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1

Mac OS X 10.1 Update  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Apple released an update to its Mac OS X operating system. The update brought marked performance enhancements and several new features, such as data CD and DVD burning as well as DVD playback; Audio CD burning was added in an earlier update.

2001-01-01

2

Mac OS X for Astronomy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mac OS X is the new Unix based version of the Macintosh operating system. It combines a high performance DisplayPDF user interface with a standard BSD UNIX subsystem and provides users with simultaneous access to a broad range of applications which were not previously available on a single system such as Microsoft Office and Adobe Photoshop, as well as legacy X11-based scientific tools and packages like IRAF, SuperMongo, MIDAS, etc. The combination of a modern GUI layered on top of a familiar UNIX environment paves the way for new, more flexible and powerful astronomical tools to be developed while assuring compatibility with already existing, older programs. In this paper, we outline the strengths of the Mac OS X platform in a scientific environment, astronomy in particular, and point to the numerous astronomical software packages available for this platform; most notably the Scisoft collection which we have compiled.

Pierfederici, F.; Pirzkal, N.; Hook, R. N.

3

Capillary Pressure - Mac OS 10.7  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Computer program for Mac OS 10.7 to illustrate the vascular control of capillary hydrostatic pressure. Possible simulations include arteriolar vasoconstriction and dilation, venous obstruction, hypotension, reflex vasoconstriction, etc.

2004-10-01

4

Better at Life Stuff: Consumption, Identity, and Class in Apple’s “Get a Mac” Campaign  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple’s “Get a Mac” advertising campaign defines for its audience the dichotomy between the casual, confident, creative Mac user and the formal, frustrated, fun-deprived PC user through a series of comical television spots featuring human representations of each technology. The company has been largely applauded over the years for their creative, innovative, and thought-provoking marketing, and “Get a Mac,” winner

Randall Livingstone

2011-01-01

5

MacOS 8.5 Application Switcher Settings: AppSwitcher Control  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With MacOS 8.5, Apple introduced a number of user interface enhancements. One new feature is the ability to "tear-off" the Application menu and display it in its own small, floating window (called the Application Switcher). Users can modify the Application Switcher's appearance via AppleScript, but for those of you wary of writing scripts, freeware authors have written small applications that allow you to perform the customization through a user-friendly interface. These applications allow you to customize both the appearance of the Application Switcher (e.g., window border, orientation, sort order) and the keystrokes for switching between applications.

6

MacOS 8.5 Application Switcher Settings: Switcher Setter  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With MacOS 8.5, Apple introduced a number of user interface enhancements. One new feature is the ability to "tear-off" the Application menu and display it in its own small, floating window (called the Application Switcher). Users can modify the Application Switcher's appearance via AppleScript, but for those of you wary of writing scripts, freeware authors have written small applications that allow you to perform the customization through a user-friendly interface. These applications allow you to customize both the appearance of the Application Switcher (e.g., window border, orientation, sort order) and the keystrokes for switching between applications.

7

MacOS 8.5 Application Switcher Settings: Switcher PowerUp  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With MacOS 8.5, Apple introduced a number of user interface enhancements. One new feature is the ability to "tear-off" the Application menu and display it in its own small, floating window (called the Application Switcher). Users can modify the Application Switcher's appearance via AppleScript, but for those of you wary of writing scripts, freeware authors have written small applications that allow you to perform the customization through a user-friendly interface. These applications allow you to customize both the appearance of the Application Switcher (e.g., window border, orientation, sort order) and the keystrokes for switching between applications.

8

Integrated, Kerberized Login on MacOS X  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Context for this information. MacOS X login process and available hooks. Authorization Services configuration. Authorization Services plug-in s. Kerberos plug-in s. Other bugs and recommendations. Authorization Services Called by loginwindow, screen saver and fast user switching. It calls Directory Services, Login Hook, and Login Items (System Preferences).

Hotz, Henry B.

2006-01-01

9

The Macolumn - the Mac gets geophysical. [A review of geophysical software for the Apple Macintosh computer  

SciTech Connect

Seismic Processing Workshop, a program by Parallel Geosciences of Austin, TX, is discussed in this column. The program is a high-speed, interactive seismic processing and computer analysis system for the Apple Macintosh II family of computers. Also reviewed in this column are three products from Wilkerson Associates of Champaign, IL. SubSide is an interactive program for basin subsidence analysis; MacFault and MacThrustRamp are programs for modeling faults.

Busbey, A.B. (Texas Christian Univ., Fort Worth (USA))

1990-02-01

10

To Mac or Not To Mac? One Apple Devotee's Excruciating Purchase Dilemma.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the pros and cons of selecting Apple Macintosh computers versus a personal computer that runs the Windows platform. Graphical user interfaces, current and future support, and aesthetics are considered, as well as personal preferences. (LRW)

Shenk, David

1998-01-01

11

Numerical solutions and mapping of electrostatic fields using the Apple MacIntosh computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity, user-friendliness, and accessibility of personal computers encourages their use as powerful computational tools for numerical and graphical aids in the visualization of concepts that may seem abstract to students. Methods are presented for using the Apple MacIntosh computer for the numerical solution and mapping of fields for electrostatics, steady current flow, heat transfer, and source-free magnetostatics problems. The

FERREL G. STREMLER; SANFORD A. KLEIN; F. F. Luo; Y. Liao

1990-01-01

12

Yahoo! Messenger for MacOS: Beta Version  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yahoo has released a Mac Beta version of its popular chat client. While short on pizazz, the Messenger still has all the basic features: a friends list, invisible mode, and an ignore list. It also offers quick and simple access to the Yahoo member directory.

13

“AgeFinder”: A Mac OS X computer program to evaluate electron microprobe data of monazite for chemical age dating  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A computer program is presented that can be used to obtain ages of geological significance from compositional data of monazite. The program calculates dates and their errors from U, Th and Pb concentration data obtained with the electron microprobe. The results can be displayed in isochron and gauss curve diagrams. Subsets of the data can be selected and interactively evaluated with a user friendly graphical interface. For each selected data set a cumulative date, an isochron date, their errors and the mean squared weighted deviates (MSWD) are calculated and a chi-square test is performed. The diagrams can be saved to pdf and all calculated data can be exported to a text file or saved in native format. The software runs on any Apple Macintosh with Mac OS X Tiger or later versions.

Appel, Peter

2010-04-01

14

Apple's Leopard Versus Microsoft's Windows XP: Experimental Evaluation of Apple's Leopard Operating System with Windows XP-SP2 under Distributed Denial of Service Security Attacks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple's iMac computers are promoted by Apple Inc. to be secure, safe, virus free, and fast computers. In this experimental paper, we evaluate the security offered by the iMac with its usual Leopard Operating System, against different Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) attacks in a Gigabit LAN environment. We compared the effect of DDoS attacks on Leopard OS against those

Sirisha Surisetty; Sanjeev Kumar

2011-01-01

15

The Future of the Mac and the Internet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Reporting from the Macworld conference Pete DeVries, Internet Tools Specialist for the Internet Scout Project, describes the challenges facing Apple and the successes it has already had. This is an excellent overview of how Mac OS 7 compares to Windows and Linux operating systems.

Devries, Pete.

1997-01-01

16

Action GoMac  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Action GoMac, the anchor and most useful of the four new Action Utilities (Action Menus, Action GoMac, Action WYSIWYG, and Action Files), offers a start menu, task bar, and clock tray quite similar to those in Windows. However, GoMac allows customization and integration with a variety of Mac OS features. In addition to featuring drag-and-drop functionality for adding items to the start menu, GoMac allows the placement of control strip modules in the clock tray area. GoMac also features "command-tab" application switching much like Windows. Users can download a 30-day demo of GoMac and the other Action Utilities. The full version is $39.95 on CD-ROM or $29.95 for the Web version. Requirements: Mac OS System 7.6 or later.

17

Why not make a PC cluster of your own? 5. AppleSeed: A Parallel Macintosh Cluster for Scientific Computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have constructed a parallel cluster consisting of Apple Macintosh G4 computers running both Classic Mac OS as well as the Unix-based Mac OS X, and have achieved very good performance on numerically intensive, parallel plasma particle-in-cell simulations. Unlike other Unix-based clusters, no special expertise in operating systems is required to build and run the cluster. This enables us to move parallel computing from the realm of experts to the mainstream of computing.

Decyk, Viktor K.; Dauger, Dean E.

18

AppleCare Service & Support  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Apple Computer offers an Apple Support Area and the Tech Info Library. The support area provides current product information, software updates, the Top 20 Tech Info library articles, information about the Quicktime lawsuit, opendoc, and more. The Tech Info Library contains hundreds of documentation sheets on Apple hardware and software from the Apple II through Lisa to the Mac, including peripherals, and white papers and a third-party company directory. For searching instructions look under "About the Tech Info Library."

19

When worlds collide - Mac to MS-DOS. [Data transfer to and from Apple Macintosh computers and MS-DOS based personal computers  

SciTech Connect

A number of methods and products, both hardware and software, to allow data exchange between Apple Macintosh computers and MS-DOS based systems. These included serial null modem connections, MS-DOS hardware and/or software emulation, MS-DOS disk-reading hardware and networking.

Busbey, A.B.

1989-04-01

20

ACTION GoMac 2.1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Action GoMac (last mentioned in the January 21, 2000 Scout Report) is a handy utility for Mac users craving some of the Windows interface. GoMac adds a Windows-style taskbar to your screen, complete with a customizable start menu and, in this latest version, a QuickLaunch area. Version 2.1 includes support for MS Office 2001, compatibility with Apple DVD Player and iMovie, the ability to show an original file directly from any active application, and more improvements. The demo is free for 30 days, after which time, ACTION GoMac can be purchased for $29.95.

2001-01-01

21

The Mac: A CNet Topic Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With the introduction of the powerful G3 line, the warm reception of the innovative iMac, and two new OS's on the way, some computer industry analysts believe that the Mac may indeed be back. In response to the new found interest in the Mac CNet.com has introduced a new special topic center. Mac veterans, new users, or those considering trading in their PCs will find numerous items of interest at the site. Features include Mac News, resources and information on OS 8.5 and OS X, reviews of the iMac and several G3 machines, useful downloads, and price checks. Users will also find links to a variety of other Mac resources and Mac fan sites.

1999-01-01

22

MacResponder 1.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With summer in full swing, many individuals may be concerned about their ability to respond to emails while on vacation. For those persons, MacResponder 1.0 may be a handy and useful application. Fully customizable, MacResponder is an automated email responder that works with multiple email accounts and also features rule-based settings to customize what is sent. MacResponder 1.0 is compatible with all systems running Mac OS X and higher.

23

Apple QuickTime Broadcaster 1.5  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

With this latest application from Apple, users can effectively produce professional-quality live events for online delivery around the world. The combination of the various QuickTime technologies and application makes a wide range of activities possible, including transmitting business meetings or lectures to a host of different online users. The user-friendly interface provides a basic overview that makes utilizing the application quite easy. This application is compatible with Mac OS X/Server 10.3.9 and QuickTime 7.0.

24

MacDICT 2.8  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This handy little application gives users the ability to quickly connect with eleven databases while online, including _Webster's Dictionary_ and the _World FactBook_. Additionally, MacDICT 2.8 provides access to translation services on the Web for over ten languages. The application also allows for access to Wikipedia, the multilingual, open content, Web-based encyclopedia. This version of MacDICt is compatible with all systems running Mac OS X and higher.

25

How to Build an AppleSeed: A Parallel Macintosh Cluster for Numerically Intensive Computing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have constructed a parallel cluster consisting of a mixture of Apple Macintosh G3 and G4 computers running the Mac OS, and have achieved very good performance on numerically intensive, parallel plasma particle-incell simulations. A subset of the MPI message-passing library was implemented in Fortran77 and C. This library enabled us to port code, without modification, from other parallel processors to the Macintosh cluster. Unlike Unix-based clusters, no special expertise in operating systems is required to build and run the cluster. This enables us to move parallel computing from the realm of experts to the main stream of computing.

Decyk, V. K.; Dauger, D. E.

26

Apple Browning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes an activity in which students investigate the effects of selected natural and synthetic substances on the rate of apple browning. Includes background information for the teacher, a list of necessary materials, and student instructions. (KR)

Chemecology, 1992

1992-01-01

27

Newton's Apple  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

Hendry, Archibald W.

2007-01-01

28

SeisMac 2.0  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

SeisMac is a free Mac OS X application that turns MacBook or MacBook Pro laptops into seismographs. It uses the Sudden Motion Sensor (accelerometer) that these machines are equipped with to create and display real-time, three-axis acceleration graphs (seismograms). The resizable, real-time scrolling display lets students see the seismic waves from tapping their toes on the floor, lay the laptop on their chests to see their heartbeats, or see seismic waves from real earthquakes. The software allows users to pause the display to study an event; scroll back in time to see older data; enlarge or contract the graph, both vertically and horizontally; and copy, print or save the screen. Time labels tell exactly when an event occurred, the sampling rate can be adjusted, and acceleration data can be smoothed. The site features a link to download the software and a link to help files for installing and using it.

29

WinAmp for Mac 0.71 Alpha  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extremely popular free .mp3 player is now available in a Mac version. The Mac version looks very much like the Windows one, with player controls, a graphical equalizer, and play-list editor. It also supports SHOUTcast radio. Please remember that this is an Alpha version, which means it is still being tested and may contain bugs. System requirements are a PowerPC Mac with system 8.5 or later (but not OS X).

2001-01-01

30

Leonid MAC Workshop 2000.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Final Proceedings for Leonid MAC Workshop 2000, 16 April 2000 - 18 April 2000. This is a multidisciplinary conference. Topics include: Tally of observations from the 1998 and 1999 Leonid meteor shower campaigns, satellite meteor hazards, origins of li...

2001-01-01

31

MacTelnet  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The popular NCSA Telnet application for the Mac is available for free download. This easy-to-use program allows users to configure and run an FTP server on their machine, connect to remote hosts, and emulate a variety of hosts. Updated versions include bug fixes, an enhanced user interface, and speedier operation. Users can learn more about MacTelnet and download the program at the site.

32

MacArthur Foundation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The MacArthur Foundation Gopher includes general information about the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, such as how to apply for grants, the names of staff members, and the history of the Foundation. It also includes information specific to each of the Foundation's eight program areas, such as recent program activities, application guidelines, contact information, and a listing of grants made in the previous calendar year.

33

MacGillivray Freeman Films  

NSF Publications Database

SUMMARY OF AUDIT RESULTS Costs charged to the NSF awards by MacGillivray appear allowable, allocable, and reasonable, in accordance with the applicable Federal Cost principles and NSF award terms and conditions. Revised MacGillivray Policy and Procedure After review for NSF compliance by the MacGillivray accounting department and approval by the MacGillivray director of finance, the annual submission of the MacGillivray cost sharing declaration via Fastlane shall hereby constitute ...

34

The Network Advantage in Education for the Apple Macintosh.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"Waterloo MacJANET," a local area network developed by the University of Waterloo for the Apple Macintosh computer, provides an environment appropriate for developing students' computer-related skills, minimizing both the human and the computing resources needed to support such courses. The system also serves as an efficient distributor of a…

Durance, Carl M.; Fenton, Shirley L.

1986-01-01

35

Multipurpose Arcade Combat Simulator (MACS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the present paper is to describe the Multipurpose Arcade Combat Simulator (MACS) currently being developed by the Army Research Institute, Fort Benning Field Unit. MACS represents a low-cost training/simulation alternative which can eventua...

J. E. Schroeder

1984-01-01

36

Results from MAC  

SciTech Connect

The MAC detector has been exposed at PEP to 40 pb/sup -1/ luminosity of e/sup +/e/sup -/ collisions. The detector is described and recent results of a continuing analysis of hadronic cross section, lepton pair charge asymmetry, Bhabha process, two photon final state and radiative ..mu.. pairs are given. New results on flavor tagging of hadronic events with an inclusive ..mu.., and some searches for new particles are presented.

Chadwick, G.B.

1983-05-01

37

MAC-DBT Revisited  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dynamic Backtracking (DBT) is a well known algorithm for solving Constraint Satisfaction Problems. In DBT, variables are allowed to keep their assignment during backjump, if they are compatible with the set of eliminating explanations. A previous study has shown that when DBT is combined with variable ordering heuristics, it performs poorly compared to standard Conflict-directed Backjumping (CBJ) [Bak94]. In later studies, DBT was enhanced with constraint propagation methods. The MAC-DBT algorithm was reported by [JDB00] to be the best performing version, improving on both standard DBT and on FC-DBT by a large factor.

Zivan, Roie; Shapen, Uri; Zazone, Moshe; Meisels, Amnon

38

What's an Adam's Apple?  

MedlinePLUS

... a Flu Shot? The Pink Locker Society What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth > Kids > Q&A > Q & A > What's an Adam's Apple? Print A A A Text Size ... front of the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but ...

39

An Apple a Day  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this math lesson, learners make estimates to analyze the number of apples per acre, and visualize the magnitude of one million. Using the thematic setting of Johnny Appleseed, learners practice their number sense and estimation skills as they progress from merely guessing the number of apples in a bushel to making a reasonable estimate based on a point of reference or benchmark. Learners use data from the Michigan Apple Growers to compute and analyze the total amount of apple yield per acre. They work at centers to gain experience in visualizing the magnitude of one million apples. Learners also gain experience in using a grid as a resource to make better estimations.

Pbs

2012-01-01

40

Macs in Chemistry  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Using computers to do science is a great way to get young people hooked on the enterprise, and mobile apps and other devices make this easier than ever. The Macs in Chemistry site features dozens of applications that will help users learn about chemistry (and more) through interactive activities, quizzes, and so on. In the At a Glance area, visitors can learn about the tutorials archived here, data analysis tools, and mobile science apps. This last section is a real gem, as it contains dozens of applications including everything from 29 interactive maps of the brain to chemistry formula exercises to a working seismograph. The rest of the applications are divided into alphabetical sections. Visitors should click on the Software Reviews area for timely and detailed reviews of each application's strengths and weaknesses. The site is rounded out by a contact form and a set of useful links.

41

MacArthur Fellows 2000  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Winners of the MacArthur Fellowship, or "genius grant," are chosen for their originality, independence, and display of promise for future endeavors in their field. This year's 25 winners represent a wide array of pursuits, from comic book art to marine conservation. The MacArthur Foundation offers this site containing biographies of the current Fellows as well as general information about the Fellowship and past winners. The colorful biographies are sure to inspire future geniuses.

42

Fiverr MacGyver  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crowdsourcing has become popular over the past years, also for scientific endeavors. There are many Citizen Science projects and crowdfunding platforms, such as Kickstarter, that are make helpful contributions to moving environmental science forward. An interesting underused source of useful crowd-derived contributions to research is the website Fiverr.com. On this platform, thousands of people, acting as small-scale freelance contractors, offer their skills in the form of services. The platform offers a chance for people to take a hobby, skill, or pastime and make it something more by reaching out to a wider audience and by receiving a payment in return for services. As is typical of other crowdsourcing platforms, the tasks are small and usually self contained. As the name Fiverr suggests, offers start at US5 to provide a particular service. Services offered range from graphic design, to messages sung or spoken with various styles or accents, to complete apps for Android or iPhone. Skill providers on the platform can accept a range of variation of definition in the tasks, some can be described in general terms, for others it is more appropriate to provide examples. Fiverr provides a central location for those offering skills and those needing services to find each other, it makes it possible to communicate and exchange files, to make payments, and it provides support for resolving disputes. In all cases, it is important to keep expectations aligned with the nature of the platform: quality can and will vary. Ultimately, the critical contribution of Fiverr is not to replace professional services or otherwise save money, but rather to provide access to a large group of people with specialized skills who are able to make a contribution on short notice. In the context of this session, it can be considered a pool of people with MacGyver skills lying in wait of a MacGyyer task to attack. There are many ways in which Fiverr tasks, which are called 'gigs', can be useful in a scientific context. Some people will make 3D designs; others will print these designs with a 3D printer. Earlier, we used Fiverr to design a logo for the Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (TAHMO). Recently, using Fiverr, an app was developed at minimal costs that sends simple csv files with time stamp, location and sensor value at given intervals. In general, interactions with gig providers are very professional. Fiverr.com provides a good recommender system that guides users in finding productive providers. In this poster presentation, we present the results obtained from the most promising Fiverr gigs after an investment of 100 in the field of environmental science, with special emphasis on hydrology. We point out the heuristic value of Fiverr: browsing the available range provides a view on a wide range of practical human skills that are available to solve science challenges, and triggers productive thinking about how to break down a task into smaller practical subtasks that can be solved in a light weight, cost-effective manner.

Hut, Rolf; van de Giesen, Nick; Larson, Martha

2014-05-01

43

Growing Apples in Virginia  

Microsoft Academic Search

able and rewarding experience, but consistent produc- tion of high quality fruit requires knowledge of tree and fruit growth and a willingness to perform certain prac- tices at the appropriate time. Virginia is on the southern fringe of the U. S. apple producing region. Most apple varieties produce the highest quality fruit when night- time temperatures are cool (less than

Richard P. Marini

44

The Diminishing Apple.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces the Apple Ocean activity which teaches about the diminishing natural resources of the earth including drinkable water, habitable land, and productive areas while working with fractions, ratios, and proportions. (YDS)

Kelly, Catherine

2002-01-01

45

Apple Snails (Ampullariidae)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This web site provides information on apple snails (family Ampullariidae), the largest living freshwater snails on earth, often kept as aquarium pets because of their attractive appearance and size. Topics include the care of apple snails, their anatomy, species and genera, and information on snail pests, embryology, and genetics. There is also a frequently-asked-questions feature, photos, links to web sites and literature, and an online discussion forum.

Ghesquiere, Stijn A.

46

Multifunction automated crawling system (MACS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nondestructive evaluation instruments and sensors are becoming smaller with enhanced computer controlled capability and increasingly use commercially available hardware and software. Further, robotic instruments are being developed to serve as mobility platforms allowing automation of the inspection process. This combination of miniaturized sensing and robotics technology enables hybrid miniature technology solutions for identified aircraft inspection needs. Integration of inspection and robotics technologies is benefited by the use of a standard computing platform. JPL investigated the application of telerobotic technology to inspection of aircraft structures using capabilities that were developed for use in space exploration. A miniature crawler that can travel on the surface of aircraft using suction cups for adherence was developed and is called multifunction automated crawling systems (MACS). MACS is an operational tool that can perform rapid large area inspection of aircraft, which has a relatively large platform to carry miniature inspection instruments payload. The capability of MACS and the trend towards autonomous inspection crawlers will be reviewed and discussed in this paper.

Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Backes, Paul; Joffe, Benjamin

1996-11-01

47

About APPLE II Operation  

SciTech Connect

The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D. [Paul Scherrer Institut, Swiss Light Source, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

2007-01-19

48

Apps, HTML5, Virtualisierung und Apple‘s Kontrolle  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Applikationen für das iPhone können mit der Apple-Entwicklungsumgebung Xcode entwickelt werden. Die Entwicklungsumgebung kann\\u000a kostenlos nach der Registrierung mit einer Apple-ID (wie sie auch in iTunes benötigt wird) heruntergeladen werden. Es stehen\\u000a dabei die Sprachen Objective C und Javascript zur Verfügung, auch eine Mischung ist möglich. Es dürfen ausschließlich die\\u000a von Apple freigegebenen Programmierschnittstellen benutzt werden. Um eine App auf

Florian Oelmaier; Jochen Hörtreiter; Andreas Seitz

49

Grandma's Apple Pie  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students work in groups to create a presentation that illustrates the meaning of the statement "To make an apple pie from scratch you must first invent the universe." Students pick an element that can be found in apple pie and trace its evolutionary history back to the birth of the universe itself. They also share their vision of the environment in which that element may find itself 5 or so billion years from now after the Earth is long gone. Presentations are intended to demonstrate student understanding of the origins and life cycle of matter, so this activity is appropriate as a conclusion to a unit. This activity is part of the "What is Your Cosmic Connection to the Elements" information and activity booklet. The booklet includes teacher notes, grading guide and student handouts.

