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Sample records for apple mac os

  1. Mac OS X Forensics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craiger, Philip; Burke, Paul

    This paper describes procedures for conducting forensic examinations of Apple Macs running Mac OS X. The target disk mode is used to create a forensic duplicate of a Mac hard drive and preview it. Procedures are discussed for recovering evidence from allocated space, unallocated space, slack space and virtual memory. Furthermore, procedures are described for recovering trace evidence from Mac OS X default email, web browser and instant messaging applications, as well as evidence pertaining to commands executed from a terminal.

  2. Mac OS X for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierfederici, F.; Pirzkal, N.; Hook, R. N.

    Mac OS X is the new Unix based version of the Macintosh operating system. It combines a high performance DisplayPDF user interface with a standard BSD UNIX subsystem and provides users with simultaneous access to a broad range of applications which were not previously available on a single system such as Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop, as well as legacy X11-based scientific tools and packages like IRAF, SuperMongo, MIDAS, etc. The combination of a modern GUI layered on top of a familiar UNIX environment paves the way for new, more flexible and powerful astronomical tools to be developed while assuring compatibility with already existing, older programs. In this paper, we outline the strengths of the Mac OS X platform in a scientific environment, astronomy in particular, and point to the numerous astronomical software packages available for this platform; most notably the Scisoft collection which we have compiled.

  3. Integrated, Kerberized Login on MacOS X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hotz, Henry B.

    2006-01-01

    Context for this information. MacOS X login process and available hooks. Authorization Services configuration. Authorization Services plug-in s. Kerberos plug-in s. Other bugs and recommendations. Authorization Services Called by loginwindow, screen saver and fast user switching. It calls Directory Services, Login Hook, and Login Items (System Preferences).

  4. Apple Lines Up Sales of the Mac to Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Denise

    1984-01-01

    The Apple University Consortium (AUC), which consists of 24 major American universities, expects to make homes for 50,000 Macintosh computers on its campuses by the end of 1984. Highlights of the arrangement and list of participating universities are provided. (JN)

  5. Reliable Acquisition of RAM Dumps from Intel-Based Apple Mac Computers over FireWire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladyshev, Pavel; Almansoori, Afrah

    RAM content acquisition is an important step in live forensic analysis of computer systems. FireWire offers an attractive way to acquire RAM content of Apple Mac computers equipped with a FireWire connection. However, the existing techniques for doing so require substantial knowledge of the target computer configuration and cannot be used reliably on a previously unknown computer in a crime scene. This paper proposes a novel method for acquiring RAM content of Apple Mac computers over FireWire, which automatically discovers necessary information about the target computer and can be used in the crime scene setting. As an application of the developed method, the techniques for recovery of AOL Instant Messenger (AIM) conversation fragments from RAM dumps are also discussed in this paper.

  6. 'Tagger' - a Mac OS X Interactive Graphical Application for Data Inference and Analysis of N-Dimensional Datasets in the Natural Physical Sciences.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, P. E.; Reading, A. M.; Lueg, C.

    2014-12-01

    Pattern-recognition in scientific data is not only a computational problem but a human-observer problem as well. Human observation of - and interaction with - data visualization software can augment, select, interrupt and modify computational routines and facilitate processes of pattern and significant feature recognition for subsequent human analysis, machine learning, expert and artificial intelligence systems.'Tagger' is a Mac OS X interactive data visualisation tool that facilitates Human-Computer interaction for the recognition of patterns and significant structures. It is a graphical application developed using the Quartz Composer framework. 'Tagger' follows a Model-View-Controller (MVC) software architecture: the application problem domain (the model) is to facilitate novel ways of abstractly representing data to a human interlocutor, presenting these via different viewer modalities (e.g. chart representations, particle systems, parametric geometry) to the user (View) and enabling interaction with the data (Controller) via a variety of Human Interface Devices (HID). The software enables the user to create an arbitrary array of tags that may be appended to the visualised data, which are then saved into output files as forms of semantic metadata. Three fundamental problems that are not strongly supported by conventional scientific visualisation software are addressed:1] How to visually animate data over time, 2] How to rapidly deploy unconventional parametrically driven data visualisations, 3] How to construct and explore novel interaction models that capture the activity of the end-user as semantic metadata that can be used to computationally enhance subsequent interrogation. Saved tagged data files may be loaded into Tagger, so that tags may be tagged, if desired. Recursion opens up the possibility of refining or overlapping different types of tags, tagging a variety of different POIs or types of events, and of capturing different types of specialist observations of important or noticeable events. Other visualisations and modes of interaction will also be demonstrated, with the aim of discovering knowledge in large datasets in the natural, physical sciences. Fig.1 Wave height data from an oceanographic Wave Rider Buoy. Colors/radii are driven by wave height data.

  7. How to Build an AppleSeed: A Parallel Macintosh Cluster for Numerically Intensive Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decyk, V. K.; Dauger, D. E.

    We have constructed a parallel cluster consisting of a mixture of Apple Macintosh G3 and G4 computers running the Mac OS, and have achieved very good performance on numerically intensive, parallel plasma particle-incell simulations. A subset of the MPI message-passing library was implemented in Fortran77 and C. This library enabled us to port code, without modification, from other parallel processors to the Macintosh cluster. Unlike Unix-based clusters, no special expertise in operating systems is required to build and run the cluster. This enables us to move parallel computing from the realm of experts to the main stream of computing.

  8. Introduction to MAC CRM training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Donald D.

    1987-01-01

    The author introduces the Military Airlift Command (MAC) and its mission. A brief history of Cockpit Resource Management (CRM) as it relates to MAC is given. He also states why MAC is currently interested in CRM.

  9. APPLE - Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasagam, R. M.

    1983-11-01

    The Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE) is India's first experimental geostationary communication satellite, and incorporates such state-of-the-art technologies as three-axis stabilization by means of a momentum bias system, deployable solar panels, and orbit transfer/orbit attitude control and propulsion systems. The APPLE spacecraft has operated more than 6000 hours during 1981-1983, conducting digital communications technology experiments. Operations were terminated in September 1983, after 27 months on orbit, upon depletion of onboard fuel.

  10. Newton's Apple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  11. Newton's Apple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his

  12. TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for real-time high-data-rate sensor networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Song, W.-Z.; Huang, R.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.

    2009-01-01

    Earlier sensor network MAC protocols focus on energy conservation in low-duty cycle applications, while some recent applications involve real-time high-data-rate signals. This motivates us to design an innovative localized TDMA MAC protocol to achieve high throughput and low congestion in data collection sensor networks, besides energy conservation. TreeMAC divides a time cycle into frames and each frame into slots. A parent node determines the children's frame assignment based on their relative bandwidth demand, and each node calculates its own slot assignment based on its hop-count to the sink. This innovative 2-dimensional frame-slot assignment algorithm has the following nice theory properties. First, given any node, at any time slot, there is at most one active sender in its neighborhood (including itself). Second, the packet scheduling with TreeMAC is bufferless, which therefore minimizes the probability of network congestion. Third, the data throughput to the gateway is at least 1/3 of the optimum assuming reliable links. Our experiments on a 24-node testbed show that TreeMAC protocol significantly improves network throughput, fairness, and energy efficiency compared to TinyOS's default CSMA MAC protocol and a recent TDMA MAC protocol Funneling-MAC. Partial results of this paper were published in Song, Huang, Shirazi and Lahusen [W.-Z. Song, R. Huang, B. Shirazi, and R. Lahusen, TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for high-throughput and fairness in sensor networks, in: The 7th Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, PerCom, March 2009]. Our new contributions include analyses of the performance of TreeMAC from various aspects. We also present more implementation detail and evaluate TreeMAC from other aspects. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  13. MAC calorimeters and applications

    SciTech Connect

    MAC Collaboration

    1982-03-01

    The MAC detector at PEP features a large solid-angle electromagnetic/hadronic calorimeter system, augmented by magnetic charged-particle tracking, muon analysis and scintillator triggering. Its implementation in the context of electron-positron annihilation physics is described, with emphasis on the utilization of calorimetry.

  14. Recent results from MAC

    SciTech Connect

    MAC Collaboration

    1982-05-01

    Some preliminary results from the MAC detector at PEP are presented. These include measurements of the angular distribution of ..gamma gamma.., ..mu mu.. and tau tau final states, a determination of the tau lifetime, a measurement of R, and a presentation of the inclusive muon p/sub perpendicular/ distribution for hadronic events.

  15. Apple's Macintosh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Description of the Macintosh personal, educational, and business computer produced by Apple covers cost; physical characteristics including display devices, circuit boards, and built-in features; company-produced software; third-party produced software; memory and storage capacity; word-processing features; and graphics capabilities. (MBR)

  16. Traveling Apples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland Unified School District, Rowland Heights, CA.

    Teacher-developed materials for a basic computer literacy and utilization program for elementary students in grades 3-6 are included in this 4-part packet, which was originally prepared for use with or without the Apple IIe "traveling" microcomputers shared by 15 Rowland Unified School District elementary schools. Implementation procedures are…

  17. TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for real-time high-data-rate sensor networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Song, W.-Z.; Huang, R.; Shirazi, B.; Husent, R.L.

    2009-01-01

    Earlier sensor network MAC protocols focus on energy conservation in low-duty cycle applications, while some recent applications involve real-time high-data-rate signals. This motivates us to design an innovative localized TDMA MAC protocol to achieve high throughput and low congestion in data collection sensor networks, besides energy conservation. TreeMAC divides a time cycle into frames and frame into slots. Parent determines children's frame assigmnent based on their relative bandwidth demand, and each node calculates its own slot assignment based on its hop-count to the sink. This innovative 2-dimensional frame-slot assignment algorithm has the following nice theory properties. Firstly, given any node, at any time slot, there is at most one active sender in its neighborhood (includ ing itself). Secondly, the packet scheduling with TreelMAC is bufferless, which therefore minimizes the probability of network congestion. Thirdly, the data throughput to gateway is at least 1/3 of the optimum assuming reliable links. Our experiments on a 24 node test bed demonstrate that TreeMAC protocol significantly improves network throughput and energy efficiency, by comparing to the TinyOS's default CSMA MAC protocol and a recent TDMA MAC protocol Funneling-MAC[8]. ?? 2009 IEEE.

  18. Results from MAC

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, G.B.

    1983-05-01

    The MAC detector has been exposed at PEP to 40 pb/sup -1/ luminosity of e/sup +/e/sup -/ collisions. The detector is described and recent results of a continuing analysis of hadronic cross section, lepton pair charge asymmetry, Bhabha process, two photon final state and radiative ..mu.. pairs are given. New results on flavor tagging of hadronic events with an inclusive ..mu.., and some searches for new particles are presented.

  19. Cancer chemopreventive potential of apples, apple juice, and apple components.

    PubMed

    Gerhauser, Clarissa

    2008-10-01

    Apples ( MALUS sp., Rosaceae) are a rich source of nutrient as well as non-nutrient components and contain high levels of polyphenols and other phytochemicals. Main structural classes of apple constituents include hydroxycinnamic acids, dihydrochalcones, flavonols (quercetin glycosides), catechins and oligomeric procyanidins, as well as triterpenoids in apple peel and anthocyanins in red apples. Several lines of evidence suggest that apples and apple products possess a wide range of biological activities which may contribute to health beneficial effects against cardiovascular disease, asthma and pulmonary dysfunction, diabetes, obesity, and cancer (reviewed by Boyer and Liu, Nutr J 2004). The present review will summarize the current knowledge on potential cancer preventive effects of apples, apple juice and apple extracts (jointly designated as apple products). In brief, apple extracts and components, especially oligomeric procyanidins, have been shown to influence multiple mechanisms relevant for cancer prevention in IN VITRO studies. These include antimutagenic activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory mechanisms, modulation of signal transduction pathways, antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing activity, as well as novel mechanisms on epigenetic events and innate immunity. Apple products have been shown to prevent skin, mammary and colon carcinogenesis in animal models. Epidemiological observations indicate that regular consumption of one or more apples a day may reduce the risk for lung and colon cancer. PMID:18855307

  20. The Network Advantage in Education for the Apple Macintosh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durance, Carl M.; Fenton, Shirley L.

    1986-01-01

    "Waterloo MacJANET," a local area network developed by the University of Waterloo for the Apple Macintosh computer, provides an environment appropriate for developing students' computer-related skills, minimizing both the human and the computing resources needed to support such courses. The system also serves as an efficient distributor of a…

  1. Are Red Apples Sweeter Than Green Apples?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a classroom observation of apples led to the development of a science project. Discusses the correlation between the greenness and the acidity of apples. Finds that the greener the apple, the lower its pH, and thus the more acidic and less sweet it tastes. (Author/CCM)

  2. Fiverr MacGyver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick; Larson, Martha

    2014-05-01

    Crowdsourcing has become popular over the past years, also for scientific endeavors. There are many Citizen Science projects and crowdfunding platforms, such as Kickstarter, that are make helpful contributions to moving environmental science forward. An interesting underused source of useful crowd-derived contributions to research is the website Fiverr.com. On this platform, thousands of people, acting as small-scale freelance contractors, offer their skills in the form of services. The platform offers a chance for people to take a hobby, skill, or pastime and make it something more by reaching out to a wider audience and by receiving a payment in return for services. As is typical of other crowdsourcing platforms, the tasks are small and usually self contained. As the name Fiverr suggests, offers start at US5 to provide a particular service. Services offered range from graphic design, to messages sung or spoken with various styles or accents, to complete apps for Android or iPhone. Skill providers on the platform can accept a range of variation of definition in the tasks, some can be described in general terms, for others it is more appropriate to provide examples. Fiverr provides a central location for those offering skills and those needing services to find each other, it makes it possible to communicate and exchange files, to make payments, and it provides support for resolving disputes. In all cases, it is important to keep expectations aligned with the nature of the platform: quality can and will vary. Ultimately, the critical contribution of Fiverr is not to replace professional services or otherwise save money, but rather to provide access to a large group of people with specialized skills who are able to make a contribution on short notice. In the context of this session, it can be considered a pool of people with MacGyver skills lying in wait of a MacGyyer task to attack. There are many ways in which Fiverr tasks, which are called 'gigs', can be useful in a scientific context. Some people will make 3D designs; others will print these designs with a 3D printer. Earlier, we used Fiverr to design a logo for the Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (TAHMO). Recently, using Fiverr, an app was developed at minimal costs that sends simple csv files with time stamp, location and sensor value at given intervals. In general, interactions with gig providers are very professional. Fiverr.com provides a good recommender system that guides users in finding productive providers. In this poster presentation, we present the results obtained from the most promising Fiverr gigs after an investment of 100 in the field of environmental science, with special emphasis on hydrology. We point out the heuristic value of Fiverr: browsing the available range provides a view on a wide range of practical human skills that are available to solve science challenges, and triggers productive thinking about how to break down a task into smaller practical subtasks that can be solved in a light weight, cost-effective manner.

  3. The Inexhaustible Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Raymond; Lehman, Jeffrey R.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several hands-on science activities which focus on the use of apples. Suggests several ways of using apples to teach classification. Proposes a field trip to an orchard as a culminating activity. (TW)

  4. What's an Adam's Apple?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Skating Crushes What's a Booger? What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's an Adam's Apple? Print A A A Text Size You're ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...

  5. The Apple IIc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiberger, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Description of the portable Apple IIc includes its flat panel display; a new microprocessor, the 65CO2; its new design language; layout; documentation, including interactive tutorials; software support; and cost. Apple IIc's competitors and its new printer, the Scribe, are also discussed. (MBR)

  6. Multifunction automated crawling system (MACS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Backes, Paul G.; Joffe, Benjamin

    1996-11-01

    Nondestructive evaluation instruments and sensors are becoming smaller with enhanced computer controlled capability and increasingly use commercially available hardware and software. Further, robotic instruments are being developed to serve as mobility platforms allowing automation of the inspection process. This combination of miniaturized sensing and robotics technology enables hybrid miniature technology solutions for identified aircraft inspection needs. Integration of inspection and robotics technologies is benefited by the use of a standard computing platform. JPL investigated the application of telerobotic technology to inspection of aircraft structures using capabilities that were developed for use in space exploration. A miniature crawler that can travel on the surface of aircraft using suction cups for adherence was developed and is called multifunction automated crawling systems (MACS). MACS is an operational tool that can perform rapid large area inspection of aircraft, which has a relatively large platform to carry miniature inspection instruments payload. The capability of MACS and the trend towards autonomous inspection crawlers will be reviewed and discussed in this paper.

  7. MacXAFS: An EXAFS analysis package for the Macintosh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouldin, C.; Furenlid, L.; Elam, T.

    1995-02-01

    We present an EXAFS analysis package that runs on the Apple Macintosh. (Certain commercial products are identified in the article for the sake of completeness. This does not constitute and endorsement by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, the Naval Research Laboratory, or Broohaven National Lab.) The MacXAFS package is derived from a suite of EXAFS analysis programs originally written at the University of Washington. The MacXAFS package preserves the portable computational kernel of this well-tested group of programs and adds a graphical interface by using HyperCard. Communication between the core analysis programs and the HyperCard interface is done by using ASCII script files that direct the execution of the FORTRAN-based analysis programs. The user is largely insulated from the FORTRAN code, but instead interacts with the more intuitive Hypercard interface. This implementation preserves the portability of the ANSI FORTRAN programs, while taking full advantage of the platform-specific user interface features of the Macintosh. Computationally intensive programs, such as the ab initio XAFS calculation program FEFF can be executed remotely via a TCP/IP connection. Due to the clean separation of the interface and the computational kernel, this package is readily extensible by writing new programs, in FORTRAN or any other language, and adding the corresponding interface element in the HyperCard stack.

  8. Apple rootstock evaluation for apple replant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Twenty-nine rootstocks from the Cornell-Geneva rootstock breeding program, some Budagovski rootstocks, M.9T337 and M.26EMLA were screened for apple replant disease (ARD) tolerance at Geneva, New York in 2008. Bench grafted rootstocks were planted in pots with two types of soil –clay loam and sandy l...

  9. The Diminishing Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the Apple Ocean activity which teaches about the diminishing natural resources of the earth including drinkable water, habitable land, and productive areas while working with fractions, ratios, and proportions. (YDS)

  10. George MacDonald's Estimate of Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pridmore, John

    2007-01-01

    The nineteenth-century fantasy writer George MacDonald believed that "it is better to be a child in a green field than a knight of many orders." In this paper, I shall explore the bearing of this high estimate of childhood on spiritual education. MacDonald explores the spirituality of the child in his essay "A Sketch of Individual Development" and…

  11. Response time accuracy in Apple Macintosh computers.

    PubMed

    Neath, Ian; Earle, Avery; Hallett, Darcy; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2011-06-01

    The accuracy and variability of response times (RTs) collected on stock Apple Macintosh computers using USB keyboards was assessed. A photodiode detected a change in the screen's luminosity and triggered a solenoid that pressed a key on the keyboard. The RTs collected in this way were reliable, but could be as much as 100 ms too long. The standard deviation of the measured RTs varied between 2.5 and 10 ms, and the distributions approximated a normal distribution. Surprisingly, two recent Apple-branded USB keyboards differed in their accuracy by as much as 20 ms. The most accurate RTs were collected when an external CRT was used to display the stimuli and Psychtoolbox was able to synchronize presentation with the screen refresh. We conclude that RTs collected on stock iMacs can detect a difference as small as 5-10 ms under realistic conditions, and this dictates which types of research should or should not use these systems. PMID:21416303

  12. MacCueSee: a quality control program for the Macintosh computer.

    PubMed

    Mueller, R A; Wynn, N C; Lee, M B

    1991-01-01

    MacCueSee was written to perform routine calculations on quality control concentration values from radioimmunoassay. It is written in Microsoft QuickBASIC for the Apple Macintosh computer. The program calculates within and between assay standard deviation (S.D.) and coefficient of variation from a spreadsheet file containing concentration values of controls analyzed. It also calculates the average concentration +/- 1 S.D. and contraction +/- 2 S.D. to establish between assay ranges. Its flexibility permits varying replicates between assays and automatic exclusion of missed assays. Within assay variability calculations are made for single, duplicate, and triplicate tubes. Results are displayed and can optionally be printed. In addition to radioimmunoassay, MacCueSee can be applied to a number of analytical methods in which quality control is monitored. An example of program use is included. PMID:1889906

  13. Mac configuration management at the Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, Allan B

    2010-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) had a need for central configuration management of non-Windows computers. LANL has three to five thousand Macs and an equal number of Linux based systems. The primary goal was to be able to inventory all non-windows systems and patch Mc OS X systems. LANL examined a number of commercial and open source solutions and ultimately selected Puppet. This paper will discuss why we chose Puppet, how we implemented it, and some lessons we learned along the way.

  14. About APPLE II Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180° requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  15. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  16. Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2015-03-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are natural plant toxicants. Action by endogenous plant enzymes can release hydrogen cyanide causing potential toxicity issues for animals including humans. We have quantified amygdalin in seeds from different apple varieties, determined the effects of processing on the amygdalin content of apple juice and quantified amygdalin in commercially-available apple juices. Amygdalin contents of seeds from fifteen varieties of apples ranged from 1 mg g(-1) to 4 mg g(-1). The amygdalin content of commercially-available apple juice was low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg ml(-1) for pressed apple juice and 0.001-0.007 mg ml(-1) for long-life apple juice. Processing led to juice with low amygdalin content, ranging from 0.01 mg ml(-1) to 0.08 mg ml(-1). The results presented show that the amygdalin contents of commercially-available apple juices are unlikely to present health problems to consumers. PMID:25306368

  17. Fast arithmetic in MacLISP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, G. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    MacLISP provides a compiler which produces numerical code competitive in speed with some FORTRAN implementations and yet compatible with the rest of the MacLISP system. All numerical programs can be run under the MacLISP interpreter. Additional declarations to the compiler specify type information which allows the generation of optimized numerical code which generally does not require the garbage collection of temporary numerical results. Array accesses are almost as fast as in FORTRAN, and permit the use of dynamically allocated arrays of varying dimensions. The implementation decisions regarding user interface, data representations, and interfacing conventions are discussed which allow the generation of fast numerical LISP code.

  18. Cleanup MAC and MBA code ATP

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-10-17

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Material Balance (MBA) database system had some minor code cleanup performed to its code. This ATP describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness.

  19. MACS as a tool for international inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1995-08-01

    The MACS/ACRS (Managed Access by Controlled Sensing/Access by Controlled Remote Sensing) system is a collection of communication devices, video capability, and distance-measuring equipment which can effectively substitute for the physical presence of a challenge inspector within a facility. The MACS design allows growth of the prototype, developed in response to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), into a versatile device for inspection of sensitive nuclear facilities under other international arrangements, for example the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Convention. A MACS/ACRS-type system in a standard, international-recognized configuration could resolve sensitive information and safety concerns through providing a means of achieving the goals of an inspection while excluding the inspector. We believe the technology used to develop MACS for the Defense Nuclear Agency, followed by ACRS for the Department of Energy, is universally adaptable for minimally-intrusive managed-access international inspections of sensitive sites.

  20. User's manual for MacPASCO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, S. H.; Davis, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    A user's manual is presented for MacPASCO, which is an interactive, graphic, preprocessor for panel design. MacPASCO creates input for PASCO, an existing computer code for structural analysis and sizing of longitudinally stiffened composite panels. MacPASCO provides a graphical user interface which simplifies the specification of panel geometry and reduces user input errors. The user draws the initial structural geometry and reduces user input errors. The user draws the initial structural geometry on the computer screen, then uses a combination of graphic and text inputs to: refine the structural geometry; specify information required for analysis such as panel load and boundary conditions; and define design variables and constraints for minimum mass optimization. Only the use of MacPASCO is described, since the use of PASCO has been documented elsewhere.

  1. The Apple III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditlea, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the features, performance, peripheral devices, available software, and capabilities of the Apple III microcomputer. The computer's operating system, its hardware, and the commercially produced software it accepts are discussed. Specific applications programs for financial planning, accounting, and word processing are…

  2. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past 3 years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  3. AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2013-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  4. AeroMACS system characterization and demonstrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerczewski, R. J.; Apaza, R. D.; Dimond, R. P.

    This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

  5. Apple Strength Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C

    2009-12-22

    Strength of the apple parts has been noticed to decrease, especially those installed by the new induction heating system since the LEP campaign started. Fig. 1 shows the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and elongation of the installed or installation-simulated apples on various systems. One can clearly see the mean values of UTS and YS of the post-LEP parts decreased by about 8 ksi and 6 ksi respectively from those of the pre-LEP parts. The slight increase in elongation seen in Fig.1 can be understood from the weak inverse relationship between the strength and elongation in metals. Fig.2 shows the weak correlation between the YS and elongation of the parts listed in Fig. 1. Strength data listed in Figure 1 were re-plotted as histograms in Figs. 3 and 4. Figs. 3a and 4a show histograms of all UTS and YS data. Figs. 3b and 4b shows histograms of pre-LEP data and Figs. 3c and 4c of post-LEP data. Data on statistical scatter of tensile strengths have been rarely published by material suppliers. Instead, only the minimum 'guaranteed' strength data are typically presented. An example of strength distribution of aluminum 7075-T6 sheet material, listed in Fig. 5, show that its scatter width of both UTS and YS for a single sheet can be about 6 ksi and for multi-lot scatter can be as large as 11 ksi even though the sheets have been produced through well-controlled manufacturing process. By approximating the histograms shown in Figs. 3 and 4 by a Gaussian or similar type of distribution curves, one can plausibly see the strength reductions in the later or more recent apples. The pre-LEP data in Figs. 3b and 4b show wider scatter than the post-LEP data in Figs. 3c and 4c and seem to follow the binomial distribution of strength indicating that the apples might have been made from two different lots of material, either from two different vendors or from two different melts of perhaps slightly different chemical composition by a single vendor. The post-LEP apples seem to have been from a single batch of material. The pre-LEP apples of the weak strength and the post-LEP apples with even weaker strength could have been made of the same batch of material, and the small strength differential might be due to the difference in the induction heating system. If the pre-LEP apples with the lower strength and the post LEP apples are made from the same batch of material, their combined scatter of strength data would be wider and can be understood as a result of the additional processing steps of stress relief and induction heating as discussed.

  6. GREEN-MAC-LCCP: a tool for assessing the life cycle climate performance of MAC systems.

    PubMed

    Papasavva, Stella; Hill, William R; Andersen, Stephen O

    2010-10-01

    In 2008, 95% of the vehicle fleet in the developed countries and 80% of fleet in the developing countries were equipped with mobile air conditioning systems (MACs). Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are emitted due to refrigerant leakage (direct emissions) and due to the energy consumed by MACs operation (indirect emissions). In response to reducing the global warming impact of MACs, policy makers and the industry are investigating alternative refrigerant systems that use low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants. The GREEN-MAC-LCCP model assesses the direct and indirect CO(2) equivalent emissions related to MACs usage, as well as those associated with the production, use and disposal of alternative refrigerants and MACs components. This model provides a platform for simple data input and provides an output summary as well as details that can be analyzed in a custom fashion by the user. It provides engineers and policy makers a state-of-the-art tool, based on sound engineering data and methods, in order to facilitate the process of evaluating alternate refrigerants with low lifecycle global warming impact as well as providing the total impact of any MACs on the environment. It has been recognized as the standard of the MACs industry. PMID:20812721

  7. Apple Image Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  8. Biogas generation apple pulp.

    PubMed

    Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernndez, J M; Mors Morn, M A; Lpez Bobo, M R

    2009-09-01

    In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material. PMID:19349172

  9. A study of MAC protocols for WBANs.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Shen, Bin; Islam, S M Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2010-01-01

    The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires the low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent requirements. PMID:22315531

  10. HFGMC Enhancement of MAC/GMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Steven M.; Aboudi, Jacob; Pindera, Marek-Jerzy; Bednarcyk, Brett A.

    2006-01-01

    Additional information about a mathematical model denoted the high-fidelity generalized method of cells (HFGMC) and implementation of the HFGMC within version 4.0 of the MAC/GMC software has become available. MAC/GMC (Micromechanics Analysis Code With Generalized Method of Cells) was a topic of several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, version 4.0 having been described in "Comprehensive Micromechanics-Analysis Code - Version 4.0" (LEW-17495-1), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 29, No. 9 (September 2005), page 54. MAC/GMC predicts elastic and inelastic thermomechanical responses of composite materials. MAC/GMC utilizes the generalized method of cells (GMC) - a model of micromechanics that predicts macroscopic responses of a composite material as functions of the properties, sizes, shapes, and responses of its constituents (e.g., matrix and fibers). The accuracy of the GMC is limited by neglect of coupling between normal and shear stresses. The HFGMC was developed by combining elements of the GMC and a related model, denoted the higher-order theory for functionally graded materials (HOTFGM), that can account for this coupling. Hence, the HFGMC enables simulation of stress and strain with greater accuracy. Some alterations of the MAC/GMC data structure were necessitated by the greater computational complexity of the HFGMC.

  11. Shared decision making after MacIntyre.

    PubMed

    Tilburt, Jon

    2011-04-01

    This paper explores the practical consequences that Enlightenment ideals had on morality as it applies to clinical practice, using Alisdair MacIntyre's conceptualization and critique of the Enlightenment as its reference point. Taking the perspective of a practicing clinician, I critically examine the historical origins of ideas that made shared decision making (SDM) a necessary and ideal model of clinician-patient relationship. I then build on MacIntyre's critique of Enlightenment thought and examine its implications for conceptions of shared decision-making that use an Enlightenment justification, as well as examining contemporary threats to SDM that the Enlightenment made possible. I conclude by offering an alternative framing of SDM that fits with the clinician's duty to act on behalf of and along with patients but that avoids the tenuous Enlightenment assumptions that MacIntyre's work so vocally critiques. PMID:21378085

  12. Scientific Atlanta B-MAC system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadish, J. E.

    The design and operation of a customized-chip B-MAC baseband processor for DBS or FS TV reception are described. The fundamental principles and inherent difficulties of FM TV transmission from satellites are reviewed; the advantages offered by the MAC solution of these problems are explained; and the economic need for scrambling or encryption of DBS signals is indicated. The present system uses the same chip set for MAC decoding, decryption/unscrambling, and addressing and provides either RGB or PAL video with teletext, six channels of Dolby-enhanced delta-mod audio, and utility data at 62.5 and 9.6 kB kb/s. The use of a menu-type viewer/system interface for a pay-per-view DBS system is illustrated.

  13. Volatility of patulin in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Kryger, R A

    2001-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi, such as those found commonly on apples. The patulin content of apple juice is a regulatory concern because patulin is a suspected carcinogen and mutagen. A simple model of the apple juice concentration process was carried out to examine the possible contamination of patulin in apple aroma, a distillate produced commercially in the concentration of apple juice. The results show no evidence for patulin volatility, and document a reduction in patulin content by at least a factor of 250 in the apple distillate obtained from apple juice. Furthermore, a survey of several commercial apple aroma samples found no evidence of patulin content. PMID:11513722

  14. Apple rootstock resistance to drought

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water for irrigation will likely be less available in apple-growing regions due to climate change and competition with human needs other than agriculture. Apple cultivars and rootstocks may differ in water use necessary for acceptable cropping. In two greenhouse experiments in 2014 and 2015, roots...

  15. Tropical Soda Apple (Solanum viarum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal), a perennial shrub, is a Federal Noxious Weed that continues to spread at an alarming rate in the southeastern United States. Information is provided on the impact of tropical soda apple on agricultural and natural areas, federal regulations for restricted...

  16. Novel Technologies for Processing Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The desire to develop methods to use machine vision to simultaneous inspect apples for quality issues and for contamination has resulted in the development of a number of new technologies for processing apples. First, a number of imaging techniques and detection methods were developed under laborato...

  17. The gravity apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  18. Results from the MAC Vertex chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, H.N.

    1987-05-01

    The design, construction, and performance characteristics of a high precision gaseous drift chamber made of thin walled proportional tubes are described. The device achieved an average spatial resolution of 45 ..mu..m in use for physics analysis with the MAC detector. The B-lifetime result obtained with this chamber is discussed.

  19. Lifetime tests for MAC vertex chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, H.N.

    1986-07-01

    A vertex chamber for MAC was proposed to increase precision in the measurement of the B hadron and tau lepton lifetimes. Thin-walled aluminized mylar drift tubes were used for detector elements. A study of radiation hardness was conducted under the conditions of the proposed design using different gases and different operating conditions. (LEW)

  20. An Interview with Peter MacDonald.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Peter MacDonald, Chairman of the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe in the United States speaks to such issues as energy development/management, oil companies, Navajo-Hopi relocation legislation, traditionalism, and the role of the Council of Energy Resource Tribes. (RTS)

  1. 42 CFR 405.1126 - Case remanded by the MAC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Case remanded by the MAC. 405.1126 Section 405.1126....1126 Case remanded by the MAC. (a) When the MAC may remand a case. Except as specified in § 405.1122(c), the MAC may remand a case in which additional evidence is needed or additional action by the ALJ...

  2. Exposure histories of lunar meteorites: ALHA81005, MAC88104, MAC88105, and Y791197

    SciTech Connect

    Nishiizumi, K.; Arnold, J.R. ); Klein, J.; Fink, D.; Middleton, R. ); Kubik, P.W.; Sharma, P.; Elmore, D. ); Reedy, R.C. )

    1991-11-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclides {sup 41}Ca, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 26}Al, and {sup 10}Be in the Allan Hills 81005, MacAlpine Hills 88104, MacAlpine Hills 88105,and Yamato 791197 meteorites were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). {sup 53}Mn in Allan Hills 81005 and Yamato 791197 was measured by activation. These four lunar meteorites experienced similar histories. They were ejected from near the surface of the Moon ranging in depth down to 400 g/cm{sup 2} and had very short transition times (less than 0.1 Ma) from the Moon to the Earth. A comparison of the cosmogenic nuclide concentrations in MacAlpine Hills 88104 and MacAlpine Hills 88105 clearly indicates that they are a pair from the same fall.

  3. An Energy-efficient Rate Adaptive Media Access Protocol (RA-MAC) for Long-lived Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wen; Chen, Quanjun; Corke, Peter; O’Rourke, Damien

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an energy-efficient Rate Adaptive Media Access Control (RA-MAC) algorithm for long-lived Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Previous research shows that the dynamic and lossy nature of wireless communications is one of the major challenges to reliable data delivery in WSNs. RA-MAC achieves high link reliability in such situations by dynamically trading off data rate for channel gain. The extra gain that can be achieved reduces the packet loss rate which contributes to reduced energy expenditure through a reduced numbers of retransmissions. We achieve this at the expense of raw bit rate which generally far exceeds the application’s link requirement. To minimize communication energy consumption, RA-MAC selects the optimal data rate based on the estimated link quality at each data rate and an analytical model of the energy consumption. Our model shows how the selected data rate depends on different channel conditions in order to minimize energy consumption. We have implemented RA-MAC in TinyOS for an off-the-shelf sensor platform (the TinyNode) on top of a state-of-the-art WSN Media Access Control Protocol, SCP-MAC, and evaluated its performance by comparing our implementation with the original SCP-MAC using both simulation and experiment. PMID:22219675

  4. An energy-efficient rate adaptive media access protocol (RA-MAC) for long-lived sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen; Chen, Quanjun; Corke, Peter; O'Rourke, Damien

    2010-01-01

    We introduce an energy-efficient Rate Adaptive Media Access Control (RA-MAC) algorithm for long-lived Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Previous research shows that the dynamic and lossy nature of wireless communications is one of the major challenges to reliable data delivery in WSNs. RA-MAC achieves high link reliability in such situations by dynamically trading off data rate for channel gain. The extra gain that can be achieved reduces the packet loss rate which contributes to reduced energy expenditure through a reduced numbers of retransmissions. We achieve this at the expense of raw bit rate which generally far exceeds the application's link requirement. To minimize communication energy consumption, RA-MAC selects the optimal data rate based on the estimated link quality at each data rate and an analytical model of the energy consumption. Our model shows how the selected data rate depends on different channel conditions in order to minimize energy consumption. We have implemented RA-MAC in TinyOS for an off-the-shelf sensor platform (the TinyNode) on top of a state-of-the-art WSN Media Access Control Protocol, SCP-MAC, and evaluated its performance by comparing our implementation with the original SCP-MAC using both simulation and experiment. PMID:22219675

  5. MACS as a tool for international inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

    1995-06-01

    General acceptance of the challenge provision in the Chemical Weapons Convention has the potential for influence in other arms control areas. While most applications of the challenge inspection may be straightforward, there may be instances where access to the site by inspectors may be problematic. The MACS system described in this paper was developed to respond to these situations. Inspection and verification may be difficult when a host is unwilling,for valid reasons, to permit physical access to a site. We proposed a system of remote sensors which may be used to demonstrate compliance with Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) challenge inspections even ff the inspector is physically excluded from a sensitive site. The system is based upon alternative-means-of-access provisions of the CWC. The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) funded design and construction of a system prototype, designated as MACS for Managed Access by Controlled Sensing. Features of the MACS design allow growth of the prototype into a versatile device for international monitoring of production facilities and other sites. MACS consists of instrumentation and communication equipment allowing site personnel to conduct a facility tour and perform acceptable measurements, while physically excluding the inspector from the facility. MACS consists of a base station used by the inspector, and a mobile unit used within the facility and manipulated by the facility staff. The base station and the mobile unit are @ed by a communication system, currently realized as a fiber optic cable. The mobile unit is equipped with television cameras and remote-reading distance-measuring equipment (DME) for use in verifying locations and dimensions. Global Positioning System receivers on the mobile unit provide both precise location and dead reckoning, suitable for tracking the mobile unit`s position while within a building when satellite signals are not available.

