The transcriptional spike occurs heterogeneously and propagates to cell-to-cell differences in mature mRNA expression. Our results raise the possibility that passage through the mitosis-G1 transition might predispose cells to diverge in gene expression states. PMID:27340175

  2. Acrocentric Chromosomes in Cultured Leukocytes from Mothers of Children Affected With the G1- Trisomy Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Cotton, James E.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of venous blood samples from 24 mothers of G1-trisomy-affected (Down's Syndrome) children and 23 mothers of chromosomally normal children indicated that mothers of G1-trisomy-affected children had a greater than expected involvement of the G-chromosomes in associations of acrocentric satellited (chromosome configuration) chromosomes.…

  3. 26 CFR 1.414(g)-1 - Definition of plan administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Definition of plan administrator. 1.414(g)-1...(g)-1 Definition of plan administrator. (a) In general. For purposes of part I of subchapter D of... for a plan year specifically designates a person or a group of persons as plan administrator,...

  4. 26 CFR 1.414(g)-1 - Definition of plan administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Definition of plan administrator. 1.414(g)-1...(g)-1 Definition of plan administrator. (a) In general. For purposes of part I of subchapter D of... for a plan year specifically designates a person or a group of persons as plan administrator,...

  5. 26 CFR 1.414(g)-1 - Definition of plan administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Definition of plan administrator. 1.414(g)-1...(g)-1 Definition of plan administrator. (a) In general. For purposes of part I of subchapter D of... for a plan year specifically designates a person or a group of persons as plan administrator,...

  6. 17 CFR 240.12g-1 - Exemption from section 12(g).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Exemption from section 12(g). 240.12g-1 Section 240.12g-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934...

  7. 26 CFR 1.404(g)-1 - Deduction of employer liability payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Termination of Sufficient Plans. See PBGC regulations, 29 CFR 2617.13(b) for rules concerning these...(g)-1 Section 1.404(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. §...

  8. 26 CFR 301.6323(g)-1 - Refiling of notice of tax lien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refiling of notice of tax lien. 301.6323(g)-1 Section 301.6323(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Collection General Provisions §...

  9. 26 CFR 1.415(g)-1 - Disqualification of plans and trusts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disqualification of plans and trusts. 1.415(g)-1 Section 1.415(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Pension, Profit-Sharing, Stock Bonus Plans, Etc. §...

  10. 17 CFR 240.15g-1 - Exemptions for certain transactions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemptions for certain transactions. 240.15g-1 Section 240.15g-1 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS, SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934 Rules and Regulations Under the Securities Exchange Act of...

  11. 26 CFR 301.6323(g)-1 - Refiling of notice of tax lien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Refiling of notice of tax lien. 301.6323(g)-1 Section 301.6323(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Collection General Provisions §...

  12. 26 CFR 1.404(g)-1 - Deduction of employer liability payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... of Plan Sufficiency and Termination of Sufficient Plans. See PBGC regulations, 29 CFR 2617.13(b) for... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Deduction of employer liability payments. 1.404(g)-1 Section 1.404(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6323(g)-1 - Refiling of notice of tax lien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Refiling of notice of tax lien. 301.6323(g)-1 Section 301.6323(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Collection General Provisions §...

  14. 26 CFR 301.6323(g)-1 - Refiling of notice of tax lien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Refiling of notice of tax lien. 301.6323(g)-1 Section 301.6323(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Collection General Provisions §...

  15. 26 CFR 301.6323(g)-1 - Refiling of notice of tax lien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Refiling of notice of tax lien. 301.6323(g)-1 Section 301.6323(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Collection General Provisions §...

  16. Enhanced HIV-1 neutralization by a CD4-VH3-IgG1 fusion protein

    SciTech Connect

    Meyuhas, Ronit; Noy, Hava; Fishman, Sigal; Margalit, Alon; Montefiori, David C.; Gross, Gideon

    2009-08-21

    HIV-1 gp120 is an alleged B cell superantigen, binding certain VH3+ human antibodies. We reasoned that a CD4-VH3 fusion protein could possess higher affinity for gp120 and improved HIV-1 inhibitory capacity. To test this we produced several human IgG1 immunoligands harboring VH3. Unlike VH3-IgG1 or VH3-CD4-IgG1, CD4-VH3-IgG1 bound gp120 considerably stronger than CD4-IgG1. CD4-VH3-IgG1 exhibited {approx}1.5-2.5-fold increase in neutralization of two T-cell laboratory-adapted strains when compared to CD4-IgG1. CD4-VH3-IgG1 improved neutralization of 7/10 clade B primary isolates or pseudoviruses, exceeding 20-fold for JR-FL and 13-fold for Ba-L. It enhanced neutralization of 4/8 clade C viruses, and had negligible effect on 1/4 clade A pseudoviruses. We attribute this improvement to possible pairing of VH3 with CD4 D1 and stabilization of an Ig Fv-like structure, rather than to superantigen interactions. These novel findings support the current notion that CD4 fusion proteins can act as better HIV-1 entry inhibitors with potential clinical implications.

  17. 26 CFR 1.642(g)-1 - Disallowance of double deductions; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disallowance of double deductions; in general. 1.642(g)-1 Section 1.642(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Disallowance of double deductions; in general. Amounts allowable under section 2053(a)(2) (relating...

  18. 26 CFR 1.642(g)-1 - Disallowance of double deductions; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disallowance of double deductions; in general. 1.642(g)-1 Section 1.642(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Disallowance of double deductions; in general. Amounts allowable under section 2053(a)(2) (relating...

  19. 26 CFR 1.642(g)-1 - Disallowance of double deductions; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disallowance of double deductions; in general. 1.642(g)-1 Section 1.642(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... of double deductions; in general. Amounts allowable under section 2053(a)(2) (relating...

  20. 26 CFR 1.642(g)-1 - Disallowance of double deductions; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disallowance of double deductions; in general. 1.642(g)-1 Section 1.642(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Disallowance of double deductions; in general. Amounts allowable under section 2053(a)(2) (relating...

  1. 26 CFR 1.642(g)-1 - Disallowance of double deductions; in general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disallowance of double deductions; in general. 1.642(g)-1 Section 1.642(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Disallowance of double deductions; in general. Amounts allowable under section 2053(a)(2) (relating...

  2. Characterization of IgG1 Conformation and Conformational Dynamics by Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Houde, Damian; Arndt, Joseph; Domeier, Wayne; Berkowitz, Steven; Engen, John R.

    2009-04-22

    Protein function is dictated by protein conformation. For the protein biopharmaceutical industry, therefore, it is important to have analytical tools that can detect changes in protein conformation rapidly, accurately, and with high sensitivity. In this paper we show that hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (H/DX-MS) can play an important role in fulfilling this need within the industry. H/DX-MS was used to assess both global and local conformational behavior of a recombinant monoclonal IgG1 antibody, a major class of biopharmaceuticals. Analysis of exchange into the intact, glycosylated IgG1 (and the Fab and Fc regions thereof) showed that the molecule was folded, highly stable, and highly amenable to analysis by this method using less than a nanomole of material. With improved chromatographic methods, peptide identification algorithms and data-processing steps, the analysis of deuterium levels in peptic peptides produced after labeling was accomplished in 1--2 days. On the basis of peptic peptide data, exchange was localized to specific regions of the antibody. Changes to IgG1 conformation as a result of deglycosylation were determined by comparing exchange into the glycosylated and deglycosylated forms of the antibody. Two regions of the IgG1 (residues 236-253 and 292-308) were found to have altered exchange properties upon deglycosylation. These results are consistent with previous findings concerning the role of glycosylation in the interaction of IgG1 with Fc receptors. Moreover, the data clearly illustrate how H/DX-MS can provide important characterization information on the higher order structure of antibodies and conformational changes that these molecules may experience upon modification.

  3. Alum Directly Modulates Murine B Lymphocytes to Produce IgG1 Isotype

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Bo-Ra; Kim, Sun-Jin; Lee, Jeong-Min; Kang, Seong-Ho; Han, Hye-Ju; Jang, Young-Saeng; Seo, Goo-young

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum hydroxide (alum) is the most widely used adjuvant in human vaccines. Nevertheless, it is virtually unknown whether alum acts on B cells. In the present study, we explored the direct effect of alum on Ig expression by murine B cells in vitro. LPS-activated mouse spleen B cells were cultured with alum, and the level of isotype-specific Ig secretion, IgG1 secreting cell numbers, and Ig germ-line transcripts (GLT) were measured using ELISA, ELISPOT, and RT-PCR, respectively. Alum consistently enhanced total IgG1 production, numbers of IgG1 secreting cells, and GLTγ1 expression. These results demonstrate that alum can directly cause IgG1 isotype switching leading to IgG1 production. PMID:23559895

  4. 12 CFR Appendix G to Part 226 - Open-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Open-End Model Forms and Clauses G Appendix G to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. G Appendix G to Part 226—Open-End Model Forms and Clauses G-1Balance Computation...

  5. 12 CFR Appendix G to Part 226 - Open-End Model Forms and Clauses

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Open-End Model Forms and Clauses G Appendix G to Part 226 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) Pt. 226, App. G Appendix G to Part 226—Open-End Model Forms and Clauses G-1Balance-Computation...

  6. Novel structure of cockroach allergen Bla g 1 has implications for allergenicity and exposure assessment

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Geoffrey A.; Pedersen, Lars C.; Lih, Fred B.; Glesner, Jill; Moon, Andrea F.; Chapman, Martin D.; Tomer, Kenneth B.; London, Robert E.; Pomés, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Background Sensitization to cockroach allergens is a major risk factor for asthma. The cockroach allergen Bla g 1 has multiple repeats of ~100 amino acids, but the fold of the protein and the biological function are unknown. Objective To determine the structure of Bla g 1, investigate the implications for allergic disease, and standardize cockroach exposure assays. Methods Natural Bla g 1 and recombinant constructs were compared by ELISA using specific murine IgG and human IgE. The structure of Bla g 1 was determined by X-ray crystallography. Mass spectrometry and NMR were utilized to examine ligand-binding properties of the allergen. Results The structure of a recombinant Bla g 1 construct with comparable IgE and IgG reactivity to the natural allergen was solved by X-ray crystallography. The Bla g 1 repeat forms a novel fold with 6 helices. Two repeats encapsulate a large and nearly spherical hydrophobic cavity, defining the basic structural unit. Lipids in the cavity varied depending on the allergen origin. Palmitic, oleic and stearic acids were associated with nBla g 1 from cockroach frass. One Unit of Bla g 1 was equivalent to 104 ng of allergen. Conclusions Bla g 1 has a novel fold with a capacity to bind various lipids, which suggests a digestive function associated with non-specific transport of lipid molecules in cockroaches. Defining the basic structural unit of Bla g 1 facilitates the standardization of assays in absolute units for the assessment of environmental allergen exposure. PMID:23915714

  7. Role of HLA-G1 in trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Feng; Zhao, Hongxi; Wang, Li; Guo, Xinyu; Wang, Xiaohong; Yin, Guowu; Hu, Yunsheng; Li, Yi; Yao, Yuanqing

    2015-02-27

    Trophoblast cells are important in embryo implantation and fetomaternal tolerance. HLA-G is specifically expressed at the maternal–fetal interface and is a regulator in pregnancy. The aim of the present study was to detect the effect of HLA-G1 on trophoblast cell proliferation, adhesion, and invasion. Human trophoblast cell lines (JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells) were infected with HLA-G1-expressing lentivirus. After infection, HLA-G1 expression of the cells was detected by western blotting. Cell proliferation was detected by the BrdU assay. The cell cycle and apoptosis of JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells was measured by flow cytometry (FCM). The invasion of the cells under different conditions was detected by the transwell invasion chamber assay. HLA-G1 didn't show any significant influence on the proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion, and invasion of trophocytes in normal culture conditions. However, HLA-G1 inhibited JAR and HTR-8/SVneo cells invasion induced by hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) under normal oxygen conditions. In conditions of hypoxia, HLA-G1 couldn't inhibit the induction of cell invasion by HGF. HLA-G1 is not an independent factor for regulating the trophocytes. It may play an indirect role in embryo implantation and formation of the placenta. - Highlights: • HLA-G1 could not influence trophocytes under normal conditions. • HLA-G1 inhibited cell invasion induced by HGF under normal oxygen condition. • HLA-G1 could not influence cell invasion under hypoxia conditions.

  8. Msa1 and Msa2 Modulate G1-Specific Transcription to Promote G1 Arrest and the Transition to Quiescence in Budding Yeast.

    PubMed

    Miles, Shawna; Croxford, Matthew W; Abeysinghe, Amali P; Breeden, Linda L

    2016-06-01

    Yeast that naturally exhaust their glucose source can enter a quiescent state that is characterized by reduced cell size, and high cell density, stress tolerance and longevity. The transition to quiescence involves highly asymmetric cell divisions, dramatic reprogramming of transcription and global changes in chromatin structure and chromosome topology. Cells enter quiescence from G1 and we find that there is a positive correlation between the length of G1 and the yield of quiescent cells. The Swi4 and Swi6 transcription factors, which form the SBF transcription complex and promote the G1 to S transition in cycling cells, are also critical for the transition to quiescence. Swi6 forms a second complex with Mbp1 (MBF), which is not required for quiescence. These are the functional analogues of the E2F complexes of higher eukaryotes. Loss of the RB analogue, Whi5, and the related protein Srl3/Whi7, delays G1 arrest, but it also delays recovery from quiescence. Two MBF- and SBF-Associated proteins have been identified that have little effect on SBF or MBF activity in cycling cells. We show that these two related proteins, Msa1 and Msa2, are specifically required for the transition to quiescence. Like the E2F complexes that are quiescence-specific, Msa1 and Msa2 are required to repress the transcription of many SBF target genes, including SWI4, the CLN2 cyclin and histones, specifically after glucose is exhausted from the media. They also activate transcription of many MBF target genes. msa1msa2 cells fail to G1 arrest and rapidly lose viability upon glucose exhaustion. msa1msa2 mutants that survive this transition are very large, but they attain the same thermo-tolerance and longevity of wild type quiescent cells. This indicates that Msa1 and Msa2 are required for successful transition to quiescence, but not for the maintenance of that state. PMID:27272642

  9. Msa1 and Msa2 Modulate G1-Specific Transcription to Promote G1 Arrest and the Transition to Quiescence in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Miles, Shawna; Croxford, Matthew W.; Abeysinghe, Amali P.; Breeden, Linda L.

