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1

Apple: Mac OS X Server  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

On March 16th, 1999, Apple computer made two announcements that indicate radical changes in the direction of its OS. One of these announcements was the release of Mac OS X Server, billed as "the first modern operating system" ever shipped by Apple. Based on BSD Unix and the Mach kernel, it includes standard Unix features such as protected memory, pre-emptive multitasking, and full process management, as well as NetBoot a new type of client-server architecture.

2

Mac OS X public beta  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Mac OS X (read OS ten) is Apple's next-generation operating system and represents the largest overhaul of the Mac OS to date. Mac OS X promises to bring key technical features such as protected memory (which prevents an individual application from crashing the entire system) to the Macintosh platform for the first time. In addition to completely replacing the underpinnings of the Mac OS, Apple is also working on overhauling the user interface for OS X. The new interface, known as "Aqua," sports a translucent candy-colored look and adds a new feature called "the dock" to the bottom of the screen. According to Apple, Mac OS X beta is supported by any Macintosh that shipped with a G3 or G4 processor except for the original PowerBook G3; Apple recommends 128 MB RAM. To run older applications in the "classic" environment also requires a copy of Mac OS 9; the CD doesn't include one.

3

'SuperMac' Apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

`SuperMac' (Malus xdomestica Borkh) is being released as a replacement for `Spartan', which is presently being grown in Eastern Canada for its excellent shelf life. However, it is susceptibility to scab [Venturia inaequalis (Cke) Wint.], the most common apple disease. This new cultivar produces larger fruit than `Spartan' and is resistant to apple scab. It is very attractive (Fig. 1),

S. Khanizadeh; Y. Groleau; A. Levasseur; O. Carisse; D. Rekika; J. DeEll; J. P. Prive; I. Alli; H. Kemp

2006-01-01

4

Mac OS X 10.1 Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Apple released an update to its Mac OS X operating system. The update brought marked performance enhancements and several new features, such as data CD and DVD burning as well as DVD playback; Audio CD burning was added in an earlier update.

2001-01-01

5

Mac OS X for Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mac OS X is the new Unix based version of the Macintosh operating system. It combines a high performance DisplayPDF user interface with a standard BSD UNIX subsystem and provides users with simultaneous access to a broad range of applications which were not previously available on a single system such as Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop, as well as legacy X11-based scientific tools and packages like IRAF, SuperMongo, MIDAS, etc. The combination of a modern GUI layered on top of a familiar UNIX environment paves the way for new, more flexible and powerful astronomical tools to be developed while assuring compatibility with already existing, older programs. In this paper, we outline the strengths of the Mac OS X platform in a scientific environment, astronomy in particular, and point to the numerous astronomical software packages available for this platform; most notably the Scisoft collection which we have compiled.

Pierfederici, F.; Pirzkal, N.; Hook, R. N.

6

Is Apple's iMac Leopard Operating System Secure under ARP-Based Flooding Attacks?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple's iMac computers are promoted by the Apple Inc. to be secure, safe, virus free and fast computers. In this experimental paper, we evaluate the security offered by the iMac computers with its usual Leopard Operating System, against ARP-based flooding attacks in a Gigabit LAN environment. We compared the effect of ARP attacks on Leopard OS against those on the

S. Surisetty; S. Kumar

2010-01-01

7

MacOS 8.5 Application Switcher Settings: AppSwitcher Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With MacOS 8.5, Apple introduced a number of user interface enhancements. One new feature is the ability to "tear-off" the Application menu and display it in its own small, floating window (called the Application Switcher). Users can modify the Application Switcher's appearance via AppleScript, but for those of you wary of writing scripts, freeware authors have written small applications that allow you to perform the customization through a user-friendly interface. These applications allow you to customize both the appearance of the Application Switcher (e.g., window border, orientation, sort order) and the keystrokes for switching between applications.

8

MacOS 8.5 Application Switcher Settings: Switcher PowerUp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With MacOS 8.5, Apple introduced a number of user interface enhancements. One new feature is the ability to "tear-off" the Application menu and display it in its own small, floating window (called the Application Switcher). Users can modify the Application Switcher's appearance via AppleScript, but for those of you wary of writing scripts, freeware authors have written small applications that allow you to perform the customization through a user-friendly interface. These applications allow you to customize both the appearance of the Application Switcher (e.g., window border, orientation, sort order) and the keystrokes for switching between applications.

9

MacOS 8.5 Application Switcher Settings: Switcher Setter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With MacOS 8.5, Apple introduced a number of user interface enhancements. One new feature is the ability to "tear-off" the Application menu and display it in its own small, floating window (called the Application Switcher). Users can modify the Application Switcher's appearance via AppleScript, but for those of you wary of writing scripts, freeware authors have written small applications that allow you to perform the customization through a user-friendly interface. These applications allow you to customize both the appearance of the Application Switcher (e.g., window border, orientation, sort order) and the keystrokes for switching between applications.

10

The Macolumn - the Mac gets geophysical. [A review of geophysical software for the Apple Macintosh computer  

SciTech Connect

Seismic Processing Workshop, a program by Parallel Geosciences of Austin, TX, is discussed in this column. The program is a high-speed, interactive seismic processing and computer analysis system for the Apple Macintosh II family of computers. Also reviewed in this column are three products from Wilkerson Associates of Champaign, IL. SubSide is an interactive program for basin subsidence analysis; MacFault and MacThrustRamp are programs for modeling faults.

Busbey, A.B. (Texas Christian Univ., Fort Worth (USA))

1990-02-01

11

Numerical solutions and mapping of electrostatic fields using the Apple MacIntosh computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity, user-friendliness, and accessibility of personal computers encourages their use as powerful computational tools for numerical and graphical aids in the visualization of concepts that may seem abstract to students. Methods are presented for using the Apple MacIntosh computer for the numerical solution and mapping of fields for electrostatics, steady current flow, heat transfer, and source-free magnetostatics problems. The

FERREL G. STREMLER; SANFORD A. KLEIN; F. F. Luo; Y. Liao

1990-01-01

12

The Future of the Mac and the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reporting from the Macworld conference Pete DeVries, Internet Tools Specialist for the Internet Scout Project, describes the challenges facing Apple and the successes it has already had. This is an excellent overview of how Mac OS 7 compares to Windows and Linux operating systems.

Devries, Pete.

1997-01-01

13

Apple's Leopard Versus Microsoft's Windows XP: Experimental Evaluation of Apple's Leopard Operating System with Windows XP-SP2 under Distributed Denial of Service Security Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple's iMac computers are promoted by Apple Inc. to be secure, safe, virus free, and fast computers. In this experimental paper, we evaluate the security offered by the iMac with its usual Leopard Operating System, against different Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks in a Gigabit LAN environment. We compared the effect of DDoS attacks on Leopard OS against those

Sirisha Surisetty; Sanjeev Kumar

2011-01-01

14

Apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scientific Name and Introduction: Malus x domestica Borkh., the apple, is a perennial of the Rosaceae family. The apple is thought to have arisen in the Caucasus region of southeastern Europe, and the tree is one of the hardiest temperate zone species. The edible part of the fruit is comprised of fleshy tissue that surrounds the five ovaries, as well

Chris B. Watkins; Eugene Kupferman; David A. Rosenberger

15

AppleCare Service & Support  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Apple Computer offers an Apple Support Area and the Tech Info Library. The support area provides current product information, software updates, the Top 20 Tech Info library articles, information about the Quicktime lawsuit, opendoc, and more. The Tech Info Library contains hundreds of documentation sheets on Apple hardware and software from the Apple II through Lisa to the Mac, including peripherals, and white papers and a third-party company directory. For searching instructions look under "About the Tech Info Library."

16

When worlds collide - Mac to MS-DOS. [Data transfer to and from Apple Macintosh computers and MS-DOS based personal computers  

SciTech Connect

A number of methods and products, both hardware and software, to allow data exchange between Apple Macintosh computers and MS-DOS based systems. These included serial null modem connections, MS-DOS hardware and/or software emulation, MS-DOS disk-reading hardware and networking.

Busbey, A.B.

1989-04-01

17

Mac FixIt Guides  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The iFixIt guides are extremely helpful to computer repair technicians who would like to be able to fix Apple brand computers as well as PCs. The guides included on the site are mainly dedicated to Apple laptops, including MacBooks, PowerBooks, and iBooks, but also include a few guides pertaining to the Mac Mini. There are numerous guides to choose from, all organized by computer type, computer specifications, and what the repairperson would like to accomplish. The guides are extremely easy to follow and contain detailed pictures and diagrams, which are very helpful. Most of the guides are also downloadable. The guides include lists of tools and links to purchase the tools if the user doesn�t have them. All of the information on iFixIt is free and no login is required.

2006-12-31

18

MacDICT 2.8  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handy little application gives users the ability to quickly connect with eleven databases while online, including _Webster's Dictionary_ and the _World FactBook_. Additionally, MacDICT 2.8 provides access to translation services on the Web for over ten languages. The application also allows for access to Wikipedia, the multilingual, open content, Web-based encyclopedia. This version of MacDICt is compatible with all systems running Mac OS X and higher.

19

Apple Safari  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The latest iteration of the Safari browser takes several bold steps by offering a streamlined approach to RSS feeds, along with offering new ways to look at paginated stories and galleries. Also, Safari now comes with local searches enabled from the location bar, so queries will be linked to users' history and bookmarks. This version is compatible with computers running Windows XP and newer or Mac OS X 10.5 and newer.

20

Apple QuickTime Broadcaster 1.5  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this latest application from Apple, users can effectively produce professional-quality live events for online delivery around the world. The combination of the various QuickTime technologies and application makes a wide range of activities possible, including transmitting business meetings or lectures to a host of different online users. The user-friendly interface provides a basic overview that makes utilizing the application quite easy. This application is compatible with Mac OS X/Server 10.3.9 and QuickTime 7.0.

21

Converting Bowling Balls into Apples and Macs.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Conversion of a University of Oregon bowling center into a computer laboratory by the college union is discussed. Located in a renovated former bowling center, the Erb Memorial Union Computer Lounge is a self-supporting campus computer laboratory. User fees are charged for on-site computer rentals, laser printing, color plotting, and typesetting

Simmons, Dexter D.

1988-01-01

22

YA-MAC: Handling unified unicast and broadcast traffic in Multi-hop Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces YA-MAC, an agile Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol to provide high throughput for both unicast and broadcast traffic in Duty-Cycled Multi- hop Wireless Sensor Networks (DCM-WSN). YA-MAC is im- plemented under the UPMA framework in TinyOS and is evaluated on TelosB and MicaZ testbeds. We observe that YA- MAC significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art SCP-MAC protocol in terms

Poonam Yadav; Julie A. McCann

2011-01-01

23

Autumn Apples  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

One of the most potent symbols of the autumnal season is the apple. For good reason, too, as this much-loved member of the rose family is responsible for many of our tastiest fall treats such as apple pie, cider, apple sauce, and apple butter-to name just a few. The aptly named website Apples & More, from the University of Illinois Extension, offers brief informational sections and resource links for the following areas: History & Legends, Nutrition, Preserving Apples, Varieties, Apple Cider, and many more (1). From Pearl Street Design, the Apple Journal provides a potpourri of apple-related news, recipes, images and other information (2 ). The third website, hosted by The New Farm, contains an article about organic apple research in Pennsylvania (3 ). From the Mount Vernon Research & Extension Unit at Washington State University, this website contains brief reports and resource links for a variety of apple research areas (4 ). For the benefit of apple growers, researchers, and others, the Minnesota Department of Agriculture posts this comprehensive and downloadable Field Guide for Identification of Pest Insects, Diseases, and Beneficial Organisms in Minnesota Apple Orchards (5 ). From Lakeside Orchards in Maine, this website contains a brief overview of seasonal activities in an apple orchard (6 ). The seventh website, hosted by the San Diego County Office of Educations Teacher CyberGuide, contains a supplementary resource page for teachers planning educational units about apples (7). From Vermont Apples, this next website features a diverse collection of apple recipes including Apple Pie, Winter Salad, Gingered Apple Chutney, and Curried Apple Soup (8). The final website, from The Ohio State University Extension, contains a fact sheet about making apple cider vinegar (9).

24

SeisMac 2.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeisMac is a free Mac OS X application that turns MacBook or MacBook Pro laptops into seismographs. It uses the Sudden Motion Sensor (accelerometer) that these machines are equipped with to create and display real-time, three-axis acceleration graphs (seismograms). The resizable, real-time scrolling display lets students see the seismic waves from tapping their toes on the floor, lay the laptop on their chests to see their heartbeats, or see seismic waves from real earthquakes. The software allows users to pause the display to study an event; scroll back in time to see older data; enlarge or contract the graph, both vertically and horizontally; and copy, print or save the screen. Time labels tell exactly when an event occurred, the sampling rate can be adjusted, and acceleration data can be smoothed. The site features a link to download the software and a link to help files for installing and using it.

25

Wireless MAC processors: Programming MAC protocols on commodity Hardware  

Microsoft Academic Search

Programmable wireless platforms aim at responding to the quest for wireless access flexibility and adaptability. This paper introduces the notion of wireless MAC processors. Instead of implementing a specific MAC protocol stack, Wireless MAC processors do support a set of Medium Access Control commands which can be run-time composed (programmed) through software-defined state machines, thus providing the desired MAC protocol

I. Tinnirello; G. Bianchi; P. Gallo; D. Garlisi; F. Giuliano; F. Gringoli

2012-01-01

26

TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for real-time high-data-rate sensor networks  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Earlier sensor network MAC protocols focus on energy conservation in low-duty cycle applications, while some recent applications involve real-time high-data-rate signals. This motivates us to design an innovative localized TDMA MAC protocol to achieve high throughput and low congestion in data collection sensor networks, besides energy conservation. TreeMAC divides a time cycle into frames and each frame into slots. A parent node determines the children's frame assignment based on their relative bandwidth demand, and each node calculates its own slot assignment based on its hop-count to the sink. This innovative 2-dimensional frame-slot assignment algorithm has the following nice theory properties. First, given any node, at any time slot, there is at most one active sender in its neighborhood (including itself). Second, the packet scheduling with TreeMAC is bufferless, which therefore minimizes the probability of network congestion. Third, the data throughput to the gateway is at least 1/3 of the optimum assuming reliable links. Our experiments on a 24-node testbed show that TreeMAC protocol significantly improves network throughput, fairness, and energy efficiency compared to TinyOS's default CSMA MAC protocol and a recent TDMA MAC protocol Funneling-MAC. Partial results of this paper were published in Song, Huang, Shirazi and Lahusen [W.-Z. Song, R. Huang, B. Shirazi, and R. Lahusen, TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC protocol for high-throughput and fairness in sensor networks, in: The 7th Annual IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications, PerCom, March 2009]. Our new contributions include analyses of the performance of TreeMAC from various aspects. We also present more implementation detail and evaluate TreeMAC from other aspects. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

Song, W. -Z.; Huang, R.; Shirazi, B.; LaHusen, R.

2009-01-01

27

CryoMACS Freezing Bag  

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER)

... CryoMACS Freezing Bag. Applicant: Miltenyi Biotec, Incorporated. 510(k) number: BK090020. Product: CryoMACS Freezing Bag. ... More results from www.fda.gov/biologicsbloodvaccines/bloodbloodproducts/approvedproducts

28

Recent results from MAC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some preliminary results from the MAC detector at PEP are presented. These include measurements of the angular distribution of gamma gamma, mu mu and tau tau final states, a determination of the tau lifetime, a measurement of R, and a presentation of the inclusive muon p/sub perpendicular/ distribution for hadronic events.

Ford, W. R.; Marsh, J. S.; Read, A. L., Jr.; Smith, J. G.; Marini, A.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Ronga, F.; Baksay, L.; Band, H. R.

1982-05-01

29

A MAC contest between LPL (the champion) and Reins-MAC (the challenger, an anarchic TDMA scheduler providing QoS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

LPL [5], or BoX-MAC in its TinyOS implementation, is arguably the most common MAC protocol for WSNs. Its extensive use in real world deployments is justified by a simple implementation, available online, that meets the requirements of a vast majority of monitoring applications. Despite the plethora of competitors, it still remains the reference in the MAC scheduling world. However, its

Matteo Ceriotti; Amy L. Murphy

2010-01-01

30

Newton's Apple  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his

Hendry, Archibald W.

2007-01-01

31

Results from MAC  

SciTech Connect

The MAC detector has been exposed at PEP to 40 pb/sup -1/ luminosity of e/sup +/e/sup -/ collisions. The detector is described and recent results of a continuing analysis of hadronic cross section, lepton pair charge asymmetry, Bhabha process, two photon final state and radiative ..mu.. pairs are given. New results on flavor tagging of hadronic events with an inclusive ..mu.., and some searches for new particles are presented.

Chadwick, G.B.

1983-05-01

32

The MAC detector  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The MAC detector at PEP recorded data for an integrated luminosity of 335 pb-1 between 1980 and 1986. The design of this low-cost MAgnetic Calorimeter was optimized for electron and muon identification, as well as for the measurement of hadronic energy flow. Muon identification is available over 96% of the solid angle, and MAC was the first detector to make large-scale use of gas-sampling calorimetry. Electromagnetic calorimetry in the central section employs alternating layers of lead and proportional wire chambers (PWCs), and hadron and the remaining electromagnetic calorimetry is accomplished with iron plate and PWC layers. A relatively small central drift chamber in an axial magnetic field provides pattern recognition and modest momentum determination. An outer blanket of drift tubes completes the muon identification system. During the latter two years of operation an innovative ``soda straw'' vertex chamber made more precise lifetime measurements possible. With an evolving trigger system and highly automated data acquisition system, this modest detector has exceeded most of its designers' expectations and has produced a gratifying spectrum of physics results.

Allaby, J. V.; Ash, W. W.; Band, H. R.; Baksay, L. A.; Blume, H. T.; Bosman, M.; Camporesi, T.; Chadwick, G. B.; Clearwater, S. H.; Coombes, R. W.; Delfino, M. C.; de Sangro, R.; Faissler, W. L.; Fernndez, E.; Ford, W. T.; Gettner, M. W.; Goderre, G. P.; Goldschmidt-Clermont, Y.; Gottschalk, B.; Groom, D. E.; Heltsley, B. K.; Hurst, R. B.; Johnson, J. R.; Kaye, H. S.; Lau, K. H.; Lavine, T. L.; Lee, H. Y.; Leedy, R. E.; Leung, S. P.; Lippi, I.; Loh, E. C.; Lynch, H. L.; Marini, A.; Marsh, J. S.; Maruyama, T.; Messner, R. L.; Meyer, O. A.; Michalowski, S. J.; Morcos, S.; Moromisato, J. H.; Morse, R. M.; Moss, L. J.; Muller, F.; Nelson, H. N.; Peruzzi, I.; Piccolo, M.; Prepost, R.; Pyrlik, J.; Qi, N.; Read, A. L.; Rich, K.; Ritson, D. M.; Ronga, F.; Rosenberg, L. J.; Shambroom, W. D.; Sleeman, J. C.; Smith, J. G.; Venuti, J. P.; Verdini, P. G.; von Goeler, E.; Wald, H. B.; Weinstein, R.; Wiser, D. E.; Zdarko, R. W.

1989-09-01

33

Apple Mildew.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Affection of apple trees by powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha Salm.) has been observed in the same fruit growing regions as it was in 1963. As usual, the disease developed intensively in the Republics of Central Asia and Transcaucasia, at some point...

D. M. Kobakhidze

1968-01-01

34

Rotten Apples  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In 1991 and 1992, John Leach, Bonnie Shapiro, and the author did a study in which they interviewed approximately 400 students from the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States about their beliefs surrounding the decay of an apple over a year's time.

Konicek-Moran, Richard

2009-04-01

35

The microbiology of apples and apple products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apple industry has reached an annual production level of 8.5 billion pounds. CA storage of 25% of this crop has enabled a fresh market on a year?round basis. To achieve high quality in raw fruit and processed apple products, careful attention must be paid to maintaining a microbiologically stable environment. The ecology of the microflora associated with the apple

Stephanie Doores; Donald F. Splittstoesser

1983-01-01

36

AS-MAC: An asynchronous scheduled MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy efficiency of the MAC protocol is a key design factor for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). Due to the importance of the problem, a number of energy efficient MAC protocols have been developed for WSNs. Preamble-sampling based MAC protocols (e.g., B-MAC and X-MAC) have overheads due to their preambles, and are inefficient at large wakeup intervals. SCP-MAC, a very energy

Beakcheol Jang; Jun Bum Lim; M. L. Sichitiu

2008-01-01

37

Relocation Analysis of Stabilizing MAC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The designers of media access control (MAC) protocols often do not consider the relocation of mobile nodes. Alternatively, when they do assume that the nodes are not stationary, designers tend to assume that some nodes temporarily do not change their location and coordinate the communications among mobile nodes. An understanding is needed of the relationship between the performances of MAC algorithms and the different settings by which the location of the mobile nodes is modeled. We study this relationship with an emphasis on stabilization concepts, which are imperative in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). We show that efficient MAC algorithms must balance a trade-off between two strategies; one that is oblivious to the history of local broadcasts and one that is not.

Leone, Pierre; Papatriantafilou, Marina; Schiller, Elad M.

38

Refurbishing MacIntyre's Account of Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|According to Alasdair MacIntyre's influential account of practices, "teaching itself is not a practice, but a set of skills and habits put to the service of a variety of practices" (MacIntyre and Dunne, 2002, p. 5). Various philosophers of education have responded to and critiqued MacIntyre's position, most notably in a Special Issue of the

Hager, Paul

2011-01-01

39

China�s Equilibrium Exchange Rate and Trade Balance: A Tale of Apples and Pirates  

Microsoft Academic Search

China has been widely accused of deliberately maintaining an undervalued currency to fuel its exports. In this paper we argue that one of the most popular measures of equilibrium exchange rates, the Big Mac index, should make way for an Apple index; a theoretically more appealing index where purchasing power parity exchange rates are calculated based on the prices of

James Laurenceson; Kam Ki Tang

40

Refractory Inclusions in the CO3-like Chondrites MAC 88107 and MAC 87300  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAC 87300 and MAC 88107 are similar, ungrouped carbonaceous chondrites with properties that are intermediate between the CM and CO meteorite groups, though they are more closely related to the latter [1,2]. 170 CAIs were observed in a 102 micrometers^2 thin section of MAC 87300, all <500 micrometers and most <300 micrometers in size. Most are composed of pyroxene and

S. S. Russell; A. M. Davis; G. J. MacPherson

1995-01-01

41

R-MAC: An Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater sensor networks are significantly different from terrestrial sensor networks in that sound is mainly used as the communication medium. The long propagation delay and limited bandwidth of acoustic channels make the existing MAC protocols designed for radio networks either unpractical or not energy efficient for underwater sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a reservation-based MAC protocol, called R-MAC.

Peng Xie; Jun-Hong Cui

2007-01-01

42

Arsenic in Apple Juice  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... adults. July 12, 2013. ... Questions & Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic (updated July 15, 2013). -. Additional Information. Letter ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/metals

43

George MacDonald's Estimate of Childhood  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The nineteenth-century fantasy writer George MacDonald believed that "it is better to be a child in a green field than a knight of many orders." In this paper, I shall explore the bearing of this high estimate of childhood on spiritual education. MacDonald explores the spirituality of the child in his essay "A Sketch of Individual Development"

Pridmore, John

2007-01-01

44

The microbiology of apples and apple products.  

PubMed

The apple industry has reached an annual production level of 8.5 billion pounds. CA storage of 25% of this crop has enabled a fresh market on a year-round basis. To achieve high quality in raw fruit and processed apple products, careful attention must be paid to maintaining a microbiologically stable environment. The ecology of the microflora associated with the apple is a reflection of the orchard, handling, harvesting, and storage practices. Yeasts predominate on orchard fruit, molds may become a storage problem, and bacteria cause spoilage, off flavors, and loss of quality in juice products. Despite the microbial problems inherent in producing of quality product, the apple industry is faced with the occurrence of patulin. Patulin, a mycotoxin produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species, has been associated with damaged fruit. Decreased temperatures, coupled with CA storage; can deter mold growth and patulin production. Laboratory detection methods for derivations of patulin are able to detect microgram quantities. Means to eliminate patulin formed in apple products include addition of ascorbate and SO2, extending fermentation, or charcoal filtering. However, degradation products of patulin have not been evaluated toxicologically. PMID:6380951

Doores, S

1983-01-01

45

The Apple IIc.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Description of the portable Apple IIc includes its flat panel display; a new microprocessor, the 65CO2; its new design language; layout; documentation, including interactive tutorials; software support; and cost. Apple IIc's competitors and its new printer, the Scribe, are also discussed. (MBR)

Freiberger, Paul

1984-01-01

46

Mac configuration management at the Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) had a need for central configuration management of non-Windows computers. LANL has three to five thousand Macs and an equal number of Linux based systems. The primary goal was to be able to inventory all non-windows systems and patch Mc OS X systems. LANL examined a number of commercial and open source solutions and ultimately selected Puppet. This paper will discuss why we chose Puppet, how we implemented it, and some lessons we learned along the way.

Marcus, Allan B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

47

42 CFR 423.2126 - Case remanded by the MAC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Case remanded by the MAC. 423.2126 Section...review, and Judicial Review § 423.2126 Case remanded by the MAC. (a) When the MAC may remand a case to the ALJ. (1) The MAC may remand...

2012-10-01

48

The Diminishing Apple.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Introduces the Apple Ocean activity which teaches about the diminishing natural resources of the earth including drinkable water, habitable land, and productive areas while working with fractions, ratios, and proportions. (YDS)|

Kelly, Catherine

2002-01-01

49

Apple Screen 2  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The apple is ripening from the inside. Ripening occurs due to injury or infection by fungi (the signal causes ripening chemicals to be released in the fruit). The fruit becomes soft as it ripens, which accounts for the dents.

Katie Hale (CSUF;Biological Sciences)

2007-06-26

50

The Diminishing Apple  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Upper elementary students cut apples to explore the Earth. The goal of the activity is to teach children about the relatively small proportions of actual drinkable water, habitable land, and productive areas on the Earth.

Kelly, Catherine

2002-02-02

51

SeisMac Seismogram Modeling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teacher will demonstrate the SeisMac program. Shake the laptop in the three different directions, showing how the different directions are recorded on the three different components. Adjust both the vertical and horizontal scales to show how the same motions can be represented differently. Setting the vertical scales on -1 to +1, tilt the laptop 90 deg in each of the three directions to demonstrate that the seismograms are records of acceleration (accelerograms). When the laptop is oriented normally, the baseline of the vertical component is 1 g and the two horizontal components have baselines of 0 g. However, when the laptop is tilted the vertical component goes to 0 g and one of the horizontal components will go to 1 g. Teacher will present real 3-component seismograms for actual data, and discuss the major seismic phases (P, S, Love, Rayleigh), showing the components they arrive on: P is primarily on vertical, S is primarily on radial and transverse, Love is primarily on the transverse, and the Rayleigh wave is primarily on both vertical and radial components. Students will take turns shaking the seismometer to try to directly replicate the actual seismograms. If two sets of seismograms are used, the teacher can talk about the differences between seismograms at stations that are nearer or further from the seismometer. Has minimal/no quantitative component Addresses student misconceptions

Wysession, Michael

52

Over Half MAC Sevoflurane in Cesarean Section  

Microsoft Academic Search

Half MAC(minimal alveolar concentration) of volatile anesthetics has been commonly used with nitrous oxide for cesarean section which could occur intraoperative awareness. Over half MAC or more than 1% sevoflurane was studied on 65 parturients who came for either elective or emergency operations. The patient characteristics were age 31.00 + 5.67(21-41) years, BW 72.37 + 10.51(52.6-117) kg, and ASA physical

Siriwan Jirasiritham

53

The MAC - a miniature atomic clock  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors are developing a chip-scale atomic clock (CSAC), more than two orders of magnitude smaller and lower power than any existing technology. As an intermediate milestone, en route to the ultimate CSAC objectives, we have developed a miniature atomic clock (MAC), combining the low-power CSAC physics package with a low-parts count, low-power digital control and microwave system. The MAC

R. Lutwak; P. Vlitas; M. Varghese; M. Mescher; D. K. Serkland; G. M. Peake

2005-01-01

54

Apples and Oranges  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Use these activities to practice using information to create and read bar graphs. Go to this website and answer the questions using a bar graph. Play this fun game of bugs in the system, and then record your graphs on the paper provided. Use the following information to create a bar graph of your own. I asked all the students in the class whether they prefered apples or oranges. 12 said apples 9 said oranges 4 said neither Create ...

Korth, Mrs.

2005-10-31

55

AeroMACS system characterization and demonstrations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

Kerczewski, R. J.; Apaza, R. D.; Dimond, R. P.

56

Multispectral inspection station detects defects on apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance of a multi-spectral apple inspection station capable of orienting some cultivars, conveying, and presenting apples to a camera at five apples per second is described. Apples are pre-sized and hand placed on the conveying devices to rotate about an axis passing through both the stem and calyx of each apple. An image of each apple is captured at

James A. Throop; Daniel J. Aneshansley; Bill Anger

2000-01-01

57

LL-MAC: A low latency MAC protocol for wireless self-organised networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes LL-MAC, a medium access control (MAC) protocol specifically designed for wireless sensor network applications that require low data latency. Wireless sensor networks use battery-operated computing and sensing devices and their main application is environmental monitoring. In order to achieve such requirements, the whole network must work autonomously and collaborate in periodically sensing the surrounding environment and sending

I. Marn; Jagoba Arias; E. Arceredillo; Aitzol Zuloaga; I. Losada; J. Mabe

2008-01-01

58

GREEN-MAC-LCCP: a tool for assessing the life cycle climate performance of MAC systems.  

PubMed

In 2008, 95% of the vehicle fleet in the developed countries and 80% of fleet in the developing countries were equipped with mobile air conditioning systems (MACs). Greenhouse gases (GHGs) are emitted due to refrigerant leakage (direct emissions) and due to the energy consumed by MACs operation (indirect emissions). In response to reducing the global warming impact of MACs, policy makers and the industry are investigating alternative refrigerant systems that use low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants. The GREEN-MAC-LCCP model assesses the direct and indirect CO(2) equivalent emissions related to MACs usage, as well as those associated with the production, use and disposal of alternative refrigerants and MACs components. This model provides a platform for simple data input and provides an output summary as well as details that can be analyzed in a custom fashion by the user. It provides engineers and policy makers a state-of-the-art tool, based on sound engineering data and methods, in order to facilitate the process of evaluating alternate refrigerants with low lifecycle global warming impact as well as providing the total impact of any MACs on the environment. It has been recognized as the standard of the MACs industry. PMID:20812721

Papasavva, Stella; Hill, William R; Andersen, Stephen O

2010-10-01

59

Butanol production from apple pomace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The use of apple pomace for butanol production was studied by employing strains ofClostridium acetobutylicum andbutylicum. Yields of butanol between 1.9 and 2.2 % of fresh apple pomace are reported.

C. E. Voget; C. F. Mignone; R. J. Ertola

1985-01-01

60

Cooperatives in the Apple Industry.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Sixty four apple marketing, processing, contracting and bargaining cooperatives accounted for 27 percent of the total apple crop in the United States in 1984. They were responsible for 17 percent of the fresh and 41 percent of the processed apples. Forty-...

G. W. Biggs

1987-01-01

61

About APPLE II Operation  

SciTech Connect

The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Swiss Light Source, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2007-01-19

62

MAC2: A Multi-Hop Adaptive MAC Protocol with Packet Concatenation for Wireless Sensor Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless sensor network MAC protocols switch radios off periodically, employing the so-called duty cycle mechanism, in order to conserve battery power that would otherwise be wasted by energy-costly idle listening. In order to minimize the various negative side-effects of the original scheme, especially on latency and throughput, various improvements have been proposed. In this paper, we introduce a new MAC protocol called MAC2(Multi-hop Adaptive with packet Concatenation-MAC) which combines three promising techniques into one protocol. Firstly, the idea to forward packets over multiple hops within one operational cycle as initially introduced in RMAC. Secondly, an adaptive method that adjusts the listening period according to traffic load minimizing idle listening. Thirdly, a packet concatenation scheme that not only increases throughput but also reduces power consumption that would otherwise be incurred by additional control packets. Furthermore, MAC2 incorporates the idea of scheduling data transmissions with minimum latency, thereby performing packet concatenation together with the multi-hop transmission mechanism in a most efficient way. We evaluated MAC2 using the prominent network simulator ns-2 and the results show that our protocol can outperform DW-MAC a state of the art protocol both in terms of energy efficiency and throughput.

Nguyen, Kien; Meis, Ulrich; Ji, Yusheng

63

Making Bags of Apples  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this 39-slide slideshare presentation students are guided through the process of using repeated reasoning to discover the number of apples in a specific number of bags. This slideshare presentation was developed by the Illustrative Mathematics Project to illustrate CCSS-SMP 8. Throughout the slideshare student and teacher dialogue is presented along with commentary by two observers.

Herbst, Patricia; Owens, Susanna

2013-01-01

64

The Apple III.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes and evaluates the features, performance, peripheral devices, available software, and capabilities of the Apple III microcomputer. The computer's operating system, its hardware, and the commercially produced software it accepts are discussed. Specific applications programs for financial planning, accounting, and word processing are

Ditlea, Steve

1982-01-01

65

BAM Media M139: Sorbitol-MacConkey Agar  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... BAM Media M139: Sorbitol-MacConkey Agar. January 2001. Bacteriological Analytical Manual. M139 Sorbitol-MacConkey Agar. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodscienceresearch/laboratorymethods

66

You Can Prevent MAC (Disseminated Mycobacterium Avium Complex Disease)  

MedlinePLUS

... germs from causing disease. When should I get treatment to prevent MAC disease? Because MAC disease occurs ... and other HIV/AIDS documents. Free HIV/AIDS treatment information: AIDSinfo (800) 448-0440 Project Inform (800) ...

67

TFC selection for MAC scheduling in WCDMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reacting to the evolution of user's needs toward multimedia applications, an important feature of the third generation mobile networks is to support efficiently multiple applications with different quality of service. In the radio access networks of UMTS, RLC\\/MAC layers are designed to accommodate simultaneously mixed services through establishing multiple bearers. A major issue is the rate adaption of these bearers.

Duan-Shin Lee; Chiung-Sui Liu

2003-01-01

68

Elementary Proof of MacMahon's Conjecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Major Percy A. MacMahon's first paper on plane partitions [4] included a conjectured generating function for symmetric plane partitions. This conjecture was proven almost simultaneously by George Andrews and Ian Macdonald, Andrews using the machinery of basic hypergeometric series [1] and Macdonald employing his knowledge of symmetric functions [3]. The purpose of this paper is to simplify Macdonald's proof by

David M. Bressoud

1998-01-01

69

Douglas MacArthur Upon Reflection.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

General-of-the-Army Douglas MacArthur was a complex man whose behaviors seem contradictory on the surface. In fact, he demonstrated an enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to, and thinking about himself and his environment. This consistent personality...

L. L. Snitchler

1998-01-01

70

A MAC Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

There exists an increasing demand for reliable, high capacity underwater sensor networks. Application interests include oceanographic information acquiring, environmental monitoring, and coastal defense. A multi-channel media access control (MAC) protocol used for underwater acoustic channel which improves the network efficiency by using RTS-CTS exchange is presented. Simulation tests on OPNET modeler show that, its network communication performance is satisfactory.