50

Apple Image Processing Educator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

Gunther, F. J.

1981-01-01

51

Biogas generation apple pulp.  

PubMed

In view of the pressing problem that appears in our region (Asturias, north of Spain) with the residues from the cider production, it was decided to test this kind of material as a co-substrate joint with slaughterhouse waste in a laboratory unit. The anaerobic digestion of apple pulp was investigated for biogas production. This paper presents the results where apple pulp was co-digested with slaughterhouse waste (pig intestine and bovine stomach content) in a biogas laboratory unit (10 l CSTR reactor). The production of biogas has reached very satisfactory values during the whole test (0.8m(3)kg(-1)OTS), verifying that the process is kept in stable conditions of pH (near 8.0), and the volatile fatty acids was always underneath 3000 mg/l, when the pulp amount was lower than 100g in mesophilic conditions. The fat concentration into the digester remained always below the value that causes inhibition of the methanogenic bacteria, 500 mg/l. Finally, methane concentration (77-80%) and H(2)S concentration (400 ppm) in the biogas, they were similar to those obtained when the test was run out in the absence of apple pulp. The process efficiency with respect to COD removal was high, near 80% of the total COD. Finally, inhibitory effects of methanogenic bacteria were observed when pulp concentration was around 10% in the input material. PMID:19349172

Llaneza Coalla, H; Blanco Fernández, J M; Morís Morán, M A; López Bobo, M R

2009-09-01

52

Mac configuration management at the Los Alamos National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) had a need for central configuration management of non-Windows computers. LANL has three to five thousand Macs and an equal number of Linux based systems. The primary goal was to be able to inventory all non-windows systems and patch Mc OS X systems. LANL examined a number of commercial and open source solutions and ultimately selected Puppet. This paper will discuss why we chose Puppet, how we implemented it, and some lessons we learned along the way.

Marcus, Allan B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01

53

APPLE Computer Incorporated, APPLE /// FORTRAN 1.0.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This Validation Summary Report (VSR) for the Apple Computer Inc., Apple 3 FORTRAN Version 1.0 Pre-release running under the SOS (Sophisticated Operating System) Version 1.31X provides a consolidated summary of the results obtained from the validation of t...

1983-01-01

54

The history of CoCoMac.  

PubMed

CoCoMac, the "Collation of Connectivity Data for the Macaque" is a relational database system which presently constitutes the largest electronic repository of published neuroanatomical connectivity data. Developed since 1996, CoCoMac comprises approximately 40,000 experimental findings on anatomical connections in the macaque brain, as derived from neuroanatomical tract tracing studies. In this historical review, I describe the origin and the history of CoCoMac from a personal perspective, illustrate the principles of its structure and outline the impact it has had on systems neuroscience, in particular as a prelude to the "Human Connectome" research programme. PMID:23523808

Stephan, Klaas Enno

2013-10-15

55

By way of introduction: Modelling living systems, their diversity and their complexity: some methodological and theoretical problems ? ? Used and referenced software: Excel (Microsoft), Statview (SAS Institute), Mathematica (Wolfram Research) and Maple (Waterloo Maple Inc.), Grapher (application Mac OS.10.4, Apple Computer Inc.) and Dynamac (cf. 3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Some principles for a current methodology for biological systems' modelling are presented. It seems possible to promote a model-centred approach of these complex systems. Among present questions, the role of mechanisms producing random or quasi-random issues is underlined, because they are implied in biological diversification and in resulting complexity of living systems. Now, biodiversity is one of our societies' and

Alain Pavé

2006-01-01

56

Time Synchronization Experiments with Apple.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several Time Transfer/Synchronization techniques viz transmissions of 1PPS, TV Passive, TV Active, transmission of INSAT Time Code etc. were tried out on the Indian Experimental Satellite APPLE. The availability of the APPLE Satellite for a long time gave...

C. L. Jain K. Kumar M. R. Sivaraman B. S. Mathur P. Banerjee

1984-01-01

57

Apples and Oceans  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students use an apple as a model to represent the proportions of the Earth that are covered by land and ocean. They will be introduced to the vastness of the one, interconnected ocean, and to the importance of the ocean to all life on Earth. They will also understand the concept that the proportions of habitable area, farmable land, and land with fresh water are very limited and that ocean upwelling areas that allow high biological productivity are also very limited.

58

Newton's Apple Index  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Newton's Apple, the award-winning national science program for kids, has a companion Web site with lots of good lesson plans and activities. The Science Try Its page contains hands-on science activities from the past six seasons of shows, including such things as making a barometer and a hovercraft. Each Try It includes a description, illustration, and explanation of the science behind the result. Teachers, parents, and kids will love how easy it is to conduct experiments that can be completed with readily available materials.

1999-01-01

59

The domestication and evolutionary ecology of apples.  

PubMed

The cultivated apple is a major fruit crop in temperate zones. Its wild relatives, distributed across temperate Eurasia and growing in diverse habitats, represent potentially useful sources of diversity for apple breeding. We review here the most recent findings on the genetics and ecology of apple domestication and its impact on wild apples. Genetic analyses have revealed a Central Asian origin for cultivated apple, together with an unexpectedly large secondary contribution from the European crabapple. Wild apple species display strong population structures and high levels of introgression from domesticated apple, and this may threaten their genetic integrity. Recent research has revealed a major role of hybridization in the domestication of the cultivated apple and has highlighted the value of apple as an ideal model for unraveling adaptive diversification processes in perennial fruit crops. We discuss the implications of this knowledge for apple breeding and for the conservation of wild apples. PMID:24290193

Cornille, Amandine; Giraud, Tatiana; Smulders, Marinus J M; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Gladieux, Pierre

2014-02-01

60

SeisMac Seismogram Modeling  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Teacher will demonstrate the SeisMac program. Shake the laptop in the three different directions, showing how the different directions are recorded on the three different components. Adjust both the vertical and horizontal scales to show how the same motions can be represented differently. Setting the vertical scales on -1 to +1, tilt the laptop 90 deg in each of the three directions to demonstrate that the seismograms are records of acceleration (accelerograms). When the laptop is oriented normally, the baseline of the vertical component is 1 g and the two horizontal components have baselines of 0 g. However, when the laptop is tilted the vertical component goes to 0 g and one of the horizontal components will go to 1 g. Teacher will present real 3-component seismograms for actual data, and discuss the major seismic phases (P, S, Love, Rayleigh), showing the components they arrive on: P is primarily on vertical, S is primarily on radial and transverse, Love is primarily on the transverse, and the Rayleigh wave is primarily on both vertical and radial components. Students will take turns shaking the seismometer to try to directly replicate the actual seismograms. If two sets of seismograms are used, the teacher can talk about the differences between seismograms at stations that are nearer or further from the seismometer. Has minimal/no quantitative component Addresses student misconceptions

Wysession, Michael

61

MACS as a tool for international inspections  

SciTech Connect

The MACS/ACRS (Managed Access by Controlled Sensing/Access by Controlled Remote Sensing) system is a collection of communication devices, video capability, and distance-measuring equipment which can effectively substitute for the physical presence of a challenge inspector within a facility. The MACS design allows growth of the prototype, developed in response to the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), into a versatile device for inspection of sensitive nuclear facilities under other international arrangements, for example the proposed Fissile Material Cutoff Convention. A MACS/ACRS-type system in a standard, international-recognized configuration could resolve sensitive information and safety concerns through providing a means of achieving the goals of an inspection while excluding the inspector. We believe the technology used to develop MACS for the Defense Nuclear Agency, followed by ACRS for the Department of Energy, is universally adaptable for minimally-intrusive managed-access international inspections of sensitive sites.

Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

1995-08-01

62

A Conversation with Patricia MacLachlan.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contains an interview with Patricia MacLachlan, former teacher and author of the award-winning novel "Sarah, Plain and Tall" about her views on the latest trends in teaching reading and writing to children. (TB)

Austin, Patricia

1996-01-01

63

ZeroCal: Automatic MAC Protocol Calibration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sensor network MAC protocols are typically configured for an intended deployment scenario once and for all at compile time. This approach, however, leads to suboptimal performance if the network conditions deviate from the expectations. We present ZeroCal, a distributed algorithm that allows nodes to dynamically adapt to variations in traffic volume. Using ZeroCal, each node autonomously configures its MAC protocol at runtime, thereby trying to reduce the maximum energy consumption among all nodes. While the algorithm is readily usable for any asynchronous low-power listening or low-power probing protocol, we validate and demonstrate the effectiveness of ZeroCal on X-MAC. Extensive testbed experiments and simulations indicate that ZeroCal quickly adapts to traffic variations. We further show that ZeroCal extends network lifetime by 50% compared to an optimal configuration with identical and static MAC parameters at all nodes.

Meier, Andreas; Woehrle, Matthias; Zimmerling, Marco; Thiele, Lothar

64

Decision to Dismiss General MacArthur.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In April 1951, President Truman dismissed General Douglas MacArthur from four military assignments of great responsibility, including the Commander in Chief of United Nations forces in Korea. At that time, the decision was received with great emotional re...

I. C. Simpson

1966-01-01

65

User's manual for MacPASCO  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A user's manual is presented for MacPASCO, which is an interactive, graphic, preprocessor for panel design. MacPASCO creates input for PASCO, an existing computer code for structural analysis and sizing of longitudinally stiffened composite panels. MacPASCO provides a graphical user interface which simplifies the specification of panel geometry and reduces user input errors. The user draws the initial structural geometry and reduces user input errors. The user draws the initial structural geometry on the computer screen, then uses a combination of graphic and text inputs to: refine the structural geometry; specify information required for analysis such as panel load and boundary conditions; and define design variables and constraints for minimum mass optimization. Only the use of MacPASCO is described, since the use of PASCO has been documented elsewhere.

Lucas, S. H.; Davis, R. C.

1992-01-01

66

Plane Partitions (I): The Mac Mahon Conjecture.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The object of this paper is to prove Mac Mahon's conjecture. The proof is primarily concerned with the evaluation of certain n x n determinants, and the methods developed should be applicable to related problems.

G. E. Andrews

1975-01-01

67

Increasing Throughput for WiseMAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WiseMAC protocol is one of the most energy-efficient medium access control protocols for wireless sensor networks. However, in many typical wireless sensor network scenarios, throughput is limited when high traffic occurs, e.g., if many sensors detect and report an event to the base station. The paper proposes to extend and improve the optional more bit mechanism in WiseMAC. It

Philipp Hurni; Torsten Braun

2008-01-01

68

Big Mac parity, income, and trade  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nontraded inputs account for the lion's share of a Big Mac price (Ong 1997, Parsley and Wei 2003). Major departures from Big Mac PPP may then be explained by the Balassa-Samuelson income differences effect, as shown e.g. by Click (1996). But it has been argued that Click''s result is not robust to changing estimation methods, sample of countries, and time

Sergio Da Silva; Guilherme Moura; Sidney Caetano

2004-01-01

69

AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past three years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

2013-01-01

70

AeroMACS System Characterization and Demonstrations  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being developed to provide a new broadband wireless communications capability for safety critical communications in the airport surface domain, providing connectivity to aircraft and other ground vehicles as well as connections between other critical airport fixed assets. AeroMACS development has progressed from requirements definition through technology definition, prototype deployment and testing, and now into national and international standards development. The first prototype AeroMACS system has been deployed at the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (CLE) and the adjacent NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). During the past 3 years, extensive technical testing has taken place to characterize the performance of the AeroMACS prototype and provide technical support for the standards development process. The testing has characterized AeroMACS link and network performance over a variety of conditions for both fixed and mobile data transmission and has included basic system performance testing and fixed and mobile applications testing. This paper provides a summary of the AeroMACS performance testing and the status of standardization activities that the testing supports.

Kerczewski, Robert J.; Apaza, Rafael D.; Dimond, Robert P.

2013-01-01

71

CD-MAC: Cooperative Diversity MAC for Robust Communication in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In interference-rich and noisy environment, wireless communication is often hampered by unreliable communication links. Recently, there has been active research on cooperative communication that improves the communication reliability by having a collection of radio terminals transmit signals in a cooperative way. This paper proposes a medium access control (MAC) algorithm, called Cooperative Diversity Medium Access Control (CD-MAC), which exploits the

Sangman Moh; Chansu Yu; Seung-min Park; Heung-nam Kim; Jiwon Park

2007-01-01

72

"Fruit-Full" Arkansas: Apples  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Arkansas has many agricultural products and folks in the know are aware of the many apple varieties grown in the state. This digital exhibit contains 69 items related to apple culture taken from collections housed at the Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art and the University of Arkansas. Select items for this special collection include souvenir booklets, poetry, and photographs. First-time visitors should read the history of the Arkansas apple industry proffered by "Mr. Arkansas Apple" himself, Dr. Roy C. Rom. The resource list is exhaustive, and anyone with an interest in pomology or Arkansas history will find it quite fascinating. Additionally, for anyone interested in going deeper into the subject, the site includes supplementary resources including links to other digitized materials.

73

A Study of MAC Protocols for WBANs  

PubMed Central

The seamless integration of low-power, miniaturised, invasive/non-invasive lightweight sensor nodes have contributed to the development of a proactive and unobtrusive Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN). A WBAN provides long-term health monitoring of a patient without any constraint on his/her normal dailylife activities. This monitoring requires the low-power operation of invasive/non-invasive sensor nodes. In other words, a power-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required to satisfy the stringent WBAN requirements, including low-power consumption. In this paper, we first outline the WBAN requirements that are important for the design of a low-power MAC protocol. Then we study low-power MAC protocols proposed/investigated for a WBAN with emphasis on their strengths and weaknesses. We also review different power-efficient mechanisms for a WBAN. In addition, useful suggestions are given to help the MAC designers to develop a low-power MAC protocol that will satisfy the stringent requirements.

Ullah, Sana; Shen, Bin; Islam, S.M. Riazul; Khan, Pervez; Saleem, Shahnaz; Kwak, Kyung Sup

2010-01-01

74

Apple Macintosh PowerBook  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Apple Worldwide Mobility Solutions recently announced a Web page dedicated to the communications, expandability, multimedia, and cross-platform compatibility features of the newest Apple Macintosh PowerBook computers. In addition to specific product information, the page provides Q & A on mobile communications capabilities, the PC Card as it relates to modems, wireless, and storage devices, and the expansion bay possibilities such as infrared devices.

75

MAC2: A Multi-Hop Adaptive MAC Protocol with Packet Concatenation for Wireless Sensor Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless sensor network MAC protocols switch radios off periodically, employing the so-called duty cycle mechanism, in order to conserve battery power that would otherwise be wasted by energy-costly idle listening. In order to minimize the various negative side-effects of the original scheme, especially on latency and throughput, various improvements have been proposed. In this paper, we introduce a new MAC protocol called MAC2(Multi-hop Adaptive with packet Concatenation-MAC) which combines three promising techniques into one protocol. Firstly, the idea to forward packets over multiple hops within one operational cycle as initially introduced in RMAC. Secondly, an adaptive method that adjusts the listening period according to traffic load minimizing idle listening. Thirdly, a packet concatenation scheme that not only increases throughput but also reduces power consumption that would otherwise be incurred by additional control packets. Furthermore, MAC2 incorporates the idea of scheduling data transmissions with minimum latency, thereby performing packet concatenation together with the multi-hop transmission mechanism in a most efficient way. We evaluated MAC2 using the prominent network simulator ns-2 and the results show that our protocol can outperform DW-MAC — a state of the art protocol both in terms of energy efficiency and throughput.

Nguyen, Kien; Meis, Ulrich; Ji, Yusheng

76

The APPL "Learning Map"  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Root Learning, a learning consulting organization with a background in strategic planning, recognizes the knowledge gap that frequently exists between a leadership team and the rest of an organization. Team members supposedly working toward the same goal don't always have the same vision as to where the organization is headed, and they may not understand how the piece they are accountable for fits into the big picture. To address these complex problems, Root Learning utilizes the age-old tools of sarcasm, metaphor and graphics (much in the same way that ASK uses a traditional storytelling format.) The company is best known for creating "Learning Maps" like this one: humorous drawings based on the inner workings of an organization. Their purpose is to put complex topics on the table, to stimulate discussion, and to ultimately give team members a common vision of where the organization is going and what role they personally play in getting there. APPL knows how effective it is to incorporate new and engaging techniques into its knowledge sharing programs. By collaborating with Root Learning, we were able to expand the knowledge of the organization and add one more of these techniques to our repertoire.

2005-01-01

77

CBO's Budgetary Treatment of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Summary and Introduction; Background to Federal Conservatorship for Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac; New Treasury Authority and Resulting Federal Actions; CBO's Budget Projections for Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac (Estimating Subsidy Costs for Existing ...

D. Moore

2010-01-01

78

Hypothermia decreases ethanol MAC in rats.  

PubMed

Despite the known capacity of hypothermia to increase anesthetic potency (decrease the partial pressure required to produce anesthesia), many in vitro studies examine the effects of ethanol and other anesthetics in oocytes or isolated neurons at room temperature. We tested whether, as predicted for potent inhaled anesthetics, a proportionate increase in solubility with hypothermia matched a decrease in ethanol minimum alveolar concentration (MAC), and thereby made the use of a single anesthetic concentration appropriate regardless of temperature. We determined ethanol MAC in normothermic (37.3 degrees C) and hypothermic (28.5 degrees C) rats, and, at the two temperatures, also determined ethanol solubilities in olive oil and saline. Ethanol MAC decreased, while olive oil/gas and saline/gas partition coefficients increased. However, the increase in the saline/gas partition coefficient did not match the decrease in MAC, and thus the aqueous-phase partial pressure producing absence of movement in 50% of rats (EC50) values for ethanol decreased by 17%. Although this decrease is not large, it may be important for comparative estimates of the in vitro effects of ethanol at different temperatures. PMID:16897251

Won, Albert; Oh, Irene; Brosnan, Robert; Eger, Edmond I; Sonner, James M

2006-01-01

79

Asynchronous energy-efficient MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose two asynchronous energy-efficient MAC protocols: A-MAC and ASCEMAC, from contention- and schedule-based perspectives correspondingly. Through applying free-running method, novel rescheduling and time-slot allocation schemes, A-MAC and ASCEMAC do not require network time synchronization any more, which is necessary in existing energy-efficient MAC protocols. So, our algorithms are more suitable for the system which is difficult

Qingchun Ren; Qilian Liang

2005-01-01

80

MACS as a tool for international inspections  

SciTech Connect

General acceptance of the challenge provision in the Chemical Weapons Convention has the potential for influence in other arms control areas. While most applications of the challenge inspection may be straightforward, there may be instances where access to the site by inspectors may be problematic. The MACS system described in this paper was developed to respond to these situations. Inspection and verification may be difficult when a host is unwilling,for valid reasons, to permit physical access to a site. We proposed a system of remote sensors which may be used to demonstrate compliance with Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) challenge inspections even ff the inspector is physically excluded from a sensitive site. The system is based upon alternative-means-of-access provisions of the CWC. The Defense Nuclear Agency (DNA) funded design and construction of a system prototype, designated as MACS for Managed Access by Controlled Sensing. Features of the MACS design allow growth of the prototype into a versatile device for international monitoring of production facilities and other sites. MACS consists of instrumentation and communication equipment allowing site personnel to conduct a facility tour and perform acceptable measurements, while physically excluding the inspector from the facility. MACS consists of a base station used by the inspector, and a mobile unit used within the facility and manipulated by the facility staff. The base station and the mobile unit are @ed by a communication system, currently realized as a fiber optic cable. The mobile unit is equipped with television cameras and remote-reading distance-measuring equipment (DME) for use in verifying locations and dimensions. Global Positioning System receivers on the mobile unit provide both precise location and dead reckoning, suitable for tracking the mobile unit`s position while within a building when satellite signals are not available.

Curtiss, J.A.; Indusi, J.P.

1995-06-01

81

Making Connections--The MeneMAC Online Learning Community  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 2001, the MeneMAC (Media Arts Communications, dubbed "MeneMAC" in honor of the school mascot, the menehune) Learning Center at Moanalua High School (MoHS), inaugurated its integrated media curriculum for its class of 27 entering freshmen. MeneMAC originated as a media learning center, offering students a chance to explore their interests and…

Sueoka, Lynne

2005-01-01

82

Low Power Downlink MAC Protocols for Infrastructure Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: This paper addresses low power MAC proto - cols for the downlink of infrastructure wireless sensor net - works We are interested in the trade - off between power consumption and transmission delay, focusing on low traf - fic We describe WiseMAC (Wireless Sensor MAC), a new protocol for the downlink of infrastructure wireless sen - sor networks Another

Amre El-hoiydi; Jean-dominique Decotignie

2005-01-01

83

Connecting your Apple to Octopus 7600's  

SciTech Connect

In UCID-19588, Communicating between the Apple and the Wang, we described how to take Apple DOS text files and send them to the Wang, and how to return Wang files to the Apple. It is also possible to use your Apple as an Octopus terminal, and to exchange files with Octopus 7600's. Presumably, you can also talk to the Crays, or any other part of the system. This connection has another virtue. It eliminates one of the terminals in your office.

Barton, G.W. Jr.

1983-01-17

84

Another View of "PC vs. Mac."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An article by Nan Wodarz in the November 1997 issue listed reasons why the Microsoft computer operating system was superior to the Apple Macintosh platform. This rebuttal contends the Macintosh is less expensive, lasts longer, and requires less technical staff for support. (MLF)

DeMillion, John A.

1998-01-01

85

Improve Your English with a Mac.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this program is to determine how to teach the four major language skills, reading, writing, listening and speaking, in an Apple Macintosh classroom environment for high school students who are non-native speakers of English. The syllabus for the course, designed for higher-intermediate students with a basic background in English…

Tsoneva, Violeta; Stoyanov, Valentin

86

WiseMAC: an ultra low power MAC protocol for the downlink of infrastructure wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes WiseMAC (Wireless Sensor MAC) for the downlink of infrastructure wireless sensor networks. WiseMAC is a novel energy efficient medium access control protocol based on synchronized preamble sampling. The trade-off between power consumption and delay is ana- lyzed, focusing on low traffic. WiseMAC is compared an- alytically with the power management protocol used in the IEEE 802.15.4 ZigBee

Amre El-hoiydi; Jean-dominique Decotignie

2004-01-01

87

Electric properties of apple purée and pulpy apple juices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Results are presented of research, the aim of which has been to determine the selected physicochemical qualities, including electric quantities, of apple purées and pulpy juices obtained from them. The characteristics of the electric properties have covered the measurements of impedance (Z) and effective resistance (R), admittance (Y) and conductance (G), as well as equivalent parallel capacitance (Cp) and equivalent

Gra?yna Pierzynowska-Korniak; Ryszard ?ywica; Joanna Wójcik

2003-01-01

88

Modeling MAC layer for powerline communications networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The usage of electrical power distribution networks for voice and data transmission, called Powerline Communications, becomes nowadays more and more attractive, particularly in the telecommunication access area. The most important reasons for that are the deregulation of the telecommunication market and a fact that the access networks are still property of former monopolistic companies. In this work, first we analyze a PLC network and system structure as well as a disturbance scenario in powerline networks. After that, we define a logical structure of the powerline MAC layer and propose the reservation MAC protocols for the usage in the PLC network which provides collision free data transmission. This makes possible better network utilization and realization of QoS guarantees which can make PLC networks competitive to other access technologies.