    2016-01-01

    Yeast that naturally exhaust their glucose source can enter a quiescent state that is characterized by reduced cell size, and high cell density, stress tolerance and longevity. The transition to quiescence involves highly asymmetric cell divisions, dramatic reprogramming of transcription and global changes in chromatin structure and chromosome topology. Cells enter quiescence from G1 and we find that there is a positive correlation between the length of G1 and the yield of quiescent cells. The Swi4 and Swi6 transcription factors, which form the SBF transcription complex and promote the G1 to S transition in cycling cells, are also critical for the transition to quiescence. Swi6 forms a second complex with Mbp1 (MBF), which is not required for quiescence. These are the functional analogues of the E2F complexes of higher eukaryotes. Loss of the RB analogue, Whi5, and the related protein Srl3/Whi7, delays G1 arrest, but it also delays recovery from quiescence. Two MBF- and SBF-Associated proteins have been identified that have little effect on SBF or MBF activity in cycling cells. We show that these two related proteins, Msa1 and Msa2, are specifically required for the transition to quiescence. Like the E2F complexes that are quiescence-specific, Msa1 and Msa2 are required to repress the transcription of many SBF target genes, including SWI4, the CLN2 cyclin and histones, specifically after glucose is exhausted from the media. They also activate transcription of many MBF target genes. msa1msa2 cells fail to G1 arrest and rapidly lose viability upon glucose exhaustion. msa1msa2 mutants that survive this transition are very large, but they attain the same thermo-tolerance and longevity of wild type quiescent cells. This indicates that Msa1 and Msa2 are required for successful transition to quiescence, but not for the maintenance of that state. PMID:27272642

  10. Phylogenetic inference of the porcine Rotavirus A origin of the human G1 VP7 gene.

    PubMed

    Do, Loan Phuong; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Otaki, Hiroki; Agbemabiese, Chantal Ama; Nakagomi, Osamu; Tsunemitsu, Hiroshi

    2016-06-01

    Rotavirus A (RVA) is an important cause of acute gastroenteritis in children worldwide. The most common VP7 genotype of human RVA is G1, but G1 is rarely detected in porcine strains. To understand the evolutionary relationships between human and porcine G1 VP7 genes, we sequenced the VP7 genes of three Japanese G1 porcine strains; the first two (PRV2, S80B) were isolated in 1980 and the third (Kyusyu-14) was isolated in 2001. Then, we performed phylogenetic and in-silico structural analyses. All three VP7 sequences clustered into lineage VI, and the mean nucleotide sequence identity between any pair of porcine G1 VP7 sequences belonging to lineage VI was 91.9%. In contrast, the mean nucleotide sequence identity between any pair of human G1 VP7 sequences belonging to lineages I-V was 95.5%. While the mean nucleotide sequence identity between any pair of porcine lineage VI strain and human lineage I-V strain was 85.4%, the VP7 genes of PRV2 and a rare porcine-like human G1P[6] strain (AU19) were 98% identical, strengthening the porcine RVA origin of AU19. The phylogenetic tree suggests that human G1 VP7 genes originated from porcine G1 VP7 genes. The time of their most recent common ancestor was estimated to be 1948, and human and porcine RVA strains evolved along independent pathways. In-silico structural analyses identified 7 amino acid residues within the known neutralisation epitopes that show differences in electric charges and shape between different porcine and human G1 strains. When compared with much divergent porcine G1 VP7 lineages, monophyletic, less divergent human G1 VP7 lineages support the hypothesis that all human G1 VP7 genes included in this study originated from a rare event of a porcine RVA transmitting to humans that was followed by successful adaptation to the human host. By contrast, AU19 represents interspecies transmission that terminated in dead-end infection. PMID:26961591

  11. A signal for Golgi retention in the bunyavirus G1 glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Y; Chen, S Y; Compans, R W

    1994-09-01

    The G1 and G2 glycoproteins of Punta Toro virus, a member of the bunyaviruses, are targeted to the Golgi complex, where viral budding occurs. We found that the G1 protein, when expressed in the absence of G2, is also targeted to the Golgi complex. A series of G1 proteins truncated at the carboxyl-terminal region was constructed, and the localization of the expressed proteins was examined. It was found that the proteins expressed from constructs with partial deletions in the cytoplasmic domain were transported to the Golgi complex at a significantly slower rate than G1. Although a major fraction of these proteins was eventually transported to the Golgi complex, they did not exhibit as clearly defined a pattern of accumulation as G1, but rather appeared to be distributed throughout the endoplasmic reticulum as well as the Golgi complex. The proteins expressed from constructs lacking most of the cytoplasmic domain and, in some cases, part of the transmembrane domain sequences as well were transported to the cell surface. We have also constructed chimeric proteins with the envelope protein of a murine leukemia virus (MCFenv), which is efficiently transported to the plasma membrane. A MCF-G1 chimera that contained the G1 transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains was found to be efficiently retained in the Golgi complex, and a construct that contained only the G1 transmembrane domain was also partially retained in the Golgi complex. Thus, the transmembrane domain as well as a portion of the cytoplasmic domain adjacent to the transmembrane domain are apparently crucial for Golgi retention of the G1 protein. PMID:8077205

  12. A comparison of the ability of the human IgG1 allotypes G1m3 and G1m1,17 to stimulate T-cell responses from allotype matched and mismatched donors

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Carl I.; Bryson, Christine J.; Cloake, Edward A.; Jones, Tim D.; Austin, Mark J.; Karle, Anette C.; Spindeldreher, Sebastian; Lowe, David C.; Baker, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The immunogenicity of clinically administered antibodies has clinical implications for the patients receiving them, ranging from mild consequences, such as increased clearance of the drug from the circulation, to life-threatening effects. The emergence of methods to engineer variable regions resulting in the generation of humanised and fully human antibodies as therapeutics has reduced the potential for adverse immunogenicity. However, due to differences in sequence referred to as allotypic variation, antibody constant regions are not homogeneous within the human population, even within sub-classes of the same immunoglobulin isotype. For therapeutically administered antibodies, the potential exists for an immune response from the patient to the antibody if the allotype of patient and antibody do not match. Allotypic distribution in the human population varies within and across ethnic groups making the choice of allotype for a therapeutic antibody difficult. This study investigated the potential of human IgG1 allotypes to stimulate responses in human CD4+ T cells from donors matched for homologous and heterologous IgG1 allotypes. Allotypic variants of the therapeutic monoclonal antibody trastuzumab were administered to genetically defined allotypic matched and mismatched donor T cells. No significant responses were observed in the mismatched T cells. To investigate the lack of T-cell responses in relation to mismatched allotypes, HLA-DR agretopes were identified via MHC associated peptide proteomics (MAPPs). As expected, many HLA-DR restricted peptides were presented. However, there were no peptides presented from the sequence regions containing the allotypic variations. Taken together, the results from the T-cell assay and MAPPs assay indicate that the allotypic differences in human IgG1 do not represent a significant risk for induction of immunogenicity. PMID:26821574

  13. Non-singlet spin structure function in the valon model and low-x-scaling behavior of g1NS and g1p

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghavi-Shahri, Fatemeh; Arash, Firooz

    2010-09-01

    A next-to-leading order QCD calculation of non-singlet spin structure function, g1NS is presented within the valon representation of hadrons. In the valon model, it is assumed that a nucleon is composed of three dressed valence quarks: the valons. Each valon has its own internal structure, the valence quark with its associated sea quarks and gluons. The results are in good agreement with all available data from SMC, E143, HERMES, and with the newly released data from COMPASS experiments. It appears that the small-x tail of g1NS can be described by a single Regge-type exchange. The relevant parameter of this exchange is given. Finally we show that the polarized proton structure function has a scaling behavior at small x. The relevant parameters of this behavior are given, too.

  14. Moments of the Spin Structure Functions g1p and g1d for 0.05 < Q2 < 3.0 GeV2

    SciTech Connect

    Prok, Yelena; Bosted, Peter; Burkert, Volker; Deur, Alexandre; Dharmawardane, Kahanawita; Dodge, Gail; Griffioen, Keith; Kuhn, Sebastian; Minehart, Ralph; Adams, Gary; Amaryan, Moscov; Amaryan, Moskov; Anghinolfi, Marco; Asryan, G.; Audit, Gerard; Avagyan, Harutyun; Baghdasaryan, Hovhannes; Baillie, Nathan; Ball, J.P.; Ball, Jacques; Baltzell, Nathan; Barrow, Steve; Battaglieri, Marco; Beard, Kevin; Bedlinskiy, Ivan; Bektasoglu, Mehmet; Bellis, Matthew; Benmouna, Nawal; Berman, Barry; Biselli, Angela; Blaszczyk, Lukasz; Boyarinov, Sergey; Bonner, Billy; Bouchigny, Sylvain; Bradford, Robert; Branford, Derek; Briscoe, William; Brooks, William; Bultmann, S.; Bueltmann, Stephen; Butuceanu, Cornel; Calarco, John; Careccia, Sharon; Carman, Daniel; Casey, Liam; Cazes, Antoine; Chen, Shifeng; Cheng, Lu; Cole, Philip; Collins, Patrick; Coltharp, Philip; Cords, Dieter; Corvisiero, Pietro; Crabb, Donald; Crede, Volker; Cummings, John; Dale, Daniel; Dashyan, Natalya; De Masi, Rita; De Vita, Raffaella; De Sanctis, Enzo; Degtiarenko, Pavel; Denizli, Haluk; Dennis, Lawrence; Dhuga, Kalvir; Dickson, Richard; Djalali, Chaden; Doughty, David; Dugger, Michael; Dytman, Steven; Dzyubak, Oleksandr; Egiyan, Hovanes; Egiyan, Kim; Elfassi, Lamiaa; Elouadrhiri, Latifa; Eugenio, Paul; Fatemi, Renee; Fedotov, Gleb; Feldman, Gerald; Fersch, Robert; Feuerbach, Robert; Forest, Tony; Fradi, Ahmed; Funsten, Herbert; Garcon, Michel; Gavalian, Gagik; Gevorgyan, Nerses; Gilfoyle, Gerard; Giovanetti, Kevin; Girod, Francois-Xavier; Goetz, John; Golovach, Evgeny; Gothe, Ralf; Guidal, Michel; Guillo, Matthieu; Guler, Nevzat; Guo, Lei; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Hadjidakis, Cynthia; Hafidi, Kawtar; Hakobyan, Hayk; Hanretty, Charles; Hardie, John; Hassall, Neil; Heddle, David; Hersman, F.; Hicks, Kenneth; Hleiqawi, Ishaq; Holtrop, Maurik; Huertas, Marco; Hyde, Charles; Ilieva, Yordanka; Ireland, David; Ishkhanov, Boris; Isupov, Evgeny; Ito, Mark; Jenkins, David; Jo, Hyon-Suk; Johnstone, John; Joo, Kyungseon; Juengst, Henry; Kalantarians, Narbe; Keith, Christopher; Kellie, James; Khandaker, Mahbubul; Kim, Kui; Kim, Kyungmo; Kim, Wooyoung; Klein, Andreas; Klein, Franz; Klusman, Mike; Kossov, Mikhail; Krahn, Zebulun; Kramer, Laird; Kubarovsky, Valery; Kuhn, Joachim; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Viacheslav; Lachniet, Jeff; Laget, Jean; Langheinrich, Jorn; Lawrence, Dave; Lima, Ana; Livingston, Kenneth; Lu, Haiyun; Lukashin, K.; MacCormick, Marion; Marchand, Claude; Markov, Nikolai; Mattione, Paul; McAleer, Simeon; McKinnon, Bryan; McNabb, John; Mecking, Bernhard; Mestayer, Mac; Meyer, Curtis; Mibe, Tsutomu; Mikhaylov, Konstantin; Mirazita, Marco; Miskimen, Rory; Mokeev, Viktor; Morand, Ludyvine; Moreno, Brahim; Moriya, Kei; Morrow, Steven; Moteabbed, Maryam; Mueller, James; Munevar Espitia, Edwin; Mutchler, Gordon; Nadel-Turonski, Pawel; Nasseripour, Rakhsha; Niccolai, Silvia; Niculescu, Gabriel; Niculescu, Maria-Ioana; Niczyporuk, Bogdan; Niroula, Megh; Niyazov, Rustam; Nozar, Mina; O'Rielly, Grant; Osipenko, Mikhail; Ostrovidov, Alexander; Park, Kijun; Pasyuk, Evgueni; Paterson, Craig; Anefalos Pereira, S.; Philips, Sasha; Pierce, J.; Pivnyuk, Nikolay; Pocanic, Dinko; Pogorelko, Oleg; Popa, Iulian; Pozdnyakov, Sergey; Preedom, Barry; Price, John; Procureur, Sebastien; Protopopescu, Dan; Qin, Liming; Raue, Brian; Riccardi, Gregory; Ricco, Giovanni; Ripani, Marco; Ritchie, Barry; Rosner, Guenther; Rossi, Patrizia; Rowntree, David; Rubin, Philip; Sabatie, Franck; Salamanca, Julian; Salgado, Carlos; Santoro, Joseph; Sapunenko, Vladimir; Schumacher, Reinhard; Seely, Mikell; Serov, Vladimir; Sharabian, Youri; Sharov, Dmitri; Shaw, Jeffrey; Shvedunov, Nikolay; Skabelin, Alexander; Smith, Elton; Smith, Lee; Sober, Daniel; Sokhan, Daria; Stavinskiy, Aleksey; Stepanyan, Samuel; Stepanyan, Stepan; Stokes, Burnham; Stoler, Paul; Strakovski, Igor; Strauch, Steffen; Suleiman, Riad; Taiuti, Mauro; Tedeschi, David; Tkabladze, Avtandil; Tkachenko, Svyatoslav; Todor, Luminita; Ungaro, Maurizio; V

    2009-02-01

    The spin structure functions $g_1$ for the proton and the deuteron have been measured over a wide kinematic range in $x$ and \\Q2 using 1.6 and 5.7 GeV longitudinally polarized electrons incident upon polarized NH$_3$ and ND$_3$ targets at Jefferson Lab. Scattered electrons were detected in the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, for $0.05 < Q^2 < 5 $\\ GeV$^2$ and $W < 3$ GeV. The first moments of $g_1$ for the proton and deuteron are presented -- both have a negative slope at low \\Q2, as predicted by the extended Gerasimov-Drell-Hearn sum rule. The first result for the generalized forward spin polarizability of the proton $\\gamma_0^p$ is also reported, and shows evidence of scaling above $Q^2$ = 1.5 GeV$^2$. Although the first moments of $g_1$ are consistent with Chiral Perturbation Theory (\\ChPT) calculations up to approximately $Q^2 = 0.06$ GeV$^2$, a significant discrepancy is observed between the $\\gamma_0^p$ data and \\ChPT\\ for $\\gamma_0^p$,even at the lowest \\Q2.