Meng Tao; Shi Haoshan; Wang Yu

2007-01-01

71

MAC Essentials for Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The wireless medium being inherently broadcast in nature and hence prone to interferences requires highly optimized medium access control (MAC) protocols. This holds particularly true for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) consisting of a large amount of miniaturized battery-powered wireless networked sensors required to operate for years with no human intervention. There has hence been a growing interest on understanding and

Abdelmalik Bachir; Mischa Dohler; Thomas Watteyne; Kin K. Leung

2010-01-01

72

An Interview with Peter MacDonald.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Peter MacDonald, Chairman of the Navajo Nation, the largest tribe in the United States speaks to such issues as energy development/management, oil companies, Navajo-Hopi relocation legislation, traditionalism, and the role of the Council of Energy Resource Tribes. (RTS)|

American Indian Journal, 1979

1979-01-01

73

MAC scheduling for uplink transmission in UMTS WCDMA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scheduling issues in the medium access control (MAC) layer in an UTMS radio network are presented and analyzed. Several scheduling algorithms are therefore proposed. Their performance has been tested with the help of an MAC simulator. The simulator involves MAC protocol functions and parts of the physical and radio link control (RLC) layer radio interface protocols. In order to assess

Konstantinos Dimou; Philippe Godlewski

2001-01-01

74

Cross-layer MAC scheduling for multiple antenna systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a unified view of both, PHY and MAC layer visions for a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) multiple access channel. First, we evaluate the impact in terms of throughput of a MAC scheduling strategy, based on throughput maximization and compare it with a PHY scheduling strategy based on capacity maximization. Second, a MAC scheduler with

Marc Realp; Ana I. Prez-Neira

2004-01-01

75

Making Connections--The MeneMAC Online Learning Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001, the MeneMAC (Media Arts Communications, dubbed "MeneMAC" in honor of the school mascot, the menehune) Learning Center at Moanalua High School (MoHS), inaugurated its integrated media curriculum for its class of 27 entering freshmen. MeneMAC originated as a media learning center, offering students a chance to explore their interests and

Sueoka, Lynne

2005-01-01

76

Application of MAC in the Frequency Domain, #63  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) has been used for numerous years as a measure of correlation between test and analytical mode shapes. The fact that the MAC considers only mode shapes usually means that a separate frequency comparison must be used in conjunction with the MAC values to determine the correlated mode pairs. The mode shape correlation has generally been

D. Fotsch; D. J. Ewins

2000-01-01

77

42 CFR 405.1126 - Case remanded by the MAC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Case remanded by the MAC. 405.1126 Section...Medicare Appeals Council Review § 405.1126 Case remanded by the MAC. (a) When the MAC may remand a case. Except as specified in §...

2012-10-01

78

A TDMA-Based MAC Protocol in Underwater Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing of media access control (MAC) protocol is one of the major challenges in underwater acoustic sensor networks. Because of the long and changeful propagation delay, MAC protocols for traditional terrestrial sensor networks are unavailable. We propose a TDMA-based approach which is easy to dispose and energy-efficient. In brief, our MAC protocol includes the lightweight synchronization designed to suit to

Lu Hong; Feng Hong; Zhongwen Guo; Xiaohui Yang

2008-01-01

79

42 CFR 423.2130 - Effect of the MAC's decision.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect of the MAC's decision. 423.2130...CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2130 Effect of the MAC's decision. The...

2012-10-01

80

An Energy-efficient Rate Adaptive Media Access Protocol (RA-MAC) for Long-lived Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

We introduce an energy-efficient Rate Adaptive Media Access Control (RA-MAC) algorithm for long-lived Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Previous research shows that the dynamic and lossy nature of wireless communications is one of the major challenges to reliable data delivery in WSNs. RA-MAC achieves high link reliability in such situations by dynamically trading off data rate for channel gain. The extra gain that can be achieved reduces the packet loss rate which contributes to reduced energy expenditure through a reduced numbers of retransmissions. We achieve this at the expense of raw bit rate which generally far exceeds the applications link requirement. To minimize communication energy consumption, RA-MAC selects the optimal data rate based on the estimated link quality at each data rate and an analytical model of the energy consumption. Our model shows how the selected data rate depends on different channel conditions in order to minimize energy consumption. We have implemented RA-MAC in TinyOS for an off-the-shelf sensor platform (the TinyNode) on top of a state-of-the-art WSN Media Access Control Protocol, SCP-MAC, and evaluated its performance by comparing our implementation with the original SCP-MAC using both simulation and experiment.

Hu, Wen; Chen, Quanjun; Corke, Peter; O'Rourke, Damien

2010-01-01

81

The periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA acts as a switch in stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by MacB transporter  

PubMed Central

Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC is a tri-partite macrolide efflux transporter driven by hydrolysis of ATP. In this complex, MacA is the periplasmic membrane fusion protein that stimulates the activity of MacB transporter and establishes the link with the outer membrane channel TolC. The molecular mechanism by which MacA stimulates MacB remains unknown. Here, we report that the periplasmic membrane proximal domain of MacA plays a critical role in functional MacA-MacB interactions and stimulation of MacB ATPase activity. Binding of MacA to MacB stabilizes the ATP-bound conformation of MacB, whereas interactions with both MacB and TolC affect the conformation of MacA. A single G353A substitution in the C-terminus of MacA inactivates MacAB-TolC function by changing the conformation of the membrane proximal domain of MacA and disrupting the proper assembly of the MacA-MacB complex. We propose that MacA acts in transport by promoting MacB transition into the closed ATP-bound conformation and in this respect, is similar to the periplasmic solute-binding proteins.

Modali, Sita D.; Zgurskaya, Helen I.

2011-01-01

82

WideMac: a low power and routing friendly MAC protocol for Ultra Wideband sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces WideMac, a novel low power medium access control protocol designed specifically for Ultra Wide Band Impulse Radio transceivers. The UWB-IR channel offers ultra low power transmissions and unmatchable robustness to multiple access interference. WideMac takes advantage of these two key properties by using asynchronous periodic beacon transmissions from each network node, thereby avoiding the need for network-wide

Jrme Rousselot; Amre El-Hoiydi; Jean-Dominique Decotignie

2008-01-01

83

An End User Enabled MAC-in-MAC Encapsulation Scheme for Metro-Ethernet  

Microsoft Academic Search

Easy management and maintenance and highly cost effective equipment make Ethernet an attractive technology for deploying metropolitan area networks (MANs). However, Ethernet has poor scalability due to use flat addressing scheme. To make metro-Ethernet more scalable, the provider edge (PE) nodes can use MAC-in-MAC (MiM) encapsulation scheme for frame forwarding. The MiM encapsulation scheme reduces the forwarding table size in

Xiaocui Sun; Zhijun Wang; Hao Che; Feng Zhao

2008-01-01

84

Single-Key AIL-MACs from Any FIL-MAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate a general paradigm for constructing arbitrary- input-length (AIL) MACs from xed-input-length (FIL) MACs, dene the waste as the relevant eciency parameter of such constructions, and give a simple and general security proof technique applicable to very general constructions. We propose concrete, essentially optimal construc- tions for practical use, Chain-Shift (CS) and Chain-Rotate (CR), and prove their security. They

Ueli M. Maurer; Johan Sjdin

2005-01-01

85

IP-MAC: A Distributed MAC for Spatial Reuse in Wireless Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The CSMA/CA driven MAC protocols withhold packet transmissions from exposed stations when they detect carrier signal above a certain threshold. This is to avoid collisions at other receiving stations. However, this conservative scheme often exposes many stations unnecessarily, and thus minimizes the utilization of the spatial spectral resource. In this paper, we demonstrate that remote estimation of the status at the active receivers is more effective at avoiding collisions in wireless networks than the carrier sensing. We apply a new concept of the interference range, named as n-tolerant interference range, to guarantee reliable communications in the presence of n (n ? 0) concurrent transmissions from outside the range. We design a distributed interference preventive MAC (IP-MAC) using the n-tolerant interference range that enables parallel accesses from the noninterfering stations for an active communication. In IP-MAC, an exposed station goes through an Interference Potentiality Check (IPC) to resolve whether it is potentially interfering or noninterfering to the active communication. During the resolve operation, IPC takes the capture effect at an active receiver into account with interfering signals from a number of possible concurrent transmissions near that receiver. The performance enhancement offered by IP-MAC is studied via simulations in different environments. Results reveal that IP-MAC significantly improves network performance in terms of throughput and delay.

Rahman, Md. Mustafizur; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon; Lee, Jangyeon; Cho, Jin Woong

86

Apple Learning Exchange  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Apple Learning Interchange (API) site contains a wealth of educational resources, spanning the full spectrum from preschool through to college. Subject areas (including math, science, English, language arts, the humanities, and even philosophy) are highlighted and indexed cleanly with an eye to satisfying both students and teachers. Arguably the site's strongest assets are its QuickTime clips, several of which feature the Field Museum's Tyrannosaurus Rex, Sue. For all its glitziness, ALI offers a great deal, especially from a pedagogical point of view, including a list of ready reference materials, such as the new Roget II Thesaurus and a periodic table as well as games and puzzles to teach science and math facts. As if all of this weren't enough, ALI's site also provides registered users (registration is free) with online pedagogical instruction. Of course, as the name implies, the site does prominently feature Apple technology.

2001-01-01

87

Non-MacAdam color discrimination ellipses  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MacAdam ellipses and the 1976 u'v' chromaticity space are commonly used in the illumination and LED industries. Delta E 2000 (?E) is the most up-to-date color difference metric endorsed by CIE and is more reliable than earlier metrics. This paper shows how the ?E 2000 standard can be used to derive ellipses to be plotted in the well-known 1931 xy color space and examines the validity of MacAdam ellipses and the 1976 u'v' chromaticity space in terms of this metric. The 1976 u'v' chromaticity space is found, in quantitative terms, to be less uniform than the 1931 xy chromaticity space based on ?E 2000. This paper recommends ?E calculations as a quantitative tool, the proposed ellipses as a descriptive tool, and the total abandonment of the 1976 u'v' color space.

Goldstein, Peter

2012-10-01

88

Modeling MAC layer for powerline communications networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The usage of electrical power distribution networks for voice and data transmission, called Powerline Communications, becomes nowadays more and more attractive, particularly in the telecommunication access area. The most important reasons for that are the deregulation of the telecommunication market and a fact that the access networks are still property of former monopolistic companies. In this work, first we analyze a PLC network and system structure as well as a disturbance scenario in powerline networks. After that, we define a logical structure of the powerline MAC layer and propose the reservation MAC protocols for the usage in the PLC network which provides collision free data transmission. This makes possible better network utilization and realization of QoS guarantees which can make PLC networks competitive to other access technologies.

Hrasnica, Halid; Haidine, Abdelfatteh

2001-02-01

89

On Optimal MAC Scheduling With Physical Interference  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a general family of MAC scheduling algorithms that achieve any rate-point on a uniform discrete- lattice within the throughput-region (i.e., lattice-throughput- optimal) under a physical interference model. Under the physical interference model, a centralized algorithm requires information on node locations (and distance among nodes) to determine a schedule that is provably throughput-optimal. In this paper, we propose a

Yung Yi; Gustavo De Veciana; Sanjay Shakkottai

2007-01-01

90

Implementation of DSRC Mobile MAC for VANET  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, a Dedicated Short Range Communication(DSRC) Mobile Medium Access Control(MAC) algorithm to provide Vehicle-to-Vehicle(V2V) communication is implemented. Since the DSRC is a master-slave communication system, an On-board Equipment(OBE) does not have a function to transmit the Frame Control Message Channel(FCMC). To provide V2V communications, this thesis suggests an additional function for the FCMC transmission to a DSRC Mobile

Sang-woo Chang; Jin-soo Jung; Jin Cha; Sang-sun Lee

2011-01-01

91

Binary dirty MAC with common state information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The general two-user memoryless multiple-access channel, with common channel state information known to the encoders, has no single-letter solution which explicitly characterizes its capacity region. In this paper a binary dirty multiple-access channel (MAC) with common interference, when the interference sequence is known to both encoders, is considered. We determine its sum-capacity, which equals to the capacity when full-cooperation between

Anatoly Khina; Tal Philosof; Uri Erez; Ram Zamir

2010-01-01

92

Enzymatic browning reactions in apple and apple products  

Microsoft Academic Search

This review examines the parameters of enzymatic browning in apple and apple products that is, phenolic compounds, polyphenoloxidases, and other factors (ascorbic acid and peroxidases), both qualitatively and quantitatively. Then the relationships between intensity of browning and the browning parameters are discussed, including a paragraph on the methods used for browning evaluation. Finally, the different methods for the control of

Jacques J. Nicolas; Pascale M. Goupy; Serge Y. Aubert

1994-01-01

93

Apple Location Method for the Apple Harvesting Robot  

Microsoft Academic Search

The apple harvesting robot should have two eyes to sensor the location of picking apples. The binocular machine vision system used two Canon digital cameras was built, instead of digital video used as usual. Thus, the digital camera vision system had higher resolution and superior performance than a digital video vision system, which could capture a Jpeg image with 3456*2592

Wenhua Mao; Baoping Ji; Jicheng Zhan; Xiaochao Zhang; Xiaoan Hu

2009-01-01

94

Processed Apple Product Marketing Analysis: Hard Cider and Apple Wine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hard cider and apple wine offer new value-added marketing opportunities to the apple industry. Both products are situated in rapidly growing categories of the beverage industry. The development of effective marketing strategies for these products requires an understanding of the forces driving competition in these markets. This paper provides background information to support competitive analysis and strategy development. Development of

Kristin Rowles

2000-01-01

95

APPLE Computer Incorporated, APPLE /// FORTRAN 1.0.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Validation Summary Report (VSR) for the Apple Computer Inc., Apple 3 FORTRAN Version 1.0 Pre-release running under the SOS (Sophisticated Operating System) Version 1.31X provides a consolidated summary of the results obtained from the validation of t...

1983-01-01

96

W-MAC: a workload-aware MAC protocol for heterogeneous convergecast in wireless sensor networks.  

PubMed

The power consumption and latency of existing MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are high in heterogeneous convergecast, where each sensor node generates different amounts of data in one convergecast operation. To solve this problem, we present W-MAC, a workload-aware MAC protocol for heterogeneous convergecast in WSNs. A subtree-based iterative cascading scheduling mechanism and a workload-aware time slice allocation mechanism are proposed to minimize the power consumption of nodes, while offering a low data latency. In addition, an efficient schedule adjustment mechanism is provided for adapting to data traffic variation and network topology change. Analytical and simulation results show that the proposed protocol provides a significant energy saving and latency reduction in heterogeneous convergecast, and can effectively support data aggregation to further improve the performance. PMID:22163753

Xia, Ming; Dong, Yabo; Lu, Dongming

2011-02-28

97

Venturia inaequalis Resistance in Apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple scab caused by Venturia inaequalis has evoked the interest for quite different reasons of scientists, agronomists, producers and consumers since over a century. Consumers select spotless apples, producers want to avoid damage, agronomists are asked to develop and implement control measures mostly based on fungicides, scientists are challenged to find cheaper and less questioned control measures. Under these premises

C. Gessler; A. Patocchi; S. Sansavini; S. Tartarini; L. Gianfranceschi

2006-01-01

98

Apples and Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use an apple as a model to represent the proportions of the Earth that are covered by land and ocean. They will be introduced to the vastness of the one, interconnected ocean, and to the importance of the ocean to all life on Earth. They will also understand the concept that the proportions of habitable area, farmable land, and land with fresh water are very limited and that ocean upwelling areas that allow high biological productivity are also very limited.

99

Clinical and Immunologic Features of an Atypical Intracranial Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) Infection Compared with Those of Pulmonary MAC Infections?  

PubMed Central

Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) may cause chronic pulmonary infections in otherwise healthy elderly persons but rarely invade parts of the body outside of the lungs in immunocompetent hosts. We present a case of an isolated intracranial MAC infection in an apparently immunocompetent individual and review previous reports. We studied the T-cell and monocyte responses in healthy volunteers, individuals with a pulmonary MAC infection, and one individual with an isolated intracranial MAC infection. Genomic DNA from the individual with the brain MAC infection was studied for gamma interferon (IFN-?) receptor mutations. Individuals with localized pulmonary MAC infections showed increased activation of monocytes and enhanced monocyte and T-cell tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) production in response to lipopolysaccharide and MAC antigens but defects in T-cell IFN-? secretion. The individual with an intracranial MAC infection showed a lack of monocyte activation and deficiencies in both monocyte and T-cell TNF-? production and monocyte interleukin-12 (IL-12) production but had preserved T-cell IFN-? production. Mutations or deletions in the IFN-? receptor were not detected in the individual with the intracranial MAC infection. Our data suggest that distinct immune defects characterize two different manifestations of MAC infection. A relative defect in IFN-? production in response to MAC may predispose an individual to localized but partially controlled lung disease, whereas defects leading to reduced IL-12 and TNF-? production may allow the dissemination of MAC. Further studies delineating the potential role of TNF-? in limiting the spread of MAC outside the lung are warranted.

Sadek, Mouhannad; Yue, Feng Yun; Lee, Erika Yue; Gyenes, Gabor; Jones, R. Brad; Hoffstein, Victor; Munoz, David G.; Fong, Ignatius; Ostrowski, Mario

2008-01-01

100

Barriers to Trade in Global Apple Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

Horticultural product trade has expanded considerably; U.S. fresh apple exports increased from $11 million in 1970 to $382 million in 1996. High tariff rates and technical barriers, however, continue to constrain international sales of apples to some markets. Phy- tosanitary protocols related to fire blight, codling moth, apple maggot, and other pests prohibit or limit U.S. apple exports to some

Barry Krissoff; Linda Calvin; Denice Gray

101

Apple Burrknot Borers in New York - Revisited  

Microsoft Academic Search

After reports of severe damage to dwarf apple trees caused by American plum borer, a survey was conducted in the major apple growing regions of New York State to determine the incidence of borers infesting burrknots on clonal apple rootstocks. Dogwood borer was prevalent throughout the state, in general. However, in western NY apple orchards, American plum borer was sometimes

DAVID P. KAIN; RICHARD W. STRAUB; ARTHUR M. AGNELLO

102

Prospects for India's Emerging Apple Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

Strong economic growth is projected to lead to continued expansion of Indian apple demand, but the high cost of domestic and imported apples compared with other Indian fruit is likely to limit consumption to higher- income consumers. U.S. apples have accounted for the largest share of Indian imports, but face increasing competition from high-quality and low- cost Chinese apples. Although

Satish Y. Deodhar; Maurice Landes; Barry Krissoff

103

Psychographic Segmentation of the Zagreb Apple Market  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to identify market segments based on psychological traits of consumers in the area of Croatia's capital, Zagreb. In February 2006, a face-to-face survey was conducted on a sample of 426 apple buyers in three Zagreb supermarkets. Buying behaviour, attitudes toward apples, the importance of apple attributes, and the importance of information in buying apples

Damir Kova?i?; Marija Cerjak; Jerko Markovina; Robert ?rep

2010-01-01

104

Examining Serial Sections of an Apple  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students make serial sections of an apple. Students make cross-section prints of the top portion of the apple, then another print further into the apple, and so on until they get to the bottom of the apple. This serial sectionin

Eichinger, John

2009-05-15

105

Introduction to MacDraft. High-Technology Training Module.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This training module on MacDraft is part of a computer drafting skills unit on communications technology for grades 9-12. The objective is for each student to complete a drawing on the MacIntosh computer using the MacDraft software program. This drawing is to be dimensioned with a dual system and is to include a border and title block. This

Traxler, Gene

106

Ultra-low duty cycle MAC with scheduled channel polling  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy consumption is a critical factor in sensor networks. Since radio costs remain a large part of the energy costs in sensor network hardware, there has been much focus on minimizing energy consumption in radio medium access control (MAC) protocols. Scheduled protocols such as S-MAC, T-MAC, and TRAMA reduce energy consumption by coordinating nodes into sleep\\/wakeup schedules, allowing them to

Wei Ye; Fabio Silva; John S. Heidemann

2006-01-01

107

Energy and latency control in low duty cycle MAC protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, several MAC protocols, such as S-MAC and T-MAC, have exploited scheduled sleep\\/wakeup cycles to conserve energy in sensor networks. Until now, most protocols have assumed all nodes in the network were configured to follow the same schedule, or have assumed border nodes would follow multiple schedules, but those cases have not been evaluated. The paper develops two new algorithms

Yuan Li; Wei Ye; John Heidemann

2005-01-01

108

MacArthur Foundation Prize Fellows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Four of the 19 persons selected as prize fellows by the John D. and Catherine MacArthur Foundation specialize in the earth, ocean, or space sciences. The four are John P. Holdren, Robert W. Kates, Paul G. Richards, and Joseph H. Taylor.The awards, ranging from $24,000 to $60,000 annually for 5 years, are unrestricted; the recipients may pursue any field of endeavor and are not required to publish a paper or to meet similar requirements. The exact amount of the award is dependent on the recipient's age; older prize fellows receive larger awards than do younger ones.

109

A probabilistic measure of extended reservation Aloha MAC protocol against some MAC problems in MANET  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile hidden station and neighborhood capture problems severely affect the communication in the MAC layer of a mobile ad hoc network. IEEE 802.11 cannot prevent blocking due to neighborhood capture problem and collisions due to mobile hidden station problem. Extended reservation-Aloha (ERA) solves these two problems in a probabilistic manner along with solving widely known hidden station and exposed station

Kazi Atiqur Rahman; Khaja Shazzad; Kemal E. Tepe

2011-01-01

110

TreeMAC: Localized TDMA MAC Protocol for Real-time High-data-rate Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier sensor network MAC protocols focus on energy conservation in low-duty cycle applications, while some recent applications involve real-time high-data-rate signals. This motivates us to design an innovative localized TDMA MAC protocol to achieve high throughput and low congestion in data collection sensor networks, besides energy conservation. TreeMAC divides a time cycle into frames and frame into slots. Parent determines

Wen-zhan Song; Renjie Huang; Behrooz Shirazi; Richard Lahusen

2009-01-01

111

Enzymatic browning reactions in apple and apple products.  

PubMed

This review examines the parameters of enzymatic browning in apple and apple products that is, phenolic compounds, polyphenoloxidases, and other factors (ascorbic acid and peroxidases), both qualitatively and quantitatively. Then the relationships between intensity of browning and the browning parameters are discussed, including a paragraph on the methods used for browning evaluation. Finally, the different methods for the control of browning are presented. PMID:8011143

Nicolas, J J; Richard-Forget, F C; Goupy, P M; Amiot, M J; Aubert, S Y

1994-01-01

112

GENETIC FINGERPRINTING OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) ORGANISMS ISOLATED FROM HOSPITAL PATIENTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT  

EPA Science Inventory

A particularly pathogenic group of mycobacteria belong to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), which includes M. avium and M. intracellulare. MAC organisms cause disease in children, the elderly, and immuno-compromised individuals. A critical step in preventing MAC infections...

113

Distributed assignment of encoded MAC addresses in sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wireless sensor networks, the vast majority of wide-scale traffic consists of only a few bytes, including all network and application layer IDs. Therefore, MAC addresses, which are vital in a shared medium, present major overhead, particularly because they are traditionally chosen network-wide unique. To tackle this overhead, we propose a dynamic MAC addressing scheme based on a distributed algorithm.

Curt Schurgers; Gautam Kulkarni; Mani B. Srivastava

2001-01-01

114

High throughput MAC scheduling algorithm for intelligent transportation sensor network  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAC protocol is of vital importance to the reliable communication of WSN for it schedules the limited wireless resources among sensor nodes. In this paper, focused on the intelligent transportation sensor network application requiring real-time transmission of a large amount of data, a MAC scheduling algorithm based on hybrid TDMA\\/FDMA scheme is proposed. The scheduling algorithm takes advantage of the

Xian Ni; Yongrui Chen

2010-01-01

115

On the orthogonality of the MacDonald s functions  

SciTech Connect

A proof of an orthogonality relation for the MacDonald's functions with identical arguments but unequal complex lower indices is presented. The orthogonality is derived first via a heuristic approach based on the Mehler-Fock integral transform of the MacDonald's functions, and then proved rigorously using a polynomial approximation procedure.

Passian, Ali [ORNL; Simpson, Henry [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Koucheckian, Sherwin [University of South Florida, Tampa; Yakubovich, Semyon [University of Porto, Portugal

2009-01-01

116

SuperMacLang: Development of an Authoring System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the development of "SuperMacLang, the 1990s version of the MacLang authoring system. An analysis of various features of the program explains the ways in which certain aspects of collaboration and funding affected developer and programming decisions. (Author/VWL)|

Frommer, Judith; Foelsche, Otmar K. E.

1999-01-01

117

Performance Analysis of S-MAC Protocol with Hidden Terminals  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter proposes a model that allows the effects of hidden terminals on the performance of the S-MAC protocol to be assessed. The model is used to analyze the impact of the number of hidden terminals on the service delay and throughput of the MAC layer. Simulation results show good agreement with our analytical results, which validates the accuracy of our model.

Chen, Hao

118

Apple Macintosh PowerBook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Apple Worldwide Mobility Solutions recently announced a Web page dedicated to the communications, expandability, multimedia, and cross-platform compatibility features of the newest Apple Macintosh PowerBook computers. In addition to specific product information, the page provides Q & A on mobile communications capabilities, the PC Card as it relates to modems, wireless, and storage devices, and the expansion bay possibilities such as infrared devices.

119

Personality Correlates of the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale: A Review of the Literature  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research and theoretical speculations on personality correlates of the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (MAC) among substance dependent patients are reviewed. Most studies employ the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) as a dependent variable and contrast patients scoring high versus low on MAC. High-MAC men generally reveal more characterological features and overall psychopathology than do their low-MAC peers. Low-MAC women substance abusers

John P. Allen

1991-01-01

120

EISCAT Observations during MAC/SINE (Middle Atmosphere Cooperation/Summer in Northern Europe) and MAC/Epsilon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The EISCAT incoherent scatter radar facility in Tromsoe, Norway was operated during the MAC/SINE campaign for 78 hours in the period 10 June to 17 July 1987, and during the MAC/Epsilon campaign for 90 hours in the period 15 October to 5 November 1987. The...

J. Roettger U. Hoppe C. Hall

1989-01-01

121

The effect of nitrous oxide on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and MAC derivatives of isoflurane in dogs  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the effects of 70% nitrous oxide (N2O) on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane (ISO) that prevents purposeful movement, the MAC of ISO at which there is no motor movement (MACNM), and the MAC of ISO at which autonomic responses are blocked (MACBAR) in dogs. Six adult, healthy, mixed-breed, intact male dogs were anesthetized with ISO delivered via mask. Baseline MAC, MACNM, and MACBAR of ISO were determined for each dog using a supra-maximal electrical stimulus (50 V, 50 Hz, 10 ms). Nitrous oxide (70%) was then administered and MAC and its derivatives (N2O-MAC, N2O-MACNM, and N2O-MACBAR) were determined using the same methodology. The values for baseline MAC, MACNM, and MACBAR were 1.39 0.14, 1.59 0.10, and 1.72 0.16, respectively. The addition of 70% N2O decreased MAC, MACNM, and MACBAR by 32%, 15%, and 25%, respectively.

Voulgaris, Debra A.; Egger, Christine M.; Seddighi, M. Reza; Rohrbach, Barton W.; Love, Lydia C.; Doherty, Thomas J.

2013-01-01

122

A ferroan region of the lunar highlands as recorded in meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105  

SciTech Connect

MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105 (MAC88104/5) are paired meteorites of noritic anorthosite composition from the lunar highlands. MAC88105 is a breccia composed mainly of melt-breccia clasts in a fine-grained, fragmental, and partly glassy matrix. The most abundant melt lithologies are feldspathic and are similar in composition to the bulk meteorite. Other melt lithologies include feldspathic melt rocks, mafic melt breccias, and a rare melt breccia relatively enriched in incompatible trace elements. Subordinate lithic clasts are granulitic breccias and ferroan (relatively low Mg/(Mg + Fe)) igneous lithologies, including troctolitic anorthosite, anorthositic norite, gabbronorite, and anorthosite. Igneous clasts having mafic mineral compositions more magnesian than Fo{sub 55} and En{sub 60} were not observed. Rare fragments of glass spheres and shards as well as glass clasts indicate that the meteorite was derived from an immature regolith. The bulk composition of MAC88105 is characterized by a molar Mg/(Mg + Fe) ratio of 0.62, at the extreme low end of the range for meteorites from the lunar highlands. Its low concentrations of incompatible trace elements and feldspathic bulk composition (29% Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), suggests that it, like the other lunar meteorites, formed at a site far removed from the areas sampled by the Apollo missions. Similarities in mineral compositions among the different lithologies of the breccia and the distribution of mineral fragments suggest that most components of the meteorite were derived from a crustal section dominated by material with a noritic anorthosite composition and an affinity of the ferroan suite of plutonic rocks.

Jolliff, B.L.; Korotev, R.L.; Haskin, L.A. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States))

1991-11-01

123

IPS-MAC: an informative preamble sampling MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio transceivers are the main source of energy consumption in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) where the source of energy\\u000a supply is non-rechargeable battery. Several MAC protocols have been proposed in order to efficiently conserve energy in the\\u000a link layer via duty-cycling. Low power listening (LPL) methods have been shown to outperform other schemes in lightly loaded\\u000a situations which are common

Farshad Ahdi; Wei Wang; Vikram Srinivasan; Kee-Chaing Chua

2010-01-01

124

Production of Brandy from Apple by Different Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, brandy was produced from Golden Delicious apples by three different methods. The main differences in production of brandies were the production of alcoholic mash from apple mash, the production of apple wine from apple cider, and the preparation of macerate by adding neutral alcohol (60% v\\/v) to apple mash. The quality properties of the raw material (apple)

Selma Gven; Selin Karagz

2009-01-01

125

Effect of Organic Pest Management Practices on Apple Productivity and Apple Food Safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research was conducted in a certified organic apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) orchard in 2000 to determine the effect of organic pest management techniques on pest control, apple yields and microbial populations on harvested apples. In Experiment 1, apple colouring bags, sticky red spheres, kaolin particle film, kaolin particle film plus sticky red spheres, or colouring bags plus sticky red

H. Friedrich; K. Delate; P. Domoto; G. Nonnecke; L. Wilson

2003-01-01

126

Roberts Victor Eclogites: The MacGregor Legacy of Archean Oceanic Lithosphere Subduction and its Role in Craton Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Eclogite xenoliths from the 125 Ma old, Group II, Roberts Victor kimberlite have long been of interest (MacGregor et al, 1968) because of their diversity, abundance, large size, occurrence with peridotite and their high carbon/diamond content. Coesite, corundum, kyanite, Ca-, Mg-, and Fe- rich eclogites are available but those classified as Group I, Group II (as defined by MacGregor, 1970) or diamondiferous were selected with the goal to better understand eclogite petrogenesis, Kaapvaal cratonic keel evolution, diamond formation, and eclogite metasomatism. Recent laser fluorination oxygen isotope data (?18O) on gt (GI = 5.8 to 6.9; GII = 2.1 to 5.1) match earlier data (Garlick et al, 1971; MacGregor and Manton, 1986), while ion-probe trace element contents of gt (e.g. chondrite normalized Ce G1 = 0.2 to 0.5; GII = 0.002 to 0.07) and cpx (G1 = 7 to 20; GII = 0.2 to 2) and whole-rock Re-Os (G1 Re = 0.19 to 3.41 ppb; GII Re = 0.006 to 0.38 ppb) highlight even more distinct differences between Groups I and II. These differences must be a pre-metamorphic signature of their original protoliths and not just due to pressure differences or partial melting during emplacement. Using ophiolites and composites of oceanic crust as a guide (e.g. MacGregor and Manton, 1986), Group I eclogites could represent the volcanic rocks of Layer 2 of Archean oceanic crust whereas Group II might represent the cumulate, intrusive rocks of Layer 3. Group II eclogites have positive Eu anomalies and lower REE and Re contents which support this idea. The Re-Os systematics of the oceanic lithosphere is poorly known, especially in the Archean, but Roberts Victor eclogite Re-Os and trace element abundances and major element compositions suggest a basaltic komatiitic protolith as might typify slightly hotter ocean ridges in the Archean. A U-Pb age of 3.0610.006 Ga on zircon grains separated from a Group I Roberts Victor eclogite and a same-age but scattered whole-rock Re-Os isotope array containing the diamondiferous and some Group I eclogites (including the zircon-bearing eclogite), firmly date the eclogite protoliths as Meso-Archean. The direct covariation of Re content (and hence 187Re/188Os) with oxygen isotopic composition allows the low-T alteration process occurring on the seafloor to be dated at that time. For Kaapvaal craton evolution, this age is interesting because it predates by about 100 Ma the terrane collision that sutured the Kimberley block to the Eastern Kaapvaal along the Colesburg magnetic lineament, the stabilization of a thickened lithospheric mantle keel, and the generation of a widely distributed suite of eclogitic diamonds. Incorporation of these eclogites in the lithosphere is further evidence for Meso-Archean plate tectonics and the role of subduction (e.g. MacGregor and Manton, 1986) in cratonization and diamond genesis. MacGregor,ID, Carter,JL, Davis, BTC (1968) GSA Spec. Paper 115, 136-137. MacGregor, ID and Carter, JL (1970) PEPI 3, 391-197. Garlick, GD, MacGregor, ID, Vogel, DE (1971) Science 172, 1025-1027. MacGregor, ID and Manton, WI (1986) JGR 91, 14,063-14,079.

Shirey, S. B.; Schmitz, M. D.; Wiechert, U.; Carlson, R. W.

2005-12-01

127

Increased NMDA receptor inhibition at an increased Sevoflurane MAC  

PubMed Central

Background Sevoflurane potently enhances glycine receptor currents and more modestly decreases NMDA receptor currents, each of which may contribute to immobility. This modest NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at a minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) could be reciprocally related to large potentiation of other inhibitory ion channels. If so, then reduced glycine receptor potency should increase NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. Methods Indwelling lumbar subarachnoid catheters were surgically placed in 14 anesthetized rats. Rats were anesthetized with sevoflurane the next day, and a pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was measured in duplicate using a tail clamp method. Artificial CSF (aCSF) containing either 0 or 4?mg/mL strychnine was then infused intrathecally at 4 ?L/min, and the post-infusion baseline sevoflurane MAC was measured. Finally, aCSF containing strychnine (either 0 or 4?mg/mL) plus 0.4?mg/mL dizocilpine (MK-801) was administered intrathecally at 4 ?L/min, and the post-dizocilpine sevoflurane MAC was measured. Results Pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was 2.26%. Intrathecal aCSF alone did not affect MAC, but intrathecal strychnine significantly increased sevoflurane requirement. Addition of dizocilpine significantly decreased MAC in all rats, but this decrease was two times larger in rats without intrathecal strychnine compared to rats with intrathecal strychnine, a statistically significant (P?MAC. The magnitude of anesthetic effects on a given ion channel may therefore depend on the magnitude of its effects on other receptors that modulate neuronal excitability.

2012-01-01

128

Feasibility of utilizing apple pomace  

SciTech Connect

Apple pomace, the solid residue from juice production, is a solid waste problem in the Hudson Valley. This study investigates possibilities for converting it to a resource. The characteristics of the region's apple growing and processing industries are examined at length, including their potential for converting waste biomass. The properties of apple pomace are described. From interviews with Hudson Valley apple processors the following information is presented: quantities of pomace produced; seasonality of production; disposal procedures, costs, and revenues; trends in juice production; and attitudes toward alternatives. Literature research resulted in a list of more than 25 end uses for apple pomace of which eight were selected for analysis. Landfilling, landspreading, composting, animal feed, direct burning, gasification, anaerobic digestion (methane generation), and fermentation (ethanol production) were analyzed with regard to technical availability, regulatory and environmental impact, attitudes toward end use, and energetic and economic feasibility (See Table 19). The study recommends (1) a pilot anaerobic digestion plant be set up, (2) the possibility of extracting methane from the Marlborough landfill be investigated, (3) a study of the mid-Hudson waste conversion potential be conducted, and (4) an education program in alternative waste management be carried out for the region's industrial and agricultural managers.

Stapleton, J.