  6. Making Connections--The MeneMAC Online Learning Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sueoka, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    In 2001, the MeneMAC (Media Arts Communications, dubbed "MeneMAC" in honor of the school mascot, the menehune) Learning Center at Moanalua High School (MoHS), inaugurated its integrated media curriculum for its class of 27 entering freshmen. MeneMAC originated as a media learning center, offering students a chance to explore their interests and…

  7. The periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA acts as a switch in stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by MacB transporter.

    PubMed

    Modali, Sita D; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2011-08-01

    Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC is a tripartite macrolide efflux transporter driven by hydrolysis of ATP. In this complex, MacA is the periplasmic membrane fusion protein that stimulates the activity of MacB transporter and establishes the link with the outer membrane channel TolC. The molecular mechanism by which MacA stimulates MacB remains unknown. Here, we report that the periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA plays a critical role in functional MacA-MacB interactions and stimulation of MacB ATPase activity. Binding of MacA to MacB stabilizes the ATP-bound conformation of MacB, whereas interactions with both MacB and TolC affect the conformation of MacA. A single G353A substitution in the C-terminus of MacA inactivates MacAB-TolC function by changing the conformation of the membrane proximal domain of MacA and disrupting the proper assembly of the MacA-MacB complex. We propose that MacA acts in transport by promoting MacB transition into the closed ATP-bound conformation and in this respect, is similar to the periplasmic solute-binding proteins. PMID:21696464

  8. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  9. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  10. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  11. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  12. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  13. Another View of "PC vs. Mac."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMillion, John A.

    1998-01-01

    An article by Nan Wodarz in the November 1997 issue listed reasons why the Microsoft computer operating system was superior to the Apple Macintosh platform. This rebuttal contends the Macintosh is less expensive, lasts longer, and requires less technical staff for support. (MLF)

  14. Enzymatic browning reactions in apple and apple products.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, J J; Richard-Forget, F C; Goupy, P M; Amiot, M J; Aubert, S Y

    1994-01-01

    This review examines the parameters of enzymatic browning in apple and apple products that is, phenolic compounds, polyphenoloxidases, and other factors (ascorbic acid and peroxidases), both qualitatively and quantitatively. Then the relationships between intensity of browning and the browning parameters are discussed, including a paragraph on the methods used for browning evaluation. Finally, the different methods for the control of browning are presented. PMID:8011143

  15. MAC, material accounting database user guide

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-09-22

    The K Basins Material Accounting (MAC) database system user guide describes the user features and functions, and the document is structured like the database menus. This document presents the MAC database system user instructions which explain how to record the movements and configuration of canisters and materials within the K Basins on the computer, the mechanics of handling encapsulation tracking, and administrative functions associated with the system. This document includes the user instructions, which also serve as the software requirements specification for the system implemented on the microcomputer. This includes suggested user keystrokes, examples of screens displayed by the system, and reports generated by the system. It shows how the system is organized, via menus and screens. It does not explain system design nor provide programmer instructions.

  16. Modeling MAC layer for powerline communications networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrasnica, Halid; Haidine, Abdelfatteh

    2001-02-01

    The usage of electrical power distribution networks for voice and data transmission, called Powerline Communications, becomes nowadays more and more attractive, particularly in the telecommunication access area. The most important reasons for that are the deregulation of the telecommunication market and a fact that the access networks are still property of former monopolistic companies. In this work, first we analyze a PLC network and system structure as well as a disturbance scenario in powerline networks. After that, we define a logical structure of the powerline MAC layer and propose the reservation MAC protocols for the usage in the PLC network which provides collision free data transmission. This makes possible better network utilization and realization of QoS guarantees which can make PLC networks competitive to other access technologies.

  17. Paired lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105: A new FAN of lunar petrology

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, C.R. Univ. of Notre Dame, IN ); Taylor, L.A. ); Lui, Yungang; Schmitt, R.A. )

    1991-11-01

    New lunar meteorite MAC88104/5 represents an exciting new opportunity to study a potentially unsampled region of the Moon. The authors have analyzed six thin sections by electron microprobe and three bulk samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation (INA) in order to determine the chemical characteristics of this new lunar sample. Lunar meteorite MAC88104/5 is dominated by lithologies of the ferroan anorthosite (FAN) suite and contains abundant granulitized highland clasts, devitrified glass beads of impact origin, and two small clasts which appear to be of basaltic origin. One of these basaltic clasts (clast E in MAC88105,84) is probably mesostasis material, whereas the second larger clast (clast G) may be similar to the Very Low-Ti (VLT) or low-Ti/high-alumina mare basalts. Impact melt clasts MAC88105,69 and ,72 have major and trace element compositions similar to the bulk meteorite. There is little evidence of any LKFM (Low-K Fra Mauro or low-K KREEP) contribution to this meteorite, as MAC88104/5 and other brecciated lunar meteorites are Fe-rich and poor in the incompatible elements relative to Apollo 16 regolith and feldspathic breccias. While the exact site of origin for the lunar meteorites cannot be pinpointed, it is evident that they were divided from a relatively KREEP-free ferroan anorthosite terrain.

  18. Detection of Spoofed MAC Addresses in 802.11 Wireless Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Kai; Li, Jing; Sampalli, Srinivas

    Medium Access Control (MAC) address spoofing is considered as an important first step in a hacker's attempt to launch a variety of attacks on 802.11 wireless networks. Unfortunately, MAC address spoofing is hard to detect. Most current spoofing detection systems mainly use the sequence number (SN) tracking technique, which has drawbacks. Firstly, it may lead to an increase in the number of false positives. Secondly, such techniques cannot be used in systems with wireless cards that do not follow standard 802.11 sequence number patterns. Thirdly, attackers can forge sequence numbers, thereby causing the attacks to go undetected. We present a new architecture called WISE GUARD (Wireless Security Guard) for detection of MAC address spoofing on 802.11 wireless LANs. It integrates three detection techniques - SN tracking, Operating System (OS) fingerprinting & tracking and Received Signal Strength (RSS) fingerprinting & tracking. It also includes the fingerprinting of Access Point (AP) parameters as an extension to the OS fingerprinting for detection of AP address spoofing. We have implemented WISE GUARD on a test bed using off-the-shelf wireless devices and open source drivers. Experimental results show that the new design enhances the detection effectiveness and reduces the number of false positives in comparison with current approaches.

  19. W-MAC: a workload-aware MAC protocol for heterogeneous convergecast in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Xia, Ming; Dong, Yabo; Lu, Dongming

    2011-01-01

    The power consumption and latency of existing MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are high in heterogeneous convergecast, where each sensor node generates different amounts of data in one convergecast operation. To solve this problem, we present W-MAC, a workload-aware MAC protocol for heterogeneous convergecast in WSNs. A subtree-based iterative cascading scheduling mechanism and a workload-aware time slice allocation mechanism are proposed to minimize the power consumption of nodes, while offering a low data latency. In addition, an efficient schedule adjustment mechanism is provided for adapting to data traffic variation and network topology change. Analytical and simulation results show that the proposed protocol provides a significant energy saving and latency reduction in heterogeneous convergecast, and can effectively support data aggregation to further improve the performance. PMID:22163753

  20. Characterizing the Interaction Between Routing and MAC Protocols in Ad-Hoc Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, C. L.; Drozda, M.; Marathe, A.; Marathe, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    We empirically study the effect of mobility on the performance of protocols designed for wireless ad-hoc networks. An important objective is to study the interaction of the Routing and MAC layer protocols under different mobility parameters. We use three basic mobility models: grid mobility model, random waypoint model, and exponential correlated random model. The performance of protocols is measured in terms of (i) latency, (ii) throughput, (iii) number of packets received, (iv) long term fairness and (v) number of control packets at the MAC and routing layer level. Three different commonly studied routing protocols are used: AODV, DSR and LAR1. Similarly three well known MAC protocols are used: MACA, 802.1 1 and CSMA. Our main contribution is simulation based experiments coupled with rigorous statistical analysis to characterize the interaction of MAC layer protocols with routing layer protocols in ad-hoc networks. From the results, we can conclude the following: e No single MAC or Routing protocol dominated the other protocols in their class. Probably more interestingly, no MAURouting protocol combination was better than other combinations over all scenarios and response variables. 0 In general, it is not meaningful to speak about a MAC or a routing protocol in isolation. Presence of interaction leads to trade-offs between the amount of control packets generated by each layer. The results raise the possibility of improving the performance of a particular MAC layer protocol by using a cleverly designed routing protocol or vice-versa. Thus in order to improve the performanceof a communication network, it is important to study the entire protocol stack as a single algorithmic construct; optimizing individual layers in the seven layer OS1 stack will not yield performance improvements beyond a point. A methodological contribution of this paper is the use of statistical methods such as analysis of variance (ANOVA), to characterize the interaction between the protocols, mobility patterns and speed. Such methods allow us to analyze complicated experiments with large input space in a systematic manner.

  1. The APPL "Learning Map"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Root Learning, a learning consulting organization with a background in strategic planning, recognizes the knowledge gap that frequently exists between a leadership team and the rest of an organization. Team members supposedly working toward the same goal don't always have the same vision as to where the organization is headed, and they may not understand how the piece they are accountable for fits into the big picture. To address these complex problems, Root Learning utilizes the age-old tools of sarcasm, metaphor and graphics (much in the same way that ASK uses a traditional storytelling format.) The company is best known for creating "Learning Maps" like this one: humorous drawings based on the inner workings of an organization. Their purpose is to put complex topics on the table, to stimulate discussion, and to ultimately give team members a common vision of where the organization is going and what role they personally play in getting there. APPL knows how effective it is to incorporate new and engaging techniques into its knowledge sharing programs. By collaborating with Root Learning, we were able to expand the knowledge of the organization and add one more of these techniques to our repertoire.

  2. Wireless Sensor Networks Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lijuan, Du; Yuanpeng, Wang; WeiPeng, Jing

    This paper presents a new wireless sensor network energy-efficient MAC protocol, ES-MAC protocol, and shows the results of simulation experiments. During the transmission the nodes do not send ACK packages while use a small amount of new information packets, so they can reduce unnecessary energy loss and wasted time. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that ES-MAC protocol reduces energy consumption while reducing network latency and improving network throughput.

  3. Introduction to MacDraft. High-Technology Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Traxler, Gene

    This training module on MacDraft is part of a computer drafting skills unit on communications technology for grades 9-12. The objective is for each student to complete a drawing on the MacIntosh computer using the MacDraft software program. This drawing is to be dimensioned with a dual system and is to include a border and title block. This module…

  4. Cryptosporidiosis Associated with Ozonated Apple Cider

    PubMed Central

    Mazurek, Jacek M.; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L.

    2006-01-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned. PMID:16704822

  5. Cryptosporidiosis associated with ozonated apple cider.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Brian G; Mazurek, Jacek M; Hlavsa, Michele; Park, Jean; Tillapaw, Matt; Parrish, MaryKay; Salehi, Ellen; Franks, William; Koch, Elizabeth; Smith, Forrest; Xiao, Lihua; Arrowood, Michael; Hill, Vince; da Silva, Alex; Johnston, Stephanie; Jones, Jeffrey L

    2006-04-01

    We linked an outbreak of cryptosporidiosis to ozonated apple cider by using molecular and epidemiologic methods. Because ozonation was insufficient in preventing this outbreak, its use in rendering apple cider safe for drinking is questioned. PMID:16704822

  6. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Food Resources for You Consumers Questions & Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... MMA), may also be a health concern. Are apple and other fruit juices safe to drink? The ...

  7. Connecting your Apple to Octopus 7600's

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1983-01-17

    In UCID-19588, Communicating between the Apple and the Wang, we described how to take Apple DOS text files and send them to the Wang, and how to return Wang files to the Apple. It is also possible to use your Apple as an Octopus terminal, and to exchange files with Octopus 7600's. Presumably, you can also talk to the Crays, or any other part of the system. This connection has another virtue. It eliminates one of the terminals in your office.

  8. MacCready awarded Outstanding Student Paper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker MacCready was selected by the Ocean Sciences Section to receive their Outstanding Student Paper Award from the 1989 Fall Meeting in San Francisco for his paper entitled “Stratified Spin-up Over a Slope.” Following receipt of his Bachelor's degree in architecture from Yale in 1982, MacCready went to China for 5 months to study the language. On his return to Pasadena he worked for 3 years for Aerovironment, Inc., concentrating on building and flying a human-powered aircraft and a giant wing-flapping replica of a pterosaur. Having become interested in the aerodynamics of flappingwing propulsion, he continued his studies at Caltech, where he received his Master's degree in 1986. His informal thesis project was a human-powered hydrofoil boat with flapping-wing propulsion. He is currently working on his doctorate in physical oceanography at the University of Washington, where he is studying the dynamics of stratified, rotating boundary layers over topography. His switch to oceanography was motivated by his feeling that environmental fluid mechanics would become an increasingly relevant subject in light of increasing world pollution. In the future he hopes to go into environmental politics, perhaps in a scientific advisory role.

  9. Intel-Based Mac Computers Improve Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Today, Mac computers offer schools an easy and powerful way to engage students in learning, foster 21st century skills and leverage existing software assets. Innovative software and hardware built into the Mac allows students to demonstrate their individual strengths--empowering them to be creators of content, rather than just consumers. Judging…

  10. REGIONAL ASSESSMENT OF EXPOSURE TO MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX(MAC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is accumulating evidence that potable water is a source of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). The linkage of mycobacteriosis to drinking water has been shown in AIDS populations where up to 8% of deaths in this group is attributed to MAC. Infection with these organisms ha...

  11. Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of…

  12. Steven MacCall: Winner of LJ's 2010 Teaching Award

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2010-01-01

    This article profiles Steven L. MacCall, winner of "Library Journal's" 2010 Teaching Award. An associate professor at the School of Library and Information Studies (SLIS) at the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, MacCall was nominated by Kathie Popadin, known as "Kpop" to the members of her cohort in the online MLIS program at SLIS. Sixteen of

  13. GENETIC FINGERPRINTING OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) ORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM HOSPITAL PATIENTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A particularly pathogenic group of mycobacteria belong to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which includes M. avium and M. intracellulare. MAC organisms cause disease in children, the elderly, and immuno-compromised individuals. A critical step in preventing MAC infections...

  14. Dry bin filler for apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique dry bin filler for apples using a sequenced tray was developed to reduce bruising in packing operations. Research and commercial trials in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Washington State demonstrated the ability to fill bins evenly and with low damage. Cultivars with different bruising su...

  15. Apples for Teachers Pay Off.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geller, Irving, Ed.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews current trends in the educational market for microcomputers and software. As of June 1982, about 214,000 microcomputers were installed in schools, with Apple Computer (followed by Radio Shack and others) leading the field. A new federal program virtually eliminating how schools use funds may benefit computer assisted instruction. (JN)

  16. Diversity and Domestication of Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species within Malus are genetically diverse. Individuals within the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System have been identified with ploidies ranging from diploid to hexaploid. Chloroplast sequence data from seven regions have revealed genetic relationships among apple species and has aided in ...

  17. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-05-12

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals. PMID:15140261

  18. Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai

    2004-01-01

    Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals. PMID:15140261

  19. Paired lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105 - A new 'FAN' of lunar petrology. [ferroan anorthosite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Lui, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

    1991-01-01

    To determine the chemical characteristics of the MAC88104/5 meteorite six thin sections and three bulk samples were analyzed by electron microprobe and instrumental neutron activation. It is concluded that this meteorite is dominated by lithologies of the ferroan anorthosite suite and contains abundant granulitized highland clasts, devitrified glass beads of impact origin, and two small clasts of basaltic origin. It is suggested that one of these basaltic clasts, clast E, is mesostasis material, and clast G is similar to the very low-Ti or low-Ti/high-alumina mare basalts. Impact melt clasts MAC88105, 69, and 72 have major and trace element compositions similar to the bulk meteorite.

  20. Middle Atmosphere Cooperation/Summer in Northern Europe (MAC/SINE) and MAC/Epsilon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thrane, E. V.

    1989-01-01

    Two major international campaigns dedicated to the study of middle atmosphere dynamics in high latitudes were successfully completed in 1987. MAC/SINE (Middle Atmosphere Cooperation/Summer in Northern Europe) was carried out during the period 7 June to 19 July, whereas MAC/Epsilon took place in the period 12 October to 15 November. In both campaigns a large number of ground based and rocket techniques were used in a concerted effort to map the dynamical structure of the middle atmosphere over Northern Europe. Although the analysis of the observations has only just started, it is clear that a large and unique data set was obtained, which is believed will provide new insight into the dynamical processes in this interesting region of the atmosphere. A brief overview of the campaigns, their scientific aims, organization and structure is presented.

  1. [Monitoring Required for Monitored Anesthesia Care (MAC) and Specific MAC Methodologies].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toshiyasu

    2015-03-01

    Many physicians responsible for monitored anesthesia care (MAC) are not anesthesiologists and are not acquainted with treatment in response to sudden changes in patient condition. In particular, rapid response and early detection are essential for respiratory depression. Physicians engaged in MAC require pharmacological knowledge regarding sedative and analgesic medications, need to be able to accurately evaluate physiological responses to sedative and anesthetic levels, and need to be acquainted with emergency procedures such as basic life support (BLS) and advanced cardiovascular life support (ACLS). Patient management focusing on both ventilation and oxygenation, through the use of capnography and continuous respiratory monitoring, in addition to oxygenation monitoring using a pulse oximeter, and measuring ECGs and blood pressure in the management of sedated patients, is also important. PMID:26121782

  2. A ferroan region of the lunar highlands as recorded in meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105

    SciTech Connect

    Jolliff, B.L.; Korotev, R.L.; Haskin, L.A. )

    1991-11-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 (MAC88104/5) are paired meteorites of noritic anorthosite composition from the lunar highlands. MAC88105 is a breccia composed mainly of melt-breccia clasts in a fine-grained, fragmental, and partly glassy matrix. The most abundant melt lithologies are feldspathic and are similar in composition to the bulk meteorite. Other melt lithologies include feldspathic melt rocks, mafic melt breccias, and a rare melt breccia relatively enriched in incompatible trace elements. Subordinate lithic clasts are granulitic breccias and ferroan (relatively low Mg/(Mg + Fe)) igneous lithologies, including troctolitic anorthosite, anorthositic norite, gabbronorite, and anorthosite. Igneous clasts having mafic mineral compositions more magnesian than Fo{sub 55} and En{sub 60} were not observed. Rare fragments of glass spheres and shards as well as glass clasts indicate that the meteorite was derived from an immature regolith. The bulk composition of MAC88105 is characterized by a molar Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratio of 0.62, at the extreme low end of the range for meteorites from the lunar highlands. Its low concentrations of incompatible trace elements and feldspathic bulk composition (29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), suggests that it, like the other lunar meteorites, formed at a site far removed from the areas sampled by the Apollo missions. Similarities in mineral compositions among the different lithologies of the breccia and the distribution of mineral fragments suggest that most components of the meteorite were derived from a crustal section dominated by material with a noritic anorthosite composition and an affinity of the ferroan suite of plutonic rocks.

  3. PC vs. Mac--Which Way Should You Go?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodarz, Nan

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the factors in hardware, software, and administration to consider in developing specifications for choosing a computer operating system. Compares Microsoft Windows 95/NT that runs on PC/Intel-based systems and System 7.5 that runs on the Apple-based systems. Lists reasons why the Microsoft platform clearly stands above the Apple platform.…

  4. Multichannel MAC Layer In Mobile Ad—Hoc Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logesh, K.; Rao, Samba Siva

    2010-11-01

    This paper we presented the design objectives and technical challenges in Multichannel MAC protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. In IEEE 802.11 a/b/g standards allow use of multiple channels, only a single channel is popularly used, due to the lack of efficient protocols that enable use of Multiple Channels. Even though complex environments in ad hoc networks require a combined control of physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layers resources in order to optimize performance. And also we discuss the characteristics of cross-layer frame and give a multichannel MAC approach.

  5. Cooperative Energy Harvesting-Adaptive MAC Protocol for WBANs

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Volker; Antonopoulos, Angelos; Kartsakli, Elli; Puig-Vidal, Manel; Miribel-Català, Pere; Verikoukis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a cooperative medium access control (MAC) protocol, named cooperative energy harvesting (CEH)-MAC, that adapts its operation to the energy harvesting (EH) conditions in wireless body area networks (WBANs). In particular, the proposed protocol exploits the EH information in order to set an idle time that allows the relay nodes to charge their batteries and complete the cooperation phase successfully. Extensive simulations have shown that CEH-MAC significantly improves the network performance in terms of throughput, delay and energy efficiency compared to the cooperative operation of the baseline IEEE 802.15.6 standard. PMID:26029950

  6. Handling Deafness Problem of Scheduled Multi-Channel Polling MACs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Fulong; Liu, Hao; Shi, Longxing

    Combining scheduled channel polling with channel diversity is a promising way for a MAC protocol to achieve high energy efficiency and performance under both light and heavy traffic conditions. However, the deafness problem may cancel out the benefit of channel diversity. In this paper, we first investigate the deafness problem of scheduled multi-channel polling MACs with experiments. Then we propose and evaluate two schemes to handle the deafness problem. Our experiment shows that deafness is a significant reason for performance degradation in scheduled multi-channel polling MACs. A proper scheme should be chosen depending on the traffic pattern and the design objective.

  7. Association Between Apple Consumption and Physician Visits

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew A.; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Sirovich, Brenda E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. EXPOSURES Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non–apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was success at “keeping the doctor away,” measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). RESULTS Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)—those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non–apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (P < .001 for each comparison). Apple eaters were more likely, in the crude analysis, to keep the doctor (and prescription medications) away: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9%of non–apple eaters (P = .03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant (OR, 1.19; 95%CI, 0.93–1.53; P = .15). In the adjusted analysis, apple eaters also remained marginally more successful at avoiding prescription medications (odds ratio, 1.27; 95%CI, 1.00–1.63). There were no differences seen in overnight hospital stay or mental health visits. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Evidence does not support that an apple a day keeps the doctor away; however, the small fraction of US adults who eat an apple a day do appear to use fewer prescription medications. PMID:25822137

  8. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  9. PAD-MAC: Primary User Activity-Aware Distributed MAC for Multi-Channel Cognitive Radio Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Amjad; Piran, Md. Jalil; Kim, Hansoo; Yun, Jihyeok; Suh, Doug Young

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive radio (CR) has emerged as a promising technology to solve problems related to spectrum scarcity and provides a ubiquitous wireless access environment. CR-enabled secondary users (SUs) exploit spectrum white spaces opportunistically and immediately vacate the acquired licensed channels as primary users (PUs) arrive. Accessing the licensed channels without the prior knowledge of PU traffic patterns causes severe throughput degradation due to excessive channel switching and PU-to-SU collisions. Therefore, it is significantly important to design a PU activity-aware medium access control (MAC) protocol for cognitive radio networks (CRNs). In this paper, we first propose a licensed channel usage pattern identification scheme, based on a two-state Markov model, and then estimate the future idle slots using previous observations of the channels. Furthermore, based on these past observations, we compute the rank of each available licensed channel that gives SU transmission success assessment during the estimated idle slot. Secondly, we propose a PU activity-aware distributed MAC (PAD-MAC) protocol for heterogeneous multi-channel CRNs that selects the best channel for each SU to enhance its throughput. PAD-MAC controls SU activities by allowing them to exploit the licensed channels only for the duration of estimated idle slots and enables predictive and fast channel switching. To evaluate the performance of the proposed PAD-MAC, we compare it with the distributed QoS-aware MAC (QC-MAC) and listen-before-talk MAC schemes. Extensive numerical results show the significant improvements of the PAD-MAC in terms of the SU throughput, SU channel switching rate and PU-to-SU collision rate. PMID:25831084

  10. Orienting apples for imaging using their inertial properties and random apple loading

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inability to control apple orientation during imaging has hindered development of automated systems for sorting apples for defects such as bruises and for safety issues such as fecal contamination. Recently, a potential method for orienting apples based on their inertial properties was discovere...

  11. Biochemical Characterization of APPL Endosomes: The Role of Annexin A2 in APPL Membrane Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Urbanska, Anna; Sadowski, Lukasz; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Miaczynska, Marta

    2011-01-01

    APPL endosomes are a recently identified subpopulation of early endosomes characterized by the presence of two homologous Rab5 effector proteins APPL1 and APPL2. They exhibit only limited colocalization with EEA1, another Rab5 effector and a marker of the canonical early endosomes. Although APPL endosomes appear to play important roles in cargo trafficking and signal transduction, their protein composition and biochemical properties remain largely unknown. Here we employed membrane fractionation methods to characterize APPL endosomes biochemically. We demonstrate that they represent heterogeneous membrane structures which can be discriminated from the canonical EEA1-positive early endosomes by their partly different physical properties and a distinct migration pattern in the continuous density gradients. In search for other potential markers of APPL endosomes we identified Annexin A2 as an interacting partner of both APPL1 and APPL2. Annexin A2 is a Ca2+ and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate binding protein, previously implicated in several endocytic steps. We show that Annexin A2 co-fractionates and colocalizes with APPL endosomes. Moreover, silencing of its expression causes solubilization of APPL2 from endosomes. Although Annexin A2 is not an exclusive marker of APPL endosomes, our data suggest that it has an important function in membrane recruitment of APPL proteins, acting in parallel to Rab5. PMID:21645192

  12. Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Hall, Edward

    2011-01-01

    To help increase the capacity and efficiency of the nation s airports, a secure wideband wireless communications system is proposed for use on the airport surface. This paper provides an overview of the research and development process for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). AeroMACS is based on a specific commercial profile of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.16 standard known as Wireless Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access or WiMAX (WiMax Forum). The paper includes background on the need for global interoperability in air/ground data communications, describes potential AeroMACS applications, addresses allocated frequency spectrum constraints, summarizes the international standardization process, and provides findings and recommendations from the world s first AeroMACS prototype implemented in Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

  13. In memory of Lloyd D. MacLean

    PubMed Central

    Meakins, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Canadian surgery has lost one of its great leaders. Dr. Lloyd Douglas MacLean died in his sleep on Jan. 14, 2015, at 90 years of age. This commentary highlights his contributions to Canadian surgery. PMID:26204373

  14. Operational effectiveness of a Multiple Aquila Control System (MACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. W.; Flynn, J. D.; Frey, M. R.

    1983-01-01

    The operational effectiveness of a multiple aquila control system (MACS) was examined under a variety of remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) mission configurations. The set of assumptions and inputs used to form the rules under which a computerized simulation of MACS was run is given. The characteristics that are to govern MACS operations include: the battlefield environment that generates the requests for RPV missions, operating time-lines of the RPV-peculiar equipment, maintenance requirements, and vulnerability to enemy fire. The number of RPV missions and the number of operation days are discussed. Command, control, and communication data rates are estimated by determining how many messages are passed and what information is necessary in them to support ground coordination between MACS sections.

  15. 5. Photocopy of drawing of Mac Dougall furnace in roaster ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Photocopy of drawing of Mac Dougall furnace in roaster building from John L. Bray, The Principles of Metallurgy Ginn & Co., New York, 1929. - International Smelting & Refining Company, Tooele Smelter, Roaster Building, State Route 178, Tooele, Tooele County, UT

  16. MAC layer security issues in wireless mesh networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, K. Ganesh; Thilagam, P. Santhi

    2016-03-01

    Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) have emerged as a promising technology for a broad range of applications due to their self-organizing, self-configuring and self-healing capability, in addition to their low cost and easy maintenance. Securing WMNs is more challenging and complex issue due to their inherent characteristics such as shared wireless medium, multi-hop and inter-network communication, highly dynamic network topology and decentralized architecture. These vulnerable features expose the WMNs to several types of attacks in MAC layer. The existing MAC layer standards and implementations are inadequate to secure these features and fail to provide comprehensive security solutions to protect both backbone and client mesh. Hence, there is a need for developing efficient, scalable and integrated security solutions for WMNs. In this paper, we classify the MAC layer attacks and analyze the existing countermeasures. Based on attacks classification and countermeasures analysis, we derive the research directions to enhance the MAC layer security for WMNs.

  17. A tribute to Lloyd D. MacLean

    PubMed Central

    Keith, Roger G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Dr. Lloyd D. MacLean, long-time co-editor of the Canadian Journal of Surgery passed away earlier this year at the age of 90. In order to appreciate the contributions of Dr. MacLean to the journal, this commentary recognizes him as a humble surgeon–scientist who was one of — if not the — most outstanding Canadian ambassadors to academic surgery in North America. PMID:26204372

  18. Conformal holonomy in MacDowell-Mansouri gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, James A.; Wang, Charles H.-T.

    2014-03-15

    The MacDowell-Mansouri formulation of general relativity is based on a gauge theory whose gauge algebra depends on the sign of the cosmological constant. In this article, we show that the gauge algebra is uniquely determined by the conformal structure of spacetime itself. Specifically, we show that in vacuum: the spacetime conformal holonomy algebra coincides with the MacDowell-Mansouri gauge algebra for both signs of the cosmological constant, in both Lorentzian and Euclidean metric signatures.

  19. Identifying ChIP-seq enrichment using MACS.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jianxing; Liu, Tao; Qin, Bo; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xiaole Shirley

    2012-09-01

    Model-based analysis of ChIP-seq (MACS) is a computational algorithm that identifies genome-wide locations of transcription/chromatin factor binding or histone modification from ChIP-seq data. MACS consists of four steps: removing redundant reads, adjusting read position, calculating peak enrichment and estimating the empirical false discovery rate (FDR). In this protocol, we provide a detailed demonstration of how to install MACS and how to use it to analyze three common types of ChIP-seq data sets with different characteristics: the sequence-specific transcription factor FoxA1, the histone modification mark H3K4me3 with sharp enrichment and the H3K36me3 mark with broad enrichment. We also explain how to interpret and visualize the results of MACS analyses. The algorithm requires ∼3 GB of RAM and 1.5 h of computing time to analyze a ChIP-seq data set containing 30 million reads, an estimate that increases with sequence coverage. MACS is open source and is available from http://liulab.dfci.harvard.edu/MACS/. PMID:22936215

  20. Identifying ChIP-seq enrichment using MACS

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jianxing; Liu, Tao; Qin, Bo; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Xiaole Shirley

    2013-01-01

    Model-based Analysis of ChIP-seq (MACS) is a computational algorithm that identifies genome-wide locations of transcription/chromatin factor binding or histone modification from ChIP-seq data. MACS consists of four steps: removing redundant reads, adjusting read position, calculating peak enrichment, and estimating the empirical false discovery rate. In this protocol, we provide a detailed demonstration of how to install MACS and how to use it to analyze three common types of ChIP-seq datasets with different characteristics: the sequence-specific transcription factor FoxA1, the histone modification mark H3K4me3 with sharp enrichment, and the H3K36me3 mark with broad enrichment. We also explain how to interpret and visualize the results of MACS analyses. The algorithm requires approximately 3 GB of RAM and 1.5 hours of computing time to analyze a ChIP-seq dataset containing 30 million reads, an estimate that increases with sequence coverage. MACS is open-source and is available from http://liulab.dfci.harvard.edu/MACS. PMID:22936215

  1. Role of ATP binding and hydrolysis in assembly of MacAB-TolC macrolide transporter.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuo; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2012-12-01

    MacB is a founding member of the Macrolide Exporter family of transporters belonging to the ATP-Binding Cassette superfamily. These proteins are broadly represented in genomes of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and are implicated in virulence and protection against antibiotics and peptide toxins. MacB transporter functions together with MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, which stimulates MacB ATPase. In Gram-negative bacteria, MacA is believed to couple ATP hydrolysis to transport of substrates across the outer membrane through a TolC-like channel. In this study, we report a real-time analysis of concurrent ATP hydrolysis and assembly of MacAB-TolC complex. MacB binds nucleotides with a low millimolar affinity and fast on- and off-rates. In contrast, MacA-MacB complex is formed with a nanomolar affinity, which further increases in the presence of ATP. Our results strongly suggest that association between MacA and MacB is stimulated by ATP binding to MacB but remains unchanged during ATP hydrolysis cycle. We also found that the large periplasmic loop of MacB plays the major role in coupling reactions separated in two different membranes. This loop is required for MacA-dependent stimulation of MacB ATPase and at the same time, contributes to recruitment of TolC into a trans-envelope complex. PMID:23057817

  2. SED/Apple Computer, Inc., Partnership Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Peter F.

    1991-01-01

    In 1990, the New York State Education Department (SED), Apple Computer, Inc., Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), and school districts formed a partnership to explore the contribution technology can make to schools based on Apple Computer's Learning Society and SED's Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary…

  3. Prediction of Apple Quality by Optical Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optical properties (i.e., absorption and scattering) are useful for assessing the internal quality of apples such as firmness and soluble solids content (SSC). A spatially-resolved hyperspectral imaging technique was developed to measure the optical properties of apples for predicting fruit firmness...

  4. Production of alcohol from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.; Cooley, H.J.

    1981-12-01

    Production of ethyl alcohol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. More than 43 grams of the ethyl alcohol could be produced per kg of apple pomace fermented at 30 degrees Celcius in 24 hours. The fermentation efficiency of this process was approximately 89%. (Refs. 9).

  5. The apple genome: ripe for harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An international consortium of plant report sequencing of the cultivated apple (Malus x domestica) genome (Velasco et al., this issue). Apples are among the most widely grown and consumed fruits in temperate regions of the world. This is in part due to years of extensive breeding and selection the ...

  6. Historic American apple cultivars: Identification and availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples have been important throughout the centuries in North America. Historic books, publications, and nursery catalogs were surveyed to identify apple cultivars that were propagated and grown in the United States prior to 1908. We collected synonym, introduction date, and original source country i...