  15. Management and production factors influencing immunoglobulin G1 concentration in colostrum from Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, L C; Gay, C C; Besser, T E; Hancock, D D

    1991-07-01

    Immunoglobulin G1 concentration was measured in 919 first milking colostrums from Holstein cows during a 4-yr period on a commercial dairy farm. Sources of variation analyzed for effect on colostral IgG1 concentration were season of calving, lactation number, dry period length, intercalving interval, complete lactation milk and fat production, weight of first milking colostrum, and time from calving to first milking. Weight of first milking colostrum was the variable most highly correlated (negatively) with colostral IgG1 concentration (r = -.29). Weight of first milking colostrum and lactation number of the cow were the most significant discriminators between colostrum of low and high IgG1 concentration. The implications of these results for colostrum feeding management are discussed. PMID:1894821

  16. 26 CFR 1.860G-1 - Definition of regular and residual interests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.860G-1... by the sponsor, the issue price is its fair market value on the pricing date (as defined in §...

  17. Appendix G: Geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Cantrell, Kirk J.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Zachara, John M.; Krupka, Kenneth M.; Dresel, P. Evan; Brown, Christopher F.; Freshley, Mark D.

    2008-01-17

    This appendix discusses the geology of the Hanford Site and singe-shell tank (SST) waste management areas (WMAs). The purpose is to provide the most recent geochemical information available for the SST WMAs and the Integrated Disposal Facility. This appendix summarizes the information in the geochemistry data package for the SST WMAs.

  18. Commercial geophysical well logs from the USW G-1 drill hole, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muller, D.C.; Kibler, J.E.

    1983-01-01

    Drill hole USW G-1 was drilled at Yucca Mountain, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, as part of the ongoing exploration program for the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigations. Contract geophysical well logs run at USW G-1 show only limited stratigraphic correlations, but correlate reasonably well with the welding of the ash-flow and ash-fall tuffs. Rocks in the upper part of the section have highly variable physical properties, but are more uniform and predictably lower in the section.

  19. 26 CFR 301.6223(g)-1 - Responsibilities of the tax matters partner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. § 301.6223(h)-1 Responsibilities of pass-thru partner. (a... beginning prior to October 4, 2001, see § 301.6223(h)-1T contained in 26 CFR part 1, revised April 1, 2001. .... 301.6223(g)-1 Section 301.6223(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. GPER agonist G-1 decreases adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zolea, Fabiana; Rizza, Pietro; Avena, Paola; Malivindi, Rocco; De Luca, Arianna; Campana, Carmela; Martire, Emilia; Domanico, Francesco; Fallo, Francesco; Carpinelli, Giulia; Cerquetti, Lidia; Amendola, Donatella; Stigliano, Antonio; Pezzi, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that estrogen receptor (ER) alpha (ESR1) increases proliferation of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) through both an estrogen-dependent and -independent (induced by IGF-II/IGF1R pathways) manner. Then, the use of tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), appears effective in reducing ACC growth in vitro and in vivo. However, tamoxifen not only exerts antiestrogenic activity, but also acts as full agonist on the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a non-steroidal GPER agonist G-1 in modulating ACC cell growth. We found that G-1 is able to exert a growth inhibitory effect on H295R cells both in vitro and, as xenograft model, in vivo. Treatment of H295R cells with G-1 induced cell cycle arrest, DNA damage and cell death by the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic mechanism. These events required sustained extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation. Silencing of GPER by a specific shRNA partially reversed G-1-mediated cell growth inhibition without affecting ERK activation. These data suggest the existence of G-1 activated but GPER-independent effects that remain to be clarified. In conclusion, this study provides a rational to further study G-1 mechanism of action in order to include this drug as a treatment option to the limited therapy of ACC. PMID:26131713

  1. GPER agonist G-1 decreases adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Chimento, Adele; Sirianni, Rosa; Casaburi, Ivan; Zolea, Fabiana; Rizza, Pietro; Avena, Paola; Malivindi, Rocco; De Luca, Arianna; Campana, Carmela; Martire, Emilia; Domanico, Francesco; Fallo, Francesco; Carpinelli, Giulia; Cerquetti, Lidia; Amendola, Donatella; Stigliano, Antonio; Pezzi, Vincenzo

    2015-08-01

    We have previously demonstrated that estrogen receptor (ER) alpha (ESR1) increases proliferation of adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) through both an estrogen-dependent and -independent (induced by IGF-II/IGF1R pathways) manner. Then, the use of tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), appears effective in reducing ACC growth in vitro and in vivo. However, tamoxifen not only exerts antiestrogenic activity, but also acts as full agonist on the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER). Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a non-steroidal GPER agonist G-1 in modulating ACC cell growth. We found that G-1 is able to exert a growth inhibitory effect on H295R cells both in vitro and, as xenograft model, in vivo. Treatment of H295R cells with G-1 induced cell cycle arrest, DNA damage and cell death by the activation of the intrinsic apoptotic mechanism. These events required sustained extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation. Silencing of GPER by a specific shRNA partially reversed G-1-mediated cell growth inhibition without affecting ERK activation. These data suggest the existence of G-1 activated but GPER-independent effects that remain to be clarified. In conclusion, this study provides a rational to further study G-1 mechanism of action in order to include this drug as a treatment option to the limited therapy of ACC. PMID:26131713

  2. Effects of Bordetella pertussis components on IgE and IgG1 responses.

    PubMed

    Sekiya, K

    1983-01-01

    The effect of dermonecrotic toxin (DNT), fimbrial hemagglutinin (FHA), K-agglutinogen, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and pertussigen from Bordetella pertussis on the production of IgE and IgG1 antibodies to hen egg albumin (Ea) was investigated in C57BL/6 mice. The IgE antibody contents were determined by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in the skin of Lewis rats, while the IgG1 antibody contents were determined by PCA reactions on the skin of mice using sera that had been heated for 3 hr at 56 C to destroy the IgE antibodies. Among the B. pertussis components tested, pertussigen was the most effective adjuvant for increasing the IgE and IgG1 antibodies to Ea. LPS also moderately increased both types of antibodies, and FHA slightly increased the IgG1 titers. When LPS was given 5 days before Ea, it suppressed both IgE and IgG1 titers while FHA had only slight adjuvant action on both type of antibodies. When each of the components was tested for its ability to modify the adjuvant action of pertussigen, it was found that only DNT interfered significantly with the adjuvanticity of pertussigen when given on the day of immunization with Ea. When the components were given 5 days before Ea, DNT produced significant suppression of only the IgG1 response. LPS, FHA, and K-agglutinogen did not significantly affect the adjuvant action of pertussigen. PMID:6321910

  3. Evaluation of the hydrometer for testing immunoglobulin G1 concentrations in Holstein colostrum.

    PubMed

    Pritchett, L C; Gay, C C; Hancock, D D; Besser, T E

    1994-06-01

    Hydrometer measurement in globulin and IgG1 concentration measured by the radial immunodiffusion technique were compared for 915 samples of first milking colostrum from Holstein cows. Least squares analysis of the relationship between hydrometer measurement and IgG1 concentration was improved by log transformation of IgG1 concentration and resulted in a significant linear relationship between hydrometer measurement and log10 IgG1 concentration; r2 = .469. At 50 mg of globulin/ml of colostrum, the recommended hydrometer cutoff point for colostrum selection, the sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 concentration in Holstein colostrum was 26%, and the negative predictive value was 67%. The negative predictive value and sensitivity of the hydrometer as a test of IgG1 in Holstein colostrum was improved, and the cost of misclassification of colostrum was minimized, when the cutoff point for colostrum selection was increased above the recommended 50 mg/ml. PMID:8083433

  4. IgG1 Fc N-glycan galactosylation as a biomarker for immune activation.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Sanne E; Selman, Maurice H J; Adegnika, Ayola A; Amoah, Abena S; van Riet, Elly; Kruize, Yvonne C M; Raynes, John G; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Boakye, Daniel; von Mutius, Erika; Knulst, André C; Genuneit, Jon; Cooper, Philip J; Hokke, Cornelis H; Wuhrer, Manfred; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc N-glycosylation affects antibody-mediated effector functions and varies with inflammation rooted in both communicable and non-communicable diseases. Worldwide, communicable and non-communicable diseases tend to segregate geographically. Therefore, we studied whether IgG Fc N-glycosylation varies in populations with different environmental exposures in different parts of the world. IgG Fc N-glycosylation was analysed in serum/plasma of 700 school-age children from different communities of Gabon, Ghana, Ecuador, the Netherlands and Germany. IgG1 galactosylation levels were generally higher in more affluent countries and in more urban communities. High IgG1 galactosylation levels correlated with low total IgE levels, low C-reactive protein levels and low prevalence of parasitic infections. Linear mixed modelling showed that only positivity for parasitic infections was a significant predictor of reduced IgG1 galactosylation levels. That IgG1 galactosylation is a predictor of immune activation is supported by the observation that asthmatic children seemed to have reduced IgG1 galactosylation levels as well. This indicates that IgG1 galactosylation levels could be used as a biomarker for immune activation of populations, providing a valuable tool for studies examining the epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. PMID:27306703

  5. G1/S Cell Cycle Arrest Provides Anoikis Resistance through Erk-Mediated Bim Suppression†

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Nicole L.; Reginato, Maurico J.; Paulus, Jessica K.; Sgroi, Dennis C.; LaBaer, Joshua; Brugge, Joan S.

    2005-01-01

    Proper attachment to the extracellular matrix is essential for cell survival. Detachment from the extracellular matrix results in an apoptotic process termed anoikis. Anoikis induction in MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells is due not only to loss of survival signals following integrin disengagement, but also to consequent downregulation of epidermal growth factor (EGFR) and loss of EGFR-induced survival signals. Here we demonstrate that G1/S arrest by overexpression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p16INK4a, p21Cip1, or p27Kip1 or by treatment with mimosine or aphidicolin confers anoikis resistance in MCF-10A cells. G1/S arrest-mediated anoikis resistance involves suppression of the BH3-only protein Bim. Furthermore, in G1/S-arrested cells, Erk phosphorylation is maintained in suspension and is necessary for Bim suppression. Following G1/S arrest, known proteins upstream of Erk, including Raf and Mek, are not activated. However, retained Erk activation under conditions in which Raf and Mek activation is lost is observed, suggesting that G1/S arrest acts at the level of Erk dephosphorylation. Thus, anoikis resistance by G1/S arrest is mediated by a mechanism involving Bim suppression through maintenance of Erk activation. These results provide a novel link between cell cycle arrest and survival, and this mechanism could contribute to the survival of nonreplicating, dormant tumor cells that avert apoptosis during early stages of metastasis. PMID:15923641

  6. IgG1 Fc N-glycan galactosylation as a biomarker for immune activation

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Sanne E.; Selman, Maurice H. J.; Adegnika, Ayola A.; Amoah, Abena S.; van Riet, Elly; Kruize, Yvonne C. M.; Raynes, John G.; Rodriguez, Alejandro; Boakye, Daniel; von Mutius, Erika; Knulst, André C.; Genuneit, Jon; Cooper, Philip J.; Hokke, Cornelis H.; Wuhrer, Manfred; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Fc N-glycosylation affects antibody-mediated effector functions and varies with inflammation rooted in both communicable and non-communicable diseases. Worldwide, communicable and non-communicable diseases tend to segregate geographically. Therefore, we studied whether IgG Fc N-glycosylation varies in populations with different environmental exposures in different parts of the world. IgG Fc N-glycosylation was analysed in serum/plasma of 700 school-age children from different communities of Gabon, Ghana, Ecuador, the Netherlands and Germany. IgG1 galactosylation levels were generally higher in more affluent countries and in more urban communities. High IgG1 galactosylation levels correlated with low total IgE levels, low C-reactive protein levels and low prevalence of parasitic infections. Linear mixed modelling showed that only positivity for parasitic infections was a significant predictor of reduced IgG1 galactosylation levels. That IgG1 galactosylation is a predictor of immune activation is supported by the observation that asthmatic children seemed to have reduced IgG1 galactosylation levels as well. This indicates that IgG1 galactosylation levels could be used as a biomarker for immune activation of populations, providing a valuable tool for studies examining the epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases. PMID:27306703

  7. Polo-like kinase 3 regulates CtIP during DNA double-strand break repair in G1

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Olivia; Naumann, Steffen C.; Diemer-Biehs, Ronja; Künzel, Julia; Steinlage, Monika; Conrad, Sandro; Makharashvili, Nodar; Wang, Jiadong; Feng, Lin; Lopez, Bernard S.; Paull, Tanya T.; Chen, Junjie; Jeggo, Penny A.

    2014-01-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are repaired by nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). The C terminal binding protein–interacting protein (CtIP) is phosphorylated in G2 by cyclin-dependent kinases to initiate resection and promote HR. CtIP also exerts functions during NHEJ, although the mechanism phosphorylating CtIP in G1 is unknown. In this paper, we identify Plk3 (Polo-like kinase 3) as a novel DSB response factor that phosphorylates CtIP in G1 in a damage-inducible manner and impacts on various cellular processes in G1. First, Plk3 and CtIP enhance the formation of ionizing radiation-induced translocations; second, they promote large-scale genomic deletions from restriction enzyme-induced DSBs; third, they are required for resection and repair of complex DSBs; and finally, they regulate alternative NHEJ processes in Ku−/− mutants. We show that mutating CtIP at S327 or T847 to nonphosphorylatable alanine phenocopies Plk3 or CtIP loss. Plk3 binds to CtIP phosphorylated at S327 via its Polo box domains, which is necessary for robust damage-induced CtIP phosphorylation at S327 and subsequent CtIP phosphorylation at T847. PMID:25267294

  8. 26 CFR 6a.6652(g)-1 - Failure to make return or furnish statement required under section 6039C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... required under section 6039C. 6a.6652(g)-1 Section 6a.6652(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... OMNIBUS RECONCILIATION ACT OF 1980 § 6a.6652(g)-1 Failure to make return or furnish statement required... limitation under § 6a.6652(g)-1(b)(3) with respect to failure to meet the requirements of section 6039C(c),...