1983-06-01

129

Handling Deafness Problem of Scheduled Multi-Channel Polling MACs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combining scheduled channel polling with channel diversity is a promising way for a MAC protocol to achieve high energy efficiency and performance under both light and heavy traffic conditions. However, the deafness problem may cancel out the benefit of channel diversity. In this paper, we first investigate the deafness problem of scheduled multi-channel polling MACs with experiments. Then we propose and evaluate two schemes to handle the deafness problem. Our experiment shows that deafness is a significant reason for performance degradation in scheduled multi-channel polling MACs. A proper scheme should be chosen depending on the traffic pattern and the design objective.

Jiang, Fulong; Liu, Hao; Shi, Longxing

130

Connecting your Apple to Octopus 7600's  

SciTech Connect

In UCID-19588, Communicating between the Apple and the Wang, we described how to take Apple DOS text files and send them to the Wang, and how to return Wang files to the Apple. It is also possible to use your Apple as an Octopus terminal, and to exchange files with Octopus 7600's. Presumably, you can also talk to the Crays, or any other part of the system. This connection has another virtue. It eliminates one of the terminals in your office.

Barton, G.W. Jr.

1983-01-17

131

Prior determination of baseline minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane does not influence the effect of ketamine on MAC in rabbits  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to compare the effect on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane when ketamine was administered either after or without prior determination of the baseline MAC of isoflurane in rabbits. Using a prospective randomized crossover study, 8 adult, female New Zealand rabbits were allocated to 2 treatment groups. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane. Group 1 (same-day determination) had the MAC-sparing effect of ketamine [1 mg/kg bodyweight (BW) bolus followed by a constant rate infusion (CRI) of 40 ?g/kg BW per min, given by intravenous (IV)], which was determined after the baseline MAC of isoflurane was determined beforehand. A third MAC determination was started 30 min after stopping the CRI. Group 2 (separate-day determination) had the MAC-sparing effect of ketamine determined without previous determination of the baseline MAC of isoflurane. A second MAC determination was started 30 min after stopping the CRI. In group 1, the MAC of isoflurane (2.15 0.09%) was significantly decreased by ketamine (1.63 0.07%). After stopping the CRI, the MAC was significantly less (2.04 0.11%) than the baseline MAC of isoflurane and significantly greater than the MAC during the CRI. In group 2, ketamine decreased isoflurane MAC (1.53 0.22%) and the MAC increased significantly (1.94 0.25%) after stopping the CRI. Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) values did not differ significantly between the groups either during ketamine administration or after stopping ketamine. Under the study conditions, prior determination of the baseline isoflurane MAC did not alter the effect of ketamine on MAC. Both methods of determining MAC seemed to be valid for research purposes.

Gianotti, Giacomo; Valverde, Alexander; Sinclair, Melissa; Dyson, Doris H.; Gibson, Thomas; Johnson, Ron

2012-01-01

132

Saccharification and ethanol fermentation of apple pomace  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple pomace (the pulp residue from pressing apple juice) is an abundant waste product and presents an expensive disposal problem. A typical (50,000 gal. juice\\/day) apple juice company in central Massachusetts produces 100 tons of pomace per day. Some of it is used as pig feed, but it is poor quality feed because of its low protein content. Most of

J. E. Miller; P. J. Weathers; F. X. McConville; M. Goldberg

1982-01-01

133

Energy accounting of apple processing operations  

SciTech Connect

A thermal-energy accounting study was conducted at an apple processing plant. An analysis is given of thermal energy use and thermal efficiencies of an apple-juice single-effect evaporator and an apple-sauce cooker. 3 refs.

Romero, R.; Singh, R.P.; Brown, D.

1981-01-01

134

42 CFR 422.608 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review...608 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED)...

2012-10-01

135

42 CFR 423.1974 - Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Medicare Appeals Council (MAC) review...1974 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT...AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED)...

2012-10-01

136

Thomas MacLaren Collection of Architectural Drawings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thomas MacLaren wandered around England, Italy, Scotland, Switzerland, and other far-flung provinces between 1880 and 1891. MacLaren received his formal education at the Royal Academy of London and then moved to Colorado, where he designed dozens of recognizable buildings. After he passed away in 1928, he left his estate to the University of Colorado in the hope that it would lead to the establishment of an architecture department. This came to pass, and along with it came this wonderful digital collection of MacLaren's drawings. Visitors to the site can look over 220 drawings executed by MacLaren, including renderings of abbey farm houses in England and the gorgeous campanile at St. Mark's Basilica. The images are large and high-quality, which makes examining them a treat for architecture students, art aficionados, and the more generally curious.

137

Attitude sensing of APPLE spacecraft  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A variety of attitude sensors have been used in the Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE) geosynchronous satellite's control system. Sensor tasks encompass satellite attitude determination after separation from launch vehicle, spin axis orientation for apogee boost motor firing and satellite spin-up, satellite despin and sunward pointing on reaching geosynchronous orbit, three-axis stabilization, and yaw axis control during stationkeeping. Attention is given to problems encountered during APPLE deployment, of which the most serious was the failure of one of the solar panels to deploy. Pitch rotation was used to keep earth sensor temperature below operating maximum range.

Alex, T. K.; Jain, Y. K.; Philip, M. P.; Kalakrishnan, B.; Kanakaraju, K.; Kamalakar, J. A.

1983-11-01

138

Link-layer Jamming Attacks on S-MAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that among denial-of-service (DoS) attacks, link-layer jamming is a more attractive option to attack- ers than radio jamming is. By exploiting the semantics of the link-layer protocol (aka MAC protocol), an attacker can achieve better efficiency than blindly jamming the radio sig- nals alone. In this paper, we investigate some jamming at- tacks on S-MAC, the level of

Yee Wei; Law Pieter; Hartel Jerry den Hartog; Paul Havinga

139

A novel game-theoretic MAC protocol for wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel distributed game-theory-based MAC protocol (GT-MAC) is proposed for multi-hop mobile ad hoc networks to share channel resource efficiently. In the protocol, each sender computes a utility function of each link to maximize the achievable throughput. It flexibly employs request-to-send, clear-to-send and decide-to-send (RTS\\/CTS\\/DTS) dialogue and then the acknowledgment (ACK) packet for the data packet transmission is replied to

Jinjin Song; Kai Liu

2012-01-01

140

An Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes S-MAC, a medium-access control (MAC) protocol designed for wireless sensor networks. Wireless sensor networks use battery-operated computing and sensing devices. A network of these devices will collaborate for a common application such as environmental monitoring. We expect sensor networks to be deployed in an ad hoc fashion, with individual nodes remaining largely inactive for long periods of

Wei Ye; John S. Heidemann; Deborah Estrin

2002-01-01

141

A Novel MAC Protocol for Cooperative Downloading in Vehicular Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractIn this paper, we propose a novel protocol called VC-MAC that utilizes the concept of cooperative communication tailored for vehicular networks, especially for gateway download- ing scenarios. VC-MAC leverages the broadcast nature of the wireless medium to maximize the system throughput. The spatial and user diversity are exploited by the ,concurrent cooperative relaying to overcome the unreliability of the wireless

Jin Zhang; Qian Zhang; Weijia Jia

2007-01-01

142

Processed Apple Product Marketing Analysis: Apple Juice and Cider  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple juice and cider experienced rapid market growth in the U.S. during the past few decades, but now a mature market is established. The industry faces economic pressures created by the globalization of the market, and growers and processors across the industry are trying to adapt to new market conditions. The development of effective competitive strategies for this industry requires

Kristin Rowles

2001-01-01

143

Observation of 197 Os  

Microsoft Academic Search

Osmium isotope, 197Os, produced with 14 MeV neutrons through the reaction of 198Pt(n,2p)197Os, has been identified and its decay properties have been studied with a g(X) spectroscopic method. The ten new g-rays of 41.2, 50.7, 196.8, 199.6, 223.9, 233.1, 250.2, 342.1, 403.6, and 406.4 keV assigned to the decay of 197Os were observed. The half-life of 197Os has been determined

Y. Xu; W. Yang; S. Yuan; Y. Xiao; X. Zhou; J. He

2003-01-01

144

Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits  

PubMed Central

Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.

Boyer, Jeanelle; Liu, Rui Hai

2004-01-01

145

An Adaptive Low Latency Cross-Layer MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we proposed an adaptive low latency MAC protocol for sensor networks based on cross-layer architecture, named LLS-MAC (Low Latency Sensor MAC). The new protocol is inspired by S-MAC. The advancement of LLS-MAC in packet end-to-end delay is mainly due to the continual data transmission scheme presented in this paper. For achieving this scheme, a cross-layer design approach

Tang Zhenzhou; Hu Qian

2009-01-01

146

Wireless ATM MAC performance evaluation, a case study: HIPERLAN type 1 vs. modified MDR  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper deals with wireless ATM and in particular with MAC (Medium Access Control) mechanisms. The requirements for wireless ATM MAC are discussed, and contention-based and TDMA\\/reservation based MAC protocols are compared. The objective is to find out the suitability of current wireless MAC schemes for ATM interworking, in comparison to new wireless ATM MAC proposals. Two candidate mechanisms, EY-NPMA

Jouni Mikkonen; Liina Nenonen

1998-01-01

147

Seed that Apple RND Generator!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Provides instructions for "seeding" the random number generator (RND) in Apple computer programs. If RND is not seeded, students would see the same examples, questions, graphics features, or other information each time they turn on the microcomputer and run a program. (JN)|

Salyer, Darnell

1984-01-01

148

The Apple iPhone  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case describes the introduction of the Apple iPhone, including subsequent price reductions and market share goals. The case includes publicly available data on iPhone production costs, channel margins, and marketing costs. It concludes with the July 2008 introduction of the second generation 3G iPhone.

Paul Farris; Robert Spekman

149

Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fact sheet describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program. This educational program uses a 34-meter antenna for classroom radio astronomy observations via the Internet. It introduces students from elementary school through high school to the process of science with the goal of improving science literacy among American students.

2008-12-03

150

OXIDATIVE STRESS AND APPLE SCALD  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Superficial scald is a costly storage disorder that often develops in fruit of susceptible apple cultivars such as 'Granny Smith' and 'Law Rome' after several months at low temperature. Despite intensive investigation, the biochemical mechanism underlying scald remains unknown. Evidence indicates th...

151

Apples for Teachers Pay Off.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews current trends in the educational market for microcomputers and software. As of June 1982, about 214,000 microcomputers were installed in schools, with Apple Computer (followed by Radio Shack and others) leading the field. A new federal program virtually eliminating how schools use funds may benefit computer assisted instruction. (JN)|

Geller, Irving, Ed.

1983-01-01

152

Plant Disease Lesson: Apple scab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Apple scab (caused by Venturia inaequalis) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Lisa J. Vaillancourt (University of Kentucky;); John R. Hartman (University of Kentucky;)

2000-10-05

153

Evaluation of Performance of Secure OS Using Performance Evaluation Mechanism of LSM-Based LSMPMON  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Security focused OS (Secure OS) is attracting attention as a method for minimizing damage caused by various intrusions. Secure\\u000a OSes can restrict the damage due to an attack by using Mandatory Access Control (MAC). In some projects, secure OSes for Linux\\u000a have been developed. In these OSes, different implementation methods have been adopted. However, there is no method for easily

Kenji Yamamoto; Toshihiro Yamauchi

2010-01-01

154

Os Trigonum Syndrome  

MedlinePLUS

... pointing of the toes, which is common among ballet dancers, soccer players and other athletes. For the person who has an os trigonum, pointing the toes downward can result in a nutcracker injury. Like an almond in a nutcracker, the os ...

155

Rheological Characteristics of Apple Skin and Apple Firmness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulus and breaking strength of the skins of different apples were measured: McIntosh, Red Delicious, and Empire stored under controlled atmosphere; McIntosh stored at 1.7C without atmospheric control, and Honey Crisp and Crimson Gala grown under light and heavy crop conditions. The moduli of the skins of Honey Crisp and Crimson Gala were lower (P < 0.05), than those

M. A. Rao; S. K. Brown

2011-01-01

156

Rheological characteristics of apple skin and apple firmness  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modulus and breaking strength of the skins of different apples were measured: McIntosh, Red Delicious, and Empire stored under controlled atmosphere; McIntosh stored at 1.7 C without atmospheric control, and Honey Crisp and Crimson Gala grown under light and heavy crop conditions. The moduli of the skins of Honey Crisp and Crimson Gala were lower (P<0.05), than those of

MA Rao; SK Brown

2010-01-01

157

Mac-1-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation during neutrophil adhesion.  

PubMed

Activated neutrophils display an array of physiological responses, including initiation of the oxidative burst, phagocytosis, and cell migration, that are associated with cellular adhesion. Under conditions that lead to cellular adhesion, we observed rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of an intracellular protein with an approximate relative molecular mass of 92 kDa (p92). Phosphorylation of p92 was inducible when Mac-1 was activated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, the beta(2)-specific activating antibody CBR LFA-1/2, or interleukin-8 (77 amino acids). In addition, tyrosine phosphorylation of p92 was dependent on engagement of Mac-1 with ligand. Several observations suggest that this event may be an important step in the signaling pathway initiated by Mac-1 binding. p92 phosphorylation was specifically blocked with antibodies to CD11b, the alpha-subunit of Mac-1, and was rapidly reversible on disengagement of the integrin ligand interaction. Integrin-stimulated phosphorylation of p92 created binding sites that were recognized in vitro by the SH2 domains of c-CrkII and Src. Our observations suggest that neutrophil adhesion mediated through the binding of the beta(2)-integrin Mac-1 initiates a signaling cascade that involves the activation of protein tyrosine kinases and leads to the regulation of protein-protein interactions via SH2 domains, a key process shared with growth factor signaling pathways. PMID:11287316

Takami, M; Herrera, R; Petruzzelli, L

2001-05-01

158

Seed and pollen transmission of Apple latent spherical virus in apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

To examine whether Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) has spread among apple trees in an orchard, we surveyed 21 apple trees surrounding two ALSV-infected trees for virus\\u000a infection using a double-antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA). None of the 21 trees were infected,\\u000a indicating that ALSV has not spread from the infected trees to the neighboring apple trees since it

Kazuya Nakamura; Noriko Yamagishi; Masamichi Isogai; Sadao Komori; Tsutae Ito; Nobuyuki Yoshikawa

2011-01-01

159

7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section...REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject to regulation. Except...

2013-01-01

160

7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section...REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject to regulation. Except...

2009-01-01

161

7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section...REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject to regulation. Except...

2010-01-01

162

7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...stand, or a farmer's market, and permitting the...of the crop. Fresh apples. Apple production...to your inability to market the apples for any reason other...if you are unable to market due to quarantine,...

2009-01-01

163

7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...stand, or a farmer's market, and permitting the...of the crop. Fresh apples. Apple production...to your inability to market the apples for any reason other...if you are unable to market due to quarantine,...

2010-01-01

164

EFFECT OF ORCHARD FERTILIZERAPPLICATIONSON THE COMPOSITIONOF APPLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies ofthematurity ofanumberofvarieties offruit havebeenin progress attheWashington Station overaperiod ofyears.Theeffect on treeresponse ofdifferent fertilizer treatments applied toJonathan apple trees, asindicated byanumberoftypes ofmeasurements, hasalsobeende- termined. A numberofreports onthese latter experiments havebeeni made. Duringthesimultaneous progress ofthematurity andfertilizer studies, a studyoftheeffect ofdifferent fertilizers onthechemical composition ofthe fruit hasbeenmade.A majorpartofthis latter phaseoftheworkhasbeen doneonJonathan apples; information hasalso beencollected onthemineral composition ofWinesap apples. BROWN(1)reported thattheash,potash, phosphate,

E. L. OVERHOLSER; F. L. OVERLEY

165

Thermographic surface quality evaluation of apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermographic IR-imaging was used as a non-destructive tool to evaluate the surface quality of apples. Experiments were carried out on apple fruit of two different cultivars (Jonagored and Elshof) picked at two different picking dates (early and late). First, the emissivity of the apple skin was determined as 0.96 for both cultivars. Next, recordings were made of individual fruit of

E. A. Veraverbeke; P. Verboven; J. Lammertyn; P. Cronje; J. De Baerdemaeker; B. M. Nicola

2006-01-01

166

Dolphin natures, human virtues: MacIntyre and ethical naturalism.  

PubMed

Can biological facts explain human morality? Aristotelian 'virtue' ethics has traditionally assumed so. In recent years Alasdair MacIntyre has reintroduced a form of Aristotle's 'metaphysical biology' into his ethics. He argues that the ethological study of dependence and rationality in other species--dolphins in particular--sheds light on how those same traits in the typical lives of humans give rise to the moral virtues. However, some goal-oriented dolphin behaviour appears both dependent and rational in the precise manner which impresses MacIntyre, yet anything but ethically 'virtuous'. More damningly, dolphin ethologists consistently refuse to evaluate such behaviour in the manner MacIntyre claims is appropriate to moral judgement. In light of this, I argue that virtues--insofar as they name a biological or ethological category--do not name a morally significant one. PMID:18761281

Glackin, Shane Nicholas

2008-08-15

167

Performance Analysis and Improvement of WPAN MAC for Home Networks  

PubMed Central

The wireless personal area network (WPAN) is an emerging wireless technology for future short range indoor and outdoor communication applications. The IEEE 802.15.3 medium access control (MAC) is proposed to coordinate the access to the wireless medium among the competing devices, especially for short range and high data rate applications in home networks. In this paper we use analytical modeling to study the performance analysis of WPAN (IEEE 802.15.3) MAC in terms of throughput, efficient bandwidth utilization, and delay with various ACK policies under error channel condition. This allows us to introduce a K-Dly-ACK-AGG policy, payload size adjustment mechanism, and Improved Backoff algorithm to improve the performance of the WPAN MAC. Performance evaluation results demonstrate the impact of our improvements on network capacity. Moreover, these results can be very useful to WPAN application designers and protocol architects to easily and correctly implement WPAN for home networking.

Mehta, Saurabh; Kwak, Kyung Sup

2010-01-01

168

Apple cuticle: the perfect interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 C in the early spring to 50 C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

2010-06-01

169

Biochemical Characterization of APPL Endosomes: The Role of Annexin A2 in APPL Membrane Recruitment  

PubMed Central

APPL endosomes are a recently identified subpopulation of early endosomes characterized by the presence of two homologous Rab5 effector proteins APPL1 and APPL2. They exhibit only limited colocalization with EEA1, another Rab5 effector and a marker of the canonical early endosomes. Although APPL endosomes appear to play important roles in cargo trafficking and signal transduction, their protein composition and biochemical properties remain largely unknown. Here we employed membrane fractionation methods to characterize APPL endosomes biochemically. We demonstrate that they represent heterogeneous membrane structures which can be discriminated from the canonical EEA1-positive early endosomes by their partly different physical properties and a distinct migration pattern in the continuous density gradients. In search for other potential markers of APPL endosomes we identified Annexin A2 as an interacting partner of both APPL1 and APPL2. Annexin A2 is a Ca2+ and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate binding protein, previously implicated in several endocytic steps. We show that Annexin A2 co-fractionates and colocalizes with APPL endosomes. Moreover, silencing of its expression causes solubilization of APPL2 from endosomes. Although Annexin A2 is not an exclusive marker of APPL endosomes, our data suggest that it has an important function in membrane recruitment of APPL proteins, acting in parallel to Rab5.

Urbanska, Anna; Sadowski, Lukasz; Kalaidzidis, Yannis; Miaczynska, Marta

2011-01-01

170

Kaolin particle films suppress many apple pests, disrupt natural enemies and promote woolly apple aphid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multiple applications of hydrophobic kaolin particle film in apple orchards suppressed numbers of blossom weevil (Anthonomus pomorum), brown leaf weevil (Phyllobius oblongus), attelabid weevil (Caenorhinus pauxillus), leafhoppers (Empoasca vitis and Zygina flammigera) and green apple aphid (Aphis pomi) colonies. The kaolin treatments reduced the apple sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea) fruit infestation on cultivar J. Grieve, and the fruit damage caused by

V. Mark; L. H. M. Blommers; S. Bogya; H. H. M. Helsen

2008-01-01

171

Fast Discrimination of Apple Varieties Using Vis\\/NIR Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the potential of visible\\/near-infrared (Vis\\/NIR) spectroscopy for its ability to nondestructively differentiate apple varieties. The apple varieties used in this research included, Fuji apples, Red Delicious apples, and Copefrut Royal Gala apples. The chemometrics procedures applied to the Vis\\/NIR data were principal component analysis (PCA), wavelet transform (WT), and artificial neural network (ANN). The apple varieties could be

Yong He; Xiaoli Li; Yongni Shao

2007-01-01

172

DETECTION AND POSITION METHOD OF APPLE TREE IMAGE  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Apples should be quickly and correctly detected from their surroundings for the apple harvesting robot. The basic color feature\\u000a was extracted from FuJi apple tree images and analyzed by the statistical analysis method. Accordingly, a new apple detection\\u000a method was proposed to position the centroid of picking apples. The color difference was used to segment apples from their\\u000a surroundings. Then

Wenhua Mao; Baoping Jia; Xiaochao Zhang; Xiaoan Hub

2009-01-01

173

Analyzing Energy Consumption in a Gossiping MAC Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In this paper, we analyze the energy-efficiency of a TDMA protocol (gMAC) for gossiping-based wireless sensor networks. In\\u000a contrast to most schedule-based TDMA protocols, slot allocation in gMAC is decentralized, allowing adaptation to evolving\\u000a network configurations. The protocol, modeled in the MoDeST language, is evaluated using the discrete-event simulator of the\\u000a Mbius tool suite. We investigate the impact of collision-detection

Haidi Yue; Henrik C. Bohnenkamp; Joost-Pieter Katoen

2010-01-01

174

A Flexible CSMA based MAC Protocol for Software Defined Radios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we propose a flexible CSMA based MAC protocol which facilitates research and experimentation using software define radios. The modular architecture allows to employ the protocol on platforms with heterogeneous hardware capabilities and provides the freedom to exchange or adapt the spectrum sensing mechanism without modifying the MAC protocol internals. We discuss the architecture of the protocol and provide structural details of its main components. Furthermore, we present throughput measurements that have been obtained on an example system using host-based spectrum sensing.

Puschmann, Andr; Kalil, Mohamed A.; Mitschele-Thiel, Andreas

2012-09-01

175

University of Illinois Extension-Schools Online: Apples & More  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This all-about-apples website was created by Schools Online at the University of Illinois Extension. For educators, the Apples & More website presents a collection of apple-related activities in the subject areas of math, art, social studies, literature, and science. In addition, the site contains information sections regarding apple nutrition, facts, varieties, recipes, and apple preservation. The site also offers annotated links for apple history, apple growing, selection and uses, and cider. Site visitors looking for apple orchards will find separate listings for growers in Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, and Wisconsin. The site is available in Spanish and English.

176

MacMS: A Mass Spectrometer Simulator: Abstract of Issue 9906M  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MacMS is a program for Mac-OS compatible computers that simulates a magnetic sector mass spectrometer (1-4) designed to operate in the mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio range of 1-200 amu. MacMS has two operational modules. The first module (see Figure 1) is called the "Path" module and enables the user to quantitatively examine the trajectory of an ion of given m/z ratio in the electric and magnetic fields of the simulated "instrument". By systematically measuring a series of trajectories of different ions under different electric and magnetic field conditions, the user can determine how the resolution of the "instrument" is affected by these experimentally variable parameters. The user can thus choose suitable instrumental conditions for scanning a given m/z ratio range with good separation between the peaks. The second module (see Figure 2) is called as the "Spectrometer" module and enables the user to record, under any chosen instrumental conditions, the mass spectrum of (i) the instrumental background, (ii) neon, (iii) methane, or (iv) the parent ion of carbon tetrachloride. Both voltage scanning and magnetic scanning are possible (5). A hard copy of any mass spectrum that has been recorded can also be obtained. MacMS can read ASCII data files containing mass spectral information of compounds other than those that are "built-in" to the simulator. The appropriate format for creating such data files is described in the program documentation. There are a number of instructional exercises that can be conducted using the mass spectral information contained within the simulator. These are included in the program documentation. For example, the intensities of the 20Ne+, 21Ne+, and 22Ne+ species can be determined from hard copies of mass spectra of neon that are obtained under different instrumental sensitivities. The relative abundances of the three isotopes of neon can thus be calculated and compared with the literature values (6). The simulator also includes adjustable, fixed-value range and gain settings, which can be used to enhance the resolution and sensitivity of the instrument respectively.

Figure 1. The "Path" module of MacMS showing the control panel (upper section) and graphics display region (lower section). The graphics display region incorporates a "data collector", which includes a "Grab" button to collect data and an area where data are displayed.
Figure 2. The "Spectrometer" module of MacMS showing the control panel (upper section) and a graphics display region (lower section). A mass spectrum is produced in the graphics display region upon scanning. A "data collector" similar to that of the "Path" module forms part of the graphics display region. Hardware and Software Requirements Literature Cited
  1. Kiser, R. N. Introduction to Mass Spectrometry and its Applications; Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1965; pp 1-3; pp 32-65.
  2. Johnstone, R. A. W.; Rose, M. E. Mass Spectrometry for Chemists and Biochemists, 2nd ed.; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1996.
  3. Hill, H. C.; Loudon, A. G. Introduction to Mass Spectrometry; 2nd ed.; Heyden: London, 1972; p 5.
  4. Farmer, J. B. In Mass Spectrometry, McDowell, C. A., Ed.; McGraw-Hill: New York, 1963; pp 10-11.
  5. Message, G. M. Practical Aspects of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Wiley: New York, 1984; Chapter 3.
  6. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 55th ed.; CRC: Cleveland, 1974.

Bigger, Stephen W.; Craig, Robert A.

1999-10-01

177

Effects of apples and specific apple components on the cecal environment of conventional rats: role of apple pectin  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Our study was part of the large European project ISAFRUIT aiming to reveal the biological explanations for the epidemiologically well-established health effects of fruits. The objective was to identify effects of apple and apple product consumption on the composition of the cecal microbial community in rats, as well as on a number of cecal parameters, which may be influenced

Tine R Licht; Max Hansen; Anders Bergstrm; Morten Poulsen; Britta N Krath; Jaroslaw Markowski; Lars O Dragsted; Andrea Wilcks

2010-01-01

178

The identification of MacSe in Streptococcus equi ssp. equi  

Microsoft Academic Search

Streptococcus equi subsp. equi (S. equi ssp. equi) causes equine strangles, a highly contagious and widespread purulent lymphadenitis of the head and neck. We have identified\\u000a MacSe, a novel protein of S. equi, by screening a phage library of 38 kb random DNA fragments of S. equi CF32. MacSe shares 62% and 67.5% amino acid homology with Mac5005 and Mac8345

Jiande Yang; Yanfei Liu; Jun Xu; Jifei Ma

2009-01-01

179

Finite element MAC scheme in general curvilinear coordinates  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combined study of FD and FE methods for two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes flows is presented. Major difficulties are connected to spurious numerical oscillations which may arise from the enforcement of the incompressibility constant in primitive variable formulation. An FE analog of the MAC scheme, which can be accomplished by different interpolation functions for the two velocity components, is proposed; this

R. Piva; A. di Carlo; G. Guj

1980-01-01

180

O-MAC: A Receiver Centric Power Management Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy efficiency is widely understood to be one of the dominant considerations for Wireless Sensor Networks. Based on historical data and technology trends, the receiver energy consumption will dominate all energy, to the point that for the majority of applications, power management research must focus on receiver efficiency. By modeling several popular MAC layer protocols, we derive bounds on performance

Hui Cao; Kenneth W. Parker; Anish Arora

2006-01-01

181

A simple adaptive MAC scheduling scheme for Bluetooth scatternet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple adaptive MAC scheduling algorithm, called gateway oriented scatternet scheduling (GOSS), is proposed for data exchange in a Bluetooth scatternet. Unlike the existing scheme MDRP (maximum distance rendezvous point) that has a global superframe schedule shared by all gateways, the schedule used by each gateway is individually determined. Equal partition of the superframe schedule at a gateway to each

Changlei Liu; Kwan L. Yeung

2003-01-01

182

A Simple Adaptive MAC Scheduling Scheme for Bluetooth Scatternet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple adaptive MAC scheduling algorithm, called Gateway Oriented Scatternet Scheduling (GOSS), is proposed for data exchange in a Bluetooth scatternet. Unlike the existing scheme MDRP (Maximum Distance Rendezvous Point) that has a global superframe schedule shared by all gateways, the schedule used by each gateway is individually determined. Equal partition of the superframe schedule at a gateway to each

Changlei Liu; Kwan L. Yeung

2009-01-01

183

MAC scheduling for high throughput underwater acoustic networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater acoustic networks (UWANs) have emerged as the primary tool to monitor and act upon the well-being of marine environment. However, the significantly slower propagation speed of acoustic signals, in contrast to RF signals, introduces the spatio-temporal uncertainty, which makes existing medium access control (MAC) solutions for terrestrial RF wireless networks unsuitable for UWANs. In this paper, we investigate transmission

Yang Guan; Chien-Chung Shen; Justin Yackoski

2011-01-01

184

Interaction between UMTS MAC scheduling and TCP flow control mechanisms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS) is the delivery of multimedia services to the mobile user. Each different service requires its specific quality of service (QoS) to satisfy the mobile user. The QoS requirements will be supported by several protocol layers. In this paper, the interaction between the medium access control (MAC) scheduling and the transmission control

Matthias Malkowski; Silke Heier

2003-01-01

185

A novel MAC scheduling algorithm for Bluetooth system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data exchange within a Bluetooth piconet is master-driven. The channel\\/slot utilization thus depends on the efficiency of the scheduling algorithm adopted by the master. In this paper, a novel MAC layer scheduling algorithm, called floating threshold (FT), is proposed. Unlike existing approaches, FT allows the master to estimate the backlog queue status at each slave accurately based only on a

Changlei Liu; Kwan L. Yeung; Victor O. K. Li

2003-01-01

186

Comparing Energy-Saving MAC Protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Applications for wireless sensor networks have notably different characteristics and requirements from standard WLAN applications. Low energy consumption is the most important consideration. The low message rate that is typical for sensor network applications and the relaxed latency requirements allow for significant reductions in energy consumption of the radio. In this article we study the energy saved by two MAC

Gertjan P. Halkes; Tijs Van Dam; Koen Langendoen

2005-01-01

187

Distributed CDMA-based MAC Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater Sensor Networks are typically distributed in nature and the nodes communicate using acoustic waves over a wireless medium. Such networks are characterized by long and variable propagation delays, intermittent connectivity, limited bandwidth and low bit rates. Due to the wireless mode of communication between the sensor nodes, a Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to coordinate access to

Hwee Xian Tan; Winston Khoon Guan Seah

2007-01-01

188

Improving the MAC Layer of Multi-Hop Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ad hoc and multi-hop networks will probably be a part of the fourth generation of wireless networks, which will integrate networks of several sizes and capacities with heterogeneous coverage: cellular networks (3G), WLAN hot spots, wireless personal area networks (WPAN) and wireless body area networks (WBAN). In this context, MAC protocols play a deciding role for a high utilization of

Marceau Coupechoux; Bruno Baynat; Thierry Lestable; Vinod Kumar; Christian Bonnet

2004-01-01

189

Advantages of Dual Channel MAC for Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional low cost radios for wireless sensor networks operate with one frequency channel at any given time. However, recent advances in radio hardware for WSNs made available transceivers that can support two simultaneous channels. In this work, we investigate the benefits of using two parallel independent frequency channels at the MAC layer. In particular, the paper introduces a technique of

Antonio G. Ruzzelli; Gregory O'Hare; R. Jurdak; Richard Tynan

2006-01-01

190

FAMA\\/TDMA Hybrid MAC for Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks are an emerging area of interest among embedded and wireless research groups around the globe. It is envisioned that these low power computers will become the enabling technology in pervasive computing and bring about the next paradigm shift in computing. We present a new type of MAC protocol that is applicable to a special type of mobile

Nuwan Gajaweera; D. Dias

2008-01-01

191

12 CFR 615.5174 - Farmer Mac securities.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...securities have on your capital and earnings. (d) Stress Test. You must perform stress tests on mortgage securities that are issued or...and (c). If a Farmer Mac security fails a stress test, you must divest it as required by §...

2013-01-01

192

Listening, Looking, and Learning with MacLang.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes how the capabilities of the MacLang authoring system allow foreign language teachers to develop computer-assisted instruction that meets the listening skill objectives of foreign language courses. Examples are given of the use of audio and video interfaces that facilitate listening comprehension. (Author/CB)|

Frommer, Judith

1989-01-01

193

A multifrequency MAC specially designed for wireless sensor network applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multifrequency media access control has been well understood in general wireless ad hoc networks, while in wireless sensor networks, researchers still focus on single frequency solutions. In wireless sensor networks, each device is typically equipped with a single radio transceiver and applications adopt much smaller packet sizes compared to those in general wireless ad hoc networks. Hence, the multifrequency MAC

Gang Zhou; Yafeng Wu; Ting Yan; Tian He; Chengdu Huang; John A. Stankovic; Tarek F. Abdelzaher

2010-01-01

194

Activation of human neutrophil Mac-1 by anion substitution *  

PubMed Central

Substituting the medium chloride with glucuronate or glutamate causes a rapid, 10 to 30 fold, increase in the binding of the monoclonal antibody, CBRM1/5, which recognizes the high-affinity conformation of the Mac-1 integrin. This change is reflected in functional adhesion assays that show increased adhesion to ICAM-1 coated beads. Blocking antibodies indicate that the increased adhesion is almost entirely due to Mac-1. The inhibitor NPPB (100?M) reduces Cl- efflux into low Cl- medium by 75%, and blocks increased CBRM1/5 binding after stimulation with fMLP or TNF-?, but has no effect on the anion substitution induced increase in CBRM1/5 binding or adhesion to immobilized ICAM-1. Thus, changes in external anion composition, not internal chloride or increases in Cl- efflux, are responsible for Mac-1 activation. This effect is substantial. The percentage of Mac-1 in the high affinity state approaches 100% in glutamate and 50% in glucuronate, a far greater response than what is observed after stimulation with fMLP.

Lomakina, Elena; Knauf, Philip A.; Schultz, Joanne B.; Law, Foon-Yee; McGraw, Matthew D.; Waugh, Richard E.

2009-01-01

195

Activation of human neutrophil Mac-1 by anion substitution.  