Hrasnica, Halid; Haidine, Abdelfatteh

2001-02-01

89

The MacDowell Colony Exhibition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Artist colonies have always fascinated the American public, and whether they have been informally organized or not, they seem to provide great opportunities for a variety of collaborations. One of the oldest of these colonies is the MacDowell Colony in Peterborough, New Hampshire. The colony was started in 1907 by the composer Edward MacDowell and his wife Marian, and over the past century it has been host to the likes of Willa Cather, Leonard Bernstein, Thorntown Wilder, and James Baldwin. This site was created in conjunction with an in situ exhibit at the Thomas Jefferson Building at the Library of Congress, and visitors to the site will be able to learn about the history of the colony through first-hand accounts, video clips featuring the curators of the exhibit, and objects that have been part of the colony's history. Some of these digitized objects include photographs, manuscripts, and musical scores.

90

Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This fact sheet describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) program. This educational program uses a 34-meter antenna for classroom radio astronomy observations via the Internet. It introduces students from elementary school through high school to the process of science with the goal of improving science literacy among American students.

2008-12-03

91

Plant Disease Lesson: Apple scab  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Apple scab (caused by Venturia inaequalis) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Lisa J. Vaillancourt (University of Kentucky;); John R. Hartman (University of Kentucky;)

2000-10-05

92

Paired lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105: A new FAN of lunar petrology  

SciTech Connect

New lunar meteorite MAC88104/5 represents an exciting new opportunity to study a potentially unsampled region of the Moon. The authors have analyzed six thin sections by electron microprobe and three bulk samples by Instrumental Neutron Activation (INA) in order to determine the chemical characteristics of this new lunar sample. Lunar meteorite MAC88104/5 is dominated by lithologies of the ferroan anorthosite (FAN) suite and contains abundant granulitized highland clasts, devitrified glass beads of impact origin, and two small clasts which appear to be of basaltic origin. One of these basaltic clasts (clast E in MAC88105,84) is probably mesostasis material, whereas the second larger clast (clast G) may be similar to the Very Low-Ti (VLT) or low-Ti/high-alumina mare basalts. Impact melt clasts MAC88105,69 and ,72 have major and trace element compositions similar to the bulk meteorite. There is little evidence of any LKFM (Low-K Fra Mauro or low-K KREEP) contribution to this meteorite, as MAC88104/5 and other brecciated lunar meteorites are Fe-rich and poor in the incompatible elements relative to Apollo 16 regolith and feldspathic breccias. While the exact site of origin for the lunar meteorites cannot be pinpointed, it is evident that they were divided from a relatively KREEP-free ferroan anorthosite terrain.

Neal, C.R. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States) Univ. of Notre Dame, IN (United States)); Taylor, L.A. (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)); Lui, Yungang; Schmitt, R.A. (Oregon State Univ., Corvallis (United States))

1991-11-01

93

W-MAC: A Workload-Aware MAC Protocol for Heterogeneous Convergecast in Wireless Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

The power consumption and latency of existing MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are high in heterogeneous convergecast, where each sensor node generates different amounts of data in one convergecast operation. To solve this problem, we present W-MAC, a workload-aware MAC protocol for heterogeneous convergecast in WSNs. A subtree-based iterative cascading scheduling mechanism and a workload-aware time slice allocation mechanism are proposed to minimize the power consumption of nodes, while offering a low data latency. In addition, an efficient schedule adjustment mechanism is provided for adapting to data traffic variation and network topology change. Analytical and simulation results show that the proposed protocol provides a significant energy saving and latency reduction in heterogeneous convergecast, and can effectively support data aggregation to further improve the performance.

Xia, Ming; Dong, Yabo; Lu, Dongming

2011-01-01

94

Clinical and Immunologic Features of an Atypical Intracranial Mycobacterium avium Complex (MAC) Infection Compared with Those of Pulmonary MAC Infections?  

PubMed Central

Members of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) may cause chronic pulmonary infections in otherwise healthy elderly persons but rarely invade parts of the body outside of the lungs in immunocompetent hosts. We present a case of an isolated intracranial MAC infection in an apparently immunocompetent individual and review previous reports. We studied the T-cell and monocyte responses in healthy volunteers, individuals with a pulmonary MAC infection, and one individual with an isolated intracranial MAC infection. Genomic DNA from the individual with the brain MAC infection was studied for gamma interferon (IFN-?) receptor mutations. Individuals with localized pulmonary MAC infections showed increased activation of monocytes and enhanced monocyte and T-cell tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) production in response to lipopolysaccharide and MAC antigens but defects in T-cell IFN-? secretion. The individual with an intracranial MAC infection showed a lack of monocyte activation and deficiencies in both monocyte and T-cell TNF-? production and monocyte interleukin-12 (IL-12) production but had preserved T-cell IFN-? production. Mutations or deletions in the IFN-? receptor were not detected in the individual with the intracranial MAC infection. Our data suggest that distinct immune defects characterize two different manifestations of MAC infection. A relative defect in IFN-? production in response to MAC may predispose an individual to localized but partially controlled lung disease, whereas defects leading to reduced IL-12 and TNF-? production may allow the dissemination of MAC. Further studies delineating the potential role of TNF-? in limiting the spread of MAC outside the lung are warranted.

Sadek, Mouhannad; Yue, Feng Yun; Lee, Erika Yue; Gyenes, Gabor; Jones, R. Brad; Hoffstein, Victor; Munoz, David G.; Fong, Ignatius; Ostrowski, Mario

2008-01-01

95

Calcium Transport in Apple Trees  

PubMed Central

45Ca, applied to roots of apple seedlings, moved readily to the developing leaves. Kinetin, benzyladenine, and B sprays increased movement. NO3? as the source of N increased movement and accumulation of Ca into mature leaves; NH4+ increased movement into new leaves. Translocation in the stem is effected by a nonspecific ion exchange. Any divalent cation can free Ca for ascent. The exchange may be a property of lignin. Genetic differences in the uptake and translocation of Ca exist among apple seedlings. Those which show juvenile leaf characteristics translocate Ca into mature leaves more readily. Translocation of Ca in woody species appears to be similar to that reported for herbaceous plants. Images

Shear, C. B.; Faust, Miklos

1970-01-01

96

Wireless Sensor Networks Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents a new wireless sensor network energy-efficient MAC protocol, ES-MAC protocol, and shows the results of simulation experiments. During the transmission the nodes do not send ACK packages while use a small amount of new information packets, so they can reduce unnecessary energy loss and wasted time. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that ES-MAC protocol reduces energy consumption while reducing network latency and improving network throughput.

Lijuan, Du; Yuanpeng, Wang; WeiPeng, Jing

97

A Slice of Apple Fly  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners build an instrument for catching and observing flies. Learners act as entomologists, attract flies into a jar using a slice of apple, and then observe the flies' behavior. Learners distinguish between male and female flies and study fly reproduction. The learning time for this activity can vary significantly, depending on how long learners want to observe the flies. Learners release the flies outside at the end of the activity.

Bill Nye And Nye Labs, Llc

2001-01-01

98

Fracture in potatoes and apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of generalized fracture mechanics to whole potatoes and apples under slow and fast compression is reported. The energy dissipative mechanisms are defined in terms of the hysteresis ratioß, the elastic recovery ratioa, and the fracture toughness. For potatoes, 0.75 of the input energy is dissipated by hysteresis, 0.17 to 0.19 is recovered elastically and the remainder is dissipated

J. E. Holt; D. Schoorl

1983-01-01

99

The Performance of Incarcerated Juveniles on the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The MacArthur Competency Assessment Tool-Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA) is a structured interview that assesses abilities related to an individual's competency to stand trial (CST). In the present study, we examined the performance of 247 juvenile offenders on the scales of the MacCAT-CA (Understanding, Reasoning, and Appre- ciation), along with several other variables (age, IQ, achievement level, experience with the juvenile justice

Susan LaVelle Ficke; Kathleen J. Hart; Paul A. Deardorff

100

Membrane Targeting by APPL1 and APPL2: Dynamic Scaffolds that Oligomerize and Bind Phosphoinositides  

PubMed Central

Human adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, PH domain and leucine zipper containing 1 (APPL1) and adaptor protein, phosphotyrosine interaction, PH domain and leucine zipper containing 2 (APPL2) are homologous effectors of the small guanosine triphosphatase RAB5 that interact with a diverse set of receptors and signaling proteins and are proposed to function in endosome-mediated signaling. Herein, we investigated the membrane-targeting properties of the APPL1 and APPL2 Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR), pleckstrin homology (PH) and phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domains. Coimmunoprecipitation and yeast two-hybrid studies demonstrated that full-length APPL proteins formed homooligomers and heterooligomers and that the APPL minimal BAR domains were necessary and sufficient for mediating APPL-APPL interactions. When fused to a fluorescent protein and overexpressed, all three domains (minimal BAR, PH and PTB) were targeted to cell membranes. Furthermore, full-length APPL proteins bound to phosphoinositides, and the APPL isolated PH or PTB domains were sufficient for in vitro phosphoinositide binding. Live cell imaging showed that full-length APPL-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fusion proteins associated with cytosolic membrane structures that underwent movement, fusion and fission events. Overexpression of full-length APPL-YFP fusion proteins was sufficient to recruit endogenous RAB5 to enlarged APPL-associated membrane structures, although APPL1 was not necessary for RAB5 membrane targeting. Taken together, our findings suggest a role for APPL proteins as dynamic scaffolds that modulate RAB5-associated signaling endosomal membranes by their ability to undergo domain-mediated oligomerization, membrane targeting and phosphoinositide binding.

Chial, Heidi J.; Wu, Ruping; Ustach, Carolyn V.; McPhail, Linda C.; Mobley, William C.; Chen, Yong Q.

2009-01-01

101

University of Illinois Extension-Schools Online: Apples & More  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This all-about-apples website was created by Schools Online at the University of Illinois Extension. For educators, the Apples & More website presents a collection of apple-related activities in the subject areas of math, art, social studies, literature, and science. In addition, the site contains information sections regarding apple nutrition, facts, varieties, recipes, and apple preservation. The site also offers annotated links for apple history, apple growing, selection and uses, and cider. Site visitors looking for apple orchards will find separate listings for growers in Illinois, Michigan, Indiana, and Wisconsin. The site is available in Spanish and English.

102

Cochannel interference avoidance MAC in wireless cellular networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Severe cochannel interference in wireless cellular networks significantly affects users at cell edges. We propose a cost-effective cochannel interference avoidance (CIA) medium access control (MAC) scheme to improve network performance. For CIA-MAC, base stations judged as severe interferers trans- mit randomly and the transmission is controlled by wireless channel states to optimize the overall network performance while maintaining proportional fairness

Guowang Miao; Ye Li; Nageen Himayat; Shilpa Talwar

2009-01-01

103

MAC protocol with dynamic priority adjustment for light trail networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to improve the wavelength utilization as well as the fairness of the light trail networks, we modified the FP MAC from the view point of weight balance by introducing a weight mode. The weight mode is composed of two factors, real-time factor and node activity ratio. Moreover, the weight mode is used as a bid by each LT node to compute the priority. Hence, the priority of the LT node is adjusted dynamically in every round and the MAC protocol with dynamic priority adjustment is entitled as DPA MAC. Simulation results show that the performances of DPA MAC protocol are much better than that of FP MAC protocol in terms of packet loss rate and activity percentile.

Li, Shengxiang; Le, Zichun; Fu, Minglei; Zhu, Zhijun; Fang, Wei

2010-12-01

104

SED/Apple Computer, Inc., Partnership Program.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1990, the New York State Education Department (SED), Apple Computer, Inc., Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), and school districts formed a partnership to explore the contribution technology can make to schools based on Apple Computer's Learning Society and SED's Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary…

Stoll, Peter F.

1991-01-01

105

9,250 Apples for the Teacher.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses Apple Computer Inc.'s plan to donate an Apple IIe to eligible elementary/secondary schools in California, dealer incentives for conducting orientation sessions for school personnel, and school uses of the computer (including peer tutoring and teacher education). Also discusses similar efforts of other microcomputer manufacturers. (JN)

Uston, Ken

1983-01-01

106

Apple - Indian experimental geostationary communication satellite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developmental steps, responsibilities, design goals, performance characteristics, and support systems for the ISRO Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE) experimental GEO communication satellite are described. The spacecraft underwent structural, thermal, engineering, prototype, and flight qualification tests in India before being shipped to Guyana for launch on the third Ariane test flight. APPLE carries a redundant C-band communication transponder fed by a

U. R. Rao; R. M. Vasagam

1982-01-01

107

Production of alcohol from apple pomace  

SciTech Connect

Production of ethyl alcohol from apple pomace with a Montrachet strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is described. More than 43 grams of the ethyl alcohol could be produced per kg of apple pomace fermented at 30 degrees Celcius in 24 hours. The fermentation efficiency of this process was approximately 89%. (Refs. 9).

Hang, Y.D.; Lee, C.Y.; Woodams, E.E.; Cooley, H.J.

1981-12-01

108

Colour changes in bruised apple fruit tissue  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of changes with time in aspects of bruise colour in ‘Granny Smith’ apples (Malus domestica) was undertaken in an attempt to identify the optimum time for assessment of bruise severity in experiments on apples. Bruised cortical tissue became darker (decreased lightness), browner (decreased hue angle), and increased in colour intensity (increased chroma) in the first few hours following

Waiss Samim; Nigel H. Banks

1993-01-01

109

PaleoMac: A Macintosh™ application for treating paleomagnetic data and making plate reconstructions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This brief note provides an overview of a new Macintosh™ application, PaleoMac, (MacOS 8.0 or later, 15Mb RAM required) which permits rapid processing of paleomagnetic data, from the demagnetization data acquired in the laboratory, to the treatment of paleomagnetic poles, plate reconstructions, finite rotation computations on a sphere, and characterization of relative plate motions. Capabilities of PaleoMac include (1) high interactivity between the user and data displayed on screen which provides a fast and easy way to handle, add and remove data or contours, perform computations on subsets of points, change projections, sizes, etc.; (2) performance of all standard principal component analysis and statistical processing on a sphere [, 1953] etc.); (3) output of high quality plots, compatible with graphic programs such as Adobe Illustrator, and output of numerical results as ASCII files. Beyond its usefulness in treating paleomagnetic data, its ability to handle plate motion computations should be of large interest to the Earth science community.

Cogné, J. P.

2003-01-01

110

MacGillivray Freeman's Coral Reef Adventure  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This extensive educational resource from MacGillivray Freeman Films is aimed at assisting educators of grades 4-8 who are interested in teaching about the scientific and social aspects of reefs. Funded by the National Science Foundation and the National Wildlife Federation, among others, the film and the Teacher's Guide are not only very valuable, they are also linked to national science education standards. And, while there is an easy-to-use theater listing for teachers wishing to take their students, the seven lessons in the guide can be downloaded and used without needing to see the film first, or at all. Also included are resources on how to become a Coral Crusader as well as reading lists for books and field guides related to reefs which are separated into various reading levels, including adults.

111

Paired lunar meteorites MAC88104 and MAC88105 - A new 'FAN' of lunar petrology. [ferroan anorthosite  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To determine the chemical characteristics of the MAC88104/5 meteorite six thin sections and three bulk samples were analyzed by electron microprobe and instrumental neutron activation. It is concluded that this meteorite is dominated by lithologies of the ferroan anorthosite suite and contains abundant granulitized highland clasts, devitrified glass beads of impact origin, and two small clasts of basaltic origin. It is suggested that one of these basaltic clasts, clast E, is mesostasis material, and clast G is similar to the very low-Ti or low-Ti/high-alumina mare basalts. Impact melt clasts MAC88105, 69, and 72 have major and trace element compositions similar to the bulk meteorite.

Neal, Clive R.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Lui, Yun-Gang; Schmitt, Roman A.

1991-01-01

112

EISCAT Observations during MAC/SINE (Middle Atmosphere Cooperation/Summer in Northern Europe) and MAC/Epsilon.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The EISCAT incoherent scatter radar facility in Tromsoe, Norway was operated during the MAC/SINE campaign for 78 hours in the period 10 June to 17 July 1987, and during the MAC/Epsilon campaign for 90 hours in the period 15 October to 5 November 1987. The...

J. Roettger U. Hoppe C. Hall

1989-01-01

113

UWAN-MAC: An Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a distributed, scalable, energy-efficient media access control (MAC) protocol that works despite long, unknown propagation delays of the underwater acoustic medium. This protocol can be used for delay-tolerant applications such as underwater ecological sensor networks between energy-limited nodes. Our protocol differs significantly from ALOHA, multiple access with collision avoidance (MACA), and the media access protocol

Min Kyoung Park; Volkan Rodoplu

2007-01-01

114

WiseMAC: An Ultra Low Power MAC Protocol for Multi-hop Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

WiseMAC is a medium access control protocol designed for wireless sensor networks. This protocol is based on non-persistent CSMA and uses the preamble sampling technique to minimize the power con- sumed when listening to an idle medium. The novelty in this protocol consists in exploiting the knowledge of the sampling schedule of one's di- rect neighbors to use a wake-up

Amre El-hoiydi; Jean-dominique Decotignie

2004-01-01

115

Refractory Inclusions in the CO3-like Chondrites MAC 88107 and MAC 87300  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MAC 87300 and MAC 88107 are similar, ungrouped carbonaceous chondrites with properties that are intermediate between the CM and CO meteorite groups, though they are more closely related to the latter [1,2]. 170 CAIs were observed in a 102 micrometers^2 thin section of MAC 87300, all <500 micrometers and most <300 micrometers in size. Most are composed of pyroxene and spinel, with textures similar to spinel-pyroxene inclusions in CM meteorites [3]. Melilite-bearing inclusions are uncommon. One unusual hibonite-bearing inclusion, #43, is composed of three large (<=75 micrometers) hibonite laths surrounded by thin rims of hibonite + spinel + (outermost) diopside. The hibonite has low TiO2 (1.8 wt%) and MgO (0.8 wt%), reminiscent of Murchison PLACS [4]. Hibonite in #43 has a unusual smoothly fractionated concave-upwards rare-earth (REE) pattern, with Lu enriched ~3x relative to the light REE, a small negative Eu anomaly and a much larger negative Yb anomaly. The largest inclusion (480 micrometers across) in this section, #44, is a Type A consisting of melilite (Angstrom k(sub)7-17) enclosing 1-5 micrometers sized grains of spinel. The inclusion has a well-defined diopside rim and an accretionary mantle. REE in #44 are unfractionated, ~10-30xC1, with a small negative Yb anomaly. No excess 26-Mg was detected in either #43 or #44: for #43, inferred initial 26-Al/27-Al <1x10^(-5) at 27-Al/24-Mg ~105-125; for #44, initial 26-Al/27-Al = (0.5+/-2.0)x10^(-5) (+/-2sigma) at 27-Al/24-Mg up to 32 (see Fig.1). 162 CAIs were located in a 172 micrometers^2 thin section of MAC88107, similar in size distribution to those in MAC87300. The most common CAIs are again spinel- and pyroxene-rich, but irregularly-shaped melilite-rich Type A inclusions (Angstrom k(sub)3-19; FeO in spinel <=0.6 wt%) similar to those in the least-metamorphosed CO3 chondrites [5] are more common than in MAC 87300. Inclusion #14 is a compact intergrowth of melilite, spinel, perovskite and hibonite laths, with an incomplete diopside rim. Inclusion #16 is unrimmed and extensively cracked, consisting of melilite enclosing spinel and perovskite. Inclusion #20 consists of melilite, spinel and perovskite (the latter two phases rimmed with Ti-rich pyroxene), and has numerous round voids. The inclusion has a complete diopside rim. Inclusion #35 is a compact, unrimmed intergrowth of melilite and spinel only. Apart from pyroxene, no secondary minerals were detected in these four inclusions. Each contains an excess of 26-Mg that corresponds to an initial 26-Al/27-Al of ~4.5x10^(-5). REE patterns for #14, #16 and #20 are unfractionated with REE ~50xCI (#14, #16) and ~10xCI (#20). Inclusion #35 has a modified Group II REE pattern. Differences in CAI populations from MAC 87300 and 88107 suggest that the two meteorites are not paired. The CAIs from MAC 87300 and 88107 are most closely related to those from the lowest petrologic type CO3s, and demonstrate that these two meteorites are extremely primitive carbonaceous chondrites. The canonical initial 26-Al/27-Al of CAIs (4-5x10^(-5)), defined by the major carbonaceous chondrite groups [6], also applies to inclusions from MAC 88107, whereas no evidence for 26-Al in MAC 87300 has yet been found. References: [1] Kallemeyn G. (1992) LPS XXIII, 649-650. [2] Sears D. et al. (1990) LPS XXI, 1121-1122. [3] MacPherson G. and Davis A. (1994) GCA, 58, 5599-5625. [4] Ireland T. et al. (1988) GCA, 52, 2827-2839. [5] Greenwood R. et al. (1992) Meteoritics, 27, 229. [6] MacPherson G. et al. (1995) Meteoritics, 30, in press.

Russell, S. S.; Davis, A. M.; MacPherson, G. J.

1995-09-01

116

PC vs. Mac--Which Way Should You Go?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Outlines the factors in hardware, software, and administration to consider in developing specifications for choosing a computer operating system. Compares Microsoft Windows 95/NT that runs on PC/Intel-based systems and System 7.5 that runs on the Apple-based systems. Lists reasons why the Microsoft platform clearly stands above the Apple platform.…

Wodarz, Nan

1997-01-01

117

Detection of internal browning in apples by light transmittance  

Microsoft Academic Search

Light transmittance in the 450 to 1050 nanometer (nm) region was evaluated as a nondestructive technique for identifying apples with internal browning. Shorter wavelengths of light ( 800 nm). A transmission difference between 720 and 810 nm was used to segregate apples with internal browning from good apples. Only 7.4% of the apples were misclassified in a training set. When

Bruce L. Upchurch; James A. Throop; Daniel J. Aneshansley

1995-01-01

118

Increased NMDA receptor inhibition at an increased Sevoflurane MAC  

PubMed Central

Background Sevoflurane potently enhances glycine receptor currents and more modestly decreases NMDA receptor currents, each of which may contribute to immobility. This modest NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at a minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) could be reciprocally related to large potentiation of other inhibitory ion channels. If so, then reduced glycine receptor potency should increase NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. Methods Indwelling lumbar subarachnoid catheters were surgically placed in 14 anesthetized rats. Rats were anesthetized with sevoflurane the next day, and a pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was measured in duplicate using a tail clamp method. Artificial CSF (aCSF) containing either 0 or 4?mg/mL strychnine was then infused intrathecally at 4 ?L/min, and the post-infusion baseline sevoflurane MAC was measured. Finally, aCSF containing strychnine (either 0 or 4?mg/mL) plus 0.4?mg/mL dizocilpine (MK-801) was administered intrathecally at 4 ?L/min, and the post-dizocilpine sevoflurane MAC was measured. Results Pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was 2.26%. Intrathecal aCSF alone did not affect MAC, but intrathecal strychnine significantly increased sevoflurane requirement. Addition of dizocilpine significantly decreased MAC in all rats, but this decrease was two times larger in rats without intrathecal strychnine compared to rats with intrathecal strychnine, a statistically significant (P?MAC. The magnitude of anesthetic effects on a given ion channel may therefore depend on the magnitude of its effects on other receptors that modulate neuronal excitability.