  9. 26 CFR 6a.6652(g)-1 - Failure to make return or furnish statement required under section 6039C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... required under section 6039C. 6a.6652(g)-1 Section 6a.6652(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... OMNIBUS RECONCILIATION ACT OF 1980 § 6a.6652(g)-1 Failure to make return or furnish statement required... limitation under § 6a.6652(g)-1(b)(3) with respect to failure to meet the requirements of section 6039C(c),...

  10. 26 CFR 6a.6652(g)-1 - Failure to make return or furnish statement required under section 6039C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... required under section 6039C. 6a.6652(g)-1 Section 6a.6652(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... OMNIBUS RECONCILIATION ACT OF 1980 § 6a.6652(g)-1 Failure to make return or furnish statement required... limitation under § 6a.6652(g)-1(b)(3) with respect to failure to meet the requirements of section 6039C(c),...

  11. 26 CFR 6a.6652(g)-1 - Failure to make return or furnish statement required under section 6039C.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... required under section 6039C. 6a.6652(g)-1 Section 6a.6652(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... OMNIBUS RECONCILIATION ACT OF 1980 § 6a.6652(g)-1 Failure to make return or furnish statement required... limitation under § 6a.6652(g)-1(b)(3) with respect to failure to meet the requirements of section 6039C(c),...

  12. Cleavage of IgG1 in GCF is associated with presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis

    PubMed Central

    Guentsch, Arndt; Hirsch, Christiane; Pfister, Wolfgang; Vincents, Bjarne; Abrahamson, Magnus; Sroka, Aneta; Potempa, Jan; Eick, Sigrun

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 plays an important role in the adaptive immune response. Kgp, a lysine-specific cysteine protease from Porphyromonas gingivalis, specifically hydrolyses IgG1 heavy chains. The purpose of this study was to examine whether cleavage of IgG1 occurs in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in vivo, and whether there is any association with the presence of P. gingivalis and other periodontopathogens. Material and methods GCF was obtained from nine patients with aggressive periodontitis, nine with chronic periodontitis, and five periodontally-healthy individuals. The bacterial loads of P. gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Treponema denticola, Prevotella intermedia, and Tannerella forsythia were analysed by real-time PCR, and the presence and cleavage of IgG1 and IgG2 were determined using Western blotting. Kgp levels were measured by ELISA. Results Cleaved IgG1 was identified in the GCF from 67% of patients with aggressive periodontitis and in 44% of patients with chronic periodontitis. By contrast, no cleaved IgG1 was detectable in the healthy controls. No degradation of IgG2 was detected in any of the samples, regardless of health status. P. gingivalis was found in high numbers in all samples in which cleavage of IgG1 was detected (p < 0.001 compared with samples with no IgG cleavage). Furthermore, high numbers of T. forsythia and P. intermedia were also present in these samples. The level of Kgp in the GCF correlated with the load of P. gingivalis (r = 0.425, p < 0.01). The presence of Kgp (range 0.07–10.98 ng/ml) was associated with proteolytic fragments of IgG1 (p < 0.001). However, cleaved IgG1 was also detected in samples with no detectable Kgp. Conclusion In patients with periodontitis cleavage of IgG1 occurs in vivo and may suppress antibody-dependent antibacterial activity in subgingival biofilms especially those colonized by P. gingivalis. PMID:23116446

  13. Exploring Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Judith, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Exploratorium Magazine communicates ideas that exhibits cannot easily demonstrate, extending the museum beyond its physical walls. This issue takes an in-depth look at the science and history of paper. Topics include: (1) Fascinating Facts about Paper; (2) A Closer Look at the Paper in This Magazine; (3) Handmade Paper; (4) Paper Airplanes; (5)…

  14. Position paper: Seismic design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Farnworth, S.K.

    1995-05-22

    The purpose of this paper is to document the seismic design criteria to be used on the Title 11 design of the underground double-shell waste storage tanks and appurtenant facilities of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) project, and to provide the history and methodologies for determining the recommended Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) anchors for site-specific seismic response spectra curves. Response spectra curves for use in design are provided in Appendix A.

  15. IgG1 deficiency exacerbates experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis in BALB/c mice

    PubMed Central

    Huda, Ruksana; Strait, Richard T.; Tüzün, Erdem; Finkelman, Fred D.; Christadoss, Premkumar

    2015-01-01

    Myasthenia gravis is an autoimmune disease characterized by muscle weakness due to neuromuscular junction (NMJ) damage by anti-acetylcholine receptor (AChR) auto-antibodies and complement. In experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG), which is induced by immunization with Torpedo AChR in CFA, anti-AChR IgG2b and IgG1 are the predominant isotypes in the circulation. Complement activation by isotypes such as IgG2b plays a crucial role in EAMG pathogenesis; this suggested the possibility that IgG1, which does not activate complement through the classical pathway, may suppress EAMG. In this study, we show that AChR-immunized BALB/c mice genetically deficient for IgG1 produce higher levels of complement-activating isotypes of anti-AChR, especially IgG3 and IgG2a, and develop increased IgG3/IgG2a deposits at the NMJ, as compared to wild type (WT) BALB/c mice. Consistent with this, AChR-immunized IgG1−/− BALB/c mice lose muscle strength and muscle AChR to a greater extent than AChR-immunized WT mice. These observations demonstrate that IgG1 deficiency leads to increased severity of EAMG associated with an increase in complement activating IgG isotypes. Further studies are needed to dissect the specific role or mechanism of IgG1 in limiting EAMG and that of EAMG exacerbating role of complement activating IgG3 and IgG2a in IgG1 deficiency. PMID:25867470

  16. Mouse-human immunoglobulin G1 chimeric antibodies with activities against Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed Central

    Zebedee, S L; Koduri, R K; Mukherjee, J; Mukherjee, S; Lee, S; Sauer, D F; Scharff, M D; Casadevall, A

    1994-01-01

    Passive antibody administration is a potentially useful approach for the therapy of human Cryptococcus neoformans infections. To evaluate the efficacy of the human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) constant region against C. neoformans and to construct murine antibody derivatives with reduced immunogenicities and longer half-lives in humans, two mouse-human IgG1 chimeric antibodies were generated from the protective murine monoclonal antibodies 2D10 (IgM) and 18B7 (IgG1). The 2D10 mouse-human IgG1 chimeric antibody (ch2D10) had significantly lower binding affinity than its parent murine antibody (m2D10), presumably because of a loss of avidity contribution on switching from IgM to IgG. The 18B7 mouse-human IgG1 chimeric antibody (ch18B7) had higher affinity for cryptococcal polysaccharide antigen than its parent murine antibody (m18B7). ch18B7 and ch2D10 promoted phagocytosis of C. neoformans by primary human microglial cells and the murine J774.16 macrophage-like cell line. ch18B7 and m18B7 enhanced fungistatic or fungicidal activity of J774.16 cells and prolonged the survival of lethally infected mice. We conclude that the human IgG1 constant chain can be effective in mediating antifungal activity against C. neoformans. ch18B7 or similar antibodies are potential candidates for passive antibody therapy of human cryptococcosis. PMID:7979280

  17. Inhibition of erythrocyte invasion and Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 processing by human immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG3 antibodies.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, Maria; Guevara Patiño, José A; Jennings, Richard M; McIntosh, Richard S; Shi, Jianguo; Howell, Steven; Cullen, Eilish; Jones, Tarran; Adame-Gallegos, Jaime R; Chappel, Jonathan A; McBride, Jana S; Blackman, Michael J; Holder, Anthony A; Pleass, Richard J

    2009-12-01

    Antigen-specific antibodies (Abs) to the 19-kDa carboxy-terminal region of Plasmodium falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1(19)) play an important role in protective immunity to malaria. Mouse monoclonal Abs (MAbs) 12.10 and 12.8 recognizing MSP1(19) can inhibit red cell invasion by interfering with MSP1 processing on the merozoite surface. We show here that this ability is dependent on the intact Ab since Fab and F(ab')(2) fragments derived from MAb 12.10, although capable of binding MSP1 with high affinity and competing with the intact antibody for binding to MSP1, were unable to inhibit erythrocyte invasion or MSP1 processing. The DNA sequences of the variable (V) regions of both MAbs 12.8 and 12.10 were obtained, and partial amino acid sequences of the same regions were confirmed by mass spectrometry. Human chimeric Abs constructed by using these sequences, which combine the original mouse V regions with human gamma1 and gamma3 constant regions, retain the ability to bind to both parasites and recombinant MSP1(19), and both chimeric human immunoglobulin G1s (IgG1s) were at least as good at inhibiting erythrocyte invasion as the parental murine MAbs 12.8 and 12.10. Furthermore, the human chimeric Abs of the IgG1 class (but not the corresponding human IgG3), induced significant NADPH-mediated oxidative bursts and degranulation from human neutrophils. These chimeric human Abs will enable investigators to examine the role of human Fcgamma receptors in immunity to malaria using a transgenic parasite and mouse model and may prove useful in humans for neutralizing parasites as an adjunct to antimalarial drug therapy. PMID:19805526

  18. Transient Behaviour of Batch Arrival Queue with N-Policy and Single Vacation (Mx/G/1/N-POLICY)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, Anjana

    2009-07-01

    In this paper Mx/G/1 queuing system with N-policy and single vacation is considered. As soon as the system becomes empty, the server leaves the system for a vacation of random length V. When he returns from the vacation, if the system size is greater then or equal to predetermined value N (threshold), he begins to serve the customers. If not, the server waits in the system until the system size reaches or exceeds N. Here the time dependent system size distribution is obtained.

  19. Toward Independence: An Assessment of Federal Laws and Programs Affecting Persons with Disabilities--with Legislative Recommendations. Appendix: Topic Papers. A Report to the President and the Congress of the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    Ten topic papers examine federal laws and programs affecting persons with disabilities and make recommendations for improved use of federal money. The papers cover: (1) equal opportunity laws, examining the status of disability-related equal opportunity laws and identifying gaps in coverage, shortcomings and inconsistencies in interpretation and…

  20. A Dynamical Framework for the All-or-None G1/S Transition

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Alexis R.; Heldt, Frank S.; Zhang, Tongli; Bakal, Chris; Novák, Béla

    2016-01-01

    Summary The transition from G1 into DNA replication (S phase) is an emergent behavior resulting from dynamic and complex interactions between cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), Cdk inhibitors (CKIs), and the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). Understanding the cellular decision to commit to S phase requires a quantitative description of these interactions. We apply quantitative imaging of single human cells to track the expression of G1/S regulators and use these data to parametrize a stochastic mathematical model of the G1/S transition. We show that a rapid, proteolytic, double-negative feedback loop between Cdk2:Cyclin and the Cdk inhibitor p27Kip1 drives a switch-like entry into S phase. Furthermore, our model predicts that increasing Emi1 levels throughout S phase are critical in maintaining irreversibility of the G1/S transition, which we validate using Emi1 knockdown and live imaging of G1/S reporters. This work provides insight into the general design principles of the signaling networks governing the temporally abrupt transitions between cell-cycle phases. PMID:27136687

  1. Post-translational Modifications Differentially Affect IgG1 Conformation and Receptor Binding*

    PubMed Central

    Houde, Damian; Peng, Yucai; Berkowitz, Steven A.; Engen, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) can have profound effects on protein structure and protein dynamics and thereby can influence protein function. To understand and connect PTM-induced functional differences with any resulting conformational changes, the conformational changes must be detected and localized to specific parts of the protein. We illustrate these principles here with a study of the functional and conformational changes that accompany modifications to a monoclonal immunoglobulin γ1 (IgG1) antibody. IgG1s are large and heterogeneous proteins capable of incorporating a multiplicity of PTMs both in vivo and in vitro. For many IgG1s, these PTMs can play a critical role in affecting conformation, biological function, and the ability of the antibody to initiate a potential adverse biological response. We investigated the impact of differential galactosylation, methionine oxidation, and fucosylation on solution conformation using hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry and probed the effects of IgG1 binding to the FcγRIIIa receptor. The results showed that methionine oxidation and galactosylation both impact IgG1 conformation, whereas fucosylation appears to have little or no impact to the conformation. FcγRIIIa binding was strongly influenced by both the glycan structure/composition (namely galactose and fucose) and conformational changes that were induced by some of the modifications. PMID:20103567

  2. Integrin signaling at the M/G1 transition induces expression of cyclin E.

    PubMed

    Hulleman, E; Bijvelt, J J; Verkleij, A J; Verrips, C T; Boonstra, J

    1999-12-15

    The activities of the mammalian G1 cyclins, cyclin D and cyclin E, during cell cycle progression (G1/S) are believed to be regulated by cell attachment and the presence of growth factors. In order to study the importance of cell attachment and concomitant integrin signaling on the expression of G1 cyclins during the natural adhesion process from mitosis to interphase, protein expression was monitored in cells that were synchronized by mitotic shake off. Here we show that in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and neuroblastoma (N2A) cells, expression of cyclin E at the M/G1 transition is regulated by both growth factors and cell attachment, while expression of cyclin D seems to be entirely dependent on the presence of serum. Expression of cyclin E appears to be correlated with the phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein, suggesting a link with the activity of the cyclin D/cdk4 complex. Expression of the cdk inhibitors p21(cip1/Waf1) and p27(Kip1) is not changed upon serum depletion or detachment of cells during early G1, suggesting no direct role for these CKIs in the regulation of cyclin activity. Although inhibition of cyclin E/cdk2 kinase activity has been reported previously, this is the first time that cyclin E expression is shown to be dependent on cell attachment. PMID:10585265

  3. Human Pancreatic β-Cell G1/S Molecule Cell Cycle Atlas

    PubMed Central

    Fiaschi-Taesch, Nathalie M.; Kleinberger, Jeffrey W.; Salim, Fatimah G.; Troxell, Ronnie; Wills, Rachel; Tanwir, Mansoor; Casinelli, Gabriella; Cox, Amy E.; Takane, Karen K.; Scott, Donald K.; Stewart, Andrew F.