  7. 9,250 Apples for the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uston, Ken

    1983-01-01

    Discusses Apple Computer Inc.'s plan to donate an Apple IIe to eligible elementary/secondary schools in California, dealer incentives for conducting orientation sessions for school personnel, and school uses of the computer (including peer tutoring and teacher education). Also discusses similar efforts of other microcomputer manufacturers. (JN)

  8. Manipulating the electron distribution through a combination of electron injection and MacKenzie’s Maxwell Demon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Chi-Shung; Hershkowitz, Noah

    2015-06-01

    Experiments on electron heating are performed in a biased hot filament-produced argon plasma. Electrons are confined by multi-dipole magnetic fields on the radial wall of the cylindrical chamber but not the planar end walls. Electron heating is provided by a combination of cold electron injection (Hershowitz N and Leung K N 1975 Appl. Phys. Lett. 26 607) and a MacKenzie Maxwell Demon (Mackenzie K R et al 1971 Appl. Phys. Lett. 18 529). This approach allows the manipulation of the electrons by introducing a depleted tail into the electron energy distribution function or by removing a depleted tail. It is found that the injected electrons mimic and thermalize with the electron species with the closest average energy or temperature. The effect of the injected electrons is optimal when they mimic the secondary electrons emitted from the wall instead of the degraded primary electrons. Both approaches combine to achieve increases in electron temperature Te from 0.67 to 2.8 eV, which was not significantly higher than using each approach alone.

  9. Determination of copper in clarified apple juices.

    PubMed

    Zeiner, Michaela; Juranović Cindrić, Iva; Kröppl, Michaela; Stingeder, Gerhard

    2010-03-24

    Inorganic copper compounds are not considered as synthetic fertilizers for apple trees as they are traditional fertilizers. Thus, they are used in organic farming for soil or foliar applications. The European Union is for health reasons interested in reducing copper in apple orchards. Because the fertilizer application rate affects the nutrition of apples, the applied copper might also be reflected in the copper concentration of apple juices. Thus, the determination of copper is of concern for investigating the application of copper-containing fertilizers. Samples of clarified apple juice commercially available in the European market were analyzed for their copper content. Prior to quantification by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, the juices were processed by a microwave-assisted digestion system using HNO(3). All samples were also measured directly after dilution with HNO(3). The copper concentrations measured using both methods were all below the limit of detection (17 microg/L). PMID:20158210

  10. The many faces of Mac-1 in autoimmune disease.

    PubMed

    Rosetti, Florencia; Mayadas, Tanya N

    2016-01-01

    Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18) is a β2 integrin classically regarded as a pro-inflammatory molecule because of its ability to promote phagocyte cytotoxic functions and enhance the function of several effector molecules such as FcγR, uPAR, and CD14. Nevertheless, recent reports have revealed that Mac-1 also plays significant immunoregulatory roles, and genetic variants in ITGAM, the gene that encodes CD11b, confer risk for the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This has renewed interest in the physiological roles of this integrin and raised new questions on how its seemingly opposing biological functions may be regulated. Here, we provide an overview of the CD18 integrins and how their activation may be regulated as this may shed light on how the opposing roles of Mac-1 may be elicited. We then discuss studies that exemplify Mac-1's pro-inflammatory versus regulatory roles particularly in the context of IgG immune complex-mediated inflammation. This includes a detailed examination of molecular mechanisms that could explain the risk-conferring effect of rs1143679, a single nucleotide non-synonymous Mac-1 polymorphism associated with SLE. PMID:26683153

  11. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  12. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  13. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  14. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  15. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  16. Evaluation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice with Cornus fruit (Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.) extract by conventional media and thin agar layer method.

    PubMed

    Wu, Vivian C H; Qiu, Xujian; Peggy Hsieh, Y-H

    2008-02-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7 survival in apple juice supplemented with Cornus fruit (Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc.) extract was studied. Inoculated samples with or without Cornus fruit extract were kept at 21 and 7 degrees C. Microbial analysis was conducted on days 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7. MacConkey sorbitol agar (MSA), tryptic soy agar (TSA), and thin agar layer (TAL) medium were used to compare the recovery of bacteria stressed under combination treatment. Influence of temperature, storage time, and Cornus fruit on survival of cells was evaluated. The most dramatic reduction of E. coli O157:H7 was observed in apple juice with Cornus fruit extract at 21 degrees C. At 7 degrees C, E. coli O157:H7 was reduced by 2.3logcfu/ml in the apple juice with Cornus fruit extract compared to the control sample on day 7. TAL and TSA were more efficient than MSA. Cornus fruit extract can be used in combination with temperature and storage time controls to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice. This study has shown that TAL is a viable method of recovering and differentiating injured microorganisms and apple juice supplemented with Cornus fruit has potential as a value-added beverage with antimicrobial effects and potential health benefits. PMID:17993394

  17. SACRB-MAC: A High-Capacity MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks in Smart Grid.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhutian; Shi, Zhenguo; Jin, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    The Cognitive Radio Sensor Network (CRSN) is considered as a viable solution to enhance various aspects of the electric power grid and to realize a smart grid. However, several challenges for CRSNs are generated due to the harsh wireless environment in a smart grid. As a result, throughput and reliability become critical issues. On the other hand, the spectrum aggregation technique is expected to play an important role in CRSNs in a smart grid. By using spectrum aggregation, the throughput of CRSNs can be improved efficiently, so as to address the unique challenges of CRSNs in a smart grid. In this regard, we proposed Spectrum Aggregation Cognitive Receiver-Based MAC (SACRB-MAC), which employs the spectrum aggregation technique to improve the throughput performance of CRSNs in a smart grid. Moreover, SACRB-MAC is a receiver-based MAC protocol, which can provide a good reliability performance. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that SACRB-MAC is a promising solution for CRSNs in a smart grid. PMID:27043573

  18. SACRB-MAC: A High-Capacity MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Sensor Networks in Smart Grid

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhutian; Shi, Zhenguo; Jin, Chunlin

    2016-01-01

    The Cognitive Radio Sensor Network (CRSN) is considered as a viable solution to enhance various aspects of the electric power grid and to realize a smart grid. However, several challenges for CRSNs are generated due to the harsh wireless environment in a smart grid. As a result, throughput and reliability become critical issues. On the other hand, the spectrum aggregation technique is expected to play an important role in CRSNs in a smart grid. By using spectrum aggregation, the throughput of CRSNs can be improved efficiently, so as to address the unique challenges of CRSNs in a smart grid. In this regard, we proposed Spectrum Aggregation Cognitive Receiver-Based MAC (SACRB-MAC), which employs the spectrum aggregation technique to improve the throughput performance of CRSNs in a smart grid. Moreover, SACRB-MAC is a receiver-based MAC protocol, which can provide a good reliability performance. Analytical and simulation results demonstrate that SACRB-MAC is a promising solution for CRSNs in a smart grid. PMID:27043573

  19. Vehicle Health Management Communications Requirements for AeroMACS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Clements, Donna J.; Apaza, Rafael D.

    2012-01-01

    As the development of standards for the aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) progresses, the process of identifying and quantifying appropriate uses for the system is progressing. In addition to defining important elements of AeroMACS standards, indentifying the systems uses impacts AeroMACS bandwidth requirements. Although an initial 59 MHz spectrum allocation for AeroMACS was established in 2007, the allocation may be inadequate; studies have indicated that 100 MHz or more of spectrum may be required to support airport surface communications. Hence additional spectrum allocations have been proposed. Vehicle health management (VHM) systems, which can produce large volumes of vehicle health data, were not considered in the original bandwidth requirements analyses, and are therefore of interest in supporting proposals for additional AeroMACS spectrum. VHM systems are an emerging development in air vehicle safety, and preliminary estimates of the amount of data that will be produced and transmitted off an aircraft, both in flight and on the ground, have been prepared based on estimates of data produced by on-board vehicle health sensors and initial concepts of data processing approaches. This allowed an initial estimate of VHM data transmission requirements for the airport surface. More recently, vehicle-level systems designed to process and analyze VHM data and draw conclusions on the current state of vehicle health have been undergoing testing and evaluation. These systems make use of vehicle system data that is mostly different from VHM data considered previously for airport surface transmission, and produce processed system outputs that will be also need to be archived, thus generating additional data load for AeroMACS. This paper provides an analysis of airport surface data transmission requirements resulting from the vehicle level reasoning systems, within the context of overall VHM data requirements.

  20. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host-plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hyb...

  1. Data representations in PDP-10 MacLISP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, G. L., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The internal representations of the various MacLISP data types are presented and discussed. Certain implementation tradeoffs are considered. The ultimate decisions on these tradeoffs are discussed in the light of MacLISP's prime objective of being an efficient high-level language for the implementation of large systems such as MACSYMA. The basic strategy of garbage collection is outlined, with reference to the specific representations involved. Certain clever tricks are explained and justified. The address space crunch is explained and some alternative solutions explored.

  2. A Flexible CSMA based MAC Protocol for Software Defined Radios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschmann, André; Kalil, Mohamed A.; Mitschele-Thiel, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    In this article, we propose a flexible CSMA based MAC protocol which facilitates research and experimentation using software define radios. The modular architecture allows to employ the protocol on platforms with heterogeneous hardware capabilities and provides the freedom to exchange or adapt the spectrum sensing mechanism without modifying the MAC protocol internals. We discuss the architecture of the protocol and provide structural details of its main components. Furthermore, we present throughput measurements that have been obtained on an example system using host-based spectrum sensing.

  3. MacMS: A Mass Spectrometer Simulator: Abstract of Issue 9906M

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigger, Stephen W.; Craig, Robert A.

    1999-10-01

    MacMS is a program for Mac-OS compatible computers that simulates a magnetic sector mass spectrometer (1-4) designed to operate in the mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio range of 1-200 amu. MacMS has two operational modules. The first module (see Figure 1) is called the "Path" module and enables the user to quantitatively examine the trajectory of an ion of given m/z ratio in the electric and magnetic fields of the simulated "instrument". By systematically measuring a series of trajectories of different ions under different electric and magnetic field conditions, the user can determine how the resolution of the "instrument" is affected by these experimentally variable parameters. The user can thus choose suitable instrumental conditions for scanning a given m/z ratio range with good separation between the peaks. The second module (see Figure 2) is called as the "Spectrometer" module and enables the user to record, under any chosen instrumental conditions, the mass spectrum of (i) the instrumental background, (ii) neon, (iii) methane, or (iv) the parent ion of carbon tetrachloride. Both voltage scanning and magnetic scanning are possible (5). A hard copy of any mass spectrum that has been recorded can also be obtained. MacMS can read ASCII data files containing mass spectral information of compounds other than those that are "built-in" to the simulator. The appropriate format for creating such data files is described in the program documentation. There are a number of instructional exercises that can be conducted using the mass spectral information contained within the simulator. These are included in the program documentation. For example, the intensities of the 20Ne+, 21Ne+, and 22Ne+ species can be determined from hard copies of mass spectra of neon that are obtained under different instrumental sensitivities. The relative abundances of the three isotopes of neon can thus be calculated and compared with the literature values (6). The simulator also includes adjustable, fixed-value range and gain settings, which can be used to enhance the resolution and sensitivity of the instrument respectively.

    Figure 1. The "Path" module of MacMS showing the control panel (upper section) and graphics display region (lower section). The graphics display region incorporates a "data collector", which includes a "Grab" button to collect data and an area where data are displayed.
    Figure 2. The "Spectrometer" module of MacMS showing the control panel (upper section) and a graphics display region (lower section). A mass spectrum is produced in the graphics display region upon scanning. A "data collector" similar to that of the "Path" module forms part of the graphics display region. Hardware and Software Requirements Literature Cited
    1. Kiser, R. N. Introduction to Mass Spectrometry and its Applications; Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1965; pp 1-3; pp 32-65.
    2. Johnstone, R. A. W.; Rose, M. E. Mass Spectrometry for Chemists and Biochemists, 2nd ed.; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1996.
    3. Hill, H. C.; Loudon, A. G. Introduction to Mass Spectrometry; 2nd ed.; Heyden: London, 1972; p 5.
    4. Farmer, J. B. In Mass Spectrometry, McDowell, C. A., Ed.; McGraw-Hill: New York, 1963; pp 10-11.
    5. Message, G. M. Practical Aspects of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Wiley: New York, 1984; Chapter 3.
    6. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 55th ed.; CRC: Cleveland, 1974.

  4. Isolation and characterisation of human gingival margin-derived STRO-1/MACS(+) and MACS(-) cell populations.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, Karim M Fawzy; Paris, Sebastian; Graetz, Christian; Kassem, Neemat; Mekhemar, Mohamed; Ungefroren, Hendrick; Fändrich, Fred; Dörfer, Christof

    2015-06-01

    Recently, gingival margin-derived stem/progenitor cells isolated via STRO-1/magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) showed remarkable periodontal regenerative potential in vivo. As a second-stage investigation, the present study's aim was to perform in vitro characterisation and comparison of the stem/progenitor cell characteristics of sorted STRO-1-positive (MACS⁺) and STRO-1-negative (MACS⁻) cell populations from the human free gingival margin. Cells were isolated from the free gingiva using a minimally invasive technique and were magnetically sorted using anti-STRO-1 antibodies. Subsequently, the MACS⁺ and MACS⁻ cell fractions were characterized by flow cytometry for expression of CD14, CD34, CD45, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD146/MUC18 and STRO-1. Colony-forming unit (CFU) and multilineage differentiation potential were assayed for both cell fractions. Mineralisation marker expression was examined using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). MACS⁺ and MACS(-) cell fractions showed plastic adherence. MACS⁺ cells, in contrast to MACS⁻ cells, showed all of the predefined mesenchymal stem/progenitor cell characteristics and a significantly higher number of CFUs (P<0.01). More than 95% of MACS⁺ cells expressed CD105, CD90 and CD73; lacked the haematopoietic markers CD45, CD34 and CD14, and expressed STRO-1 and CD146/MUC18. MACS⁻ cells showed a different surface marker expression profile, with almost no expression of CD14 or STRO-1, and more than 95% of these cells expressed CD73, CD90 and CD146/MUC18, as well as the haematopoietic markers CD34 and CD45 and CD105. MACS⁺ cells could be differentiated along osteoblastic, adipocytic and chondroblastic lineages. In contrast, MACS⁻ cells demonstrated slight osteogenic potential. Unstimulated MACS⁺ cells showed significantly higher expression of collagen I (P<0.05) and collagen III (P<0.01), whereas MACS⁻ cells demonstrated higher expression of osteonectin (P<0.05; Mann-Whitney). The present study is the first to compare gingival MACS⁺ and MACS⁻ cell populations demonstrating that MACS⁺ cells, in contrast to MACS⁻ cells, harbour stem/progenitor cell characteristics. This study also validates the effectiveness of the STRO-1/MACS⁺ technique for the isolation of gingival stem/progenitor cells. Human free gingival margin-derived STRO-1/MACS⁺ cells are a unique renewable source of multipotent stem/progenitor cells. PMID:25257881

  5. The Apple Tree Curriculum Approach in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Mu Keun; Phipps, Lloyd J.

    1978-01-01

    The authors discuss educational objectives of agricultural high schools in the Republic of Korea, likening the curriculum elements and subsystems to the roots, trunk, and branches of an apple tree. (MF)

  6. Metasedimentary Rocks at the Apple Creek Formation

    USGS scientist Art Bookstrom looks at puzzling sedimentary structures in metasedimentary rocks of the Apple Creek Formation, near the Jackass prospect, near Iron Creek, in the southeastern part of the Idaho cobalt belt, in east-central Idaho....

  7. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  8. Metabolomic Change Precedes Apple Superficial Scald Symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic profiling of 621 metabolites was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with Granny Smith apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least squares-discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, ...

  9. Micropropagation of apple--a review.

    PubMed

    Dobránszki, Judit; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Micropropagation of apple has played an important role in the production of healthy, disease-free plants and in the rapid multiplication of scions and rootstocks with desirable traits. During the last few decades, in apple, many reliable methods have been developed for both rootstocks and scions from a practical, commercial point of view. Successful micropropagation of apple using pre-existing meristems (culture of apical buds or nodal segments) is influenced by several internal and external factors including ex vitro (e.g. genotype and physiological state) and in vitro conditions (e.g., media constituents and light). Specific requirements during stages of micropropagation, such as the establishment of in vitro cultures, shoot multiplication, rooting of microshoots and acclimatization are summarized in this review. New approaches for increasing shoot multiplication and rooting for apple and current use of micropropagated plantlets as tools in basic and applied research are also discussed. PMID:20188809

  10. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  11. Production of apple snail for space diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

    For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g of body weight within two or three month from its egg. Several hundreds of egg are laid by one snail. It start egg laying after three months from hatching. In order to harvest 50 g for every day's meal, 3 m2 is required for rearing space. Eating apple snail and establishing its rearing system might save the food crisis on Earth.

  12. Repeated anaphylactic episodes to orange and apple.

    PubMed

    Tsiougkos, N; Vovolis, V

    2013-05-01

    This study reports an unusual case of repeated anaphylactic episodes to orange and apple without clinical evidence of primary sensitization to peach LTP. In vitro and in vivo tests revealed heat stability of the implicated allergens and also provided new evidence of differences in allergenicity among apple varieties and strong cross reactivity of citrus fruits. "Prick-to-prick" method with fresh fruits proved to be a quick and advantageous tool in investigating allergy to fresh fruits. PMID:23862403

  13. 42 CFR 422.608 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 422.608 Section 422.608 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Grievances,...

  14. 42 CFR 422.608 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 422.608 Section 422.608 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Grievances, Organization...

  15. 42 CFR 422.608 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 422.608 Section 422.608 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Grievances,...

  16. 42 CFR 423.1974 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 423.1974 Section 423.1974 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT...

  17. 42 CFR 423.1974 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 423.1974 Section 423.1974 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ...

  18. 42 CFR 423.1974 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 423.1974 Section 423.1974 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ...

  19. 42 CFR 422.608 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 422.608 Section 422.608 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Grievances, Organization...

  20. 42 CFR 422.608 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 422.608 Section 422.608 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Grievances,...

  1. 42 CFR 423.1974 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 423.1974 Section 423.1974 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT...

  2. 42 CFR 423.1974 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review. 423.1974 Section 423.1974 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT...

  3. God, Sport Philosophy, Kinesiology: A MacIntyrean Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    Sport philosophy is in crisis. This subdiscipline of kinesiology garners little to no respect and few tenure track lines in kinesiology departments. Why is this the case? Why isn't philosophy held in greater esteem? Is it possible that philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre's (2009) diagnosis found in "God, Philosophy, Universities" could…

  4. Deconstructing the McGurk-MacDonald Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Alsius, Agnes

    2009-01-01

    Cross-modal illusions such as the McGurk-MacDonald effect have been used to illustrate the automatic, encapsulated nature of multisensory integration. This characterization is based in the widespread assumption that the illusory percept arising from intersensory conflict reflects only the end-product of the multisensory integration process, with

  5. Proposal and Rationale for the Development of a Mac Lab.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bordner, Marsha

    At Clark State Community College (CSCC), in Ohio, faculty in the Commercial Art and English departments have investigated and debated the best uses for a Mac Lab. Computer needs for the Commercial Art Program were determined through visits to local businesses that produce art on a commercial level; to local secondary school commercial art…

  6. What if MacGyver Taught Physical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Rip; Leech, Trey

    2014-01-01

    In an era of rising childhood obesity rates, many physical educators find themselves with declining financial resources. Similar to how MacGyver had to do when he was in a bind on his self-titled television show, physical educators need to think creatively when providing equipment for use by their students. The problem that has been identified is:…

  7. MAC/FAC: A Model of Similarity-Based Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbus, Kenneth D.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Presents MAC/FAC, a model of similarity-based retrieval that attempts to capture psychological phenomena; discusses its limitations and extensions, its relationship with other retrieval models, and its placement in the context of other work on the nature of similarity. Examines the utility of the model through psychological experiments and…

  8. Deconstructing the McGurk-MacDonald Illusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Alsius, Agnes

    2009-01-01

    Cross-modal illusions such as the McGurk-MacDonald effect have been used to illustrate the automatic, encapsulated nature of multisensory integration. This characterization is based in the widespread assumption that the illusory percept arising from intersensory conflict reflects only the end-product of the multisensory integration process, with…

  9. Modeling Woven Polymer Matrix Composites with MAC/GMC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    NASA's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) is used to predict the elastic properties of plain weave polymer matrix composites (PMCs). The traditional one step three-dimensional homogertization procedure that has been used in conjunction with MAC/GMC for modeling woven composites in the past is inaccurate due to the lack of shear coupling inherent to the model. However, by performing a two step homogenization procedure in which the woven composite repeating unit cell is homogenized independently in the through-thickness direction prior to homogenization in the plane of the weave, MAC/GMC can now accurately model woven PMCs. This two step procedure is outlined and implemented, and predictions are compared with results from the traditional one step approach and other models and experiments from the literature. Full coupling of this two step technique with MAC/ GMC will result in a widely applicable, efficient, and accurate tool for the design and analysis of woven composite materials and structures.

  10. What if MacGyver Taught Physical Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marston, Rip; Leech, Trey

    2014-01-01

    In an era of rising childhood obesity rates, many physical educators find themselves with declining financial resources. Similar to how MacGyver had to do when he was in a bind on his self-titled television show, physical educators need to think creatively when providing equipment for use by their students. The problem that has been identified is:

  11. 12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... securities. (2) Credit risk parameters including: (i) The quantities and types of Farmer Mac mortgage....5174 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN... managing credit and interest rate risks, and furthering your mission to finance agriculture. The...

  12. God, Sport Philosophy, Kinesiology: A MacIntyrean Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twietmeyer, Gregg

    2015-01-01

    Sport philosophy is in crisis. This subdiscipline of kinesiology garners little to no respect and few tenure track lines in kinesiology departments. Why is this the case? Why isn't philosophy held in greater esteem? Is it possible that philosopher Alasdair MacIntyre's(2009) diagnosis found in "God, Philosophy, Universities" could

  13. MacNOTIS-NOTIS User Interface Development and Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Hal W.

    1994-01-01

    Provides an overview of the MacNOTIS interface project at Texas A&M University to provide a tool to make the NOTIS online public access catalog more accessible to users. Highlights include an intuitive interface, saving to disk, local printing, reusable search strings, online help, and automatic dial-up. (JLB)

  14. The MacArthur Foundation in Nigeria: Report on Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, Nigeria passed an important milestone: one elected government passed power to another for the first time in the nation's history. Though imperfect, the poll demonstrated powerfully that Nigeria's representative democracy was not a transient phase between periods of military repression but a growing reality. For 20 years, the MacArthur…

  15. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of MacDill Field in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of MacDill Field in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; 1952 architectural drawings by Strategic Air Command, MacDill Air Force Base) BASE LAYOUT, 1952 - MacDill Air Force Base, Bounded by City of Tampa North, Tampa Bay South, Old Tampa Bay West, & Hillsborough Bay East, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  16. 42 CFR 423.2108 - MAC Actions when request for review is filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... indicates, or the MAC determines that applying the standard timeframe for making a decision may seriously... review an ALJ's decision, the MAC will review the ALJ's decision de novo. The enrollee requesting review... the ALJ's decision or remand the case to the ALJ for further proceedings. Unless the MAC's review...

  17. Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of MacDill Field in possession ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of drawing (original drawing of MacDill Field in possession of MacDill Air Force Base, Civil Engineering, Tampa, Florida; site plan dated December, 1942) BASE LAYOUT, DECEMBER 1942 - MacDill Air Force Base, Bounded by City of Tampa North, Tampa Bay South, Old Tampa Bay West, & Hillsborough Bay East, Tampa, Hillsborough County, FL

  18. Survey of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and apple stem grooving virus occurrence in Korea and frequency of mixed infections in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the absence of knowledge of the distribution of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) in apples in Korea, we carried out a survey for these viruses in Gyeongsang and Chungcheong provinces in 2014. A total of 65 samples were collected and tested by RT-PCR...

  19. CoR-MAC: Contention over Reservation MAC Protocol for Time-Critical Services in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jeongseok; Park, Laihyuk; Park, Junho; Cho, Sungrae; Keum, Changsup

    2016-01-01

    Reserving time slots for urgent data, such as life-critical information, seems to be very attractive to guarantee their deadline requirements in wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs). On the other hand, this reservation imposes a negative impact on performance for the utilization of a channel. This paper proposes a new channel access scheme referred to as the contention over reservation MAC (CoR-MAC) protocol for time-critical services in wireless body area sensor networks. CoR-MAC uses the dual reservation; if the reserved time slots are known to be vacant, other nodes can access the time slots by contention-based reservation to maximize the utilization of a channel and decrease the delay of the data. To measure the effectiveness of the proposed scheme against IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6, we evaluated their performances with various performance indexes. The CoR-MAC showed 50% to 850% performance improvement in terms of the delay of urgent and time-critical data according to the number of nodes. PMID:27171085

  20. CoR-MAC: Contention over Reservation MAC Protocol for Time-Critical Services in Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jeongseok; Park, Laihyuk; Park, Junho; Cho, Sungrae; Keum, Changsup

    2016-01-01

    Reserving time slots for urgent data, such as life-critical information, seems to be very attractive to guarantee their deadline requirements in wireless body area sensor networks (WBASNs). On the other hand, this reservation imposes a negative impact on performance for the utilization of a channel. This paper proposes a new channel access scheme referred to as the contention over reservation MAC (CoR-MAC) protocol for time-critical services in wireless body area sensor networks. CoR-MAC uses the dual reservation; if the reserved time slots are known to be vacant, other nodes can access the time slots by contention-based reservation to maximize the utilization of a channel and decrease the delay of the data. To measure the effectiveness of the proposed scheme against IEEE 802.15.4 and IEEE 802.15.6, we evaluated their performances with various performance indexes. The CoR-MAC showed 50% to 850% performance improvement in terms of the delay of urgent and time-critical data according to the number of nodes. PMID:27171085

  1. Printing AppleWorks Data Base Files with the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to printing AppleWorks database files using the Apple IIe computer covers (1) naming the report; (2) selecting a printer; and (3) printing the report for both the labels and the tables formats. Twenty-one sample screen displays which illustrate the steps and examples of the printed reports are included. (MES)

  2. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Word Processing Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 word processor files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading the word processor files, selecting the print option, printing files, and obtaining additional help. For each step, a diagram of the

  3. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Spreadsheet Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 spreadsheet files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading spreadsheet files; selecting the print option; printing entire files; and for printing specific rows, columns, or blocks of the file. For

  4. A comprehensive review of apples and apple components and their relationship to human health.

    PubMed

    Hyson, Dianne A

    2011-09-01

    There has been an increasing appreciation and understanding of the link between dietary fruit and vegetable intake and improved health in humans. The widespread and growing intake of apples and apple juice/products and their rich phytochemical profile suggest their important potential to affect the health of the populations consuming them. This review summarizes current clinical, in vitro, and in vivo data and builds upon earlier published reports that apple may reduce the risk of chronic disease by various mechanisms, including antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cell signaling effects. Exposure to apples and apple products has been associated with beneficial effects on risk, markers, and etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and Alzheimer's disease. Recent work suggests that these products may also be associated with improved outcomes related to cognitive decline of normal aging, diabetes, weight management, bone health, pulmonary function, and gastrointestinal protection. PMID:22332082

  5. A Comprehensive Review of Apples and Apple Components and Their Relationship to Human Health12

    PubMed Central

    Hyson, Dianne A.

    2011-01-01

    There has been an increasing appreciation and understanding of the link between dietary fruit and vegetable intake and improved health in humans. The widespread and growing intake of apples and apple juice/products and their rich phytochemical profile suggest their important potential to affect the health of the populations consuming them. This review summarizes current clinical, in vitro, and in vivo data and builds upon earlier published reports that apple may reduce the risk of chronic disease by various mechanisms, including antioxidant, antiproliferative, and cell signaling effects. Exposure to apples and apple products has been associated with beneficial effects on risk, markers, and etiology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and Alzheimer’s disease. Recent work suggests that these products may also be associated with improved outcomes related to cognitive decline of normal aging, diabetes, weight management, bone health, pulmonary function, and gastrointestinal protection. PMID:22332082

  6. Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: role of apple pectin

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced by a changed microbiota. Results Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of cecal microbiota profiles obtained by PCR-DGGE targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes showed an effect of whole apples in a long-term feeding study (14 weeks), while no effects of apple juice, purée or pomace on microbial composition in cecum were observed. Administration of either 0.33 or 3.3% apple pectin in the diet resulted in considerable changes in the DGGE profiles. A 2-fold increase in the activity of beta-glucuronidase was observed in animals fed with pectin (7% in the diet) for four weeks, as compared to control animals (P < 0.01). Additionally, the level of butyrate measured in these pectin-fed animal was more than double of the corresponding level in control animals (P < 0.01). Sequencing revealed that DGGE bands, which were suppressed in pectin-fed rats, represented Gram-negative anaerobic rods belonging to the phylum Bacteroidetes, whereas bands that became more prominent represented mainly Gram-positive anaerobic rods belonging to the phylum Firmicutes, and specific species belonging to the Clostridium Cluster XIVa. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed a lower amount of given Bacteroidetes species in the pectin-fed rats as well as in the apple-fed rats in the four-week study (P < 0.05). Additionally, a more than four-fold increase in the amount of Clostridium coccoides (belonging to Cluster XIVa), as well as of genes encoding butyryl-coenzyme A CoA transferase, which is involved in butyrate production, was detected by quantitative PCR in fecal samples from the pectin-fed animals. Conclusions Our findings show that consumption of apple pectin (7% in the diet) increases the population of butyrate- and β-glucuronidase producing Clostridiales, and decreases the population of specific species within the Bacteroidetes group in the rat gut. Similar changes were not caused by consumption of whole apples, apple juice, purée or pomace. PMID:20089145

  7. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization, and performance.

    PubMed

    Krens, Frans A; Schaart, Jan G; van der Burgh, Aranka M; Tinnenbroek-Capel, Iris E M; Groenwold, Remmelt; Kodde, Linda P; Broggini, Giovanni A L; Gessler, Cesare; Schouten, Henk J

    2015-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After 3 years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arker)F(ree) vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic lines were free of scab. PMID:25964793

  8. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization, and performance

    PubMed Central

    Krens, Frans A.; Schaart, Jan G.; van der Burgh, Aranka M.; Tinnenbroek-Capel, Iris E. M.; Groenwold, Remmelt; Kodde, Linda P.; Broggini, Giovanni A. L.; Gessler, Cesare; Schouten, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After 3 years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arker)F(ree) vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic lines were free of scab. PMID:25964793

  9. Special Section--Library Workstations: Mac and DOS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valauskas, Ed; Flower, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Two articles discuss the library hardware marketplace. The first examines the Apple Macintosh in libraries from 1984 to the present, including linking libraries, computers, and endusers over large geographic distances. The second article discusses upgrading components of systems in the IBM compatible, MS-DOS, and Windows environments as costs…

  10. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during storage or drying of apple slices pretreated with acidic solutions.

    PubMed

    Derrickson-Tharrington, Elizabeth; Kendall, Patricia A; Sofos, John N

    2005-03-01

    Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was evaluated on inoculated apple slices without pretreatment or pretreated by immersing in water or acid solutions commonly used to help retain apple color during dehydration, then stored at ambient temperature or dried for 6 h. Half-ring slices (0.6 cm thick) of peeled and cored Gala apples were inoculated by immersion for 30 min in a three-strain composite inoculum of E. coli O157:H7 (7.8-8.0 CFU/g). Inoculated slices received (1) no pre-drying treatment (control); or a 10-min immersion in solutions of (2) sterile water, (3) 2.8% ascorbic acid, (4) 1.7% citric acid, (5) 50% commercial lemon juice, or (6) 50% commercial lemon juice with preservatives. Drained slices were placed in sterile plastic bags and stored at room temperature (25+/-2 degrees C) for up to 6 h or dehydrated (62.8 degrees C) for up to 6 h. Samples were plated on tryptic soy agar (TSA) and sorbitol MacConkey agar (SMAC) for direct enumeration of surviving bacteria at various time intervals. Immersion in sterile water or acidic solutions caused initial bacterial reductions of 0.9-1.3 log CFU/g on apple slices. Between 0 and 6 h of storage at room temperature, slices dipped in acidic solutions showed minor changes in bacterial populations (-0.2 to +0.6 log CFU/g) compared to a 1.1 log CFU/g increase for slices dipped in sterile water. The no treatment samples (control) showed an increase in bacterial populations of 1.3-1.5 CFU/g over the 6-h holding time. For apple slices dried at 62.8 degrees C, bacterial populations were reduced by 2.5 (SMAC) and 3.1 (TSA) log CFU/g in the control (no pre-drying treatment) samples following 6 h dehydration. The slices immersed in sterile water showed a 5.8 (SMAC) and 5.1 (TSA) reduction after 6 h of dehydration. In contrast, after 6 h of dehydration bacterial populations on the four acid-pretreated products were reduced by 6.7-7.3 log CFU/g. The results showed that acidic treatment alone was not effective in destroying E. coli O157:H7 on apple slices but did inhibit growth of the organism during holding before drying. However, pretreatment of the apple slices with common household acidulants enhanced destruction of E. coli O157:H7 during drying compared to slices dried without treatment. PMID:15718031

  11. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  12. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  13. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  14. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  15. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  16. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section 407.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  17. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  18. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple products subcategory. 407.20 Section 407.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple... processing of apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated...

  19. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  20. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  1. Processing of apple pomace for bioactive molecules.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, Shashi; Kalia, Kalpana; Sharma, Madhu; Singh, Bikram; Ahuja, P S

    2008-01-01

    The growth of horticulture industries worldwide has generated huge quantities of fruit wastes (25%-40% of the total fruits processed). These residues are generally a good source of carbohydrates, especially cell wall polysaccharides and other functionally important bioactive molecules such as proteins, vitamins, minerals and natural antioxidants. "Apple pomace" is a left-over solid biomass with a high moisture content, obtained as a by-product during the processing of apple fruits for juice, cider or wine preparation. Owing to the high carbohydrate content, apple pomace is used as a substrate in a number of microbial processes for the production of organic acids, enzymes, single cell protein, ethanol, low alcoholic drinks and pigments. Recent research trends reveal that there is an increase in the utilization of apple pomace as a food processing residue for the extraction of value added products such as dietary fibre, protein, natural antioxidants, biopolymers, pigments and compounds with unique properties. However, the central dogma is still the stability, safety and economic feasibility of the process(s)/product(s) developed. This review is mainly focused on assessing recent research developments in extraction, isolation and characterization of bioactive molecules from apple pomace, along with their commercial utilization, in food fortification. PMID:19051107

  2. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  3. Patulin in apple leather in Iran.

    PubMed

    Montaseri, H; Eskandari, M H; Yeganeh, A T; Karami, S; Javidnia, K; Dehghanzadeh, G R; Mesbahi, G R; Niakousari, M

    2014-01-01

    Apple leather is made by dehydration of cooked fruit into leathery sheets. Mould growth and patulin production can occur in damaged apples or when fallen fruit is collected for apple leather processing. A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin from apple leather marketed in Iran. Patulin was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from <10 to 2559 µg/kg. Mean patulin concentration was 620 µg/kg and 91.4% of the samples had levels higher than 50 µg/kg. Estimated daily intake (EDI) of patulin for adults and children considering the mean concentration of patulin obtained in this study (620 µg/kg) were higher than the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 0.4 µg/kg bw/day for patulin that has been established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This indicated the need for stricter control and improvement in processing techniques to reduce the incidence of patulin in apple leather. PMID:24914594

  4. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  5. Prediction and diagnosis of apple fruit physiological disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple postharvest physiological disorders, characterized by peel or flesh necrosis, result in significant yearly financial losses in commercial operations. Stakeholders have identified the need for effective, consistent control measures for apple postharvest physiological disorders and the developme...

  6. Using the Apple II as a Laboratory Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Marvin L.; Layman, John W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses using Apple II microcomputers for measuring resistance, temperature, and light intensity. Also discusses digital input and output and timing techniques. Although focusing on Apple II, the circuits and programs described may be applicable to other microcomputers. (JN)

  7. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  8. Production of fuels and chemicals from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly 36 million tons of apples are produced annually in the US. Approximately 45% of the total US apple production is used for processing purposes. The primary by-product of apple processing is apple pomace. It consists of the presscake resulting from pressing apples for juice or cider, including the presscake obtained in pressing peel and core wastes generated in the manufacture of apple sauce or slices. More than 500 food processing plants in the US produce a total of about 1.3 million metric tons of apple pomace each year, and it is likely that annual disposal fees exceed $10 million. Apple pomace has the potential to be used for the production of fuels (ethanol and biogas containing 60% methane) and food-grade chemicals. These uses will be reviewed in this article.