2012-01-01

119

Multichannel MAC Layer In Mobile Ad-Hoc Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper we presented the design objectives and technical challenges in Multichannel MAC protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Network. In IEEE 802.11 a/b/g standards allow use of multiple channels, only a single channel is popularly used, due to the lack of efficient protocols that enable use of Multiple Channels. Even though complex environments in ad hoc networks require a combined control of physical (PHY) and medium access control (MAC) layers resources in order to optimize performance. And also we discuss the characteristics of cross-layer frame and give a multichannel MAC approach.

Logesh, K.; Rao, Samba Siva

2010-11-01

120

Prior determination of baseline minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane does not influence the effect of ketamine on MAC in rabbits  

PubMed Central

The objective of this study was to compare the effect on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane when ketamine was administered either after or without prior determination of the baseline MAC of isoflurane in rabbits. Using a prospective randomized crossover study, 8 adult, female New Zealand rabbits were allocated to 2 treatment groups. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane. Group 1 (same-day determination) had the MAC-sparing effect of ketamine [1 mg/kg bodyweight (BW) bolus followed by a constant rate infusion (CRI) of 40 ?g/kg BW per min, given by intravenous (IV)], which was determined after the baseline MAC of isoflurane was determined beforehand. A third MAC determination was started 30 min after stopping the CRI. Group 2 (separate-day determination) had the MAC-sparing effect of ketamine determined without previous determination of the baseline MAC of isoflurane. A second MAC determination was started 30 min after stopping the CRI. In group 1, the MAC of isoflurane (2.15 ± 0.09%) was significantly decreased by ketamine (1.63 ± 0.07%). After stopping the CRI, the MAC was significantly less (2.04 ± 0.11%) than the baseline MAC of isoflurane and significantly greater than the MAC during the CRI. In group 2, ketamine decreased isoflurane MAC (1.53 ± 0.22%) and the MAC increased significantly (1.94 ± 0.25%) after stopping the CRI. Minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) values did not differ significantly between the groups either during ketamine administration or after stopping ketamine. Under the study conditions, prior determination of the baseline isoflurane MAC did not alter the effect of ketamine on MAC. Both methods of determining MAC seemed to be valid for research purposes.

Gianotti, Giacomo; Valverde, Alexander; Sinclair, Melissa; Dyson, Doris H.; Gibson, Thomas; Johnson, Ron

2012-01-01

121

Project Mac Progress Report III, Jul 1965 to July 1966.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The broad goal of Project MAC is experimental investigation of new ways in which on-line use of computers can aid people in their individual work; whether research, engineering design, management, or education. (Author)

1966-01-01

122

Operational effectiveness of a Multiple Aquila Control System (MACS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The operational effectiveness of a multiple aquila control system (MACS) was examined under a variety of remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) mission configurations. The set of assumptions and inputs used to form the rules under which a computerized simulation of MACS was run is given. The characteristics that are to govern MACS operations include: the battlefield environment that generates the requests for RPV missions, operating time-lines of the RPV-peculiar equipment, maintenance requirements, and vulnerability to enemy fire. The number of RPV missions and the number of operation days are discussed. Command, control, and communication data rates are estimated by determining how many messages are passed and what information is necessary in them to support ground coordination between MACS sections.

Brown, R. W.; Flynn, J. D.; Frey, M. R.

1983-01-01

123

MacSPOC: Orbital trajectory calculations on a laptop computer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Orbital trajectory calculations on a laptop computer are presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: laptop computing in the Space Shuttle program; current laptop prototyping with MacSPOC; future laptop applications; and summary.

Adamo, Dan

1991-01-01

124

Uncontrolled Storage Test of the Modular Artillery Charge System (MACS).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Uncontrolled storage test of the Modular Artillery Charges System (MACS) M232 charge was conducted at Yuma Proving Grounds in 2002. The test was conducted to determine effect of ambient temperature conditioning on muzzle velocity precision. Data from this...

C. Patel W. Zepp

2004-01-01

125

Fannie Mae's and Freddie Mac's Financial Problems, April 2, 2012.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The continuing conservatorship of Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac at a time of uncertainty in the housing, mortgage, and financial markets has raised doubts about the future of these enterprises, which are chartered by Congress as government-sponsored enterpri...

N. E. Weiss

2012-01-01

126

Thomas MacLaren Collection of Architectural Drawings  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Thomas MacLaren wandered around England, Italy, Scotland, Switzerland, and other far-flung provinces between 1880 and 1891. MacLaren received his formal education at the Royal Academy of London and then moved to Colorado, where he designed dozens of recognizable buildings. After he passed away in 1928, he left his estate to the University of Colorado in the hope that it would lead to the establishment of an architecture department. This came to pass, and along with it came this wonderful digital collection of MacLaren's drawings. Visitors to the site can look over 220 drawings executed by MacLaren, including renderings of abbey farm houses in England and the gorgeous campanile at St. Mark's Basilica. The images are large and high-quality, which makes examining them a treat for architecture students, art aficionados, and the more generally curious.

127

Micromechanics Analysis Code (MAC). User Guide: Version 2.0.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The user guide for the recently developed, computationally efficient and comprehensive micromechanics analysis code's (MAC) whose predictive capability rests entirely upon the fully analytical generalized method of cells (GMC), micromechanics model, is de...

T. E. Wilt S. M. Arnold

1996-01-01

128

Incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel Integrals of MacDonald Functions.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Various representations for incomplete Lipschitz-Hankel integrals of MacDonald functions have been given in closed form using Kampe de Feriet double hypergeometric functions. In addition, reduction formulas for the Kampe de Feriet functions associated wit...

A. R. Miller

1988-01-01

129

Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

To help increase the capacity and efficiency of the nation s airports, a secure wideband wireless communications system is proposed for use on the airport surface. This paper provides an overview of the research and development process for the Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS). AeroMACS is based on a specific commercial profile of the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.16 standard known as Wireless Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access or WiMAX (WiMax Forum). The paper includes background on the need for global interoperability in air/ground data communications, describes potential AeroMACS applications, addresses allocated frequency spectrum constraints, summarizes the international standardization process, and provides findings and recommendations from the world s first AeroMACS prototype implemented in Cleveland, Ohio, USA.

Budinger, James M.; Hall, Edward

2011-01-01

130

Competition at the Wireless Sensor Network MAC Layer: Low Power Probing interfering with X-MAC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) combine sensors with computer networks and enable very dense, in-situ and live measurements of data over a large area. Since this emerging technology has the potential to be embedded almost everywhere for numberless applications, interference between different networks can become a serious issue. For most WSNs, it is assumed today that the network medium access is non-competitive. On the basis of X-MAC interfered by Low Power Probing, this paper shows the danger and the effects of different sensor networks communicating on a single wireless channel of the 2.4 GHz band, which is used by the IEEE 802.15.4 standard.

Zacharias, Sven; Newe, Thomas

2011-08-01

131

Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard  

SciTech Connect

This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Rempel, D. [University of California Berkeley/San Francisco (United States). Ergonomics Laboratory

1994-05-01

132

Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

2003-01-01

133

Congestion control for vehicular safety: synchronous and asynchronous MAC algorithms  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IEEE 802.11p standard specifies the PHY and MAC layer operations for transmitting and receiving periodic broadcast messages for vehicular safety. Many studies have identified issues with the CSMA based IEEE 802.11p MAC at high densities of devices, mainly reflected by low packet reception rate. In this paper, we make an interesting observation that with increasing density, the IEEE 802.11p

Sundar Subramanian; Marc Werner; Shihuan Liu; Jubin Jose; Radu Lupoaie; Xinzhou Wu

2012-01-01

134

Evaluation of WiseMAC on Sensor Nodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The WiseMAC protocol is one of the most energy-efficient medium access control protocols for wireless sensor networks. However,\\u000a in many typical wireless sensor network scenarios, throughput is limited when high traffic occurs, e.g., if many sensors simultaneously\\u000a detect and report an event to the base station. The paper proposes to improve the traffic-adaptivity of WiseMAC by extending\\u000a the more bit

Philipp Hurni; Torsten Braun

2008-01-01

135

Multihop MAC: IEEE 802.11s Wireless Mesh Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter presents IEEE 802.11s, an emerging standard for wireless mesh net- works (WMNs). IEEE 802.11s proposes multihop forwarding at the MAC level, which is a new approach for building WMNs. Traditional solutions for WMNs use network-level routing protocols to allow multihop forwarding among wireless mesh nodes. IEEE 802.11s species multihop MAC functions for mesh nodes using a mandatory path

Ricardo C. Carrano; Muchaluat Saade; Miguel Elias; M. Campista; Igor M. Moraes; Vinicius N. de Albuquerque; Luiz Claudio; Marcelo G. Rubinstein; Henrique M. K. Costa; Otto Carlos; M. B. Duarte

2008-01-01

136

In Brief: Montgomery chosen as MacArthur Fellow  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

David Montgomery, a professor in the Department of Earth and Space Sciences at the University of Washington, Seattle, was selected as a MacArthur Fellow, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation announced on 23 September. A geomorphologist, Montgomery was cited for ``making fundamental contributions to our understanding of the geophysical forces that determine landscape evolution and of how our use of soils and rivers has shaped civilizations past and present.''

Showstack, Randy

2008-09-01

137

PAC vs. MAC for decentralized detection using noncoherent modulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In decentralized detection, local sensor observations have to be communicated to a fusion center through the wireless medium, inherently a multiple-access channel (MAC). As communication is bandwidth- and energy-constrained, it has been suggested to use the properties of the MAC to combine the sensor observations directly on the channel. Although this leads to an array-processing gain if the sensors' transmissions

Christian R. Berger; Marco Guerriero; Shengli Zhou; Peter Willett

2009-01-01

138

John MacCulloch's ‘Millstone Survey’ and its consequences  

Microsoft Academic Search

During the Napoleonic Wars there was a shortage of suitable millstones for the British Ordnance gunpowder mills. John MacCulloch spent five summers searching Western Britain for a source of non-siliceous limestones to be used as gunpowder millstones. His search was authorized by the Board of Ordnance, which also paid all his expenses.By 1812 MacCulloch had found suitable limestones in Sutherland,

David A. Cumming

1984-01-01

139

An Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes S-MAC, a medium-access control (MAC) protocol designed for wireless sensor networks. Wireless sensor networks use battery-operated computing and sensing devices. A network of these devices will collaborate for a common application such as environmental monitoring. We expect sensor networks to be deployed in an ad hoc fashion, with individual nodes remaining largely inactive for long periods of

Wei Ye; John S. Heidemann; Deborah Estrin

2002-01-01

140

A Novel MAC Protocol for Cooperative Downloading in Vehicular Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract—In this paper, we propose a novel protocol called VC-MAC that utilizes the concept of cooperative communication tailored for vehicular networks, especially for gateway download- ing scenarios. VC-MAC leverages the broadcast nature of the wireless medium to maximize the system throughput. The spatial and user diversity are exploited by the ,concurrent cooperative relaying to overcome the unreliability of the wireless

Jin Zhang; Qian Zhang; Weijia Jia

2007-01-01

141

Microsoft vs. Apple: Tech-support showdown  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Yet one more installment in the Microsoft versus Apple debate, this article by CNet reviews the two biggies in terms of tech support, giving report cards on standard documentation, online help, and phone support. The results? Both companies get a "B" overall, with Microsoft proving better for customers with more advanced or complex queries and Apple better for those who have more basic questions when they first receive a product.

Lake, Matt.

1995-01-01

142

A Patterned Preamble MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose a novel MAC protocol with the patterned preamble technique to improve performance in terms of low power, channel utilization, and delay in wireless sensor networks. B-MAC is one of typical MAC protocols for wireless sensor networks using the duty cycle in order to achieve low-power operation. Since it works in an asynchronous fashion, B-MAC employs extended preamble and preamble sampling techniques. Even if it has outstanding performance in idle state, the overhead of these techniques is very large when packets are sent and received, because there is a lot of waste in the traditional preamble method. Instead of the simple preamble, our proposed MAC solution is to introduce more intelligent preamble with some patterns consisting of 2 phases (Tx phase & Ack phase). With this concept we implement real source code working on the mica2 platform with Tinyos-1.x version. Also, the test setup is presented, and the test results demonstrate that the proposed protocol provides better performance in terms of delay compared to B-MAC.

Joe, Inwhee

143

RMAC: A Routing-Enhanced Duty-Cycle MAC Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Duty-cycle MAC protocols have been proposed to meet the demanding energy requirements of wireless sensor networks. Although existing duty-cycle MAC protocols such as S-MAC are power efficient, they introduce significant end-to-end delivery latency and provide poor traffic contention handling. In this paper, we present a new duty-cycle MAC protocol, called RMAC (the Routing enhanced MAC protocol), that exploits cross- layer

Shu Du; Amit Kumar Saha; David B. Johnson

2007-01-01

144

Printing AppleWorks Data Base Files with the Apple IIe Computer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This step-by-step guide to printing AppleWorks database files using the Apple IIe computer covers (1) naming the report; (2) selecting a printer; and (3) printing the report for both the labels and the tables formats. Twenty-one sample screen displays which illustrate the steps and examples of the printed reports are included. (MES)

Schlenker, Richard M.

145

Influence of prior determination of baseline minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane on the effect of ketamine on MAC in dogs.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine if prior measurement of the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane influences the effect of ketamine on the MAC of isoflurane in dogs. Eight mixed-breed dogs were studied on 2 occasions. Anesthesia was induced and maintained using isoflurane. In group 1 the effect of ketamine on isoflurane MAC was determined after initially finding the baseline isoflurane MAC. In group 2, the effect of ketamine on isoflurane MAC was determined without previous measure of the baseline isoflurane MAC. In both groups, MAC was determined again 30 min after stopping the CRI of ketamine. Plasma ketamine concentrations were measured during MAC determinations. In group 1, baseline MAC (mean ± SD: 1.18 ± 0.14%) was decreased by ketamine (0.88 ± 0.14%; P < 0.05). The MAC after stopping ketamine was similar (1.09 ± 0.16%) to baseline MAC and higher than with ketamine (P < 0.05). In group 2, the MAC with ketamine (0.79 ± 0.11%) was also increased after stopping ketamine (1.10 ± 0.17%; P < 0.05). The MAC values with ketamine were different between groups (P < 0.05). Ketamine plasma concentrations were similar between groups during the events of MAC determination. The MAC of isoflurane during the CRI of ketamine yielded different results when methods of same day (group-1) versus separate days (group-2) are used, despite similar plasma ketamine concentrations with both methods. However, because the magnitude of this difference was less than 10%, either method of determining MAC is deemed acceptable for research purposes. PMID:24982552

Gianotti, Giacomo; Valverde, Alexander; Johnson, Ron; Sinclair, Melissa; Gibson, Thomas; Dyson, Doris H

2014-07-01

146

Design and FPGA implementation for MAC layer of Ethernet PON  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ethernet passive optical network (EPON), which represents the convergence of low-cost, high-bandwidth and supporting multiple services, appears to be one of the best candidates for the next-generation access network. The work of standardizing EPON as a solution for access network is still underway in the IEEE802.3ah Ethernet in the first mile (EFM) task force. The final release is expected in 2004. Up to now, there has been no standard application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) chip available which fulfills the functions of media access control (MAC) layer of EPON. The MAC layer in EPON system has many functions, such as point-to-point emulation (P2PE), Ethernet MAC functionality, multi-point control protocol (MPCP), network operation, administration and maintenance (OAM) and link security. To implement those functions mentioned above, an embedded real-time operating system (RTOS) and a flexible programmable logic device (PLD) with an embedded processor are used. The software and hardware functions in MAC layer are realized through programming embedded microprocessor and field programmable gate array(FPGA). Finally, some experimental results are given in this paper. The method stated here can provide a valuable reference for developing EPON MAC layer ASIC.

Zhu, Zengxi; Lin, Rujian; Chen, Jian; Ye, Jiajun; Chen, Xinqiao

2004-04-01

147

Patulin in apple leather in Iran.  

PubMed

Apple leather is made by dehydration of cooked fruit into leathery sheets. Mould growth and patulin production can occur in damaged apples or when fallen fruit is collected for apple leather processing. A survey was conducted to determine levels and dietary intake of patulin from apple leather marketed in Iran. Patulin was detected in all samples at concentrations ranging from <10 to 2559 µg/kg. Mean patulin concentration was 620 µg/kg and 91.4% of the samples had levels higher than 50 µg/kg. Estimated daily intake (EDI) of patulin for adults and children considering the mean concentration of patulin obtained in this study (620 µg/kg) were higher than the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) of 0.4 µg/kg bw/day for patulin that has been established by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. This indicated the need for stricter control and improvement in processing techniques to reduce the incidence of patulin in apple leather. PMID:24914594

Montaseri, H; Eskandari, M H; Yeganeh, A T; Karami, S; Javidnia, K; Dehghanzadeh, G R; Mesbahi, G R; Niakousari, M

2014-06-01

148

Apple lesion recognition based on Fisherapples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A derivative of Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA), named Fisherapples for the recognition of apple lesions which is not sensitive to large variations in illumination is proposed in this paper. We make use of the linear projection that is orthogonal to the within-class scatter of the apple images from a high-dimensional image space to a considerably low-dimensional image space. It separates the data-cases well, projecting away variations in lighting. Our approach maximizes the ratio of between-class scatter to that of within-class scatter of apple lesions, i.e., we can get maximal between-class distances and minimal within-class distances after projection. This implies that the gap between the classes becomes bigger and ensures optimal separability in the new space. Besides, we take advantage of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to project the set of apple images to a lower dimensional space in order to overcome the complication of the singular within-class scatter matrix. After that, the resulting within-class scatter becomes nonsingular and subsequently we can use standard FLDA to reduce the dimension further. Consequently, it is effortless for the computer to calculate the result. Experimental results demonstrate that Fisherapples performs better in apple lesion recognition than PCA.

Meng, Yu; Cai, Cheng; Hao, Huan; Qin, Xiang; Song, Wei; Huang, Lin

2009-07-01

149

A voice-activated key for the Apple Macintosh computer  

Microsoft Academic Search

An interface circuit to connect a microphone to an Apple Macintosh computer is described. The Apple Macintosh mouse port is\\u000a used as the input port, and the microphone activation simulates a mouse press.

Salvador Algarabel; Jaime Sanmartin; Francisco Ahuir

1989-01-01

150

Oxyresveratrol as an antibrowning agent for cloudy apple juices and fresh-cut apples.  

PubMed

Antibrowning activities of Morus alba L. twig extracts, oxyresveratrol, and mulberroside A isolated from mulberry twig on cloudy apple juices and fresh-cut apple slices were evaluated by monitoring the change of a* value, total color difference (DeltaE), and visual observation. It was found, similar to 4-hexylresorcinol, that oxyresveratrol could effectively inhibit browning in cloudy apple juices at a concentration as low as 0.01% and that mulberry twig extract also showed remarkable antibrowning effects on cloudy apple juices. However, for fresh-cut apple slices, mulberry twig extract and oxyresveratrol needed to be used in combination at least with ascorbic acid to exhibit their antibrowning effects. Apple slice samples treated by dipping in a solution containing 0.001 M oxyresveratrol, 0.5 M isoascorbic acid, 0.05 M calcium chloride, and 0.025 M acetylcysteine did not undergo any substantial browning reaction for 28 days at 4 degrees C. However mulberroside A did not show antibrowning effects on cloudy apple juices although it is also a good mushroom tyrosinase inhibitor. PMID:17335224

Li, Haitao; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Cho, Chi-Hin; He, Zhendan; Wang, Mingfu

2007-04-01

151

Vehicle Health Management Communications Requirements for AeroMACS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

As the development of standards for the aeronautical mobile airport communications system (AeroMACS) progresses, the process of identifying and quantifying appropriate uses for the system is progressing. In addition to defining important elements of AeroMACS standards, indentifying the systems uses impacts AeroMACS bandwidth requirements. Although an initial 59 MHz spectrum allocation for AeroMACS was established in 2007, the allocation may be inadequate; studies have indicated that 100 MHz or more of spectrum may be required to support airport surface communications. Hence additional spectrum allocations have been proposed. Vehicle health management (VHM) systems, which can produce large volumes of vehicle health data, were not considered in the original bandwidth requirements analyses, and are therefore of interest in supporting proposals for additional AeroMACS spectrum. VHM systems are an emerging development in air vehicle safety, and preliminary estimates of the amount of data that will be produced and transmitted off an aircraft, both in flight and on the ground, have been prepared based on estimates of data produced by on-board vehicle health sensors and initial concepts of data processing approaches. This allowed an initial estimate of VHM data transmission requirements for the airport surface. More recently, vehicle-level systems designed to process and analyze VHM data and draw conclusions on the current state of vehicle health have been undergoing testing and evaluation. These systems make use of vehicle system data that is mostly different from VHM data considered previously for airport surface transmission, and produce processed system outputs that will be also need to be archived, thus generating additional data load for AeroMACS. This paper provides an analysis of airport surface data transmission requirements resulting from the vehicle level reasoning systems, within the context of overall VHM data requirements.

Kerczewski, Robert J.; Clements, Donna J.; Apaza, Rafael D.

2012-01-01

152

The Venturia Apple Pathosystem: Pathogenicity Mechanisms and Plant Defense Responses  

PubMed Central

Venturia inaequalis is the causal agent of apple scab, a devastating disease of apple. We outline several unique features of this pathogen which are useful for molecular genetics studies intended to understand plant-pathogen interactions. The pathogenicity mechanisms of the pathogen and overview of apple defense responses, monogenic and polygenic resistance, and their utilization in scab resistance breeding programs are also reviewed.

Jha, Gopaljee; Thakur, Karnika; Thakur, Priyanka

2009-01-01

153

Macronutrient assessment in apple growing region of Punjab  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was undertaken with the aim of examining soil and plant macronutrient status (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S) and their interaction to understand causes of low apple yield. Murree region was studied being major apple cultivated area in Punjab. Surveyed apple orchards were selected from all union councils of Murree. Out of thirteen orchard sites, soils of

M. Siddique; S. Ali; A. S. Javed

2009-01-01

154

A Flexible CSMA based MAC Protocol for Software Defined Radios  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, we propose a flexible CSMA based MAC protocol which facilitates research and experimentation using software define radios. The modular architecture allows to employ the protocol on platforms with heterogeneous hardware capabilities and provides the freedom to exchange or adapt the spectrum sensing mechanism without modifying the MAC protocol internals. We discuss the architecture of the protocol and provide structural details of its main components. Furthermore, we present throughput measurements that have been obtained on an example system using host-based spectrum sensing.