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of pancreatic β-cells is a key goal of diabetes research, yet induction of adult human β-cell replication has proven frustratingly difficult. In part, this reflects a lack of understanding of cell cycle control in the human β-cell. Here, we provide a comprehensive immunocytochemical “atlas” of G1/S control molecules in the human β-cell. This atlas reveals that the majority of these molecules, previously known to be present in islets, are actually present in the β-cell. More importantly, and in contrast to anticipated results, the human β-cell G1/S atlas reveals that almost all of the critical G1/S cell cycle control molecules are located in the cytoplasm of the quiescent human β-cell. Indeed, the only nuclear G1/S molecules are the cell cycle inhibitors, pRb, p57, and variably, p21: none of the cyclins or cdks necessary to drive human β-cell proliferation are present in the nuclear compartment. This observation may provide an explanation for the refractoriness of human β-cells to proliferation. Thus, in addition to known obstacles to human β-cell proliferation, restriction of G1/S molecules to the cytoplasm of the human β-cell represents an unanticipated obstacle to therapeutic human β-cell expansion. PMID:23493570

  4. Cellulose Synthesis Is Coupled to Cell Cycle Progression at G1 in the Dinoflagellate Crypthecodinium cohnii

    PubMed Central

    Kwok, Alvin C.M.; Wong, Joseph T.Y.

    2003-01-01

    Cellulosic deposition in alveolar vesicles forms the “internal cell wall” in thecated dinoflagellates. The availability of synchronized single cells, the lack of secondary deposition, and the absence of cellulosic cell plates at division facilitate investigation of the possible roles of cellulose synthesis (CS) in the entire cell cycle. Flow cytograms of cellulosic contents revealed a stepwise process of CS in the dinoflagellate cell cycle, with the highest rate occurring at G1. A cell cycle delay in G1, but not G2/M, was observed after inhibition of CS. A cell cycle inhibitor of G1/S, but not G2/M, was able to delay cell cycle progression with a corresponding reduction of CS. The increase of cellulose content in the cell cycle corresponded well to the expected increase of surface area. No differences were observed in the cellulose to surface area ratio between normal and fast-growing G1 cells, implicating the significance of surface area in linking CS to the coupling of cell growth with cell cycle progression. The coupling of CS to G1 implicates a novel link between CS and cell cycle control, and we postulate that the coupling mechanism might integrate cell wall integrity to the cell size checkpoint. PMID:12692327

  5. A comparative genomic analysis of the alkalitolerant soil bacterium Bacillus lehensis G1.

    PubMed

    Noor, Yusuf Muhammad; Samsulrizal, Nurul Hidayah; Jema'on, Noor Azah; Low, Kheng Oon; Ramli, Aizi Nor Mazila; Alias, Noor Izawati; Damis, Siti Intan Rosdianah; Fuzi, Siti Fatimah Zaharah Mohd; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat; Murad, Abdul Munir Abdul; Raih, Mohd Firdaus Mohd; Bakar, Farah Diba Abu; Najimudin, Nazalan; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Illias, Rosli Md

    2014-07-25

    Bacillus lehensis G1 is a Gram-positive, moderately alkalitolerant bacterium isolated from soil samples. B. lehensis produces cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase), an enzyme that has enabled the extensive use of cyclodextrin in foodstuffs, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The genome sequence of B. lehensis G1 consists of a single circular 3.99 Mb chromosome containing 4017 protein-coding sequences (CDSs), of which 2818 (70.15%) have assigned biological roles, 936 (23.30%) have conserved domains with unknown functions, and 263 (6.55%) have no match with any protein database. Bacillus clausii KSM-K16 was established as the closest relative to B. lehensis G1 based on gene content similarity and 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis. A total of 2820 proteins from B. lehensis G1 were found to have orthologues in B. clausii, including sodium-proton antiporters, transport proteins, and proteins involved in ATP synthesis. A comparative analysis of these proteins and those in B. clausii and other alkaliphilic Bacillus species was carried out to investigate their contributions towards the alkalitolerance of the microorganism. The similarities and differences in alkalitolerance-related genes among alkalitolerant/alkaliphilic Bacillus species highlight the complex mechanism of pH homeostasis. The B. lehensis G1 genome was also mined for proteins and enzymes with potential viability for industrial and commercial purposes. PMID:24811681

  6. Paper electronics.

    PubMed

    Tobjörk, Daniel; Österbacka, Ronald

    2011-05-01

    Paper is ubiquitous in everyday life and a truly low-cost substrate. The use of paper substrates could be extended even further, if electronic applications would be applied next to or below the printed graphics. However, applying electronics on paper is challenging. The paper surface is not only very rough compared to plastics, but is also porous. While this is detrimental for most electronic devices manufactured directly onto paper substrates, there are also approaches that are compatible with the rough and absorptive paper surface. In this review, recent advances and possibilities of these approaches are evaluated and the limitations of paper electronics are discussed. PMID:21433116

  7. Detection of histidine oxidation in a monoclonal immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) 1 antibody.

    PubMed

    Amano, Masato; Kobayashi, Naoki; Yabuta, Masayuki; Uchiyama, Susumu; Fukui, Kiichi

    2014-08-01

    Although oxidation of methionine and tryptophan are known as popular chemical modifications that occur in monoclonal antibody (mAb) molecules, oxidation of other amino acids in mAbs has not been reported to date. In this study, oxidation of the histidine residue in a human immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) 1 molecule was discovered for the first time by mass spectrometry. The oxidation of a specific histidine located at the CH2 domain of IgG1 occurred under light stress, but it was not observed under heat stress. With the forced degradation study using several reactive oxygen species, the singlet oxygen was attributed to a reactive source of the histidine oxidation. The reaction mechanism of the histidine oxidation was proposed on the basis of the mass spectrometric analysis of IgG1 oxidized in deuterium oxide and hydrogen heavy oxide. PMID:24940720

  8. Extraction of monoclonal antibodies (IgG1) using anionic and anionic/nonionic reverse micelles.

    PubMed

    George, Daliya A; Stuckey, David C

    2010-01-01

    Purification schemes for antibody production based on affinity chromatography are trying to keep pace with increases in cell culture expression levels and many current research initiatives are focused on finding alternatives to chromatography for the purification of Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs). In this article, we have investigated an alternative separation technique based on liquid-liquid extraction called the reverse micellar extraction. We extracted MAb (IgG1) using reverse micelles of an anionic surfactant, sodium bis 2-ethyl-hexyl sulfosuccinate (AOT) and a combination of anionic (AOT) and nonionic surfactants (Brij-30, Tween-85, Span-85) using isooctane as the solvent system. The extraction efficiency of IgG1 was studied by varying parameters, such as pH of the aqueous phase, cation concentration, and type and surfactant concentration. Using the AOT/Isooctane reverse micellar system, we could achieve good overall extraction of IgG1 (between 80 and 90%), but only 30% of the bioactivity of IgG1 could be recovered at the end of the extraction by using its binding to affinity chromatography columns as a surrogate measure of activity. As anionic surfactants were suspected as being one of the reasons for the reduced activity, we decided to combine a nonionic surfactant with an anionic surfactant and then study its effect on the extraction efficiency and bioactivity. The best results were obtained using an AOT/Brij-30/Isooctane reverse micellar system, which gave an overall extraction above 90 and 59% overall activity recovery. An AOT/Tween-85/Isooctane reverse micellar system gave an overall extraction of between 75 and 80% and overall activity recovery of around 40-45%. The results showed that the activity recovery of IgG1 can be significantly enhanced using different surfactant combination systems, and if the recovery of IgG1 can be further enhanced, the technique shows considerable promise for the downstream purification of MAbs. PMID:20665658

  9. Organization of the United States International Communications Industry. Appendix. Report of the Panel on Satellites and Other Long-Haul Transmission Modes of the National Academy of Engineering. President's Task Force on Communications Policy. Staff Paper Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rostow, Eugene V.

    A staff paper to the President's Task Force on Communications Policy reviews the organization of the American international communications industries and recommends a consolidation of the competing international carriers. Particularly emphasized is the competition and division of ownership between the two technologies involved in international…

  10. Linking the VPS35 and EIF4G1 pathways in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ross, Owen A; Cook, Casey; Petrucelli, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Elucidating the underlying pathogenic pathways in Parkinson's disease will be critical for targeted drug development. In this issue of Neuron, Dhungel et al. (2015) utilize a yeast model to establish a link between VPS35 and EIF4G1 in α-synuclein-related neurodegeneration. PMID:25569341

  11. Conversion of 11-hydroxy-O-methylsterigmatocystin to aflatoxin G1 in Aspergillus parasiticus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In aflatoxin biosynthesis, aflatoxins G1 (AFG1) and B1 (AFB1) are independently produced from a common precursor, O-methylsterigmatocystin (OMST). Recently, 11-hydroxy-O-methylsterigmatocystin (HOMST) was identified as a later precursor involved in the conversion of OMST to AFB1. However, the invo...

  12. Checkpoint kinase inhibitor synergizes with DNA-damaging agents in G1 checkpoint-defective neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Cheung, Irene Y; Wei, Xiao X; Tran, Hoa; Gao, Xiaoni; Cheung, Nai-Kong V

    2011-10-15

    Checkpoint kinase inhibitors can enhance the cancer killing action of DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents by disrupting the S/G(2) cell cycle checkpoints. The in vitro and in vivo effects of the Chk1/2 inhibitor AZD7762 when combined with these agents were examined using neuroblastoma cell lines with known p53/MDM2/p14(ARF) genomic status. Four of four p53 mutant lines and three of five MDM2/p14(ARF) abnormal lines were defective in G(1) checkpoint, correlating with failure to induce endogenous p21 after treatment with DNA-damaging agents. In cytotoxicity assays, these G(1) checkpoint-defective lines were more resistant to DNA-damaging agents when compared to G(1) checkpoint intact lines, yet becoming more sensitive when AZD7762 was added. Moreover, AZD7762 abrogated DNA damage-induced S/G(2) checkpoint arrest both in vitro and in vivo. In xenograft models, a significant delay in tumor growth accompanied by histological evidence of increased apoptosis was observed, when AZD7762 was added to the DNA-damaging drug gemcitabine. These results suggest a therapeutic potential of combination therapy using checkpoint kinase inhibitor and chemotherapy to reverse or prevent drug resistance in treating neuroblastomas with defective G(1) checkpoints. PMID:21154747

  13. Human IgG1 antibodies suppress angiogenesis in a target-independent manner

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanovich, Sasha; Kim, Younghee; Mizutani, Takeshi; Yasuma, Reo; Tudisco, Laura; Cicatiello, Valeria; Bastos-Carvalho, Ana; Kerur, Nagaraj; Hirano, Yoshio; Baffi, Judit Z; Tarallo, Valeria; Li, Shengjian; Yasuma, Tetsuhiro; Arpitha, Parthasarathy; Fowler, Benjamin J; Wright, Charles B; Apicella, Ivana; Greco, Adelaide; Brunetti, Arturo; Ruvo, Menotti; Sandomenico, Annamaria; Nozaki, Miho; Ijima, Ryo; Kaneko, Hiroki; Ogura, Yuichiro; Terasaki, Hiroko; Ambati, Balamurali K; Leusen, Jeanette HW; Langdon, Wallace Y; Clark, Michael R; Armour, Kathryn L; Bruhns, Pierre; Verbeek, J Sjef; Gelfand, Bradley D; De Falco, Sandro; Ambati, Jayakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant angiogenesis is implicated in diseases affecting nearly 10% of the world’s population. The most widely used anti-angiogenic drug is bevacizumab, a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that targets human VEGFA. Although bevacizumab does not recognize mouse Vegfa, it inhibits angiogenesis in mice. Here we show bevacizumab suppressed angiogenesis in three mouse models not via Vegfa blockade but rather Fc-mediated signaling through FcγRI (CD64) and c-Cbl, impairing macrophage migration. Other approved humanized or human IgG1 antibodies without mouse targets (adalimumab, alemtuzumab, ofatumumab, omalizumab, palivizumab and tocilizumab), mouse IgG2a, and overexpression of human IgG1-Fc or mouse IgG2a-Fc, also inhibited angiogenesis in wild-type and FcγR humanized mice. This anti-angiogenic effect was abolished by Fcgr1 ablation or knockdown, Fc cleavage, IgG-Fc inhibition, disruption of Fc-FcγR interaction, or elimination of FcRγ-initated signaling. Furthermore, bevacizumab’s Fc region potentiated its anti-angiogenic activity in humanized VEGFA mice. Finally, mice deficient in FcγRI exhibited increased developmental and pathological angiogenesis. These findings reveal an unexpected anti-angiogenic function for FcγRI and a potentially concerning off-target effect of hIgG1 therapies. PMID:26918197

  14. 17 CFR 275.202(a)(11)(G)-1 - Family offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family offices. 275.202(a)(11... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.202(a)(11)(G)-1 Family offices. (a) Exclusion. A family office, as defined in this section, shall not be considered to be...

  15. 17 CFR 275.202(a)(11)(G)-1 - Family offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Family offices. 275.202(a)(11... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.202(a)(11)(G)-1 Family offices. (a) Exclusion. A family office, as defined in this section, shall not be considered to be...

  16. 17 CFR 275.202(a)(11)(G)-1 - Family offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Family offices. 275.202(a)(11... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) RULES AND REGULATIONS, INVESTMENT ADVISERS ACT OF 1940 § 275.202(a)(11)(G)-1 Family offices. (a) Exclusion. A family office, as defined in this section, shall not be considered to be...

  17. Learning Progression of Ecological System Reasoning for Lower Elementary (G1-4) Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hokayem, Hayat Al

    2012-01-01

    In this study, I utilized a learning progression framework to investigate lower elementary students (G1-4) systemic reasoning in ecology and I related students reasoning to their sources of knowledge. I used semi-structured interviews with 44 students from first through fourth grade, four teachers, and eight parents. The results revealed that a…

  18. H, G1, G2 photometric phase function extended to low-accuracy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penttilä, A.; Shevchenko, V. G.; Wilkman, O.; Muinonen, K.

    2016-04-01

    We introduce a constrained nonlinear least-squares algorithm to be used in estimating the parameters in the H, G1, G2 phase function. As the algorithm works directly in the magnitude space, it will surpass the possible bias problem that may be present in the existing H ,G1 ,G2 fit procedure when applied to low-accuracy observations with large magnitude variations. With constraints on the photometric phase-curve shape parameters G1 and G2, it guarantees a physically reasonable phase-curve estimate. With a new data set of 93 asteroids, we re-assess the two-parameter version of the H ,G1 ,G2 function. Finally, we introduce a one-parameter version of the phase function that can give a suggestion of the asteroids taxonomic group based only on its phase curve. A statistical model selection procedure is presented that can automatically select between the different versions of the photometric phase functions. An online tool that implements these algorithms is introduced.