  9. Unstable manifolds for the MacKay approximate renormalisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, Jaroslav

    1989-01-01

    For a renormalisation of a critical phenomenon in some class of dynamical systems, it is the unstable manifolds of the critical set which give the universal families which describe the critical transition. In this paper, we study such manifolds for the MacKay [1988] approximate renormalisation scheme which models the breakup of invariant circles of arbitrary rotation number in area-preserving twist maps. We derive a number of properties of the unstable manifolds and then discuss the implications of these to the full renormalisation. In particular a) we suggest the importance of continuity in the definition of unstable manifolds, and b) show that their structure is similar to that observed numerically by MacKay and Percival [1987] in a related renormalisation. Finally we show that the residues of approximating periodic orbits are bounded above on the critical set.

  10. An Efficient MAC Protocol for WLAN based on OFDM modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, Marco; Fantacci, Romano; Giacomelli, Marco

    2002-11-01

    We propose and analyze a MAC protocol aptly designed for WLAN, based on OFDM modulation. The goal of the analysis is to provide an efficient tool to deliver to voice and data terminals acceptable QoS connections, overcoming the problem of large number of retransmissions, high delays and low reliability. Simulation results show that, in a real environment, the proposed algorithm is able to achieve good performance in terms of throughput and message delivery delay.

  11. Micromechanics Analysis Code (MAC) User Guide: Version 1.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, T. E.; Arnold, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to accurately predict the thermomechanical deformation response of advanced composite materials continues to play an important role in the development of these strategic materials. Analytical models that predict the effective behavior of composites are used not only by engineers performing structural analysis of large-scale composite components but also by material scientists in developing new material systems. For an analytical model to fulfill these two distinct functions it must be based on a micromechanics approach which utilizes physically based deformation and life constitutive models and allows one to generate the average (macro) response of a composite material given the properties of the individual constituents and their geometric arrangement. Here the user guide for the recently developed, computationally efficient and comprehensive micromechanics analysis code, MAC, who's predictive capability rests entirely upon the fully analytical generalized method of cells, GMC, micromechanics model is described. MAC is a versatile form of research software that 'drives' the double or triple ply periodic micromechanics constitutive models based upon GMC. MAC enhances the basic capabilities of GMC by providing a modular framework wherein (1) various thermal, mechanical (stress or strain control), and thermomechanical load histories can be imposed; (2) different integration algorithms may be selected; (3) a variety of constituent constitutive models may be utilized and/or implemented; and (4) a variety of fiber architectures may be easily accessed through their corresponding representative volume elements.

  12. Micromechanics Analysis Code (MAC). User Guide: Version 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, T. E.; Arnold, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    The ability to accurately predict the thermomechanical deformation response of advanced composite materials continues to play an important role in the development of these strategic materials. Analytical models that predict the effective behavior of composites are used not only by engineers performing structural analysis of large-scale composite components but also by material scientists in developing new material systems. For an analytical model to fulfill these two distinct functions it must be based on a micromechanics approach which utilizes physically based deformation and life constitutive models and allows one to generate the average (macro) response of a composite material given the properties of the individual constituents and their geometric arrangement. Here the user guide for the recently developed, computationally efficient and comprehensive micromechanics analysis code's (MAC) who's predictive capability rests entirely upon the fully analytical generalized method of cells (GMC), micromechanics model is described. MAC is a versatile form of research software that 'drives' the double or triply periodic micromechanics constitutive models based upon GMC. MAC enhances the basic capabilities of GMC by providing a modular framework wherein (1) various thermal, mechanical (stress or strain control) and thermomechanical load histories can be imposed, (2) different integration algorithms may be selected, (3) a variety of constituent constitutive models may be utilized and/or implemented, and (4) a variety of fiber and laminate architectures may be easily accessed through their corresponding representative volume elements.

  13. Bartonella henselae inhibits apoptosis in Mono Mac 6 cells.

    PubMed

    Kempf, Volkhard A J; Schairer, Annette; Neumann, Diana; Grassl, Guntram A; Lauber, Kirsten; Lebiedziejewski, Maria; Schaller, Martin; Kyme, Pierre; Wesselborg, Sebastian; Autenrieth, Ingo B

    2005-01-01

    Bartonella henselae causes the vasculoproliferative disorders bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis probably resulting from the release of vasculoendothelial growth factor (VEGF) from infected epithelial or monocytic host cells. Here we demonstrate that B. henselae in addition to VEGF induction was also capable of inhibiting the endogenous sucide programme of monocytic host cells. Our results show that B. henselae inhibits pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC)-induced apoptosis in Mono Mac 6 cells. B. henselae was observed to be present in a vacuolic compartment of Mono Mac 6 cells. Direct contact of B. henselae with Mono Mac 6 cells was crucial for inhibition of apoptosis as shown by the use of a two-chamber model. Inhibition of apoptosis was paralleled by diminished caspase-3 activity which was significantly reduced in PDTC-stimulated and B. henselae-infected cells. The anti-apoptotic effect of B. henselae was accompanied by (i) the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB and (ii) the induction of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins-1 and -2 (cIAP-1, -2). Our results suggest a new synergistic mechanism in B. henselae pathogenicity by (i) inhibition of host cell apoptosis via activation of NF-kappaB and (ii) induction of host cell VEGF secretion. PMID:15617526

  14. Drawing Chemical Structures with the Apple Macintosh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauffman, Joel M.; Zogott, Joyce D.

    1985-01-01

    A Macintosh microcomputer and MacPaint program can be used to quickly make charts of structural formulas that fill standard-sized paper with a minimum of instruction, and smaller drawings or structures or fragments may be inserted into text composed with a word processing program. Shows how this is done. (JN)

  15. Appl1 and Appl2 are Expendable for Mouse Development But Are Essential for HGF-Induced Akt Activation and Migration in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yinfei; Xin, Xiaoban; Coffey, Francis J; Wiest, David L; Dong, Lily Q; Testa, Joseph R

    2016-05-01

    Although Appl1 and Appl2 have been implicated in multiple cellular activities, we and others have found that Appl1 is dispensable for mouse embryonic development, suggesting that Appl2 can substitute for Appl1 during development. To address this possibility, we generated conditionally targeted Appl2 mice. We found that ubiquitous Appl2 knockout (Appl2-/-) mice, much like Appl1-/- mice, are viable and grow normally to adulthood. Intriguingly, when Appl1-/- mice were crossed with Appl2-/- mice, we found that homozygous Appl1;Appl2 double knockout (DKO) animals are also viable and grossly normal with regard to reproductive potential and postnatal growth. Appl2-null and DKO mice were found to exhibit altered red blood cell physiology, with erythrocytes from these mice generally being larger and having a more irregular shape than erythrocytes from wild type mice. Although Appl1/2 proteins have been previously shown to have a very strong interaction with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (Pi3k) in thymic T cells, Pi3k-Akt signaling and cellular differentiation was unaltered in thymocytes from Appl1;Appl2 (DKO) mice. However, Appl1/2-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibited defects in HGF-induced Akt activation, migration, and invasion. Taken together, these data suggest that Appl1 and Appl2 are required for robust HGF cell signaling but are dispensable for embryonic development and reproduction. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1142-1150, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26445298

  16. Transcriptomic analysis of apple fruit ripening and texture attributes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular events regulating cultivar-specific apple fruit ripening and sensory quality are largely unknown. Such knowledge is essential for genomic-assisted apple breeding and postharvest quality management. The ripening behavior and texture attributes of two apple cultivars, ‘Pink Lady’ and ‘Honey...

  17. The vulnerability of US apple (Malus) genetic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple is one of the top three U.S. fruit crops in production and value. Apple production has high costs for land, labor and inputs, and orchards are a long-term commitment. Production is dominated by only a few apple scion cultivars and rootstocks, which increases susceptibility to dynamic external ...

  18. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  19. Cold Acclimation Improves Regrowth of Cryopreserved Apple Shoot Tips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation is important for preserving the genetic resources of apple germplasm in Kazakhstan, the center of origin for apples. In this study of five apple genotypes [Malus domestica Borkh. and Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem] we determined cold hardiness and the effect of cold acclimation o...

  20. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  1. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  2. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  3. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The Apple Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  4. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  5. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  6. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  7. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  8. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  9. Establishing Commercial Utility of Behavioral Control for Apple Maggot Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple maggot fly is a key summer pest of apples throughout eastern North America, and poses an increasing threat to apple production in the Northwest. If left unchecked, the threat of AMF injury to fruit can be severe, resulting in complete loss of marketable crop. To combat AMF infestation, comme...

  10. MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein of the macrolide transporter MacAB-TolC, binds lipopolysaccharide core specifically and with high affinity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shuo; Zgurskaya, Helen I

    2013-11-01

    The Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC transporter has been implicated in efflux of macrolide antibiotics and secretion of enterotoxin STII. In this study, we found that purified MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, contains one tightly bound rough core lipopolysaccharide (R-LPS) molecule per MacA molecule. R-LPS was bound specifically to MacA protein with affinity exceeding that of polymyxin B. Sequence analyses showed that MacA contains two high-density clusters of positively charged amino acid residues located in the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain and the periplasmic C-terminal domain. Substitutions in the C-terminal cluster reducing the positive-charge density completely abolished binding of R-LPS. At the same time, these substitutions significantly reduced the functionality of MacA in the protection of E. coli against macrolides in vivo and in the in vitro MacB ATPase stimulation assays. Taken together, our results suggest that R-LPS or a similar glycolipid is a physiological substrate of MacAB-TolC. PMID:23974027

  11. MacA, a Periplasmic Membrane Fusion Protein of the Macrolide Transporter MacAB-TolC, Binds Lipopolysaccharide Core Specifically and with High Affinity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shuo

    2013-01-01

    The Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC transporter has been implicated in efflux of macrolide antibiotics and secretion of enterotoxin STII. In this study, we found that purified MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, contains one tightly bound rough core lipopolysaccharide (R-LPS) molecule per MacA molecule. R-LPS was bound specifically to MacA protein with affinity exceeding that of polymyxin B. Sequence analyses showed that MacA contains two high-density clusters of positively charged amino acid residues located in the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain and the periplasmic C-terminal domain. Substitutions in the C-terminal cluster reducing the positive-charge density completely abolished binding of R-LPS. At the same time, these substitutions significantly reduced the functionality of MacA in the protection of E. coli against macrolides in vivo and in the in vitro MacB ATPase stimulation assays. Taken together, our results suggest that R-LPS or a similar glycolipid is a physiological substrate of MacAB-TolC. PMID:23974027

  12. Exercising AppleWorks V2.0 Data Base Print Options with the Apple IIgs Computer. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This is a step-by-step guide to using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIGS computer to print AppleWorks database files in two types of formats--labels and tables. Steps covered for printing labels include naming the report, arranging or sorting, deleting a category, inserting a category, printing the category name and entry, selecting…

  13. Exercising AppleWorks V2.0 Data Base Print Options with the Apple IIgs Computer. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This is a step-by-step guide to using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIGS computer to print AppleWorks database files in two types of formats--labels and tables. Steps covered for printing labels include naming the report, arranging or sorting, deleting a category, inserting a category, printing the category name and entry, selecting

  14. Bioanalytical characterization of apple juice from 88 grafted and nongrafted apple varieties grown in Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2014-02-01

    The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²⁺/Mn²⁺ and PO₄³⁻/K⁺, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and α-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while α-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects. PMID:24410208

  15. Optical Properties of Bruised Apple Tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the optical properties of apple tissue, especially bruised tissue, can help us prevent or mitigate bruise occurrence during harvest and postharvest operations, and develop an effective method for detecting bruises during sorting and grading. This research was aimed at determining the o...

  16. The Geneva apple rootstock breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ancient practice of clonal propagation of perennial fruit crops by means of grafting was transformed when humans realized that certain properties of selected root systems could be beneficial for increasing productivity of that fruit crop. Certain clonal apple rootstocks were recognized for their...

  17. The Apple Microcomputer in School Learning Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, John W.

    1982-01-01

    The learning center is a cost-effective and popular way to introduce hearing impaired students and their teachers to microcomputers. (A brief listing of software companies and computer periodicals is included.) The use of the Apple microcomputer in a learning center in a school for the deaf is discussed. (CL)

  18. Sustainable Biocontrol of Apple Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biocontrol of insect pests is a cornerstone to sustainable production of apples and other crops. The ecology of orchards lends itself to the application of many management options which will enhance the sustainability of biocontrol. Orchards remain in place for decades, allowing for an evolution o...

  19. Small bowel obstruction caused by dried apple

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Sally; Hong, Khiem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Small bowel obstruction in a virgin abdomen is an uncommon surgical condition. While malignancy, inflammatory bowel disease and foreign body are the main reported causes, undigested food bezoar causing bowel obstruction is a rare entity. We report a case of small bowel obstruction secondary to dried preserved apple having re-expanded within the gastrointestinal tract. Presentation of case A 69 year old male presented with severe abdominal distension, generalized abdominal tenderness and obstipation for 1 week. Small bowel obstruction (SBO) was confirmed on plain abdominal X-ray and CT imaging. An emergency explorative laparatomy identified a sausage-shaped intra-luminal foreign body obstructing the distal ileum. An enterotomy was performed which revealed a rehydrated, donut-shaped piece of dried apple. Discussion Swallowed items that pass through the pylorus rarely cause obstruction as they are usually small enough to pass through the rest of the bowel without difficulty. We postulate that in our patient that the dried apple was originally small enough to pass through the pylorus. However during small bowel, its’ highly absorbable nature resulted in an increase in size that prevented its’ passage through the ileocecal valve. A simple in-vitro experiment discovered that dried apple has a potential to reabsorb fluid and expand up to 35% of its initial size within 72 h. Conclusion This report illustrates the potential for dried food substances to cause intra-luminal SBO after significant expansion with rehydration. PMID:25841159

  20. Breccia at the Apple Creek Formation

    USGS scientist Art Bookstrom hammers on limonite-stained breccia, cutting banded siltite of the Apple Creek Formation, exposed near the Uncle Sam portal of the Blackbird cobalt-copper mine, in the Salmon River Mountains of east-central Idaho....

  1. APPLE In-Service Programming for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Edward

    This book is designed to provide teachers with techniques for entering and modifying BASIC programs on Apple computers. The underlying theme is that a teacher need not become a programmer to benefit from being able to use and modify BASIC programs. The key to the successful use of software in the classroom is the ability to individualize software…

  2. NEWTON'S APPLE 14th Season Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Sue, Ed.

    This guide was developed to help teachers use the 14th season of NEWTON'S APPLE in their classrooms and contains lessons formatted to follow the National Science Education Standards. The "Overview,""Main Activity," and "Try-This" sections were created with inquiry-based learning in mind. Each lesson page begins with "Getting Started," which…

  3. Apple Mealiness Detection Using Hyperspectral Scattering Technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mealiness is a symptom of internal fruit disorder, which is characterized by abnormal softness and lack of free juice in the fruit. This research investigated the potential of hyperspectral scattering technique for detecting mealy apples. Spectral scattering profiles between 600 nm and 1,000 nm were...

  4. A global conservation strategy for apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple (Malus x domestica) production is #17 for agricultural products both in the U.S. and world with a value of more than $31 billion worldwide. This important perennial crop is expensive to produce, with high costs for land, labor and inputs. The industry is dominated by a relatively few number of...

  5. Communicating between the Apple and the Wang

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G.W., Downey, R.

    1982-10-26

    This manual covers what the beginner needs to know in order to transfer files between an Apple's Microcomputer and a Wang's OIS Word Processor. We have also tried to indicate where the experienced user might want to look for additional details. We cover the use of Apple Writer )(, VisiTerm, VisiCalc, and EasyWriter Professional. For us, the two most useful connections are from Applewriter to Wang and from Visicalc to Wang. From Wang to Apple Writer via Visiterm may have some value. Files can be transferred by VisiTerm to Wang, but they arrive with RETURNS in the middle of words, which have to be edited out, so we do not recommend it. We describe how to go from EasyWriter to Wang, but we do not know how to go from Wang to EasyWriter. We see no reason to go from Wang to VisiCalc, so we haven't thought about it. All instructions are given for a typical configuration of the Apple, namely the one on which this manual was composed. It is detailed in the section on Hardware and Software.

  6. POTENTIAL EXPOSURE OF APPLE THINNERS TO PHOSALONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Apple thinning results in considerable human contact with foliage, fruit, and limbs. This work often occurs during that portion of the growing season when trees are most frequently being sprayed for insect conrol. Therefore, of all workers exposed to pesticide residues upon reent...

  7. Hormonal and anatomical effects of apple rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In greenhouse experiments, two-year-old 'Fuji' apple scions (Malus ×domestica, 'Fuji') on size-controlling rootstocks (dwarfing to vigorous), were grown for one season and shoot growth was measured to confirm size-controlling effects. In the next season, xylem sap was collected to determine hydraul...

  8. Lessons learned from the Apple stores.

    PubMed

    Pinkney, Henry; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Medical practices have an opportunity to improve the services that they offer their patients. Practices can look at other businesses and industries for examples of outstanding customer service. This article will discuss the services provided by Apple, Inc., and how medical practices can learn from this industry giant and improve the services that they offer patients. PMID:22594067

  9. Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A.

    2012-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. Abbreviations:ANOVAanalysis of varianceANRanthocyanidin reductaseDADdiode array detectorDAFBdays after full bloomDFRdihydroflavonol reductaseLARleucoanthocyanidin reductaseLC-MSliquid chromatography/mass spectrometryPAproanthocyanidinqPCRreal-time quantitative PCR PMID:22859681

  10. Where to prick the apple for skin testing?

    PubMed

    Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; van de Weg, W E; van der Heide, S; Dubois, A E J

    2013-09-01

    Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral allergy to fresh apple, using apples harvested in autumn 2007. PTPs with fresh intact and unpeeled Pink Lady, Golden Delicious, Elise, Santana and Modi apples were performed using material obtained from approximately 2 cm near the stalk (top), and the middle region. All PTP responses were greater when performed with apple material near the stalk than from the middle region. In 2007, these differences were statistically significant for Pink Lady, Golden Delicious and Elise, and in 2008, for Pink Lady and Modi. When performing PTPs, the apple should be pricked near the stalk rather than in the middle. PMID:23909986

  11. [Detection of fruit juice adulteration in apple and pear juice].

    PubMed

    Wald, B; Galensa, R

    1989-02-01

    A method has been developed to detect the adulteration of pear juice with apples and apple juice with pears. In different varieties of apples and pears and in several commercial juices the flavonoids were examined by HPLC with respect to their quality and quantity. The chalcones phloretin glucoside and phloretin xyloglucoside are typical compounds found in apples (detection limit 7 ng). They are suitable indicators for detecting adulteration of pear juice with apples. Isohamnetin glucoside cannot be detected in apples (detection limit 10 ng), but can be used to detect pears in apple juice. The extract or juice was purified with the aid of a polyamide column. The evaporated eluate of methanol was analysed by HPLC (gradient: acetonitrile/1% acetic acid). An RP-18 column and a UV-detector were used. Additionally, the UV spectra of the compounds indicating an adulteration were recorded by a diode array detector. PMID:2718633

  12. Apples: content of phenolic compounds vs. variety, part of apple and cultivation model, extraction of phenolic compounds, biological properties.

    PubMed

    Kalinowska, Monika; Bielawska, Aleksandra; Lewandowska-Siwkiewicz, Hanna; Priebe, Waldemar; Lewandowski, Włodzimierz

    2014-11-01

    Apples are among the most popular fruits in the world. They are rich in phenolic compounds, pectin, sugar, macro- and microelements. Applying different extraction techniques it is possible to isolate a particular group of compounds or individual chemicals and then test their biological properties. Many reports point to the antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer and many other beneficial effects of apple components that may have potential applications in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. This paper summarizes and compiles information about apple phenolic compounds, their biological properties with particular emphasis on health-related aspects. The data are reviewed with regard to different apple varieties, part of apple, cultivation model and methods of extraction. PMID:25282014

  13. STS-52 Payload Specialist MacLean during camera training at JSC's MAIL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Canadian Payload Specialist Steven G. MacLean practices using a camera for the Earth observations portion of his scheduled October spaceflight. MacLean, standing on the aft flight deck, points a HASSELBLAD camera out overhead window W8 during the training session in JSC's Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT). The CCT is part of the shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE. MacLean represents the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).

  14. Intelligent Cooperative MAC Protocol for Balancing Energy Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S.; Liu, K.; Huang, B.; Liu, F.

    To extend the lifetime of wireless sensor networks, we proposed an intelligent balanced energy consumption cooperative MAC protocol (IBEC-CMAC) based on the multi-node cooperative transmission model. The protocol has priority to access high-quality channels for reducing energy consumption of each transmission. It can also balance the energy consumption among cooperative nodes by using high residual energy nodes instead of excessively consuming some node's energy. Simulation results show that IBEC-CMAC can obtain longer network lifetime and higher energy utilization than direct transmission.

  15. MAC-bridging for multi-PHYs communication in BAN.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Khan, Pervez; Ullah, Niamat; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2010-01-01

    Body Area Network (BAN) is a collection of low-power, miniaturised, and intelligent sensor nodes that are used for unobtrusive and ambulatory health monitoring of a patient without any additional constraints. These nodes operate on different frequency bands or Multiple Physical Layers (Multi-PHYs). Additionally, some BAN applications demand a logical connection between different nodes working on different Multi-PHYs. In this paper, the idea of controlling Multi-PHYs using one MAC protocol is introduced. Unlike existing procedures where different nodes working on different channels are connected at the link layer bridging/switching, the proposed procedure called bridging logically connects them at the MAC layer. In other words, the bridge is used to relay or filter packets between different PHYs in the same BAN. Numerical approximations are presented to analyze the stochastic behaviour of the bridges, all of them having Multi-PHYs interfaces. The MICS and the ISM bands are regarded as PHY1 and PHY2, respectively. The performance results are presented for PHY2 (given that data is already received from PHY1) in terms of probability of successful transmission, number of failed requests, power consumption, and delay. Simulations are conducted to validate the analytical results. It can be seen that the deployment of multiple bridges along with the corresponding nodes allows Multi-PHYs communication with high transmission probability, low power consumption, and tolerable delay. PMID:22163447

  16. MAC-Bridging for Multi-PHYs Communication in BAN

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Sana; Khan, Pervez; Ullah, Niamat; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2010-01-01

    Body Area Network (BAN) is a collection of low-power, miniaturised, and intelligent sensor nodes that are used for unobtrusive and ambulatory health monitoring of a patient without any additional constraints. These nodes operate on different frequency bands or Multiple Physical Layers (Multi-PHYs). Additionally, some BAN applications demand a logical connection between different nodes working on different Multi-PHYs. In this paper, the idea of controlling Multi-PHYs using one MAC protocol is introduced. Unlike existing procedures where different nodes working on different channels are connected at the link layer bridging/switching, the proposed procedure called bridging logically connects them at the MAC layer. In other words, the bridge is used to relay or filter packets between different PHYs in the same BAN. Numerical approximations are presented to analyze the stochastic behaviour of the bridges, all of them having Multi-PHYs interfaces. The MICS and the ISM bands are regarded as PHY1 and PHY2, respectively. The performance results are presented for PHY2 (given that data is already received from PHY1) in terms of probability of successful transmission, number of failed requests, power consumption, and delay. Simulations are conducted to validate the analytical results. It can be seen that the deployment of multiple bridges along with the corresponding nodes allows Multi-PHYs communication with high transmission probability, low power consumption, and tolerable delay. PMID:22163447

  17. Serum Mac-2 binding protein is a novel biomarker for chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Maekawa, Tomohiro; Kamada, Yoshihiro; Ebisutani, Yusuke; Ueda, Makiko; Hata, Tomoki; Kawamoto, Koichi; Takamatsu, Shinji; Mizutani, Kayo; Shimomura, Mayuka; Sobajima, Tomoaki; Fujii, Hironobu; Nakayama, Kotarosumitomo; Nishino, Kimihiro; Yamada, Makoto; Kumada, Takashi; Ito, Toshifumi; Eguchi, Hidetoshi; Nagano, Hiroaki; Miyoshi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To determine the efficacy of Mac-2 binding protein (Mac-2bp) for diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. METHODS: Fifty-nine healthy volunteers (HV), 162 patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP), and 94 patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) were enrolled in this study. We measured serum Mac-2bp using our developed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Additional biochemical variables were measured using an automated analyzer (including aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, triglyceride, C-reactive protein, and amylase levels) or chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (carbohydrate antigen 19-9 and carcinoembryonic antigen). The ability of Mac-2bp to predict CP diagnosis accurately was assessed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses. RESULTS: Serum Mac-2bp levels were significantly increased in CP patients compared to HV (P < 0.0001) and PDAC patients (P < 0.0001). Area under the ROC curve values of Mac-2bp for the discrimination of CP from HV and PDAC were 0.727 and 0.784, respectively. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that serum Mac-2bp levels were independent determinants for CP diagnosis from HV and PDAC patients. Immunohistological staining showed that Mac-2bp was expressed faintly in the pancreas tissues of both CP and PDAC patients. Serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in patients with CP or PDAC. Serum Mac-2bp levels were highly correlated with protein levels of alanine aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase, and C-reactive protein, but not amylase, suggesting that the damaged liver produces Mac-2bp. CONCLUSION: Measurement of serum Mac-2bp may be a novel and useful biomarker for CP diagnosis as well as liver fibrosis in the general population. PMID:27158210

  18. Genetic Diversity of a Natural Population of Apple stem pitting virus Isolated from Apple in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Ju Yeon; Joa, Jae Ho; Choi, Kyung San; Do, Ki Seck; Lim, Han Cheol; Chung, Bong Nam

    2014-01-01

    Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), of the Foveavirus genus in the family Betaflexiviridae, is one of the most common viruses of apple and pear trees. To examine variability of the coat protein (CP) gene from ASPV, eight isolates originating from 251 apple trees, which were collected from 22 apple orchards located in intensive apple growing areas of the North Gyeongsang and North Jeolla Provinces in Korea, were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene of eight ASPV isolates ranged from 77.0 to 97.0%, while the amino acid sequence identity ranged from 87.7 to 98.5%. The N-terminal region of the viral CP gene was highly variable, whereas the C-terminal region was conserved. Genetic algorithm recombination detection (GARD) and single breakpoint recombination (SBP) analyses identified base substitutions between eight ASPV isolates at positions 54 and 57 and position 771, respectively. GABranch analysis was used to determine whether the eight isolates evolved due to positive selection. All values in the GABranch analysis showed a ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dNS/dS) below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ASPV CP history. Although negative selection dominated CP evolution in the eight ASPV isolates, SLAC and FEL tests identified four possible positive selection sites at codons 10, 22, 102, and 158. This is the first study of the ASPV genome in Korea. PMID:25289003

  19. Haze and cloud in apple juices.

    PubMed

    Beveridge, T

    1997-02-01

    Turbidity in apple juice is desirable or undesirable, depending on whether the product fits within consumer expectations. Desirable opalescence is due to soluble pectin and insoluble pectin stabilized particles that show considerable stability. Blanching treatments enhance this stability by reducing particle size and character-solubilizing pectin, and possibly by the destruction of natural enzymes that may destabilize the cloud over time. Undesirable haze and sediments may arise in apple juice by several mechanisms, including starch (dextrin) retrogradation, protein phenol aggregation, phenol oxidation, crystallization of carbohydrate macromolecules extracted from cell walls, or difficulties during manufacture. The mechanisms of formation of each of these forms of haze are discussed and examples given form the literature. Where available, haze-sediment morphology by light and/or electron microscopy is documented and the possible role of recently developed "macerase" enzymes in haze/sediment formation discussed. PMID:9067089

  20. Apple - Indian experimental geostationary communication satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, U. R.; Vasagam, R. M.

    Developmental steps, responsibilities, design goals, performance characteristics, and support systems for the ISRO Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE) experimental GEO communication satellite are described. The spacecraft underwent structural, thermal, engineering, prototype, and flight qualification tests in India before being shipped to Guyana for launch on the third Ariane test flight. APPLE carries a redundant C-band communication transponder fed by a 900 mm diam parabolic reflector. A 6 GHz uplink and 4 GHz downlink are processed through a diplexer, with the receiver employing a low noise GaAs FET amplifier. In-orbit telemetry is provided by a 4095 MHz beacon with a data rate of 64 bits/sec. Two solar panels supply 210 W of power, while an on-board Ni-Cd storage battery stores 240 Wh for the ascent and during eclipse. Teleconferencing has been successfully performed using the spacecraft link.

  1. UV inactivation of bacteria in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Geveke, David J

    2005-08-01

    Apple cider, inoculated with Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua, was processed using a simple UV apparatus. The apparatus consisted of a low-pressure mercury lamp surrounded by a coil of UV transparent tubing. Cider was pumped through the tubing at flow rates of 27 to 83 ml/min. The population of E. coli K-12 was reduced by 3.4 +/- 0.3 log after being exposed for 19 s at a treatment temperature of 25 degrees C. The population of L. innocua, which was more resistant to UV, was reduced by 2.5 +/- 0.1 log after being exposed for 58 s. The electrical energy for the process was 34 J/ml and is similar to that for conventional thermal processing. UV processing has the potential to improve the safety and extend the shelf life of apple cider. PMID:21132989

  2. CAMAPPLE: CAMAC interface to the Apple computer

    SciTech Connect

    Oxoby, G.J.; Trang, Q.H.; Williams, S.H.

    1981-04-01

    The advent of the personal microcomputer provides a new tool for the debugging, calibration and monitoring of small scale physics apparatus, e.g., a single detector being developed for a larger physics apparatus. With an appropriate interface these microcomputer systems provide a low cost (1/3 the cost of a comparable minicomputer system), convenient, dedicated, portable system which can be used in a fashion similar to that of portable oscilloscopes. Here, an interface between the Apple computer and CAMAC which is now being used to study the detector for a Cerenkov ring-imaging device is described. The Apple is particularly well-suited to this application because of its ease of use, hi-resolution graphics, peripheral bus and documentation support.

  3. Printing AppleWorks Data Base Files with the Apple IIGS Computer Using AppleWorks V2.0. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to printing AppleWorks V2.0 database files with the Apple IIGS computer covers selecting a print format, selecting a printer, and printing the report. Twenty-five sample screen displays and an example of the printed report are included to illustrate the steps. (MES)

  4. Membrane attack complex (MAC)-mediated damage to spermatozoa: protection of the cells by the presence on their membranes of MAC inhibitory proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, I A; Davies, A; Morgan, B P

    1992-01-01

    Although antibody and complement are known to cause immobilization and killing of spermatozoa in vitro the components of the complement system mediating these effects remain undefined. Here we have examined the effects of the membrane attack complex (MAC) on spermatozoa and demonstrate that spermatotoxic effects are dependent on assembly of the complete MAC. We subsequently examined the presence and functional significance of the complement regulatory proteins decay accelerating factor (DAF), MAC-inhibiting protein (MIP) and CD59 antigen on spermatozoa. Both DAF and CD59 antigen were present on the membranes of these cells. Neutralization of CD59 antigen with specific antibodies increased the susceptibility of the cells to MAC-mediated damage, suggesting a role for this molecule in the protection of spermatozoa from complement-mediated damage in the female reproductive tract. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 PMID:1374057

  5. 187Os- 186Os and 187Os- 188Os method of dating: An introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Q. Z.; Jagoutz, E.; Verkhovskiy, A. B.; Wänke, H.

    1993-08-01

    A Re-containing sample is irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor. The following reactions occur with high cross sections: 185Re( n, γ) 186Re and 187Re( n, γ) 188Re. Both 186Re (half-life 90.6 h) and 188Re (16.7 h) β-decay to the stable isotopes 186Os and 188Os. Thus 186Os and 188Os are enriched in proportion to the neutron fluence and Re/Os ratio of the sample being irradiated. Analysing merely the isotopic composition of the sample, we get two ages that should be consistent. In one irradiated molybdenite sample from Kingsgate molybdenum mine in New South Wales, Australia, the measured 186Os /192Os and 188Os /192Os are 0.3284 and 0.6299, whereas in an unirradiated sample they are assumed to be 0.0390 and 0.3248. These ratios are measurable with negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (N-TIMS) to a precision of 1‰. The derived ages for this sample are t186 = 220.5 ± 8.7 Ma and t188 = 214.9 ± 8.9 Ma, respectively (or ±1.4 Ma and ±1.7 Ma, respectively, when excluding the uncertainty of 187Re half-life). These values are in close agreement with the 221-238 Ma K-Ar ages of the leucogranites emplacement that causes the Mo mineralization at Kingsgate (Evernden and Richards, 1962; Kleeman, 1988; Gilligan and Barnes, 1990). The major limiting factor on the precision of this age determination is the uncertainty in the half-life of 187Re. The errors associated with the irradiation parameters are greatly reduced by choosing an appropriate neutron flux monitor. The advantage of this method is that the Re/Os ratio is determined on the same sample and that only one measurement of the isotopic composition of osmium is required, thus overcoming some of the experimental difficulties of the conventional Re-Os analysis. The problem of sample inhomogeneity (which is a serious problem for the Re-Os system) and the need to measure the absolute concentrations of rhenium and osmium are thus eliminated. With this method, it is potentially possible to obtain an age spectrum of the disturbed Re-Os system with selective leaching steps or by in situ analysis.

  6. Evaluation of apple juice quality using spectral fluorescence signatures.

    PubMed

    Poryvkina, L; Tsvetkova, N; Sobolev, I

    2014-01-01

    In current work the method of in vivo evaluation of apple juice degree of naturalness based on Spectral Fluorescence Signature (SFS) is proposed. SFS spectra of intact apple juice were measured as excitation-emission matrix by specially designed compact spectrofluorimeter with front-face optical layout - Instant Screener Compact (LDI AS, Estonia). The data were analysed using PCA method with a view to evaluate the information of polyphenol's content in different commercial juices. Results of PCA analysis have shown a clear separation of juice reconstituted from concentrate, unclarified pasteurised juice and personally squeezed apple juice at the two dimensional PCs space. For implementation of apple juice analysis into spectrofluorimeter software the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) Search technique was used. The implemented model was tested using 19 different samples of apple juice. Results of test demonstrate that SFS-PCA-kNN method can provide quick nondestructive analysis of naturalness degree of commercial apple juice. PMID:24444977

  7. Sustainability of three apple production systems.

    PubMed

    Reganold, J P; Glover, J D; Andrews, P K; Hinman, H R

    2001-04-19

    Escalating production costs, heavy reliance on non-renewable resources, reduced biodiversity, water contamination, chemical residues in food, soil degradation and health risks to farm workers handling pesticides all bring into question the sustainability of conventional farming systems. It has been claimed, however, that organic farming systems are less efficient, pose greater health risks and produce half the yields of conventional farming systems. Nevertheless, organic farming became one of the fastest growing segments of US and European agriculture during the 1990s. Integrated farming, using a combination of organic and conventional techniques, has been successfully adopted on a wide scale in Europe. Here we report the sustainability of organic, conventional and integrated apple production systems in Washington State from 1994 to 1999. All three systems gave similar apple yields. The organic and integrated systems had higher soil quality and potentially lower negative environmental impact than the conventional system. When compared with the conventional and integrated systems, the organic system produced sweeter and less tart apples, higher profitability and greater energy efficiency. Our data indicate that the organic system ranked first in environmental and economic sustainability, the integrated system second and the conventional system last. PMID:11309616

  8. Truman's Firing of General Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Amy; Schamel, Wynell; Potter Lee Ann

    2000-01-01

    Provides background information on the events that led up to President Harry S. Truman firing General Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War. Includes a copy of the document dismissing MacArthur from his position. Includes teaching activities corresponding to this event in history. (CMK)

  9. THE EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON THE GROWTH OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    MAC organisms are able to grow, persist, and colonize in water distribution systems and may amplify in hospital hot water systems. This study examined the response of MAC organisms (M. avium, M. intracellulare, and MX) to a range of temperatures commonly associated with drinking...