Puschmann, André; Kalil, Mohamed A.; Mitschele-Thiel, Andreas

2012-09-01

155

APPL Proteins FRET at the BAR: Direct Observation of APPL1 and APPL2 BAR Domain-Mediated Interactions on Cell Membranes Using FRET Microscopy  

PubMed Central

Background Human APPL1 and APPL2 are homologous RAB5 effectors whose binding partners include a diverse set of transmembrane receptors, signaling proteins, and phosphoinositides. APPL proteins associate dynamically with endosomal membranes and are proposed to function in endosome-mediated signaling pathways linking the cell surface to the cell nucleus. APPL proteins contain an N-terminal Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain, a central pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, and a C-terminal phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain. Previous structural and biochemical studies have shown that the APPL BAR domains mediate homotypic and heterotypic APPL-APPL interactions and that the APPL1 BAR domain forms crescent-shaped dimers. Although previous studies have shown that APPL minimal BAR domains associate with curved cell membranes, direct interaction between APPL BAR domains on cell membranes in vivo has not been reported. Methodology Herein, we used a laser-scanning confocal microscope equipped with a spectral detector to carry out fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) experiments with cyan fluorescent protein/yellow fluorescent protein (CFP/YFP) FRET donor/acceptor pairs to examine interactions between APPL minimal BAR domains at the subcellular level. This comprehensive approach enabled us to evaluate FRET levels in a single cell using three methods: sensitized emission, standard acceptor photobleaching, and sequential acceptor photobleaching. We also analyzed emission spectra to address an outstanding controversy regarding the use of CFP donor/YFP acceptor pairs in FRET acceptor photobleaching experiments, based on reports that photobleaching of YFP converts it into a CFP-like species. Conclusions All three methods consistently showed significant FRET between APPL minimal BAR domain FRET pairs, indicating that they interact directly in a homotypic (i.e., APPL1-APPL1 and APPL2-APPL2) and heterotypic (i.e., APPL1-APPL2) manner on curved cell membranes. Furthermore, the results of our experiments did not show photoconversion of YFP into a CFP-like species following photobleaching, supporting the use of CFP donor/YFP acceptor FRET pairs in acceptor photobleaching studies.

Chial, Heidi J.; Lenart, Peter; Chen, Yong Q.

2010-01-01

156

MacMS: A Mass Spectrometer Simulator: Abstract of Issue 9906M  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MacMS is a program for Mac-OS compatible computers that simulates a magnetic sector mass spectrometer (1-4) designed to operate in the mass-to-charge (m/z) ratio range of 1-200 amu. MacMS has two operational modules. The first module (see Figure 1) is called the "Path" module and enables the user to quantitatively examine the trajectory of an ion of given m/z ratio in the electric and magnetic fields of the simulated "instrument". By systematically measuring a series of trajectories of different ions under different electric and magnetic field conditions, the user can determine how the resolution of the "instrument" is affected by these experimentally variable parameters. The user can thus choose suitable instrumental conditions for scanning a given m/z ratio range with good separation between the peaks. The second module (see Figure 2) is called as the "Spectrometer" module and enables the user to record, under any chosen instrumental conditions, the mass spectrum of (i) the instrumental background, (ii) neon, (iii) methane, or (iv) the parent ion of carbon tetrachloride. Both voltage scanning and magnetic scanning are possible (5). A hard copy of any mass spectrum that has been recorded can also be obtained. MacMS can read ASCII data files containing mass spectral information of compounds other than those that are "built-in" to the simulator. The appropriate format for creating such data files is described in the program documentation. There are a number of instructional exercises that can be conducted using the mass spectral information contained within the simulator. These are included in the program documentation. For example, the intensities of the 20Ne+, 21Ne+, and 22Ne+ species can be determined from hard copies of mass spectra of neon that are obtained under different instrumental sensitivities. The relative abundances of the three isotopes of neon can thus be calculated and compared with the literature values (6). The simulator also includes adjustable, fixed-value range and gain settings, which can be used to enhance the resolution and sensitivity of the instrument respectively.

Figure 1. The "Path" module of MacMS showing the control panel (upper section) and graphics display region (lower section). The graphics display region incorporates a "data collector", which includes a "Grab" button to collect data and an area where data are displayed.
Figure 2. The "Spectrometer" module of MacMS showing the control panel (upper section) and a graphics display region (lower section). A mass spectrum is produced in the graphics display region upon scanning. A "data collector" similar to that of the "Path" module forms part of the graphics display region. Hardware and Software Requirements Literature Cited
  1. Kiser, R. N. Introduction to Mass Spectrometry and its Applications; Prentice-Hall: Englewood Cliffs, N. J., 1965; pp 1-3; pp 32-65.
  2. Johnstone, R. A. W.; Rose, M. E. Mass Spectrometry for Chemists and Biochemists, 2nd ed.; Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 1996.
  3. Hill, H. C.; Loudon, A. G. Introduction to Mass Spectrometry; 2nd ed.; Heyden: London, 1972; p 5.
  4. Farmer, J. B. In Mass Spectrometry, McDowell, C. A., Ed.; McGraw-Hill: New York, 1963; pp 10-11.
  5. Message, G. M. Practical Aspects of Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry, Wiley: New York, 1984; Chapter 3.
  6. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 55th ed.; CRC: Cleveland, 1974.

Bigger, Stephen W.; Craig, Robert A.

1999-10-01

157

Development of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Criminal Adjudication (The MacCAT-CA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The research described in Chapter 3 established that the MacSAC-CD was a reliably-scored, valid measure of criminal defendants’\\u000a ability to participate in the legal process, that was also grounded in a legal theory of competence. The MacSAC-CD, however,\\u000a was judged not appropriate for clinical-forensic use for a number of reasons. Some of the items lacked face validity for the\\u000a legal

Norman G. Poythress; Richard J. Bonnie; John Monahan; Randy Otto; Steven K. Hoge

158

MacArthur's Lapses from an Envelopment Strategy in 1945.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The strategy which General of the Army Douglas MacArthur adopted in 1945 in the southwest Pacific campaign has received scant attention from historians. Symbolic of this neglect is the omission in the American Army's series on the Pacific conflict of a se...

D. C. James

1980-01-01

159

Activation of human neutrophil Mac-1 by anion substitution *  

PubMed Central

Substituting the medium chloride with glucuronate or glutamate causes a rapid, 10 to 30 –fold, increase in the binding of the monoclonal antibody, CBRM1/5, which recognizes the high-affinity conformation of the Mac-1 integrin. This change is reflected in functional adhesion assays that show increased adhesion to ICAM-1 coated beads. Blocking antibodies indicate that the increased adhesion is almost entirely due to Mac-1. The inhibitor NPPB (100?M) reduces Cl- efflux into low Cl- medium by 75%, and blocks increased CBRM1/5 binding after stimulation with fMLP or TNF-?, but has no effect on the anion substitution induced increase in CBRM1/5 binding or adhesion to immobilized ICAM-1. Thus, changes in external anion composition, not internal chloride or increases in Cl- efflux, are responsible for Mac-1 activation. This effect is substantial. The percentage of Mac-1 in the high affinity state approaches 100% in glutamate and 50% in glucuronate, a far greater response than what is observed after stimulation with fMLP.

Lomakina, Elena; Knauf, Philip A.; Schultz, Joanne B.; Law, Foon-Yee; McGraw, Matthew D.; Waugh, Richard E.

2009-01-01

160

Dynamic bandwidth allocation for the HFC DOCSIS MAC protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

DOCSIS (Data Over Cable Service Interface Specifications) is the new specification for data transmission over the HFC (hybrid fiber\\/coax) networks. In the DOCSIS media access control (MAC) layer, the headend or CMTS (cable modem termination system) controls transmissions in the upstream direction using a centralized reservation-based approach, and is also responsible for downstream transmissions. We explore mechanisms for delivering quality

Mamdouh Droubi; Nasser Idirene; Charles Chen

2000-01-01

161

A Simple Adaptive MAC Scheduling Scheme for Bluetooth Scatternet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple adaptive MAC scheduling algorithm, called Gateway Oriented Scatternet Scheduling (GOSS), is proposed for data exchange in a Bluetooth scatternet. Unlike the existing scheme MDRP (Maximum Distance Rendezvous Point) that has a global superframe schedule shared by all gateways, the schedule used by each gateway is individually determined. Equal partition of the superframe schedule at a gateway to each

Changlei Liu; Kwan L. Yeung

2009-01-01

162

A simple adaptive MAC scheduling scheme for Bluetooth scatternet  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple adaptive MAC scheduling algorithm, called gateway oriented scatternet scheduling (GOSS), is proposed for data exchange in a Bluetooth scatternet. Unlike the existing scheme MDRP (maximum distance rendezvous point) that has a global superframe schedule shared by all gateways, the schedule used by each gateway is individually determined. Equal partition of the superframe schedule at a gateway to each

Changlei Liu; Kwan L. Yeung

2003-01-01

163

Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination (GeoMAC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site provided by the USGS features GeoMAC, an internet-based mapping tool that fire managers and the public can use to access online maps of current fire locations and perimeters in the conterminous 48 States and Alaska. To pinpoint affected areas, information can be downloaded with a standard web browser. The site also has a users' guide.

USGS; National Interagency Fire Center (NIFC); National Weather Service and Bureau of Land Management at NIFC; Remote Sensing Applications Center (RSAC, USFS); U.S. Forest Service (USFS); Bureau of Land Management (BLM); National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC, NOAA)

164

MacDowell-Mansouri gravity and Cartan geometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The geometric content of the MacDowell-Mansouri formulation of general relativity is best understood in terms of Cartan geometry. In particular, Cartan geometry gives clear geometric meaning to the MacDowell-Mansouri trick of combining the Levi-Civita connection and coframe field, or soldering form, into a single physical field. The Cartan perspective allows us to view physical spacetime as tangentially approximated by an arbitrary homogeneous 'model spacetime', including not only the flat Minkowski model, as is implicitly used in standard general relativity, but also de Sitter, anti-de Sitter or other models. A 'Cartan connection' gives a prescription for parallel transport from one 'tangent model spacetime' to another, along any path, giving a natural interpretation of the MacDowell-Mansouri connection as 'rolling' the model spacetime along physical spacetime. I explain Cartan geometry, and 'Cartan gauge theory', in which the gauge field is replaced by a Cartan connection. In particular, I discuss MacDowell-Mansouri gravity, as well as its more recent reformulation in terms of BF theory, in the context of Cartan connections.

Wise, Derek K.

2010-08-01

165

The MacArthur Treatment Competence Study. II  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports the development and psychometric properties of three standardized and objectively scored measures, the MacArthur Treatment Competence Research Instruments. They were designed to assess abilities related conceptually to four legal standards for competence to consent to treatment: understanding, appreciation, rational manipulation (reasoning), and expressing a choice. Scoring reliability, internal consistency, intertest correlations, and test-retest correlations were examined with

Thomas Grisso; Paul S. Appelbaum; Edward P. Mulvey; Kenneth Fletcher

1995-01-01

166

The MacArthur Treatment Competence Study. I  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first of three papers reporting the results of the MacArthur Treatment Competence Study, a project designed to develop reliable and valid information with which to address clinical and policy questions regarding the abilities of persons with mental illness to make decisions about psychiatric treatment. Four commonly applied legal standards for determining decision-making competence are described: abilities to

Paul S. Appelbaum; Thomas Grisso

1995-01-01

167

MAC Performance Analysis for Vehicle-to-Infrastructure Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The newly emerged vehicular ad hoc network adopts the contention based IEEE 802.11 DCF as its MAC. While it has been extensively studied in the stationary indoor environment (e.g., WLAN), the performance of DCF in the highly mobile vehicular environment is still unclear. On addressing this issue, we propose a simple but accurate analytical model to evaluate the throughput performance

Tom H. Luan; Xinhua Ling; Xuemin Shen

2010-01-01

168

Adaptive Power Control MAC in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter, we suggest APMAC (Adaptive Power Control MAC) for wireless ad hoc networks. APMAC is based on the single channel environment and improves the throughput and the energy efficiency simultaneously. Furthermore, the APMAC prevents the unfair channel starvation among the transmission pairs. We verify the performance of the APMAC through simulations.

Choi, Hong-Seok; Byun, Hee-Jung; Lim, Jong-Tae

169

Teaching CAD on the Apple Computer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a course designed to teach engineers how to accomplish computer graphics techniques on a limited scale with the Apple computer. The same mathematics and program code will also function for larger and more complex computers. Course content, instructional strategies, student evaluation, and recommendations are considered. (JN)

Norton, Robert L.

1984-01-01

170

Periodical Management at the Apple Computer Library.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes use of PFS: File, a database management program for microcomputers that can be effectively utilized in periodical management, at the Apple Computer Library. The menu, format of the forms, checking in periodicals and listing missing issues, updating, reports, the periodical catalog, and helpful information are highlighted. Examples are…

Holmquist, Lennart Johan

1984-01-01

171

Communicating between the Apple and the Wang  

SciTech Connect

This manual covers what the beginner needs to know in order to transfer files between an Apple's Microcomputer and a Wang's OIS Word Processor. We have also tried to indicate where the experienced user might want to look for additional details. We cover the use of Apple Writer )(, VisiTerm, VisiCalc, and EasyWriter Professional. For us, the two most useful connections are from Applewriter to Wang and from Visicalc to Wang. From Wang to Apple Writer via Visiterm may have some value. Files can be transferred by VisiTerm to Wang, but they arrive with RETURNS in the middle of words, which have to be edited out, so we do not recommend it. We describe how to go from EasyWriter to Wang, but we do not know how to go from Wang to EasyWriter. We see no reason to go from Wang to VisiCalc, so we haven't thought about it. All instructions are given for a typical configuration of the Apple, namely the one on which this manual was composed. It is detailed in the section on Hardware and Software.

Barton, G.W., Downey, R.

1982-10-26

172

Energy Consumption of Apple Macintosh Computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The utility of a portable computer is critically dependent o n the pe- riod it can be used while running off the battery. In this pape r, we present a study of power consumption in Apple Macintosh computers. We measure the existing power consumption for each system compo- nent using built-in measuring tools. Since total power cons umption is a

Jacob R. Lorch; Alan Jay Smith

173

Leaf peroxidase isozyme polymorphism of wild apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main aims of the study were to reveal the isozyme resemblances in the leaf peroxidase of wild apple and to define the traits related to the identification of Malus sylvestris Mill. The results of the study are based on leaf isozyme analysis of seven progenies selected according to the specific features of mother trees at their natural sites from

R. Petrokas; V. Stanys

2008-01-01

174

Lessons learned from the Apple stores.  

PubMed

Medical practices have an opportunity to improve the services that they offer their patients. Practices can look at other businesses and industries for examples of outstanding customer service. This article will discuss the services provided by Apple, Inc., and how medical practices can learn from this industry giant and improve the services that they offer patients. PMID:22594067

Pinkney, Henry; Baum, Neil

2012-01-01

175

Bitter pit in Cox's Orange apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Calcium nitrate and calcium chloride tree sprays. at different concentrations are compared. Calcium chloride, with about twice the calcium content of the nitrate, gave as good control of bitter pit at half the concentration of the nitrate, which relates the effectiveness of these materials to their calcium content. Colour development on apples was better with calcium chloride than with the

E. T. Chittenden; D. J. Stanton; J. Watson

1969-01-01

176

Transcriptional analysis of apple fruit proanthocyanidin biosynthesis.  

PubMed

Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are products of the flavonoid pathway, which also leads to the production of anthocyanins and flavonols. Many flavonoids have antioxidant properties and may have beneficial effects for human health. PAs are found in the seeds and fruits of many plants. In apple fruit (Malus × domestica Borkh.), the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway is most active in the skin, with the flavan-3-ols, catechin, and epicatechin acting as the initiating units for the synthesis of PA polymers. This study examined the genes involved in the production of PAs in three apple cultivars: two heritage apple cultivars, Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden, and a commercial cultivar, Royal Gala. HPLC analysis shows that tree-ripe fruit from Hetlina and Devonshire Quarrenden had a higher phenolic content than Royal Gala. Epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis is under the control of the biosynthetic enzymes anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR1), respectively. Counter-intuitively, real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of Royal Gala LAR1 and ANR were significantly higher than those of both Devonshire Quarrenden and Hetlina. This suggests that a compensatory feedback mechanism may be active, whereby low concentrations of PAs may induce higher expression of gene transcripts. Further investigation is required into the regulation of these key enzymes in apple. PMID:22859681

Henry-Kirk, Rebecca A; McGhie, Tony K; Andre, Christelle M; Hellens, Roger P; Allan, Andrew C

2012-09-01

177

C-MAC: Model-Driven Concurrent Medium Access Control for Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents C-MAC, a new MAC protocol designed to achieve high-throughput bulk communication for data- intensive sensing applications. C-MAC exploits concurrent wireless channel access based on empirical power control and physical interference models. Nodes running C-MAC estimate the level of interference based on the physical Signal-to-Interference-plus- Noise-Ratio (SINR) model and adjust the transmission power accordingly for concurrent channel access.

Mo Sha; Guoliang Xing; Gang Zhou; Shucheng Liu; Xiaorui Wang

2009-01-01

178

Psychometric Properties of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool–Criminal Adjudication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the development of a new clinical instrument for use in assessments of adult criminal defendants’ competence to proceed to adjudication, the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool–Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA). The MacCAT-CA was derived from a more comprehensive research instrument (MacArthur Structured Assessment of Competencies of Criminal Defendants; Hoge, Bonnie, Poythress, Monahan, & Eisenberg, 1997) on the basis of considerations

Randy K. Otto; Norman G. Poythress; Robert A. Nicholson; John F. Edens; John Monahan; Richard J. Bonnie; Steven K. Hoge; Marlene Eisenberg

1998-01-01

179

Behavioral, psychological, and historical correlates of MacAndrew scale scores among male alcoholics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Male alcoholic veterans (N=194) were divided into four groups on the basis of their scores on the MacAndrew scale (MAC) of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and compared on psychological and sociodemographic measures and self-reported alcohol, drug, and legal histories. Nineteen subjects scored in the “nonalcoholic” (NA) range of the MAC (i.e., false negatives, MAC=23). Remaining subjects, scoring in

Patrick Mahlen O'Neil; Joseph P. Giacinto; Lewis R. Waid; John C. Roitzsch; William C. Miller; Dean G. Kilpatrick

1983-01-01

180

The batch adsorption of the epigallocatechin gallate onto apple pomace.  

PubMed

The ability of apple pomace for carrying a polyphenol (epigallocatechin-3-gallate, EGCG) was examined. The adsorption characteristics of epigallocatechin gallate onto apple pomace from aqueous solution were determined over a range of concentrations (25-600 mg/L) and temperatures (25, 40 and 55 °C). The adsorption of EGCG decreased with increasing temperature. Both the Langmuir and Freundlich models adequately describe the isothermal adsorption of EGCG onto apple pomace. The Gibbs free energy change (?G°) for the adsorption of EGCG onto apple pomace ranged from -15.90 to -22.98 kJ/mol over the temperature range 25-55 °C, indicating the adsorption of EGCG onto apple pomace is a spontaneous process, and further that the adsorption process is likely to be dominated by a physisorption mechanism. Our results show that apple pomace has good adsorption characteristics, suggesting that apple pomace may be a useful EGCG carrier for functional food applications. PMID:24799237

Wu, Liangyu; Melton, Laurence D; Sanguansri, Luz; Augustin, Mary Ann

2014-10-01

181

Saccharification and ethanol fermentation of apple pomace  

SciTech Connect

Apple pomace (the pulp residue from pressing apple juice) is an abundant waste product and presents an expensive disposal problem. A typical (50,000 gal. juice/day) apple juice company in central Massachusetts produces 100 tons of pomace per day. Some of it is used as pig feed, but it is poor quality feed because of its low protein content. Most of the pomace is hauled away (at a cost of $4/ton) and landfilled (at a cost of $10/ton). If 5% (w/w) conversion of pomace to ethanol could be achieved, the need for this company to purchase No. 6 fuel oil (1000 gal/day) for cooking during processing would be eliminated. Our approach was to saccharify the pomace enzymatically, and then to carry out a yeast fermentation on the hydrolysate. We chose to use enzymatic hydrolysis instead of dilute acid hydrolysis in order to minimize pH control problems both in the fermentation phase and in the residue. The only chemical studies have concerned small subfractions of apple material: for example, cell walls have been analyzed but they constitute only 1 to 2% of the fresh weight of the apple (about 15 to 30% of the pomace fraction). Therefore, our major problems were: (1) to optimize hydrolysis by enzyme mixtures, using weight loss and ultimate ethanol production as optimization criteria; (2) to optimize ethanol production from the hydrolysate by judicious choice of yeast strains and fermentation conditions; and (3) achieve these optimizations consistent with minimum processing cost and energy input. We have obtained up to 5.1% (w/w) of ethanol without saccharification. We show here that hydrolysis with high levels of enzyme can enhance ethanol yield by up to 27%, to a maximum level of 6% (w/w); however, enzyme treament may be cost-effective only a low levels, for improvement of residue compaction. 3 figures, 4 tables.

Miller, J.E. (Worcester Polytechnic Inst., MA); Weathers, P.J.; McConville, F.X.; Goldberg, M.

1982-01-01

182

Exploring the Many Perspectives of Distributed Air Traffic Management: The Multi Aircraft Control System MACS  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes motivation, design, current and potential future application of the Multi Aircraft Control System (MACS). MACS is a powerful research tool that is being developed at NASA Ames Research Center to increase the overall realism and flexibility of human-in-the- loop air traffic simulations. MACS is designed to enable many participants to be included in the same simulation, on-

Thomas Prevot

2002-01-01

183

Increasing fairness and efficiency using the MadMac protocol in ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IEEE 802.11 MAC layer is known for its unfairness behavior in ad hoc networks. Introducing fairness in the 802.11 MAC protocol may lead to a global throughput decrease. It is still a real challenge to design a fair MAC protocol for ad hoc networks that is distributed, topology independent, that relies on no explicit information exchanges and that is

Tahiry Razafindralambo; Isabelle Guérin-Lassous

2008-01-01

184

A MAC protocol for HFC networks: Design issues and performance evaluation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Medium Access Control (MAC) layer protocols are designed to control transmissions over shared mediums. Bi-directional Cable TV networks using Hybrid Fiber\\/Coazial (HFC) systems are good examples of broadcast environments where a MAC protocol is needed to allocate the multiaccess medium among the various nodes. One can think of a MAC protocol as a collection of components each performing a certain

Nada Golmie; Sandrine Masson; Gerard R. Pieris; David H. Su

1997-01-01

185

A Cooperative Diversity-Based Robust MAC Protocol in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In interference-rich and noisy environment, wireless communication is often hampered by unreliable communication links. Recently, there has been active research on cooperative communication that improves the communication reliability by having a collection of radio terminals transmit signals in a cooperative way. This paper proposes a medium access control (MAC) algorithm, called Cooperative Diversity MAC (CD-MAC), which exploits the cooperative communication

Sangman Moh; Chansu Yu

2011-01-01

186

wiseMAC, an ultra low power MAC protocol for the wiseNET wireless sensor network  

Microsoft Academic Search

WiseMAC is a medium access control protocol designed for the WiseNET™ wireless sensor network. It is based on CSMA and uses the preamble sampling technique to minimize the power consumed when listening to an idle medium. A unique feature of this protocol is to exploit the knowledge of the sampling schedule of its direct neighbors in order to use a

Amre El-hoiydi; Jean-dominique Decotignie; Christian C. Enz; E. Le Roux

2003-01-01

187

Distinguishing and Second-Preimage Attacks on CBC-Like MACs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper first presents a new distinguishing attack on the CBC-MAC structure based on block ciphers in cipher block chaining (CBC) mode. This attack detects a CBC-like MAC from random functions. The second result of this paper is a second-preimage attack on the CBC-MAC, which is an extension of the attack of Brincat and Mitchell. The attack also covers MT-MAC, PMAC and MACs with three-key enciphered CBC mode. Instead of exhaustive search, both types of attacks are of birthday attack complexity.