  19. 26 CFR 1.414(g)-1 - Definition of plan administrator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Definition of plan administrator. 1.414(g)-1... Definition of plan administrator. (a) In general. For purposes of part I of subchapter D of chapter 1 of the... specifically designates a person or a group of persons as plan administrator, the person or group of...

  20. Lattice QCD results for the B --> D(*) l nu form factors: F(1) and G(1)

    SciTech Connect

    Van de Water, R.S.; /Fermilab

    2007-01-01

    I review the current status of lattice QCD calculations of the B {yields} D and B {yields} D* form factors and discuss prospects for their improvement. Successful calculations within the quenched approximation demonstrate the power of lattice methods for calculating F(1) and G(1), and the unquenched calculations in progress should soon allow for a 2-3% exclusive determination of |Vcb|.

  1. Overview of Shipyard coast line with Piers G1, G2, G3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of Shipyard coast line with Piers G-1, G-2, G-3, G-4, and G-5 in view, view facing east-southeast - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Pier & Quay Walls, Entrance to Dry Dock No. 2 & Repair Wharfs, east & west sides of Dry Dock No. 2 & west side of Dry Dock No. 3, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  2. The Hot Stellar Content and HB morphology of the massive globular cluster G1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, R.

    2010-09-01

    We propose to obtain deep WFC3 imagery of the Local Group's most luminous globular cluster, G1. Our primary aim is to define the hot stellar content and the extent of what appears to be a multimodal horizontal branch, analogous to those known in Omega Cen and NGC 2808. G1 is 40 kpc distant in the M31, and it would have been highly unlikely that collision with a giant molecular clould would be responsible for the complex populations which must therefore be the result of self-enrichment. We will obtain data very similar to those obtained for the known Galactic multimodal globular clusters NGC 6388 and 6441, and compare the stellar distribution on the horizontal branch with models. We can constrain the fraction of helium-enriched stars, if present, and search for supra-horizontal branch and other anomalous hot, evolved, stars. Parallel ACS observations will be the deepest ever obtained in the adjacnt field to G1, and will help to constrain whether G1 was the nucleus of a now disrupted galaxy.

  3. A mechanism for the suppression of homologous recombination in G1 cells.

    PubMed

    Orthwein, Alexandre; Noordermeer, Sylvie M; Wilson, Marcus D; Landry, Sébastien; Enchev, Radoslav I; Sherker, Alana; Munro, Meagan; Pinder, Jordan; Salsman, Jayme; Dellaire, Graham; Xia, Bing; Peter, Matthias; Durocher, Daniel

    2015-12-17

    DNA repair by homologous recombination is highly suppressed in G1 cells to ensure that mitotic recombination occurs solely between sister chromatids. Although many homologous recombination factors are cell-cycle regulated, the identity of the events that are both necessary and sufficient to suppress recombination in G1 cells is unknown. Here we report that the cell cycle controls the interaction of BRCA1 with PALB2-BRCA2 to constrain BRCA2 function to the S/G2 phases in human cells. We found that the BRCA1-interaction site on PALB2 is targeted by an E3 ubiquitin ligase composed of KEAP1, a PALB2-interacting protein, in complex with cullin-3 (CUL3)-RBX1 (ref. 6). PALB2 ubiquitylation suppresses its interaction with BRCA1 and is counteracted by the deubiquitylase USP11, which is itself under cell cycle control. Restoration of the BRCA1-PALB2 interaction combined with the activation of DNA-end resection is sufficient to induce homologous recombination in G1, as measured by RAD51 recruitment, unscheduled DNA synthesis and a CRISPR-Cas9-based gene-targeting assay. We conclude that the mechanism prohibiting homologous recombination in G1 minimally consists of the suppression of DNA-end resection coupled with a multi-step block of the recruitment of BRCA2 to DNA damage sites that involves the inhibition of BRCA1-PALB2-BRCA2 complex assembly. We speculate that the ability to induce homologous recombination in G1 cells with defined factors could spur the development of gene-targeting applications in non-dividing cells. PMID:26649820

  4. Torn Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Louis J.

    1975-01-01

    Colored construction paper was used to develop an interesting, creative experience for elementary and high school students, who learned to appreciate and to understand the torn paper innovation in art. Examples of this tearing technique are found in works by Picasso, Motherwell, Vincenti, and Matisse. (Author/RK)

  5. Paper Trail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Denis

    2007-01-01

    Invented in 1948, electric hand dryers now are widely available in public restrooms. Given the expense of making paper, the labor involved in keeping restrooms stocked, and the waste generated from disposing paper, the use of hand dryers is an alternative for school and university facility owners and managers. However, standing in the way of…

  6. 26 CFR 31.3406(g)-1 - Exception for payments to certain payees and certain other payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... certain other payments. 31.3406(g)-1 Section 31.3406(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... TAXES AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAX AT SOURCE Collection of Income Tax at Source § 31.3406(g)-1 Exception for payments to certain payees and certain other payments. (a) Exempt recipients—(1) In general....

  7. 17 CFR 270.17g-1 - Bonding of officers and employees of registered management investment companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bonding of officers and employees of registered management investment companies. 270.17g-1 Section 270.17g-1 Commodity and... ACT OF 1940 § 270.17g-1 Bonding of officers and employees of registered management...

  8. 17 CFR 240.17g-1 - Application for registration as a nationally recognized statistical rating organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... as a nationally recognized statistical rating organization. 240.17g-1 Section 240.17g-1 Commodity and... Statistical Rating Organizations § 240.17g-1 Application for registration as a nationally recognized statistical rating organization. (a) Initial application. A credit rating agency applying to the Commission...

  9. 17 CFR 240.17g-1 - Application for registration as a nationally recognized statistical rating organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... as a nationally recognized statistical rating organization. 240.17g-1 Section 240.17g-1 Commodity and... Statistical Rating Organizations § 240.17g-1 Application for registration as a nationally recognized statistical rating organization. (a) Initial application. A credit rating agency applying to the Commission...

  10. 17 CFR 240.17g-1 - Application for registration as a nationally recognized statistical rating organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... as a nationally recognized statistical rating organization. 240.17g-1 Section 240.17g-1 Commodity and... Statistical Rating Organizations § 240.17g-1 Application for registration as a nationally recognized statistical rating organization. (a) Initial application. A credit rating agency applying to the Commission...

  11. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1T - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... loss account (temporary). 1.904(g)-1T Section 1.904(g)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... United States § 1.904(g)-1T Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account (temporary). (a... accounts for purposes of section 904(g). Section 1.904(g)-2T provides rules for recapturing the balance...

  12. 26 CFR 301.6011(g)-1 - Disclosure by taxable party to the tax-exempt entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... entity. 301.6011(g)-1 Section 301.6011(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Returns and Records § 301.6011(g)-1 Disclosure by taxable party to the tax-exempt entity. (a) Requirement... prohibited tax shelter transaction. For purposes of section 6011(g), a tax-exempt entity is a party to...

  13. 26 CFR 301.6011(g)-1 - Disclosure by taxable party to the tax-exempt entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... entity. 301.6011(g)-1 Section 301.6011(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Returns and Records § 301.6011(g)-1 Disclosure by taxable party to the tax-exempt entity. (a) Requirement... prohibited tax shelter transaction. For purposes of section 6011(g), a tax-exempt entity is a party to...

  14. 26 CFR 1.1402(g)-1 - Treatment of certain remuneration erroneously reported as net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... reported as net earnings from self-employment. 1.1402(g)-1 Section 1.1402(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(g)-1 Treatment of certain remuneration erroneously reported as... request, and should indicate clearly that it is a request that, pursuant to section 1402(g) of the...

  15. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1T - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... loss account (temporary). 1.904(g)-1T Section 1.904(g)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Without the United States § 1.904(g)-1T Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account... reductions from such accounts for purposes of section 904(g). Section 1.904(g)-2T provides rules...

  16. 26 CFR 1.904(g)-1T - Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account (temporary).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... loss account (temporary). 1.904(g)-1T Section 1.904(g)-1T Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE... Without the United States § 1.904(g)-1T Overall domestic loss and the overall domestic loss account... reductions from such accounts for purposes of section 904(g). Section 1.904(g)-2T provides rules...

  17. 26 CFR 1.1402(g)-1 - Treatment of certain remuneration erroneously reported as net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... reported as net earnings from self-employment. 1.1402(g)-1 Section 1.1402(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(g)-1 Treatment of certain remuneration erroneously reported as... request, and should indicate clearly that it is a request that, pursuant to section 1402(g) of the...

  18. 26 CFR 301.6011(g)-1 - Disclosure by taxable party to the tax-exempt entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... entity. 301.6011(g)-1 Section 301.6011(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Returns and Records § 301.6011(g)-1 Disclosure by taxable party to the tax-exempt entity. (a) Requirement... prohibited tax shelter transaction. For purposes of section 6011(g), a tax-exempt entity is a party to...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1402(g)-1 - Treatment of certain remuneration erroneously reported as net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... reported as net earnings from self-employment. 1.1402(g)-1 Section 1.1402(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(g)-1 Treatment of certain remuneration erroneously reported as... request, and should indicate clearly that it is a request that, pursuant to section 1402(g) of the...

  20. 26 CFR 301.6011(g)-1 - Disclosure by taxable party to the tax-exempt entity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... entity. 301.6011(g)-1 Section 301.6011(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Returns and Records § 301.6011(g)-1 Disclosure by taxable party to the tax-exempt entity. (a) Requirement... prohibited tax shelter transaction. For purposes of section 6011(g), a tax-exempt entity is a party to...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1402(g)-1 - Treatment of certain remuneration erroneously reported as net earnings from self-employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... reported as net earnings from self-employment. 1.1402(g)-1 Section 1.1402(g)-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL...) Tax on Self-Employment Income § 1.1402(g)-1 Treatment of certain remuneration erroneously reported as... request, and should indicate clearly that it is a request that, pursuant to section 1402(g) of the...

  2. 17 CFR 240.17g-1 - Application for registration as a nationally recognized statistical rating organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... as a nationally recognized statistical rating organization. 240.17g-1 Section 240.17g-1 Commodity and... Statistical Rating Organizations § 240.17g-1 Application for registration as a nationally recognized statistical rating organization. (a) Initial application. A credit rating agency applying to the Commission...

  3. 17 CFR 240.17g-1 - Application for registration as a nationally recognized statistical rating organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... as a nationally recognized statistical rating organization. 240.17g-1 Section 240.17g-1 Commodity and... Statistical Rating Organizations § 240.17g-1 Application for registration as a nationally recognized statistical rating organization. (a) Initial application. A credit rating agency applying to the Commission...

  4. Permanent draft genome sequence of the gliding predator Saprospira grandis strain Sa g1 (= HR1)

    SciTech Connect

    Mavromatis, K; Chertkov, Olga; Lapidus, Alla L.; Nolan, Matt; Lucas, Susan; Tice, Hope; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Cheng, Jan-Fang; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Bruce, David; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Pitluck, Sam; Huntemann, Marcel; Liolios, Konstantinos; Pagani, Ioanna; Ivanova, N; Mikhailova, Natalia; Pati, Amrita; Chen, Amy; Palaniappan, Krishna; Land, Miriam L; Brambilla, Evelyne-Marie; Rohde, Manfred; Spring, Stefan; Goker, Markus; Detter, J. Chris; Bristow, James; Eisen, Jonathan; Markowitz, Victor; Hugenholtz, Philip; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Woyke, Tanja

    2012-01-01

    Saprospira grandis Gross et al. 1911 is a member of the Saprospiraceae, a family in the class 'Sphingobacteria' that remains poorly characterized at the genomic level. The species is known for preying on other marine bacteria via 'ixotrophy'. S. grandis strain Sa g1 was isolated from decaying crab carapace in France and was selected for genome sequencing because of its isolated location in the tree of life. Only one type strain genome has been published so far from the Saprospiraceae, while the sequence of strain Sa g1 represents the second genome to be published from a non-type strain of S. grandis. Here we describe the features of this organism, together with the complete genome sequence and annotation. The 4,495,250 bp long Improved-High-Quality draft of the genome with its 3,536 protein-coding and 62 RNA genes is a part of the Genomic Encyclopedia of Bacteria and Archaea project.

  5. Echinococcus ortleppi and E. granulosus G1, G2 and G3 genotypes in Italian bovines.

    PubMed

    Casulli, Adriano; Manfredi, Maria Teresa; La Rosa, Giuseppe; Cerbo, Anna Rita Di; Genchi, Claudio; Pozio, Edoardo

    2008-08-01

    To increase the knowledge on Echinococcus genotypes infesting cattle and water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) born and bred in Italy, the germinal layer of hydatid cysts was collected from the liver and the lungs of 80 animals slaughtered in 2007. Two mitochondrial genes (the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and the NADH subunit I) were tested by PCR. Four genotypes were identified: G1 (sheep strain), G2 (Tasmanian sheep strain), G3 (buffalo strain), and G5 (cattle strain). Fertile cysts were detected only in the lungs of 4.5% of the total G1 lung cysts, of 9.4% of the total G3 lung cysts, and in the only G5 infected animal. This is the first report of Echinococcus ortleppi (genotype G5) in Italy. PMID:18514422

  6. Implications of intermediate mass black hole in globular cluster G1 on dark matter detection.

    SciTech Connect

    Zaharijas, G.; High Energy Physics

    2008-07-01

    Recently there has been growing evidence in favor of the presence of an intermediate mass black hole in the globular cluster G1, in Andromeda Galaxy. Under the assumption that formation of this globular cluster occurred within a dark matter halo, we explore whether the presence of a black hole could result in an observable gamma ray signal due to dark matter annihilation in this globular cluster. Starting from an initial Navarro-Frenk-White matter profile, with density parameters consistent with G1 observations, we find that indeed, if the spike in the density has been formed and has survived until the present, the signal could be observed by GLAST and current atmospheric Cerenkov telescope detectors.

  7. Implications of the intermediate mass black hole in globular cluster G1 on dark matter detection

    SciTech Connect

    Zaharijas, Gabrijela

    2008-07-15

    Recently there has been growing evidence in favor of the presence of an intermediate mass black hole in the globular cluster G1, in Andromeda Galaxy. Under the assumption that formation of this globular cluster occurred within a dark matter halo, we explore whether the presence of a black hole could result in an observable gamma ray signal due to dark matter annihilation in this globular cluster. Starting from an initial Navarro-Frenk-White matter profile, with density parameters consistent with G1 observations, we find that indeed, if the spike in the density has been formed and has survived until the present, the signal could be observed by GLAST and current atmospheric Cerenkov telescope detectors.