  10. A concurrent access MAC protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks without common control channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timalsina, Sunil K.; Moh, Sangman; Chung, Ilyong; Kang, Moonsoo

    2013-12-01

    Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs) consist of autonomous nodes that operate in ad hoc mode and aim at efficient utilization of spectrum resources. Usually, the cognitive nodes in a CRAHN exploit a number of available channels, but these channels are not necessarily common to all nodes. Such a network environment poses the problem of establishing a common control channel (CCC) as there might be no channel common to all the network members at all. In designing protocols, therefore, it is highly desirable to consider the network environment with no CCC. In this article, we propose a MAC protocol called concurrent access MAC (CA-MAC) that operates in the network environment with no CCC. The two devices in a communication pair can communicate with each other even if they have only one common channel available. Therefore, the problems with CCC (such as channel saturation and denial of service attacks) can also be resolved. In CA-MAC, channel accesses are distributed over communication pairs, resulting in increased network connectivity. In addition, CA-MAC allows different communication pairs to access multiple channels concurrently. According to our performance study, CA-MAC provides higher network connectivity with shorter channel access delay compared to SYN-MAC, which is the conventional key MAC protocol for the network environment with no CCC, resulting in better network throughput.

  11. Geochemistry and petrography of the MacAlpine Hills lunar meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Mckay, David S.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Martinez, Rene R.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Lipschutz, Michael E.

    1991-01-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105, anorthositic lunar meteorites recovered form the same area in Antartica, are characterized. Petrographic studies show that MAC88104/5 is a polymict breccia dominated by impact melt clasts. It is better classified as a fragmental breccia than a regolith breccia. The bulk composition is ferroan and highly aluminous (Al2O3-28 percent).

  12. Self-Admitted Pretensions of Mac Users on a Predominantly PC University Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Wood, Whitney L. Muhlenkamp; Firmin, Ruth L.; Wood, Jordan C.

    2010-01-01

    The present qualitative research study addressed the overall research question of college students' pretention dynamics in the context of a university setting. Thirty-five Mac users were interviewed on a university campus that exclusively supports PC machines. Mac users shared four self-admitted pretensions related to using Macintosh computers.

  13. A Meta-Analytic Review of the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper-Hakim, Amy; Viswesvaran, Chockalingam

    2002-01-01

    Using meta analysis, examined the predictive validity of scores on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (C. MacAndrew, 1965). Compared results for 161 studies with results for 63 studies using cut scores. Discusses why the use of continuous measures rather than cut scores is recommended. (SLD)

  14. Paradox applications integration ATP`s for MAC and mass balance programs

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.; Mullaney, J.E.

    1994-10-17

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Material Balance (MBA) database system were set up to run under one common applications program. This Acceptance Test Plan (ATP) describes how the code was to be tested to verify its correctness. The scope of the tests is minimal, since both MAC and MBA have already been tested in detail as stand-alone programs.

  15. 42 CFR 405.1108 - MAC actions when request for review or escalation is filed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... dismissal, the MAC may deny review or vacate the dismissal and remand the case to the ALJ for further... right to a review by the MAC, or will dismiss the request for a hearing for any reason that the ALJ... reason that the ALJ could have dismissed the request....

  16. 42 CFR 405.1110 - MAC reviews on its own motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... decision or dismissal issued by an ALJ. CMS or any of its contractors may refer a case to the MAC for it to... or dismissal. (b) Referral of cases. (1) CMS or any of its contractors may refer a case to the MAC if, in their view, the decision or dismissal contains an error of law material to the outcome of...

  17. 78 FR 65145 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Capital Planning

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... distributions before making them. \\1\\ 78 FR 5320. II. Background A. Farmer Mac Farmer Mac is an institution of... Plans, 76 FR 74631 (December 1, 2011); the FRS's proposed rule, Enhanced Prudential Standards and Early Remediation Requirements for Covered Companies, 77 FR 594 (January 5, 2012); the U.S. banking agencies'...

  18. Self-Admitted Pretensions of Mac Users on a Predominantly PC University Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Wood, Whitney L. Muhlenkamp; Firmin, Ruth L.; Wood, Jordan C.

    2010-01-01

    The present qualitative research study addressed the overall research question of college students' pretention dynamics in the context of a university setting. Thirty-five Mac users were interviewed on a university campus that exclusively supports PC machines. Mac users shared four self-admitted pretensions related to using Macintosh computers.…

  19. MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 lunar highland meteorites - General description and consortium overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Schwarz, Carol; Score, Roberta; Mason, Brian

    1991-01-01

    MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 meteorites found in nearby locations in Antarctica, which are considered to be pieces of the same meteorite, are described. MAC88104/5 is an anorthositic breccia consisting of numerous small clasts in a glassy matrix. A summary list of lunar meteorites and a review of consortium research are presented.

  20. High-Accuracy Compact MacCormack-Type Schemes for Computational Aeroacoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, R.; Turkel, E.

    1998-01-01

    Using MacCormack-type methods, a new class of highly accurate compact MacCormack-type schemes is derived which does not require a tridiagonal matrix inversion to obtain the spatial derivatives. Two examples are shown, and results of these schemes for three linear and nonlinear CAA Benchmark Problems are presented.

  1. The MacAndrew Scale as a Measure of Substance Abuse and Delinquency among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathus, Spencer A.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Used regression equations to determine the predictive power of the abbreviated MacAndrew Scale of the MMPI-168 on self-reported delinquent behavior of 1,672 high school students. The abbreviated MacAndrew Scale score successfully predicted alcohol abuse but was also related to crimes against property and persons and to marijuana usage. (Author)

  2. Getting Started with AppleWorks Data Base. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a hands-on teaching tool for beginning users of the AppleWorks database software. It was developed to allow Apple IIGS users who are generally familiar with their machine and its peripherals to build a simple AppleWorks database file using version 2.0 or 2.1 of the program, and to store, print, and manipulate the file. The materials

  3. Oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth [Grapholita molesta (Busck), Lepidoptera: Tortricidae] for apple cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oviposition preferences and apple cultivar selection by fruit pests may impact integrated pest management in apple orchards. Experiments were conducted to study oviposition preferences of Oriental fruit moth ( Grapholita molesta [Busck], Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on ten commercially important apple ...

  4. Interference Analysis Status and Plans for Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Interference issues related to the operation of an aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) in the C-Band (specifically 5091-5150 MHz) is being investigated. The issue of primary interest is co-channel interference from AeroMACS into mobile-satellite system (MSS) feeder uplinks. The effort is focusing on establishing practical limits on AeroMACS transmissions from airports so that the threshold of interference into MSS is not exceeded. The analyses are being performed with the software package Visualyse Professional, developed by Transfinite Systems Limited. Results with omni-directional antennas and plans to extend the models to represent AeroMACS more accurately will be presented. These models should enable realistic analyses of emerging AeroMACS designs to be developed from NASA Test Bed, RTCA 223, and European results.

  5. Opportunistic Pathogens Mycobacterium Avium Complex (MAC) and Legionella spp. Colonise Model Shower.

    PubMed

    Whiley, Harriet; Giglio, Steven; Bentham, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) are opportunistic pathogens of public health concern. Hot water systems, including showers, have been identified as a potential source of infection. This paper describes the colonization of Legionella and MAC on the flexible tubing within a model potable shower system, utilizing thermostatic mixing and a flexible shower head. A MAC qPCR method of enumeration was also developed. MAC and Legionella spp. were detected within the biofilm at maximum concentrations of 7.0 × 104 and 2.0 × 103 copies/cm2 PVC tubing respectively. No significant changes were observed between sample of the flexible shower tubing that dried between uses and those that remained filled with water. This suggested the "unhooking" showerheads and allowing them to dry is not an effective method to reduce the risk of Legionella or MAC colonisation. PMID:26213977

  6. An Energy-Efficient, Application-Oriented Control Algorithm for MAC Protocols in WSN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Deliang; Peng, Fei; Qian, Depei

    Energy efficiency has been a main concern in wireless sensor networks where Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol plays an important role. However, current MAC protocols designed for energy saving have seldom considered multiple applications coexisting in WSN with variation of traffic load dynamics and different QoS requirements. In this paper, we propose an adaptive control algorithm at MAC layer to promote energy efficiency. We focus on the tradeoff relation between collisions and control overhead as a reflection of traffic load and propose to balance the tradeoff under the constraints of QoS options. We integrate the algorithm into S-MAC and verify it through NS-2 platform. The results demonstrate the algorithm achieves observable improvement in energy performance while meeting QoS requirement for different coexisting applications in comparison with S-MAC.

  7. Research on low-latency MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chenguang; Sha, Xuejun; Lee, Chankil

    2007-11-01

    Energy-efficient should not be the only design goal in MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks, which involve the use of battery-operated computing and sensing devices. Low-latency operation becomes the same important as energy-efficient in the case that the traffic load is very heavy or the real-time constrain is used in applications like tracking or locating. This paper introduces some causes of traditional time delays which are inherent in a multi-hops network using existing WSN MAC protocols, illuminates the importance of low-latency MAC design for wireless sensor networks, and presents three MACs as examples of low-latency protocols designed specially for sleep delay, wait delay and wakeup delay in wireless sensor networks, respectively. The paper also discusses design trade-offs with emphasis on low-latency and points out their advantages and disadvantages, together with some design considerations and suggestions for MAC protocols for future applications and researches.

  8. Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs with Extended Service Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woo-Yong

    2011-11-01

    In this paper, we propose the efficient reliable multicast MAC protocol by which the AP (Access Point) can transmit reliably its multicast data frames to the recipients in the AP's one-hop or two-hop transmission range. The AP uses the STAs (Stations) that are directly associated with itself as the relays for the data delivery to the remote recipients that cannot be reached directly from itself. Based on the connectivity information among the recipients, the reliable multicast MAC protocol optimizes the number of the RAK (Request for ACK) frame transmissions in a reasonable computational time. Numerical examples show that our proposed MAC protocol significantly enhances the MAC performance compared with the BMMM (Batch Mode Multicast MAC) protocol that is extended to support the recipients that are in the AP's one-hop or two-hop transmission range in IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs.

  9. Ascorbic acid enhances destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 during home-type drying of apple slices.

    PubMed

    Burnham, J A; Kendall, P A; Sofos, J N

    2001-08-01

    Destruction of Escherichia coli O157:H7 was evaluated on inoculated apple slices dehydrated at two temperatures with and without application of predrying treatments. Half-ring slices (0.6 cm thick) of peeled and cored Gala apples were inoculated by immersion for 30 min in a four-strain composite inoculum of E. coli O157:H7. The inoculated slices (8.7 to 9.4 log CFU/g) either received no predrying treatment (control), were soaked for 15 min in a 3.4% ascorbic acid solution, or were steam blanched for 3 min at 88 degrees C immediately prior to drying at 57.2 or 62.8 degrees C for up to 6 h. Samples were plated on tryptic soy (TSA) and sorbitol MacConkey (SMAC) agar media for direct enumeration of surviving bacterial populations. Steam blanching changed initial inoculation levels by +0.3 to -0.7 log CFU/g, while immersion in the ascorbic acid solution reduced the inoculation levels by 1.4 to 1.6 log CFU/g. Dehydration of control samples for 6 h reduced mean bacterial populations by 2.9 log CFU/g (TSA or SMAC) at 57.2 degrees C and by 3.3 (SMAC) and 3.5 (TSA) log CFU/g at 62.8 degrees C. Mean decreases from initial inoculum levels for steam-blanched slices after 6 h of drying were 2.1 (SMAC) and 2.0 (TSA) log CFU/g at 57.2 degrees C, and 3.6 (TSA or SMAC) log CFU/g at 62.8 degrees C. In contrast, initial bacterial populations on ascorbic acid-pretreated apple slices declined by 5.0 (SMAC) and 5.1 (TSA) log CFU/g after 3 h of dehydration at 57.2 degrees C, and by 7.3 (SMAC) and 6.9 (TSA) log CFU/g after 3 h at 62.8 degrees C. Reductions on slices treated with ascorbic acid were in the range of 8.0 to 8.3 log CFU/g after 6 h of drying, irrespective of drying temperature or agar medium used. The results of immersing apple slices in a 3.4% ascorbic acid solution for 15 min prior to drying indicate that a predrying treatment enhances the destruction of E. coli O157:H7 on home-dried apple products. PMID:11510669

  10. Energy-efficient MAC Protocol for Patient Personal Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Lamprinos, I; Prentza, A; Sakka, E; Koutsouris, D

    2005-01-01

    The formulation of a Personal Area Network (PAN), consisting of a wireless infrastructure of medical sensors, attached to patient's body, and a supervising device carried by them, lays the path for continuous and real-time monitoring of vital signs without discomforting the person in question. This infrastructure enhances the context of remote healthcare services by supporting flexible acquisition of crucial vital signs, while at the same time it provides more convenience to the patient. Aiming at the exploitation of the inherent features and requirements of wireless medical sensor networks, in this paper we focus on the main design guidelines of a low power Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol, designated to support a patient PAN. The proposed protocol intends to improve energy efficiency in such applications and thus is oriented towards the prevention of main energy wastage sources, such as collision, idle listening and power outspending. PMID:17281057

  11. The Relationship of MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale Scores to MMPI Profile Type and Degree of Elevation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfost, Karen S.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the relationship of the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (MAC) to personality type and level of emotional distress using Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory scores of 38 alcoholic males. No relationship was found between the MAC and magnitude of psychological distress, as measured by T scores. (JAC)

  12. Apples in the Apple Library--How One Library Took a Byte.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertel, Monica

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes automation of a specialized library at Apple Computer, Inc., describing software packages chosen for the following functions: word processing/text editing; cataloging and circulation; reference; and in-house databases. Examples of each function and additional sources of information on software and equipment mentioned in the article are…

  13. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2016-01-01

    In wireless body area networks (WBANs), various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC) protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS) for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC) protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio. PMID:26999162

  14. A Priority-Based Adaptive MAC Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2016-01-01

    In wireless body area networks (WBANs), various sensors and actuators are placed on/inside the human body and connected wirelessly. WBANs have specific requirements for healthcare and medical applications, hence, standard protocols like the IEEE 802.15.4 cannot fulfill all the requirements. Consequently, many medium access control (MAC) protocols, mostly derived from the IEEE 802.15.4 superframe structure, have been studied. Nevertheless, they do not support a differentiated quality of service (QoS) for the various forms of traffic coexisting in a WBAN. In particular, a QoS-aware MAC protocol is essential for WBANs operating in the unlicensed Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) bands, because different wireless services like Bluetooth, WiFi, and Zigbee may coexist there and cause severe interference. In this paper, we propose a priority-based adaptive MAC (PA-MAC) protocol for WBANs in unlicensed bands, which allocates time slots dynamically, based on the traffic priority. Further, multiple channels are effectively utilized to reduce access delays in a WBAN, in the presence of coexisting systems. Our performance evaluation results show that the proposed PA-MAC outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 MAC and the conventional priority-based MAC in terms of the average transmission time, throughput, energy consumption, and data collision ratio. PMID:26999162

  15. Mapping Malus sieversii: A valuable genetic resource for apple breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Plant Genetic Resources Unit has established a collection of Malus from around the world in order to preserve and develop genetic resources important to the apple industry. Among this collection is Malus sieversii, the main progenitor of the domestic apple, collected from Central Asia ...

  16. Cytology of infection of apple leaves by Diplocarpon mali

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diplocarpon mali, the causal agent of Marssonina leaf blotch of apple, causes severe defoliation during the growing season. Little information is available on the mode of infection and infection process. In this study, the infection strategies of D. mali in apple leaves were investigated using fluor...

  17. Monte Carlo Simulations of Light Propagation in Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports on the investigation of light propagation in fresh apples in the visible and short-wave near-infrared region using Monte Carlo simulations. Optical properties of ‘Golden Delicious’ apples were determined over the spectral range of 500-1100 nm using a hyperspectral imaging method, ...

  18. Cold storage to control codling moth larvae in fresh apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), found in exported apples, Malus sylvestris (L.) var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf., can disrupt international markets. Cold storage at 1.1°C was examined for possible control on three physiological larval states in ‘Fuji’ apples: diapausing ...

  19. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Apple Dolls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on apple dolls is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the apple doll making; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the followup,…

  20. Reading Michael Apple--The Sociological Imagination at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Michael Apple's contribution to the sociology of education and education policy analysis and the politics of education. It focuses on ways of "reading" Apple as an intellectual and an activist and looks at the trajectory of his work over a long and illustrious career.

  1. WHOLE SURFACE IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION FOR MACHINE VISION INSPECTION OF APPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 in the US serve as reminders of food safety in produce. Unpasteurized apple juice/cider has been identified as a repeated source of E. coli O157:H7 contamination. Apples with diseased or fungal contaminated surfaces, and open skin cuts and bruises may become sites...

  2. Unraveling apple fruit metabolism: Storage management opportunities and beyond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple fruit has become a staple fruit commodity in many markets worldwide, making year-round availability crucial to retail chains. Consequently, apple storage practices have become increasingly sophisticated to meet rising quality expectations of fresh taste and a blemish free appearance. Modern ...

  3. Morphological and chemical characterization of the kei apple (Dovyalis spp)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dovyalis (Tropical apple) is an exotic fruit originated in Africa, reddish-orange color and high acidity. Tropical apricot or Kei apple (Dovyalis hebecarpa X D. abyssinica) P.I. 112086, is a natural cross which resulted from a mixed planting of D. hebecarpa and D. abyssinica at the Subtropical Horti...

  4. Gene expression profiles of auxin metabolism in maturing apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation exists among apple genotypes in fruit maturation and ripening patterns that influences at-harvest fruit firmness and postharvest storability. Based on the results from our previous large-scale transcriptome profiling on apple fruit maturation and well-documented auxin-ethylene crosstalk, t...

  5. Transcriptional response in apple to fire blight disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple, pear, and other plants in the subfamily Maloideae of the Rosaceae. The goal of this study was to use a global analysis of gene expression to characterize the temporal response of apple to infection by E. amyl...

  6. Apple-products phytochemicals and processing: a review.

    PubMed

    Soler, Carla; Soriano, Jos M; Maes, Jordi

    2009-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. Extensive research exists on apples and the health benefits of their beverages and phytochemicals. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature in this area focusing on phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior. PMID:19445316

  7. Sources and availability of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens inoculum in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens (SP) is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infections of apple fruit by the fungus occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. SP also is the cause of a twig dieback and canker disease o...

  8. Why K-12 IT Managers and Administrators Are Embracing the Intel-Based Mac

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Technology & Learning, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Over the past year, Apple has dramatically increased its share of the school computer marketplace--especially in the category of notebook computers. A recent study conducted by Grunwald Associates and Rockman et al. reports that one of the major reasons for this growth is Apple's introduction of the Intel processor to the entire line of Mac…

  9. Alar and apples: newspapers, risk and media responsibility.

    PubMed

    Friedman, S M; Villamil, K; Suriano, R A; Egolf, B P

    1996-01-01

    During 1989, a major environmental and health risk issue, the spraying of Alar on apples, created a furor among the American people. After hearing charges from the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) that eating Alar-laden apples significantly increased a child's risk of developing cancer, numbers of school districts dropped apples from their menus and parents poured apple juice down the drains. Apple sales plummeted. The NRDC's charges, which were disseminated by a well-planned and effective public relations campaign, brought counter-charges from the US environmental Protection Agency, which accused the NRDC of basing its study on poor data, among other things. The core of the dispute was in the risk figures and risk interpretations being used by each organization. PMID:11609044

  10. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold) were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples. PMID:24574880

  11. McMAC: Towards a MAC Protocol with Multi-Constrained QoS Provisioning for Diverse Traffic in Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Monowar, Muhammad Mostafa; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Bajaber, Fuad; Al-Hussein, Musaed; Alamri, Atif

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of heterogeneous applications with diverse requirements for resource-constrained Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) poses significant challenges for provisioning Quality of Service (QoS) with multi-constraints (delay and reliability) while preserving energy efficiency. To address such challenges, this paper proposes McMAC, a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic classes in WBANs. McMAC classifies traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS demands and introduces a novel superframe structure based on the “transmit-whenever-appropriate” principle, which allows diverse periods for diverse traffic classes according to their respective QoS requirements. Furthermore, a novel emergency packet handling mechanism is proposed to ensure packet delivery with the least possible delay and the highest reliability. McMAC is also modeled analytically, and extensive simulations were performed to evaluate its performance. The results reveal that McMAC achieves the desired delay and reliability guarantee according to the requirements of a particular traffic class while achieving energy efficiency. PMID:23202224

  12. STS-52 MS Veach and Payload Specialist MacLean during JSC bailout exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Mission Specialist (MS) Charles Lacy Veach (left) and Canadian Payload Specialist Steven G. MacLean listen to a briefing during emergency egress (bailout) training exercises in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility (WETF) Bldg 29. Veach and MacLean are fully outfitted in launch and entry suits (LESs), launch and entry helmets (LEHs), parachutes, and water survival equipment including a life jacket. The WETF's 25-ft deep pool will simulate the ocean as the crewmember's prepare for the event of a water landing. MacLean represents the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).

  13. MAC Version 3.2, MBA Version 1.3 acceptance test summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-11-02

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Materials Balance (MBA) programs had the Paradox Conversion to 4.0 ATP run to check out the systems. This report describes the results of the test and provides the signoff sheets associated with the testing. The test primarily concentrated on verifying that MAC and MBA software would run properly in the Paradox 4.0 environment. Changes in the MAC and MBA programs were basically limited to superficial items needed to accommodate the enhanced method of execution.

  14. A Dynamic CFP Allocation and Opportunity Contention-Based WBAN MAC Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Young-Sun; Kim, Dae-Young; Cho, Jinsung

    WBANs provide communication services in the vicinity of the human body. Since WBANs utilize both MICS frequency band for implant medical applications and ISM frequency band for medical and consumer electronics (CE) applications, MAC protocols in WBAN should be designed considering flexibility between medical and CE applications. In this letter, we identify the requirements of WBAN MAC protocols and propose a WBAN MAC protocol which satisfies the requirements. In order to provide transmission flexibility for various applications, we present the dynamic CFP allocation and opportunity period. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed protocol achieves improved throughput and latency in WBAN environment compared with IEEE 802.15.4.

  15. CO2calc: A User-Friendly Seawater Carbon Calculator for Windows, Mac OS X, and iOS (iPhone)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, L.L.; Hansen, M.E.; Kleypas, J.A.; Meylan, S.C.

    2010-01-01

    A user-friendly, stand-alone application for the calculation of carbonate system parameters was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey Florida Shelf Ecosystems Response to Climate Change Project in response to its Ocean Acidification Task. The application, by Mark Hansen and Lisa Robbins, USGS St. Petersburg, FL, Joanie Kleypas, NCAR, Boulder, CO, and Stephan Meylan, Jacobs Technology, St. Petersburg, FL, is intended as a follow-on to CO2SYS, originally developed by Lewis and Wallace (1998) and later modified for Microsoft Excel? by Denis Pierrot (Pierrot and others, 2006). Besides eliminating the need for using Microsoft Excel on the host system, CO2calc offers several improvements on CO2SYS, including: An improved graphical user interface for data entry and results Additional calculations of air-sea CO2 fluxes (for surface water calculations) The ability to tag data with sample name, comments, date, time, and latitude/longitude The ability to use the system time and date and latitude/ longitude (automatic retrieval of latitude and longitude available on iPhone? 3, 3GS, 4, and Windows? hosts with an attached National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA)-enabled GPS) The ability to process multiple files in a batch processing mode An option to save sample information, data input, and calculated results as a comma-separated value (CSV) file for use with Microsoft Excel, ArcGIS,? or other applications An option to export points with geographic coordinates as a KMZ file for viewing and editing in Google EarthTM

  16. Patulin surveillance in apple cider and juice marketed in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kerri L; Bobe, Gerd; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2009-06-01

    Patulin is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple juices. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of patulin in (i) apple cider produced and marketed by Michigan apple cider mills during the fall seasons of 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 and (ii) apple juice and cider, including shelf-stable products, marketed in retail grocery stores in Michigan throughout 2005 and 2006. End product samples (n=493) obtained from 104 Michigan apple cider mills were analyzed for patulin concentration by using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Patulin was detected (> or =4 microg/liter) in 18.7% of all cider mill samples, with 11 samples (2.2%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. A greater percentage of cider samples obtained from mills using thermal pasteurization contained detectable patulin (28.4%) than did those from mills using UV light radiation (13.5%) or no pathogen reduction treatment (17.0%). Among retail grocery store samples (n=159), 23% of apple juice and cider samples contained detectable patulin, with 18 samples (11.3%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action level for patulin is 50 microg/kg. Some apple juice samples obtained from retail grocery stores had exceptionally high patulin concentrations, ranging up to 2700 microg/liter. Collectively, these results indicate that most apple cider and juice test samples from Michigan were below the FDA action level for patulin but that certain apple cider and juice processors have inadequate controls over patulin concentrations in final products. The industry, overall, should focus on improved quality of fruit used in juice production and improve culling procedures to reduce patulin concentrations. PMID:19610336

  17. Carbendazim and metalaxyl residues in post-harvest treated apples.

    PubMed

    Su, Yirong; Mitchell, S H; Mac AntSaoir, S

    2003-08-01

    Bramley apples were treated with Ridomil mbc 60 WP, containing carbendazim and metalaxyl, at half and full rate application at 10 and 20 degrees C, and with diphenylamine to control disease during storage. Carbendazim and metalaxyl residues were determined by HPLC and GC/MS, respectively, in apple core, flesh and peel at the initial time, 3 and 6 months after storage under controlled atmosphere conditions of 4.5 degrees C, 5% CO(2) and 1% O(2). The concentration of carbendazim residues in apple flesh was apple core and peel were 2.2 +/- 1.1 and 5.2 +/- 2.2 mg kg(-1), respectively. The MRL for carbendazim in apple was 2.0 mg kg(-1). The concentration of metalaxyl residues in apple flesh was apple core and peel were 0.41 +/- 0.18 and 0.79 +/- 0.94 mg kg(-1), respectively. The MRL for metalaxyl in apple was 1.0 mg kg(-1). The temperature of the fungicide solution had little effect on the carbendazim residues but did have some effect on metalaxyl residues. Carbendazim residue content per apple was decreased when diphenylamine was included. A change in the ratio of carbendazim to metalaxyl was noted in the flesh, core and peel of the stored apple. The ratio of carbendazim to metalaxyl was 5:1 in the fungicide mix as applied. The ratio remained fairly constant in the core during storage. However, the ratio changed significantly in the peel and, to a lesser extent, and in a different direction, in the flesh. In the peel, the ratio was around 15:1 at 3 months of storage and 12:1 after 6 months of storage, whereas for flesh the ratios were 2:1 and 4:1, respectively. PMID:13129789

  18. Dw2 a new dwarfing locus in apple rootstocks and relationship to induction of early bearing in apple scions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of certain apple rootstocks to dwarf their scions has been known for centuries and spurred a revolution in apple production. In this investigation, several breeding populations, in multiple replicated field and pot experiments were used to ascertain the degree of dwarfing of segregating...

  19. Characteristics and performance of four new apple rootstock from the Cornell-USDA apple rootstock breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2010, the apple rootstock breeding program at Geneva, NY released 4 new apple rootstocks (Geneva® 210, Geneva® 214, Geneva® 890 and Geneva® 969). G.210 is a semi-dwarfing rootstock with vigor similar to M.7, with high productivity similar to M.9 and resistance to fire blight, phytophthora root ro...

  20. Converting Spreadsheet Files into Data Base Files Using AppleWorks V2.0 and the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for converting spreadsheet files into database files using AppleWorks version 2.0 on the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading spreadsheet files, transferring spreadsheet files to the monitor, printing spreadsheet files, and using the data

  1. Physiological cost of apple-farming activities.

    PubMed

    Costa, G; Berti, F; Betta, A

    1989-12-01

    Seventeen agricultural male workers, aged between 21 and 56 years, were investigated in the field during six different job-activities of apple-farming: pruning, weeding, hand and mechanical spraying, mowing and picking. Pulmonary ventilation and oxygen consumption were recorded for short periods by Oxylog, while heart rate was monitored for more than 24 hours by Holter's method. The farmers also rated the work intensity according to Borg's RPE scale. Pulmonary ventilation ranged on average between 13 and 30 1/min and oxygen consumption between 500 and 1300 ml/min, with a relative aerobic cost between 15 and 40%, in the different work activities. Heart rate varied on average between 80 and 94 beats/min with a relative cardiac cost between 20 and 30%. The physiological criteria (oxygen uptake and cardiac response) and the subjective rating of fatigue gave a substantially similar evaluation of the work strain, 'moderate-heavy' for mowing, weeding and picking, 'moderate' for pruning and hand spraying, 'light' for mechanical spraying of pesticides. On the whole, apple-farming can be evaluated as 'moderate' intensity, thanks to the mechanisation implemented in reducing the work-load and the work-time of many job activities. PMID:15676746

  2. Identification of irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horak, Celina I.; Di Giorgio, Marina; Kairiyama, Eulogia

    2009-07-01

    The irradiation treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables for phytosanitary purposes is a satisfactory alternative method to others like fumigation and cold and hot treatments. Its use is increasing in several countries, and at present its approval is under revision by the National Regulatory Authorities. To verify the control process, apart from irradiation and dosimetry certificates, National Authorities require complementary evidence to show the efficacy of this treatment, especially when the documentation is not clear. The irradiation of fresh fruits produces single and double fragmentation in the DNA molecule, which can be measured using the microgel electrophoresis of individual cell (comet assay). The purpose of this work was to evaluate if it is possible to identify the irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes from the others that were not treated. The possibility to estimate the absorbed dose was also evaluated. The methodology was carried out on the cell suspension obtained from irradiated seed cells with incremental doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy). The irradiation treatment for phytosanitary purposes to avoid emergency of codling moth ( Cydia pomonella) is 200 Gy. The fragmentation produced in the irradiated samples was proportional with the incremental doses applied. These results show that with this methodology it can be determined if the apple was irradiated or not. This comet assay is a simple, economical and interesting method that can be used, in case of necessity, by the National Authorities.

  3. Os Trigonum Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACFAS | Información en Español Advanced Search Home » Foot & Ankle Conditions » Os Trigonum Syndrome Text Size Print Bookmark ... extra (accessory) bone that sometimes develops behind the ankle bone (talus). It is connected to the talus ...

  4. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Metabolic Comparative Analysis of Two Apple Varieties with Different Resistances to Apple Scab Attacks.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, Fabio; Di Cocco, Maria Enrica; Gianferri, Raffaella; Capuani, Giorgio; De Salvador, Flavio Roberto; Fontanari, Marco; Gorietti, Daniela; Delfini, Maurizio

    2015-09-23

    Apple scab, caused by the fungus Venturia inaequalis, is the most serious disease of the apple worldwide. Two cultivars (Malus domestica), having different degrees of resistance against fungi attacks, were analyzed by (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Aqueous and organic extracts of both apple flesh and skin were studied, and over 30 metabolites, classified as organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, phenolic compounds, lipids, sterols, and other metabolites, were quantified by means of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) NMR experiments. The metabolic profiles of the two apple cultivars were compared, and the differences were correlated with the different degrees of resistance to apple scab by means of univariate analysis. Levels of metabolites with known antifungal activity were observed not only to be higher in the Almagold cultivar but also to show different correlation patterns in comparison to Golden Delicious, implying a difference in the metabolic network involved in their biosynthesis. PMID:26345382

  5. Kinetics of patulin degradation in model solution, apple cider and apple juice by ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Koutchma, Tatiana; Warriner, Keith; Shao, Suqin; Zhou, Ting

    2013-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a wide range of molds involved in fruit spoilage, most commonly by Penicillium expansum and is a health concern for both consumers and manufacturers. The current study evaluated feasibility of monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) radiation at 253.7?nm as a possible commercial application for the reduction of patulin in fresh apple cider and juice. The R-52G MINERALIGHT UV bench top lamp was used for patulin destruction. It was shown that 56.5%, 87.5%, 94.8% and 98.6% reduction of patulin can be achieved, respectively, in the model solution, apple cider, apple juice without ascorbic acid addition and apple juice with ascorbic acid addition in 2-mm thickness sample initially spiked by 1?mgL(-1) of patulin after UV exposure for 40?min at UV irradiance of 3.00?mWcm(-2). A mathematic model to compare the degradation rate and effective UV dose was developed. The effective UV doses that were directly absorbed by patulin for photochemical reaction were 430, 674, 724 and 763?mJcm(-3), respectively. The fluence-based decimal reduction time was estimated to 309.3, 31.3, 28.9 and 5.1?mWcm(-2)min, respectively, in four media mentioned above. The degradation of patulin followed the first-order reaction model. The time-based and fluence-based reaction rate constants were determined to predict patulin degradation. The time-based reaction rate constant of samples treated in dynamic regime with constant stirring (model solution: 2.95E-4?s(-1), juice: 4.31E-4?s(-1)) were significantly higher than samples treated in static regime (model solution: 2.79E-4?s(-1), juice: 3.49E-4?s(-1), p?apple juice was significantly higher than model solution (p?apple cider and juice. PMID:23729413

  6. Inactivation of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider by trans-cinnamaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Sangeetha Ananda; Amalaradjou, Mary Anne Roshni; Hoagland, Thomas; Venkitanarayanan, Kumar

    2010-06-30

    This study investigated the antimicrobial effect of low concentrations of trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC) on Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider. A five-strain mixture of E. coli O157:H7 was inoculated into apple juice or cider at approximately 6.0 log CFU/ml, followed by the addition of TC (0%v/v, 0.025%v/v, 0.075%v/v and 0.125%v/v). The inoculated apple juice samples were incubated at 23 degrees C and 4 degrees C for 21 days, whereas the cider samples were stored only at 4 degrees C. The pH of apple juice and cider, and E. coli O157:H7 counts were determined on days 0, 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21. TC was effective (P<0.05) in inactivating E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider. At 23 degrees C, 0.125 and 0.075%v/v TC completely inactivated E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice (negative by enrichment) on days 1 and 3, respectively. At 4 degrees C, 0.125 and 0.075%v/v TC decreased the pathogen counts in the juice and cider to undetectable levels on days 3 and 5, respectively. Results indicate that low concentrations of TC could be used as an effective antimicrobial to inactivate E. coli O157:H7 in apple juice and apple cider. PMID:20442003

  7. MAC protocol for an ATM-based SuperPON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelopoulos, John D.; Koulouris, John; Fragoulopoulos, Stratos K.

    1996-11-01

    Developments in optical amplifiers and the tendency towards fewer and larger switching stages made feasible and desirable the concept of SuperPONs with a range of 100km. Up to 15000 residential customers can share the SuperPON on a TDMA basis lowering the cost of access to B-ISDN services. Tree PONs require a MAC protocol to arbitrate the access to upstream slots among the competing customer ATM cells in a dynamic and efficient way. The protocol presented in this work combines different access mechanisms according to service quality requirements. All bursty traffic is manipulated transparently using a reservation approach with closed loop control so as to handle the unpredictability of arrivals. In contrast, voice, N-ISDN and other delay sensitive services are provided with unsolicited access permits. In addition, composite cells offered quasi- synchronous permits are used to support STM legacy traffic without echo-cancellers. So, ABR traffic which is delay tolerant and more cost sensitive, can and should be concentrated with full exploitation of multiplexing gain prospects. The permit distribution algorithm focuses on cell spacing, control of CDV, almost jitter free access for synchronous traffic and efficiency for ABR traffic.