PubMed

Substituting the medium chloride with glucuronate or glutamate causes a rapid, 10 to 30-fold, increase in the binding of the monoclonal antibody, CBRM1/5, which recognizes the high-affinity conformation of the Mac-1 integrin. This change is reflected in functional adhesion assays that show increased adhesion to ICAM-1 coated beads. Blocking antibodies indicate that the increased adhesion is almost entirely due to Mac-1. The inhibitor NPPB (100 microM) reduces Cl(-) efflux into low Cl(-) medium by 75%, and blocks increased CBRM1/5 binding after stimulation with fMLP or TNF-alpha, but has no effect on the anion substitution induced increase in CBRM1/5 binding or adhesion to immobilized ICAM-1. Thus, changes in external anion composition, not internal chloride or increases in Cl(-) efflux, are responsible for Mac-1 activation. This effect is substantial. The percentage of Mac-1 in the high affinity state approaches 100% in glutamate and 50% in glucuronate, a far greater response than what is observed after stimulation with fMLP. PMID:19246218

Lomakina, Elena; Knauf, Philip A; Schultz, Joanne B; Law, Foon-Yee; McGraw, Matthew D; Waugh, Richard E

2009-02-25

196

The effects of MAC protocols on ad hoc network communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

As mobile computing gains popularity, the need for ad hoc routing protocols will continue to grow. There have been numerous simulations comparing the performance of these protocols under varying conditions and constraints. One question that arises is whether the choice of MAC protocol affects the relative performance of the routing protocols being studied. This paper investigates the answer to that

Elizabeth M. Royer; Sung-Ju Leet; Charles E. Perkinst

2000-01-01

197

Distributed Cognitive MAC for Energy-Constrained Opportunistic Spectrum Access  

Microsoft Academic Search

We address the design of distributed cognitive medium access control (MAC) protocols for opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) under an energy constraint on the secondary users. The objective is to maximize the expected number of information bits that can be delivered by a secondary user during its battery lifetime without causing interference to primary users. By absorbing the residual energy level

Yunxia Chen; Qing Zhao; A. Swami

2006-01-01

198

The joint gaussian CEO\\/MAC problem and relaying  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of agents which observe a noisy version of a source, and communicate with a central decoder (ldquoCEOrdquo) through a multiple access channel (MAC). We assume that the source, the observation noises and the channel noise are all Gaussian, and we are interested in reconstruction under a mean squared error distortion measure. The solution by separation (combination

Yuval Kochman; Ram Zamir

2008-01-01

199

Maillard reaction products inhibit apple polyphenoloxidase  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of Maillard reaction products (MRP) on apple polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated spectrophotometrically at 400 nm after oxidation of 4-methylcatechol. MRP, synthesized under different conditions including heating time, type of amino acids, pH and concentration of both amino acid and glucose, showed different effects on apple PPO. The inhibitory effects of MRP. heated for 7 h at 90

B. K. Tan; N. D. Harris

1995-01-01

200

Apple Cultivar Sensitivity to Azoxystrobin Fungicide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple cultivar sensitivity to azoxystrobin fungicide was evaluated over two years. A single application of azoxystrobin at 200 ppm concentration was applied to selected shoots of over fifty different apple cultivars and rootstocks. Treated shoots were then evaluated for phytotoxicity for phytotoxicity four to seven days later. Cultivars that showed symptoms in one or both years included 'Braeburn', BC 8S-26-50,

R. M. Crassweller; D. E. Smith

201

Prediction of Apple Quality by Optical Properties  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Optical properties (i.e., absorption and scattering) are useful for assessing the internal quality of apples such as firmness and soluble solids content (SSC). A spatially-resolved hyperspectral imaging technique was developed to measure the optical properties of apples for predicting fruit firmness...

202

SED/Apple Computer, Inc., Partnership Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1990, the New York State Education Department (SED), Apple Computer, Inc., Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), and school districts formed a partnership to explore the contribution technology can make to schools based on Apple Computer's Learning Society and SED's Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary

Stoll, Peter F.

1991-01-01

203

Coating selection for Delicious and other apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gas permeabilities of shellac and several experimental coating formulations, including candelilla wax and shellac-carnauba were measured. These coatings, selected to have a wide range of gas permeabilities, were applied to freshly harvested and 5-month commercially stored Delicious, Fuji, Braeburn and Granny Smith apples. The coated apples were monitored during storage of 2 or 4 weeks at 20C for changes

Jinhe Bai; Robert D Hagenmaier; Elizabeth A Baldwin

2003-01-01

204

POSTHARVEST QUALITY AND HANDLING OF 'HONEYCRISP' APPLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The juicy texture of 'Honeycrisp' has exploded in the Northeast apple market. Grower interest and consumer demand has made this cultivar more readily accepted than most and it continues to increase in popularity. 'Honeycrisp' is a bi-color apple and the flesh is cream colored with a juicy crisp texture. It has outstanding flavor characteristics and can remain crisp for several

Jennifer R. DeEll

205

Welfare impacts of Indian apple trade policies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In April 2000, India eliminated the quantitative import restriction of apples and instituted a trade barrier in the form of lower ad valorem tariffs. This study examines the impacts of Indian trade policies on the apple market by reviewing the government policies, discussing mathematical and graphical analyses of trade policies, presenting estimated equations of demand, supply, and excess supply, and

Stephen Devadoss; Thomas Wahl

2004-01-01

206

Regulation of skin color in apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The literature of the regulation of color in apple skin is reviewed and compared with current knowledge of the regulation of flower color.Color in apple skin is a blend of various amounts of chlorophyll, carotenoids, and anthocyanins\\/flavonols. A variety of red colors are produced by cyanidin glycosides copigmented with flavonols and other compounds. The concentration and identification of flavonols, proanthocyanidins,

J. E. Lancaster; Donald K. Dougall

1992-01-01

207

7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture...Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE 1(Standards, Inspections...ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5...

2009-01-01

208

7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture...Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections...ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5...

2010-01-01

209

7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture...Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections...ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5...

2013-01-01

210

42 CFR 405.1110 - MAC reviews on its own motion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false MAC reviews on its own motion. 405.1110 Section 405.1110 ...§ 405.1110 MAC reviews on its own motion. (a) General rule. The MAC may decide on its own motion to review a decision or...

2012-10-01

211

42 CFR 423.2110 - MAC reviews on its own motion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 false MAC reviews on its own motion. 423.2110 Section 423.2110 ...§ 423.2110 MAC reviews on its own motion. (a) General rule. The MAC may decide on its own motion to review a decision or...

2012-10-01

212

A low power listening MAC with scheduled wake up after transmissions for WSNs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work presents a new MAC protocol for WSNs that combines an unscheduled channel access, based on lowpower listening, with an opportunistic scheduled wake up after transmissions mechanism. The proposed MAC provides a good tradeoff between energy consumption, complexity and performance in terms of throughput and delay. It achieves the benefits of scheduled MAC protocols without the cost of maintaining

Cristina Cano; Boris Bellalta; Anna Sfairopoulou; Jaume Barcelo

2009-01-01

213

Integrated routing and MAC scheduling for single-channel wireless mesh networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated routing and MAC scheduling protocol (IRMA) for multihop wireless mesh networks. The IRMA approach is motivated by the fact that the overall performance achieved by conventional layered approaches (802.11 MAC combined with independent ad hoc routing protocols) is significantly lower than the underlying network capacity. We propose to integrate the routing and MAC into a

Zhibin Wu; Dipankar Raychaudhuri

2008-01-01

214

A Cooperative Diversity-Based Robust MAC Protocol in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In interference-rich and noisy environment, wireless communication is often hampered by unreliable communication links. Recently, there has been active research on cooperative communication that improves the communication reliability by having a collection of radio terminals transmit signals in a cooperative way. This paper proposes a medium access control (MAC) algorithm, called Cooperative Diversity MAC (CD-MAC), which exploits the cooperative communication

Sangman Moh; Chansu Yu

2011-01-01

215

Bit Error Correction without Redundant Data: a MAC Layer Technique for 802.11 Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wireless network monitoring, received packets such as MAC frames may contain bit errors. Such errors either makes the monitoring data less accurate, or forces the monitoring software to drop errored frames to avoid such inaccuracy. We present a MAC layer based measurement technique for monitoring 802.11 networks. It can correct bit errors in certain MAC headers without the use

Wenyu Jiang

2006-01-01

216

Teaching a Classic for All Ages: Fairy Tales and Stories of George MacDonald.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the life and writings of George MacDonald (1824-1905). Suggests that the most striking feature of MacDonald's children's books is his sensitivity toward spiritual values and the power of change within the lives of his characters. Appends a list of questions to stimulate student response to MacDonald's writings. (RS)|

Sadler, Glenn Edward

1995-01-01

217

Determination of copper in clarified apple juices.  

PubMed

Inorganic copper compounds are not considered as synthetic fertilizers for apple trees as they are traditional fertilizers. Thus, they are used in organic farming for soil or foliar applications. The European Union is for health reasons interested in reducing copper in apple orchards. Because the fertilizer application rate affects the nutrition of apples, the applied copper might also be reflected in the copper concentration of apple juices. Thus, the determination of copper is of concern for investigating the application of copper-containing fertilizers. Samples of clarified apple juice commercially available in the European market were analyzed for their copper content. Prior to quantification by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry, the juices were processed by a microwave-assisted digestion system using HNO(3). All samples were also measured directly after dilution with HNO(3). The copper concentrations measured using both methods were all below the limit of detection (17 microg/L). PMID:20158210

Zeiner, Michaela; Juranovi? Cindri?, Iva; Krppl, Michaela; Stingeder, Gerhard

2010-03-24

218

Bandcrossings in 171Os  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nucleus 171Os has been populated using the reaction 116Sn(58Ni,2pn). Four new bands are identified, and the previously known bands are extended in spin, to a maximum of 53/2?. One- and three-quasiparticle configurations are identified, and ?, ?, and octupole configurations are assigned tentatively. The effects of a possible intruder configuration on the negative parity bands are tested using band-mixing calculations.

Bark, R. A.; Trmnen, S.; Bck, T.; Cederwall, B.; degrd, S. W.; Cocks, J. F. C.; Helariutta, K.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Kankaanp, H.; Kettunen, H.; Kuusiniemi, P.; Leino, M.; Muikku, M.; Rahkila, P.; Savelius, A.

1999-02-01

219

Symptomatic os infranaviculare.  

PubMed

The author observed a new accessory bone of the foot in the distal portion of navicular, which articulated with the medial cuneiform and the intermediate cuneiform, and named it os infranaviculare. A degenerative change was observed between the accessory bone and the navicular; this caused midfoot pain to the patient during weight-bearing. Thus, the patient was treated by excision of the accessory bone. The symptom was relieved at one-year postoperative. PMID:23730481

Kim, Jae Kwang; Roh, Kwon Jae

2013-05-15

220

Detection of internal browning in apples by light transmittance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light transmittance in the 450 to 1050 nanometer (nm) region was evaluated as a nondestructive technique for identifying apples with internal browning. Shorter wavelengths of light ( 800 nm). A transmission difference between 720 and 810 nm was used to segregate apples with internal browning from good apples. Only 7.4% of the apples were misclassified in a training set. When

Bruce L. Upchurch; James A. Throop; Daniel J. Aneshansley

1995-01-01

221

Patulin content in apple products marketed in Northeast China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patulin is a secondary metabolite, which is mainly produced by certain species of Aspergillus and Penicillium fungi. In this study, a total of 95 samples of apple products were analyzed for patulin content, including apple juice, baby food, apple juice concentrate, and mixed juice. Results of the study showed in 16% of apple products level of patulin found was higher

Yuan Yuan; Hong Zhuang; Tiehua Zhang; Jingbo Liu

2010-01-01

222

Evaluation of Performance of Secure OS Using Performance Evaluation Mechanism of LSM-Based LSMPMON  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Security focused OS (Secure OS) is attracting attention as a method for minimizing damage caused by various intrusions. Secure OSes can restrict the damage due to an attack by using Mandatory Access Control (MAC). In some projects, secure OSes for Linux have been developed. In these OSes, different implementation methods have been adopted. However, there is no method for easily evaluating the performance of the secure OS in detail, and the relationship between the implementation method and the performance is not clear. The secure OS in Linux after version 2.6 has often been implemented by Linux Security Modules (LSM). Therefore, we determine the effect of introducing the secure OS on the performance of the OS, and a characteristic by the difference of the implementation method by using the overhead measurement tool, the LSM Performance Monitor (LSMPMON); the LSMPMON can be used to evaluate three different secure OSes.

Yamamoto, Kenji; Yamauchi, Toshihiro

223

Improving fairness in per-packet reservation MAC protocols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent and future communications networks have to provide QoS guarantees for a rapidly growing number of various telecommunication services, which can be ensured by application of an efficient MAC layer. Particularly, per-packet reservation MAC protocols are efficient ensuring a good network utilization and realization of QoS for various telecommunications services. However, per-packet reservation protocols suffers from an unfairness because network stations achieve different relative data throughput depending on the traffic characteristics of used services. A fair scheduling between network stations can be ensured if offered data rate per station is known, which is unfortunately not the case. In this investigation it is shown that the offered data rate can be successfully estimated by calculation of so-called effective requesting period per network station, which can be used for implementation of a fair scheduling mechanism. The results show a significant improvement of the fairness behavior in the network if the fair scheduling is applied.

Hrasnica, Halid

2005-10-01

224

Evaluation of Reference Genes for the Relative Quantification of Apple stem grooving virus and Apple mosaic virus in Apple Trees.  

PubMed

A SYBR Green()-based one step RT-qPCR assay was developed for the detection and quantification of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). The RT-qPCR assay employed seven plant-expressed genes-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 18S ribosomal RNA, ubiquitin, ribosomal protein S19, Rubisco, RNA polymerase subunit II and ?-actin-as internal reference housekeeping genes in a relative quantification system in three apple cultivars (i.e. Idared, Champion, Fragrance). The average expression stability (M) found by GeNorm software suggest that GAPDH and S19 were the most stable reference genes. We propose employing GAPDH and S19 as housekeeping genes for accurate quantification of ASGV and ApMV in apple leaf samples. The detection limit for both viruses was found around 70 copies of viral genome by one-step RT-qPCR. PMID:23730001

Gadiou, S; Kundu, J K

2012-03-25

225

Adaptive MAC Scheduling Using Channel State Diversity for Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Head-of-line blocking problem compromises the throughput of multi-hop wireless networks. FIFO scheduling in the current IEEE 802.11 MAC causes this problem when the network is highly loaded. One solution is to increase the RTS success rate by extending the RTS frame to MRTS (multicast RTS), so that multiple receivers could be checked simultaneously. There is a tradeoff for the length

Jian Zhang; Yuanzhu Peter Chen; Ivan Marsic

2006-01-01

226

A power control MAC protocol for ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a power control MAC protocol based on the IEEE 802.11 standard. Several researchers have proposed a simple modification of IEEE 802.11 to incorporate power control. The main idea of these power control schemes is to use different power levels for RTS-CTS and DATA-ACK. Specifically, maximum transmit power is used for RTS-CTS, and the minimum required transmit power

Eun-Sun Jung; Nitin H. Vaidya

2002-01-01

227

An Energy Conservation MAC Protocol in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks use battery-operated computing and sensing devices. Because of the limitation of battery power in\\u000a the sensor nodes, energy conservation is a crucial issue in wireless sensor networks. Consequently, there is much literature\\u000a presenting energy-efficient MAC protocols based on active\\/sleep duty cycle mechanisms to conserve energy. Convergecast is\\u000a a common communication pattern across many sensor network applications featuring

Yu-Chia Chang; Jang-Ping Sheu

2009-01-01

228

How to Thwart Birthday Attacks against MACs via Small Randomness  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The security of randomized message authentication code, MAC for short, is typically depending on the uniqueness of random\\u000a initial vectors (IVs). Thus its security bound usually contains O(q\\u000a 2\\/2\\u000a n\\u000a ), when random IV is n bits and q is the number of MACed messages. In this paper, we present how to break this birthday barrier without increasing the randomness.

Kazuhiko Minematsu

2010-01-01

229

MacTutor History of Mathematics: General Relativity  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article reviews the history, theories and contributions that led Albert Einstein to formulate the theories of Special and General Relativity. It starts from the understanding of gravity by the ancient Greek Mathematicians, and ends at the work by Einstein and others in the early 20th century. Hyperlinks are available to biographies of all the important scientists and mathematicians who contributed to the theory. This is part of the extensive MacTutor History of Mathematics Archive.

O'Connor, John

2007-05-21

230

A survey of MAC protocols proposed for wireless ATM  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless ATM (W-ATM) networks have been studied extensively. The extension of ATM network services to the wireless environment faces many interesting problems. The original ATM network was designed for high-speed noiseless, reliable channels. None of these characteristics are applicable to the wireless channel. One of the most critical aspects of a W-ATM network is the medium access control (MAC) protocol

Jaime Sanchez; Ralph Martinez; Michael W. Marcellin

1997-01-01

231

"MacCallum Plaque of the Heart": A Medicolegal Case  

PubMed Central

Mural endocardial lesions can be seen as MacCallum plaques in rheumatic heart disease. These plaques appear as map-like areas of thickened, roughened, and wrinkled part of the endocardium in the left atrium. Perhaps they are caused by regurgitant jets of blood flow, due to incompetence of the mitral valve. Although MacCallum plaques are one of the characteristic features in rheumatic heart disease, they are very uncommon in recent times. We hereby report a case of an adolescent female with RHD, who was working as a housemaid in a doctors house for a few months, and suddenly developed respiratory tract infection and cardiac failure. She died on the fourth day of admission. A medicolegal autopsy was conducted, as her relatives accused her master of sexual assault. On autopsy it was seen that the mitral valves were narrowed, showing multiple vegetations. MacCallum plaque was seen in the dilated left atrium. Hence, it is presented here for educative purposes.

Shivakumarswamy, Udasimath; Sinhasan, Sankappa P.; Purushotham, R.; Nagesha, K. R.

2010-01-01

232

MacA, a Periplasmic Membrane Fusion Protein of the Macrolide Transporter MacAB-TolC, Binds Lipopolysaccharide Core Specifically and with High Affinity.  

PubMed

The Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC transporter has been implicated in efflux of macrolide antibiotics and secretion of enterotoxin STII. In this study, we found that purified MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, contains one tightly bound rough core lipopolysaccharide (R-LPS) molecule per MacA molecule. R-LPS was bound specifically to MacA protein with affinity exceeding that of polymyxin B. Sequence analyses showed that MacA contains two high-density clusters of positively charged amino acid residues located in the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain and the periplasmic C-terminal domain. Substitutions in the C-terminal cluster reducing the positive-charge density completely abolished binding of R-LPS. At the same time, these substitutions significantly reduced the functionality of MacA in the protection of E. coli against macrolides in vivo and in the in vitro MacB ATPase stimulation assays. Taken together, our results suggest that R-LPS or a similar glycolipid is a physiological substrate of MacAB-TolC. PMID:23974027

Lu, Shuo; Zgurskaya, Helen I

2013-08-23

233

FDA Statement on Arsenic in Apple Juice  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... In fact, 95 percent of the apple juice samples tested were below 10 ppb total arsenic; and 100 percent below 10 ppb for inorganic arsenic, the ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/metals

234

Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)|

Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

2003-01-01

235

Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

2003-01-01

236

Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard  

SciTech Connect

This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Rempel, D. [University of California Berkeley/San Francisco (United States). Ergonomics Laboratory

1994-05-01

237

Sounding of the Plasmasphere by McMAC Magnetometers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properly positioned ground magnetometers can be used to detect resonance of magnetospheric field lines as a way to make unique observations of the plasma mass density of the magnetosphere. In this paper we describe the field line resonance (FLR) frequencies systematically observed by the Mid-continent MAgnetoseismic Chain (McMAC), which consists of 10 stations in the United States and Mexico along 300 magnetic longitude. With an average separation by 272 km between adjacent stations McMAC is well suited to remotely sensing the plasma density at L-values between 1.6 and 3.3 through the gradient method of FLR measurements. We analyzed a full year of McMAC observations spanning between July 2006 and June 2007, and FLR frequencies were automatically identified in cross-phase and cross-power spectrograms by a computer routine. In all of the FLR observations by pairs of McMAC stations, the occurrence rate of FLR can reach as high as 55% around local noon at L = 2.7. The occurrence rate drops at lower latitudes due to weaker FLR signals. At L = 3.3 the FLR occurrence is clearly reduced in afternoon hours, possibly because of occasional presence of the plasmapause that can obstruct FLR generation and/or detection. By examining the results from all possible pairs of McMAC stations, we find that, at L ? 2.5, FLR signatures can still be found even when the separation between two stations exceeds 1000 km. The fundamental mode FLR frequencies, in addition to the inferred equatorial plasma mass densities of the magnetosphere, are tabulated with respect to L-value and time. The most probable fundamental mode frequency is found to be approximately 75 mHz at L = 1.6 and decreases with increasing L-value. The distribution of the fundamental mode frequency at L = 3.3, however, exhibits two distinct groups: The lower frequencies centered at 10 mHz representing the measurements inside the plasmasphere whereas the higher frequencies centered at 39 mHz indicating the faster field line oscillations in the more tenuous plasmatrough. Through statistical analysis we also examine the effects of local time, solar flux, and geomagnetic conditions on the fundamental mode frequency and the inferred density of the plasmasphere.

Chi, P. J.; McMAC Team

2012-04-01

238

187Os- 186Os systematics of Os-Ir-Ru alloy grains from southwestern Oregon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

More than 100 Os-Ir-Ru alloy grains from southwestern Oregon, presumably originating in the Mesozoic Josephine ophiolite, were examined for major and minor element compositions and 187Os/ 188Os isotopic compositions. Sixteen grains spanning the range of 187Os/ 188Os ratios present in the larger suite were analyzed for high-precision 186Os/ 188Os ratios. The ranges of major and minor element abundances of individual grains were, in general, similar to compositions previously reported for such grains worldwide. Within-suite compositional variations were quite large. Most grains were likely disaggregated from larger intergrown clusters, and were subdivided based on texture into matrix and lamellae. Composition variations within individual matrix grains were limited, whereas variations within individual lamellae grains were considerably larger. The 187Os/ 188Os ratios of individual grains were isotopically homogeneous at the 0.1% level of resolution. The 187Os/ 188Os ratios of the entire suite of grains ranged from 0.1173 to 0.1468. The average ratio for all grains combined was 0.1241, similar to the composition of three chromitites sampled from the Josephine Creek, and consistent with formation in the Mesozoic upper mantle. The average 186Os/ 188Os ratio of the subset of 16 grains was 0.119838. All grains but one had isotopic ratios within 20 ppm of that ratio. Results indicate that 187Os/ 188Os variations on a scale of mm 3 may be quite large within the upper mantle, mimicking heterogeneities observed in both hand-and outcrop-scale samples of upper mantle materials. Highly depleted compositions relative to ambient upper mantle with chondritic 187Os/ 188Os require that some of the heterogeneities must be >1 Ga. The homogeneity of the 186Os/ 188Os ratios lend no support to the contention that isotopic heterogeneities within the upper mantle may explain coupled 186Os- 187Os enrichments that have been observed in putative plume derived lavas.

Walker, R. J.; Brandon, A. D.; Bird, J. M.; Piccoli, P. M.; McDonough, W. F.; Ash, R. D.

2005-01-01

239

Dextransucrase Stability in Cashew Apple Juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of agriculture waste as substrate for biotechnological process became an interesting alternative to reduce production\\u000a costs and the negative impact of agricultural wastes disposal in the environment. In Brazil, cashew tree cultivation is done\\u000a aiming the cashew nut production, and tons of cashew apples are wasted in the field after the nut removal. Thus, cashew apple\\u000a juice can

Talita L. Honorato; Sueli Rodrigues

2010-01-01

240

APPLE WAXING AFTER METHYL BROMIDE FUMIGATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic methyl bromide (MeBr) residue present in fumigated apples, after waxing, is dependent upon the type of wax used and the time after MeBr exposure. Use of carnauba wax allows the MeBr residue to dissipate faster than does the use of shellac wax. With carnauba wax, the MeBr residue levels were less than 0.001 ppm when apples were waxed 5

S. R. Drake; J. D. Hansen; H. R. Moffitt

241

The New Zealand apple genome mapping project  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThis project was initiated three years ago to support the New Zealand apple breeding programme at HortResearch and is funded\\u000a by both the New Zealand Foundation for Research, Science and Technology and the New Zealand Apple and Pear Marketing Board.\\u000a Our initial goal is to construct a linkage map comprising RFLP, RAPD and isoenzyme markers as well as characters of

Susan E. Gardiner; Ji Mei Zhu; Heather C. M. Whitehead; Charlotte Madie

1994-01-01

242

Microsoft vs. Apple: Tech-support showdown  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yet one more installment in the Microsoft versus Apple debate, this article by CNet reviews the two biggies in terms of tech support, giving report cards on standard documentation, online help, and phone support. The results? Both companies get a "B" overall, with Microsoft proving better for customers with more advanced or complex queries and Apple better for those who have more basic questions when they first receive a product.

Lake, Matt.

1995-01-01

243

Apple peel powder, methods of making, and uses thereof  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention relates to a method of making a powder from apple peel by providing an apple peel, subjecting the apple peel to a phytochemical preservation treatment, drying the treated apple peel, and grinding the dried, treated apple peel to a powder. A powder from apple peel having a phenolic content and a flavonoid content similar to fresh apple peel on a fresh weight basis, where the powder has a water activity of less than 0.30 is also disclosed. The present invention also relates to a method of treating cancer in a patient by administering a powder from apple peel to a patient under conditions effective to treat cancer. Also disclosed is a method of inhibiting proliferation of cancer cells by contacting cancer cells with a powder from apple peel under conditions effective to inhibit proliferation of the cancer cells.

Liu; Rui Hai (Ithaca, NY)

2013-10-08

244

7 CFR 319.56-27 - Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...56-27 Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Fuji variety apples may be imported...and the fruit tree spider mite (Tetranychus...inspection. The apples must be inspected...export. Imported Fuji variety apples...

2009-01-01

245

CIAO? ADiOS!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the New Horizons in Globular Cluster Astronomy conference (Padova, June 2002), two members of the VLT globular cluster team presented different views on the importance of heavy-element sedimentation in Population II stars: ``The lack of evidence for depletion of Fe and Li in the atmospheres of globular cluster subgiants led some people to suspect that, for unknown reasons, Population II stars are not affected by this mechanism.'' \\citep{Castellani_2003} and ``There should be some mechanism that prevents sedimentation.'' \\citep{Gratton_2003}. In this review, I will argue that the scepticism behind both these statements is justified. We recently revisited the results on sedimentation in NGC 6397 stars presented by {\\citet{Gratton_etal_2001}} using higher-quality VLT/FLAMES-UVES data \\citep{Korn_etal_2006,Korn_etal_2007}. Element-specific abundance trends were identified which agree with atomic-diffusion predictions, if turbulent mixing below the convective envelope is accounted for in a parametrized way. Have we thus detected signatures of Atomic Diffusion in Old Stars (ADiOS)? Or are these trends mere artefacts of Conspiring Inaccuracies in Abundance Observations (CIAO)?

Korn, Andreas

246

CO2calc: A User Friendly Seawater Carbon Calculator for Windows, Mac OS X, and iOS (iPhone).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A user-friendly, stand-alone application for the calculation of carbonate system parameters was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey Florida Shelf Ecosystems Response to Climate Change Project in response to its Ocean Acidification Task. The applicatio...

J. A. Kleypas L. L. Robbins M. E. Hansen S. C. Meylan

2010-01-01

247

Susceptibility of nine apple cultivars to woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Jordan  

Microsoft Academic Search

This 4-year study examined the susceptibility of nine cultivars of apple, Malus domestica Borkhausen to attack by woolly apple aphid (WAA), Eriosoma lanigerum in Jordan. The cultivars under investigation were: Prima Rouge, Delberd Steval, Early Gold, Starking Delicious, Harmony, Golden Smoothee, Fuji, Melrose, and Golden Delicious. Estimation of susceptibility was based upon a numeric scale of 04 for both root

Mazen A. Ateyyat; Tawfiq M. Al-Antary

2009-01-01

248

Photooxidative Sunburn of Apples: Characterization of a Third Type of Apple Sunburn  

Microsoft Academic Search

Photooxidative sunburn, a third type that is distinctly different from sunburn necrosis and sunburn browning, is described for apple (Malus domestica Borkh.). Shaded (nonacclimated) apples suddenly exposed to sunlight became photobleached and eventually necrotic. Electron micrographs and electrolyte leakage studies indicated that cell death occurred with photobleaching. Photobleaching occurred at fruit surface temperatures (FST) below 31C. Sunburn browning and sunburn

David A. Felicetti; Larry E. Schrader

2008-01-01

249

Apple foliage enhances mating disruption of light-brown apple moth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Uptake and release of pheromone and behavioral inhibitor ofEpiphyas postvittanna by apple leaves was tested using field electroantennograms (EAG), trap catches to synthetic lures and virgin females, and chemical analysis. Trap catches in single apple trees (N=3) were monitored for six cycles of six days' duration, using delta traps baited with synthetic pheromone. Polyethylene dispensers (0, 1, 10 per tree)

D. M. Suckling; G. Karg; S. J. Bradley

1996-01-01

250

Apple Import Demand: Four Markets for U.S. Fresh Apples.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The report presents the results of an econometric analysis of four U.S. overseas apple markets and explores competition in Canada, Hong Kong, Singapore, and the United Kingdom. The results indicate that the United States will increase its apple exports to...

A. L. Sparks J. L. Seale B. M. Buxton

1990-01-01

251

The history of Newton's apple tree  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article contains a brief introduction to Newton's early life to put into context the subsequent events in this narrative. It is followed by a summary of accounts of Newton's famous story of his discovery of universal gravitation which was occasioned by the fall of an apple in the year 1665/6. Evidence of Newton's friendship with a prosperous Yorkshire family who planted an apple tree arbour in the early years of the eighteenth century to celebrate his discovery is presented. A considerable amount of new and unpublished pictorial and documentary material is included relating to a particular apple tree which grew in the garden of Woolsthorpe Manor (Newton's birthplace) and which blew down in a storm before the year 1816. Evidence is then presented which describes how this tree was chosen to be the focus of Newton's account. Details of the propagation of the apple tree growing in the garden at Woolsthorpe in the early part of the last century are then discussed, and the results of a dendrochronological study of two of these trees is presented. It is then pointed out that there is considerable evidence to show that the apple tree presently growing at Woolsthorpe and known as 'Newton's apple tree' is in fact the same specimen which was identified in the middle of the eighteenth century and which may now be 350 years old. In conclusion early results from a radiocarbon dating study being carried out at the University of Oxford on core samples from the Woolsthorpe tree lend support to the contention that the present tree is one and the same as that identified as Newton's apple tree more than 200 years ago. Very recently genetic fingerprinting techniques have been used in an attempt to identify from which sources the various 'Newton apple trees' planted throughout the world originate. The tentative result of this work suggests that there are two separate varieties of apple tree in existence which have been accepted as 'the tree'. One may conclude that at least some of the current Newton apple trees have no connection with the original tree at Woolsthorpe Manor.

Keesing, R. G.

1998-05-01

252

CAC on a MAC: Setting up a DOD Common Access Card Reader on the Macintosh OS X Operating System.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Naval Postgraduate School, along with many other Department of Defense (DoD) organizations, utilizes the ActivCard USB Common Access Card (CAC) readers. The CAC readers in conjunction with the user's Smart Card enables access to DoD PKI-enabled w...

P. Hopfner

2006-01-01

253

MERLIN: A Synergetic Integration of MAC and Routing Protocol for Distributed Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Notoriously, energy-efficient MAC protocols cause high latency of packets. Such delays may well increase when a routing protocol is applied. Therefore, quantifying the end-to-end delay and energy consumption when low duty cycle MAC and routing protocols are jointly used, is of particular interest. In this paper, we present a comprehensive evaluation of the MERLIN (MAC and efficient routing integrated with

A. G. Ruzzelli; G. M. P. O'Hare; M. J. O'Grady; R. Tynan

2006-01-01

254

Expression of MAC30 in Rectal Cancers with or without Preoperative Radiotherapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Meningioma-associated protein (MAC30) is overexpressed in several types of cancers, but its therapeutic implication in the patients has not been studied. We examined the relationship of MAC30 with clinicopathological and biological factors in rectal cancer patients with or without radiotherapy (RT). Methods: MAC30 was immunohistochemically examined in 75 distant and 91 adjacent normal mucosa specimens, 132 primary tumours and

Zhi-Yong Zhang; Zeng-Ren Zhao; Gunnar Adell; Ingvar Jarlsfelt; Yong-Xing Cui; Hany Kayed; Jrg Kleeff; Ming-Wei Wang; Xiao-Feng Sun

2006-01-01

255

Factor Structure and Validity of the MacArthur Competence Assessment ToolCriminal Adjudication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of the available literature regarding the development of the MacArthur Competence Assessment ToolCriminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA) reveals 2 theoretical factor structures on which the MacCAT-CA was based: one in which 3 lower-order constructs are proposed (understanding, reasoning, appreciation) and one in which 2 higher-order constructs are proposed (competence to assist counsel and decisional competence). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted with

Patricia A. Zapf; Jennifer L. Skeem; Stephen L. Golding

2005-01-01

256

MQ-MAC: A Multi-Constrained QoS-Aware Duty Cycle MAC for Heterogeneous Traffic in Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Energy conservation is one of the striking research issues now-a-days for power constrained wireless sensor networks (WSNs) and hence, several duty-cycle based MAC protocols have been devised for WSNs in the last few years. However, assimilation of diverse applications with different QoS requirements (i.e., delay and reliability) within the same network also necessitates in devising a generic duty-cycle based MAC protocol that can achieve both the delay and reliability guarantee, termed as multi-constrained QoS, while preserving the energy efficiency. To address this, in this paper, we propose a Multi-constrained QoS-aware duty-cycle MAC for heterogeneous traffic in WSNs (MQ-MAC). MQ-MAC classifies the traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS demands. Through extensive simulation using ns-2 we evaluate the performance of MQ-MAC. MQ-MAC provides the desired delay and reliability guarantee according to the nature of the traffic classes as well as achieves energy efficiency.

Monowar, Muhammad Mostafa; Rahman, Md. Obaidur; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon

2010-01-01

257

Optimal sensitivity for molecular recognition MAC-mode AFM  

PubMed

Molecular recognition force microscopy (MRFM) using the magnetic AC mode (MAC mode) atomic force microscope (AFM) was recently investigated to locate and probe recognition sites. A flexible crosslinker carrying a ligand is bound to the tip for the molecular recognition of receptors on the surface of a sample. In this report, the driving frequency is calculated which optimizes the sensitivity (S). The sensitivity of MRFM is defined as the relative change of the magnetically excited cantilever deflection amplitude arising from a crosslinker/antibody/antigen connection that is characterized by a very small force constant. The sensitivity is calculated in a damped oscillator model with a certain value of quality factor Q, which, together with load, defines the frequency response (unloaded oscillator shows resonance at Q > 0.707). If Q < 1, the greatest value of S corresponds to zero driving frequency omega (measured in units of eigenfrequency). Therefore, for Q < 1, MAC-mode has no advantage in comparison with DC-mode. Two additional extremes are found at omegaL = (1 - 1/Q)(1/2) and omegaR = (1 + 1/Q)(1/2), with corresponding sensitivities S(L) = Q2/(2Q - 1), S(R) = Q2/(2Q + 1). The L-extreme exists only for Q > 1, and then S(L) > S(R), i.e. the L-extreme is the main one. For Q > 1, S(L) > 1, and for Q > 2.41, S(R) > 1. These are the critical Q-values, above which selecting driving frequency equal to sigmaL or sigmaR brings advantage to MAC mode vs. DC mode. Satisfactory quality of the oscillator model is demonstrated by comparison of some results with those calculated within the classical description of cantilevers. PMID:10741674

Schindler; Badt; Hinterdorfer; Kienberger; Raab; Wielert-Badt; Pastushenko

2000-02-01

258

42 CFR 423.2062 - Applicability of policies not binding on the ALJ and MAC.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... MEDICARE PROGRAM (CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review...coverage determination being considered and does not have precedential...

2012-10-01

259

Using MACS to Identify Peaks from ChIP-Seq Data  

PubMed Central

MACS (Model-based Analysis of ChIP-Seq) is a command line tool designed by X. Shirley Liu and colleagues to analyze data generated by ChIP-Seq experiments in eukaryote, especially in mammal. Given the ChIP-Seq data with or without control samples, MACS can be used to identify transcription factor binding sites and histone modification enriched regions. This unit describes two basic protocols that provide detailed information of how to use MACS to identify either the binding sites of a transcription factor, or the enriched regions of a histone modification with broad peaks. Furthermore, the basic ideas of MACS algorithm and its appropriate usage are discussed.

Feng, Jianxing; Liu, Tao; Zhang, Yong

2011-01-01

260

Development of a convenient wireless control of an autonomous vehicle using apple iOS SDK  

Microsoft Academic Search

Remote control of autonomous robots\\/vehicles has been an interesting research area with many ongoing developments being done. However, most implementation methods either require additional hardware or involve certain trained individuals to operate the system. This paper aims to present a convenient method to wirelessly remote control a car mounted with the BlackWidow 1.0 microcontroller using the iPhone, with software written

Chandra Fernandes; Kok Yew Ng; Boon How Khoo

2011-01-01

261

Using the Apple II as a Laboratory Instrument.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses using Apple II microcomputers for measuring resistance, temperature, and light intensity. Also discusses digital input and output and timing techniques. Although focusing on Apple II, the circuits and programs described may be applicable to other microcomputers. (JN)

De Jong, Marvin L.; Layman, John W.