  8. The Drosophila melanogaster developmental gene g1 encodes a variant zinc-finger-motif protein.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, M L; Côté, S

    1993-03-30

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the mechanisms involved in the pattern formation of complex internal organs are still largely unknown. However, the identity of the molecular determinants that control the development of these specific tissues is emerging from the combined use of genetic and molecular approaches. We have cloned a gene that is expressed in the mesoderm, one of the fundamental embryonic germ layers which gives rise to internal structures, such as the musculature. Here, we describe the molecular characterization of this gene, designated as g1. The nucleotide (nt) sequence of its cDNA shows an open reading frame of 852 nt, which encodes a 32-kDa protein with two putative zinc fingers, and a serine/glutamine/proline-rich region. These features indicate a functional role for g1, which remains to be elucidated, in regulating gene expression during mesoderm formation. PMID:8462875

  9. NONTHERMAL PROPERTIES OF SUPERNOVA REMNANT G1.9+0.3

    SciTech Connect

    Ksenofontov, L. T.; Berezhko, E. G.; Voelk, H. J.

    2010-05-10

    The properties of the-presumably-youngest Galactic supernova remnant (SNR) G1.9+0.3 are investigated within the framework of nonlinear kinetic theory of cosmic ray acceleration in SNRs. The observed angular size and expansion speed as well as the radio and X-ray emission measurements are used to determine relevant physical parameters of this SNR. Under the assumption that SNR G1.9+0.3 is the result of a Type Ia supernova near the Galactic center (at the distance d = 8.5 kpc), the nonthermal properties are calculated. In particular, the expected TeV gamma-ray spectral energy density is predicted to be as low as {epsilon}{sub {gamma}} F{sub {gamma} {approx}} 5 x 10{sup -15} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, strongly dependent (F{sub {gamma} {proportional_to}} d {sup -11}) upon the source distance d.

  10. NONUNIFORM EXPANSION OF THE YOUNGEST GALACTIC SUPERNOVA REMNANT G1.9+0.3

    SciTech Connect

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Green, David A.; Hwang, Una; Petre, Robert; Willett, Rebecca

    2014-08-01

    We report measurements of the X-ray expansion of the youngest Galactic supernova remnant, G1.9+0.3, using Chandra observations in 2007, 2009, and 2011. The measured rates strongly deviate from uniform expansion, decreasing radially by about 60% along the X-ray bright SE-NW axis from 0.84% ± 0.06% yr{sup –1} to 0.52% ± 0.03% yr{sup –1}. This corresponds to undecelerated ages of 120-190 yr, confirming the young age of G1.9+0.3 and implying a significant deceleration of the blast wave. The synchrotron-dominated X-ray emission brightens at a rate of 1.9% ± 0.4% yr{sup –1}. We identify bright outer and inner rims with the blast wave and reverse shock, respectively. Sharp density gradients in either the ejecta or ambient medium are required to produce the sudden deceleration of the reverse shock or the blast wave implied by the large spread in expansion ages. The blast wave could have been decelerated recently by an encounter with a modest density discontinuity in the ambient medium, such as may be found at a wind termination shock, requiring strong mass loss in the progenitor. Alternatively, the reverse shock might have encountered an order-of-magnitude density discontinuity within the ejecta, such as may be found in pulsating delayed-detonation Type Ia models. We demonstrate that the blast wave is much more decelerated than the reverse shock in these models for remnants at ages similar to G1.9+0.3. Similar effects may also be produced by dense shells possibly associated with high-velocity features in Type Ia spectra. Accounting for the asymmetry of G1.9+0.3 will require more realistic three-dimensional Type Ia models.

  11. SUMOylation of Rb enhances its binding with CDK2 and phosphorylation at early G1 phase

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fengxi; Qian, Jiang; Yue, Han; Li, Xiaofeng; Xue, Kang

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) is a prototypical tumor suppressor that is vital to the negative regulation of the cell cycle and tumor progression. Hypo-phosphorylated Rb is associated with G0/G1 arrest by suppressing E2F transcription factor activity, whereas Rb hyper-phosphorylation allows E2F release and cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to S phase. However, the factors that regulate cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK)-dependent hyper-phosphorylation of Rb during the cell cycle remain obscure. In this study, we show that throughout the cell cycle, Rb is specifically small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)ylated at early G1 phase. SUMOylation of Rb stimulates its phosphorylation level by recruiting a SUMO-interaction motif (SIM)-containing kinase CDK2, leading to Rb hyper-phosphorylation and E2F-1 release. In contrast, a SUMO-deficient Rb mutant results in reduced SUMOylation and phosphorylation, weakened CDK2 binding, and attenuated E2F-1 sequestration. Furthermore, we reveal that Rb SUMOylation is required for cell proliferation. Therefore, our study describes a novel mechanism that regulates Rb phosphorylation during cell cycle progression. PMID:27163259

  12. Formula G1: Cell cycle in the driver's seat of stem cell fate determination.

    PubMed

    Julian, Lisa M; Carpenedo, Richard L; Rothberg, Janet L Manias; Stanford, William L

    2016-04-01

    Cell cycle dynamics has emerged as a key regulator of stem cell fate decisions. In particular, differentiation decisions are associated with the G1 phase, and recent evidence suggests that self-renewal is actively regulated outside of G1. The mechanisms underlying these phenomena are largely unknown, but direct control of gene regulatory programs by the cell cycle machinery is heavily implicated. A recent study sheds important mechanistic insight by demonstrating that in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) the Cyclin-dependent kinase CDK2 controls a wide-spread epigenetic program that drives transcription at differentiation-related gene promoters specifically in G1. Here, we discuss this finding and explore whether similar mechanisms are likely to function in multipotent stem cells. The implications of this discovery toward our understanding of stem cell-related disease are discussed, and we postulate novel mechanisms that position the cell cycle as a regulator of cell fate gene networks at epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. PMID:26857166

  13. G1/S Cell Cycle Checkpoint Defect in Lymphocytes from Patients with Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Song, Misun; Kwon, Young-Ah; Lee, Yujin; Kim, Hyeran; Yun, Ji Hea; Kim, Seonwoo

    2012-01-01

    Objective We compared the cell responsiveness of activated lymphocytes to rapamycin, which blocks the G1/S transition, between patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and normal controls to assess the early phase control defect in cell cycle. Methods Blood samples of 26 patients with AD and 28 normal controls were collected to separate peripheral lymphocytes. We measured the proportion of each cell cycle phase in activated lymphocytes using flow cytometry and evaluated the responsiveness of these lymphocytes to rapamycin. Results The patients with AD were older than the normal controls (AD 74.03±7.90 yr vs. control 68.28±6.21 yr, p=0.004). The proportion of G1 phase cells in the AD group was significantly lower than that in the control group (70.29±6.32% vs. 76.03±9.05%, p=0.01), and the proportion of S phase cells in the AD group was higher than that in control group (12.45±6.09% vs. 6.03±5.11%, p=0.001). Activated lymphocytes in patients with AD were not arrested in the G1 phase and they progressed to the late phase of the cell cycle despite rapamycin treatment, in contrast to those of normal subjects. Conclusion The patients with AD probably have a control defect of early phase cell cycle in peripheral lymphocytes that may be associated with the underlying pathology of neuronal death. PMID:23251208

  14. SUMOylation of Rb enhances its binding with CDK2 and phosphorylation at early G1 phase.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fengxi; Qian, Jiang; Yue, Han; Li, Xiaofeng; Xue, Kang

    2016-07-01

    Retinoblastoma protein (Rb) is a prototypical tumor suppressor that is vital to the negative regulation of the cell cycle and tumor progression. Hypo-phosphorylated Rb is associated with G0/G1 arrest by suppressing E2F transcription factor activity, whereas Rb hyper-phosphorylation allows E2F release and cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to S phase. However, the factors that regulate cyclin-dependent protein kinase (CDK)-dependent hyper-phosphorylation of Rb during the cell cycle remain obscure. In this study, we show that throughout the cell cycle, Rb is specifically small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)ylated at early G1 phase. SUMOylation of Rb stimulates its phosphorylation level by recruiting a SUMO-interaction motif (SIM)-containing kinase CDK2, leading to Rb hyper-phosphorylation and E2F-1 release. In contrast, a SUMO-deficient Rb mutant results in reduced SUMOylation and phosphorylation, weakened CDK2 binding, and attenuated E2F-1 sequestration. Furthermore, we reveal that Rb SUMOylation is required for cell proliferation. Therefore, our study describes a novel mechanism that regulates Rb phosphorylation during cell cycle progression. PMID:27163259

  15. Treatment of G1 Baskets at the CEA Marcoule Site - 12027

    SciTech Connect

    Fourquet, Line; Boya, Didier

    2012-07-01

    In the dismantling program for the first-generation French reactors in accordance with the nonproliferation treaty, the CEA is in charge of cleanup and dismantling operations for the facilities at Marcoule, including the decladding units. The G1 decladding was built between 1955 and 1957 in order to de-clad spent fuel elements from the G1 plutonium-producing reactor and prepare them for dissolution. The facility was also used for interim storage of G1, G2 and G3 fuel dissolution baskets, which had been used during plant operation for transfer (from the decladding facility to the UP1 plant) and/or dissolution of spent fuel elements. One of the cleanup projects involves recovery of the baskets, which will be cut up, sorted, and conditioned in metal bins. The bins will be immobilized with cement grout, then transferred to the onsite solid waste conditioning facility (CDS) and to the repository operated by the French National Radioactive Waste Management Agency (ANDRA). The project is now in progress, after special safety permits were issued and measurement stations and dedicated tools were developed to handle all types of baskets (which differed according to their origin and use). The disposal of all the baskets is scheduled to last 2 years and will produce 55 metal waste bins. (authors)

  16. Tet1 is required for Rb phosphorylation during G1/S phase transition

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Shengsong; Zhu, Ziqi; Wang, Yiqin; Wang, Yanru; Xu, Longxia; Chen, Xuemei; Xu, Qing; Zhang, Qimin; Zhao, Xin; Yu, Yi; Wu, Denglong

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •Tet1 was required for NIT3T3 proliferation. •Tet1 depletion inhibited G1-S entry. •Cyclin D1 accumulation and Rb phosphorylation was blocked by Tet1 knockdown. -- Abstract: DNA methylation plays an important role in many biological processes, including regulation of gene expression, maintenance of chromatin conformation and genomic stability. TET-family proteins convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), which indicates that these enzymes may participate in DNA demethylation. The function of TET1 has not yet been well characterized in somatic cells. Here, we show that depletion of Tet1 in NIH3T3 cells inhibits cell growth. Furthermore, Tet1 knockdown blocks cyclin D1 accumulation in G1 phase, inhibits Rb phosphorylation and consequently delays entrance to G1/S phase. Taken together, this study demonstrates that Tet1 is required for cell proliferation and that this process is mediated through the Rb pathway.

  17. Dux4 induces cell cycle arrest at G1 phase through upregulation of p21 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hongliang; Wang, Zhaoxia; Jin, Suqin; Hao, Hongjun; Zheng, Lemin; Zhou, Boda; Zhang, Wei; Lv, He; Yuan, Yun

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Dux4 induced TE671 cell proliferation defect and G1 phase arrest. • Dux4 upregulated p21 expression without activating p53. • Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. • Sp1 binding site was required for Dux4-induced p21 promoter activation. - Abstract: It has been implicated that Dux4 plays crucial roles in development of facioscapulohumeral dystrophy. But the underlying myopathic mechanisms and related down-stream events of this retrogene were far from clear. Here, we reported that overexpression of Dux4 in a cell model TE671 reduced cell proliferation rate, and increased G1 phase accumulation. We also determined the impact of Dux4 on p53/p21 signal pathway, which controls the checkpoint in cell cycle progression. Overexpression of Dux4 increased p21 mRNA and protein level, while expression of p53, phospho-p53 remained unchanged. Silencing p21 rescued Dux4 mediated proliferation defect and cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, we demonstrated that enhanced Dux4 expression increased p21 promoter activity and elevated expression of Sp1 transcription factor. Mutation of Sp1 binding site decreased dux4 induced p21 promoter activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed the Dux4-induced binding of Sp1 to p21 promoter in vivo. These results suggest that Dux4 might induce proliferation inhibition and G1 phase arrest through upregulation of p21.

  18. Contribution of the spin-1 diquark to the nucleon's g1 structure function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani, F.

    2010-07-01

    This is the final installment of a series of work that we have done in the context of the meson cloud model that investigates F2 and g1 structure functions. In our previous work on g1 structure function, we showed that having a spin-0 quark-diquark for the nucleon core along with both pseudoscalar and vector meson clouds was not sufficient to reproduce experimental observation(s) consistently. For the F2 structure function, we found that both superposition of a spin-0 diquark and a spin-1 diquark in the nucleon core along with pseudoscalar and vector meson clouds are needed to reproduce the observed F2(x) and the Gottfried sum rule (GSR) violation. Therefore, in the present work, we consider the contribution of a spin-1 diquark in the nucleon core to the g1 structure function. The calculation is performed in the light-cone frame. The dressed nucleon is assumed to be a superposition of the bare nucleon plus virtual light-cone Fock states of baryon-meson pairs. For the bare nucleon, we consider different quark-diquark configurations along with the possibility that there is no diquark inside the nucleon. The initial distributions are evolved. The final results are compared with experimental results and other theoretical predictions.

  19. MicroRNA-224 Induces G1/S Checkpoint Release in Liver Cancer

    PubMed Central

    An, Fangmei; Olaru, Alexandru V.; Mezey, Esteban; Xie, Qing; Li, Ling; Piontek, Klaus B.; Selaru, Florin M.