  8. MAC protocol for ad hoc networks using a genetic algorithm.

    PubMed

    Elizarraras, Omar; Panduro, Marco; Mndez, Aldo L; Reyna, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The problem of obtaining the transmission rate in an ad hoc network consists in adjusting the power of each node to ensure the signal to interference ratio (SIR) and the energy required to transmit from one node to another is obtained at the same time. Therefore, an optimal transmission rate for each node in a medium access control (MAC) protocol based on CSMA-CDMA (carrier sense multiple access-code division multiple access) for ad hoc networks can be obtained using evolutionary optimization. This work proposes a genetic algorithm for the transmission rate election considering a perfect power control, and our proposition achieves improvement of 10% compared with the scheme that handles the handshaking phase to adjust the transmission rate. Furthermore, this paper proposes a genetic algorithm that solves the problem of power combining, interference, data rate, and energy ensuring the signal to interference ratio in an ad hoc network. The result of the proposed genetic algorithm has a better performance (15%) compared to the CSMA-CDMA protocol without optimizing. Therefore, we show by simulation the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in terms of the throughput. PMID:25140339

  9. MAC to VAX Connectivity: Heartrate Spectral Analysis System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahman, Hasan H.; Faruque, Monazer

    1993-01-01

    The heart rate Spectral Analysis System (SAS) acquires and analyzes, in real-time, the Space Shuttle onboard electrocardiograph (EKG) experiment signals, calculates the heartrate, and applies a Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) to the heart rate. The system also calculates other statistical parameters such as the 'mean heart rate' over specific time period and heart rate histogram. This SAS is used by NASA Principal Investigators as a research tool to determine the effects of weightlessness on the human cardiovascular system. This is also used to determine if Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) is an effective countermeasure to the orthostatic intolerance experienced by astronauts upon return to normal gravity. In microgravity, astronauts perform the LBNP experiment in the mid deck of the Space Shuttle. The experiment data are downlinked by the orbiter telemetry system, then processed and analyzed in real-time by the integrated Life Sciences Data Acquisition (LSDS) - Spectral Analysis System. The data system is integrated within the framework of two different computer systems, VAX and Macintosh (Mac), using the networking infrastructure to assist the investigators in further understanding the most complex machine on Earth--the human body.

  10. The Peculiar Radio Halo Cluster MACS J0417-1154

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malu, Siddharth; Kale, Ruta

    2011-10-01

    We propose to observe MACS J0417-1154, to image the powerful giant radio halo recently discovered through our GMRT observations. This radio halo has the flattest spectrum seen in any radio halo in a galaxy cluster. In particular, we aim to: 1. Detect and characterize diffuse non-thermal emission due to particle acceleration caused by turbulence in the ICM generated during mergers at 2.5 and 5.5 GHz. 2. Look for a “knee” in the spectrum of the radio halo in this cluster - this is crucial in the understanding of the origins of radio halos and probing cluster collisions 3. Look for polarization in this radio halo - to probe the structure of the magnetic field. This is a peculiar radio halo because of its very flat spectral index; we’d like to probe whether this might be due to a substantially higher magnetic field which would lead to a higher polarization than is normally seen in radio halos. 4. Examine the X-ray luminosity-radio flux (LX-P1.4) relation to explore the physical relationship between thermal; non-thermal components of the ICM and thus characterize the density and dynamics of particles in the Intra-cluster medium

  11. Modified pterional craniotomy without "MacCarty keyhole".

    PubMed

    Moscovici, Samuel; Mizrahi, Cezar José; Margolin, Emil; Spektor, Sergey

    2016-02-01

    Pterional craniotomy is one of the most widely used approaches in neurosurgery. The MacCarty keyhole has remained the preferred means of beginning the craniotomy to achieve a low access point; however, the bone opening may result in a residual defect and an aesthetically unpleasant depression in the periorbital area. We present our modification of the traditional technique. Instead of drilling the keyhole in the frontoperiorbital area, the classical location, we perform a 5 × 15 mm strip craniectomy at the lowest accessible point in the infratemporal fossa, corresponding to the projection of the most lateral point of the sphenoid ridge. The anterior half of this opening exposes the basal frontal dura, while the posterior half brings the temporal dura into view. This modified technique was applied in 48 pterional craniotomies performed for removal of a variety of neoplasms during 2014-2015. There were no approach-related complications. Aesthetic outcomes and patient acceptance have been good; no patient developed skin depression in the periorbital area. In our experience, craniotomy for a pterional approach with the lowest possible access to the frontotemporal skull base may be performed by drilling a narrow oblong opening, without the use of any keyhole or burr hole, to create a smaller skull defect and achieve optimal aesthetic outcomes. PMID:26455544

  12. MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks Using a Genetic Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Elizarraras, Omar; Panduro, Marco; Méndez, Aldo L.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of obtaining the transmission rate in an ad hoc network consists in adjusting the power of each node to ensure the signal to interference ratio (SIR) and the energy required to transmit from one node to another is obtained at the same time. Therefore, an optimal transmission rate for each node in a medium access control (MAC) protocol based on CSMA-CDMA (carrier sense multiple access-code division multiple access) for ad hoc networks can be obtained using evolutionary optimization. This work proposes a genetic algorithm for the transmission rate election considering a perfect power control, and our proposition achieves improvement of 10% compared with the scheme that handles the handshaking phase to adjust the transmission rate. Furthermore, this paper proposes a genetic algorithm that solves the problem of power combining, interference, data rate, and energy ensuring the signal to interference ratio in an ad hoc network. The result of the proposed genetic algorithm has a better performance (15%) compared to the CSMA-CDMA protocol without optimizing. Therefore, we show by simulation the effectiveness of the proposed protocol in terms of the throughput. PMID:25140339

  13. History of the paired lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105 derived from noble gas isotopes, radionuclides, and some chemical abundances

    SciTech Connect

    Eugster, O.; Burger, M.; Kraehenbuehl, U.; Michel, T. ); Beer, J. ); Finkel, R.C. ); Hofmann, H.J.; Synal, H.A.; Woelfli, W. )

    1991-11-01

    Noble gas isotopes, radionuclides, and chemical abundances were studied in the lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105 collected in the MacAlpine Hills area of Antarctica. The concentrations of the noble gas isotopes and the radionuclide activities in the two meteorites are essentially identical, proving that the two meteorites are paired. From {sup 40}K-{sup 40}Ar dating the authors obtain a gas retention age of 3,550 {plus minus} 400 Ma, typical for lunar surface material. Probably before breccia compaction the MAC88104/5 material resided for 630 {plus minus} 200 Ma at an average shielding depth of 85 g/cm{sup 2}, that is, about 50 cm below the lunar surface in the lunar regolith, as judged from the concentration of cosmic-ray produced Kr and Xe isotopes. Although this duration of lunar regolith residence is relatively long, MAC88104/5 represent immature regolith material: the concentration of solar wind implanted noble gases are two orders of magnitude lower than those in mature lunar soil. The {sup 40}Ar/{sup 36}Ar ratio of the trapped component is 5.7 {plus minus} 1.0, indicating an intermediate antiquity of the material; the authors estimate that the solar wind and lunar atmospheric particles were implanted about 2,000 Ma ago. The radionuclide activities allow a determination of the exposure history of the MAC88104/5 material. The duration of the Moon-Earth transfer was {much lt} 0.24 Ma. The exposure histories of the lunar meteorites discussed in this work indicate that at least two impact events are required for their ejection from the Moon. The authors first noble gas results for lunar meteorite Yamato-793274 show that it represents mature lunar regolith material with relatively high concentrations of solar wind implanted noble gas and a duration of several hundred million years of exposure to cosmic rays.

  14. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 1, 1934, DETAIL OF MANTEL (PARLOR -- SOUTH WALL). - St. George's Rectory, Prospect & Greenwich Streets, Hempstead, Nassau County, NY

  15. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer April 3, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer April 3, 1934, DETAIL OF CORNICE (SOUTH ELEVATION). - St. George's Rectory, Prospect & Greenwich Streets, Hempstead, Nassau County, NY

  16. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 1, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 1, 1934, DETAIL OF STAIR (1st STORY -- REAR HALL). - St. George's Rectory, Prospect & Greenwich Streets, Hempstead, Nassau County, NY

  17. BIG MAC: A bolometer array for mid-infrared astronomy, Center Director's Discretionary Fund

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Telesco, C. M.; Decher, R.; Baugher, C.

    1985-01-01

    The infrared array referred to as Big Mac (for Marshall Array Camera), was designed for ground based astronomical observations in the wavelength range 5 to 35 microns. It contains 20 discrete gallium-doped germanium bolometer detectors at a temperature of 1.4K. Each bolometer is irradiated by a square field mirror constituting a single pixel of the array. The mirrors are arranged contiguously in four columns and five rows, thus defining the array configuration. Big Mac utilized cold reimaging optics and an up looking dewar. The total Big Mac system also contains a telescope interface tube for mounting the dewar and a computer for data acquisition and processing. Initial astronomical observations at a major infrared observatory indicate that Big Mac performance is excellent, having achieved the design specifications and making this instrument an outstanding tool for astrophysics.

  18. BIG MAC: A bolometer array for mid-infrared astronomy, Center Director's Discretionary Fund

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telesco, C. M.; Decher, R.; Baugher, C.

    1985-02-01

    The infrared array referred to as Big Mac (for Marshall Array Camera), was designed for ground based astronomical observations in the wavelength range 5 to 35 microns. It contains 20 discrete gallium-doped germanium bolometer detectors at a temperature of 1.4K. Each bolometer is irradiated by a square field mirror constituting a single pixel of the array. The mirrors are arranged contiguously in four columns and five rows, thus defining the array configuration. Big Mac utilized cold reimaging optics and an up looking dewar. The total Big Mac system also contains a telescope interface tube for mounting the dewar and a computer for data acquisition and processing. Initial astronomical observations at a major infrared observatory indicate that Big Mac performance is excellent, having achieved the design specifications and making this instrument an outstanding tool for astrophysics.

  19. Conversion to Paradox 4.02 ATP`s for MAC and mass balance programs

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-10-17

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Material Balance (MBA) database system were converted from Paradox 3.5 to Paradox 4.0. The ATP describes how the code was to be tested to verify its corrections.

  20. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, 1936 DETAIL OF STAIR, DOOR AND COLUMNS (SOUTH ELEVATION). - Rode-Kothe House, East of U.S. 87 at Cherry Spring, Cherry Spring, Gillespie County, TX

  1. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, 1936 DETAIL OF STAIR (SOUTH ELEVATION). - Rode-Kothe House, East of U.S. 87 at Cherry Spring, Cherry Spring, Gillespie County, TX

  2. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, 1936 INSIDE STAIR (LOOKING SOUTH). - Rode-Kothe House, East of U.S. 87 at Cherry Spring, Cherry Spring, Gillespie County, TX

  3. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, 1936 SOUTH ELEVATION (FRONT). - Rode-Kothe House, East of U.S. 87 at Cherry Spring, Cherry Spring, Gillespie County, TX

  4. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer April 24, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer April 24, 1934, DETAIL OF FIREPLACE (SOUTH WALL -- BAKE HOUSE). - Dyckman House, Broadway & 204th Street, New York, New York County, NY

  5. 4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 16, 1936 NORTHWEST ELEVATION OF REAR WING (NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE). - Captain Barton Peck House, South of U.S. 59, Goliad, Goliad County, TX

  6. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 16, 1936 NORTHWEST ELEVATION (NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE). - Captain Barton Peck House, South of U.S. 59, Goliad, Goliad County, TX

  7. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 16, 1936 NORTHWEST ELEVATION OF SLAVE QUARTERS (NORTH REAR AND WEST SIDE). - Captain Barton Peck House, South of U.S. 59, Goliad, Goliad County, TX

  8. 10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 16, 1936 SOUTHEAST ELEVATION OF SLAVE QUARTERS (SOUTH FRONT AND EAST SIDE). - Captain Barton Peck House, South of U.S. 59, Goliad, Goliad County, TX

  9. 9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 16, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 16, 1936 FRONT OF SLAVE QUARTERS (SOUTH ELEVATION). - Captain Barton Peck House, South of U.S. 59, Goliad, Goliad County, TX

  10. Analysis of an Adaptive P-Persistent MAC Scheme for WLAN Providing Delay Fairness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Chih-Ming; Chang, Chung-Ju; Chen, Yih-Shen; Huang, Ching Yao

    The paper proposes and analyzes an adaptive p-persistent-based (APP) medium access control (MAC) scheme for IEEE 802.11 WLAN. The APP MAC scheme intends to support delay fairness for every station in each access, denoting small delay variance. It differentiates permission probabilities of transmission for stations which are incurred with various packet delays. This permission probability is designed as a function of the numbers of retransmissions and re-backoffs so that stations with larger packet delay are endowed with higher permission probability. Also, the scheme is analyzed by a Markov-chain analysis, where the collision probability, the system throughput, and the average delay are successfully obtained. Numerical results show that the proposed APP MAC scheme can attain lower mean delay and higher mean throughput. In the mean time, simulation results are given to justify the validity of the analysis, and also show that the APP MAC scheme can achieve more delay fairness than conventional algorithms.

  11. Petrology of Chondrules and a Diopside-Rich Inclusion in the MAC 88136 EL3 Chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisberg, M. K.; Ebel, D. S.; Kimura, M.

    2012-09-01

    MAC 88136 (EL3) contains densely-packed enstatite-rich chondrules, metal-rich nodules intergrown with silicate and an unusual large, diopside-rich chondrule-like object. Petrologic and chemical features suggest hot accretion for its components.

  12. 3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer June 13, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer June 13, 1936 WEST ELEVATION (SOUTHWEST SIDE AND NORTHWEST REAR). - Whetstone Ranch House, Farm Road 81 Vicinity, Panna Maria, Karnes County, TX

  13. DETECTION,QUANTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) ORGANISMS IN DRINKING WATER.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), including Mycobacterium avium and M. intracellulare, are clinically relevant and cause a myriad of opportunistic infections. Children, the elderly, and persons with previous lung conditions or immune system dysfunction...

  14. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, MANTEL - SOUTH WEST CORNER OF NORTH WEST ROOM. - Judge Teunis Schenck House, Highland Park, Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  15. 6. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, DETAIL EXTERIOR SOUTH EAST CORNER. - Judge Teunis Schenck House, Highland Park, Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  16. 17. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, FRAMING DETAIL (SECOND FLOOR) TOWARD NORTH SIDE. - Judge Teunis Schenck House, Highland Park, Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  17. 8. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, INTERIOR DETAIL MAIN ENTRANCE. - Judge Teunis Schenck House, Highland Park, Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  18. 14. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, FRAMING DETAIL (SECOND FLOOR) NORTH EAST CORNER. - Judge Teunis Schenck House, Highland Park, Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  19. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, DETAIL FRAMING (SECOND FLOOR) UPRIGHT AND PURLIN. - Judge Teunis Schenck House, Highland Park, Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  20. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, DETAIL ENTRANCE SOUTH ELEVATION. - Judge Teunis Schenck House, Highland Park, Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  1. 11. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, MANTEL - NORTH WEST CORNER OF SOUTH WEST ROOM. - Judge Teunis Schenck House, Highland Park, Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  2. 16. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, VIEW OF ATTIC (SECOND FLOOR) TOWARD WEST. - Judge Teunis Schenck House, Highland Park, Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

  3. 16. Photocopy of drawing (location of original unknown) MacDonald and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of drawing (location of original unknown) MacDonald and Applegarth, Architects, April 1912 SUTTER STREET ELEVATION - Holbrook Building, 58 Sutter Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 42 CFR 423.2122 - What evidence may be submitted to the MAC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., the MAC may request the Secretary to seek enforcement of the subpoena in accordance with section 205(e) of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 405(e). (2) After submitting the enforcement request, the time period for...

  5. Gabor feature-based apple quality inspection using kernel principal component analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automated inspection of apple quality involves computer recognition of good apples and blemished apples based on geometric or statistical features derived from apple images. This paper introduces a Gabor feature-based kernel, principal component analysis (PCA) method; by combining Gabor wavelet rep...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  10. Use of cyclodextrin-based polymer for patulin analysis in apple juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium expansum, one of the patulin producing fungi that causes decay on apple, is recognized as the main source of patulin contamination on apple and apple products. The widely used method for patulin analysis in apple juice is liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate followed by HPLC-UV or...

  11. Gene expression profiles for two auxin transporters during apple fruit maturation and ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maturation and ripening patterns of apple varieties differ greatly due to their long history of cultivation, self-incompatible nature and the high-level heterozygosity of the apple genome. The ripening season across elite apple cultivars can span more than three months. Apple maturation and ripe...

  12. 3D Surface Reconstruction and Analysis in Automated Apple Stem-End/Calyx Identification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Machine vision methods are widely used in apple defect detection and quality grading applications. Currently, 2D near-infrared (NIR) imaging of apples is often used to detect apple defects because the image intensity of the defect is different from the normal apple tissue. However, a drawback of t...

  13. The history of apple breeding in People’s Republic Of China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    China is the leading apple production country in the world. Its apple area and production in 2006 was 1,898,000 hectares and 26,000,000 tons, accounting for more than 35% of the global apple area and production, respectively. New cultivars are very important to development of the apple industry. Chi...

  14. STS-52 Payload Specialist MacLean floats in pool during JSC bailout exercises

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Payload Specialist Steven G. MacLean, wearing launch and entry suit (LES) and clamshell helmet, is assisted by SCUBA-equipped divers as he floats in pool during emergency egress (bailout) training exercises in JSC's Weightless Environment Training Facility Bldg 29. Bailout exercises utilize the WETF's 25-foot deep pool as the ocean during this water landing simulation. MacLean represents the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).

  15. MAC Version 3.3, MBA Version 1.3 acceptance test summary report

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, V.K.

    1994-11-02

    The K Basins Materials Accounting (MAC) and Materials Balance (MBA) programs had the Paradox Code Cleanup ATP run to check out the systems. This report describes the results of the test and provides the signoff sheets associated with the testing. The Acceptance Test results indicate that the MAC and MBA systems are ready for operation using the cleaned up code. The final codes were removed to the production space on the customer server on April 15th.

  16. James MacKillop: Award for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    APA's Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize excellent young psychologists who have not held a doctoral degree for more than nine years. One of the 2015 award winners is James MacKillop for "distinguished contributions to the behavioral economic study of addiction." MacKillop's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26618948

  17. Evaluation of a High-Accuracy MacCormack-Type Scheme Using Benchmark Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hixon, R.

    1997-01-01

    Due to their inherent dissipation and stability, the MacCormack scheme and its variants have been widely used in the computation of unsteady flow and acoustic problems. However, these schemes require many points per wavelength in order to propagate waves with a reasonable amount of accuracy. In this work, the linear wave propagation characteristics of MacCormack-type schemes are shown by solving several of the CAA Benchmark Problems.

  18. The batch adsorption of the epigallocatechin gallate onto apple pomace.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liangyu; Melton, Laurence D; Sanguansri, Luz; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2014-10-01

    The ability of apple pomace for carrying a polyphenol (epigallocatechin-3-gallate, EGCG) was examined. The adsorption characteristics of epigallocatechin gallate onto apple pomace from aqueous solution were determined over a range of concentrations (25-600 mg/L) and temperatures (25, 40 and 55 °C). The adsorption of EGCG decreased with increasing temperature. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich models adequately describe the isothermal adsorption of EGCG onto apple pomace. The Gibbs free energy change (ΔG°) for the adsorption of EGCG onto apple pomace ranged from -15.90 to -22.98 kJ/mol over the temperature range 25-55 °C, indicating the adsorption of EGCG onto apple pomace is a spontaneous process, and further that the adsorption process is likely to be dominated by a physisorption mechanism. Our results show that apple pomace has good adsorption characteristics, suggesting that apple pomace may be a useful EGCG carrier for functional food applications. PMID:24799237

  19. Patulin reduction in apple juice from concentrate by UV radiation and comparison of kinetic degradation models between apple juice and apple cider.

    PubMed

    Assatarakul, Kitipong; Churey, John J; Manns, David C; Worobo, Randy W

    2012-04-01

    Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by several genera of fungi, including Byssochlamys, Aspergillus, and Penicillium, has been an important concern in apple cider and apple juice due to its toxicity and health consequences. In this study, the effects of UV on the patulin level, physical and chemical properties, and sensory attributes in apple juice from concentrate were investigated. Kinetic modeling of patulin reduction by UV radiation in apple juice from concentrate was calculated and compared with the degradation rate observed previously in apple cider. From an initial patulin contamination of approximately 1,000 ppb (μg/liter), the UV exposure, ranging from 14.2 mJ/cm(2) (one pass) to 99.4 mJ/cm(2) (seven passes), was successful in reducing patulin levels by 72.57% ± 2.76% to 5.14% ± 0.70%, respectively. Patulin reduction by UV radiation followed first-order kinetic modeling in a fashion similar to first-order microbial inactivation. An exponential correlation between UV exposure and the percentage of patulin remaining was observed, giving an r(2) value of 0.9950. Apple juice was repeatedly exposed to 14.2 mJ/cm(2) for each treatment, and patulin levels were significantly decreased when compared with the level obtained with the previous UV exposure treatment. While there were no significant differences in the percentages of titratable acidity and ascorbic acid (P > 0.05), there were minor yet random sampling differences in pH and degrees Brix (1 °Brix is 1 g of sucrose in 100 g of solution; the °Brix represents the soluble solids content of the solution as percentage by weight [%, wt/wt]) (P ≤ 0.05). A significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) in sensory perception for the finished apple juice was detected between the control and the full seven-pass UV radiation treatment using an experienced consumer panel and a triangle test. Patulin reduction by UV radiation from both the current study and a previous study involving apple cider was compared, which showed that both matrices strongly fit a first-order kinetic degradation model. However, the kinetic constant for degradation in apple juice was approximately 5.5 times greater than that observed in an apple cider matrix. PMID:22488060

  20. Considerations for Improving the Capacity and Performance of AeroMACS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Kamali, Behnam; Apaza, Rafael D.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Dimond, Robert P.

    2014-01-01

    The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) has progressed from concept through prototype development, testing, and standards development and is now poised for the first operational deployments at nine US airports by the Federal Aviation Administration. These initial deployments will support fixed applications. Mobile applications providing connectivity to and from aircraft and ground-based vehicles on the airport surface will occur at some point in the future. Given that many fixed applications are possible for AeroMACS, it is necessary to now consider whether the existing capacity of AeroMACS will be reached even before the mobile applications are ready to be added, since AeroMACS is constrained by both available bandwidth and transmit power limitations. This paper describes some concepts that may be applied to improve the future capacity of AeroMACS, with a particular emphasis on gains that can be derived from the addition of IEEE 802.16j multihop relays to the AeroMACS standard, where a significant analysis effort has been undertaken.

  1. The Apple of the mind's eye: Everyday attention, metamemory, and reconstructive memory for the Apple logo.

    PubMed

    Blake, Adam B; Nazarian, Meenely; Castel, Alan D

    2015-01-01

    People are regularly bombarded with logos in an attempt to improve brand recognition, and logos are often designed with the central purpose of memorability. The ubiquitous Apple logo is a simple design and is often referred to as one of the most recognizable logos in the world. The present study examined recall and recognition for this simple and pervasive logo and to what degree metamemory (confidence judgements) match memory performance. Participants showed surprisingly poor memory for the details of the logo as measured through recall (drawings) and forced-choice recognition. Only 1 participant out of 85 correctly recalled the Apple logo, and fewer than half of all participants correctly identified the logo. Importantly, participants indicated higher levels of confidence for both recall and recognition, and this overconfidence was reduced if participants made the judgements after, rather than before, drawing the logo. The general findings did not differ between Apple and PC users. The results provide novel support for theories of attentional saturation, inattentional amnesia, and reconstructive memory; additionally they show how an availability heuristic can lead to overconfidence in memory for logos. PMID:25721103

  2. Interaction between single molecules of Mac-1 and ICAM-1 in living cells: An atomic force microscopy study

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Huayan; Yu Junping; Fu Guo; Shi Xiaoli; Xiao Lin; Chen Yizhang; Fang Xiaohong He Cheng

    2007-10-01

    The interaction between integrin macrophage differentiation antigen associated with complement three receptor function (Mac-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which is controlled tightly by the ligand-binding activity of Mac-1, is central to the regulation of neutrophil adhesion in host defense. Several 'inside-out' signals and extracellular metal ions or antibodies have been found to activate Mac-1, resulting in an increased adhesiveness of Mac-1 to its ligands. However, the molecular basis for Mac-1 activation is not well understood yet. In this work, we have carried out a single-molecule study of Mac-1/ICAM-1 interaction force in living cells by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our results showed that the binding probability and adhesion force of Mac-1 with ICAM-1 increased upon Mac-1 activation. Moreover, by comparing the dynamic force spectra of different Mac-1 mutants, we expected that Mac-1 activation is governed by the downward movement of its {alpha}7 helix.

  3. Cell biology apps for Apple devices.

    PubMed

    Stark, Louisa A

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score. PMID:22949420

  4. Highly efficient virus-induced gene silencing in apple and soybean by apple latent spherical virus vector and biolistic inoculation.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective tool for the analysis of the gene function in plants within a short time. However, in woody fruit tree like apple, some of Solanum crops, and soybean, it is generally difficult to inoculate virus vector by conventional inoculation methods. Here, we show efficient VIGS in apple and soybean by Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector and biolistic inoculation. The plants inoculated with ALSV vectors by particle bombardment showed uniform silenced phenotypes of target genes within 2-3 weeks post inoculation. PMID:23386303

  5. Despite Raves for IBook, Tide Still Turns against Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2001-01-01

    Describes how Apple's latest laptop computer, the IBook, may have many admirers, but that few believe the company will ever regain prominence in higher education. Issues include increased competition from other computer vendors and software availability (EV)

  6. Apple pomace: a versatile substrate for biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Vendruscolo, Francielo; Albuquerque, Patrícia M; Streit, Fernanda; Esposito, Elisa; Ninow, Jorge L

    2008-01-01

    Apple pomace is the processing waste generated after apple juice manufacturing and represents up to 30% of the original fruit. This solid residue consists of a complex mixture of peel, core, seed, calyx, stem, and soft tissue. This residual material is a poor animal feed supplement because of its extremely low protein content and high amount of sugar. The application of agroindustrial by-products in bioprocesses offers a wide range of alternative substrates, thus helping solve pollution problems related to their disposal. Attempts have been made to use apple pomace to generate several value-added products, such as enzymes, single cell protein, aroma compounds, ethanol, organic acids, polysaccharides, and mushrooms. This article reviews recent developments regarding processes and products that employed apple pomace as a substrate for biotechnological applications. PMID:18322854

  7. Hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence for assessing apple maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple maturity encompasses multiple quality attributes, including skin and flesh color, flesh firmness, soluble solids, starch, acid, and ethylene production. Nondestructive measurement of these quality attributes is needed for better determining optimal harvest time and implementing appropriate pos...

  8. Is there room for improving the nutraceutical composition of apple?

    PubMed

    Farneti, Brian; Masuero, Domenico; Costa, Fabrizio; Magnago, Pierluigi; Malnoy, Mickael; Costa, Guglielmo; Vrhovsek, Urska; Mattivi, Fulvio

    2015-03-18

    In this study, we assessed the main bioactive compounds of a broad apple germplasm collection, composed by 247 accessions of wild (97) and domesticated (150) species. Among the stilbenes, trans- and cis-piceid were found to be ubiquitary components of both wild and cultivated apples. Apple was suggested to be the second dietary source of resveratrols. Results confirmed that the selection pressure of breeding and domestication did not uniformly affect all the phytochemicals contained in apples. For instance, organic acids (malic and ascorbic acid) and some phenolics (stilbenes, hydroxycinnamic acids, and dihydrochalcones) were significantly influenced by selection, while some relevant flavonoids (flavonols and flavan-3-ols) and triterpenoids (ursolic, oleanolic, and betulinic acids) were not. This comprehensive screening will assist in the selection of Malus accessions with specific nutraceutical traits suitable to establish innovative breeding strategies or to patent new functional foods and beverages. PMID:25723891

  9. VAPOR-PHASE DECONTAMINATION OF APPLES CONTAINING ESCHERICHIA COLI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved methods of decontaminating apples containing human pathogens are required. In this investigation, application of gaseous antimicrobial agents was investigated. An apparatus, which transfers vapor from hot antimicrobial solutions to a treatment vessel, was evaluated with Golden Delicious app...

  10. Characterization of the Murine Myeloid Precursor Cell Line MuMac-E8

    PubMed Central

    Fricke, Stephan; Riemschneider, Sina; Kohlschmidt, Janine; Hilger, Nadja; Fueldner, Christiane; Knauer, Jens; Sack, Ulrich; Emmrich, Frank; Lehmann, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Starting point for the present work was the assumption that the cell line MuMac-E8 represents a murine cell population with stem cell properties. Preliminary studies already pointed to the expression of stem-cell associated markers and a self-regenerative potential of the cells. The cell line MuMac-E8 should be examined for their differential stage within stem cell hierarchy. MuMac-E8 cells were derived from a chimeric mouse model of arthritis. It could be shown that MuMac-E8 cells express mRNA of some genes associated with pluripotent stem cells (Nanog, Nucleostemin), of genes for hematopoietic markers (EPCR, Sca-1, CD11b, CD45), for the mesenchymal marker CD105 and of genes for the neural markers Pax-6 and Ezrin. In methylcellulose and May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining, hematopoietic colonies were obtained but the hematopoietic system of lethally irradiated mice could not be rescued. Osteogenic differentiation was not detectable. Thus, it became evident that MuMac-E8 represents not a stem cell line. However, MuMac-E8 cells expressed several myeloid surface markers (i.e. CD11b, F4/80, CD14, CD64), showed phagocytosis and is capable of producing nitric oxide. Thus, this cell line seems to be arrested an advanced stage of myeloid differentiation. Adherence data measured by impedance-based real-time cell analysis together with cell morphology data suggested that MuMac-E8 represents a new macrophage precursor cell line exhibiting weak adherence. This cell line is suitable as an in-vitro model for testing of macrophage functions. Moreover, it might be also useful for differentiation or reprogramming studies. PMID:25546418

  11. Potential sources of microbial contamination in unpasteurized apple cider.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Luis; Henderson, John; Fabri, Martha; Oke, Moustapha

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify possible sources of microbial contamination and to assess the effect of good cleaning and sanitation practices on the microbial quality and safety of unpasteurized apple cider. Raw unwashed apples, washed apples, cleaning water, fresh cider, and finished cider samples were collected from five Ontario producers over 4 months and microbiologically tested. Total coliforms were found in 31, 71 and 38% of the unwashed apple, water, and washed apple samples, respectively. Escherichia coli was found in 40% of the water samples from one producer alone. The washing step was identified as a potential source of contamination, possibly due to water in the dump tanks seldom being refreshed, and because scrubbers, spray nozzles, and conveyors were not properly cleaned and sanitized. Higher total coliform counts (P < 0.0001) and prevalence (P < 0.0001) in fresh cider compared with those in unwashed apples and washed apples indicated considerable microbial buildup along the process, possibly explained by the lack of appropriate equipment sanitation procedures. Results showed that producers who had better sanitary practices in place had lower (P < 0.001) total coliform prevalence than the rest of the producers. Overall results show that good sanitation procedures are associated with improved microbial quality of fresh cider in terms of total coliforms and that operators who pasteurize and/or UV treat their product should still be required to have a sound good manufacturing practices program in place to prevent recontamination. Cryptosporidium parvum, an important pathogen for this industry, was found in different sample types, including washed apples, water, and fresh and finished cider. PMID:16416911

  12. Analysis and evaluation of a fruit bin for apples.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Ashraful; Yadama, Vikram; Cofer, William F; Englund, Karl R

    2014-12-01

    A fruit bin is an essential part of apple harvesting, storage, and transport. The lateral pressure distribution on the bin walls by apples in the bin are not well understood, thus making it harder to predict the behavior of the vertical walls of the bin. In this study, a bin was loaded with apples and deflections of the base and a vertical wall were experimentally measured and then modeled using finite element methods to understand typical static load distribution. One of the factors determining the accuracy of an analytical model is accurate representation of load distribution on the structure. A mathematical model was used to validate the lateral pressure distribution applied by the apples on the vertical walls and the bottom plate of the bin. The effect of unit weight of an apple and the angle of repose of apples on load distribution in the bin has been analyzed. Angle of repose is found to be a significant parameter for the lateral pressure distribution on the bin walls. A nonlinear lateral pressure distribution was observed along the depth from top to bottom of the bin. The resulting finite element model allows for comparison of deformation behavior of fruit bins constructed with a variety of materials, such as plywood, wood plastic composites, or a thermoplastic polymer. Although this study dealt with bins for apples, the sensitivity analyses for a range of unit weights and angles of repose for apples makes the analysis results versatile for use with other kinds of fruits and vegetables that fall within the reported range of unit weight and angle of repose. PMID:25477638

  13. Apple Puree-Alginate Edible Coating as Carrier of Antimicrobial Agents to Prolong Shelf-Life of Fresh-Cut Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend the shelf-life of fresh-cut fruit. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on the shelf-life of fresh-cut Fuji apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air-filled pol...

  14. Modeling apple surface temperature dynamics based on weather data.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00-18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of "Fuji" apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management. PMID:25350507

  15. Modeling Apple Surface Temperature Dynamics Based on Weather Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00–18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of “Fuji” apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management. PMID:25350507

  16. Reducing patulin contamination in apple juice by using inactive yeast.

    PubMed

    Yue, Tianli; Dong, Qinfang; Guo, Caixia; Worobo, Randy W

    2011-01-01

    The mycotoxin, patulin (4-hydroxy-4H-furo[3,2c]pyran-2[6H]-one), is a secondary metabolite produced mainly in rotten parts of fruits and vegetables, most notably apples and apple products, by a wide range of fungal species in the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Byssochlamys. Due to its mutagenic and teratogenic nature and possible health risks to consumers, many countries have regulations to reduce levels of patulin in apple products. In the present study, reduction of patulin contamination in apple juice by using 10 different inactivated yeast strains was assessed. Our results indicated that nearly twofold differences in biomass existed among the 10 yeast strains. Eight of the 10 inactivated yeast strains could provide >50% patulin reduction in apple juice within 24 h, with the highest reduction rate being >72%. Furthermore, juice quality parameters, i.e., degrees Brix, total sugar, titratable acidity, color value, and clarity, of the treated apple juice were very similar to those of the untreated patulin-free juice. Potential applications of using inactivated yeast strain for patulin control are also discussed. PMID:21219779

  17. Detection of constitutive heterodimerization of the integrin Mac-1 subunits by fluorescence resonance energy transfer in living cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Guo; Yang, Hua-yan; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Feng; You, Zhen-dong; Wang, Gui-ying; He, Cheng; Chen, Yi-zhang; Xu, Zhi-zhan

    2006-08-01

    Macrophage differentiation antigen associated with complement three receptor function (Mac-1) belongs to beta2 subfamily of integrins that mediate important cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Biochemical studies have indicated that Mac-1 is a constitutive heterodimer in vitro. Here, we detected the heterodimerization of Mac-1 subunits in living cells by means of two fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) techniques (fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy) and our results demonstrated that there is constitutive heterodimerization of the Mac-1 subunits and this constitutive heterodimerization of the Mac-1 subunits is cell-type independent. Through FRET imaging, we found that heterodimers of Mac-1 mainly localized in plasma membrane, perinuclear, and Golgi area in living cells. Furthermore, through analysis of the estimated physical distances between cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fused to Mac-1 subunits, we suggested that the conformation of Mac-1 subunits is not affected by the fusion of CFP or YFP and inferred that Mac-1 subunits take different conformation when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, respectively. PMID:16782049

  18. Detection of constitutive heterodimerization of the integrin Mac-1 subunits by fluorescence resonance energy transfer in living cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Guo; Yang Huayan; Wang Chen; Zhang Feng; You Zhendong; Wang Guiying; He Cheng; Chen Yizhang . E-mail: yzchen0928@yahoo.com; Xu Zhihan . E-mail: zzxu@mail.shcnc.ac.cn

    2006-08-04

    Macrophage differentiation antigen associated with complement three receptor function (Mac-1) belongs to {beta}{sub 2} subfamily of integrins that mediate important cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Biochemical studies have indicated that Mac-1 is a constitutive heterodimer in vitro. Here, we detected the heterodimerization of Mac-1 subunits in living cells by means of two fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) techniques (fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy) and our results demonstrated that there is constitutive heterodimerization of the Mac-1 subunits and this constitutive heterodimerization of the Mac-1 subunits is cell-type independent. Through FRET imaging, we found that heterodimers of Mac-1 mainly localized in plasma membrane, perinuclear, and Golgi area in living cells. Furthermore, through analysis of the estimated physical distances between cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fused to Mac-1 subunits, we suggested that the conformation of Mac-1 subunits is not affected by the fusion of CFP or YFP and inferred that Mac-1 subunits take different conformation when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, respectively.