Jia, Keting; Wang, Xiaoyun; Yuan, Zheng; Xu, Guangwu

188

Printing AppleWorks Data Base Files with the Apple IIGS Computer Using AppleWorks V2.0. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This step-by-step guide to printing AppleWorks V2.0 database files with the Apple IIGS computer covers selecting a print format, selecting a printer, and printing the report. Twenty-five sample screen displays and an example of the printed report are included to illustrate the steps. (MES)

Schlenker, Richard M.

189

Response time accuracy in Apple Macintosh computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accuracy and variability of response times (RTs) collected on stock Apple Macintosh computers using USB keyboards was\\u000a assessed. A photodiode detected a change in the screen’s luminosity and triggered a solenoid that pressed a key on the keyboard.\\u000a The RTs collected in this way were reliable, but could be as much as 100 ms too long. The standard deviation of

Ian Neath; Avery Earle; Darcy Hallett; Aimée M. Surprenant

2011-01-01

190

Energy Consumption of Apple Macintosh Computers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract The utility of a portable computer is critically dependent on the period it can be used while running off the battery. In this paper, we present a study of power consumption in Apple Macintosh computers. We measure the existing power,consumption,for each system component using built-in measuring tools. Since total power consumption is a function of user workload, we use

Jacob R. Lorch; Alan Jay

1998-01-01

191

Quality of Infrared Dried Apple Slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this work was to compare quality of apple slices dried by near infrared heating and convection in such parameters in which final material temperature in both methods was similar. The infrared drying was done at the distance between the emitters (with total power of 7.875 kW\\/m) and heated surface equal to 10, 20, and 30 cm. Flow of ambient

Dorota Nowak; Piotr P. Lewicki

2005-01-01

192

Machine grading and blemish detection in apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Five classifiers including the K-means, fuzzy c-means, K-nearest neighbour, multi-layer perceptron neural network and probabilistic neural network classifiers are compared for application to colour grade classification and detection of bruising of granny smith apples. A number of suitable discriminate features are determined heuristically for the categorisation of four classes including: high grade fruit, high grade fruit with bruising or blemishes,

G. Rennick; Y. Attikiouzel; A. Zaknich

1999-01-01

193

Arteriogenesis proceeds via ICAM-1/Mac-1- mediated mechanisms.  

PubMed

Monocyte adhesion to shear stress-activated endothelium stands as an important initial step during arteriogenesis (collateral artery growth). Using multiple approaches, we tested the hypothesis that monocyte adhesion via intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and selectin interactions is essential for adaptive arteriogenesis. Forty-eight New Zealand White rabbits received either solvent, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) alone, MCP-1 plus ICAM-mab, or MCP-1 plus an IgG2a isotype control via osmotic minipumps. After 7 days, collateral conductance was evaluated: solvent 4.01 (mL/min per 100 mm Hg), MCP-1 plus ICAM-mab 8.04 (versus solvent P=NS), and MCP-1 alone 33.11 (versus solvent P<0.05). Furthermore, the right femoral arteries of ICAM-1-/-, Mac-1-/- and mice having defective selectin interactions (FT4/7-/-) as well as their corresponding controls were ligated. One week later, perfusion ratios were determined by the use of fluorescent microspheres. FT4/7-/- mice did not show any significant difference in perfusion restoration whereas ICAM-1-/- and Mac-1-/- mice had a significant reduction in arteriogenesis as compared with matching controls (FT4/7-WT 37+/-9%, FT4/7-/- 32+/-3%, P=0.31; C57BL/6J 59+/-9%, ICAM-1-/- 36+/-8%, P<0.05; Mac-1-/- 42+/-3%, P<0.05). ICAM-1/Mac-1-mediated monocyte adhesion to the endothelium of collateral arteries is an essential step for arteriogenesis, whereas this process can proceed via selectin interaction independent mechanisms. Furthermore, in vivo treatment with monoclonal antibodies against ICAM-1 totally abolishes the stimulatory effect of MCP-1 on collateral artery growth, suggesting that the mechanism of the MCP-1-induced arteriogenesis proceeds via the localization of monocytes rather than the action of the MCP-1 molecule itself. PMID:15059933

Hoefer, Imo E; van Royen, Niels; Rectenwald, John E; Deindl, Elisabeth; Hua, Jing; Jost, Marco; Grundmann, Sebastian; Voskuil, Michiel; Ozaki, C Keith; Piek, Jan J; Buschmann, Ivo R

2004-05-14

194

A power control MAC protocol for ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a power control MAC protocol based on the IEEE 802.11 standard. Several researchers have proposed a simple modification of IEEE 802.11 to incorporate power control. The main idea of these power control schemes is to use different power levels for RTS-CTS and DATA-ACK. Specifically, maximum transmit power is used for RTS-CTS, and the minimum required transmit power

Eun-Sun Jung; Nitin H. Vaidya

2002-01-01

195

Some considerations on the Mac Dowell-Mansouri action  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A precise relation is established between the Stelle-West formulation of the Mac Dowell-Mansouri approach to a gauge theory of gravity and the approach based on a gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten term. In particular, it is shown that a consistent truncation of the latter correspond to the former. A brief review of the Lovelock-Chern-Simons motivation behind the gauged WZW ones is also done.

Anabalón, Andrés

2008-06-01

196

Gravitational duality in MacDowell-Mansouri gauge theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Strong-weak duality invariance can only be defined for particular sectors of supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories. Nevertheless, for full non-Abelian nonsupersymmetric theories, dual theories with inverted couplings have been found. We show that an analogous procedure allows us to find the dual action to the gauge theory of gravity constructed by the MacDowell-Mansouri model plus the superposition of a ? term.

García-Compeán, H.; Obregón, O.; Ramírez, C.

1998-11-01

197

An overlay MAC layer for 802.11 networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread availability of 802.11-based hardware has made it the premier choice of both researchers and practitioners for developing new wireless networks and applications. However, the ever increasing set of demands posed by these applications is stretching the 802.11 MAC protocol beyond its intended capabilities. For example, 802.11 provides no control over allocation of resources, and the default allocation policy

Ananth Rao; Ion Stoica

2005-01-01

198

Verification of Common 802.11 MAC Model Assumptions  

Microsoft Academic Search

There has been considerable success in analytic modeling of the 802.11 MAC layer. These models are based on a number of fundamen- tal assumptions. In this paper we attempt to verify these assumptions by taking careful measurements using an 802.11e testbed with commod- ity hardware. We show that the assumptions do not always hold but our measurements offer insight as

David Malone; Ian Dangerfield; Douglas J. Leith

2007-01-01

199

802.15.4, a MAC layer solution for PLC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Technology evolution have made possible to connect all kind of devices to IP network. This becomes an evident objective for sensors networks research. The IETF 6LoWPAN RFC proposal was developed in that sense to use the benefit of IPV6 over wirelessly connected sensors (WSN). The IEEE 802.15.4 MAC layer stack being popular in the domain of wireless sensors within constrained

Cedric Chauvenet; Bernard Tourancheau; Denis Genon-Catalot

2010-01-01

200

Position Aided STDMA MAC Protocol for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the Position Aided Spatial TDMA (PA-STDMA) MAC protocol for mobile ad hoc networks. It is a novel approach designed for optimised channel use and improved power con- sumption efficiency. PA-STDMA performs transmis- sion scheduling based on positional information of individual nodes. This facilitates on-line topology transparent transmission scheduling and scalability. For optimised bandwidth use, the protocol integrates

Iordan Ignatov; Stephen McDonald

201

Micromechanics Analysis Code (MAC). User Guide: Version 2.0  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The ability to accurately predict the thermomechanical deformation response of advanced composite materials continues to play an important role in the development of these strategic materials. Analytical models that predict the effective behavior of composites are used not only by engineers performing structural analysis of large-scale composite components but also by material scientists in developing new material systems. For an analytical model to fulfill these two distinct functions it must be based on a micromechanics approach which utilizes physically based deformation and life constitutive models and allows one to generate the average (macro) response of a composite material given the properties of the individual constituents and their geometric arrangement. Here the user guide for the recently developed, computationally efficient and comprehensive micromechanics analysis code's (MAC) who's predictive capability rests entirely upon the fully analytical generalized method of cells (GMC), micromechanics model is described. MAC is a versatile form of research software that 'drives' the double or triply periodic micromechanics constitutive models based upon GMC. MAC enhances the basic capabilities of GMC by providing a modular framework wherein (1) various thermal, mechanical (stress or strain control) and thermomechanical load histories can be imposed, (2) different integration algorithms may be selected, (3) a variety of constituent constitutive models may be utilized and/or implemented, and (4) a variety of fiber and laminate architectures may be easily accessed through their corresponding representative volume elements.

Wilt, T. E.; Arnold, S. M.

1996-01-01

202

Towards a Sustainable, Integrated Management of Apple Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Current understandings and guidelines for sustainable, integrated management of apple diseases are reviewed, and currently\\u000a effective and sustainable tactics are discussed. Disease management in apples faces several critical problems not seen in\\u000a other agronomic systems. As long-lived, clonal crops, fungicides and disease resistance play crucial roles in the management\\u000a of apple diseases. Unfortunately, the pressure placed on these two strategies

Ralph L. Nicholson; Janna Beckerman

203

MacA, a Periplasmic Membrane Fusion Protein of the Macrolide Transporter MacAB-TolC, Binds Lipopolysaccharide Core Specifically and with High Affinity  

PubMed Central

The Escherichia coli MacAB-TolC transporter has been implicated in efflux of macrolide antibiotics and secretion of enterotoxin STII. In this study, we found that purified MacA, a periplasmic membrane fusion protein, contains one tightly bound rough core lipopolysaccharide (R-LPS) molecule per MacA molecule. R-LPS was bound specifically to MacA protein with affinity exceeding that of polymyxin B. Sequence analyses showed that MacA contains two high-density clusters of positively charged amino acid residues located in the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain and the periplasmic C-terminal domain. Substitutions in the C-terminal cluster reducing the positive-charge density completely abolished binding of R-LPS. At the same time, these substitutions significantly reduced the functionality of MacA in the protection of E. coli against macrolides in vivo and in the in vitro MacB ATPase stimulation assays. Taken together, our results suggest that R-LPS or a similar glycolipid is a physiological substrate of MacAB-TolC.

Lu, Shuo

2013-01-01

204

Distribution of citrus viroids and Apple stem grooving virus on citrus trees in Japan using multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of citrus viroids – Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd), Citrus viroid (CVd)-I-LSS, Hop stunt viroid (HSVd), Citrus viroid III (CVd-III), Citrus viroid IV (CVd-IV), and Citrus viroid OS (CVd-OS) – and Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV; synonym: Citrus tatter leaf virus) were investigated using the multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction\\u000a on samples from

Takao Ito; Nobuyuki Namba; Tsutae Ito

2003-01-01

205

Simultaneous detection of six citrus viroids and Apple stem grooving virus from citrus plants by multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

We developed a multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect six citrus viroids: Citrus exocortis viroid (CEVd), Citrus bent leaf viroid (CBLVd), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd), Citrus viroid III (CVd-III), Citrus viroid IV (CVd-IV) and Citrus viroid OS (CVd-OS) and Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV, synonym: Citrus tatter leaf virus (CTLV)) from citrus plants. The multiplex RT-PCR was

Takao Ito; Hiroyuki Ieki; Katsumi Ozaki

2002-01-01

206

CO2calc: A User Friendly Seawater Carbon Calculator for Windows, Mac OS X, and iOS (iPhone).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A user-friendly, stand-alone application for the calculation of carbonate system parameters was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey Florida Shelf Ecosystems Response to Climate Change Project in response to its Ocean Acidification Task. The applicatio...

J. A. Kleypas L. L. Robbins M. E. Hansen S. C. Meylan

2010-01-01

207

CO2calc: A User-Friendly Seawater Carbon Calculator for Windows, Mac OS X, and iOS (iPhone)  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A user-friendly, stand-alone application for the calculation of carbonate system parameters was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey Florida Shelf Ecosystems Response to Climate Change Project in response to its Ocean Acidification Task. The application, by Mark Hansen and Lisa Robbins, USGS St. Petersburg, FL, Joanie Kleypas, NCAR, Boulder, CO, and Stephan Meylan, Jacobs Technology, St. Petersburg, FL, is intended as a follow-on to CO2SYS, originally developed by Lewis and Wallace (1998) and later modified for Microsoft Excel? by Denis Pierrot (Pierrot and others, 2006). Besides eliminating the need for using Microsoft Excel on the host system, CO2calc offers several improvements on CO2SYS, including: An improved graphical user interface for data entry and results Additional calculations of air-sea CO2 fluxes (for surface water calculations) The ability to tag data with sample name, comments, date, time, and latitude/longitude The ability to use the system time and date and latitude/ longitude (automatic retrieval of latitude and longitude available on iPhone? 3, 3GS, 4, and Windows? hosts with an attached National Marine Electronics Association (NMEA)-enabled GPS) The ability to process multiple files in a batch processing mode An option to save sample information, data input, and calculated results as a comma-separated value (CSV) file for use with Microsoft Excel, ArcGIS,? or other applications An option to export points with geographic coordinates as a KMZ file for viewing and editing in Google EarthTM

Robbins, L.L.; Hansen, M.E.; Kleypas, J.A.; Meylan, S.C.

2010-01-01

208

Association of Genetic Variation in Adaptor Protein APPL1/APPL2 Loci with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease  

PubMed Central

The importance of genetics and epigenetic changes in the pathogenesis of non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has been increasingly recognized. Adiponectin has a central role in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism and controlling inflammation in insulin-sensitive tissues and low adiponectin levels have been linked to NAFLD. APPL1 and APPL2 are adaptor proteins that interact with the intracellular region of adiponectin receptors and mediate adiponectin signaling and its effects on metabolism. The aim of our study was the evaluation of a potential association between variants at APPL1 and APPL2 loci and NAFLD occurrence. The impact on liver damage and hepatic steatosis severity has been also evaluated. To this aim allele frequency and genotype distribution of APPL1- rs3806622 and -rs4640525 and APPL2-rs 11112412 variants were evaluated in 223 subjects with clinical diagnosis of NAFLD and compared with 231 healthy subjects. The impact of APPL1 and APPL2 SNPs on liver damage and hepatic steatosis severity has been also evaluated. The minor-allele combination APPL1-C/APPL2-A was associated with an increased risk of NAFLD (OR?=?2.50 95% CI 1.45–4.32; p<0.001) even after adjustment for age, sex, body mass index, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), triglycerides and adiponectin levels. This allele combination carrier had higher plasma alanine aminotransferase levels (Diff?=?15.08 [7.60–22.57] p?=?0.001) and an increased frequency of severe steatosis compared to the reference allele combination (OR?=?3.88; 95% CI 1.582–9.531; p<0.001). In conclusion, C-APPL1/A-APPL2 allele combination is associated with NAFLD occurrence, with a more severe hepatic steatosis grade and with a reduced adiponectin cytoprotective effect on liver.

Barbieri, Michelangela; Esposito, Antonietta; Angellotti, Edith; Rizzo, Maria Rosaria; Marfella, Raffaele; Paolisso, Giuseppe

2013-01-01

209

Apples in the Apple Library--How One Library Took a Byte.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Summarizes automation of a specialized library at Apple Computer, Inc., describing software packages chosen for the following functions: word processing/text editing; cataloging and circulation; reference; and in-house databases. Examples of each function and additional sources of information on software and equipment mentioned in the article are…

Ertel, Monica

1983-01-01

210

Reduction in levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in apple cider by pulsed electric fields.  

PubMed

Many studies have demonstrated that high voltage pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment has lethal effects on microorganisms including Escherichia coli O157:H7; however, the survival of this pathogen through the PEF treatment is not fully understood. Fresh apple cider samples inoculated with E. coli O157:H7 strain EC920026 were treated with 10, 20, and 30 instant charge reversal pulses at electric field strengths of 60, 70, and 80 kV/cm, at 20, 30, and 42 degrees C. To accurately evaluate the lethality of apple cider processing steps, counts were determined on tryptic soy agar (TSA) and sorbitol MacConkey agar (SMA) to estimate the number of injured and uninjured E. coli O157:H7 cells after PEF treatment. Cell death increased significantly with increased temperatures and electric field strengths. A maximum of 5.35-log10 CFU/ml (P < 0.05) reduction in cell population was achieved in samples treated with 30 pulses and 80 kV/cm at 42 degrees C. Cell injury measured by the difference between TSA and SMA counts was found to be insignificant (P > 0.05). Under extreme conditions, a 5.91-log10 CFU/ml reduction in cell population was accomplished when treating samples with 10 pulses and 90 kV/cm at 42 degrees C. PEF treatment, when combined with the addition of cinnamon or nisin, triggered cell death, resulting in a reduction in E. coli O157:H7 count of 6 to 8 log10 CFU/ml. Overall, the combination of PEF and heat treatment was demonstrated to be an effective pasteurization technique by sufficiently reducing the number of viable E. coli O157:H7 cells in fresh apple cider to meet U.S. Federal Drug Administration recommendations. PMID:11456204

Iu, J; Mittal, G S; Griffiths, M W

2001-07-01

211

Formatting Data Disks for Use with the Apple IIe Computer.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This step-by-step guide to formatting disks using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) formatting the disk; (3) volume naming; and (4) exiting the format options. Eleven sample screen displays illustrate the steps. (MES)

Schlenker, Richard M.

212

Incidence of patulin contamination in apple juice produced in Iran  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patulin is a secondary metabolite produced mainly in rotten parts of apples by a wide range of fungi. Due to its mutagenic and teratogenic nature and possible health risks to consumers, many countries have regulations to reduce level of patulin in apple products to as low as practically possible. A survey of the presence of patulin was conducted in 2002

A. Majid Cheraghali; Hamid Reza Mohammadi; Maryam Amirahmadi; Hassan Yazdanpanah; Giti Abouhossain; Firouzeh Zamanian; Mahmoud Ghazi Khansari; Mahshid Afshar

2005-01-01

213

Energy flow for integrated apple production in Greece  

Microsoft Academic Search

Integrated production requires constant improvement of methods employed to achieve high fruit quality and yield with minimal inputs. This work was undertaken to evaluate the energy inputs for apple production, to identify the highest energy consuming operations and propose ways to improve them. Integrated production methods were employed during 1999 and 2000 at 26 apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) orchards in

Argiro V. Strapatsa; George D. Nanos; Constantinos A. Tsatsarelis

2006-01-01

214

Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Apple Dolls.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This module on apple dolls is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the apple doll making; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the followup,…

Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

215

The Profitability of Hail Netting in Apple Orchards  

Microsoft Academic Search

Approximately 40% of the apple orchard area on the Granite Belt in Queensland is covered with nets to protect the crop from hail damage. The effects of hail netting on apple orchard microclimate, productivity and tree growth have been measured over many seasons; however, limited work has been done on evaluating the economic benefits. Cost-benefit analysis was used to calculate

Kristel Whitaker; Simon Middleton

1999-01-01

216

Reading Michael Apple--The Sociological Imagination at Work  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses Michael Apple's contribution to the sociology of education and education policy analysis and the politics of education. It focuses on ways of "reading" Apple as an intellectual and an activist and looks at the trajectory of his work over a long and illustrious career.

Ball, Stephen J.

2007-01-01

217

Effect of osmotic dewatering on apple tissue structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple cubes were subjected to osmotic dehydration in 61.5% sucrose and changes in tissue structure were examined in light microscope. Fixed and embedded in raisin 3 ?m thick slices were analysed and indices characterising apple tissue structure were calculated with computer image analysis. It was found that osmotic dehydration affects size and shape of cells, and in consequence changes shape

Piotr P. Lewicki; Renata Porzecka-Pawlak

2005-01-01

218

STS-52 Payload Specialist MacLean during camera training at JSC's MAIL  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Canadian Payload Specialist Steven G. MacLean practices using a camera for the Earth observations portion of his scheduled October spaceflight. MacLean, standing on the aft flight deck, points a HASSELBLAD camera out overhead window W8 during the training session in JSC's Crew Compartment Trainer (CCT). The CCT is part of the shuttle Mockup and Integration Laboratory (MAIL) Bldg 9NE. MacLean represents the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).

1992-01-01

219

Increasing Fairness and Efficiency Using the MadMac Protocol in Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The IEEE 802.11 MAC layer is known for its unfairness behavior in ad hoc networks. Introducing fairness in the 802.11 MAC protocol may lead to a global throughput decrease. It is still a real challenge\\u000a to design a fair MAC protocol for ad hoc networks that is distributed, topology independent, that relies on no explicit information\\u000a exchanges and that is

Tahiry Razafindralamboand; Isabelle Guérin Lassous

2006-01-01

220

Factor Structure and Validity of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool—Criminal Adjudication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Examination of the available literature regarding the development of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool—Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA) reveals 2 theoretical factor structures on which the MacCAT-CA was based: one in which 3 lower-order constructs are proposed (understanding, reasoning, appreciation) and one in which 2 higher-order constructs are proposed (competence to assist counsel and decisional competence). Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted with

Patricia A. Zapf; Jennifer L. Skeem; Stephen L. Golding

2005-01-01

221

Disruption of the MacMARCKS Gene Prevents Cranial Neural Tube Closure and Results in Anencephaly  

Microsoft Academic Search

MacMARCKS is a member of the MARCKS family of protein kinase C (PKC) substrates. Biochemical evidence demonstrates that these proteins integrate calcium and PKC-dependent signals to regulate actin structure at the membrane. We report here that deletion of the MacMARCKS gene prevents cranial neural tube closure in the developing brain, resulting in anencephaly. This suggests a central role for MacMARCKS

Jianmin Chen; Sandy Chang; Stephen A. Duncan; Hirotaka J. Okano; Gord Fishell; Alan Aderem

1996-01-01

222

Multichannel mac for ad hoc networks: handling multi-channel hidden terminals using a single transceiver  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a medium access control (MAC) protocol for ad hoc wireless networks that utilizes multiple channels dynamically to improve performance. The IEEE 802.11 standard allows for the use of multiple channels available at the physical layer, but its MAC protocol is designed only for a single channel. A single-channel MAC protocol does not work well in a multi-channel

Jungmin So; Nitin H. Vaidya

2004-01-01

223

Optimal sensitivity for molecular recognition MAC-mode AFM  

PubMed

Molecular recognition force microscopy (MRFM) using the magnetic AC mode (MAC mode) atomic force microscope (AFM) was recently investigated to locate and probe recognition sites. A flexible crosslinker carrying a ligand is bound to the tip for the molecular recognition of receptors on the surface of a sample. In this report, the driving frequency is calculated which optimizes the sensitivity (S). The sensitivity of MRFM is defined as the relative change of the magnetically excited cantilever deflection amplitude arising from a crosslinker/antibody/antigen connection that is characterized by a very small force constant. The sensitivity is calculated in a damped oscillator model with a certain value of quality factor Q, which, together with load, defines the frequency response (unloaded oscillator shows resonance at Q > 0.707). If Q < 1, the greatest value of S corresponds to zero driving frequency omega (measured in units of eigenfrequency). Therefore, for Q < 1, MAC-mode has no advantage in comparison with DC-mode. Two additional extremes are found at omegaL = (1 - 1/Q)(1/2) and omegaR = (1 + 1/Q)(1/2), with corresponding sensitivities S(L) = Q2/(2Q - 1), S(R) = Q2/(2Q + 1). The L-extreme exists only for Q > 1, and then S(L) > S(R), i.e. the L-extreme is the main one. For Q > 1, S(L) > 1, and for Q > 2.41, S(R) > 1. These are the critical Q-values, above which selecting driving frequency equal to sigmaL or sigmaR brings advantage to MAC mode vs. DC mode. Satisfactory quality of the oscillator model is demonstrated by comparison of some results with those calculated within the classical description of cantilevers. PMID:10741674

Schindler; Badt; Hinterdorfer; Kienberger; Raab; Wielert-Badt; Pastushenko

2000-02-01

224

Codes on Graphs: Duality and MacWilliams Identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A conceptual framework involving partition functions of normal factor graphs\\u000ais introduced, paralleling a similar recent development by Al-Bashabsheh and\\u000aMao. The partition functions of dual normal factor graphs are shown to be a\\u000aFourier transform pair, whether or not the graphs have cycles. The original\\u000anormal graph duality theorem follows as a corollary. Within this framework,\\u000aMacWilliams identities are

G. David Forney Jr.

2011-01-01

225

The MacFixIt 1998 Toolbox Awards  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Recently honored by Yahoo! Internet Life as one of the "Best of the Best Sites for 1998," MacFixIt has long been a quality source for Macintosh troubleshooting information. The Toolbox Awards, new this year, are given to utilities "most essential for inclusion in a troubleshooter's toolbox." To be considered for the award, a utility has to have demonstrable troubleshooting or problem solving capabilities. One winner and four honorable mentions have been awarded in two categories: commercial and share/freeware. This year's winners include a wide array of tools: utilities for disk repair, file navigation, extension management, network monitoring, and more.