1984-01-01

262

Detection of internal browning in apples by light transmittance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Light transmittance in the 450 to 1050 nanometer (nm) region was evaluated as a nondestructive technique for identifying apples with internal browning. Shorter wavelengths of light (< 800 nm) were attenuated more than longer wavelengths (> 800 nm). A transmission difference between 720 and 810 nm was used to segregate apples with internal browning from good apples. Only 7.4% of the apples were misclassified in a training set. When applied to a larger validation set, 8.0% of the apples with internal browning were misclassified. For both sets, the only apples misclassified were those with very slight browning that was very difficult to detect visually were misclassified, but none of the apples with slight to severe browning was misclassified. For nondefective apples, 6.1% were identified as having internal browning, because bruises and internal browning had the same effect on the spectral composition.

Upchurch, Bruce L.; Throop, James A.; Aneshansley, Daniel J.

1995-01-01

263

Report of 1997 Inspections of Fresh, Unpasteurized Apple ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... for pathogen growth during extended holding, or refrigerated storage of apples if ... washing, and wet-brushing of apples with water containing an ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/guidanceregulation/haccp

264

Production of fuels and chemicals from apple pomace  

SciTech Connect

Nearly 36 million tons of apples are produced annually in the US. Approximately 45% of the total US apple production is used for processing purposes. The primary by-product of apple processing is apple pomace. It consists of the presscake resulting from pressing apples for juice or cider, including the presscake obtained in pressing peel and core wastes generated in the manufacture of apple sauce or slices. More than 500 food processing plants in the US produce a total of about 1.3 million metric tons of apple pomace each year, and it is likely that annual disposal fees exceed $10 million. Apple pomace has the potential to be used for the production of fuels (ethanol and biogas containing 60% methane) and food-grade chemicals. These uses will be reviewed in this article.

Hang, Y.D.

1987-03-01

265

Arsenic in Apple Juice Analytical Results, 2005-2011 Toxic ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... Arsenic in Apple Juice Analytical Results, 2005-2011 Toxic Elements Food and Foodware Program. ... Back to Arsenic in Apple Juice Main Page. ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/metals

266

Apple lesion recognition based on Fisherapples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A derivative of Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA), named Fisherapples for the recognition of apple lesions which is not sensitive to large variations in illumination is proposed in this paper. We make use of the linear projection that is orthogonal to the within-class scatter of the apple images from a high-dimensional image space to a considerably low-dimensional image space. It separates the data-cases well, projecting away variations in lighting. Our approach maximizes the ratio of between-class scatter to that of within-class scatter of apple lesions, i.e., we can get maximal between-class distances and minimal within-class distances after projection. This implies that the gap between the classes becomes bigger and ensures optimal separability in the new space. Besides, we take advantage of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to project the set of apple images to a lower dimensional space in order to overcome the complication of the singular within-class scatter matrix. After that, the resulting within-class scatter becomes nonsingular and subsequently we can use standard FLDA to reduce the dimension further. Consequently, it is effortless for the computer to calculate the result. Experimental results demonstrate that Fisherapples performs better in apple lesion recognition than PCA.

Meng, Yu; Cai, Cheng; Hao, Huan; Qin, Xiang; Song, Wei; Huang, Lin

2009-07-01

267

Longevity Studies of Escherichia coli on Apples from Tree  

Microsoft Academic Search

The consumption of fresh apple juice and apple cider has been linked to increasing numbers of outbreaks associated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. Apples can become contaminated with E. coli O157:H7 not only during processing but also while still on the tree. This study was undertaken to ascertain if E. coli can survive and grow on apples in an orchard environment

Sun-Young Lee; Dong-Hyun Kang

268

Oxyresveratrol as an antibrowning agent for cloudy apple juices and fresh-cut apples.  

PubMed

Antibrowning activities of Morus alba L. twig extracts, oxyresveratrol, and mulberroside A isolated from mulberry twig on cloudy apple juices and fresh-cut apple slices were evaluated by monitoring the change of a* value, total color difference (DeltaE), and visual observation. It was found, similar to 4-hexylresorcinol, that oxyresveratrol could effectively inhibit browning in cloudy apple juices at a concentration as low as 0.01% and that mulberry twig extract also showed remarkable antibrowning effects on cloudy apple juices. However, for fresh-cut apple slices, mulberry twig extract and oxyresveratrol needed to be used in combination at least with ascorbic acid to exhibit their antibrowning effects. Apple slice samples treated by dipping in a solution containing 0.001 M oxyresveratrol, 0.5 M isoascorbic acid, 0.05 M calcium chloride, and 0.025 M acetylcysteine did not undergo any substantial browning reaction for 28 days at 4 degrees C. However mulberroside A did not show antibrowning effects on cloudy apple juices although it is also a good mushroom tyrosinase inhibitor. PMID:17335224

Li, Haitao; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Cho, Chi-Hin; He, Zhendan; Wang, Mingfu

2007-03-03

269

Deconstructing the McGurk-MacDonald illusion.  

PubMed

Cross-modal illusions such as the McGurk-MacDonald effect have been used to illustrate the automatic, encapsulated nature of multisensory integration. This characterization is based in the widespread assumption that the illusory percept arising from intersensory conflict reflects only the end-product of the multisensory integration process, with the mismatch between the original unisensory events remaining largely hidden from awareness. Here the authors show that when presented with desynchronized audiovisual speech syllables, observers are often able to detect the temporal mismatch while experiencing the McGurk-MacDonald illusion. Thus, contrary to previous assumptions, it seems possible to gain access to information about the individual sensory components of a multisensory (integrated) percept. On the basis of this and similar findings, the authors argue that multisensory integration is a multifaceted process during which different attributes of the (multisensory) object might be bound by different mechanisms and possibly at different times. This proposal contrasts with classic conceptions of multisensory integration as a homogeneous process whereby all the attributes of a multisensory event are treated in a unified manner. PMID:19331510

Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Alsius, Agns

2009-04-01

270

Apple Shape Classification Using Level Set and Motion Estimation  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new algorithm for apple shape classification using level set and motion estimation was proposed. At first, a standard class shape apple images database was construct by expert, and then the level set representations according to signed distance transforms were used, which are a simple, robust, rich and efficient way to represent shapes; second, the unknown shape class apple was

Jiangsheng Gui; Zhouxiang Shou; DongHe Yang; Hongchun Chen

2009-01-01

271

7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

... 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50...REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms apples for...

2013-01-01

272

7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2009-01-01 2009-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50...REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms apples for...

2009-01-01

273

7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50...REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms apples for...

2010-01-01

274

Establishing Commercial Utility of Behavioral Control for Apple Maggot Fly  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apple maggot fly is a key summer pest of apples throughout eastern North America, and poses an increasing threat to apple production in the Northwest. If left unchecked, the threat of AMF injury to fruit can be severe, resulting in complete loss of marketable crop. To combat AMF infestation, comme...

275

Wax and the Water Vapour Permeability of Apple Cuticle  

Microsoft Academic Search

THE storage characteristics of apples depend on the variety. In particular some varieties have a tendency to shrivel or `wilt' because they have lost excessive water by transpiration. The transpiration rate of an apple will clearly depend on the resistance to water vapour movement of the apple cuticle.

R. L. Horrocks

1964-01-01

276

Consumer Preferences: A Guide to Connecticut Apple Marketing  

Microsoft Academic Search

The primary objectives of this research are: (1) to identify the preferences of Connecticut apple consumers regarding product attributes and market characteristics; (2) to assess the impact of Connecticut promotion programs on consumer preference for Connecticut grown apples, and (3) to identify opportunities for more effective marketing of Connecticut grown apples. Information was obtained by interviewing a total of 374

Robert L. Leonard; James J. Wadsworth

1989-01-01

277

Quality level and price in Japanese apple market  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research quantitatively analyzed the relationship between selected internal apple characteristics and prices. It shows that wholesale prices for apples in Japan are very associated with brix, acid, and juice content. In the final analysis, the current prices and quality of apples imported from New Zealand and the United States cannot be competitive with Japanese ones. It is necessary to

Chikako Kajikawa

1998-01-01

278

APPLE CULTIVARS FOR THE MID-ATLANTIC INDUSTRY  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Interest in new apple cultivars has risen significantly among U.S. apple growers and consumers over the past 10 to 15 years. In 1995, a Regional Project, NE-183 'Multidisciplinary Evaluation of New Apple Cultivars', was initiated to systematically evaluate the horticultural and pest susceptible cha...

279

Apple Diversity Report Card for the Twentieth Century: Patents and Other Sources of Innovation in the Market for Apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Contrary to popular belief, the twentieth century was a good one for commercial apple varietal diversity. As measured by availability in commercial nursery catalogs, significant gains were made in both absolute number of apple varieties and the available number of pre-1900 historic varieties. In 1905, an estimated 420 different apple varieties were commercially available, approximately 390 of which dated from

Susannah Chapman; Paul J. Heald

2010-01-01

280

Getting Behind the Scenes of Fleetwood Macs Rumours: Using a Documentary on the Making of a Music Album to Learn About Task Groups  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present an efficient and easy-to-implement experiential exercise that reinforces for students key concepts about task groups (i.e., group cohesiveness, conflict within groups, group effectiveness, group norms, and group roles). The exercise, which uses a documentary about the making of Fleetwood Macs Rumours album to demonstrate the complexity of an ongoing group that created a high-caliber product even in

Debra R. Comer; Robert L. Holbrook

2012-01-01

281

Peptides derived from the complementarity-determining regions of anti-Mac-1 antibodies block intercellular adhesion molecule-1 interaction with Mac-1.  

PubMed

Peptides or small molecules that can block the interaction of the integrin Mac-1 with its receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), have not previously been developed. We studied this interaction by measuring the adherence of ICAM-1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to immobilized, purified Mac-1. Nucleotide sequence information was obtained for the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) of three antibodies (44aacb, MY904, and 118.1) shown to block Mac-1-mediated cell adherence. Peptides were synthesized based on the predicted amino acid sequences of the CDRs and tested for the ability to block cell adhesion to Mac-1. Peptides derived from CDR1 of 44aacb, CDR2 of 118.1, and CDRs 1 and 3 of MY904 heavy chains were found to possess blocking activity at 10-100 muM. This may indicate that one or two CDRs contribute disproportionately to the antibody binding affinity. The binding of ligands to Mac-1 has been shown to require a region of the alpha-chain known as the I- or A-domain. We have recombinantly produced Mac-1 I-domain, and show that it is also capable of supporting the adherence of ICAM-1-expressing CHO cells. The adherence of ICAM-1-CHO cells to the I-domain is inhibited by 44aacb and 118.1 and by the CDR peptides from 44aacb and 118.1. By using phage display of peptide libraries based on the 118.1 CDR peptide with five residues randomized, we were able to identify a novel peptide inhibitor of Mac-1 with substitutions at all five positions. These peptides provide lead structures for development of Mac-1 antagonists. PMID:9488691

Feng, Y; Chung, D; Garrard, L; McEnroe, G; Lim, D; Scardina, J; McFadden, K; Guzzetta, A; Lam, A; Abraham, J; Liu, D; Endemann, G

1998-03-01

282

42 CFR 405.1110 - MAC reviews on its own motion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...that the MAC take own motion review of a case if...the appeal at the ALJ level; and (ii) In...participation at the ALJ level. If CMS or its contractor...an appeal at the ALJ level, the MAC exercises its own motion authority if...

2010-10-01

283

42 CFR 405.1110 - MAC reviews on its own motion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...that the MAC take own motion review of a case if...the appeal at the ALJ level; and (ii) In...participation at the ALJ level. If CMS or its contractor...an appeal at the ALJ level, the MAC exercises its own motion authority if...

2009-10-01

284

42 CFR 423.2110 - MAC reviews on its own motion.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...that the MAC take own motion review of a case if...the appeal at the ALJ level; and (ii) In...participate in the ALJ level. If CMS or the IRE...an appeal at the ALJ level, the MAC exercises its own motion authority if...

2010-10-01

285

Performance analysis of AMCLM protocol (adaptive multi-services cross-layer MAC protocol)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The weakness of radio transmission is due to the variation of link quality which is disturbed by noise interference, multipath free space loss and multipath. In Wifi MAC protocols, devices don't take into account the radio link transmission quality when they decide to transmit. In a previous study, we have pro- posed a new MAC protocol which is named AMCLM

Jalel BEN-OTHMAN; Lynda Mokdad; S. Bouam

2005-01-01

286

MAC scheduler using polling with priorities for future wireless multimedia networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to deliver different communication services to users via wireless links a medium access control (MAC) protocol should be provided. In this paper, a MAC scheduler is presented which implements the multiplexing of packets through the air interface. The service strategy of the scheduler is based on polling with priorities (combining static and dynamic priorities), thus optimizing the resource

Nikolaos Georganopoulos; A. H. Aghvanni

1999-01-01

287

MAC coding for QoS guarantees in multi-hop mobile wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The coding theory goal of finding codes with the largest possible distance among its constituent code-words in an ever smaller dimensional space is analogous to the goal of finding separate yet efficient ways for the nodes of a network to transmit in a multiple access system. A Medium Access Control (MAC) strategy is proposed referred to as MAC coding that

Carlos H. Rentel; Thomas Kunz

2005-01-01

288

Network-Aware Adaptation of MAC Scheduling for Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Many recent advances in MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks propose to reduce idle listening. Sending nodes transmit long preambles or repeated advertisements for upcoming packets, thereby allowing their neighbors to have low duty cycles. As these channel probing MAC protocols impose a significant drain on the transmitting node, the schedule used for probing should be well matched to

Christophe J. Merlin; Wendi B. Heinzelman

289

A collaborative MAC protocol for inter-vehicle and road to vehicle communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A medium access control (MAC) protocol using both IVC (inter-vehicle communications) and RVC (road to vehicle communications) collaboratively, called vehicle to vehicle and road to vehicle collaborative MAC protocol (VRCP), is proposed. VRCP achieves seamless communications by selecting a channel assignment method adaptively. In other words, each vehicle communicates using a channel selected randomly by non-persistent CSMA in the areas

Kaichi Fujimura; Takaaki Hasegawa

2004-01-01

290

Performance evaluation of the MAC protocol for integrated inter-vehicle and road to vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a performance evaluation of the medium access control (MAC) protocol for integrated inter-vehicle communications (IVC) and road to vehicle communications (RVC) called VRCP (vehicle and road-side collaborative MAC protocol) that achieve the high performance in communications. VRCP can use RVC not only for the access control of IVC but also for the data communication. Computer simulations by

Kaichi Fujimura; Takaaki Hasegawa

2005-01-01

291

An Adaptive Energy-Efficient and Low-Latency MAC for Data Gathering in Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many sensor network applications the major traffic pattern consists of data collected from several source nodes to a sink through a unidirectional tree. In this paper, we propose DMAC, an energy efficient and low latency MAC that is designed and optimized for such data gathering trees in wireless sensor networks. We first show that previously proposed MAC protocols for

Gang Lu; Bhaskar Krishnamachari; Cauligi S. Raghavendra

292

Interactive toys in a ubiquitous environment using low-power listening MAC protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a paradigm is introduced where a speaking toy will interact within a ubiquitous environment by embedding wireless ldquobeaconsrdquo into everyday objects. Two novel MAC protocols utilising Low-Power Listening (LPL) were proposed to enable wireless communications between the toy and the ubiquitous environment in an energy-efficient manner. Analytical models were derived to analyse the MAC protocols and evaluations

Kai-Juan Wong

2009-01-01

293

78 FR 65145 - Federal Agricultural Mortgage Corporation Funding and Fiscal Affairs; Farmer Mac Capital Planning  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...specifically makes clear that Farmer Mac is a separate GSE,'' or Government-Sponsored Enterprise. A GSE is a descriptive term that has generally been...Sometimes Farmer Mac has been treated as a separate GSE in financial reports and other documents,...

2013-10-31

294

Improving Transport Layer Performance in Multihop Ad Hoc Networks by Exploiting MAC Layer Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional TCP congestion control mechanism encounters a number of new problems and suffers a poor perfor- mance when the IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol is used in multihop ad hoc networks. Many of the problems result from medium contention at the MAC layer. In this paper, we first illustrate that severe medium contention and congestion are intimately coupled, and TCP's

Hongqiang Zhai; Xingguo Chen; Yuguang Fang

2007-01-01

295

A Synchronization Attack and Defense in Energy-Efficient Listen-Sleep Slotted MAC Protocols  

Microsoft Academic Search

As wireless motes are battery powered, many listen- sleep Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols have been pro- posed to reduce energy consumption. Security issues related to the design of these protocols have, however, largely been ignored. In this paper, we present a novel attack (the synchronization attack) on listen-sleep MAC protocols. This attack can cause 100% message loss and approximately

Xiaoming Lu; Matt Spear; Karl N. Levitt; Norman S. Matloff; Shyhtsun Felix Wu

2008-01-01

296

Integrated Cost-Based MAC and Routing Techniques for Hop Count Forwarding in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents integrated MAC\\/routing solutions for wireless sensor networks. At the MAC layer, every node accesses the channel according to its own cost by means of properly defined cost-dependent access probabilities. Costs are used to capture the suitability of a node to act as the relay and may depend on several factors such as residual energies, link conditions, queue

Michele Rossi; Michele Zorzi

2007-01-01

297

Effects of MAC protocols on the performance of wireless network coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network coding provides a powerful mechanism for improving performance of wireless networks. In this paper, we study the effects of MAC protocols on the performance of wireless network coding. To model the MAC protocols, we introduce the dummy topology graph (DTG) of a wireless network that can properly describe the broadcast property of wireless channels. Based on the DTG, we

Huanzhong Li; Wei Yang; Quanyou Feng; Wenhua Dou; Lianyong Dong

2011-01-01

298

Reliable MAC broadcast protocol in directional and omni-directional transmissions for vehicular ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design, implementation and simulation results of a reliable Medium Access Control (MAC) broadcast protocol for Vehicular Ad hoc Networks for omni-directional and directional transmissions. The IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol uses control frames for handshaking to reliably communicate unicast data. In contrast, the broadcast data is transmitted without any control frames. This results in increased collisions due

Ravi M. Yadumurthy; Mohan Sadashivaiah; Ranga Makanaboyina

2005-01-01

299

Self-Admitted Pretensions of Mac Users on a Predominantly PC University Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present qualitative research study addressed the overall research question of college students' pretention dynamics in the context of a university setting. Thirty-five Mac users were interviewed on a university campus that exclusively supports PC machines. Mac users shared four self-admitted pretensions related to using Macintosh computers.

Firmin, Michael W.; Wood, Whitney L. Muhlenkamp; Firmin, Ruth L.; Wood, Jordan C.

2010-01-01

300

MACS-VRPTW: A MULTIPLE ANT COLONY SYSTEM FOR VEHICLE ROUTING PROBLEMS WITH TIME WINDOWS  

Microsoft Academic Search

MACS-VRPTW, an Ant Colony Optimization based approach useful to solve vehicle routing problems with time windows is presented. MACS-VRPTW is organized with a hierarchy of artificial ant colonies designed to successively optimize a multiple objective function: the first colony minimizes the number of vehicles while the second colony minimizes the traveled distances. Cooperation between colonies is performed by exchanging information

Luca Maria Gambardella; E. Taillard; Giovanni Agazzi

1999-01-01

301

MERLIN: Cross-layer integration of MAC and routing for low duty-cycle sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensor network MAC protocols typically sacrifice packet latency to achieve energy efficiency. Such delays may well increase due to routing protocol operation. For this reason it is imperative that we attempt to quantify the end-to-end delay and energy consumption when jointly using low duty cycle MAC and routing protocols. In this paper, we pres- ent a comprehensive evaluation of MERLIN

Antonio G. Ruzzelli; Gregory M. P. OHare; Raja Jurdak

2008-01-01

302

Self-Admitted Pretensions of Mac Users on a Predominantly PC University Campus  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present qualitative research study addressed the overall research question of college students' pretention dynamics in the context of a university setting. Thirty-five Mac users were interviewed on a university campus that exclusively supports PC machines. Mac users shared four self-admitted pretensions related to using Macintosh computers.

Firmin, Michael W.; Wood, Whitney L. Muhlenkamp; Firmin, Ruth L.; Wood, Jordan C.

2010-01-01

303

A concurrent access MAC protocol for cognitive radio ad hoc networks without common control channel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cognitive radio ad hoc networks (CRAHNs) consist of autonomous nodes that operate in ad hoc mode and aim at efficient utilization of spectrum resources. Usually, the cognitive nodes in a CRAHN exploit a number of available channels, but these channels are not necessarily common to all nodes. Such a network environment poses the problem of establishing a common control channel (CCC) as there might be no channel common to all the network members at all. In designing protocols, therefore, it is highly desirable to consider the network environment with no CCC. In this article, we propose a MAC protocol called concurrent access MAC (CA-MAC) that operates in the network environment with no CCC. The two devices in a communication pair can communicate with each other even if they have only one common channel available. Therefore, the problems with CCC (such as channel saturation and denial of service attacks) can also be resolved. In CA-MAC, channel accesses are distributed over communication pairs, resulting in increased network connectivity. In addition, CA-MAC allows different communication pairs to access multiple channels concurrently. According to our performance study, CA-MAC provides higher network connectivity with shorter channel access delay compared to SYN-MAC, which is the conventional key MAC protocol for the network environment with no CCC, resulting in better network throughput.

Timalsina, Sunil K.; Moh, Sangman; Chung, Ilyong; Kang, Moonsoo

2013-12-01

304

DREAM: A system for detection and reaction against MAC layer misbehavior in ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

MAC layer misbehavior due to selfish or malicious reasons can significantly degrade the performance of mobile ad hoc networks. Currently, detection systems for handling selfish misbehavior has been proposed and studied. In this paper we study a new class of malicious misbehaviors that causes transmission timeout of MAC frames at either the transmitter side or the receiver side. A misbehaving

Lei Guang; Chadi Assi; Yinghua Ye

2007-01-01

305

MAC-TSA Applied in the ISO and SAX Spacecraft Projects.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The place of the Test and Simulation Assembly for a Modular Attitude and Orbit Control Subsystem (MACS-TSA) in the development process of the ISO and SAX spacecraft is given, with emphasis on the simulation aspects. The MACS-TSA is used as checkout equipm...

F. J. Sonnenschein H. Keppel

1992-01-01

306

Multitasking scheduler works without OS  

SciTech Connect

Z80 control applications requiring parallel execution of multiple software tasks can use the executive routine described and listed in this article when multitasking is not available via an operating system (OS). Although the routine is not as capable or as transparent to software as the multitasking in a full-scale OS, it is simple to understand and use.

Howard, D.M.

1982-09-15

307

Natural history of os odontoideum.  

PubMed

Os odontoideum has recently been considered an acquired lesion of the second cervical vertebrae. This case documents the natural progression of the formation of os odontoideum and correlates it with a traumatic event. This is the first case reported in the literature. PMID:2010525

Schuler, T C; Kurz, L; Thompson, D E; Zemenick, G; Hensinger, R N; Herkowitz, H N

308

The influence of the peptide NAP on Mac-1-deficient mice following closed head injury.  

PubMed

A single administration of the neuroprotective peptide NAP was previously shown to protect against death associated with closed head injury (CHI) and enhance recovery of the surviving mice. The protective effect was accompanied by down-regulation of the relative mRNA content of the complement receptor 3 (Mac-1, a marker for inflammation) as measured about a month after the injury. In contrast, the mRNA transcripts for activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP, the NAP containing protein) were shown to increase 29 days post CHI in the injured hemisphere of Mac-1 expressing mice. The present study was set out to investigate: (1) are Mac-1-deficient mice less susceptible to the adverse outcome of traumatic head injury; (2) does NAP treatment affect Mac-1-deficient mice subjected to head injury; and (3) is Mac-1 expression associated with ADNP expression. Results showed that (1) Mac-1-deficient mice were partially protected against death associated with severe head injury as compared to Mac-1 expressing mice. (2) Significant protection against death was observed in NAP-treated mice and an increase in recovery was observed in the NAP-treated Mac-1 mice 4 weeks after injury. (3) ADNP expression did not change in the Mac-1-deficient mice following head injury. Our working hypothesis is that a month following injury, gene expression in the injured brain is altered and competing proteins are expressed such as Mac-1 that is associated with inflammation and ADNP that is associated with neuroprotection. Obviously, this plasticity in gene expression is intimately interwoven with the genetic background of the animal. NAP treatment tilts the balance toward neuroprotection. PMID:16042992

Zaltzman, Roy; Alexandrovich, Alexander; Trembovler, Victoria; Shohami, Esther; Gozes, Illana

2005-04-15

309

Quantification Model for Estimating Temperature Field Distributions of Apple Fruit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A quantification model of transient heat conduction was provided to simulate apple fruit temperature distribution in the cooling process. The model was based on the energy variation of apple fruit of different points. It took into account, heat exchange of representative elemental volume, metabolism heat and external heat. The following conclusions could be obtained: first, the quantification model can satisfactorily describe the tendency of apple fruit temperature distribution in the cooling process. Then there was obvious difference between apple fruit temperature and environment temperature. Compared to the change of environment temperature, a long hysteresis phenomenon happened to the temperature of apple fruit body. That is to say, there was a significant temperature change of apple fruit body in a period of time after environment temperature dropping. And then the change of temerature of apple fruit body in the cooling process became slower and slower. This can explain the time delay phenomenon of biology. After that, the temperature differences of every layer increased from centre to surface of apple fruit gradually. That is to say, the minimum temperature differences closed to centre of apple fruit body and the maximum temperature differences closed to the surface of apple fruit body. Finally, the temperature of every part of apple fruit body will tend to consistent and be near to the environment temperature in the cooling process. It was related to the metabolism heat of plant body at any time.

Zhang, Min; Yang, Le; Zhao, Huizhong; Zhang, Leijie; Zhong, Zhiyou; Liu, Yanling; Chen, Jianhua

310

Evaluation of grapefruit seed extract as natural fungicide to control apple scab in organic apple growing  

Microsoft Academic Search

C-pro, an experimental fungicide based on grapefruit seed extract was compared to copper oxychloride for the control of apple scab in a field trial. Efficacy and possible phytotoxic effects where accessed. The C-pro formulation was analysed for possible chemical additives by HPTLC. C-pro proved tot be more effective in controlling apple scab then the standard rate of 300 gram copper

Marc Trapman

311

Comparison of nonfried apple snacks with commercially available fried snacks.  

PubMed

The study was carried out to evaluate the selected quality attributes of a prototype nonfried apple snack produced by application of vacuum impregnation (VI) of maple syrup and vacuum drying. When maple syrup concentration was adjusted to 20-40% in the VI solution, vacuum-dried apple slices are resulted in the greatest textural attributes, whiteness index, and desirable moisture content and water activity. Comparison of the VI-treated, vacuum-dried apple slices with commercially fried apple and potato snacks revealed that the consumer acceptability was greater for the fried snack products due to their flavor and texture; however, in addition to higher oil content (>30%), commercial fried apple and potato snacks possessed lower antioxidant capacity than nonfried apple snacks. VI process enhanced the calcium content of the nonfried apple snack products. PMID:21593286

Joshi, A P K; Rupasinghe, H P V; Pitts, N L

2011-05-18

312

Where to prick the apple for skin testing?  

PubMed

Mal d 1 is not equally distributed over the apple. We aimed to examine the influence of the location of pricking in the apple on prick-to-prick skin prick test (PTP) results. PTPs were performed in autumn 2007 and spring 2008, before the birch pollen season, in 32 Dutch adults with symptoms of oral allergy to fresh apple, using apples harvested in autumn 2007. PTPs with fresh intact and unpeeled Pink Lady, Golden Delicious, Elise, Santana and Modi apples were performed using material obtained from approximately 2cm near the stalk (top), and the middle region. All PTP responses were greater when performed with apple material near the stalk than from the middle region. In 2007, these differences were statistically significant for Pink Lady, Golden Delicious and Elise, and in 2008, for Pink Lady and Modi. When performing PTPs, the apple should be pricked near the stalk rather than in the middle. PMID:23909986

Vlieg-Boerstra, B J; van de Weg, W E; van der Heide, S; Dubois, A E J

2013-08-03

313

Neutron capture cross sections of Os186, Os187, and Os189 for the Re-Os chronology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Discrete as well as continuum ?-ray energy spectra from the neutron capture by Os186, Os187, and Os189 have been taken for the first time at 5?En?90 keV by an anti-Compton NaI(Tl) spectrometer. The detection of a weak discrete ?-ray, about 0.5% of total ?-ray strength, demonstrates the high sensitivity of the present measurement. The energy spectra enabled us to accurately determine the reaction cross sections with a small systematic uncertainty. Based on the new cross sections, we reestimate on the basis of a careful reaction cross section calculation the correction factor F? for the neutron capture on the 9.75-keV first excited state in Os187 as a function of stellar temperature, as required to derive the age of the galaxy within the Re-Os chronology.

Segawa, M.; Masaki, T.; Nagai, Y.; Temma, Y.; Shima, T.; Mishima, K.; Igashira, M.; Goriely, S.; Koning, A.; Hilaire, S.

2007-08-01

314

Inhibition of biological activity of staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) by apple juice and apple polyphenols.  

PubMed

The foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus produces the virulent staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA), a single-chain protein that consists of 233 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 27 078 Da. SEA is a superantigen that is reported to contribute to animal (mastitis) and human (emesis, diarrhea, atopic dermatitis, arthritis, and toxic shock) syndromes. Changes of the native structural integrity may inactivate the toxin by preventing molecular interaction with cell membrane receptor sites of their host cells. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of one commercial and two freshly prepared apple juices and a commercial apple polyphenol preparation (Apple Poly) to inhibit the biological activity of SEA. Dilutions of freshly prepared apple juices and Apple Poly inhibited the biological activity of SEA without any significant cytotoxic effect on the spleen cells. Additional studies with antibody-coated immunomagnetic beads bearing specific antibodies against the toxin revealed that SEA added to apple juice appears to be largely irreversibly bound to the juice constituents. The results suggest that food-compatible and safe anti-toxin phenolic compounds can be used to inactivate SEA in vitro and possibly also in vivo, even after induction of T-cell proliferation by long-term exposure to SEA. The significance of the results for microbial food safety and human health is discussed. PMID:20402509

Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Friedman, Mendel

2010-05-12

315

Organophosphate levels in apple composites and individual apples from a treated Canadian orchard.  

PubMed

Azinphos-methyl, phosalone, and phosmet were applied individually to separate rows of trees within a commercial apple orchard in Quebec, Canada, during the 2003 agricultural season. Apples were collected for residue analysis immediately prior to the harvesting of the remaining apples for market distribution and were prepared for analysis as both individual apples and as composites of eight individuals. Analysis of the three applied compounds, as well as five organophosphate insecticides that were not applied, was performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Azinphos-methyl, phosalone, and phosmet, which were applied, were detected in all samples analyzed at concentrations ranging from 0.004 ng/g to 2260 ng/g. Methidathion was not observed in any sample. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dimethoate, and malathion concentrations ranged from below method detection limits to 0.71 ng/g, and the detection frequency for these compounds ranged from 20% to 100%. Residues measured in this study were all below the Canadian maximum residue limit for apples. Variability factors ranged from 2 to 19 for all compounds observed in this study. Composite samples may not accurately reflect the extremes of exposure from consumption of single servings of apples. PMID:16506857

Rawn, Dorothea F K; Quade, Sue C; Shields, J Brian; Conca, Giacomo; Sun, Wing-Fung; Lacroix, Gladys M A; Smith, Mark; Fouquet, Andr; Blanger, Andr

2006-03-01

316

Analysis and improvement of the MAC shaping mechanism in RPR  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) specified by IEEE 802.17 is a new standard for Metropolitan Area Networks (MANs). One of RPR's characteristics is that it can support three priorities traffic in a single datapath, i.e., class A, class B and class C, ranging from high priority to low priority, respectively. Different entities such as shaping, scheduling, fairness, topology and protection coordinate to guarantee the Quality of Service (QoS) for different services. Various pieces of the datapath in RPR are tied together through logical queues, thus we investigate the datapath from the view of logical queues in this paper. With a detailed analysis of the MAC shaping mechanism in RPR, we propose some improvement to achieve better transport performance for RPR's three priorities traffic. Simulation results show that our improvement is efficient.

Li, Jing; Xu, Zhanqi; Yu, Shaohua

2005-12-01

317

MacTutor (MT) History of Mathematics Archive  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Provided by the University of St. Andrews, Scotland, MacTutor is a comprehensive archive that contains biographies of over 1100 mathematicians, from Niels Abel to Antoni Zygmund. Mathematicians can be accessed alphabetically or chronologically. Biographies contain birth and death information, along with a synopsis of the mathematician's work and references. The site also contains a history topics section, with short articles on over twenty topics ranging from Babylonian and Egyptian mathematics to the quantum age, as well as an overall chronology of mathematicians, a birthplace map (for those born in Western Europe), and a selection of short articles on over 60 famous curves. The site is searchable, and is one of the most exhaustive mathematics history sites on the Internet.

Robertson, Edmund F.

1997-01-01

318

Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination (GeoMAC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Internet-based mapping tool was originally designed for fire managers to access online maps of current fire locations and perimeters in the conterminous 48 States and Alaska. Using a standard web browser, fire personnel can download this information to pinpoint the affected areas. With the growing concern of western wildland fires in the summer of 2000, this application also became available to the public. The GeoMac website allows users in remote locations to manipulate map information and printing hard copy for use in fire information and media briefings, dispatch offices and coordination centers. The fire maps also have relational databases in which the user can display information on individual fires such as name of the fire, current acreage and other fire status information.

2002-10-11

319

Patulin in South African commercial apple products  

Microsoft Academic Search

A survey on the presence of the mycotoxin, patulin, was conducted from 1996 to 1998 on sixty locally produced commercial apple products purchased from retail outlets in South Africa. Twenty-three of the 31 fruit juice samples had no detectable patulin contamination. The 8 contaminated juice samples had patulin concentrations ranging between 5 and 45 ?g\\/l with a mean of 10

Norma L Leggott; Gordon S Shephard

2001-01-01

320

APPLE In-Service Programming for Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This book is designed to provide teachers with techniques for entering and modifying BASIC programs on Apple computers. The underlying theme is that a teacher need not become a programmer to benefit from being able to use and modify BASIC programs. The key to the successful use of software in the classroom is the ability to individualize software

Burns, Edward

321

NEWTON'S APPLE 14th Season Teacher's Guide.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This guide was developed to help teachers use the 14th season of NEWTON'S APPLE in their classrooms and contains lessons formatted to follow the National Science Education Standards. The "Overview,""Main Activity," and "Try-This" sections were created with inquiry-based learning in mind. Each lesson page begins with "Getting Started," which

Wichmann, Sue, Ed.

322

Some Aspects of Enzymatic Browning in Apples  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes material modified from the Nuffield advanced chemistry course to make it meaningful and relevant to pupils in the middle school. Discusses a series of simple experiments on apple browning and summarizes the browning process and its control. (Author/GS)

Liffen, C. L.; Cleeve, H. N.