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    SciTech Connect

    Piao, Shunfu; Xu, Yongbin; Ha, Nam-Chul

    2008-05-01

    A periplasmic membrane-fusion protein MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria, was crystallized. Periplasmic membrane-fusion proteins (MFPs) are an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria. They play a crucial role in bridging the outer membrane porin TolC and two distinct types of inner membrane transporters. The MFP MacA bridges the inner membrane ABC-type multidrug transporter MacB and the outer membrane porin TolC. MacA from the pathogenic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was expressed in Escherichia coli B834 (DE3) and the recombinant protein was purified using Ni–NTA affinity, Q anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The purified MacA protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A MAD diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 3.0 Å at 100 K. The crystal belongs to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 109.2, c = 255.4 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°, and contains one molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  20. Outside-In Signal Transmission by Conformational Changes in Integrin Mac-11

    PubMed Central

    Lefort, Craig T.; Hyun, Young-Min; Schultz, Joanne B.; Law, Foon-Yee; Waugh, Richard E.; Knauf, Philip A.; Kim, Minsoo

    2010-01-01

    Intracellular signals associated with or triggered by integrin ligation can control cell survival, differentiation, proliferation, and migration. Despite accumulating evidence that conformational changes regulate integrin affinity to its ligands, how integrin structure regulates signal transmission from the outside to the inside of the cell remains elusive. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we addressed whether conformational changes in integrin Mac-1 are sufficient to transmit outside-in signals in human neutrophils. Mac-1 conformational activation induced by ligand occupancy or activating Ab binding, but not integrin clustering, triggered similar patterns of intracellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation, including Akt phosphorylation, and inhibited spontaneous neutrophil apoptosis, indicating that global conformational changes are critical for Mac-1-dependent outside-in signal transduction. In neutrophils and myeloid K562 cells, ligand ICAM-1 or activating Ab binding promoted switchblade-like extension of the Mac-1 extracellular domain and separation of the αM and β2 subunit cytoplasmic tails, two structural hallmarks of integrin activation. These data suggest the primacy of global conformational changes in the generation of Mac-1 outside-in signals. PMID:19864611

  1. Induction of neutrophil Mac-1 integrin expression and superoxide production by the medicinal plant extract gossypol.

    PubMed

    Benhaim, P; Mathes, S J; Hunt, T K; Scheuenstuhl, H; Benz, C C

    1994-10-01

    Gossypol is present in antiinflammatory poultices made from the medicinal tree Thespesia populnea. Isolated human neutrophils exposed to 3-20 microM gossypol for 15-90 min were assayed in vitro for superoxide production and surface expression of Mac-1 (CD11b/CD18). Gossypol increased superoxide production in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion consistent with a moderate, delayed respiratory burst. Surface Mac-1 expression was increased within 15 min by 3-5 microM gossypol, resulting in a 14-fold increase over controls and a threefold greater increase over that produced by PMA. Staurosporine failed to block gossypol induction of superoxide and Mac-1, while EDTA inhibited induction of Mac-1 only, implicating a calcium-dependent mechanism. Gossypol increased intracellular calcium to peak levels, but in a delayed fashion as compared to FMLP. These findings demonstrate that gossypol is a highly potent stimulant of Mac-1 expression and suggest at least two protein kinase C-independent pathways of neutrophil activation. The resultant exhaustion of neutrophils may account for the antiinflammatory properties of plants containing gossypol. PMID:7843790

  2. Eliminating the Heart from the Curcumin Molecule: Monocarbonyl Curcumin Mimics (MACs)

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Dinesh; Kim, Yong Joon; Shim, Hyunsuk; Snyder, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin is a natural product with several thousand years of heritage. Its traditional Asian application to human ailments has been subjected in recent decades to worldwide pharmacological, biochemical and clinical investigations. Curcumin’s Achilles heel lies in its poor aqueous solubility and rapid degradation at pH ~ 7.4. Researchers have sought to unlock curcumin’s assets by chemical manipulation. One class of molecules under scrutiny are the monocarbonyl analogs of curcumin (MACs). A thousand plus such agents have been created and tested primarily against cancer and inflammation. The outcome is clear. In vitro, MACs furnish a 10–20 fold potency gain vs. curcumin for numerous cancer cell lines and cellular proteins. Similarly, MACs have successfully demonstrated better pharmacokinetic (PK) profiles in mice and greater tumor regression in cancer xenografts in vivo than curcumin. The compounds reveal limited toxicity as measured by murine weight gain and histopathological assessment. To our knowledge, MAC members have not yet been monitored in larger animals or humans. However, Phase 1 clinical trials are certainly on the horizon. The present review focuses on the large and evolving body of work in cancer and inflammation, but also covers MAC structural diversity and early discovery for treatment of bacteria, tuberculosis, Alzheimer’s disease and malaria. PMID:25547726

  3. A Study on Energy Efficient MAC Protocol of Wireless Sensor Network for Ubiquitous Agriculture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ho-Chul; Lee, Ji-Woong; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Yoe, Hyun

    Various technologies are used in the agricultural sites now. Especially, the recent application of sensor network related technology is quite notable. Considering the efficiency of MAC protocol of WSN is being researched in various aspects, it is believed that a research on how to apply the MAC protocol to agriculture would be also required. This research is based on the sensor node developed by Sunchon University ITRC. Once the sensor nodes are effectively located in the farm, they operate for a long time and they are rarely relocated once installed. The concentration of multiple sensor nodes in a narrow area is another characteristic the sensor node. The purpose of this research is to select a sensor network MAC protocol, which would be most proper to agricultural site with good energy efficiency and excellent transmission delay performance. The applicable protocols such as S-MAC and X-MAC were set up for the installation environment. They were compared and a methodology to select the most optimum protocol to agricultural site is suggested.

  4. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination (GeoMAC) wildland fire perimeters, 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, Sandra P.; Schneider, Norma J.; Guthrie, John D.

    2011-01-01

    The Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination (GeoMAC) has been collecting and storing data on wildland fire perimeters since August 2000. The dataset presented via this U.S. Geological Survey Data Series product contains the GeoMAC wildland fire perimeter data for the calendar year 2008, which are based upon input from incident intelligence sources, Global Positioning System (GPS) data, and infrared (IR) imagery. Wildland fire perimeter data are obtained from the incidents, evaluated for completeness and accuracy, and processed to reflect consistent field names and attributes. After a quality check, the perimeters are loaded to GeoMAC databases, which support the GeoMAC Web application for access by wildland fire managers and the public. The wildland fire perimeters are viewed through the Web application. The data are subsequently archived according to year and state and are made available for downloading through the Internet in shapefile and Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. These wildland fire perimeter data are also retained for historical, planning, and research purposes. The datasets that pertain to this report can be found on the Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center HTTP site at http://rmgsc.cr.usgs.gov/outgoing/GeoMAC/historic_fire_data/. The links are also provided on the sidebar.

  5. MAP, MAC, and vortex-rings configurations in the Weinberg-Salam model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teh, Rosy; Ng, Ban-Loong; Wong, Khai-Ming

    2015-11-01

    We report on the presence of new axially symmetric monopoles, antimonopoles and vortex-rings solutions of the SU(2)×U(1) Weinberg-Salam model of electromagnetic and weak interactions. When the ϕ-winding number n = 1, and 2, the configurations are monopole-antimonopole pair (MAP) and monopole-antimonopole chain (MAC) with poles of alternating sign magnetic charge arranged along the z-axis. Vortex-rings start to appear from the MAP and MAC configurations when the winding number n = 3. The MAP configurations possess zero net magnetic charge whereas the MAC configurations possess net magnetic charge of 4 πn / e. In the MAP configurations, the monopole-antimonopole pair is bounded by the Z0 field flux string and there is an electromagnetic current loop encircling it. The monopole and antimonopole possess magnetic charges ± 4πn/e sin2θW respectively. In the MAC configurations there is no string connecting the monopole and the adjacent antimonopole and they possess magnetic charges ± 4 πn/e respectively. The MAC configurations possess infinite total energy and zero magnetic dipole moment whereas the MAP configurations which are actually sphalerons possess finite total energy and magnetic dipole moment. The configurations were investigated for varying values of Higgs self-coupling constant 0 ≤ λ ≤ 40 at Weinberg angle θW = π/4.

  6. CLIPS, AppleEvents, and AppleScript: Integrating CLIPS with commercial software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, Michael M.; Wolfe, Shawn R.

    1994-01-01

    Many of today's intelligent systems are comprised of several modules, perhaps written in different tools and languages, that together help solve the user's problem. These systems often employ a knowledge-based component that is not accessed directly by the user, but instead operates 'in the background' offering assistance to the user as necessary. In these types of modular systems, an efficient, flexible, and eady-to-use mechanism for sharing data between programs is crucial. To help permit transparent integration of CLIPS with other Macintosh applications, the AI Research Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has extended CLIPS to allow it to communicate transparently with other applications through two popular data-sharing mechanisms provided by the Macintosh operating system: Apple Events (a 'high-level' event mechanism for program-to-program communication), and AppleScript, a recently-released scripting language for the Macintosh. This capability permits other applications (running on either the same or a remote machine) to send a command to CLIPS, which then responds as if the command were typed into the CLIPS dialog window. Any result returned by the command is then automatically returned to the program that sent it. Likewise, CLIPS can send several types of Apple Events directly to other local or remote applications. This CLIPS system has been successfully integrated with a variety of commercial applications, including data collection programs, electronics forms packages, DBMS's, and email programs. These mechanisms can permit transparent user access to the knowledge base from within a commercial application, and allow a single copy of the knowledge base to service multiple users in a networked environment.

  7. Baseline susceptibilities to imidacloprid for green apple aphid and spirea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) collected from apple in the Pacific northwest.

    PubMed

    Lowery, D Thomas; Smirle, Michael J; Foottit, Robert G; Zurowski, Cheryl L; Peryea, Elizabeth H Beers

    2005-02-01

    Susceptibilities to the neonicotinyl insecticide imidacloprid were determined for clones of apple aphid, Aphis pomi De Geer, and spirea aphid, Aphis spiraecola Patch, collected from conventional and organic apple orchards and from crab apple and wild apple in Washington state and British Columbia over a period of 6 yr. For aphids collected during 1996--1998, adults were dipped in test solutions by using the Food and Agriculture Organization protocol, and third instars and adults were reared on treated apple leaf disks. During the final 3 yr of study, bioassays involved only third instars on treated leaf material. Tests showed that A. spiraecola was significantly more tolerant to imidacloprid compared with A. pomi. Depending on the bioassay method and aphid developmental stage, average LC50 values for A. spiraecola were 4.4 -5.7 times higher than those for A. pomi established under the same test conditions. Clones of both species from Washington were marginally more tolerant to imidacloprid than clones from British Columbia, but the differences were generally not significant. Average measures of susceptibility for clones from organic orchards or unsprayed trees also did not differ from those for clones from conventional orchards, and there was no evidence for increasing LC50 values over the 6 yr of study. Differences in susceptibility to insecticides between these two anatomically similar species should be considered during the testing of new products for use on apple. PMID:15765682

  8. 'Fuji' and 'Delicious' apple volatile production during high CO2 or low O2 controlled atmosphere storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple [Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] fruit contain many diverse biochemical pathways that are differentially regulated according to development and ripening. From these pathways numerous volatiles contributing to apple aroma are produced. Although apple fruit have an extended s...

  9. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important apple pest that significantly hinders sustainable apple production in eastern North America. The potential for host plant resistance to plum curculio among apple (Malus) germplasm has never been rigorously ev...

  10. New SRC APPLE ll Variable Polarization Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    M Severson; M Bissen; M Fisher; G Rogers; R Reininger; M Green; D Eisert; B Tredinnick

    2011-12-31

    SRC has recently commissioned a new Varied Line-Spacing Plane Grating Monochromator (VLS-PGM) utilizing as its source a 1 m long APPLE II insertion device in short-straight-section 9 of the Aladdin storage ring. The insertion device reliably delivers horizontal, vertical, and right and left circularly polarized light to the beamline. Measurements from an in situ polarimeter can be used for undulator corrections to compensate for depolarizing effects of the beamline. The beamline has only three optical elements and covers the energy range from 11.1 to 270 eV using two varied line-spacing gratings. A plane mirror rotates to illuminate the gratings at the correct angle to cancel the defocus term at all photon energies. An exit slit and elliptical-toroid refocusing mirror complete the beamline. Using a 50 {mu}m exit slit, the beamline provides moderate to high resolution, with measured flux in the mid 10{sup 12} (photons/s/200 mA) range, and a spot size of 400 {mu}m horizontal by 30 {mu}m vertical.

  11. Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bennet, Devasier; Kang, Se Chan; Gang, Jongback; Kim, Sanghyo

    2014-01-01

    Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 μM nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. PMID:24379668

  12. Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bennet, Devasier; Kang, Se Chan; Gang, Jongback; Kim, Sanghyo

    2014-01-01

    Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 μM nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. PMID:24379668

  13. A network architecture for precision formation flying using the IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clare, Loren P.; Gao, Jay L.; Jennings, Esther H.; Okino, Clayton

    2005-01-01

    Precision Formation Flying missions involve the tracking and maintenance of spacecraft in a desired geometric formation. The strong coupling of spacecraft in formation flying control requires inter-spacecraft communication to exchange information. In this paper, we present a network architecture that supports PFF control, from the initial random deployment phase to the final formation. We show that a suitable MAC layer for the application protocol is IEEE's 802.11 MAC protocol. IEEE 802.11 MAC has two modes of operations: DCF and PCF. We show that DCF is suitable for the initial deployment phase while switching to PCF when the spacecraft are in formation improves jitter and throughput. We also consider the effect of routing on protocol performance and suggest when it is profitable to turn off route discovery to achieve better network performance.

  14. A MAC Protocol for Medical Monitoring Applications of Wireless Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Minglei; Yuan, Dongfeng; Zhang, Chongqing; Wang, Yinglong; Chen, Changfang

    2015-01-01

    Targeting the medical monitoring applications of wireless body area networks (WBANs), a hybrid medium access control protocol using an interrupt mechanism (I-MAC) is proposed to improve the energy and time slot utilization efficiency and to meet the data delivery delay requirement at the same time. Unlike existing hybrid MAC protocols, a superframe structure with a longer length is adopted to avoid unnecessary beacons. The time slots are mostly allocated to nodes with periodic data sources. Short interruption slots are inserted into the superframe to convey the urgent data and to guarantee the real-time requirements of these data. During these interruption slots, the coordinator can break the running superframe and start a new superframe. A contention access period (CAP) is only activated when there are more data that need to be delivered. Experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed MAC protocol in WBANs with low urgent traffic. PMID:26046596

  15. MacPASCO - A Macintosh-based, interactive graphic preprocessor for structural analysis and sizing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, S. H.; Davis, R. C.

    1991-01-01

    MacPASCO, an interactive, graphic preprocessor for panel design is described. MacPASCO creates input for PASCO, an existing computer code for structural analysis and optimization of longitudinal stiffened composite panels. By using a graphical user interface, MacPASCO simplifies the specification of panel geometry and reduces user input errors, thus making the modeling and analysis of panel designs more efficient. The user draws the initial structural geometry on the computer screen, then uses a combination of graphic and text inputs to: refine the structural geometry, specify information required for analysis such as panel load conditions, and define design variables and constraints for minimum-mass optimization. Composite panel design is an ideal application because the graphical user interface can: serve as a visual aid, eliminate the tedious aspects of text-based input, and eliminate many sources of input errors.

  16. Single-dose intravenous gammaglobulin can stabilize neutrophil Mac-1 activation in sickle cell pain crisis

    PubMed Central

    Manwani, Deepa; Chen, Grace; Carullo, Veronica; Serban, Stelian; Olowokure, Olugbenga; Jang, Jungeun; Huggins, Matthew; Cohen, Hillel W.; Billett, Henny; Atweh, George F.; Frenette, Paul S.; Shi, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) decreases neutrophil adhesion to endothelium and red blood cell-neutrophil interactions in sickle cell mice undergoing vaso-occlusion. In this Phase I clinical trial of sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients admitted with pain crisis, we evaluated the status of adhesion molecules on neutrophils in control and IVIG-treated subjects pre- and post-infusion up to 800 mg/kg, the same dose used in murine studies. Mac-1 function significantly decreased from baseline in the low-dose IVIG (200–400 mg/kg) cohorts. IVIG-related adverse events may have occurred in the high-dose (600–800 mg/kg) cohorts. There were no significant increases in neutrophil and leukocyte counts, suggesting that IVIG may more selectively inhibit Mac-1 function as opposed to neutrophil adhesion. This study provides the first in-human validation of pre-clinical murine studies that IVIG can decrease Mac-1 function. PMID:25616042

  17. MAC/GMC 4.0 User's Manual: Example Problem Manual. Volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    This document is the third volume in the three volume set of User's Manuals for the Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells Version 4.0 (MAC/GMC 4.0). Volume 1 is the Theory Manual, Volume 2 is the Keywords Manual, and this document is the Example Problems Manual. MAC/GMC 4.0 is a composite material and laminate analysis software program developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It is based on the generalized method of cells (GMC) micromechanics theory, which provides access to the local stress and strain fields in the composite material. This access grants GMC the ability to accommodate arbitrary local models for inelastic material behavior and various types of damage and failure analysis. MAC/GMC 4.0 has been built around GMC to provide the theory with a user-friendly framework, along with a library of local inelastic, damage, and failure models. Further, application of simulated thermo-mechanical loading, generation of output results, and selection of architectures to represent the composite material, have been automated in MAC/GMC 4.0. Finally, classical lamination theory has been implemented within MAC/GMC 4.0 wherein GMC is used to model the composite material response of each ply. Consequently, the full range of GMC composite material capabilities is available for analysis of arbitrary laminate configurations as well. This volume provides in-depth descriptions of 43 example problems, which were specially designed to highlight many of the most important capabilities of the code. The actual input files associated with each example problem are distributed with the MAC/GMC 4.0 software; thus providing the user with a convenient starting point for their own specialized problems of interest.

  18. MAC/GMC 4.0 User's Manual: Keywords Manual. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2002-01-01

    This document is the second volume in the three volume set of User's Manuals for the Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells Version 4.0 (MAC/GMC 4.0). Volume 1 is the Theory Manual, this document is the Keywords Manual, and Volume 3 is the Example Problem Manual. MAC/GMC 4.0 is a composite material and laminate analysis software program developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It is based on the generalized method of cells (GMC) micromechanics theory, which provides access to the local stress and strain fields in the composite material. This access grants GMC the ability to accommodate arbitrary local models for inelastic material behavior and various types of damage and failure analysis. MAC/GMC 4.0 has been built around GMC to provide the theory with a user-friendly framework, along with a library of local inelastic, damage, and failure models. Further, applications of simulated thermo-mechanical loading, generation of output results, and selection of architectures to represent the composite material have been automated in MAC/GMC 4.0. Finally, classical lamination theory has been implemented within MAC/GMC 4.0 wherein GMC is used to model the composite material response of each ply. Consequently, the full range of GMC composite material capabilities is available for analysis of arbitrary laminate configurations as well. This volume describes the basic information required to use the MAC/GMC 4.0 software, including a 'Getting Started' section, and an in-depth description of each of the 22 keywords used in the input file to control the execution of the code.

  19. Conformational stability analyses of alpha subunit I domain of LFA-1 and Mac-1.

    PubMed

    Mao, Debin; Lü, Shouqin; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yan; Long, Mian

    2011-01-01

    β₂ integrin of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) or macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) binds to their common ligand of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and mediates leukocyte-endothelial cell (EC) adhesions in inflammation cascade. Although the two integrins are known to have distinct functions, the corresponding micro-structural bases remain unclear. Here (steered-)molecular dynamics simulations were employed to elucidate the conformational stability of α subunit I domains of LFA-1 and Mac-1 in different affinity states and relevant I domain-ICAM-1 interaction features. Compared with low affinity (LA) Mac-1, the LA LFA-1 I domain was unstable in the presence or absence of ICAM-1 ligand, stemming from diverse orientations of its α₇-helix with different motifs of zipper-like hydrophobic junction between α₁- and α₇-helices. Meanwhile, spontaneous transition of LFA-1 I domain from LA state to intermediate affinity (IA) state was first visualized. All the LA, IA, and high affinity (HA) states of LFA-1 I domain and HA Mac-1 I domain were able to bind to ICAM-1 ligand effectively, while LA Mac-1 I domain was unfavorable for binding ligand presumably due to the specific orientation of S144 side-chain that capped the MIDAS ion. These results furthered our understanding in correlating the structural bases with their functions of LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins from the viewpoint of I domain conformational stability and of the characteristics of I domain-ICAM-1 interactions. PMID:21909384

  20. The National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire in the Macular Telangiectasia (MacTel) Project

    PubMed Central

    Clemons, Traci E.; Gillies, Mark C.; Chew, Emily Y.; Bird, Alan C.; Peto, Tunde; Figueroa, Maria; Harrington, Molly W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To describe vision-targeted health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), measured with the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) in a cohort of patients with macular telangiectasia (MacTel) type 2 and to evaluate the relationship between visual acuity and NEI-VFQ-25 scores. Methods This was an analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a longitudinal natural history study. Patients with MacTel type 2 were enrolled in the Natural History Study of The Macular Telangiectasia Project (The MacTel Project). NEI-VFQ-25 were completed at enrollment. Linear correlation and regression analyses were used to relate baseline NEI-VFQ-25 overall and subscale scores to visual acuity. Results Participants reported lower vision-related functioning measured by the NEI-VFQ-25 in most of the domains measured by the NEI VFQ compared with that of a normal reference group (P < 0.001 for all domains except color vision). Visual acuity was found to be associated with the NEI-VFQ-25 in many of the domains measuring degree of difficulty with common visual activities. Conclusions This is the first cross-sectional cohort study to assess vision targeted HR-QOL in patients with MacTel type 2. Patients with MacTel type 2 reported markedly reduced visual functioning compared to reports of a normal reference group. These findings provide support to the use of the NEI-VFQ-25 in patients with MacTel type 2 to measure the effect of disease and potential therapies on vision-targeted HR-QOL. PMID:18586874

  1. Arsenic and lead in juice: apple, citrus, and apple-base.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Denise; Hooper, Cassandra; Shi, Xingyi

    2012-12-01

    Exposure limits for arsenic and lead in drinking water have long been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and new regulations regarding the presence of these contaminants in bottled water went into effect in California in 2009. No comparable exposure limits or regulations are available, however, for juices and other beverages that may contain arsenic and lead. In the study described in this article, 20 apple juices (or ciders), 15 apple-containing juices, one grape, and one citrus juice were analyzed for arsenic and lead. Arsenic was detected in all juices while lead was detected in more than 94% of juices analyzed. Twelve samples (32%) demonstrated arsenic levels nearly at or above the drinking water exposure limit of 10 parts per billion. No juices contained lead above drinking water exposure limits. Expanding drinking water limits to include juices (and other frequently consumed beverages) would better protect consumers while regular testing of these juices would better inform consumers of the risks posed by specific juices and brands. PMID:23270108

  2. On the Achievable Efficiency-Fairness Tradeoff in Utility-Optimal MAC Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jang-Won; Chiang, Mung; Calderbank, A. Robert

    We use the network utility maximization (NUM) framework to create an efficient and fair medium access control (MAC) protocol for wireless networks. By adjusting the parameters in the utility objective functions of NUM problems, we control the tradeoff between efficiency and fairness of radio resource allocation through a rigorous and systematic design. In this paper, we propose a scheduling-based MAC protocol. Since it provides an upper-bound on the achievable performance, it establishes the optimality benchmarks for comparison with other algorithms in related work.

  3. Efficient virus-induced gene silencing in apple, pear and Japanese pear using Apple latent spherical virus vectors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective technology for the analysis of gene functions in plants. Though there are many reports on virus vectors for VIGS in plants, no VIGS vectors available for Rosaceae fruit trees were reported so far. We present an effective VIGS system in apple, pear, and Japanese pear using Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors. Results Inoculation of ALSV vectors carrying a partial sequence of endogenous genes from apple [ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit (rbcS), alpha subunit of chloroplast chaperonin (CPN60a), elongation factor 1 alpha (EF-1a), or actin] to the cotyledons of seeds by a particle bombardment induced highly uniform knock-down phenotypes of each gene on the true leaves of seedlings from 2~3 weeks after inoculation. These silencing phenotypes continued for several months. Northern blot and RT-PCR analyses of leaves infected with ALSV containing a fragment of rbcS gene showed that the levels of rbcS-mRNA drastically decreased in the infected apple and pear leaves, and, in reverse, rbcS-siRNAs were generated in the infected leaves. In addition, some of apple seedlings inoculated with ALSV vector carrying a partial sequence of a TERMINAL FLOWER 1 gene of apple (MdTFL1) showed precocious flowering which is expected as a knock-down phenotype of the silencing of MdTFL1 gene. Conclusions The ALSV-based VIGS system developed have provides a valuable new addition to the tool box for functional genomics in apple, pear, and Japanese pear. PMID:21658286

  4. Laser scatter feature of surface defect on apples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Xiuqin; Ying, Yibin; Cen, YiKe; Huang, Haibo

    2006-10-01

    A machine vision system for real-time fruit quality inspection was developed. The system consists of a chamber, a laser projector, a TMS-7DSP CCD camera (PULNIX Inc.), and a computer. A Meteor-II/MC frame grabber (Matrox Graphics Inc.) was inserted into the slot of the computer to grab fruit images. The laser projector and the camera were mounted at the ceiling of the chamber. An apple was put in the chamber, the spot of the laser projector was projected on the surface of the fruit, and an image was grabbed. 2 breed of apples was test, Each apple was imaged twice, one was imaged for the normal surface, and the other for the defect. The red component of the images was used to get the feature of the defect and the sound surface of the fruits. The average value, STD value and comentropy Value of red component of the laser scatter image were analyzed. The Standard Deviation value of red component of normal is more suitable to separate the defect surface from sound surface for the ShuijinFuji apples, but for bintang apples, there is more work need to do to separate the different surface with laser scatter image.

  5. Factors affecting growth of foodborne pathogens on minimally processed apples.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Isabel; Abadias, Maribel; Anguera, Marina; Oliveira, Marcia; Viñas, Inmaculada

    2010-02-01

    Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella and Listeria innocua increased by more than 2 log(10) units over a 24 h period on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs stored at 25 and 20 degrees C. L. innocua reached the same final population level at 10 degrees C meanwhile E. coli and Salmonella only increased 1.3 log(10) units after 6 days. Only L. innocua was able to grow at 5 degrees C. No significant differences were observed between the growth of foodborne pathogens on fresh-cut 'Golden Delicious', 'Granny Smith' and 'Shampion' apples stored at 25 and 5 degrees C. The treatment of 'Golden Delicious' and 'Granny Smith' apple plugs with the antioxidants, ascorbic acid (2%) and NatureSeal (6%), did not affect pathogen growth. The effect of passive modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) on the growth of E. coli, Salmonella and L. innocua on 'Golden Delicious' apple slices was also tested. There were no significant differences in growth of pathogens in MAP conditions compared with air packaging of 'Golden Delicious' apple plugs, but the growth of mesophilic and psychrotrophic microorganisms was inhibited. These results highlight the importance of avoiding contamination of fresh-cut fruit with foodborne pathogens and the maintenance of the cold chain during storage until consumption. PMID:19913695

  6. A hybrid path-oriented code assignment CDMA-based MAC protocol for underwater acoustic sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huifang; Fan, Guangyu; Xie, Lei; Cui, Jun-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Due to the characteristics of underwater acoustic channel, media access control (MAC) protocols designed for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs) are quite different from those for terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Moreover, in a sink-oriented network with event information generation in a sensor field and message forwarding to the sink hop-by-hop, the sensors near the sink have to transmit more packets than those far from the sink, and then a funneling effect occurs, which leads to packet congestion, collisions and losses, especially in UWASNs with long propagation delays. An improved CDMA-based MAC protocol, named path-oriented code assignment (POCA) CDMA MAC (POCA-CDMA-MAC), is proposed for UWASNs in this paper. In the proposed MAC protocol, both the round-robin method and CDMA technology are adopted to make the sink receive packets from multiple paths simultaneously. Since the number of paths for information gathering is much less than that of nodes, the length of the spreading code used in the POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol is shorter greatly than that used in the CDMA-based protocols with transmitter-oriented code assignment (TOCA) or receiver-oriented code assignment (ROCA). Simulation results show that the proposed POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol achieves a higher network throughput and a lower end-to-end delay compared to other CDMA-based MAC protocols. PMID:24193100

  7. An Application of MacLaury's Vantage Theory to Abstract Categories: Identity and the Process of Categorisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiszak, Malgorzata

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an application of Robert E. MacLaury's Vantage Theory (VT) to the analysis of real life spoken discourse. It utilizes Dennis R. Preston's (1994) modification of MacLaury's VT. It elucidates how cognitive processes of coordinate selection and combination contribute to the on-line construction of category membership in the abstract…

  8. Changing the Shape of American Radio Drama: Innovation and Representation in Archibald MacLeish's "The Fall of the City."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Glenn D.

    The (CBS Radio) Columbia Workshop, formed in 1936, encouraged the writing and production of creative, non-traditional radio drama such as Archibald MacLeish's verse play "The Fall of the City," which aired on April 11, 1937. MacLeish considered radio the ideal medium for poetry because it offers only aural stimuli without competition from visual…

  9. 42 CFR 405.1062 - Applicability of local coverage determinations and other policies not binding on the ALJ and MAC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MAC are not bound by LCDs, LMRPs, or CMS program guidance, such as program memoranda and manual... MAC may not set aside or review the validity of an LMRP or LCD for purposes of a claim appeal. An ALJ or the DAB may review or set aside an LCD (or any part of an LMRP that constitutes an LCD)...

  10. An Application of MacLaury's Vantage Theory to Abstract Categories: Identity and the Process of Categorisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiszak, Malgorzata

    2010-01-01

    This paper is an application of Robert E. MacLaury's Vantage Theory (VT) to the analysis of real life spoken discourse. It utilizes Dennis R. Preston's (1994) modification of MacLaury's VT. It elucidates how cognitive processes of coordinate selection and combination contribute to the on-line construction of category membership in the abstract

  11. Education for Personal Life: John MacMurray on Why Learning to Be Human Requires Emotional Discipline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacAllister, James

    2014-01-01

    In this article I discuss the philosophy of John MacMurray, and in particular, his little-examined writings on discipline and emotion education. It is argued that discipline is a vital element in the emotion education MacMurray thought central to learning to be human, because for him it takes concerted effort to overcome the human tendency toward…

  12. A Hybrid Path-Oriented Code Assignment CDMA-Based MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Huifang; Fan, Guangyu; Xie, Lei; Cui, Jun-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Due to the characteristics of underwater acoustic channel, media access control (MAC) protocols designed for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs) are quite different from those for terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Moreover, in a sink-oriented network with event information generation in a sensor field and message forwarding to the sink hop-by-hop, the sensors near the sink have to transmit more packets than those far from the sink, and then a funneling effect occurs, which leads to packet congestion, collisions and losses, especially in UWASNs with long propagation delays. An improved CDMA-based MAC protocol, named path-oriented code assignment (POCA) CDMA MAC (POCA-CDMA-MAC), is proposed for UWASNs in this paper. In the proposed MAC protocol, both the round-robin method and CDMA technology are adopted to make the sink receive packets from multiple paths simultaneously. Since the number of paths for information gathering is much less than that of nodes, the length of the spreading code used in the POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol is shorter greatly than that used in the CDMA-based protocols with transmitter-oriented code assignment (TOCA) or receiver-oriented code assignment (ROCA). Simulation results show that the proposed POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol achieves a higher network throughput and a lower end-to-end delay compared to other CDMA-based MAC protocols. PMID:24193100

  13. Multiple plant hormones and cell wall metabolism regulate apple fruit maturation patterns and texture attributes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular events regulating apple fruit ripening and sensory quality are largely unknown. Such knowledge is essential for genomic-assisted apple breeding and postharvest quality management. In this study, a parallel transcriptome profile analysis, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination and...

  14. Transcriptome profiling analysis of cultivar-specific apple fruit ripening and texture attributes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular events regulating cultivar-specific apple fruit ripening and sensory quality are largely unknown. Such knowledge is essential for genomic-assisted apple breeding and postharvest quality management. In this study, transcriptome profile analysis, scanning electron microscopic examination an...

  15. Transcriptomic events associated with internal browning of apple during postharvest storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although apple (Malus x domestica) is of economic importance, little information is available about the transriptomic profiling of postharvest disorders, particularly internal browning. This study aimed to explore changes in the apple transcriptome associated with development of flesh browning durin...

  16. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple....

  17. Measurements of the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich Effect in MACS J0647.7+7015 and MACS J1206.2-0847 at High Angular Resolution with MUSTANG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Alexander H.; Mroczkowski, Tony; Romero, Charles; Sayers, Jack; Balestra, Italo; Clarke, Tracy E.; Czakon, Nicole; Devlin, Mark; Dicker, Simon R.; Ferrari, Chiara; Girardi, Marisa; Golwala, Sunil; Intema, Huib; Korngut, Phillip M.; Mason, Brian S.; Mercurio, Amata; Nonino, Mario; Reese, Erik D.; Rosati, Piero; Sarazin, Craig; Umetsu, Keiichi

    2015-08-01

    We present high resolution (9″) imaging of the Sunyaev-Zel’dovich Effect (SZE) toward two massive galaxy clusters, MACS J0647.7+7015 (z = 0.591) and MACS J1206.2-0847 (z = 0.439). We compare these 90 GHz measurements, taken with the Multiplexed Squid/TES Array at Ninety Gigahertz (MUSTANG ) receiver on the Green Bank Telescope, with generalized Navarro-Frenk-White (gNFW) models derived from Bolocam 140 GHz SZE data as well as maps of the thermal gas derived from Chandra X-ray observations. We adopt a serial-fitting approach, in which gNFW models are first fit to the Bolocam data and then compared to the MUSTANG data to determine an overall best-fit model. For MACS J0647.7+7015, we find a gNFW profile with core slope parameter γ = 0.9 fits the MUSTANG image with {χ }{red}2=1.005 and probability to exceed (PTE) = 0.34. For MACS J1206.2-0847, we find γ =0.7, {χ }{red}2=0.993, and PTE = 0.70. In addition, we find a significant (>3σ) residual SZE feature in MACS J1206.2-0847 coincident with a group of galaxies identified in Very Large Telescope data and filamentary structure found in a weak-lensing mass reconstruction. We suggest the detected sub-structure may be the SZE decrement from a low mass foreground group or an infalling group. Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope measurements at 610 MHz reveal diffuse extended radio emission to the west, which we posit is either an active galactic nucleus-driven radio lobe, a bubble expanding away from disturbed gas associated with the SZE signal, or a bubble detached and perhaps re-accelerated by sloshing within the cluster. Using the spectroscopic redshifts available, we find evidence for a foreground (z = 0.423) or infalling group, coincident with the residual SZE feature.