226

Dual description of supergravity MacDowell-Mansouri theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the context of field theory two elements seem to be necessary to search for strong-weak coupling duality: first, a gauge theory formulation and, second, supersymmetry. For gravitation these two elements are present in MacDowell-Mansouri supergravity. The search for an ``effective duality'' in this theory presents technical and conceptual problems that we discuss. Nevertheless, by means of a field-theoretical approach, which in the Abelian case coincides with S duality, we exhibit a dual theory, with inverted couplings. This results in a supersymmetric nonlinear ? model of the Freedman-Townsend type.

García-Compeán, H.; Nieto, J. A.; Obregón, O.; Ramírez, C.

1999-06-01

227

Adding apples and oranges: alignment of semantic and formal knowledge.  

PubMed

We show that the same mechanism that mediates analogical reasoning (i.e., structural alignment) leads to interpretive "content effects" in reasoning about arithmetic word problems. Specifically, we show that both college students and textbook writers tend to construct arithmetic word problems that maintain systematic correspondence between the semantic relations that people infer from pairs of real-world objects (e.g., apples and baskets support the semantic relation CONTAIN [content, container]) and mathematical relations between arguments of arithmetic operations (e.g., DIVIDE [dividend, divisor]). Such relational alignments, to which we refer here as semantic alignments, lead to selective and sensible application of abstract formal knowledge. For example, people usually divide apples among baskets rather than baskets among apples, and readily add apples and oranges but refrain from adding apples and baskets. PMID:9570897

Bassok, M; Chase, V M; Martin, S A

1998-03-01

228

Using parabolic mirrors for complete imaging of apple surfaces.  

PubMed

Automated imaging systems offer the potential to inspect the quality and safety of fruits consumed by the public. One problem that has hindered adoption of automated technologies has been the inability to image the complete surface of an individual fruit. A particular problem is that both the stem and calyx are concave structures. The goal of this project was to examine tradeoffs for using multiple mirrors to image the surface of apples. For testing, individual apples were suspended using two thin wires, mirrors were placed around an apple, and movies were captured at 90 images per sec. Apples were rotated in all dimensions to examine the efficacy of different mirror configurations. It was determined that specific configurations of two, four, or six parabolic concave mirrors could image an entire surface. A configuration using two mirrors and multiple images acquired as apples roll by was also found to be viable. PMID:19433353

Reese, Daniel; Lefcourt, Alan M; Kim, Moon S; Martin Lo, Y

2009-10-01

229

Sevoflurane decreases bispectral index values more than does halothane at equal MAC multiples.  

PubMed

At the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of inhaled anesthetics, 50% of subjects move in response to noxious stimulation. Similarly, at MAC-awake, 50% of subjects respond appropriately to command. The bispectral index (BIS) nominally measures the effect of anesthetics on wakefulness or consciousness. We postulated that the use of halothane with a larger MAC-awake/MAC ratio than sevoflurane would produce higher BIS values at comparable levels of MAC. We studied 33 unpremedicated patients anesthetized by inhalation, 18 with sevoflurane and 15 with halothane. We measured BIS before and during anesthesia at 1 MAC, both before and after tracheal intubation facilitated by fentanyl and rocuronium and then at 1.5 MAC. BIS measurements were made after meeting steady-state conditions. No surgery was performed during this study. BIS values in awake patients did not differ between the sevoflurane and halothane groups (96 +/- 2 and 96 +/- 2, mean +/- sd, respectively). At 1 MAC without and with neuromuscular blockade and at 1.5 MAC, BIS values for patients anesthetized with halothane (54 +/- 7, 56 +/- 7, and 49 +/- 7, respectively) exceeded those for patients anesthetized with sevoflurane (34 +/- 6, 34 +/- 6, and 29 +/- 5, respectively) (P < 0.0001). This finding adds to other evidence indicating that BIS is drug specific. PMID:15562061

Schwab, Hildebrand S; Seeberger, Manfred D; Eger, Edmond I; Kindler, Christoph H; Filipovic, Miodrag

2004-12-01

230

[Hyperspectrum based prediction model for nitrogen content of apple flowers].  

PubMed

The present paper aims to quantitatively retrieve nitrogen content in apple flowers, so as to provide an important basis for apple informationization management. By using ASD FieldSpec 3 field spectrometer, hyperspectral reflectivity of 120 apple flower samples in full-bloom stage was measured and their nitrogen contents were analyzed. Based on the apple flower original spectrum and first derivative spectral characteristics, correlation analysis was carried out between apple flowers original spectrum and first derivative spectrum reflectivity and nitrogen contents, so as to determine the sensitive bands. Based on characteristic spectral parameters, prediction models were built, optimized and tested. The results indicated that the nitrogen content of apple was very significantly negatively correlated with the original spectral reflectance in the 374-696, 1 340-1 890 and 2 052-2 433 nm, while in 736-913 nm they were very significantly positively correlated; the first derivative spectrum in 637-675 nm was very significantly negatively correlated, and in 676-746 nm was very significantly positively correlated. All the six spectral parameters established were significantly correlated with the nitrogen content of apple flowers. Through further comparison and selection, the prediction models built with original spectral reflectance of 640 and 676 nm were determined as the best for nitrogen content prediction of apple flowers. The test results showed that the coefficients of determination (R2) of the two models were 0.825 8 and 0.893 6, the total root mean square errors (RMSE) were 0.732 and 0.638 6, and the slopes were 0.836 1 and 1.019 2 respectively. Therefore the models produced desired results for nitrogen content prediction of apple flowers with average prediction accuracy of 92.9% and 94.0%. This study will provide theoretical basis and technical support for rapid apple flower nitrogen content prediction and nutrition diagnosis. PMID:20384136

Zhu, Xi-Cun; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Wang, Ling; Dong, Fang; Lei, Tong; Zhan, Bing

2010-02-01

231

Inhibition of egg hatching with apple wax solvent as a novel method for controlling golden apple snail ( Pomacea canaliculata)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata) is an important pest of rice in Asia. Among chemicals screened for ability to inhibit hatching of snail eggs, morpholine which is a solvent of apple wax was very effective in suppressing hatching of snail eggs. At a concentration of 60%, or higher, morpholine completely suppressed egg hatching in the laboratory and outdoor conditions. Scanning

Der-Chung Wu; Jih-Zu Yu; Bing-Huei Chen; Chien-Yih Lin; Wen-Hsiung Ko

2005-01-01

232

Using AppleWorks V1.3 To Construct Data Base Files for the Apple IIe Computer. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This step-by-step guide to using AppleWorks V1.3 to construct database files for the Apple IIe computer covers (1) program loading; (2) selecting the add files to the desktop option; (3) naming the file; (4) the blinking block cursor; (5) naming categories or fields; (6) moving to insert data; (7) inserting data; (8) changing database file…

Schlenker, Richard M.

233

STUDY ON THE MACRONUTRIENT CONTENT OF APPLE LEAVES IN AN ORGANIC APPLE ORCHARD ALMALEVÉL MAKROELEMTARTALMÁNAK TANULMÁNYOZÁSA ÖKOLÓGIAI ALMAÜLTETVÉNYBEN  

Microsoft Academic Search

Macronutrient contents of soil and apple leaves were investigated in an organic apple orchard in Eastern Hungary in 2002-2004. Soil samples were taken from 0-20 cm depth in April and October. The macronutrient content of leaves was measured on cvs. Jonagold, Mutsu, Idared, Red Elstar, Egri Piros, Reka, and Remo at six assessment dates (from April to September). The macronutrient

Péter T. NAGY; Imre J. HOLB

234

Genetic control of biennial bearing in apple.  

PubMed

Although flowering in mature fruit trees is recurrent, floral induction can be strongly inhibited by concurrent fruiting, leading to a pattern of irregular fruiting across consecutive years referred to as biennial bearing. The genetic determinants of biennial bearing in apple were investigated using the 114 flowering individuals from an F(1) population of 122 genotypes, from a 'Starkrimson' (strong biennial bearer)×'Granny Smith' (regular bearer) cross. The number of inflorescences, and the number and the mass of harvested fruit were recorded over 6 years and used to calculate 26 variables and indices quantifying yield, precocity of production, and biennial bearing. Inflorescence traits exhibited the highest genotypic effect, and three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage group (LG) 4, LG8, and LG10 explained 50% of the phenotypic variability for biennial bearing. Apple orthologues of flowering and hormone-related genes were retrieved from the whole-genome assembly of 'Golden Delicious' and their position was compared with QTLs. Four main genomic regions that contain floral integrator genes, meristem identity genes, and gibberellin oxidase genes co-located with QTLs. The results indicated that flowering genes are less likely to be responsible for biennial bearing than hormone-related genes. New hypotheses for the control of biennial bearing emerged from QTL and candidate gene co-locations and suggest the involvement of different physiological processes such as the regulation of flowering genes by hormones. The correlation between tree architecture and biennial bearing is also discussed. PMID:21963613

Guitton, Baptiste; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Velasco, Riccardo; Gardiner, Susan E; Chagné, David; Costes, Evelyne

2012-01-01

235

Genetic control of biennial bearing in apple  

PubMed Central

Although flowering in mature fruit trees is recurrent, floral induction can be strongly inhibited by concurrent fruiting, leading to a pattern of irregular fruiting across consecutive years referred to as biennial bearing. The genetic determinants of biennial bearing in apple were investigated using the 114 flowering individuals from an F1 population of 122 genotypes, from a ‘Starkrimson’ (strong biennial bearer)בGranny Smith’ (regular bearer) cross. The number of inflorescences, and the number and the mass of harvested fruit were recorded over 6 years and used to calculate 26 variables and indices quantifying yield, precocity of production, and biennial bearing. Inflorescence traits exhibited the highest genotypic effect, and three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage group (LG) 4, LG8, and LG10 explained 50% of the phenotypic variability for biennial bearing. Apple orthologues of flowering and hormone-related genes were retrieved from the whole-genome assembly of ‘Golden Delicious’ and their position was compared with QTLs. Four main genomic regions that contain floral integrator genes, meristem identity genes, and gibberellin oxidase genes co-located with QTLs. The results indicated that flowering genes are less likely to be responsible for biennial bearing than hormone-related genes. New hypotheses for the control of biennial bearing emerged from QTL and candidate gene co-locations and suggest the involvement of different physiological processes such as the regulation of flowering genes by hormones. The correlation between tree architecture and biennial bearing is also discussed.

Guitton, Baptiste; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Velasco, Riccardo; Gardiner, Susan E.; Chagne, David; Costes, Evelyne

2012-01-01

236

Identification of irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The irradiation treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables for phytosanitary purposes is a satisfactory alternative method to others like fumigation and cold and hot treatments. Its use is increasing in several countries, and at present its approval is under revision by the National Regulatory Authorities. To verify the control process, apart from irradiation and dosimetry certificates, National Authorities require complementary evidence to show the efficacy of this treatment, especially when the documentation is not clear. The irradiation of fresh fruits produces single and double fragmentation in the DNA molecule, which can be measured using the microgel electrophoresis of individual cell (comet assay). The purpose of this work was to evaluate if it is possible to identify the irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes from the others that were not treated. The possibility to estimate the absorbed dose was also evaluated. The methodology was carried out on the cell suspension obtained from irradiated seed cells with incremental doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy). The irradiation treatment for phytosanitary purposes to avoid emergency of codling moth ( Cydia pomonella) is 200 Gy. The fragmentation produced in the irradiated samples was proportional with the incremental doses applied. These results show that with this methodology it can be determined if the apple was irradiated or not. This comet assay is a simple, economical and interesting method that can be used, in case of necessity, by the National Authorities.

Horak, Celina I.; Di Giorgio, Marina; Kairiyama, Eulogia

2009-07-01

237

Surgical treatment of os odontoideum.  

PubMed

Os odontoideum is a rare disease. There have been few reports of os odontoideum in the literature. In this study we retrospectively reviewed eight surgically treated patients. One patient underwent C1-2 transarticular screw fixation, five patients underwent C1-2 polyaxial screw and rod fixation and two patients with dystopic os odontoideum underwent occipito-cervical (O-C) fusion. Of the eight patients, neck pain was alleviated in seven (87.5%). Of the six patients who had neurological signs and symptoms, five (83.3%) exhibited neurological improvement. Radiologically, solid fusion was observed in seven patients (87.5%). Active surgical treatment should be considered even in patients with os odontoideum who exhibit mild symptoms. In most patients with os odontoideum, use of the C1-2 polyaxial screw and rod technique may be the most appropriate treatment. In patients with dystopic os odontoideum, O-C fusion should be considered. PMID:21256752

Kim, Il Sup; Hong, Jae Taek; Jang, Woo Young; Yang, Seung Ho; Sung, Jae Hoon; Son, Byung Chul; Lee, Sang Won

2011-04-01

238

Apple EIN3 BINDING F-box 1 inhibits the activity of three apple EIN3-like transcription factors  

PubMed Central

Background and aims Fruit ripening in Malus× domestica (apple) is controlled by ethylene. Work in model species has shown that following the detection of ethylene, the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3 (EIN3) transcription factor is stabilized, leading to an increase in transcript accumulation of ethylene-responsive genes, such as POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1). In the absence of ethylene, the EIN3 BINDING F-box (EBF) proteins rapidly degrade EIN3 via the ubiquitination/SCF (Skp, Cullin, F-Box) proteasome pathway. In this study, we aim to identify and characterize the apple EBF genes, and test their activity against apple EIN3-like proteins (EILs). Methodology The apple genome sequence was mined for EBF-like genes. The expression of EBF-like genes was measured during fruit development. Using a transient assay in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, the activity of three apple EILs was tested against the PG1 promoter, with and without ethylene and EBF1. Principal results Four EBF-like genes in apple were identified and grouped into two sub-clades. Sub-clade I genes had constant expression over fruit development while sub-clade II genes increased in expression at ripening. EBF1 was shown to reduce the transactivation of the apple PG1 promoter by the EIL1, EIL2 and EIL3 transcription factors in the presence of ethylene. Conclusions The apple EBF1 gene identified here is likely to be a functionally conserved EBF orthologue, modulating EIL activity in apples. The activity of EBF1 suggests that it is not specific to a single EIL, instead acting as a global regulator of apple EIL transcription factors.

Tacken, Emma J.; Ireland, Hilary S.; Wang, Yen-Yi; Putterill, Jo; Schaffer, Robert J.

2012-01-01

239

Effect of osmotic dewatering on rheological properties of apple subjected to convective drying  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple v. Idared cut in cubes was dewatered by osmosis and subsequently dried by convection. Dewatering caused substantial changes in mechanical properties of apple tissue. Shrinkage due to osmotic pre-treatment was small but stiffness was half the value obtained by convective drying of apple cubes to the same final water content. In a viscous-elastic model of apple tissue, osmotic treatment

Piotr P Lewicki; Anna Lukaszuk

2000-01-01

240

Membrane attack complex (MAC)-mediated damage to spermatozoa: protection of the cells by the presence on their membranes of MAC inhibitory proteins.  

PubMed Central

Although antibody and complement are known to cause immobilization and killing of spermatozoa in vitro the components of the complement system mediating these effects remain undefined. Here we have examined the effects of the membrane attack complex (MAC) on spermatozoa and demonstrate that spermatotoxic effects are dependent on assembly of the complete MAC. We subsequently examined the presence and functional significance of the complement regulatory proteins decay accelerating factor (DAF), MAC-inhibiting protein (MIP) and CD59 antigen on spermatozoa. Both DAF and CD59 antigen were present on the membranes of these cells. Neutralization of CD59 antigen with specific antibodies increased the susceptibility of the cells to MAC-mediated damage, suggesting a role for this molecule in the protection of spermatozoa from complement-mediated damage in the female reproductive tract. Images Figure 2 Figure 4

Rooney, I A; Davies, A; Morgan, B P

1992-01-01

241

Comparison between volatile emissions from transgenic apples and from two representative classically bred apple cultivars.  

PubMed

While most risk assessments contrast a transgenic resistant to its isogenic line, an additional comparison between the transgenic line and a classically bred cultivar with the same resistance gene would be highly desirable. Our approach was to compare headspace volatiles of transgenic scab resistant apple plants with two representative cultivars (the isogenic 'Gala' and the scab resistance gene-containing 'Florina'). As modifications in volatile profiles have been shown to alter plant relationships with non-target insects, we analysed headspace volatiles from apple plants subjected to different infection types by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Marked differences were found between healthy and leafminer (Phyllonorycter blancardella) infested genotypes, where emissions between the transgenic scab resistant line and the two cultivars differed quantitatively in four terpenes and an aromatic compound. However, these modified odour emissions were in the range of variability of the emissions recorded for the two standard cultivars that proved to be crucial references. PMID:19543801

Vogler, Ute; Rott, Anja S; Gessler, Cesare; Dorn, Silvia

2010-02-01

242

Comparative study of MacCormack and TVD MacCormack schemes for three-dimensional separation at wing/body junctions in supersonic flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A robust, discontinuity-resolving TVD MacCormack scheme containing no dependent parameters requiring adjustment is presently used to investigate the 3D separation of wing/body junction flows at supersonic speeds. Many production codes employing MacCormack schemes can be adapted to use this method. A numerical simulation of laminar supersonic junction flow is found to yield improved separation location predictions, as well as the axial velocity profiles in the separated flow region.

Lakshmanan, Balakrishnan; Tiwari, Surendra N.

1992-01-01

243

A Meta-Analytic Review of the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using meta analysis, examined the predictive validity of scores on the MacAndrew Alcoholism Scale (C. MacAndrew, 1965). Compared results for 161 studies with results for 63 studies using cut scores. Discusses why the use of continuous measures rather than cut scores is recommended. (SLD)

Cooper-Hakim, Amy; Viswesvaran, Chockalingam

2002-01-01

244

Investigation of MAC protocols for single frequency network technique applied in powerline communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We investigate MAC protocols for large powerline communications (PLC) networks using single frequency network (SFN) technique. The performances of the MAC protocols are evaluated by both analytical and simulation modeling. The analytical and simulation results are similar, and in some cases are almost the same. We also see the difference performance behavior of slotted ALOHA in the PLC-SFN networks compared

Le Phu Do; H. Hrasnica; G. Bumiller

2005-01-01

245

Geochemistry and petrography of the MacAlpine Hills lunar meteorites  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MacAlpine Hills 88104 and 88105, anorthositic lunar meteorites recovered form the same area in Antartica, are characterized. Petrographic studies show that MAC88104/5 is a polymict breccia dominated by impact melt clasts. It is better classified as a fragmental breccia than a regolith breccia. The bulk composition is ferroan and highly aluminous (Al2O3-28 percent).

Lindstrom, Marilyn M.; Mckay, David S.; Wentworth, Susan J.; Martinez, Rene R.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Wang, Ming-Sheng; Lipschutz, Michael E.

1991-01-01

246

A Dynamic CFP Allocation and Opportunity Contention-Based WBAN MAC Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

WBANs provide communication services in the vicinity of the human body. Since WBANs utilize both MICS frequency band for implant medical applications and ISM frequency band for medical and consumer electronics (CE) applications, MAC protocols in WBAN should be designed considering flexibility between medical and CE applications. In this letter, we identify the requirements of WBAN MAC protocols and propose

Young-Sun Seo; Dae-Young Kim; Jinsung Cho

2010-01-01

247

MacCullagh's Ireland: the institutional and cultural space for geometry and physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The origins and settings for James MacCullagh's work in physics are traced from his education in Tyrone and Dublin to his positions in Trinity College Dublin and the Royal Irish Academy. The engagement of MacCullagh and his circle with national political issues in Ireland is examined and a cultural interpretation offered for his work in optics.

Bennett, J.

2010-11-01

248

Image of BP-Thom Map for Eilenberg-MacLane Spaces.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The authors define BP-fundamental classes for Eilenberg-MacLane spaces. The image of the Thom map from BP-cohomology to mod p cohomology is determined for any Eilenberg-MacLane spaces. In general, this image is a polynomial subalgebra generated by infinit...

H. Tamanoi

1995-01-01

249

STS-52 Payload Specialist MacLean during camera training on JSC's Bldg 1 roof  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

STS-52 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, Canadian Payload Specialist Steven G. MacLean familiarizes himself with a 35mm camera and telephoto lens from a vantage point on the roof of JSC's Project Management Building Bldg 1. Other JSC facilities are visible in the background. MacLean represents the Canadian Space Agency (CSA).

1992-01-01

250

A Hybrid Spatial Reuse MAC Protocol for Ad-Hoc Underwater Acoustic Communication Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most widely used medium access control (MAC) scheme for underwater acoustic communication (UWAC) networks is conventional time-division multiple access (TDMA), in which only a single node transmits at each time. Since this TDMA is the bottleneck in high traffic networks, in this paper we present a new MAC protocol for UWAC ad-hoc networks that applies spatial reuse to improve

Roee Diamant; Lutz Lampe

2010-01-01

251

Performance evaluation of the MAC protocol for integrated inter-vehicle and road to vehicle  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a performance evaluation of the medium access control (MAC) protocol for integrated inter-vehicle communications (IVC) and road to vehicle communications (RVC) called VRCP (vehicle and road-side collaborative MAC protocol) that achieve the high performance in communications. VRCP can use RVC not only for the access control of IVC but also for the data communication. Computer simulations by

Kaichi Fujimura; Takaaki Hasegawa

2005-01-01

252

A scalable and energy-efficient hybrid-based MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of MAC protocol design for wireless sensor networks poses many challenges such as energy constraint resources, strict wireless bandwidth, channel utilization & etc. These challenges make handling changes in network topology and network scalability a major issue. In this paper we present a new scalable and energy efficient hybrid-based MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks, abbreviated as SEHM.