1975-01-01

323

Simulating the architectural development of apple trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the present study is to further develop investigations by integrating the acquired knowledge regarding both the topology and geometry of apple trees. This is achieved by integrating the corresponding models - Hidden semi-Markov chains for branching and biomechanical model for geometric changes - into a more global model, which allows us to simulate the architectural development of

M. Renton; E. Costes; Y. Gudon; C. Godin

324

Some aspects of enzymatic browning in apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The investigations outlined in Browning reactions in fruits, part of the special study of food science of the Nuffleld Advanced Chemistry course, are modified to make the material meaningful and relevant to pupils in the middle school. This article discusses a series of simple experiments on apple browning which were performed by third formers. A summary of the nature of

C. L. Liffen; H. N. Cleeve

1975-01-01

325

FORMULATION OF ZEIN COATINGS FOR APPLES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

High gloss coatings are used to improve apple fruit (Malus domestica, Borkh) appearance and subsequent sales. The industry standard has been shellac which has problems with whitening, low gas permeability, and association with non-food uses. Zein, a natural corn protein, was used to formulate alte...

326

Mom, Apple Pie, and the American Dream.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses how the mom-and-apple-pie facet of the American dream no longer seems to be working. Ways to redefine that dream so that women, men, children, and families are comfortable with each other and are able to develop a mutual dependence which also allows for mutual independence are examined. (RM)

Grambs, Jean Dresden

1982-01-01

327

ULTRAVIOLET INACTIVATION OF BACTERIA IN APPLE CIDER  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Apple cider, inoculated with bacteria, was processed using an ultraviolet (UV) apparatus that is simple and effective. The apparatus consisted of a low pressure mercury lamp surrounded by a coil of UV transparent tubing. Cider was pumped through the tubing at flow rates of 27 to 83 ml/min. The popul...

328

Mom, Apple Pie, and the American Dream.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses how the mom-and-apple-pie facet of the American dream no longer seems to be working. Ways to redefine that dream so that women, men, children, and families are comfortable with each other and are able to develop a mutual dependence which also allows for mutual independence are examined. (RM)|

Grambs, Jean Dresden

1982-01-01

329

World Markets and Trade: Apples (March 2008).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The world apple trade is dominated by four major players, the EU-27, China, Chile, and the United States on the exports side; and the EU- 27 and Russia on the import side. Intensifying export competition from China could pressure future growth prospects.

2008-01-01

330

Identification of apple cultivars using RAPD markers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Eleven apple cultivars were differentiated using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers obtained by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The variability of the technique and of the origin of the DNA extract was analyzed. A set of bands consistent in their presence or absence was chosen to create a differentiating band pattern. A key is proposed by which one can

B. Koller; A. Lehmann; J. M. McDermott; C. Gessler

1993-01-01

331

Communicating between the Apple and the Wang  

SciTech Connect

This manual covers what the beginner needs to know in order to transfer files between an Apple's Microcomputer and a Wang's OIS Word Processor. We have also tried to indicate where the experienced user might want to look for additional details. We cover the use of Apple Writer )(, VisiTerm, VisiCalc, and EasyWriter Professional. For us, the two most useful connections are from Applewriter to Wang and from Visicalc to Wang. From Wang to Apple Writer via Visiterm may have some value. Files can be transferred by VisiTerm to Wang, but they arrive with RETURNS in the middle of words, which have to be edited out, so we do not recommend it. We describe how to go from EasyWriter to Wang, but we do not know how to go from Wang to EasyWriter. We see no reason to go from Wang to VisiCalc, so we haven't thought about it. All instructions are given for a typical configuration of the Apple, namely the one on which this manual was composed. It is detailed in the section on Hardware and Software.

Barton, G.W., Downey, R.

1982-10-26

332

POTENTIAL EXPOSURE OF APPLE THINNERS TO PHOSALONE  

EPA Science Inventory

Apple thinning results in considerable human contact with foliage, fruit, and limbs. This work often occurs during that portion of the growing season when trees are most frequently being sprayed for insect conrol. Therefore, of all workers exposed to pesticide residues upon reent...

333

IgG Endopeptidase SeMac does not Inhibit Opsonophagocytosis of Streptococcus equi Subspecies equi by Horse Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes  

PubMed Central

The secreted Mac protein made by group A Streptococcus (GAS) inhibits opsonophagocytosis of GAS by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). This protein also has the endopeptidase activity against human immunoglobulin G (IgG), and the Cys94, His262 and Asp284 are critical for the enzymatic activity. The horse pathogen Streptococcus equi subspecies equi produces a homologue of Mac (SeMac). SeMac was characterized to determine whether SeMac has IgG endopeptidase activity and inhibits opsonophagocytosis of S. equi by horse PMNs. The gene was cloned and recombinant SeMac was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Mice with experimental S. equi infection and horses with strangles caused by S. equi seroconverted to SeMac, indicating that SeMac is produced in vivo during infection. SeMac has endopeptidase activity against human IgG. However, the protein just cleaves a small fraction, which may be IgG1 only, of horse IgG. Replacement of Cys102 with Ser or His272 with Ala abolishes the enzymatic activity of SeMac, and the Asp294Ala mutation greatly decreases the enzymatic activity. SeMac does not inhibit opsonophagocytosis of S. equi by horse PMNs but opsonophagocytosis of GAS by human PMNs. Thus, SeMac is a cysteine endopeptidase with a limited activity against horse IgG and must have other function.

Liu, Mengyao; Lei, Benfang

2010-01-01

334

IgG Endopeptidase SeMac does not Inhibit Opsonophagocytosis of Streptococcus equi Subspecies equi by Horse Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes.  

PubMed

The secreted Mac protein made by group A Streptococcus (GAS) inhibits opsonophagocytosis of GAS by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). This protein also has the endopeptidase activity against human immunoglobulin G (IgG), and the Cys94, His262 and Asp284 are critical for the enzymatic activity. The horse pathogen Streptococcus equi subspecies equi produces a homologue of Mac (SeMac). SeMac was characterized to determine whether SeMac has IgG endopeptidase activity and inhibits opsonophagocytosis of S. equi by horse PMNs. The gene was cloned and recombinant SeMac was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Mice with experimental S. equi infection and horses with strangles caused by S. equi seroconverted to SeMac, indicating that SeMac is produced in vivo during infection. SeMac has endopeptidase activity against human IgG. However, the protein just cleaves a small fraction, which may be IgG1 only, of horse IgG. Replacement of Cys102 with Ser or His272 with Ala abolishes the enzymatic activity of SeMac, and the Asp294Ala mutation greatly decreases the enzymatic activity. SeMac does not inhibit opsonophagocytosis of S. equi by horse PMNs but opsonophagocytosis of GAS by human PMNs. Thus, SeMac is a cysteine endopeptidase with a limited activity against horse IgG and must have other function. PMID:20556207

Liu, Mengyao; Lei, Benfang

2010-04-08

335

42 CFR 423.2116 - Effect of dismissal of request for MAC review or request for hearing.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect of dismissal of request for MAC review...CONTINUED) VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Reopening, ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2116 Effect of dismissal of request for MAC...

2012-10-01

336

A Cross-Layer Duty Cycle MAC Protocol Supporting a Pipeline Feature for Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Although the conventional duty cycle MAC protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) such as RMAC perform well in terms of saving energy and reducing end-to-end delivery latency, they were designed independently and require an extra routing protocol in the network layer to provide path information for the MAC layer. In this paper, we propose a new cross-layer duty cycle MAC protocol with data forwarding supporting a pipeline feature (P-MAC) for WSNs. P-MAC first divides the whole network into many grades around the sink. Each node identifies its grade according to its logical hop distance to the sink and simultaneously establishes a sleep/wakeup schedule using the grade information. Those nodes in the same grade keep the same schedule, which is staggered with the schedule of the nodes in the adjacent grade. Then a variation of the RTS/CTS handshake mechanism is used to forward data continuously in a pipeline fashion from the higher grade to the lower grade nodes and finally to the sink. No extra routing overhead is needed, thus increasing the network scalability while maintaining the superiority of duty-cycling. The simulation results in OPNET show that P-MAC has better performance than S-MAC and RMAC in terms of packet delivery latency and energy efficiency.

Tong, Fei; Xie, Rong; Shu, Lei; Kim, Young-Chon

2011-01-01

337

LFA-1 is sufficient in mediating neutrophil emigration in Mac-1-deficient mice.  

PubMed Central

To better define the specific function of Mac-1 (CD11b) versus LFA-1 (CD11a) and the other CD11 integrins in vivo, we have disrupted murine CD11b by targeted homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells and generated mice which are homozygous for a mutation in CD11b. A null mutation was confirmed by Southern blotting, RNase protection assay, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. Neutrophils isolated from mice deficient in Mac-1 were defective in adherence to keyhole limpet hemocyanin-coated glass, iC3b-mediated phagocytosis, and homotypic aggregation. When challenged by thioglycollate intraperitoneally, Mac-1-deficient mice had similar levels of neutrophil accumulation in the peritoneal cavity at 1, 2, and 4 h. Treatment with mAb to LFA-1 blocked 78% of neutrophil accumulation in Mac-1-deficient mice and 58% in wild-type mice. Neutrophil emigration into the peritoneal cavity 16 h after the implantation of fibrinogen-coated disks was not reduced in Mac-1-deficient mice whereas neutrophil adhesion to the fibrinogen-coated disks was reduced by > 90%. Neutrophils from Mac-1-deficient mice also showed reduced degranulation. Our results demonstrate that Mac-1 plays a critical role in mediating binding of neutrophils to fibrinogen and neutrophil degranulation, but is not necessary for effective neutrophil emigration, which is more dependent upon LFA-1.

Lu, H; Smith, C W; Perrard, J; Bullard, D; Tang, L; Shappell, S B; Entman, M L; Beaudet, A L; Ballantyne, C M

1997-01-01

338

Superhard hexagonal transition metal and its carbide and nitride: Os, OsC, and OsN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent experimental findings suggest that the bulk modulus of osmium is comparable to that of diamond. From first principles calculations we examine the compressibility of diamond, Os, OsC, OsN, and OsO2 as well as cubic BN under pressure. We show that Os, OsC, and OsN in the hexagonal structures are less compressible than their cubic phases. The bulk moduli of hexagonal Os, cubic Os, and hexagonal OsC are smaller than that of diamond but larger than cubic BN. Our results indicate that the hexagonal OsC is a promising superhard material.

Zheng, Jin-Cheng

2005-08-01

339

Simultaneous detection of six citrus viroids and Apple stem grooving virus from citrus plants by multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect six citrus viroids: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd), Citrus viroid III (CVd-III), Citrus viroid IV (CVd-IV) and Citrus viroid OS (CVd-OS) and Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV, synonym: Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV)) from citrus plants. The multiplex RT-PCR was

Takao Ito; Hiroyuki Ieki; Katsumi Ozaki

2002-01-01

340

Design and Implementation of Hybrid MAC-Based Robust Architecture for Wireless Sensor Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter, we propose an energy efficient hybrid architecture, the Hybrid MAC-based Robust Architecture (HMR), for wireless sensor networks focusing on MAC layer's scheduling and adaptive security suite as a security sub layer. A hybrid MAC layer with TDMA and CSMA scheduling is designed to prolong network life time, and the multi-channel TDMA based active/sleep scheduling is presented. We also present the security related functionalities needed to employ a flexible security suite to packets dynamically. Implementation and testbed of the proposed framework based on IEEE 802.15.4 are shown as well.

Shon, Taeshik; Kim, Eui-Jik; in, Jeongsik; Park, Yongsuk

341

Localization of the membrane attack complex (MAC) in experimental immune complex glomerulonephritis  

PubMed Central

The role of the membrane attack complex (MAC) as a mediator of renal tissue injury was evaluated in rats affected by bovine serum albumin (BSA)-induced immune complex glomerulonephritis. Immunofluorescence studies revealed concurrent deposits of IgG, BSA, C3, and the MAC along glomerular capillary walls, although the MAC manifested a more restricted distribution than that observed for immune complexes. Immunoelectron microscopic techniques were utilized to demonstrate immune complexes, C3, and the MAC within dense deposits in the subepithelial aspect of the basement membrane. Visceral epithelial foot processes were fused in areas overlying large dense deposits and exhibited intense staining for the MAC, lesser reactivity for C3 but IgG was absent from the foot process membranes. Smaller granular deposits of immune complexes, C3, and the MAC were observed in the subendothelial region of the lamina rara interna and the lamina densa. Immune complexes may activate the classical complement pathway causing diffuse injury to the glomerular basement membrane (GBM), allowing subepithelial accumulation of complexes. These observations implicate the MAC as a mediator of GBM and juxtaposed podocyte membrane injury, thereby contributing to disruption of the glomerular filtration barrier. IgG and C3 were demonstrated within tubulointerstitial regions on the surface of collagen fibers in close proximity to the tubular basement membrane (TBM) of proximal convoluted tubules. Within the TBM, C3 localization was prominent with diminished reactivity for the MAC, but IgG was not detectable. The demonstration of C3 and scant MAC deposits in the TBM of nonimmunized control rats without evidence of interstitial IgG and C3 deposits suggests that both nonimmune and immune processes play a role in the pathogenesis of extraglomerular lesions. Evidence derived from these morphologic studies indicates that the MAC is associated with injury to the GBM, foot process membranes of visceral epithelium, and the TBM. Further experiments designed to selectively enhance or inhibit the deposition of MAC and assess consequent renal dysfunction are required to substantiate hypotheses concerning the in vivo membranolytic potential of the MAC in experimental immune complex glomerulonephritis.

1983-01-01

342

McMAC: Towards a MAC Protocol with Multi-Constrained QoS Provisioning for Diverse Traffic in Wireless Body Area Networks  

PubMed Central

The emergence of heterogeneous applications with diverse requirements for resource-constrained Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) poses significant challenges for provisioning Quality of Service (QoS) with multi-constraints (delay and reliability) while preserving energy efficiency. To address such challenges, this paper proposes McMAC, a MAC protocol with multi-constrained QoS provisioning for diverse traffic classes in WBANs. McMAC classifies traffic based on their multi-constrained QoS demands and introduces a novel superframe structure based on the transmit-whenever-appropriate principle, which allows diverse periods for diverse traffic classes according to their respective QoS requirements. Furthermore, a novel emergency packet handling mechanism is proposed to ensure packet delivery with the least possible delay and the highest reliability. McMAC is also modeled analytically, and extensive simulations were performed to evaluate its performance. The results reveal that McMAC achieves the desired delay and reliability guarantee according to the requirements of a particular traffic class while achieving energy efficiency.

Monowar, Muhammad Mostafa; Hassan, Mohammad Mehedi; Bajaber, Fuad; Al-Hussein, Musaed; Alamri, Atif

2012-01-01

343

7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including...Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia...

2013-01-01

344

40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. The...

2009-07-01

345

40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory. 407.20 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

346

40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory. 407.20 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory. The...

2009-07-01

347

40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...true Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. The...

2010-07-01

348

40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory. 407.20 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

349

40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section...VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory. The...

2012-07-01

350

CAMAPPLE: CAMAC interface to the Apple computer  

SciTech Connect

The advent of the personal microcomputer provides a new tool for the debugging, calibration and monitoring of small scale physics apparatus, e.g., a single detector being developed for a larger physics apparatus. With an appropriate interface these microcomputer systems provide a low cost (1/3 the cost of a comparable minicomputer system), convenient, dedicated, portable system which can be used in a fashion similar to that of portable oscilloscopes. Here, an interface between the Apple computer and CAMAC which is now being used to study the detector for a Cerenkov ring-imaging device is described. The Apple is particularly well-suited to this application because of its ease of use, hi-resolution graphics, peripheral bus and documentation support.

Oxoby, G.J.; Trang, Q.H.; Williams, S.H.

1981-04-01

351

Ethylene binding site affinity in ripening apples  

SciTech Connect

Scatchard plots for ethylene binding in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), which were harvested weekly for 5 weeks to include the ethylene climacteric rise, showed C[sub 50] values (concentration of ethylene needed to occupy 50% of the ethylene binding sites) of 0.10, 0.11, 0.34, 0.40, and 0.57 [mu]l ethylene/liter[sup [minus]1], respectively, for each of the 5 weeks. Higher ethylene concentrations were required to saturate the binding sites during the climacteric rise than at other times. Diffusion of [sup 14]C-ethylene from the binding sites was curvilinear and did not show any indication of multiple binding sites. Ethylene was not metabolized by apple tissue.

Blankenship, S.M. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Horticultural Science); Sisler, E.C. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States))

1993-09-01

352

UV inactivation of bacteria in apple cider.  

PubMed

Apple cider, inoculated with Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua, was processed using a simple UV apparatus. The apparatus consisted of a low-pressure mercury lamp surrounded by a coil of UV transparent tubing. Cider was pumped through the tubing at flow rates of 27 to 83 ml/min. The population of E. coli K-12 was reduced by 3.4 +/- 0.3 log after being exposed for 19 s at a treatment temperature of 25 degrees C. The population of L. innocua, which was more resistant to UV, was reduced by 2.5 +/- 0.1 log after being exposed for 58 s. The electrical energy for the process was 34 J/ml and is similar to that for conventional thermal processing. UV processing has the potential to improve the safety and extend the shelf life of apple cider. PMID:21132989

Geveke, David J

2005-08-01

353

Effect of storage on nonenzymatic browning of apple juice concentrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kinetics of nonenzymatic browning in Golden Delicious and Amasya apple juice concentrates during 4 months are investigated. Apple juice concentrates were at 65, 70, 75Bx of Golden Delicious variety, stored at 5, 20, 37C and Amasya variety, stored at 37, 50, 65C. Colour development was measured by browning index (A420) and the CIE-Lab colour system. Browning level of all apple

Hande Selen Burdurlu; Feryal Karadeniz

2003-01-01

354

CONSUMER ACCEPTANCE OF IRRADIATED FOOD PRODUCTS: AN APPLE MARKETING STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was exploratory in nature, with emphasis on initial purchases and not repeat purchases or long-term loyalties to either irradiated or non-irradiated produce. The investigation involved the actual sale of irradiated and non-irradiated apples to consumers. Limited information about the process was provided, and apples were sold at roadside stands. Prices for the irradiated apples were varied while the

Danny E. Terry; Richard L. Tabor

1990-01-01

355

APPL Suppresses Androgen Receptor Transactivation via Potentiating Akt Activity  

Microsoft Academic Search

APPL may function as an adapter protein to modulate the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)\\/Akt pathway. Although we have previously proven that the PI3K\\/Akt pathway can suppress androgen receptor (AR) transac- tivation, the potential linkage from APPL to the AR remains unclear. Here we demonstrated that APPL could suppress AR-mediated transactivation in a dose- dependent manner in LNCaP and PC-3 cells. This

Lin Yang; Hui-Kuan Lin; Saleh Altuwaijri; Shaozhen Xie; Liang Wang; Chawnshang Chang

2003-01-01

356

ELECTROHYDRODYNAMIC (EHD) DRYING OF APPLE SLICES  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conventional dryings at high temperatures often produce undesirable changes in the physical-chemical properties of materials. This paper describes the relatively novel technique of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) drying of apple slices, which did not cause any observable product degradation and extensive color changes. Multiple point-to-plate electrodes with AC high voltages, accelerated the initial drying rates to almost 4.5 times over the ambient

F. Hashinaga; T. R. Bajgai; S. Isobe; N. N. Barthakur

1999-01-01

357

Quality of Infrared Dried Apple Slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to compare quality of apple slices dried by near infrared heating and convection in such parameters in which final material temperature in both methods was similar. The infrared drying was done at the distance between the emitters (with total power of 7.875kW\\/m) and heated surface equal to 10, 20, and 30cm. Flow of ambient

Dorota Nowak; Piotr P. Lewicki

2005-01-01

358

2. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 10, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 10, 1934, DETAIL OF PORTICO (FROM SOUTHWEST). - Old Leake & Watts Orphanage, Amsterdam Avenue & 110th Street, New York, New York County, NY

359

4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 1, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 1, 1934, DETAIL OF STAIR (1st STORY -- REAR HALL). - St. George's Rectory, Prospect & Greenwich Streets, Hempstead, Nassau County, NY

360

5. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 1, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

5. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 1, 1934, DETAIL OF MANTEL (PARLOR -- SOUTH WALL). - St. George's Rectory, Prospect & Greenwich Streets, Hempstead, Nassau County, NY

361

3. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer April 3, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer April 3, 1934, DETAIL OF CORNICE (SOUTH ELEVATION). - St. George's Rectory, Prospect & Greenwich Streets, Hempstead, Nassau County, NY

362

DETECTION,QUANTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM COMPLEX (MAC) ORGANISMS IN DRINKING WATER.  

EPA Science Inventory

Bacteria belonging to the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC), including Mycobacterium avium and M. intracellulare, are clinically relevant and cause a myriad of opportunistic infections. Children, the elderly, and persons with previous lung conditions or immune system dysfunction...

363

2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, 1936 SOUTH ELEVATION (FRONT). - Rode-Kothe House, East of U.S. 87 at Cherry Spring, Cherry Spring, Gillespie County, TX

364

6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, 1936 SHOWING LATER ADDITION IN REAR. - Heinrich Kammlah House, 309 West Main Street, Fredericksburg, Gillespie County, TX

365

6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, 1936 DETAIL OF STAIR, DOOR AND COLUMNS (SOUTH ELEVATION). - Rode-Kothe House, East of U.S. 87 at Cherry Spring, Cherry Spring, Gillespie County, TX

366

7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, 1936 DETAIL OF STAIR (SOUTH ELEVATION). - Rode-Kothe House, East of U.S. 87 at Cherry Spring, Cherry Spring, Gillespie County, TX

367

4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer June 16, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

4. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer June 16, 1936 EAST ELEVATION OF REAR WING. - Heinrich Kammlah House, 309 West Main Street, Fredericksburg, Gillespie County, TX

368

8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 29, 1936 INSIDE STAIR (LOOKING SOUTH). - Rode-Kothe House, East of U.S. 87 at Cherry Spring, Cherry Spring, Gillespie County, TX

369

Idle-Slot Recycling in a Collision-Free Real-Time MAC Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), timeliness is one of the most challenging problems for critical applications. Caccamo et al. designed a collision-free real-time MAC protocol for sensor networks by adopting the \\

Ming Zhang; Ying Jian; Liang Zhang; Shigang Chen

2008-01-01

370

1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 26, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 26, 1936 NORTHWEST ELEVATION (WEST FRONT AND NORTH SIDE). - Phillip Schmidt House, 354 Bridge Street, New Braunfels, Comal County, TX

371

2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 26, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

2. Historic American Buildings Survey, Richard MacAllister, Photographer May 26, 1936 NORTHEAST ELEVATION (EAST REAR AND NORTH SIDE). - Phillip Schmidt House, 354 Bridge Street, New Braunfels, Comal County, TX

372

3. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 8, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer May 8, 1934, DETAIL OF MANTEL AND CHINA CLOSET (WEST WALL--DINING ROOM). - Peter Wyckoff House, 5902 Canarsie Lane, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

373

8. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

8. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, INTERIOR DETAIL MAIN ENTRANCE. - Judge Teunis Schenck House, Highland Park, Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

374

6. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

6. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, DETAIL EXTERIOR SOUTH EAST CORNER. - Judge Teunis Schenck House, Highland Park, Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

375

7. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

7. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, DETAIL ENTRANCE SOUTH ELEVATION. - Judge Teunis Schenck House, Highland Park, Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

376

11. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

11. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, MANTEL - NORTH WEST CORNER OF SOUTH WEST ROOM. - Judge Teunis Schenck House, Highland Park, Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

377

12. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

12. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, MANTEL - SOUTH WEST CORNER OF NORTH WEST ROOM. - Judge Teunis Schenck House, Highland Park, Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

378

17. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

17. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, FRAMING DETAIL (SECOND FLOOR) TOWARD NORTH SIDE. - Judge Teunis Schenck House, Highland Park, Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

379

15. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

15. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, DETAIL FRAMING (SECOND FLOOR) UPRIGHT AND PURLIN. - Judge Teunis Schenck House, Highland Park, Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

380

14. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

14. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, FRAMING DETAIL (SECOND FLOOR) NORTH EAST CORNER. - Judge Teunis Schenck House, Highland Park, Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

381

16. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

16. Historic American Buildings Survey, E.P. MacFarland, Photographer October 1936, VIEW OF ATTIC (SECOND FLOOR) TOWARD WEST. - Judge Teunis Schenck House, Highland Park, Jamaica Avenue, Brooklyn, Kings County, NY

382

3. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur I. MacDonald, Photographer, (Copied ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

3. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur I. MacDonald, Photographer, (Copied by Frank O. Branzetti) Sept. 26, 1936 (d) EXT.- FRONT ENTRANCE - Captain Jared Hunt House, Westhampton, Hampshire County, MA

383

The MacKinney Collection of Medieval Medical Illustrations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Professor Loren C. MacKinney came to the study of medieval history via his training at the University of Wisconsin and the University of Grenoble, France. During his time as a professor at the University of North Carolina, he amassed a remarkable collection of manuscripts and images related to the history of medieval medicine. He was beloved by his students for his intellectual curiosity and his humanity, and this remarkable digital collection pays tribute to both of those aspects of his character. The collection was made possible by a gift to the University of North Carolina Libraries from Howard Holsenbeck (a member of the Class of 1963), and it contains over 1,000 images. Visitors can browse the collection at their leisure, or also perform an advanced search across the items here. The "Subject Area" is a good place to start, as visitors can look over images related to everything from anatomy to wounds. The image on the homepage is quite a gem, and it illustrates an encounter between two men and a standing skeleton.

384

Sustainability of three apple production systems.  

PubMed

Escalating production costs, heavy reliance on non-renewable resources, reduced biodiversity, water contamination, chemical residues in food, soil degradation and health risks to farm workers handling pesticides all bring into question the sustainability of conventional farming systems. It has been claimed, however, that organic farming systems are less efficient, pose greater health risks and produce half the yields of conventional farming systems. Nevertheless, organic farming became one of the fastest growing segments of US and European agriculture during the 1990s. Integrated farming, using a combination of organic and conventional techniques, has been successfully adopted on a wide scale in Europe. Here we report the sustainability of organic, conventional and integrated apple production systems in Washington State from 1994 to 1999. All three systems gave similar apple yields. The organic and integrated systems had higher soil quality and potentially lower negative environmental impact than the conventional system. When compared with the conventional and integrated systems, the organic system produced sweeter and less tart apples, higher profitability and greater energy efficiency. Our data indicate that the organic system ranked first in environmental and economic sustainability, the integrated system second and the conventional system last. PMID:11309616

Reganold, J P; Glover, J D; Andrews, P K; Hinman, H R

2001-04-19

385

Mac-2 Binding Protein Is a Novel E-Selectin Ligand Expressed by Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Hematogenous metastasis involves the adhesion of circulating tumor cells to vascular endothelium of the secondary site. We hypothesized that breast cancer cell adhesion is mediated by interaction of endothelial E-selectin with its glycoprotein counter-receptor(s) expressed on breast cancer cells. At a hematogenous wall shear rate, ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells specifically adhered to E-selectin expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells when tested in parallel plate flow chamber adhesion assays. Consistent with their E-selectin ligand activity, ZR-75-1 cells expressed flow cytometrically detectable epitopes of HECA-452 mAb, which recognizes high efficiency E-selectin ligands typified by sialofucosylated moieties. Multiple E-selectin reactive proteins expressed by ZR-75-1 cells were revealed by immunoprecipitation with E-selectin chimera (E-Ig chimera) followed by Western blotting. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 72 kDa protein, which exhibited the most prominent E-selectin ligand activity, corresponded to Mac-2 binding protein (Mac-2BP), a heretofore unidentified E-selectin ligand. Immunoprecipitated Mac-2BP expressed sialofucosylated epitopes and possessed E-selectin ligand activity when tested by Western blot analysis using HECA-452 mAb and E-Ig chimera, respectively, demonstrating that Mac-2BP is a novel high efficiency E-selectin ligand. Furthermore, silencing the expression of Mac-2BP from ZR-75-1 cells by shRNA markedly reduced their adhesion to E-selectin expressing cells under physiological flow conditions, confirming the functional E-selectin ligand activity of Mac-2BP on intact cells. In addition to ZR-75-1 cells, several other E-selectin ligand positive breast cancer cell lines expressed Mac-2BP as detected by Western blot and flow cytometry, suggesting that Mac-2BP may be an E-selectin ligand in a variety of breast cancer types. Further, invasive breast carcinoma tissue showed co-localized expression of Mac-2BP and HECA-452 antigens by fluorescence microscopy, underscoring the possible role of Mac-2BP as an E-selectin ligand. In summary, breast cancer cells express Mac-2BP as a novel E-selectin ligand, potentially revealing a new prognostic and therapeutic target for breast cancer.

Shirure, Venktesh S.; Reynolds, Nathan M.; Burdick, Monica M.

2012-01-01

386

IRMA: Integrated Routing and MAC Scheduling in Multi-hop Wireless Mesh Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an integrated routing and MAC scheduling algorithm (IRMA)1 for improving system perfor- mance in multihop wireless mesh networks. The IRMA approach is motivated by the fact that conventional contention-based MAC protocols such as 802.11 do not perform well in combination with independent ad hoc routing protocols such as DSR, DSDV or AODV due to interactions between neighboring

Zhibin Wu; Sachin Ganu; Dipankar Raychaudhuri

387

Study on the Advanced MAC Scheduling Algorithm for the Infrared Dedicated Short Range Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Dedicated Short Range Communication (IR-DSRC) is a communication system between Rode Side Equipment (RSE) and On Board Equipment\\u000a (OBE) in a vehicle. Wireless resources shared among nodes should be efficiently allocated in the telecommunication system,\\u000a and a MAC scheduling algorithm is needed. The purpose of the MAC scheduling algorithm is improving the efficiency after considering\\u000a the QoS requirements of each

Sujin Kwag; Sangsun Lee

2005-01-01

388

ECAP. An Enhancement of the IEEE 802.15.3 MAC via Novel Scheduling Scheme  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high rate wireless personal area networks (WPAN) is mainly targeted to consumer electronics and portable communication devices which need high rates and QoS. To achieve these goals, the WPAN provides data rates up to 1 Gbps and adopts a time division multiple access (TDMA) MAC protocol. Since IEEE 802.15.3 MAC is based on TDMA scheme, it has good performance

Ji Eun Kim; Youngae Jeon; Sangjae Lee; Sangsung Choi

2006-01-01

389

Advanced coupled PHY and MAC scheduling in IEEE 802.16e WiMAX systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we address some issues related to the mutual influence between the PHY layer building blocks (FEC blocks) and the MAC level allocations in IEEE 802.16e \\/WiMAX systems, in order to increase the overall PHY and MAC combined efficiency. In these systems transmissions are carried in physical Bursts, both on the Uplink and Downlink channels. Bursts are composed

Yaron Alpert; Jonathan Segev; Oran Sharon

2010-01-01

390

A topology-transparent MAC scheduling algorithm with guaranteed QoS for multihop wireless network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to its character of topology independency, topology-transparent medium access control (MAC) scheduling algorithm is very\\u000a suitable for large-scale mobile ad hoc wireless networks. In this paper, we propose a new topology-transparent MAC scheduling\\u000a algorithm, with parameters of the node number and the maximal nodal degree known, our scheduling algorithm is based on a special\\u000a balanced incomplete block design whose

Chaonong Xu; Yongjun Xu; Zhiguang Wang; Haiyong Luo

2011-01-01

391

Learning contention patterns and adapting to load\\/topology changes in a MAC scheduling algorithm  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggregate traffic loads and topology in multi-hop wireless networks may vary slowly, permitting MAC protocols to 'learn' how to spatially coordinate and adapt contention patterns. Such an approach could reduce contention, leading to better throughput and energy consumption. To that end we propose a new family of distributed MAC scheduling algorithms combining synchronous two-level priority RTS\\/CTS handshaking with randomized time

Yung Yi; Gustavo de Veciana; Sanjay Shakkottai

2006-01-01

392

Probabilistic Algorithms for Cost-based Integrated MAC and Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we propose a new integrated MAC\\/routing algorithm for CSMA channel access based wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In modern joint MAC\\/routing solutions for WSNs, forwarding de- cisions are often made based on metrics related to the advance- ments toward a specific destination (sink) and this is usually achie- ved through geographical routing and\\/or local indicators (virtual topologies) of

Michele Rossi; Michele Zorzi

393

Revealing the Properties of Dark Matter in the Merging Cluster MACS J0025.4-1222  

Microsoft Academic Search

We constrain the physical nature of dark matter using the newly identified massive merging galaxy cluster MACS J0025.4-1222. As was previously shown by the example of the Bullet Cluster (1E 0657-56), such systems are ideal laboratories for detecting isolated dark matter and distinguishing between cold dark matter (CDM) and other scenarios (e.g., self-interacting dark matter, alternative gravity theories). MACS J0025.4-1222

Marusa Bradac; Steven W. Allen; Tommaso Treu; Harald Ebeling; Richard Massey; R. Glenn Morris; Anja von der Linden; Douglas Applegate

2008-01-01

394

An adaptive energy-efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe T-MAC, a contention-based Medium Access Control protocol for wireless sensor networks. Applications for these networks have some characteristics (low message rate, insensitivity to latency) that can be exploited to reduce energy consumption by introducing an activesleep duty cycle. To handle load variations in time and location T-MAC introduces an adaptive duty cycle in a novel

Tijs van Dam; Koen Langendoen

2003-01-01

395

The National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire in the Macular Telangiectasia (MacTel) Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

PURPOSE. To describe vision-targeted health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), measured with the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) in a cohort of patients with macular telangiectasia (MacTel) type 2 and to evaluate the relationship between visual acuity and NEI-VFQ-25 scores. METHODS. This was an analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a longitudinal natural history study. Patients with MacTel type

Traci E. Clemons; Mark C. Gillies; Emily Y. Chew; Alan C. Bird; Tunde Peto

396

A CSMA\\/CD compatible MAC for real-time transmissions based on varying collision intervals  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper suggests a CSMA\\/CD compatible MAC protocol for real-time transmissions in a shared Home or Small Office Local Area Network. The new MAC is based on the distributed assignment of special TAG numbers to the stations transmitting real-time traffic. These TAG numbers determine a Round Robin order of transmissions among the real-time stations. They also help in resolving collisions

Oran Sharon; Michael Spratt

2001-01-01

397

Great Media and Communication Debates: WSIS and the MacBride Report  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1980 UNESCO published Many Voices, One World, the report of its In- ternational Commission for the Study of Communication Problems, also known as the MacBride Report, after the commission's chair, Sean MacBride, the Irish statesman and peace and human rights activist.1 In 2004, in an acknowledgment of its importance in current debates about the evolution of information societies, Rowman

Robin Mansell; Kaarle Nordenstreng

2007-01-01

398

Evaluation of the IEEE 802.11p MAC Method for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the medium access control (MAC) me- thod of the upcoming vehicular communication standard IEEE 802.11p has been simulated in a highway scenario with periodic broadcast of time-critical packets (so-called heartbeat messages) in a vehicle-to-vehicle situation. The 802.11p MAC method is based on carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) where nodes lis- ten to the wireless channel before sending.