  18. The effects of freezing and thawing on the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, S A; Harris, L J

    2001-07-20

    Unpasteurized apple juice, adjusted to pH 3.6 to 7.0 was inoculated (10(7) CFU/ml) with single strains of E. coli O157:H7 to evaluate the effect of frozen storage on the viability of this organism. Samples were stored under frozen conditions (-20+/-2 degrees C) for up to 16 days. Cell populations were determined at regular intervals by plating onto tryptic soy agar with added pyruvate (TSAP) or onto sorbitol MacConkey agar (SMA). Populations in the neutralized juice remained unchanged during frozen storage. Populations in non-neutralized juice decreased by 1-3 log10 CFU/ml depending on the strain tested and the pH of the juice. The greatest population decrease was observed with the first freeze/thaw cycle of frozen storage (24 h) and a slow decline in survival occurred thereafter. Injury was observed after 2 weeks of storage when juice pH was at or below pH 4.2. When samples were subjected to multiple freeze/thaw cycles, loss of viability and injury increased with each freeze/thaw cycle. PMID:11482573

  19. 75 FR 11071 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples from Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ...We are proposing to amend the regulations that allow the importation of Fuji variety apples from Japan to allow all varieties of Malus domestica apples into the United States under the same conditions as those for Fuji variety apples. We have determined that the risk of introducing insects and diseases through the pathway of all varieties of M. domestica fresh apples to be very low under the......

  20. Etiology of apple sooty blotch disease in north Carolina.

    PubMed

    Johnson, E M; Sutton, T B; Hodges, C S

    1997-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sooty blotch disease of apples (Malus x domestica), previously attributed to the fungus Gloeodes pomigena, was shown to be a disease complex caused by fungi previously considered mycelial types of G. pomigena. Peltaster fructicola and Geastrumia polystigmatis were associated with the ramose mycelial type. A fungus similar to P. fructicola, but with smaller pycnothyria and conidia, was associated with the punctate mycelial type. The diffuse fuliginous mycelial type was caused by Leptodontium elatius. Fungi that fit the classical morphological description of G. pomigena were not observed. Pycnothyria of P. fructicola developed on overwintered colonies on blackberries, and conidia were a source for primary infection during the entire growing season. Secondary spread was through conidia produced in colonies on fruit. L. elatius was observed infrequently producing conidia on fruit during periods of extended high moisture. Histological examination did not reveal penetration of the cuticle of apple fruit for any of the fungi of the apple sooty blotch complex. PMID:18945159

  1. Fast Estimation of Dietary Fiber Content in Apple.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Sophie; Even, Sonia; Lahaye, Marc

    2016-02-17

    Dietary fibers (DF) are one of the nutritional benefits of fleshy fruit consumption that is becoming a quality criterion for genetic selection by breeders. However, the AOAC total DF content determination is not readily amenable for screening large fruit collections. A new screening method of DF content in an apple collection based on the automated preparation of cell wall material as an alcohol-insoluble residue (AIR) is proposed. The yield of AIR from 27 apple genotypes was compared with DF measured according to AOAC method 985.29. Although residual protein content in AIRs did not affect DF measurement, subtraction of starch content above 3% dry weight in AIRs was needed to agree with AOAC measured DF. A fast colorimetric screening of starch in AIR was developed to detect samples needing correction. The proposed method may prove useful for the rapid determination of DF in collections of other fleshy fruit besides apple. PMID:26813795

  2. Patulin in apple juices from the Romanian market.

    PubMed

    Oroian, Mircea; Amariei, Sonia; Gutt, Gheorghe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine patulin levels in apple-based juices from the Romanian market and to establish a health risk assessment. For this purpose, 50 samples of apple-based juices have been purchased from the Romanian market. Aliquots were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate, analysed and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The patulin level in the apple juices from Romania ranged between <0.7 μg/l and 101.9 μg/l. In 6% of the 50 samples analysed, the maximum limit for patulin as set by the European Union (50 μg/l) was exceeded. PMID:24914601

  3. ImagePAD, a novel counting application for the Apple iPad, used to quantify axons in the mouse optic nerve.

    PubMed

    Templeton, Justin P; Struebing, Felix L; Lemmon, Andrew; Geisert, Eldon E

    2014-11-01

    The present article introduces a new and easy to use counting application for the Apple iPad. The application "ImagePAD" takes advantage of the advanced user interface features offered by the Apple iOS platform, simplifying the rather tedious task of quantifying features in anatomical studies. For example, the image under analysis can be easily panned and zoomed using iOS-supported multi-touch gestures without losing the spatial context of the counting task, which is extremely important for ensuring count accuracy. This application allows one to quantify up to 5 different types of objects in a single field and output the data in a tab-delimited format for subsequent analysis. We describe two examples of the use of the application: quantifying axons in the optic nerve of the C57BL/6J mouse and determining the percentage of cells labeled with NeuN or ChAT in the retinal ganglion cell layer. For the optic nerve, contiguous images at 60× magnification were taken and transferred onto an Apple iPad. Axons were counted by tapping on the touch-sensitive screen using ImagePAD. Nine optic nerves were sampled and the number of axons in the nerves ranged from 38,872 axons to 50,196 axons with an average of 44,846 axons per nerve (SD = 3980 axons). PMID:25281829

  4. The Leishmania donovani histidine acid ecto-phosphatase LdMAcP: insight into its structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Papadaki, Amalia; Politou, Anastasia S.; Smirlis, Despina; Kotini, Maria P.; Kourou, Konstadina; Papamarcaki, Thomais; Boleti, Haralabia

    2015-01-01

    Acid ecto-phosphatase activity has been implicated in Leishmania donovani promastigote virulence. In the present study, we report data contributing to the molecular/structural and functional characterization of the L. donovani LdMAcP (L. donovani membrane acid phosphatase), member of the histidine acid phosphatase (HAcP) family. LdMAcP is membrane-anchored and shares high sequence identity with the major secreted L. donovani acid phosphatases (LdSAcPs). Sequence comparison of the LdMAcP orthologues in Leishmania sp. revealed strain polymorphism and species specificity for the L. donovani complex, responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (Khala azar), proposing thus a potential value of LdMAcP as an epidemiological or diagnostic tool. The extracellular orientation of the LdMAcP catalytic domain was confirmed in L. donovani promastigotes, wild-type (wt) and transgenic overexpressing a recombinant LdMAcP–mRFP1 (monomeric RFP1) chimera, as well as in transiently transfected mammalian cells expressing rLdMAcP–His. For the first time it is demonstrated in the present study that LdMAcP confers tartrate resistant acid ecto-phosphatase activity in live L. donovani promastigotes. The latter confirmed the long sought molecular identity of at least one enzyme contributing to this activity. Interestingly, the L. donovani rLdMAcP–mRFP1 promastigotes generated in this study, showed significantly higher infectivity and virulence indexes than control parasites in the infection of J774 mouse macrophages highlighting thereby a role for LdMAcP in the parasite's virulence. PMID:25695743

  5. The ABC-Type Efflux Pump MacAB Protects Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bogomolnaya, Lydia M.; Andrews, Katharine D.; Talamantes, Marissa; Maple, Aimee; Ragoza, Yury; Vazquez-Torres, Andres; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Multidrug efflux pumps are integral membrane proteins known to actively excrete antibiotics. The macrolide-specific pump MacAB, the only ABC-type drug efflux pump in Salmonella, has previously been linked to virulence in mice. The molecular mechanism of this link between macAB and infection is unclear. We demonstrate that macAB plays a role in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS), compounds that salmonellae are exposed to at various stages of infection. macAB is induced upon exposure to H2O2 and is critical for survival of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium in the presence of peroxide. Furthermore, we determined that macAB is required for intracellular replication inside J774.A1 murine macrophages but is not required for survival in ROS-deficient J774.D9 macrophages. macAB mutants also had reduced survival in the intestine in the mouse colitis model, a model characterized by a strong neutrophilic intestinal infiltrate where bacteria may experience the cytotoxic actions of ROS. Using an Amplex red-coupled assay, macAB mutants appear to be unable to induce protection against exogenous H2O2 in vitro, in contrast to the isogenic wild type. In mixed cultures, the presence of the wild-type organism, or media preconditioned by the growth of the wild-type organism, was sufficient to rescue the macAB mutant from peroxide-mediated killing. Our data indicate that the MacAB drug efflux pump has functions beyond resistance to antibiotics and plays a role in the protection of Salmonella against oxidative stress. Intriguingly, our data also suggest the presence of a soluble anti-H2O2 compound secreted by Salmonella cells through a MacAB-dependent mechanism. PMID:24169575

  6. The Leishmania donovani histidine acid ecto-phosphatase LdMAcP: insight into its structure and function.

    PubMed

    Papadaki, Amalia; Politou, Anastasia S; Smirlis, Despina; Kotini, Maria P; Kourou, Konstadina; Papamarcaki, Thomais; Boleti, Haralabia

    2015-05-01

    Acid ecto-phosphatase activity has been implicated in Leishmania donovani promastigote virulence. In the present study, we report data contributing to the molecular/structural and functional characterization of the L. donovani LdMAcP (L. donovani membrane acid phosphatase), member of the histidine acid phosphatase (HAcP) family. LdMAcP is membrane-anchored and shares high sequence identity with the major secreted L. donovani acid phosphatases (LdSAcPs). Sequence comparison of the LdMAcP orthologues in Leishmania sp. revealed strain polymorphism and species specificity for the L. donovani complex, responsible for visceral leishmaniasis (Khala azar), proposing thus a potential value of LdMAcP as an epidemiological or diagnostic tool. The extracellular orientation of the LdMAcP catalytic domain was confirmed in L. donovani promastigotes, wild-type (wt) and transgenic overexpressing a recombinant LdMAcP-mRFP1 (monomeric RFP1) chimera, as well as in transiently transfected mammalian cells expressing rLdMAcP-His. For the first time it is demonstrated in the present study that LdMAcP confers tartrate resistant acid ecto-phosphatase activity in live L. donovani promastigotes. The latter confirmed the long sought molecular identity of at least one enzyme contributing to this activity. Interestingly, the L. donovani rLdMAcP-mRFP1 promastigotes generated in this study, showed significantly higher infectivity and virulence indexes than control parasites in the infection of J774 mouse macrophages highlighting thereby a role for LdMAcP in the parasite's virulence. PMID:25695743

  7. Extrafloral nectar in an apple ecosystem to enhance biological control.

    PubMed

    Brown, M W; Mathews, Clarissa R; Krawczyk, Greg

    2010-10-01

    A common goal of conservation biological control is to enhance biodiversity and increase abundance and effectiveness of predators and parasitoids. Although many studies report an increase in abundance of natural enemies, it has been difficult to document increases in rates of biological control. To enhance parasitism of the tufted apple bud moth, Platynota idaeusalis (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), alternate food was provided by interplanting peaches bearing extrafloral nectaries into apple (Malus spp.) orchards. Laboratory studies showed that the presence of nectar increased longevity and parasitism rates by Goniozus floridanus (Bethylidae), the dominant parasitoid of tufted apple bud moth in West Virginia. In orchard studies, we found the total number of hymenopteran parasitoids was higher on peach (Prunus spp.) trees than on adjacent apple trees. Abundance of parasitic Hymenoptera also was significantly higher on the side of traps facing away from rather than toward peach trees, indicating attraction to peach trees. However, total parasitism rates of tufted apple bud moth were not affected by the presence of peach extrafloral nectar in any field studies. Insect injury to fruit at harvest showed that fruit from orchards with interplanted peach trees had less injury from San Jose scale, Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock) and stink bugs (Pentatomidae) than fruit from an apple monoculture. Although interplanting with peach trees did not produce the hypothesized result of increased biological control, the experiment did have beneficial results for pest management. These results demonstrate the importance of collecting data on variables beyond the targeted species when evaluating habitat manipulation experiments to fully assess the impact on the ecosystem. PMID:21061965

  8. Choosing between an apple and a chocolate bar: the impact of health and taste labels.

    PubMed

    Forwood, Suzanna E; Walker, Alexander D; Hollands, Gareth J; Marteau, Theresa M

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables is a central component of improving population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest health is of lower importance than taste. This study assesses the impact of using a simple descriptive label to highlight the taste as opposed to the health value of fruit on the likelihood of its selection. Participants (N=439) were randomly allocated to one of five groups that varied in the label added to an apple: apple; healthy apple; succulent apple; healthy and succulent apple; succulent and healthy apple. The primary outcome measure was selection of either an apple or a chocolate bar as a dessert. Measures of the perceived qualities of the apple (taste, health, value, quality, satiety) and of participant characteristics (restraint, belief that tasty foods are unhealthy, BMI) were also taken. When compared with apple selection without any descriptor (50%), the labels combining both health and taste descriptors significantly increased selection of the apple ('healthy & succulent' 65.9% and 'succulent & healthy' 62.4%), while the use of a single descriptor had no impact on the rate of apple selection ('healthy' 50.5% and 'succulent' 52%). The strongest predictors of individual dessert choice were the taste score given to the apple, and the lack of belief that healthy foods are not tasty. Interventions that emphasize the taste attributes of healthier foods are likely to be more effective at achieving healthier diets than those emphasizing health alone. PMID:24155964

  9. Apple Seeks To Regain Its Stature in World of Academic Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.; Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1998-01-01

    Managers of Apple Computer, the company that pioneered campus personal computing and later lost most of its share of the market, are again focusing energies on academic buyers. Campus technology officials, even those fond of Apples, are greeting the company's efforts with caution. Some feel it may be too late for Apple to regain a significant…

  10. Language Arts, Social Studies and Science. Apple IIGS Computer Appleworks Data Base Training Mini Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.; And Others

    These training minicourse materials include class schedules, a description of class composition, class outlines, and a list of handouts for using AppleWorks database applications with the Apple IIGS computer in language arts, social studies, and science. Classes for each content area include introductions to the Apple IIGS computer, to the…

  11. Dumping Low and High Resolution Graphics on the Apple IIe Microcomputer System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.; Ruckman, Frank, Jr.

    This paper discusses and outlines procedures for obtaining a hard copy of the graphic output of a microcomputer or "dumping a graphic" using the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Hardware configurations and instructions for high resolution and…

  12. Analysis of hyperspectral scattering images using locally linear embedding algorithm for apple mealiness classification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral scattering technique provides a means for assessing the structural and/or physical properties of apples. It could thus be useful for detection of apple mealiness, which is a symptom of physiological disorder, resulting in an undesirable texture and taste for apples and degrading their ...

  13. Inhibition of Shiga Toxin 2 (Stx2) in Apple Juices and its Resistance to Pasteurization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the present study, we evaluated Shiga toxin (Stx2) activity in apple juices by measuring a decrease in dehydrogenase activity of Vero cells with the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Freshly prepared juice from Red Delicious apples and Golden Delicious apples inhibited the biological activity...

  14. Biodiversity of Total Phenolics, Antioxidant Capacity, and Juice Quality in Apple Cider Taxa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples are known to contain antioxidants that may play an important role in human health by providing protection against reactive free radicals affecting a wide range of biological molecules including nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. While fresh apple juice is a main product of processed apples,...

  15. Choosing between an Apple and a Chocolate Bar: the Impact of Health and Taste Labels

    PubMed Central

    Forwood, Suzanna E.; Walker, Alexander D.; Hollands, Gareth J.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables is a central component of improving population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest health is of lower importance than taste. This study assesses the impact of using a simple descriptive label to highlight the taste as opposed to the health value of fruit on the likelihood of its selection. Participants (N=439) were randomly allocated to one of five groups that varied in the label added to an apple: apple; healthy apple; succulent apple; healthy and succulent apple; succulent and healthy apple. The primary outcome measure was selection of either an apple or a chocolate bar as a dessert. Measures of the perceived qualities of the apple (taste, health, value, quality, satiety) and of participant characteristics (restraint, belief that tasty foods are unhealthy, BMI) were also taken. When compared with apple selection without any descriptor (50%), the labels combining both health and taste descriptors significantly increased selection of the apple (’healthy & succulent’ 65.9% and ‘succulent & healthy’ 62.4%), while the use of a single descriptor had no impact on the rate of apple selection (‘healthy’ 50.5% and ‘succulent’ 52%). The strongest predictors of individual dessert choice were the taste score given to the apple, and the lack of belief that healthy foods are not tasty. Interventions that emphasize the taste attributes of healthier foods are likely to be more effective at achieving healthier diets than those emphasizing health alone. PMID:24155964

  16. Effect of home processing on the distribution and reduction of pesticide residues in apples.

    PubMed

    Kong, Z; Shan, W; Dong, F; Liu, X; Xu, J; Li, M; Zheng, Y

    2012-08-01

    The effect of home processing (washing, peeling, coring and juicing) on residue levels of chlorpyrifos, β-cypermethrin, tebuconazole, acetamiprid and carbendazim in apple segments was investigated. The pesticide residues were determined by UPLC-MS/MS and GC with a flame photometric (FPD) and electron capture detection (ECD). The results indicated that the pesticide residue levels in the apple peel and core were higher compared with in the apple flesh. After peeled and cored apple was processed into apple juice and pomace, chlorpyrifos, β-cypermethrin and tebuconazole were concentrated in the apple pomace. However, residues of acetamiprid and carbendazim were exceptions. The apple pomace was free of acetamiprid, which was mainly present in the apple juice. After washing the mean loss of chlorpyrifos, β-cypermethrin, tebuconazole, acetamiprid and carbendazim from apples under recommended dosage and twofold higher dosage were 17-21%, 6.7-7.1%, 13-32%, 42-67% and 47-50%, respectively. The pesticide residues were significantly reduced in the edible part of the apple except for β-cypermethrin during peeling and coring process. The removal effect of apple juicing was found to be the most pronounced on β-cypermethrin residue, which was reduced in the range of 81-84%, and the reductions of chlorpyrifos, tebuconazole, acetamiprid and carbendazim upon apple juicing were in the range of 15-36%. PMID:22738391

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  20. 78 FR 11173 - Kasugamycin; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Apples in Michigan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... AGENCY Kasugamycin; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Apples in Michigan... kasugamycin (CAS No. 6980-18-3) to treat up to 10,000 acres of apples to control fire blight. The applicant... kasugamycin on apples to control fire blight. Information in accordance with 40 CFR part 166 was submitted...

  1. 77 FR 791 - Kasugamycin; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Apples in Michigan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... AGENCY Kasugamycin; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Apples in Michigan... Kasugamycin (CAS No. 6980-18-3) to treat up to 10,000 acres of apples to control fire blight. The applicant... use of kasugamycin on apples to control fire blight. Information in accordance with 40 CFR part...

  2. 76 FR 16440 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits, Town of Apple Valley, San Bernardino...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits, Town of Apple Valley... expected application from the Town of Apple Valley, CA, for an incidental take permit (ITP) under the... Dale Evans Parkway, Apple Valley, CA 92307. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jen Lechuga,...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  6. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of... and Vegetables § 319.56-27 Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United States from Japan and the Republic of Korea only in...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great...

  10. Effect of surround WP on behavior and mortality of the apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a key pest in apple production areas located in the northeastern and midwestern United States and the eastern provinces of Canada. The development of Surround WP has offered a new approach for controlling apple maggot fly...

  11. Transcriptome changes specifically associated with apple (Malus domestica) root defense response during Pythium ultimum infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The defense response of apple rootstocks to necrotrophic soilborne pathogens that incite apple replant disease (ARD) has not been investigated. In this study, root tissues of apple seedlings inoculated with Pythium ultimum, were sampled at 0, 1, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post inoculation (hpi) a...

  12. High-efficiency generation of RNAi mutants of apple by use of multi-vector transformation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high-efficiency transformation and selection system was used to create apple RNAi mutants for determination of function of candidate genes in resistance of apple to Erwinia amylovora (fire blight). The M.26 apple genotype was transformed with a mixture of five RNAi EST-silencing vectors in each t...

  13. First report of Penicillium carneum causing blue mold on stored apples in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blue mold decay occurs during long term storage of apples and is predominantly caused by Penicillium expansum Link. Apples harvested in 2010 were stored in controlled atmosphere at a commercial Pennsylvania apple packing and storage facility, and were examined for occurrence of decay in May 2011. ...

  14. Field Evaluation of Apple Rootstocks for Orchard Performance and Fire Blight Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2002, apple rootstock trials using three scion cultivars were established at Geneva, NY to evaluate 64 apple (Malus X domestica) rootstocks for horticultural performance and fire blight resistance. Field trials compared several elite Geneva® apple rootstocks, which were bred for tolerance to fir...

  15. Detection of drought tolerant genes within seedling apple rootstocks in Syria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This investigation was conducted to detect the drought tolerant genes (four genes) within seedling apple rootstocks derived from five apple genotypes, including Syrian apple cultivars. The results showed that the gene MdPepPro (a cyclophilin) was found in all studied genotypes and their progenies e...

  16. Return bloom in 'Stayman' apple with NAA and/or ethephon: 2007 through 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following a season in which apple trees produce a full crop, many cultivars fail to produce enough bloom the next year for an adequate crop. Obtaining good return bloom is a problem for many apple growers. Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are recommended to enhance return bloom in apple. This study...

  17. ONLINE HYPERSPECTRAL LINE-SCAN FLUORESCENCE IMAGING FOR SAFETY INSPECTION OF APPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recently developed fast hyperspectral line-scan imaging system integrated with a commercial apple-sorting machine was evaluated for rapid detection of animal feces matter on apples online. Golden Delicious apples obtained from a local orchard were artificially contaminated with a thin smear of co...

  18. SuperPILOT: A Comprehensive Computer-Assisted Instruction Programming Language for the Apple II Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falleur, David M.

    This presentation describes SuperPILOT, an extended version of Apple PILOT, a programming language for developing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) with the Apple II computer that includes the features of its early PILOT (Programmed Inquiry, Learning or Teaching) ancestors together with new features that make use of the Apple computer's advanced…

  19. AUTOMATED DETECTION OF FECAL CONTAMINATION OF APPLES BY MULTISPECTRAL LASER-INDUCED FLUORESCENCE IMAGING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Feces from dairy cows and deer are suspected of being sources of microbiological contamination of apples by disease causing organisms such as E.coli:O157. Contaminated apples have caused illness and death when used to make unpasteurized apple juice or cider. The potential for using fluorescent compo...

  20. New upper bounds on the rate of a code via the Delsarte-MacWilliams inequalities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mceliece, R. J.; Rodemich, E. R.; Rumsey, H., Jr.; Welch, L. R.

    1977-01-01

    An upper bound on the rate of a binary code as a function of minimum code distance (using a Hamming code metric) is arrived at from Delsarte-MacWilliams inequalities. The upper bound so found is asymptotically less than Levenshtein's bound, and a fortiori less than Elias' bound. Appendices review properties of Krawtchouk polynomials and Q-polynomials utilized in the rigorous proofs.

  1. Analysis and convergence of the MAC scheme. Part 1: The linear problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolaides, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    The MAC discretization of fluid flow is analyzed for the stationary Stokes equations. It is proved that the discrete approximations do in fact converge to the exact solutions of the flow equations. Estimates using mesh dependent norms analogous to the standard H(sup 1) and L(sup 2) norms are given for the velocity and pressure, respectively.

  2. The MacCrate Report's Restatement of Legal Education: The Need for Reflection and Horse Sense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    A recent American Bar Association report (the MacCrate Report), a comprehensive study of lawyers' educational and professional development needs, is discussed. The report strongly supports practical legal skills training as part of legal education. Implications for current law school curriculum and operations are examined. (MSE)

  3. Dependence of AeroMACS Interference on Airport Radiation Pattern Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Jeffrey D.

    2012-01-01

    AeroMACS (Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System), which is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard, is expected to be implemented in the 5091 to 5150 MHz frequency band. As this band is also occupied by Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) feeder uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. In this study, the cumulative interference power distribution at low earth orbit from AeroMACS transmitters at the 497 major airports in the contiguous United States was simulated with the Visualyse Professional software. The dependence of the interference power on the number of antenna beams per airport, gain patterns, and beam direction orientations was simulated. As a function of these parameters, the simulation results are presented in terms of the limitations on transmitter power required to maintain the cumulative interference power under the established threshold.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of MacA from Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans.

    PubMed

    Piao, Shunfu; Xu, Yongbin; Ha, Nam Chul

    2008-05-01

    Periplasmic membrane-fusion proteins (MFPs) are an essential component of the multidrug efflux pump in Gram-negative bacteria. They play a crucial role in bridging the outer membrane porin TolC and two distinct types of inner membrane transporters. The MFP MacA bridges the inner membrane ABC-type multidrug transporter MacB and the outer membrane porin TolC. MacA from the pathogenic bacterium Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans was expressed in Escherichia coli B834 (DE3) and the recombinant protein was purified using Ni-NTA affinity, Q anion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The purified MacA protein was crystallized using the vapour-diffusion method. A MAD diffraction data set was collected to a resolution of 3.0 A at 100 K. The crystal belongs to space group P622, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 109.2, c = 255.4 A, alpha = beta = 90, gamma = 120 degrees , and contains one molecule in the asymmetric unit. PMID:18453709

  5. 42 CFR 423.2110 - MAC reviews on its own motion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... its own motion to review a decision or dismissal issued by an ALJ. CMS or the IRE may refer a case to... ALJ's written decision or dismissal is issued. (b) Referral of cases. (1) CMS or the IRE may refer a case to the MAC if, in the view of CMS or the IRE, the decision or dismissal contains an error of...

  6. Ber-MAC3: new monoclonal antibody that defines human monocyte/macrophage differentiation antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Backé, E; Schwarting, R; Gerdes, J; Ernst, M; Stein, H

    1991-01-01

    A new monoclonal antibody Ber-MAC3 is reported. It recognises a formol sensitive epitope of a not yet clustered monocyte/macrophage specific 140 kilodalton glycoprotein that is expressed on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm. In 30 cases of acute and chronic leukaemia, Ber-MAC3 staining was restricted to 15 myeloid leukaemias of M4 and M5 types. The tumour cells of two cases of true histiocytic malignancies were Ber-MAC3 positive, whereas those of all 280 malignancies of lymphocytic origin were negative. The latter included 52 cases of Hodgkin's disease and 41 cases of Ki-1 positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas which had previously been classified as true histiocytic lymphomas. Ber-MAC3 therefore seems to be of considerable value for selective identification of monocytes and macrophages at a certain stage of differentiation and seems to be suitable for diagnosing myelomonocytic or monocytic leukaemia and neoplasms of true histiocytic origin. Images PMID:1721628

  7. Teaching Justice after MacIntyre: Toward a Catholic Philosophy of Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Roger

    2008-01-01

    How is the commitment to social justice sustained over a lifetime? This would seem to be a matter of character, and that calls attention to the Aristotelian tradition in ethics. No one provides as much insight into the challenge of the contemporary appropriation of this tradition as Alasdair MacIntyre. Although a moral philosopher rather than a…

  8. Detecting DIF in Polytomous Items Using MACS, IRT and Ordinal Logistic Regression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elosua, Paula; Wells, Craig

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the Type I error rate and power of two model-based procedures, the mean and covariance structure model (MACS) and the item response theory (IRT), and an observed-score based procedure, ordinal logistic regression, for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. A simulation…

  9. 42 CFR 423.2102 - Request for MAC review when ALJ issues decision or dismissal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Request for MAC review when ALJ issues decision or dismissal. 423.2102 Section 423.2102 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings,...

  10. Leadership and Some Related Propositions: A Response to the Ideas of James MacGregor Burns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleedorn, Berenice D.

    The theories of James MacGregor Burns as expressed in his book, "Leadership" (1978), suggest that transformational leadership engages all persons to varying degrees throughout the levels and interstices of society. Burns believes that the transforming leader not only exploits a need or demand of a follower but also looks for his potential motives…

  11. Protoporphyrin (PPIX) efflux by the MacAB-TolC pump in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Turlin, Evelyne; Heuck, Gesine; Simões Brandão, Maria Inês; Szili, Noémie; Mellin, J R; Lange, Norbert; Wandersman, Cécile

    2014-12-01

    In most organisms, heme biosynthesis is strictly controlled so as to avoid heme and heme precursor accumulation, which is toxic. Escherichia coli regulates heme biosynthesis by a feedback loop involving heme-induced proteolytic cleavage of HemA, glutamyl-tRNA reductase, which is the first enzyme in the heme biosynthetic pathway. We show here that heme homeostasis can be disrupted by overproduction of YfeX, a cytoplasmic protein that captures iron from heme that we named deferrochelatase. We also show that it is disrupted by iron chelation, which reduces the intracellular iron concentration necessary for loading iron into protoporphyrin IX (PPIX, the immediate heme precursor). In both cases, we established that there is an increased PPIX concentration and we demonstrate that this compound is expelled by the MacAB-TolC pump, an efflux pump involved in E. coli and Salmonella for macrolide efflux. The E. coli macAB and tolC mutants accumulate PPIX and are sensitive to photo-inactivation. The MacAB-TolC pump is required for Salmonella typhimurium survival in macrophages. We propose that PPIX is an endogenous substrate of the MacAB-TolC pump in E. coli and S. typhimurium and that this compound is produced inside bacteria when natural heme homeostasis is disrupted by iron shortage, as happens when bacteria invade the mammalian host. PMID:25257218

  12. Pok-O-MacCready Outdoor Education Center Resident Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swan, Jack

    The guide describes the 300-acre Pok-O-MacCready Outdoor Education Center, located in the Adirondack Mountains, which offers winterized residential facilities and indivdualized 3- to 5-day outdoor and environmental programs for groups of up to 85 elementary and secondary students. The guide describes the center's activities, which focus on…

  13. There is no MacWilliams identity for convolutional codes. [transmission gain comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, J. B.; Mceliece, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    An example is provided of two convolutional codes that have the same transmission gain but whose dual codes do not. This shows that no analog of the MacWilliams identity for block codes can exist relating the transmission gains of a convolutional code and its dual.

  14. CEFPI 2000 Design Portfolio: James D. MacConnell Award Winner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Facility Planner, 2000

    2000-01-01

    Presents an architectural description of the Edmonds-Woodway High School (Washington), winner of the James D. MacConnel Award from the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International. Photos, floor plans, and project data and school statistics are included. (GR)

  15. Berkeley Lab Scientist Named MacArthur ''Genius'' Fellow for Audio Preservation Research

    SciTech Connect

    Haber, Carl

    2013-09-24

    Audio Preservationist Carl Haber was named a MacArthur Fellow in 2013. The Fellowship is a $625,000, no-strings-attached grant for individuals who have shown exceptional creativity in their work and the promise to do more. Learn more at http://www.macfound.org/fellows.

  16. Signaling and Dynamics of Activation of LFA-1 and Mac-1 by Immobilized IL-8

    PubMed Central

    Lomakina, Elena B.; Waugh, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    The dynamic response of neutrophils to interleukin-8 (IL-8) is of central interest in inflammation. Chemokine –induced β2 integrin dependent adhesion can take several minutes after initial contact with IL-8 as evidenced by increased cell adhesion to intracellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). The goal of this study is to identify signaling events that are critical for this response. We demonstrate that neither the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin, nor the PKC inhibitor bisindolymaleimide had any effect on IL-8 induced adhesion to ICAM-1. However, inhibition of PLC with U73122 or stopping the release of intracellular calcium by its downstream effector IP3 with caffeine or 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate completely blocked the adhesive response. Chelation of intracellular calcium with BAPTA or extracellular calcium with EGTA completely abrogated neutrophil adhesion to ICAM-1. This adhesion is mediated by LFA-1 (αLβ2) within first 300 seconds after chemokine stimulation, followed by Mac-1 (αMβ2) mediated adhesion, beginning 350 seconds after stimulus. Inhibition of p38MAP kinase results in a time course similar to Mac-1 inhibition, consistent with published evidence that Mac-1 mediated adhesion is p38MAP kinase dependent. These findings confirm a PLC dependent, PKC independent pathway from chemokine stimulus to integrin activation previously identified in other cell types, and demonstrate distinct dynamics and different requirements for LFA-1 vs. Mac-1 activation in primary human neutrophils. PMID:21532911

  17. Assessing Internalizing, Externalizing, and Attention Problems in Young Children: Validation of the MacArthur HBQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Schreiber, Jane E.; Schmidt, Nicole L.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To test the validity of the MacArthur Health and Behavior Questionnaire (HBQ) using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine optimal thresholds for the HBQ in predicting Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version-IV (DISC-IV)diagnoses. The roles of child sex, level of impairment, and physical health in…

  18. A Survey of MAC Protocols for Cognitive Radio Body Area Networks.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2015-01-01

    The advancement in electronics, wireless communications and integrated circuits has enabled the development of small low-power sensors and actuators that can be placed on, in or around the human body. A wireless body area network (WBAN) can be effectively used to deliver the sensory data to a central server, where it can be monitored, stored and analyzed. For more than a decade, cognitive radio (CR) technology has been widely adopted in wireless networks, as it utilizes the available spectra of licensed, as well as unlicensed bands. A cognitive radio body area network (CRBAN) is a CR-enabled WBAN. Unlike other wireless networks, CRBANs have specific requirements, such as being able to automatically sense their environments and to utilize unused, licensed spectra without interfering with licensed users, but existing protocols cannot fulfill them. In particular, the medium access control (MAC) layer plays a key role in cognitive radio functions, such as channel sensing, resource allocation, spectrum mobility and spectrum sharing. To address various application-specific requirements in CRBANs, several MAC protocols have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we survey MAC protocols for CRBANs. We then compare the different MAC protocols with one another and discuss challenging open issues in the relevant research. PMID:25903551

  19. A Survey of MAC Protocols for Cognitive Radio Body Area Networks

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Sabin; Moh, Sangman

    2015-01-01

    The advancement in electronics, wireless communications and integrated circuits has enabled the development of small low-power sensors and actuators that can be placed on, in or around the human body. A wireless body area network (WBAN) can be effectively used to deliver the sensory data to a central server, where it can be monitored, stored and analyzed. For more than a decade, cognitive radio (CR) technology has been widely adopted in wireless networks, as it utilizes the available spectra of licensed, as well as unlicensed bands. A cognitive radio body area network (CRBAN) is a CR-enabled WBAN. Unlike other wireless networks, CRBANs have specific requirements, such as being able to automatically sense their environments and to utilize unused, licensed spectra without interfering with licensed users, but existing protocols cannot fulfill them. In particular, the medium access control (MAC) layer plays a key role in cognitive radio functions, such as channel sensing, resource allocation, spectrum mobility and spectrum sharing. To address various application-specific requirements in CRBANs, several MAC protocols have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we survey MAC protocols for CRBANs. We then compare the different MAC protocols with one another and discuss challenging open issues in the relevant research. PMID:25903551

  20. A simulation study of TaMAC protocol using network simulator 2.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Sana; Kwak, Kyung Sup

    2012-10-01

    A Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is expected to play a significant role in future healthcare system. It interconnects low-cost and intelligent sensor nodes in, on, or around a human body to serve a variety of medical applications. It can be used to diagnose and treat patients with chronic diseases such as hypertensions, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. The lightweight sensor nodes integrated in WBAN require low-power operation, which can be achieved using different optimization techniques. We introduce a Traffic-adaptive MAC protocol (TaMAC) for WBAN that supports dual wakeup mechanisms for normal, emergency, and on-demand traffic. In this letter, the TaMAC protocol is simulated using a well-known Network Simulator 2 (NS-2). The problem of multiple emergency nodes is solved using both wakeup radio and CSMA/CA protocol. The power consumption, delay, and throughput performance are closely compared with beacon-enabled IEEE 802.15.4 MAC protocol using extensive simulations. PMID:21863319