    2015-01-01

    Profound changes in microRNA (miR) expression levels are frequently found in liver cancers compared to the normal liver. In this study, we evaluate the expression of miR-224 in human HCC and CCA, as well as its downstream targets and affected pathways. We show that miR-224 is upregulated in a large cohort of human CCA, similar to its upregulation in human HCC. For the purpose of studying the roles of miR-224 in HCC and CCA, we enforced miR-224 expression in cells. mRNA arrays followed by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA)-identified putative molecules and pathways downstream of miR-224. Phenotypically, we report that enforced expression of miR-224 increases the growth rate of normal cholangiocytes, CCA cell lines, and HCC cell lines. In addition, we identified, in an unbiased fashion, that one of the major biologic processes affected by miR-224 is Gap1 (G1) to Synthesis (S) transition checkpoint release. We next identified p21, p15, and CCNE1 as downstream targets of miR-224 and confirmed the coordinated downregulation results in the increased phosphorylation of Retinoblastoma (Rb) with resulting G1/S checkpoint release. Our data suggest that miR-224 is a master regulator of cell cycle progression, and that its overexpression results in G1/S checkpoint release followed by accelerated cell growth. PMID:26343737

  20. Discrete-time GeoX/G/1 queue with unreliable server and multiple adaptive delayed vacations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Yinghui; Yun, Xi; Huang, Shujuan

    2008-10-01

    In this paper we consider a discrete-time GeoX/G/1 queue with unreliable server and multiple adaptive delayed vacations policy in which the vacation time, service time, repair time and the delayed time all follow arbitrary discrete distribution. By using a concise decomposition method, the transient and steady-state distributions of the queue length are studied, and the stochastic decomposition property of steady-state queue length has been proved. Several common vacation policies are special cases of the vacation policy presented in this study. The relationship between the generating functions of steady-state queue length at departure epoch and arbitrary epoch is obtained. Finally, we give some numerical examples to illustrate the effect of the parameters on several performance characteristics.

  1. Stabilization of IgG1 in spray-dried powders for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Schüle, S; Schulz-Fademrecht, T; Garidel, P; Bechtold-Peters, K; Frieb, W

    2008-08-01

    The protein stabilizing capabilities of spray-dried IgG1/mannitol formulations were evaluated. The storage stability was tested at different residual moisture levels prepared by vacuum-drying or equilibration prior to storage. Vacuum-drying at 32 degrees C/0.1mbar for 24h reduced the moisture level below 1%, constituting an optimal basis for improved storage stability. The crystalline IgG1/mannitol powders with a weight ratio of 20/80 up to 40/60 failed to prevent the antibody aggregation as assessed by size exclusion chromatography during storage. Ratios of 60/40 up to 80/20 IgG1/mannitol provided superior stability of the antibody and the powders could be produced with high yields. The lower the residual moisture, the better was the stabilizing capability. An amount of 20% mannitol provided the best stabilization. Storage stability of 60/40, 70/30, and 80/20 IgG1/mannitol formulations over one year was adequate at 2-8 degrees C and 25 degrees C. Closed storage (sealed in vials) at 40 degrees C/75% RH and open storage at 25 degrees C/60% RH revealed that the stability still required optimization. The lower the protein content, the better was the powder flowability. The aerodynamic properties of powders spray-dried with 10% solids content were inadequate, as the particle size ranged between 5.1 and 7.2 microm and the fine particle fraction accounted for only 4-11%. Reduction of the solids content to 2.5% did improve the aerodynamic properties as the mass mean aerodynamic diameter was reduced to 3.6 microm and the fine particle fraction was increased to about 14%. The reduction of the solids content did not influence the storage stability significantly. Also spray-drying at higher temperatures had no significant impact on the storage stability, despite a higher tendency to form amorphous systems. In order to improve the storage stability and to maintain the good flowability of 70/30 IgG1/mannitol powder or to keep the storage stability but to improve the flowability

  2. ALDH Expression Characterizes G1-Phase Proliferating Beta Cells during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lijuan; Wang, Lin; Liu, Xiaoliang; Zheng, Dongming; Liu, Sishi; Liu, Caixia

    2014-01-01

    High levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity have been detected in various progenitor and stem cells. Thus, Aldefluor fluorescence, which represents precisely the ALDH activity, has been widely used for the identification, evaluation, and isolation of stem and progenitor cells. Recently, ALDH activity was detected in embryonic and adult mouse pancreas, specifically in adult centroacinar and terminal duct cells supposed to harbor endocrine and exocrine progenitor cells in the adult pancreas. Nevertheless, ALDH activity and aldeflour fluorescence have not been examined in beta cells. Here, we report a dynamic increase in the number of aldeflour+ beta cells during pregnancy. Interestingly, nearly all these aldeflour+ beta cells are positive for Ki-67, suggesting that they are in an active cell cycle (G1, S and M phases). To determine precisely at which phase beta cells activate ALDH activity and thus become aldeflour+, we co-stained insulin with additional proliferation markers, phosphohistone3 (PHH3, a marker for M-phase proliferating cells) and Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU, a marker for S-phase proliferating cells). Our data show little aldeflour+ beta cells that were positive for either PHH3, or BrdU, suggesting that beta cells activate ALDH and become Aldefluor+ when they enter G1-phase of active cell cycle, but may downregulate ALDH when they leave G1-phase and enter S phase. Our data thus reveal a potential change in ALDH activity of proliferating beta cells during pregnancy, which provides a novel method for isolation and analysis of proliferating beta cells. Moreover, our data also suggest that caution needs to be taken on interpretation of Aldefluor lineage-tracing data in pancreas. PMID:24787690

  3. Selenium Preconcentration in Geological Materials for Determination at sub-μ g\\ g-1 Concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedard, L. P.

    2004-05-01

    Selenium is important because it is a path finder element in economic geology. It has similar geochemical properties as sulfur, but slightly less mobile and less volatile in sulfides. Although its environmental cycle is better understood, its geological cycle is almost unknown. In geological samples, Se concentration ranges 0,02-1 μ g\\ g-1. Se has many spectral interefences in ICP-MS, rendering difficult to determine. INAA detection limit for geological samples is about 10 μ g\\ g-1. The analytical difficulties are one of the main reason why the geological cycle of Se is so poorly known. The preconcentration of Se with Thiol Cotton Fiber (TCF) followed by atomic absorption (AA) has been modified to be used with INAA. The modified technique involves sample dissolution (HF-HNO3) and evaporation to dryness at low temperature (55-60 oC) to keep Se in solution. Se is converted to SeIV by adding 5-6 mol l-1 HCl and heating covered in a boiling bath (95-100oC). Sample is diluted with deionized water to obtain 0,3 - 1 mol l-1 HCl and then collected on TCF. TCF is put in a polyethylene vial for irradiation in the SLOWPOKE II reactor for 10 seconds at a neutron flux of 1015 m-2 s-1. The 162 KeV peak of 77Se (half-life 17,36 sec) is read for 20 seconds after a decay of 7 seconds. Results for certified reference materials show the TCF preconcentration technique followed by INAA provides results comparable with AA with a detection limit of approximately 0,05 μ g\\ g-1. Moreover INAA provides many advantages such as eliminating the desorption step and is less time consuming than AA.

  4. The G1 restriction point as critical regulator of neocortical neuronogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caviness, V. S. Jr; Takahashi, T.; Nowakowski, R. S.

    1999-01-01

    Neuronogenesis in the pseudostratified ventricular epithelium is the initial process in a succession of histogenetic events which give rise to the laminate neocortex. Here we review experimental findings in mouse which support the thesis that the restriction point of the G1 phase of the cell cycle is the critical point of regulation of the overall neuronogenetic process. The neuronogenetic interval in mouse spans 6 days. In the course of these 6 days the founder population and its progeny execute 11 cell cycles. With each successive cycle there is an increase in the fraction of postmitotic cells which leaves the cycle (the Q fraction) and also an increase in the length of the cell cycle due to an increase in the length of the G1 phase of the cycle. Q corresponds to the probability that postmitotic cells will exit the cycle at the restriction point of the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Q increases non-linearly, but the rate of change of Q with cycle (i.e., the first derivative) over the course of the neuronogenetic interval is a constant, k, which appears to be set principally by cell internal mechanisms which are species specific. Q also seems to be modulated, but at low amplitude, by a balance of mitogenic and antimitogenic influences acting from without the cell. We suggest that intracellular signal transduction systems control a general advance of Q during development and thereby determine the general developmental plan (i.e., cell number and laminar composition) of the neocortex and that external mitogens and anti-mitogens modulate this advance regionally and temporally and thereby produce regional modifications of the general plan.

  5. JAZ mediates G1 cell cycle arrest by interacting with and inhibiting E2F1

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mingli; Wu, Song; Jia, Jinghua

    2011-01-01

    We discovered and reported JAZ as a unique dsRNA binding zinc finger protein that functions as a direct, positive regulator of p53 transcriptional activity to mediate G1 cell cycle arrest in a mechanism involving upregulation of the p53 target gene, p21. We now find that JAZ can also negatively regulate the cell cycle in a novel, p53-independent mechanism resulting from the direct interaction with E2F1, a key intermediate in regulating cell proliferation and tumor suppression. JAZ associates with E2F1's central DNA binding/dimerization region and its C-terminal transactivation domain. Functionally, JAZ represses E2F1 transcriptional activity in association with repression of cyclin A expression and inhibition of G1/S transition. This mechanism involves JAZ-mediated inhibition of E2F1's specific DNA binding activity. JAZ directly binds E2F1 in vitro in a dsRNA-independent manner, and JAZ's dsRNA binding ZF domains, which are necessary for localizing JAZ to the nucleus, are required for repression of transcriptional activity in vivo. Importantly for specificity, siRNA-mediated “knockdown” of endogenous JAZ increases E2F transcriptional activity and releases cells from G1 arrest, indicating a necessary role for JAZ in this transition. Although JAZ can directly inhibit E2F1 activity independently of p53, if functional p53 is expressed, JAZ may exert a more potent inhibition of cell cycle following growth factor withdrawal. Therefore, JAZ plays a dual role in cell cycle regulation by both repressing E2F1 transcriptional activity and activating p53 to facilitate efficient growth arrest in response to cellular stress, which may potentially be exploited therapeutically for tumor growth inhibition. PMID:21715977

  6. Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase induces a delay in G1 of the cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong P; Schafer, Freya Q; Goswami, Prabhat C; Oberley, Larry W; Buettner, Garry R

    2003-06-01

    Phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PhGPx) is an antioxidant enzyme that reduces cellular phospholipid hydroperoxides (PLOOHs) to alcohols. Cellular peroxide tone has been implicated in cell growth and differentiation. By reducing the PLOOH level in the cell membrane, PhGPx regulates the peroxide tone and thereby might be involved in cell growth. We hypothesized that overexpression of PhGPx in human breast cancer cells would decrease their growth rate. We stably transfected MCF-7 cells (Wt) with L-PhGPx and measured cell doubling time, plating efficiency, and cell cycle phase transit times. P-4 cells (8-fold increase in PhGPx activity) showed a 2-fold increase in doubling time; doubling time increased directly with PhGPx activity (r = 0.95). The higher the PhGPx activity, the lower the plating efficiency (r = -0.86). The profile of other antioxidant enzymes was unchanged. Overexpression of PhGPx lowered the steady-state level of PLOOH (by > 60%). Results from bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase experiments and flow cytometry indicate that PhGPx induced a delay in MCF-7 proliferation that was primarily due to a slower progression from G1 to S. These results support the hypothesis that PhGPx plays a regulatory role in the progression of MCF-7 cells from G1 to S possibly by regulating the steady-state levels of PLOOH. These data suggest that PhGPx can lower the peroxide tone, which might change the cellular redox environment resulting in a delay in G1 transit. Thus, PhGPx could be an important factor in cell growth. PMID:12868489

  7. Some alkali and titania analyses of tektites before and after G-1 precision monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatlock, D.B.

    1966-01-01

    A comparison of 55 older analyses of Australasian tektites with 110 modern precisely monitored analyses suggests that more than half of the older alkali and titania determinations are decidedly inaccurate and misleading. Deviations of the older analyses from the restricted values of the modern analyses are comparable to the imprecisions shown by early analyses of G-1 granite and W-1 diabase. This suggests that a high percentage of older alkali and titania analyses, such as those of Washington's tables, are of questionable quality. ?? 1966.

  8. THE ABSENCE OF RADIO EMISSION FROM THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER G1

    SciTech Connect

    Miller-Jones, J. C. A.; Wrobel, J. M.; Sivakoff, G. R.; Heinke, C. O.; Miller, R. E.; Plotkin, R. M.; Di Stefano, R.; Greene, J. E.; Ho, L. C.; Joseph, T. D.; Maccarone, T. J.; Kong, A. K. H.

    2012-08-10

    The detections of both X-ray and radio emission from the cluster G1 in M31 have provided strong support for existing dynamical evidence for an intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) of mass (1.8 {+-} 0.5) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} M{sub Sun} at the cluster center. However, given the relatively low significance and astrometric accuracy of the radio detection, and the non-simultaneity of the X-ray and radio measurements, this identification required further confirmation. Here we present deep, high angular resolution, strictly simultaneous X-ray and radio observations of G1. While the X-ray emission (L{sub X} = 1.74{sup +0.53}{sub -0.44} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} (d/750 kpc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1} in the 0.5-10 keV band) remained fully consistent with previous observations, we detected no radio emission from the cluster center down to a 3{sigma} upper limit of 4.7 {mu}Jy beam{sup -1}. Our favored explanation for the previous radio detection is flaring activity from a black hole low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB). We performed a new regression of the 'Fundamental Plane' of black hole activity, valid for determining black hole mass from radio and X-ray observations of sub-Eddington black holes, finding log M{sub BH} = (1.638 {+-} 0.070)log L{sub R} - (1.136 {+-} 0.077)log L{sub X} - (6.863 {+-} 0.790), with an empirically determined uncertainty of 0.44 dex. This constrains the mass of the X-ray source in G1, if a black hole, to be <9.7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} M{sub Sun} at 95% confidence, suggesting that it is a persistent LMXB. This annuls what was previously the most convincing evidence from radiation for an IMBH in the Local Group, though the evidence for an IMBH in G1 from velocity dispersion measurements remains unaffected by these results.

  9. Appendix E: Geology

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, Steve; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2008-01-17

    This appendix provides a detailed description of geology under the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site, emphasizing the areas around tank farms. It is to be published by client CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc., as part of a larger, multi-contractor technical report.

  10. School Facilities. Appendix A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Penny; Miller, Barbara; Krantzler, Nora

    1997-01-01

    This appendix to the theme issue summarizes the challenges of providing and maintaining educational facilities, discussing the maintenance of existing buildings and the need for new ones. Possible sources of needed funds are considered, and the equity problems related to school facilities are reviewed, emphasizing the problems of urban schools.…