Katrin Bilstrup; Elisabeth Uhlemann; Erik G. Strm; Urban Bilstrup

2008-01-01

399

Interactions between Galectin-3 and Mac2Binding Protein Mediate Cell-Cell Adhesion1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Galectin-3 is a ß-galactoside-specific lectin implicated in diverse pro cesses involved in cellular interactions. Recently, the Mac-2-binding pro tein, a heavily \\/V-glycosylated secreted protein with a subunit MTof 97,000, was identified as its ligand. The present study characterizes the interaction between galectin-3 and Mac-2-binding protein in whole cells and measures their relative expression levels. Incubation of A375 cells with affinity-

Hidenori Inohara; Shiro Akahani; Kirston Koths; Avraham Raz

400

DUCHA: A New Dual-Channel MAC Protocol for Multihop Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

IEEE 802.11 MAC protocol has been the standard for Wireless LANs and is also implemented in many simulation software for mobile ad hoc networks. However, IEEE 802.11 MAC has been shown to be quite inefficient in the multihop mobile environments. Besides the well-known hidden terminal problem and the exposed terminal problem, there also exists the receiver blocking problem, which may

Hongqiang Zhai; Jianfeng Wang; Yuguang Fang

2006-01-01

401

A distributed real-time MAC protocol for WDM-based LANs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider the problem of developing a MAC layer protocol to support real-time as well as non-real-time packet streams in Broadcast and Select WDM optical networks having rapidly tunable transmitters. We propose a MAC layer protocol which is the best-effort in nature and has two phases: demand notification phase and packet transmission phase. In the demand notification

S. J. Kowshik; S. Babu; G. Manimaran; C. Siva Ram Murthy

2001-01-01

402

An adaptive, high performance mac for long-distance multihop wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the problem of efficient MAC design for long-dist ance WiFi-based mesh networks. In such networks it is common to see long propagation delays, the use of directional antennas, a nd the presence of inter-link interference. Prior work has shown that these characteristics make traditional CSMA-based MACs a poor choice for long-distance mesh networks, prompting several recent research efforts

Sergiu Nedevschi; Rabin K. Patra; Sonesh Surana; Sylvia Ratnasamy; Lakshminarayanan Subramanian; Eric A. Brewer

2008-01-01

403

TMMAC: An Energy Efficient MultiChannel MAC Protocol for Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractThis paper presents a TDMA based multi-channel MAC protocol called TMMAC for Ad Hoc Networks. TMMAC requires only a single half-duplex radio transceiver on each node. In addition to explicit frequency negotiation which is adopted by conventional multi-channel MAC protocols, TMMAC introduces lightweight explicit time negotiation. This two-dimensional negotiation enables TMMAC to exploit the advantage of both multiple channels and

Jingbin Zhang; Gang Zhou; Chengdu Huang; Sang Hyuk Son; John A. Stankovic

2007-01-01

404

Classification de protocoles MAC multi-canaux dans les rseaux locaux sans fil maills  

Microsoft Academic Search

RsumEn prsence de trafic de forte charge, les protocoles d'accs au mdium radio (MAC) soufrent d'une dgradation de performances importante. Pour rsoudre ce problme, l'utilisation de l'ensemble des canaux de communication orthogonaux disponibles constitue une solution prometteuse. Dans ce papier, nous proposons une classification des principaux protocoles MAC multi-canaux best effort et avec qualit de service dans les rseaux locaux

Abdelaziz EL FATNI; Thierry VAL; Guy JUANOLE

405

Functional Implications of an Intermeshing Cogwheel-like Interaction between TolC and MacA in the Action of Macrolide-specific Efflux Pump MacAB-TolC*  

PubMed Central

Macrolide-specific efflux pump MacAB-TolC has been identified in diverse Gram-negative bacteria including Escherichia coli. The inner membrane transporter MacB requires the outer membrane factor TolC and the periplasmic adaptor protein MacA to form a functional tripartite complex. In this study, we used a chimeric protein containing the tip region of the TolC ?-barrel to investigate the role of the TolC ?-barrel tip region with regard to its interaction with MacA. The chimeric protein formed a stable complex with MacA, and the complex formation was abolished by substitution at the functionally essential residues located at the MacA ?-helical tip region. Electron microscopic study delineated that this complex was made by tip-to-tip interaction between the tip regions of the ?-barrels of TolC and MacA, which correlated well with the TolC and MacA complex calculated by molecular dynamics. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the MacA hexamer interacts with TolC in a tip-to-tip manner, and implies the manner by which MacA induces opening of the TolC channel.

Xu, Yongbin; Song, Saemee; Moeller, Arne; Kim, Nahee; Piao, Shunfu; Sim, Se-Hoon; Kang, Mooseok; Yu, Wookyung; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Chang, Iksoo; Lee, Kangseok; Ha, Nam-Chul

2011-01-01

406

Superhard hexagonal transition metal and its carbide and nitride: Os, OsC, and OsN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent experimental findings suggest that the bulk modulus of osmium is comparable to that of diamond. From first principles calculations we examine the compressibility of diamond, Os, OsC, OsN, and OsO2 as well as cubic BN under pressure. We show that Os, OsC, and OsN in the hexagonal structures are less compressible than their cubic phases. The bulk moduli of

Jin-Cheng Zheng

2005-01-01

407

Developing Data Base Files Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Developed around the technology of the Apple duodisk drive, five and one-fourth inch floppy disks, and the 1.3 version of the AppleWorks program, this manual is designed for use as a "how to" training device in developing database files. The guide is meant to be used with Apple IIe or IIGS computers which have a duodisk or two disk drives and an

Schlenker, Richard M.

408

Conformational Stability Analyses of Alpha Subunit I Domain of LFA-1 and Mac-1  

PubMed Central

?2 integrin of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) or macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) binds to their common ligand of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and mediates leukocyte-endothelial cell (EC) adhesions in inflammation cascade. Although the two integrins are known to have distinct functions, the corresponding micro-structural bases remain unclear. Here (steered-)molecular dynamics simulations were employed to elucidate the conformational stability of ? subunit I domains of LFA-1 and Mac-1 in different affinity states and relevant I domain-ICAM-1 interaction features. Compared with low affinity (LA) Mac-1, the LA LFA-1 I domain was unstable in the presence or absence of ICAM-1 ligand, stemming from diverse orientations of its ?7-helix with different motifs of zipper-like hydrophobic junction between ?1- and ?7-helices. Meanwhile, spontaneous transition of LFA-1 I domain from LA state to intermediate affinity (IA) state was first visualized. All the LA, IA, and high affinity (HA) states of LFA-1 I domain and HA Mac-1 I domain were able to bind to ICAM-1 ligand effectively, while LA Mac-1 I domain was unfavorable for binding ligand presumably due to the specific orientation of S144 side-chain that capped the MIDAS ion. These results furthered our understanding in correlating the structural bases with their functions of LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins from the viewpoint of I domain conformational stability and of the characteristics of I domain-ICAM-1 interactions.

Mao, Debin; Lu, Shouqin; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yan; Long, Mian

2011-01-01

409

Oligospecificity of the cellular adhesion receptor Mac-1 encompasses an inducible recognition specificity for fibrinogen  

PubMed Central

Mitogenesis, cellular aggregation, and motility follow upon the interaction of fibrinogen with certain defined cell surface receptors. In addition to circulating platelets and vascular endothelium, monocytes express what appears to be a receptor for fibrinogen. Evidence is presented here that the leukocyte adhesion receptor Mac-1 can be specifically induced to bind fibrinogen with characteristics immunochemically and functionally distinct from the established Arg-Gly- Asp-directed fibrinogen receptors. The competence of Mac-1 as a fibrinogen receptor is a general property of cells of monocyte and myeloid lineage acquired after maturational changes of some regions of the alpha subunit of Mac-1 during the process of cell differentiation. This ligand recognition specificity of Mac-1 is lacking for the resting cell. Rather, induction of fibrinogen binding capacity of Mac-1 is due to a cellular response to selected agonists characterized by inducing rapid transients of cytosolic Ca2+. Although different in activation pathways and recognition specificity, Mac-1 exhibits an oligospecific ligand versatility characteristic of other homologous Arg-Gly-Asp- directed adhesion receptors.

1988-01-01

410

Flight simulation on Palm OS  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flight simulation on a Palm device requires attention to the purpose of such a program, followed by selective inclusion of essential features. Performance considerations encourage some calculations ahead of time. Graphics also pose a challenge due to bitmap constraints in older OS versions and lack of polygon support.

Andrew S. Downs

411

Expression of MAC30 protein is related to survival and biological variables in primary and metastatic colorectal cancers.  

PubMed

MAC30 is highly expressed in several types of tumors including colorectal cancers, however, its clinicopathological and biological significance in colorectal cancers is currently not known. The aim of our study was to investigate MAC30 expression in distant normal mucosa, adjacent normal mucosa, primary tumors and metastases of colorectal cancer, and to determine the relationship between MAC30 expression and clinicopathological and biological variables. MAC30 expression was immunohistochemically examined in distant normal mucosa (n = 54), adjacent normal mucosa (n = 123), primary tumors (n = 217) and lymph node metastases (n = 56) from colorectal cancer patients. MAC30 cytoplasmic expression was increased from distant normal mucosa to primary tumor and to metastasis (p < 0.0001-0.04). Furthermore, 40% primary and 37% metastatic tumors showed stronger cytoplasmic expression of MAC30 at the tumor invasive margins compared to inner tumor areas. Strong cytoplasmic expression of MAC30 in the metastasis was related to a poor prognosis (p = 0.04). MAC30 cytoplasmic expression was positively related to expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (p = 0.04), p53 (p = 0.04), nucleoporin 88 (p = 0.001), legumain (p = 0.004) and particularly interesting new cysteine-histidine rich protein (p = 0.004). However, MAC30 expression in the nucleus and stroma did not have any clinicopathological and biological significance (p > 0.05). In conclusion, MAC30 protein may play a role in development of colorectal cancer, and can be considered as a prognostic factor. PMID:17143516

Moparthi, Satish Babu; Arbman, Gunnar; Wallin, Asa; Kayed, Hany; Kleeff, Jrg; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; Sun, Xiao-Feng

2007-01-01

412

187Os\\/186Os in Lunar and Meteoritic Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unique potentiallity of the ^187Re-^1870s radiochronometer stems from the chemical properties of the 2 elements. Their siderophilic nature has made the dating of the metal phase of iron meteorites and chondrites possible [1,2]. In silicate crystallization or melting, Os behaves as a strongly compatible element [3]. For Re the results hereunder show that its behavior is highly variable, depending

J. L. Birck; C. J. Allegre

1993-01-01

413

Elevated expression of MAC30 predicts lymph node metastasis and unfavorable prognosis in patients with epithelial ovarian cancer.  

PubMed

Meningioma-associated protein (MAC30), first described to be overexpressed in meningiomas, exhibits altered expression in certain human tumors. The definite role of MAC30 is not clear now, and few studies have documented the value of MAC30 in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of MAC30 in EOC and to evaluate its clinical significance in patients with EOC. A total of 266 patients with EOC who undergone complete cytoreductive surgery from November 2003 to September 2006 were eligible for this study. The expression of MAC30 in epithelial ovarian tumor tissues was examined immunohistochemically. High expression of MAC30 was observed in 66.17 % of EOC. The high MAC30 expression group had more advanced stages, poorer histological grade, lymph node metastasis, and recurrence than those with low MAC30 expression. Moreover, the presence of lymph node metastasis was significantly associated with MAC30 expression (OR 2.888, 95 % CI 1.428-5.838, P = 0.003). In addition, it was also shown that high MAC30 expression significantly correlated with poorer overall survival and progression-free survival (both P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that MAC30 expression status was an independent prognostic factor for both overall survival and progression-free survival (P = 0.001 and P = 0.002, respectively) of patients with EOC. Our study provides evidence that patients with expression of MAC30 in EOC have high malignant potential, and MAC30 may serve as a new molecular marker to predict the lymph node metastasis and prognosis of patients with EOC in the clinic. PMID:23254963

Yang, Shanshan; Li, Huiyan; Liu, Yunduo; Ning, Xiaoming; Meng, Fanling; Xiao, Min; Wang, Deying; Lou, Ge; Zhang, Yunyan

2012-12-18

414

A 3D Talking Head for mobile devices based on unofficial iOS WebGL support  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present the implementation of a WebGL Talking Head for iOS mobile devices (Apple iPhone and iPad). It works on standard MPEG-4 Facial Animation Parameters (FAPs) and speaks with the Italian version of FESTIVAL TTS. It is totally based on true real human data. The 3D kinematics information are used to create lips articulatory model and to

G. Riccardo Leone; Piero Cosi

2012-01-01

415

LER-MAC: A Load-independent Energy-efficient and Rate-control Integrated Asynchronous Duty Cycle MAC for Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering energy as a crucial resource, several duty cycle based MAC have already been proposed for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) to gain higher energy efficiency during long idle period of the sensors, and are optimized for light traffic loads. Contrastively, considering the bandwidth constraint of WSNs, and to optimize the heavy traffic loads, another research trend is continuing in devising

Muhammad Mostafa Monowar; Muhammad Mahbub Alam; Choong Seon Hong

2010-01-01

416

The Effect of Atmospheric Pheromone Concentrations on Behavior of Lightbrown Apple Moth in an Apple Orchard  

Microsoft Academic Search

A previously validated Lagrangian model was used to estimate the threshold of atmospheric pheromone concentration required to prevent trap catch and wing fanning in mating disruption plots in an apple orchard. Electroantennogram (EAG) traces of 10 min duration were recorded, along with supporting meteorological data needed for the model, to better define the conditions in which successful mating disruption will

D. M. Suckling; G. Karg; S. Green; A. R. Gibb

1999-01-01

417

Incidence of patulin contamination in apple juice produced in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patulin is a secondary metabolite produced mainly in rotten parts of apples by a wide range of fungi. Due to its mutagenic and teratogenic nature and possible health risks to consumers, many countries have regulations to reduce level of patulin in apple products to as low as practically possible. A survey of the presence of patulin was conducted in 2002

A. Majid Cheraghali; Hamid Reza Mohammadi; Maryam Amirahmadi; Hassan Yazdanpanah; Giti Abouhossain; Firouzeh Zamanian; Mahmoud Ghazi Khansari; Mahshid Afshar

2005-01-01

418

Analysis of Fire Blight Shoot Infection Epidemics on Apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biggs, A. R., Turechek, W. W., and Gottwald, T. R. 2008. Analysis of fire blight shoot infection epidemics on apple. Plant Dis. 92:1349-1356. Fire blight incidence and spread of the shoot blight phase of the disease was studied in four apple cultivars in replicated blocks over 4 years (1994 to 1997). Cv. York was highly susceptible, followed by 'Fuji' and

Alan R. Biggs; William W. Turechek; Tim R. Gottwald

2008-01-01

419

Apple iPhone: Reshaping the Strategic Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Apple iPhone has received much publicity in recent months. Stories about company hype, blog discussions, fanatical demand and how the product would transform mobile phone user experience have been common. The iPhone represents a significant shift in Apple' strategic focus. A less examined aspect of this phenomenon is its potential to transform the surrounding network of suppliers, customers, competitors

Ian Braithwaite

2007-01-01

420

Crabapples Resistant to Apple Scab and Japanese Beetle in Indiana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The range of form, flower, and leaf color that crabapples can offer has made them one of the most popular small trees in Indiana landscapes. Two defoliating pests, apple scab and Japanese beetle, have also given this plant a reputation of being prone to insect and disease problems. Both these pests are widely distributed in Indiana. Apple scab is a

Cliff Sadof; Paul Pecknold

421

Nondestructive dynamic testing of apples for firmness evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two nondestructive dynamic test methods, low-mass impact and acoustic response, were tested and compared with destructive compression and penetration tests to evaluate apple firmness. The purpose of the study was to analyze the performance of the impact test methods for nondestructive firmness evaluation, and to assess whether the acoustic tests could add sorting capacity to low-mass impact testing in apples.

I Shmulevich; N Galili; M. S Howarth

2003-01-01

422

Apple juice inhibits human low density lipoprotein oxidation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary phenolic compounds, ubiquitous in vegetables and fruits and their juices possess antioxidant activity that may have beneficial effects on human health. The phenolic composition of six commercial apple juices, and of the peel (RP), flesh (RF) and whole fresh Red Delicious apples (RW), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and total phenols were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau

Debra A. Pearson; Christine H. Tan; J. Bruce German; Paul A. Davis; M. Eric Gershwin

1999-01-01

423

The Benefits of Raw Organic Apple Cider Vinegar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The truly useful apple cider vinegar is not the clear vinegar you find in many stores. There's no health benefit from clear vinegar. The powerful benefits are found in the natural organic Apple Cider Vinegar with a brownish tinge to it and floating stuff inside. The floating matter is called \\

Karen Spencer Dees

424

APPL1: role in adiponectin signaling and beyond  

PubMed Central

Adiponectin, an adipokine secreted by the white adipose tissue, plays an important role in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism and controlling energy homeostasis in insulin-sensitive tissues. A decrease in the circulating level of adiponectin has been linked to insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, and metabolic syndrome. Adiponectin exerts its effects through two membrane receptors, AdipoR1 and AdipoR2. APPL1 is the first identified protein that interacts directly with adiponectin receptors. APPL1 is an adaptor protein with multiple functional domains, the Bin1/amphiphysin/rvs167, pleckstrin homology, and phosphotyrosine binding domains. The PTB domain of APPL1 interacts directly with the intracellular region of adiponectin receptors. Through this interaction, APPL1 mediates adiponectin signaling and its effects on metabolism. APPL1 also functions in insulin-signaling pathway and is an important mediator of adiponectin-dependent insulin sensitization in skeletal muscle. Adiponectin signaling through APPL1 is necessary to exert its anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects on endothelial cells. APPL1 also acts as a mediator of other signaling pathways by interacting directly with membrane receptors or signaling proteins, thereby playing critical roles in cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell survival, endosomal trafficking, and chromatin remodeling. This review focuses mainly on our current understanding of adiponectin signaling in various tissues, the role of APPL1 in mediating adiponectin signaling, and also its role in the cross-talk between adiponectin/insulin-signaling pathways.

Deepa, Sathyaseelan S.; Dong, Lily Q.

2009-01-01

425

Nutritional enrichment of fresh apple (Royal Gala) by vacuum impregnation.  

PubMed

This study evaluates the use of vacuum impregnation (VI) for developing nutritionally fortified fresh cut apples (Royal Gala). Cut apples were immersed in diluted high fructose corn syrup (20% w/w or 50% w/w) containing calcium or zinc. A vacuum pressure of 50 mmHg was applied for 15 min following atmospheric pressure restoration for 30 min while samples remained in the VI solution. Nutraceutical content and physicochemical properties of the apples immediately after VI were determined. Storability of VI apples at 6 degrees C and 90% relative humidity was also studied based on the color and texture of apples. Results indicated that 15-20% of the Daily Reference Intake of calcium and above 40% of the Daily Reference Intake of zinc could be obtained in 200 g fresh cut apples. VI treatments in 20% w/w high fructose corn syrup solutions had little effects on the physicochemical properties of apples. Storage study showed that VI with zinc significantly improved color stability, and calcium enhanced the firmness of the apples. PMID:12907403

Xie, J; Zhao, Y

2003-09-01

426

MARKER ASSISTED SELECTION OF APPLE ROOTSTOCKS - PROSPECTS, BENEFITS, AND LIMITATIONS.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The prospects for using marker assisted selection (MAS) to develop new apple rootstocks are becoming more promising. Very little has been known of the heritability or the type of genetic inheritance of important apple rootstock traits such as precocity, dwarfing, and disease resistance. Using data...

427

Reading Michael Apple--The Sociological Imagination at Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article discusses Michael Apple's contribution to the sociology of education and education policy analysis and the politics of education. It focuses on ways of "reading" Apple as an intellectual and an activist and looks at the trajectory of his work over a long and illustrious career.|

Ball, Stephen J.

2007-01-01

428

OPTICAL METHODS FOR DETECTING WATERCORE AND MEALINESS IN APPLES  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spectral reflection in the wavebands between 600 and 1100 nm was tested for its ability to classify apples according to presence of watercore and mealiness. A model developed by PLS regression using four, 10 nm wide wavebands at 690, 700, 820, and 830 nm separated watercore and normal apples with an...

429

Sensory evaluation as a selection tool in apple breeding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several conventional sensory methods were adapted to provide aprocedure that is suitable for screening apple (Malus domestica) breeding selections for dessert quality. Trained judges were presented with randomized coded samples (apple slices) and asked to rate them on 0 to 9 bipolar hedonic (liking) scales for texture and flavour, and 0 to 9 unipolar intensity scales for skin toughness,

C. R. Hampson; H. A. Quamme; J. W. Hall; R. A. MacDonald; M. C. King; M. A. Cliff

2000-01-01

430

Instrumental and sensory analysis of fresh Norwegian and imported apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Sensory profiling, instrumental texture measurements and volatile composition was used to characterise ten Norwegian and three imported apple varieties. Principal component analysis of sensory data identified an odour\\/flavour-factor and a texture factor along the first and second principal component, respectively. The main volatile components separating the apples were propyl acetate, butyl acetate, 2-methylbutyl acetate, hexyl acetate, ethyl acetate, ethyl butanoate,

Anna Maria Karlsen; Kjersti Aaby; Hanne Sivertsen; Pernille Baardseth; Marit Risberg Ellekjr

1999-01-01

431

Importance and consumer perception of freshness of apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present investigation aimed at elucidating the importance of freshness for the consumer and its relationship to sensory and non-sensory properties of apples. A questionnaire was presented to the visitors of a local exhibition on food and 4758 data sets were collected over a five-month period. Six apple cultivars stored under different conditions were tested. Taste, aroma and freshness were

S. Pneau; E. Hoehn; H.-R. Roth; F. Escher; J. Nuessli

2006-01-01

432

Environmental Monitoring of the 1987 Apple Maggot Project.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Residues of phosmet were measured on samples of apples and leaves and in soil and water collected during the 1987 apple maggot fruit fly treatment program. The samples were analyzed to examine the dissipation of phosmet over time between successive sprays...

C. N. Collison M. M. Bisbiglia N. Miller

1988-01-01

433

Apple Harvesting Robot Picking Path Planning and Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

For an apple harvesting robot, the efficiency of harvesting mainly depends on picking path planning. To find the best route, this article studied ant colony algorithm, and presented an improved method in picking path optimization. In this athletics methods of picking, with binocular cameras, the coordinates of ripe apples were obtained, the improved ant colony algorithm was used to obtain

Yuan Yanwei; Zhang Xiaochao; Zhao Huaping

2009-01-01

434

Energy flow for integrated apple production in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated production requires constant improvement of methods employed to achieve high fruit quality and yield with minimal inputs. This work was undertaken to evaluate the energy inputs for apple production, to identify the highest energy consuming operations and propose ways to improve them. Integrated production methods were employed during 1999 and 2000 at 26 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards in

Argiro V. Strapatsa; George D. Nanos; Constantinos A. Tsatsarelis

2006-01-01

435

TROPICAL SODA APPLE (SOLANUM VIARUM DUNAL) IDENTIFICATION AND CONTROL  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal) is still spreading at an alarming rate in the Southeastern United States. Following its first detection in Florida in 1988, tropical soda apple has now established in more than 1.5 million acres throughout the Mid South Region of the United States. A hist...

436

Detection of coating waxes on apples by differential scanning calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the European Union, beeswax, candelilla wax, carnauba wax and shellac are approved as coating agents for apple surfaces, provided that the coating is clearly stated. For detecting such coatings on apples, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was successfully applied. From the thermograms, the temperature at the peak maximum and the phase transition enthalpy were obtained as the main criteria. For

Barbara Ritter; Jrg Schulte; Erhard Schulte; Hans-Peter Thier

2001-01-01

437

Sustainable apple breedings needs sustainable marketing and management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple breeding programmes are currently in the middle of transition in terms of ownership and management. Until now most of them were funded by the public. Breeding took place by traditional methods since decades in a very sustainable way to develop better apple varieties. Today, increasing loss of national boundaries and globalisation, less interest by national bodies and institutions and

M. Weber

438

Transcriptional response in apple to fire blight disease  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple, pear, and other plants in the subfamily Maloideae of the Rosaceae. The goal of this study was to use a global analysis of gene expression to characterize the temporal response of apple to infection by E. amyl...

439

THE QUALITY OF APPLES - PREFERENCES AMONG CONSUMERS FROM SKIERNIEWICE, POLAND  

Microsoft Academic Search

A B S T R A C T The presented studies are part of European HiDRAS Project, having as the goal an increase of consumer acceptance and diffusion of disease resistant apples. Consumer survey focused on habits of fruit eating and expectations towards apple quality. The respondents were from Skierniewice, Poland, and the surrounding countryside. The number of respondents was

Dorota Konopacka

440

Particle films for managing arthropod pests of apple.  

PubMed

A two-season study showed that a calendar-based spray program to manage arthropod pests with kaolin (60 g/liter) applied at the rate of 450 liters/ha was effective against European apple sawfly, Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug) (Hymenoptera: Tenthredinidae); white apple leafhopper, Typhlocyba pomaria McAtee (Homoptera: Cicadellidae); apple red bug, Lygidea mendax Reuter (Heteroptera: Miridae); pear plant bug, Lygocoris communis (Knight) (Heteroptera: Miridae); and the apple rust mite, Aculus schlechtendali (Nalepa) (Acari: Eriophyidae). Although it reduced Curculionidae damage, the level of damage was still too high. It had no effect on apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae); codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae); and tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Heteroptera: Miridae). Laboratory studies showed fewer gravid twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), and fewer eggs laid by these females. The study also showed no effect of kaolin on Neoseiulus fallacis (Garman) (Acari: Phytoseiidae). PMID:18330129

Bostanian, N J; Racette, G

2008-02-01

441

On the Design of Mobility-Tolerant TDMA-Based Media Access Control (MAC) Protocol for Mobile Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several media access control (MAC) protocols proposed for wireless sensor networks assume nodes to be stationary. This can\\u000a lead to poor network performance, as well as fast depletion of energy in systems where nodes are mobile. This paper presents\\u000a several results for TDMA-based MAC protocol for mobile sensor networks, and also introduces a novel mobility-aware TDMA-based\\u000a MAC protocol for mobile

Arshad Jhumka; Sandeep S. Kulkarni

2007-01-01

442

The Cognitive Based Approach of Capacity Assessment in Psychiatry: A Philosophical Critique of the MacCAT-T  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article gives a brief introduction to the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Treatment (MacCAT-T) and critically examines its theoretical presuppositions. On the basis of empirical, methodological and ethical critique it is emphasised that the cognitive bias that underlies the MacCAT-T assessment needs to be modified. On the one hand it has to be admitted that the operationalisation of competence in terms

Torsten Marcus Breden; Jochen Vollmann

2004-01-01

443

Mouse macrophage ? subunit (CD11b) cDNA for the CR3 complement receptor\\/Mac1 antigen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cDNA for the common \\\\Mac-1 subunit (CD11b) of the mouse LFA-1\\/Mac-1\\/p150,95 group of leukocyte cell adhesion receptors, formally designated integrin \\\\2, has been cloned and sequenced. Clones were isolated from cDNA libraries made from J774 macrophage and WEHI-3B myelomonocytic tumor cells which express this subunit as a component of the macrophage activation antigen 1 (Mac-1), also known as complement

Donna L. Zeger; Narin Osman; Margaret Hennings; Ian F. C. McKenzie; D. W. Sears; P. Mark Hogarth

1990-01-01

444

Status and trends of mobile-health applications for iOS devices: A developer's perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern smart mobile devices offer media-rich and context-aware features that are highly useful for electronic-health (e-health) applications. It is therefore not surprising that these devices have gained acceptance as target devices for e-health applications, turning them into m-health (mobile-health) apps. In particular, many e-health application developers have chosen Apple's iOS mobile devices such as iPad, iPhone, or iPod Touch as

Chang Liu; Qing Zhu; Kenneth A. Holroyd; Elizabeth K. Seng

2011-01-01

445

[Hyperspectrum based prediction model for nitrogen content of apple flowers].  

PubMed

The present paper aims to quantitatively retrieve nitrogen content in apple flowers, so as to provide an important basis for apple informationization management. By using ASD FieldSpec 3 field spectrometer, hyperspectral reflectivity of 120 apple flower samples in full-bloom stage was measured and their nitrogen contents were analyzed. Based on the apple flower original spectrum and first derivative spectral characteristics, correlation analysis was carried out between apple flowers original spectrum and first derivative spectrum reflectivity and nitrogen contents, so as to determine the sensitive bands. Based on characteristic spectral parameters, prediction models were built, optimized and tested. The results indicated that the nitrogen content of apple was very significantly negatively correlated with the original spectral reflectance in the 374-696, 1 340-1 890 and 2 052-2 433 nm, while in 736-913 nm they were very significantly positively correlated; the first derivative spectrum in 637-675 nm was very significantly negatively correlated, and in 676-746 nm was very significantly positively correlated. All the six spectral parameters established were significantly correlated with the nitrogen content of apple flowers. Through further comparison and selection, the prediction models built with original spectral reflectance of 640 and 676 nm were determined as the best for nitrogen content prediction of apple flowers. The test results showed that the coefficients of determination (R2) of the two models were 0.825 8 and 0.893 6, the total root mean square errors (RMSE) were 0.732 and 0.638 6, and the slopes were 0.836 1 and 1.019 2 respectively. Therefore the models produced desired results for nitrogen content prediction of apple flowers with average prediction accuracy of 92.9% and 94.0%. This study will provide theoretical basis and technical support for rapid apple flower nitrogen content prediction and nutrition diagnosis. PMID:20384136

Zhu, Xi-Cun; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Wang, Ling; Dong, Fang; Lei, Tong; Zhan, Bing

2010-02-01

446

Inhibition of egg hatching with apple wax solvent as a novel method for controlling golden apple snail ( Pomacea canaliculata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is an important pest of rice in Asia. Among chemicals screened for ability to inhibit hatching of snail eggs, morpholine which is a solvent of apple wax was very effective in suppressing hatching of snail eggs. At a concentration of 60%, or higher, morpholine completely suppressed egg hatching in the laboratory and outdoor conditions. Scanning

Der-Chung Wu; Jih-Zu Yu; Bing-Huei Chen; Chien-Yih Lin; Wen-Hsiung Ko

2005-01-01

447

Potential Supply and Demand for Apple and Cherry-Apple Hard Cider Markets in Michigan, and Constraints to Market Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current research explores the potential to develop a cherry-apple hard cider market as a potential means to increase demand for and the value of Michigan fruit grower's product. Factors affecting both the development of hard cider markets in Michigan and cherry-apple hard cider were explored. Research results show that the potential value of Michigan hard cider market is relatively

Denise Y. Mainville; H. Christopher Peterson

2005-01-01

448

Fresh Deciduous Fruit (Apples, Pears, and Grapes) and Apple Juice Concentrate: World Markets and Trade, January 2009.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Global apple production is forecast up 8 percent, while trade is forecast 5 percent higher on strong demand from the European Union (EU). Global apple juice concentrate (AJC) exports are expected to tumble 25 percent as China plans to slash its production...

2009-01-01

449

MacAB Is Involved in the Secretion of Escherichia coli Heat-Stable Enterotoxin II?  

PubMed Central

The heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) produced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is an extracellular peptide toxin that evokes watery diarrhea in the host. Two types of STs, STI and STII, have been found. Both STs are synthesized as precursor proteins and are then converted to the active forms with intramolecular disulfide bonds after being released into the periplasm. The active STs are finally translocated across the outer membrane through a tunnel made by TolC. However, it is unclear how the active STs formed in the periplasm are led to the TolC channel. Several transporters in the inner membrane and their periplasmic accessory proteins are known to combine with TolC and form a tripartite transport system. We therefore expect such transporters to also act as a partner with TolC to export STs from the periplasm to the exterior. In this study, we carried out pulse-chase experiments using E. coli BL21(DE3) mutants in which various transporter genes (acrAB, acrEF, emrAB, emrKY, mdtEF, macAB, and yojHI) had been knocked out and analyzed the secretion of STs in those strains. The results revealed that the extracellular secretion of STII was largely decreased in the macAB mutant and the toxin molecules were accumulated in the periplasm, although the secretion of STI was not affected in any mutant used in this study. The periplasmic stagnation of STII in the macAB mutant was restored by the introduction of pACYC184, containing the macAB gene, into the cell. These results indicate that MacAB, an ATP-binding cassette transporter of MacB and its accessory protein, MacA, participates in the translocation of STII from the periplasm to the exterior. Since it has been reported that MacAB cooperates with TolC, we propose that the MacAB-TolC system captures the periplasmic STII molecules and exports the toxin molecules to the exterior.

Yamanaka, Hiroyasu; Kobayashi, Hidetomo; Takahashi, Eizo; Okamoto, Keinosuke

2008-01-01

450

L-644,711, a novel anion transport inhibitor, increases isoflurane MAC in rats.  

PubMed

The effect of the anion transport inhibitor L-644,711 on isoflurane MAC was determined in rats (n = 24). After baseline MAC determination, each rat received one of the following drug protocols: (a) control, vehicle only; (b) L-644,711IT, a 3-mg/kg intrathecal bolus of L-644,711 followed by an infusion at 1.5 mg.kg-1.h-1; or (c) L-644,711IV, a 6-mg/kg intravenous bolus of L-644,711 followed by an infusion at 3 mg.kg-1.h-1. MAC was again determined. The baseline isoflurane MAC was not different between groups (control, 1.52% +/- 0.15%; L-644,711IT, 1.51% +/- 0.24%; L-644,711IV, 1.54% +/- 0.13% [mean +/- SD]). After drug or vehicle administration, isoflurane MAC was larger for the L-644,711IT group (2.25% +/- 0.17%) versus the control (1.38% +/- 0.13%) and L-644,711IV (1.39% +/- 0.15%) groups (P less than 0.05). These data are consistent with the hypothesis that isoflurane anesthesia is influenced by anion channels and that blocking these channels may reduce the pharmacodynamic potency of isoflurane. PMID:1713025

Matsumura, J S; Cole, D J; Schell, R M; Wong, M H

1991-08-01

451

Outside-In Signal Transmission by Conformational Changes in Integrin Mac-11  

PubMed Central

Intracellular signals associated with or triggered by integrin ligation can control cell survival, differentiation, proliferation, and migration. Despite accumulating evidence that conformational changes regulate integrin affinity to its ligands, how integrin structure regulates signal transmission from the outside to the inside of the cell remains elusive. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we addressed whether conformational changes in integrin Mac-1 are sufficient to transmit outside-in signals in human neutrophils. Mac-1 conformational activation induced by ligand occupancy or activating Ab binding, but not integrin clustering, triggered similar patterns of intracellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation, including Akt phosphorylation, and inhibited spontaneous neutrophil apoptosis, indicating that global conformational changes are critical for Mac-1-dependent outside-in signal transduction. In neutrophils and myeloid K562 cells, ligand ICAM-1 or activating Ab binding promoted switchblade-like extension of the Mac-1 extracellular domain and separation of the ?M and ?2 subunit cytoplasmic tails, two structural hallmarks of integrin activation. These data suggest the primacy of global conformational changes in the generation of Mac-1 outside-in signals.

Lefort, Craig T.; Hyun, Young-Min; Schultz, Joanne B.; Law, Foon-Yee; Waugh, Richard E.; Knauf, Philip A.; Kim, Minsoo

2010-01-01

452

Anti-Mac-1 antibodies and early pregnancy loss in mice.  

PubMed

This study focused on the role of adhesion molecules in early pregnancy in mice. Injection of anti-Mac-1 antibodies during early pregnancy resulted in early pregnancy loss (only 30.7% of mice in the group injected with anti-Mac-1 antibody were pregnant compared with 87.5% of controls), while mice treated with anti-Mac-1 antibodies during late pregnancy did not show a significant abortive effect (68.8% mice in the treated group were pregnant compared with 92.9% of control mice). Anti-LFA-1 alpha, LFA-1 beta or mouse Ag-Eb antibodies, when injected during early pregnancy, caused a nonsignificant decrease in pregnancy rate ranging between 15% and 25% (P > 0.05), while anti-Thy-1.2 antibodies demonstrated a marginal effect only. Staining of uterine tissue sections, collected on days 4-6 of pregnancy, with anti-Mac-1 antibodies, demonstrated antibody bound to cells in the deep endometrium and in the myometrium but not in the uterine area close to the lumen or on the surface of the blastocyst. These results indicate a possible role for the Mac-1 antigen in early pregnancy. PMID:8699437

Savion, S; Irlin, J; Shepshelovich, J; Brengauz, M; Toder, V

1996-05-01

453

Newspaper advertisement characteristics and consumer preferences for apples: A mimic model approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

A structural latent variable model is used to simultaneously determine the affect of newspaper advertisement characteristics on consumer preferences for apples and on demand for apple varieties. The advertisement characteristics considered included size, color, and logos. The estimated apple preference variable is an important explanatory variable in apple variety demand. Model specifications that exclude the variable tend to overstate own-price

Paul M. Patterson; Timothy J. Richards

2000-01-01

454

Influence of production methods and transport distances on the greenhouse gas balance of organic apple juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study, the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the production of organic apple juice from apples from Germany's Altes Land region were compared with apples from the Southern Carpathians (Romania). The goal of the analysis was to clarify whether extensive agricultural production methods have a greater influence on the total emissions produced by the apple juice value-added

A.-M. Engel; J. K. Wegener; M. Lange

2012-01-01

455

3D Surface Reconstruction and Analysis in Automated Apple Stem-End/Calyx Identification  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Machine vision methods are widely used in apple defect detection and quality grading applications. Currently, 2D near-infrared (NIR) imaging of apples is often used to detect apple defects because the image intensity of the defect is different from the normal apple tissue. However, a drawback of t...

456

Comparison of three drying processes to obtain an apple peel food ingredient  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple peel, a waste product from dried apple manufacture, has a high content of bioactive phenolic compounds. In Chile ca. 9000 ton of apple peel are generated each year. To obtain a novel food ingredient, we compared three drying processes on Granny Smith apple peel: oven (60C), drum dryer (110C), and freeze drying. The influence of each drying technology on

M. Henrquez; S. Almonacid; M. Lutz; R. Simpson; M. Valdenegro

2012-01-01

457

The history of apple breeding in Peoples Republic Of China  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

China is the leading apple production country in the world. Its apple area and production in 2006 was 1,898,000 hectares and 26,000,000 tons, accounting for more than 35% of the global apple area and production, respectively. New cultivars are very important to development of the apple industry. Chi...

458

Growth, Leaf Chlorophyll Concentration, and Morphological Adaptation of Selected Wax Apple Cultivars in Response to Flooding  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth, leaf chlorophyll concentration and morphological adaptation of young wax apple (Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merrill & Perry) cvs. Plastic (PT), Thunklao (TK), Phetnamphueng (PP) and Thapthimchan (TC) and Malay apple (Syzygium malaccense) (MA) plants under flooding conditions were investigated. Potted wax apple and Malay apple plants were flooded to 5 cm above the soil surface for 70 days continuously. MA,

Phaisan Tanchai; Lop Phavaphutanon

2008-01-01

459

Whats Keeping the Apples Away? Addressing the Market Integration Issue  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apples have been grown in India for a century. At present apple production exceeds 1.4 million tonnes a year. Still, there are wide variations in the apple prices across the country. We test the price data for market integration using cointegration and error correction methodology. Delhi, the major wholesale market for apples, does not seem to influence other markets. Mumbai

Satish Y. Deodhar

460

Apple EIN3 BINDING F-box 1 inhibits the activity of three apple EIN3-like transcription factors  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Fruit ripening in Malus domestica (apple) is controlled by ethylene. Work in model species has shown that following the detection of ethylene, the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3 (EIN3) transcription factor is stabilized, leading to an increase in transcript accumulation of ethylene-responsive genes, such as POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1). In the absence of ethylene, the EIN3 BINDING F-box (EBF) proteins rapidly degrade EIN3 via the ubiquitination/SCF (Skp, Cullin, F-Box) proteasome pathway. In this study, we aim to identify and characterize the apple EBF genes, and test their activity against apple EIN3-like proteins (EILs). Methodology The apple genome sequence was mined for EBF-like genes. The expression of EBF-like genes was measured during fruit development. Using a transient assay in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, the activity of three apple EILs was tested against the PG1 promoter, with and without ethylene and EBF1. Principal results Four EBF-like genes in apple were identified and grouped into two sub-clades. Sub-clade I genes had constant expression over fruit development while sub-clade II genes increased in expression at ripening. EBF1 was shown to reduce the transactivation of the apple PG1 promoter by the EIL1, EIL2 and EIL3 transcription factors in the presence of ethylene. Conclusions The apple EBF1 gene identified here is likely to be a functionally conserved EBF orthologue, modulating EIL activity in apples. The activity of EBF1 suggests that it is not specific to a single EIL, instead acting as a global regulator of apple EIL transcription factors.

Tacken, Emma J.; Ireland, Hilary S.; Wang, Yen-Yi; Putterill, Jo; Schaffer, Robert J.

2012-01-01

461

Genetic control of biennial bearing in apple  

PubMed Central

Although flowering in mature fruit trees is recurrent, floral induction can be strongly inhibited by concurrent fruiting, leading to a pattern of irregular fruiting across consecutive years referred to as biennial bearing. The genetic determinants of biennial bearing in apple were investigated using the 114 flowering individuals from an F1 population of 122 genotypes, from a Starkrimson (strong biennial bearer)בGranny Smith (regular bearer) cross. The number of inflorescences, and the number and the mass of harvested fruit were recorded over 6 years and used to calculate 26 variables and indices quantifying yield, precocity of production, and biennial bearing. Inflorescence traits exhibited the highest genotypic effect, and three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage group (LG) 4, LG8, and LG10 explained 50% of the phenotypic variability for biennial bearing. Apple orthologues of flowering and hormone-related genes were retrieved from the whole-genome assembly of Golden Delicious and their position was compared with QTLs. Four main genomic regions that contain floral integrator genes, meristem identity genes, and gibberellin oxidase genes co-located with QTLs. The results indicated that flowering genes are less likely to be responsible for biennial bearing than hormone-related genes. New hypotheses for the control of biennial bearing emerged from QTL and candidate gene co-locations and suggest the involvement of different physiological processes such as the regulation of flowering genes by hormones. The correlation between tree architecture and biennial bearing is also discussed.

Guitton, Baptiste; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Velasco, Riccardo; Gardiner, Susan E.; Chagne, David; Costes, Evelyne

2012-01-01

462

Genetic control of biennial bearing in apple.  

PubMed

Although flowering in mature fruit trees is recurrent, floral induction can be strongly inhibited by concurrent fruiting, leading to a pattern of irregular fruiting across consecutive years referred to as biennial bearing. The genetic determinants of biennial bearing in apple were investigated using the 114 flowering individuals from an F(1) population of 122 genotypes, from a 'Starkrimson' (strong biennial bearer)'Granny Smith' (regular bearer) cross. The number of inflorescences, and the number and the mass of harvested fruit were recorded over 6 years and used to calculate 26 variables and indices quantifying yield, precocity of production, and biennial bearing. Inflorescence traits exhibited the highest genotypic effect, and three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage group (LG) 4, LG8, and LG10 explained 50% of the phenotypic variability for biennial bearing. Apple orthologues of flowering and hormone-related genes were retrieved from the whole-genome assembly of 'Golden Delicious' and their position was compared with QTLs. Four main genomic regions that contain floral integrator genes, meristem identity genes, and gibberellin oxidase genes co-located with QTLs. The results indicated that flowering genes are less likely to be responsible for biennial bearing than hormone-related genes. New hypotheses for the control of biennial bearing emerged from QTL and candidate gene co-locations and suggest the involvement of different physiological processes such as the regulation of flowering genes by hormones. The correlation between tree architecture and biennial bearing is also discussed. PMID:21963613

Guitton, Baptiste; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Velasco, Riccardo; Gardiner, Susan E; Chagn, David; Costes, Evelyne

2011-09-30

463

Identification of irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The irradiation treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables for phytosanitary purposes is a satisfactory alternative method to others like fumigation and cold and hot treatments. Its use is increasing in several countries, and at present its approval is under revision by the National Regulatory Authorities. To verify the control process, apart from irradiation and dosimetry certificates, National Authorities require complementary evidence to show the efficacy of this treatment, especially when the documentation is not clear. The irradiation of fresh fruits produces single and double fragmentation in the DNA molecule, which can be measured using the microgel electrophoresis of individual cell (comet assay). The purpose of this work was to evaluate if it is possible to identify the irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes from the others that were not treated. The possibility to estimate the absorbed dose was also evaluated. The methodology was carried out on the cell suspension obtained from irradiated seed cells with incremental doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy). The irradiation treatment for phytosanitary purposes to avoid emergency of codling moth (Cydia pomonella) is 200 Gy. The fragmentation produced in the irradiated samples was proportional with the incremental doses applied. These results show that with this methodology it can be determined if the apple was irradiated or not. This comet assay is a simple, economical and interesting method that can be used, in case of necessity, by the National Authorities.

Horak, Celina I.; di Giorgio, Marina; Kairiyama, Eulogia

2009-07-01

464

Kinetics of patulin degradation in model solution, apple cider and apple juice by ultraviolet radiation.  

PubMed

Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a wide range of molds involved in fruit spoilage, most commonly by Penicillium expansum and is a health concern for both consumers and manufacturers. The current study evaluated feasibility of monochromatic ultraviolet (UV) radiation at 253.7?nm as a possible commercial application for the reduction of patulin in fresh apple cider and juice. The R-52G MINERALIGHT UV bench top lamp was used for patulin destruction. It was shown that 56.5%, 87.5%, 94.8% and 98.6% reduction of patulin can be achieved, respectively, in the model solution, apple cider, apple juice without ascorbic acid addition and apple juice with ascorbic acid addition in 2-mm thickness sample initially spiked by 1?mgL(-1) of patulin after UV exposure for 40?min at UV irradiance of 3.00?mWcm(-2). A mathematic model to compare the degradation rate and effective UV dose was developed. The effective UV doses that were directly absorbed by patulin for photochemical reaction were 430, 674, 724 and 763?mJcm(-3), respectively. The fluence-based decimal reduction time was estimated to 309.3, 31.3, 28.9 and 5.1?mWcm(-2)min, respectively, in four media mentioned above. The degradation of patulin followed the first-order reaction model. The time-based and fluence-based reaction rate constants were determined to predict patulin degradation. The time-based reaction rate constant of samples treated in dynamic regime with constant stirring (model solution: 2.95E-4?s(-1), juice: 4.31E-4?s(-1)) were significantly higher than samples treated in static regime (model solution: 2.79E-4?s(-1), juice: 3.49E-4?s(-1), p?apple juice was significantly higher than model solution (p?apple cider and juice. PMID:23729413

Zhu, Yan; Koutchma, Tatiana; Warriner, Keith; Shao, Suqin; Zhou, Ting

2013-05-31

465

An Energy-Efficient Mobility-Supporting MAC Protocol for Mobile Sensor Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we design an adaptive mobility-supporting MAC (AM-MAC) protocol for mobile sensor networks. In our protocol, as in S-MAC [1], each virtual cluster that consists of a subset of sensor nodes has its own listen-sleep schedule. Hence, when a mobile sensor node moves into a new virtual cluster, it needs to adapt to the listen-sleep schedule of the corresponding virtual cluster in a timely and energy efficient manner. To this end, in our protocol, we utilize schedule information on border nodes between virtual clusters. This allows us to implement fast and energy efficient listen-sleep schedule adaptation for mobile nodes, which consists of two main functions: energy efficient secondary listen period and smart scheduling adaptation. Simulation results show that our protocol can provide fast schedule adaptation while achieving energy efficiency.

Choi, Sung-Chan; Lee, Jang-Won

466

Considerations for implementing machine vision for detecting watercore in apples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Watercore in apples is a physiological disorder that affects the internal quality of the fruit. Growers can experience serious economic losses due to internal breakdown of the apple if watercored apples are placed unknowingly into long term storage. Economic losses can also occur if watercore is detected and the entire `lot' is downgraded; however, a gain can be obtained if watercored fruit is segregated and marketed as a premium apple soon after harvest. Watercore is characterized by the accumulation of fluid around the vascular bundles replacing air spaces between cells. This fluid reduces the light scattering properties of the apple. Using machine vision to measure the amount of light transmitted through the apple, watercored apples were segregated according to the severity of damage. However, the success of the method was dependent upon two factors. First, the sensitivity of the camera dictated the classes of watercore that could be detected. A highly sensitive camera could separate the less severe classes at the expense of not distinguishing between the more severe classes. A second factor which is common to most quality attributes in perishable commodities is the elapsed time after harvest at which the measurement was made. At the end of the study, light transmission levels decreased to undetectable levels with the initial camera settings for all watercore classes.

Upchurch, Bruce L.; Throop, James A.

1993-05-01

467

Thermoaciduric Clostridium pasteurianum spoilage of shelf-stable apple juice.  

PubMed

Clostridium pasteurianum BB, a saccharolytic and spore-forming obligate anaerobe, was isolated and identified from shelf-stable apple juice that was responsible for multiple large spoilage outbreaks. The growth and sporulation conditions of C. pasteurianum were atypical compared with those previously published. C. pasteurianum spores were heat resistant in apple juice at pH 3.80, with D-values at 80, 85, and 90C being 34.4, 15.9, and 4.4 min, respectively, and a z-value of 11C. The survival curves for thermal inactivation obeyed linear first-order kinetics. Apple juice with varying pH values was used to determine the effect of pH on germination capability of C. pasteurianum spores. The spores were found to be able to germinate at pH as low as 4.3 in pH-adjusted apple juice at low contamination levels. It was confirmed by PCR that C. pasteurianum isolated from spoiled apple juice did not contain the genes for botulinum toxins B and E, which were more commonly found in neurotoxigenic butyric clostridia. Control of finished-juice pH to below 4.0 in combination with mild heating was proposed to prevent potential spoilage of shelf-stable apple juice made with spore-contaminated apple juice concentrate. PMID:21067677

Feng, Guoping; Churey, John J; Worobo, Randy W

2010-10-01

468

Blood cholinesterase in rats fed an insect resistance apple clone containing a natural cholinesterase inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A crab apple clone (Malus brevipes 1021), highly resistant to the apple maggot, is being used in breeding programs developing commercial apple cultivars. This study has discovered that this crab apple contains a natural cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitor that caused a 77.5% in vitro inhibition of rat blood ChE activity. This crab apple also showed a relatively high total (titratable) acidity

Gilbert S. Stoewsand; Judy L. Anderson; Susan K. Brown

1994-01-01

469

The clinical efficacy and safety of a fluoroquinolone-containing regimen for pulmonary MAC disease.  

PubMed

Despite recent advances in chemotherapy, the treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease remains unsatisfactory. Judging from its MIC, fluoroquinolones including gatifloxacin (GFLX) are expected to demonstrate efficacy against MAC disease. However, there have been few clinical studies using fluoroquinolones. Therefore, a prospective study to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a fluoroquinolone-containing regimen for the treatment of pulmonary MAC disease was conducted. In this trial, patients with pulmonary MAC disease received protocol-guided combined chemotherapy with rifampin (RFP) and ethambutol (EB) plus either GFLX or clarithromycin (CAM). Adult patients who fulfilled the criteria of the ATS definition of pulmonary MAC disease were enrolled in this study. The patients provided their informed consent, and treatments were administered for 1 year. Of 27 patients enrolled from three facilities, 14 patients were treated with the CAM-containing regimen and 13 patients were treated with the GFLX-containing regime. Four patients did not complete the 1-year treatment because of adverse events. Nine patients (64.3%) in the CAM group and 11 patients (84.6%) in the GFLX group achieved eradication of pathogens. Adverse events were observed more frequently in the GFLX group than in the CAM group. However, there were no severe adverse events in either group. The long-term results showed a similar relapse rate between the CAM and GFLX groups. The fluoroquinolone-containing regimen demonstrated both high efficacy and relative safety for pulmonary MAC disease that was similar to that of the CAM-containing regimen, which is considered to be the standard regimen. PMID:21927844

Fujita, Masaki; Kajiki, Akira; Tao, Yoshiaki; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Ouchi, Hiroshi; Harada, Eiji; Ikegame, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Takemasa; Uchino, Junji; Watanabe, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Yoichi

2011-09-17

470

The National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire in the Macular Telangiectasia (MacTel) Project  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe vision-targeted health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), measured with the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) in a cohort of patients with macular telangiectasia (MacTel) type 2 and to evaluate the relationship between visual acuity and NEI-VFQ-25 scores. Methods This was an analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a longitudinal natural history study. Patients with MacTel type 2 were enrolled in the Natural History Study of The Macular Telangiectasia Project (The MacTel Project). NEI-VFQ-25 were completed at enrollment. Linear correlation and regression analyses were used to relate baseline NEI-VFQ-25 overall and subscale scores to visual acuity. Results Participants reported lower vision-related functioning measured by the NEI-VFQ-25 in most of the domains measured by the NEI VFQ compared with that of a normal reference group (P < 0.001 for all domains except color vision). Visual acuity was found to be associated with the NEI-VFQ-25 in many of the domains measuring degree of difficulty with common visual activities. Conclusions This is the first cross-sectional cohort study to assess vision targeted HR-QOL in patients with MacTel type 2. Patients with MacTel type 2 reported markedly reduced visual functioning compared to reports of a normal reference group. These findings provide support to the use of the NEI-VFQ-25 in patients with MacTel type 2 to measure the effect of disease and potential therapies on vision-targeted HR-QOL.

Clemons, Traci E.; Gillies, Mark C.; Chew, Emily Y.; Bird, Alan C.; Peto, Tunde; Figueroa, Maria; Harrington, Molly W.

2011-01-01

471

Spot detection using an adaptive pyramid algorithm: application to apple"s maturity state  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, an image processing method to detect automatically maturity spots on apples in order to assess their maturity state, is presented. Two different techniques of segmentation are studied. The first one is mono dimensional and looks for the maxima in a sequence of pixels. The other one is a morphological technique called the watershed algorithm. The advantages and the drawbacks of the two techniques are compared. These both approaches are particularly adapted to spot detection but they are sensitive to noise and often provide an over-segmentation. To overcome this difficulty we propose a multi-scale analysis based on adjacency graph pyramid. This method has the advantage of providing a unique segmentation, which does not depend on the order of the regions scanning. The merging will be driven by criteria of a model describing spot characteristics. Experimental results have been obtained on a set of 1200 images of apples, showing the interest of the method.

Laemmer, Eric; Deruyver, Aline; Sowinska, Malgorzata

2003-07-01

472

On the Achievable Efficiency-Fairness Tradeoff in Utility-Optimal MAC Protocols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the network utility maximization (NUM) framework to create an efficient and fair medium access control (MAC) protocol for wireless networks. By adjusting the parameters in the utility objective functions of NUM problems, we control the tradeoff between efficiency and fairness of radio resource allocation through a rigorous and systematic design. In this paper, we propose a scheduling-based MAC protocol. Since it provides an upper-bound on the achievable performance, it establishes the optimality benchmarks for comparison with other algorithms in related work.

Lee, Jang-Won; Chiang, Mung; Calderbank, A. Robert

473

Relocation Analysis of Stabilizing MAC Algorithms for Large-Scale Mobile Ad Hoc Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Throughput is a basic measure for communication efficiency. It is defined as the average fraction of time that the channel is employed for useful data propagation. This work considers the problem of analytically estimating the throughput of protocols for media access control (MAC) in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The dynamic and difficult to predict nature of MANETs complicates the analysis of MAC algorithms. We use simple extensions to the interleaving model and evolving graphs, for defining the settings that model the location of mobile nodes.

Leone, Pierre; Papatriantafilou, Marina; Schiller, Elad M.

474

The MacNew Heart Disease health-related quality of life instrument: A summary  

PubMed Central

Background The measurement of health, the effects of disease, and the impact of health care include not only an indication of changes in disease frequency and severity but also an estimate of patients' perception of health status before and after treatment. One of the more important developments in health care in the past decade may be the recognition that the patient's perspective is as legitimate and valid as the clinician's in monitoring health care outcomes. This has lead to the development of instruments to quantify the patients' perception of their health status before and after treatment. Methods We review evidence supporting the measurement properties of the MacNew Heart Disease Health-related Quality of Life [MacNew] Questionnaire which was designed to evaluate how daily activities and physical, emotional, and social functioning are affected by coronary heart disease and its treatment. Results Reliability was demonstrated by using internal consistency and the intraclass correlation coefficients for the three domains in the Dutch, English, Farsi, German, and Spanish versions of the MacNew. With internal consistency and intraclass correlation coefficients =>0.73, reliability is high. Validity of the MacNew was examined with factor analysis and three core underlying factors, physical, emotional, and social, were identified, explaining 63.0 66.5% of the observed variance and replicated in the translations with psychometric data. Construct validity of the MacNew was further demonstrated by extensive substantiation of the logical relationships, defined a priori, between items and other comparison tools. The MacNew is responsive and sensitive to changes in HRQL following various interventions for patients with heart disease with 11 of 13 effect size statistics >0.80. Taking an average of 10 minutes or less to complete, the respondent-burden for the MacNew is low and its acceptability is demonstrated by response rates of over 90%. Normative data are available for patients with myocardial infarction, angina, and heart failure in the English version. Conclusion The MacNew may be a valuable tool for assessing and evaluating health related quality of life in patients with heart disease.

Hofer, Stefan; Lim, Lynette; Guyatt, Gordon; Oldridge, Neil

2004-01-01

475

John MacCulloch, MD (1773-1835): a dedicated geologist.  

PubMed

The teaching in Scottish medical schools in the second half of the 18th century had a reputation that stretched far beyond Britain. Edinburgh attracted students not only for its high academic standards but also for its freedom from religious constraints and its developing interest in the sciences. John MacCulloch was taught at Edinburgh by Joseph Black (1728-99) who had chosen chemistry as a career rather than medicine. Already MacCulloch's enquiring mind ranged over many subjects. PMID:18172564

Hull, Gillian

2007-11-01

476

Voice recognition with the Apple-Psych system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Use of the IntroVoice I voice recognition board with the Apple-Psych system is described. The device augments the EF ROM,\\u000a keyboard ROM, and keyboard encoder chip in Apple II series computers and provides speaker-dependent recognition of up to 80\\u000a words. IntroVoice II, an upgrade, can recognize up to 160 words. Since the operation of IntroVoice is software-transparent,\\u000a the Apple-Psych system

David B. Boles

1988-01-01

477

Progress in mapping agronomic genes in apple (The European Apple Genome Mapping Project)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryThe progress of the European Apple Genome Mapping Project is described. Populations segregating for a range of agronomic genes\\u000a have been established in six European countries. The need for robust methods of analysis has been identified, especially with\\u000a regard to the development of molecular markers. Isozyme systems, RAPDs, RFLPs and amplified genes are being used to construct\\u000a a reference genetic

Graham J. King

1994-01-01

478

A distributed fair MAC flow allocation and scheduling framework for IEEE 802.11 based wireless mesh networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a distributed fair MAC flow allocation and scheduling framework for IEEE 802.11 based wireless mesh networks. The framework consists of (1) a modified wireless ad hoc routing protocol to take into account bandwidth requirement, (2) a link information dissemination protocol to propagate local topology information, (3) a cooperative gradient-based iterative algorithm to allocate fairly MAC flow bandwidth and

Kin Wah Edward Lin; Brahim Bensaou

2009-01-01

479

What is a Mammal? Answers from Dr. Ross MacPhee (Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears Podcast Extras)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article includes a series of short video segments in which Ross MacPhee, curator in the Department of Mammalogy of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) discusses polar mammals and their adaptations. As a paleomammalogist, MacPhee travels around the world studying mammals of the ancient past as well as those of today.

Payo, Robert; Chasteen, Stephanie; Macphee, Ross; History, American M.

480

An Adaptive Energy-Efficient and Low-Latency MAC for Data Gathering in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In many sensor network applications the major traffic pattern consists of data collected from several source nodes to a sink through a unidirectional tree. In this paper, we propose DMAC, an energy efficient and low latency MAC that is designed and optimized for such data gathering trees in wireless sensor networks. We first show that previously proposed MAC protocols for

Gang Lu; Bhaskar Krishnamachari; Cauligi S. Raghavendra

2004-01-01

481

An Application of MacLaury's Vantage Theory to Abstract Categories: Identity and the Process of Categorisation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper is an application of Robert E. MacLaury's Vantage Theory (VT) to the analysis of real life spoken discourse. It utilizes Dennis R. Preston's (1994) modification of MacLaury's VT. It elucidates how cognitive processes of coordinate selection and combination contribute to the on-line construction of category membership in the abstract

Fabiszak, Malgorzata

2010-01-01

482

42 CFR 405.1140 - MAC review of ALJ decision in a case remanded by a Federal district court.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false MAC review of ALJ decision in a case remanded by a Federal district court...1140 MAC review of ALJ decision in a case remanded by a Federal district court...In accordance with § 405.1138, when a case is remanded by a Federal district...

2012-10-01

483

42 CFR 423.2140 - MAC Review of ALJ decision in a case remanded by a Federal District Court.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false MAC Review of ALJ decision in a case remanded by a Federal District Court...2140 MAC Review of ALJ decision in a case remanded by a Federal District Court...In accordance with § 423.2138, when a case is remanded by a Federal District...

2012-10-01

484

GMAC: A Position-Based Energy-Efficient QoS TDMA MAC for Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The task of a MAC protocol is to manage the access to the (wireless) medium so that it can be shared by multiple nodes. TDMA MACs achieve this by providing non-overlapping access schedules. Typically, such schedules are dictated by a set of master nodes or negotiated between the nodes in a preliminary phase by exchanging messages. This has to be

Johannes Lessmann

2007-01-01

485

Changing the Shape of American Radio Drama: Innovation and Representation in Archibald MacLeish's "The Fall of the City."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The (CBS Radio) Columbia Workshop, formed in 1936, encouraged the writing and production of creative, non-traditional radio drama such as Archibald MacLeish's verse play "The Fall of the City," which aired on April 11, 1937. MacLeish considered radio the ideal medium for poetry because it offers only aural stimuli without competition from visual

Novak, Glenn D.

486

Cosmic-ray exposure age and heliocentric distance of the parent bodies of enstatite chondrites ALH 85119 and MAC 88136  

Microsoft Academic Search

We measured concentrations and isotopic ratios of noble gases in enstatite (E) chondrites Allan Hills (ALH) 85119 and MacAlpine Hills (MAC) 88136. These two meteorites contain solar and cosmogenic noble gases. Based on the solar and cosmogenic noble gas compositions, we calculated heliocentric distances, parent body exposure ages, and space exposure ages of the two meteorites. The parent body exposure

D. Nakashima; T. Nakamura; R. Okazaki

2006-01-01

487

Cell Biology Apps for Apple Devices  

PubMed Central

Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score.

Stark, Louisa A.

2012-01-01

488

Results of Arsenic Analysis in Single-Strength Apple Juice ...  

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (CFSAN)

... The data in this table represent the analytical results from 94 samples of single strength apple juice for sale in the US marketplace that were ... More results from www.fda.gov/food/foodborneillnesscontaminants/metals

489

Effect of sonication on eliminating of phorate in apple juice.  

PubMed

The degradation of phorate in apple juice by sonication was investigated in the present study. Results showed that sonication was effective in eliminating phorate in apple juice, and the ultrasonic power and sonication time significantly influenced the degradation of phorate (p<0.05). The degradation of phorate followed the first-order kinetics model well. Phorate-oxon and phorate sulfoxide were identified as the degradation products of phorate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, the toxicity of apple juice samples spiked with phorate was significantly reduced by sonication (p<0.05). The quality indexes of apple juice including pH, titratable acidity (TA), electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble solids (TSS), and the contents of sucrose, glucose and fructose were not affected by sonication, and no visible difference in color was observed between the sonicated samples and the control. PMID:21669544

Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Hu, Xiaosong

2011-05-31

490

[Nondestructive discrimination of waxed apples based on hyperspectral imaging technology].  

PubMed

The potential of hyperspectral imaging technology was evaluated for discriminating three types of waxed apples. Three types of apples smeared with fruit wax, with industrial wax, and not waxed respectively were imaged by a hyperspectral imaging system with a spectral range of 308-1 024 nm. ENVI software processing platform was used for extracting hyperspectral image object of diffuse reflection spectral response characteristics. Eighty four of 126 apple samples were selected randomly as calibration set and the rest were prediction set. After different preprocess, the related mathematical models were established by using the partial least squares (PLS), the least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) and BP neural network methods and so on. The results showed that the model of MSC-SPA-LSSVM was the best to discriminate three kinds of waxed apples with 100%, 100% and 92.86% correct prediction respectively. PMID:24059202

Gao, Jun-Feng; Zhang, Hai-Liang; Kong, Wen-Wen; He, Yong

2013-07-01

491

A Study of Ethylene in Apple, Red Raspberry, and Cherry  

PubMed Central

High ethylene levels were associated with flower abscission in apple (Malus sylvestris) and cherry (Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus), June drop of immature cherries, and harvest drop of apple and red raspberry (Rubus idaeus). However, an increase in ethylene content was not associated with June drop of apples and harvest drop of cherries. During the period of fruit ripening on the plant, the largest increases in ethylene occurred in apple flesh and red raspberry receptacular tissue. Ethylene remained low throughout the period of sweet and tart cherry ripening. The data obtained indicated marked ethylene gradients between adjacent tissues. Increases of ethylene in some tissues may have resulted from ethylene diffusion from adjacent tissues containing high levels of ethylene.

Blanpied, G. D.

1972-01-01

492

Trade Policies in World Apple and Juice Markets  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study develops a theoretical model to examine the effects of trade liberalization in an intermediate and final good framework, and constructs a spatial equilibrium model of apple and juice markets to quantify the effects of free trade.

Stephen Devadoss; William Ridley; Prasana Sridharan

2012-01-01

493

The interactions of tropical soda apple mosaic tobamovirus and Gratiana boliviana (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), an introduced biological control agent of tropical soda apple ( Solanum viarum)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Tropical soda apple (Solanum viarum Dunal (Solanaceae) is a South American invasive plant of rangelands, pastures and natural areas in Florida. A chrysomelid beetle from South America, Gratiana boliviana Spaeth, has been released at >300 locations in Florida for biological control of tropical soda apple since 2003. Tropical soda apple is a host of several plant viruses, including the newly

W. A. Overholt; L. Markle; E. Rosskopf; V. Manrique; J. Albano; E. Cave; S. Adkins

2009-01-01

494

APPLE DIMPLE FRUIT VIROID: SEQUENCE VARIABILITY AND ITS SPECIFIC DETECTION BY MULTIPLEX FLUORESCENT RT-PCR IN THE PRESENCE OF APPLE SCAR SKIN VIROID  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Apple dimple fruit viroid (ADFVd) causes a severe fruit disorder in several apple cultivars. The viroid was discovered a few years ago, and only a limited number of sequence variants has been reported so far. In this work, the sequence variability of two ADFVd field iso- lates from two commercial apple cultivars was studied. Sequencing of 18 full-length cDNA

F. Di Serio; M. Malfitano; D. Alioto; A. Ragozzino; R. Flores

2002-01-01

495

Apple Puree-Alginate Edible Coating as Carrier of Antimicrobial Agents to Prolong Shelf-Life of Fresh-Cut Apples  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend the shelf-life of fresh-cut fruit. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on the shelf-life of fresh-cut Fuji apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air-filled pol...

496

Determination of pesticides in apples, grapes and apple juice from a Kosovo market by gradient liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple, grape, and apple juice were analyzed for pesticides using a multireaction mode (MRM) method in samples taken from a Kosovo market. With this method it was possible to analyze about 100 pesticides in the ESI mode. In these samples some types of pesticides were found, but most of them did not exceed the maximum tolerance levels. In apple samples,

Arben Haziri; Sevdije Govori; Fatmir Faiku; Osman Leci

2008-01-01

497

Miocene seawater 187Os\\/ 188Os ratios inferred from metalliferous carbonates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Seawater 187Os\\/188Os ratios for the Middle Miocene were reconstructed by measuring the 187Os\\/188Os ratios of metalliferous carbonates from the Pacific (DSDP 598) and Atlantic (DSDP 521) oceans. Atlantic and Pacific 187Os\\/188Os measurements are nearly indistinguishable and are consistent with previously published Os isotope records from Pacific cores. The Atlantic data reported here provide the first direct evidence that the long-term

Douglas N Reusch; Greg Ravizza; Kirk A Maasch; James D Wright

1998-01-01

498

LFA-1 and Mac-1 define characteristically different intralumenal crawling and emigration patterns for monocytes and neutrophils in situ  

PubMed Central

To exit blood vessels, lumenally adhered monocytes and neutrophils crawl towards specific locations that support transmigration. Using intravital confocal microscopy of anesthetized mouse cremaster muscle we separately examined the intralumenal crawling of blood monocytes versus neutrophils and determined that CD11a/CD18 (LFA-1) versus CD11b/CD18 (Mac-1) mediated crawling accounted for these differences. In unstimulated venules 58.26.1% of all monocytes, but only 13.60.9% of all neutrophils were found adhered; TNF? treatment increased the number of adhered monocytes and neutrophils 2- and 3-fold respectively. The majority (~80%) of all adhered leukocytes exhibited intralumenal crawling under both unstimulated and activated conditions. Function blocking antibodies directed against Mac-1 but not LFA-1 significantly attenuated neutrophil crawling in unstimulated and TNF? activated venules, indicating that under both conditions neutrophil crawling is Mac-1 dependent. In contrast, treatment with combinations of Mac-1 and LFA-1 blocking antibodies reveled that both LFA-1 and Mac-1 contribute to monocyte crawling, however the dominant role in mediating monocyte crawling changes from LFA-1 in unstimulated venules to Mac-1 upon inflammation, likely due to increased expression of Mac-1 under these conditions. We show that LFA-1 mediated crawling is for 23 fold longer distances than that crawling mediated by Mac-1. Consistent with the role of Mac-1 in crawling, Mac-1 block (compared to LFA-1) was also significantly more efficient in blocking TNF? induced extravasation of both monocytes and neutrophils in both cremaster tissue and the peritoneal cavity. Thus, mechanisms underlying leukocyte crawling are important in regulating the inflammatory responses by regulating the numbers of transmigrated leukocytes.

Sumagin, Ronen; Prizant, Hen; Lomakina, Elena; Waugh, Richard E; Sarelius, Ingrid H

2010-01-01

499

The ABC-Type Efflux Pump MacAB Protects Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium from Oxidative Stress  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Multidrug efflux pumps are integral membrane proteins known to actively excrete antibiotics. The macrolide-specific pump MacAB, the only ABC-type drug efflux pump in Salmonella, has previously been linked to virulence in mice. The molecular mechanism of this link between macAB and infection is unclear. We demonstrate that macAB plays a role in the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS), compounds that salmonellae are exposed to at various stages of infection. macAB is induced upon exposure to H2O2 and is critical for survival of Salmonella enterica serovarTyphimurium in the presence of peroxide. Furthermore, we determined that macAB is required for intracellular replication inside J774.A1 murine macrophages but is not required for survival in ROS-deficient J774.D9 macrophages. macAB mutants also had reduced survival in the intestine in the mouse colitis model, a model characterized by a strong neutrophilic intestinal infiltrate where bacteria may experience the cytotoxic actions of ROS. Using an Amplex red-coupled assay, macAB mutants appear to be unable to induce protection against exogenous H2O2 in vitro, in contrast to the isogenic wild type. In mixed cultures, the presence of the wild-type organism, or media preconditioned by the growth of the wild-type organism, was sufficient to rescue the macAB mutant from peroxide-mediated killing. Our data indicate that the MacAB drug efflux pump has functions beyond resistance to antibiotics and plays a role in the protection of Salmonella against oxidative stress. Intriguingly, our data also suggest the presence of a soluble anti-H2O2 compound secreted by Salmonella cells through a MacAB-dependent mechanism.

Bogomolnaya, Lydia M.; Andrews, Katharine D.; Talamantes, Marissa; Maple, Aimee; Ragoza, Yury; Vazquez-Torres, Andres; Andrews-Polymenis, Helene

2013-01-01

500

Incidence of patulin in apple juice concentrates produced in Turkey  

Microsoft Academic Search

A total of 215 apple juice concentrate samples from three different producers in Turkey were analyzed for patulin using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The detection limit of patulin in single strength apple juice at a sugar content of 11.2Brix was lower than 5 ?g\\/l. Patulin was detected in all of the samples analyzed, at concentrations ranging from 7 to 376

Vural Gkmen; Jale Acar

1998-01-01