Bashir Yahya; Jalel Ben-othman

2008-01-01

253

A Comparison of MAC Protocols for Wireless Local Networks BAsed on Battery Power Consumption  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy efficiency is an important issue in mobile wire- less networks since the battery life of mobile terminals is limited. Conservation of battery power has been addressed using many techniques. This paper addresses energy efficiency in medium ac- cess control (MAC) protocols for wireless networks. The paper develops a framework to study the energy consumption of a MAC protocol from

Jyh-Cheng Chenl; Krishna M. Sivalingam; Prathima Agrawal; Shalinee Kishore

1998-01-01

254

A novel pathway of HMGB1-mediated inflammatory cell recruitment that requires Mac-1-integrin  

PubMed Central

High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is released extracellularly upon cell necrosis acting as a mediator in tissue injury and inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms for the proinflammatory effect of HMGB1 are poorly understood. Here, we define a novel function of HMGB1 in promoting Mac-1-dependent neutrophil recruitment. HMGB1 administration induced rapid neutrophil recruitment in vivo. HMGB1-mediated recruitment was prevented in mice deficient in the ?2-integrin Mac-1 but not in those deficient in LFA-1. As observed by bone marrow chimera experiments, Mac-1-dependent neutrophil recruitment induced by HMGB1 required the presence of receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) on neutrophils but not on endothelial cells. In vitro, HMGB1 enhanced the interaction between Mac-1 and RAGE. Consistently, HMGB1 activated Mac-1 as well as Mac-1-mediated adhesive and migratory functions of neutrophils in a RAGE-dependent manner. Moreover, HMGB1-induced activation of nuclear factor-?B in neutrophils required both Mac-1 and RAGE. Together, a novel HMGB1-dependent pathway for inflammatory cell recruitment and activation that requires the functional interplay between Mac-1 and RAGE is described here.

Orlova, Valeria V; Choi, Eun Young; Xie, Changping; Chavakis, Emmanouil; Bierhaus, Angelika; Ihanus, Eveliina; Ballantyne, Christie M; Gahmberg, Carl G; Bianchi, Marco E; Nawroth, Peter P; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

2007-01-01

255

High-Accuracy Compact MacCormack-Type Schemes for Computational Aeroacoustics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using MacCormack-type methods, a new class of highly accurate compact MacCormack-type schemes is derived which does not require a tridiagonal matrix inversion to obtain the spatial derivatives. Two examples are shown, and results of these schemes for three linear and nonlinear CAA Benchmark Problems are presented.

Hixon, R.; Turkel, E.

1998-01-01

256

PERFORMANCE OF A DISTRIBUTED MAC FOR OFDM BASED POWER LINE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have studied the performance of a distributed med- ium access control (MAC) scheme in an OFDM based powerline communication (PLC) network. Most of the existing approaches for MAC in PLC networks con- sider a centralized means of allocating carriers to voice and data calls. We present a distributed approach for carrier allocation where the access units choose a car-

S. Sundaresan; S. Anand; S. Srikanth; C. N. Krishnan

2002-01-01

257

Interactions between yeasts, fungicides and apple fruit russeting.  

PubMed

The effect of inoculations with yeasts occurring on apple surfaces and fungicide treatments on the russeting of Elstar apples was studied. Captan, dithianon and a water treatment were implemented to study the interaction between the fungicides, the inoculated yeast species and Aureobasidium pullulans, and the development of russet. All yeast inoculations aggravated russet, but Rhodotorula glutinis, Sporidiobolus pararoseus and A. pullulans did so to a greater extent than the other species. Both captan and dithianon significantly reduced russeting. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis showed that inoculations with R. glutinis and S. pararoseus seemed to suppress other yeast species present on the apple surface. PMID:17156012

Gildemacher, Peter; Heijne, Bart; Silvestri, Massimiliano; Houbraken, Jos; Hoekstra, Ellen; Theelen, Bart; Boekhout, Teun

2006-12-01

258

Sepsis reduces isoflurane MAC in a normotensive animal model of sepsis.  

PubMed

Patients with sepsis often require anaesthesia for surgical procedures. Anaesthesia can be unpredictable and the most haemodynamically stable agents are used. No data are available for the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) requirements in such patients or in animal models of sepsis. We have characterized the effect of sepsis on the MAC of isoflurane in a normotensive rodent model of sepsis. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of isoflurane to an identical stimulus was determined for rodents subjected to caecal ligation and perforation (CLP n = 8), or sham laparotomy (n = 7). The calculated MAC of isoflurane was reduced in the septic animals compared with the sham animals (MAC of isoflurane, CLP = 0.8%, sham = 1.4% P < 0.003). No statistical differences were found in the haemodynamic variables measured in either group. Isoflurane leads to haemodynamic stability during anaesthesia in this animal model of sepsis. However, the MAC requirement for isoflurane is reduced by sepsis. PMID:7554004

Gill, R; Martin, C; McKinnon, T; Lam, C; Cunningham, D; Sibbald, W J

1995-07-01

259

Reliable Multicast MAC Protocol for IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs with Extended Service Range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we propose the efficient reliable multicast MAC protocol by which the AP (Access Point) can transmit reliably its multicast data frames to the recipients in the AP's one-hop or two-hop transmission range. The AP uses the STAs (Stations) that are directly associated with itself as the relays for the data delivery to the remote recipients that cannot be reached directly from itself. Based on the connectivity information among the recipients, the reliable multicast MAC protocol optimizes the number of the RAK (Request for ACK) frame transmissions in a reasonable computational time. Numerical examples show that our proposed MAC protocol significantly enhances the MAC performance compared with the BMMM (Batch Mode Multicast MAC) protocol that is extended to support the recipients that are in the AP's one-hop or two-hop transmission range in IEEE 802.11 wireless LANs.

Choi, Woo-Yong

2011-11-01

260

An Energy-Efficient, Application-Oriented Control Algorithm for MAC Protocols in WSN  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Energy efficiency has been a main concern in wireless sensor networks where Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol plays an important role. However, current MAC protocols designed for energy saving have seldom considered multiple applications coexisting in WSN with variation of traffic load dynamics and different QoS requirements. In this paper, we propose an adaptive control algorithm at MAC layer to promote energy efficiency. We focus on the tradeoff relation between collisions and control overhead as a reflection of traffic load and propose to balance the tradeoff under the constraints of QoS options. We integrate the algorithm into S-MAC and verify it through NS-2 platform. The results demonstrate the algorithm achieves observable improvement in energy performance while meeting QoS requirement for different coexisting applications in comparison with S-MAC.

Li, Deliang; Peng, Fei; Qian, Depei

261

Cell biology apps for Apple devices.  

PubMed

Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score. PMID:22949420

Stark, Louisa A

2012-01-01

262

Apple Procyanidins Suppress Amyloid ?-Protein Aggregation  

PubMed Central

Procyanidins (PCs) are major components of the apple polyphenols (APs). We previously reported that treatment with PC extended the mean lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans (Sunagawa et al., 2011). In order to estimate the neuroprotective effects of PC, we investigated the antiaggregative activity of PC on amyloid ?-protein (A?) aggregation, which is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. We herein report that PC significantly suppressed A?42 aggregation and dissociated A?42 aggregates in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that PC is a potent suppressor of A? aggregation. Furthermore, PC significantly inhibited A?42 neurotoxicity and stimulated proliferation in PC-12 cells. These results suggested that the PC and AP acted as neuroprotective factors against toxic A? aggregates.

Toda, Toshihiko; Sunagawa, Tadahiro; Kanda, Tomomasa; Tagashira, Motoyuki; Shirasawa, Takuji; Shimizu, Takahiko

2011-01-01

263

Metabolomic change precedes apple superficial scald symptoms.  

PubMed

Untargeted metabolic profiling was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with 'Granny Smith' apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least-squares discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, and storage duration. Models revealed metabolomic differentiation between untreated controls and fruit treated with DPA or 1-MCP within 1 week following storage initiation. Metabolic divergence between controls and DPA-treated fruit after 4 weeks of storage preceded scald symptom development by 2 months. alpha-Farnesene oxidation products with known associations to scald, including conjugated trienols, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, and 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-ol, were associated with presymptomatic as well as scalded control fruit. Likewise, a large group of putative triterpenoids with mass spectral features similar to those of ursolic acid and beta-sitosterol were associated with control fruit and scald. Results demonstrate that extensive metabolomic changes associated with scald precede actual symptom development. PMID:19715334

Rudell, David R; Mattheis, James P; Hertog, Maarten L A T M

2009-09-23

264

Cell Biology Apps for Apple Devices  

PubMed Central

Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score.

Stark, Louisa A.

2012-01-01

265

Middle atmosphere electrical structure during MAC/EPSILON  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extensive use of rocket-launched probes during the the MAC/EPSILON campaign at the Andoya Rocket Range, Norway, has enabled the characterization of the region's electrical environment for all four flight series. The first rocket salvo was conducted during daylight (October 15, 1987) and the subsequent three occurred at night (October 21 and 28 and November 12, 1987), all of them during geomagnetically disturbed conditions. Measurements of polar electrical conductivity, ion mobility, and number density are presented, and their associated structure is investigated for local auroral ionization effects. This is believed to be the first time that Gerdien condenser mobility measurements have indicated a heavy-ion presence (positively charged aerosols) in the auroral mesopause region.

Mitchell, J. D.; Croskey, C. L.; Blood, S. P.; Li, C.; Hale, L. C.; Goldberg, R. A.

1990-11-01

266

Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination (GeoMAC)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Internet-based mapping tool was originally designed for fire managers to access online maps of current fire locations and perimeters in the conterminous 48 States and Alaska. Using a standard web browser, fire personnel can download this information to pinpoint the affected areas. With the growing concern of western wildland fires in the summer of 2000, this application also became available to the public. The GeoMac website allows users in remote locations to manipulate map information and printing hard copy for use in fire information and media briefings, dispatch offices and coordination centers. The fire maps also have relational databases in which the user can display information on individual fires such as name of the fire, current acreage and other fire status information.

2002-10-11

267

Highly efficient virus-induced gene silencing in apple and soybean by apple latent spherical virus vector and biolistic inoculation.  

PubMed

Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective tool for the analysis of the gene function in plants within a short time. However, in woody fruit tree like apple, some of Solanum crops, and soybean, it is generally difficult to inoculate virus vector by conventional inoculation methods. Here, we show efficient VIGS in apple and soybean by Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vector and biolistic inoculation. The plants inoculated with ALSV vectors by particle bombardment showed uniform silenced phenotypes of target genes within 2-3 weeks post inoculation. PMID:23386303

Yamagishi, Noriko; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

2013-01-01

268

Despite Raves for IBook, Tide Still Turns against Apple.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how Apple's latest laptop computer, the IBook, may have many admirers, but that few believe the company will ever regain prominence in higher education. Issues include increased competition from other computer vendors and software availability (EV)

Blumenstyk, Goldie

2001-01-01

269

Effect of ultrasound on different quality parameters of apple juice.  

PubMed

Fresh apple juice treated with ultrasound (for 0, 30, 60 and 90 min, at 20 °C, 25 kHz frequency) was evaluated for different physico-chemical, Hunter color values, cloud value, antioxidant capacity, scavenging activity on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and microbial characteristics. No significant effect of sonication was observed on pH, total soluble solids (°Brix) and titratable acidity of apple juice. Sonication significantly improved ascorbic acid, cloud value, phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and differences in Hunter color values. Moreover, significant reduction in microbial population was observed. Findings of the present study suggested that sonication treatment could improve the quality of apple juice. It may successfully be employed for the processing of apple juice with improved quality and safety from consumer's health point of view. PMID:23522904

Abid, Muhammad; Jabbar, Saqib; Wu, Tao; Hashim, Malik Muhammad; Hu, Bing; Lei, Shicheng; Zhang, Xin; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

2013-09-01

270

Thermal degradation of cloudy apple juice phenolic constituents.  

PubMed

Although conventional thermal processing is still the most commonly used preservation technique in cloudy apple juice production, detailed knowledge on phenolic compound degradation during thermal treatment is still limited. To evaluate the extent of thermal degradation as a function of time and temperature, apple juice samples were isothermally treated during 7200s over a temperature range of 80-145°C. An untargeted metabolomics approach based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry was developed and applied with the aim to find out the most heat labile phenolic constituents in cloudy apple juice. By the use of a high resolution mass spectrometer, the high degree of in-source fragmentation, the quality of deconvolution and the employed custom-made database, it was possible to achieve a high degree of structural elucidation for the thermolabile phenolic constituents. Procyanidin subclass representatives were discovered as the most heat labile phenolic compounds of cloudy apple juice. PMID:24874374

De Paepe, D; Valkenborg, D; Coudijzer, K; Noten, B; Servaes, K; De Loose, M; Voorspoels, S; Diels, L; Van Droogenbroeck, B

2014-11-01

271

Performance Analysis and Improvement of SOFT MAC Scheme in 802.11p Based Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) requires a more reliable and flexible network to support all kinds of neoteric applications. Meanwhile, several MAC schemes have been proposed to control channel access in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANET). In our paper, we first analyzed some prevalent MAC mechanisms by simulations. The result reveals that these MAC schemes couldn't guarantee steady performances

Chang Hu; Yuting Sun; Jinjie Guo; Jiacheng Chen

2011-01-01

272

Cross-Layer Based Opportunistic MAC Protocols for QoS Provisionings Over Cognitive Radio Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the cross-layer based opportunistic multi-channel medium access control (MAC) protocols, which integrate the spectrum sensing at physical (PHY) layer with the packets scheduling at MAC layer, for the wireless ad hoc networks. Specifically, the MAC protocols enable the secondary users to identify and utilize the leftover frequency spectrum in a way that constrains the level of interference to

Hang Su; Xi Zhang

2008-01-01

273

IgG Endopeptidase SeMac does not Inhibit Opsonophagocytosis of Streptococcus equi Subspecies equi by Horse Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes  

PubMed Central

The secreted Mac protein made by group A Streptococcus (GAS) inhibits opsonophagocytosis of GAS by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). This protein also has the endopeptidase activity against human immunoglobulin G (IgG), and the Cys94, His262 and Asp284 are critical for the enzymatic activity. The horse pathogen Streptococcus equi subspecies equi produces a homologue of Mac (SeMac). SeMac was characterized to determine whether SeMac has IgG endopeptidase activity and inhibits opsonophagocytosis of S. equi by horse PMNs. The gene was cloned and recombinant SeMac was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Mice with experimental S. equi infection and horses with strangles caused by S. equi seroconverted to SeMac, indicating that SeMac is produced in vivo during infection. SeMac has endopeptidase activity against human IgG. However, the protein just cleaves a small fraction, which may be IgG1 only, of horse IgG. Replacement of Cys102 with Ser or His272 with Ala abolishes the enzymatic activity of SeMac, and the Asp294Ala mutation greatly decreases the enzymatic activity. SeMac does not inhibit opsonophagocytosis of S. equi by horse PMNs but opsonophagocytosis of GAS by human PMNs. Thus, SeMac is a cysteine endopeptidase with a limited activity against horse IgG and must have other function.

Liu, Mengyao; Lei, Benfang

2010-01-01

274

IgG Endopeptidase SeMac does not Inhibit Opsonophagocytosis of Streptococcus equi Subspecies equi by Horse Polymorphonuclear Leukocytes.  

PubMed

The secreted Mac protein made by group A Streptococcus (GAS) inhibits opsonophagocytosis of GAS by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs). This protein also has the endopeptidase activity against human immunoglobulin G (IgG), and the Cys94, His262 and Asp284 are critical for the enzymatic activity. The horse pathogen Streptococcus equi subspecies equi produces a homologue of Mac (SeMac). SeMac was characterized to determine whether SeMac has IgG endopeptidase activity and inhibits opsonophagocytosis of S. equi by horse PMNs. The gene was cloned and recombinant SeMac was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Mice with experimental S. equi infection and horses with strangles caused by S. equi seroconverted to SeMac, indicating that SeMac is produced in vivo during infection. SeMac has endopeptidase activity against human IgG. However, the protein just cleaves a small fraction, which may be IgG1 only, of horse IgG. Replacement of Cys102 with Ser or His272 with Ala abolishes the enzymatic activity of SeMac, and the Asp294Ala mutation greatly decreases the enzymatic activity. SeMac does not inhibit opsonophagocytosis of S. equi by horse PMNs but opsonophagocytosis of GAS by human PMNs. Thus, SeMac is a cysteine endopeptidase with a limited activity against horse IgG and must have other function. PMID:20556207

Liu, Mengyao; Lei, Benfang

2010-01-01

275

[sup 187]Os-[sup 186]Os and [sup 187]Os-[sup 188]Os method of dating: An introduction  

SciTech Connect

A Re-containing sample is irradiated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor. The following reactions occur with high cross sections: [sup 185]Re(n, [gamma])[sup 186]Re and [sup 187]Re(n, [gamma])[sup 188]Re. Both [sup 186]Re (half-life 90.6 h) and [sup 188]Re (16.7 h) [beta]-decay to the stable isotopes [sup 186]Os and [sup 188]Os. Thus [sup 186]Os and [sup 188]Os are enriched in proportion to the neutron fluence and R/Os ratio of the sample being irradiated. Analyzing merely the isotopic composition of the sample, the authors get two ages that should be consistent. In one irradiated molybdenite sample from Kingsgate molybdenum mine in New South Wales, Australia, the measured [sup 186]Os/[sup 192]Os and [sup 188]Os/[sup 192]Os are 0.3284 and 0.6299, whereas in an unirradiated sample they are assumed to be 0.0390 and 0.3248. These ratios are measurable with negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (N-TIMS) to a precision of 1[per thousand]. The derived ages for this sample are t[sub 186] = 220.5 [+-] 8.6 Ma and t[sub 188] = 214.9 [+-] 8.9 Ma, respectively (or [+-] 1.4 Ma and [+-] 1.7 Ma, respectively, when excluding the uncertainty of [sup 187]Re half-life). These values are in close agreement with the 221--238 Ma K-Ar ages of the leucogranites emplacement that causes the Mo mineralization at Kingsgate. The major limiting factor on the precision of this age determination is the uncertainty in the half-life of [sup 187]Re. The errors associated with the irradiation parameters are greatly reduced by choosing an appropriate neutron flux monitor. The advantage of this method is that the Re/Os ratio is determined on the same sample and that only one measurement of the isotope composition of osmium is required, thus overcoming some of the experimental difficulties of the conventional Re-Os analysis. The problem of sample inhomogeneity and the need to measure the absolute concentrations of rhenium and osmium are thus eliminated. 30 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Yin, Q.Z.; Jagoutz, E.; Waenke, H. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany)); Verkhovskiy, A.B. (The Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom))

1993-08-01

276

Permeation of apple aroma compounds in reverse osmosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work studies the permeation of apple juice aroma compounds through a reverse osmosis spiral wound aromatic polyamide membrane of 99.2% NaCl rejection. A model solution of apple juice aroma was used as feed. Experiments were carried out at different transmembrane pressures (1.5–3.5MPa) and feed flows (200–600l\\/h; Reynolds numbers between 100 and 300). Temperature was set at 25°C. Rejection was

S. Álvarez; F. A. Riera; R. Álvarez; J. Coca

1998-01-01

277

Occupational pesticide poisoning in apple orchards--Washington, 1993.  

PubMed

During July-December 1993, the Washington Department of Health (WDOH) received and conducted follow-up investigations of 26 reports of occupational illness related to exposure to mevinphos (Phosdrin), an organophosphate (OP) insecticide. The reports involved illnesses during June 13-August 18, 1993, in persons working in 19 different apple orchards; all involved use of mevinphos to control apple aphids. This report summarizes the results of these investigations by WDOH. PMID:8272043

1994-01-01

278

Modeling the Dehydration of Apple Slices by Deep Fat Frying  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the objectives of immersion frying is to remove water from the food. Thus, predicting moisture loss is important when developing a model for that process. With the aim to model moisture transfer during apple frying, Granny Smith apple slabs were processed at 140, 150, 160, and 170°C. The moisture diffusivity was computed, ranging between 10.7 · 10 and 17.7 · 10 m · s.

J. Bravo; N. Sanjuán; J. Ruales; A. Mulet

2009-01-01

279

Cloning and linkage mapping of resistance gene homologues in apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple ( Malus x domestica Borkh.) sequences sharing homology with known resistance genes were cloned using a PCR-based approach with degenerate oligonucleotide primers designed on conserved regions of the nucleotide-binding site (NBS). Sequence analysis of the amplified fragments indicated the presence of at least 27 families of NBS-containing genes in apple, each composed of several very similar or nearly identical

P. Baldi; A. Patocchi; E. Zini; C. Toller; R. Velasco; M. Komjanc

2004-01-01

280

Changes in the odours of apple juice during enzymatic browning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Changes in the odours of apple juice during enzymatic browning after squeeze at different time points (0–6h) were investigated by sensory evaluation and gas chromatography (GC). Trained panelists assessed a decrease in green odour with an increase in sweet odour during the browning. Fresh, fruity and apple-like odours temporarily increased in the first 2h of browning, and gradually decreased thereafter.

Pongsuriya Komthong; Tatsuo Katoh; Noriyuki Igura; Mitsuya Shimoda

2006-01-01

281

Apple tissue culture contamination by Rhodotorula spp.: Identification and prevention  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  Shool cultures of apple cv. Pinova were contaminated with faint pink pigmented yeast. Yeast isolates were identified as Rhodotorula slooffiae with standard physiological methods and molecular analysis. Growth of isolated yeasts was tested against different fungicides.\\u000a The following fungicides inhibited the growth of yeast isolates, and were not phytotoxic to apple shoots at concentrations\\u000a lower than the minimal phytotoxic concentrations

J. Kolozsvári Nagy; S. Sule; J. P. Sampaio

2005-01-01

282

Reducing patulin contamination in apple juice by using inactive yeast.  

PubMed

The mycotoxin, patulin (4-hydroxy-4H-furo[3,2c]pyran-2[6H]-one), is a secondary metabolite produced mainly in rotten parts of fruits and vegetables, most notably apples and apple products, by a wide range of fungal species in the genera Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Byssochlamys. Due to its mutagenic and teratogenic nature and possible health risks to consumers, many countries have regulations to reduce levels of patulin in apple products. In the present study, reduction of patulin contamination in apple juice by using 10 different inactivated yeast strains was assessed. Our results indicated that nearly twofold differences in biomass existed among the 10 yeast strains. Eight of the 10 inactivated yeast strains could provide >50% patulin reduction in apple juice within 24 h, with the highest reduction rate being >72%. Furthermore, juice quality parameters, i.e., degrees Brix, total sugar, titratable acidity, color value, and clarity, of the treated apple juice were very similar to those of the untreated patulin-free juice. Potential applications of using inactivated yeast strain for patulin control are also discussed. PMID:21219779

Yue, Tianli; Dong, Qinfang; Guo, Caixia; Worobo, Randy W

2011-01-01

283

LFA-1 is sufficient in mediating neutrophil emigration in Mac-1-deficient mice.  

PubMed Central

To better define the specific function of Mac-1 (CD11b) versus LFA-1 (CD11a) and the other CD11 integrins in vivo, we have disrupted murine CD11b by targeted homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells and generated mice which are homozygous for a mutation in CD11b. A null mutation was confirmed by Southern blotting, RNase protection assay, immunohistochemistry, and flow cytometry. Neutrophils isolated from mice deficient in Mac-1 were defective in adherence to keyhole limpet hemocyanin-coated glass, iC3b-mediated phagocytosis, and homotypic aggregation. When challenged by thioglycollate intraperitoneally, Mac-1-deficient mice had similar levels of neutrophil accumulation in the peritoneal cavity at 1, 2, and 4 h. Treatment with mAb to LFA-1 blocked 78% of neutrophil accumulation in Mac-1-deficient mice and 58% in wild-type mice. Neutrophil emigration into the peritoneal cavity 16 h after the implantation of fibrinogen-coated disks was not reduced in Mac-1-deficient mice whereas neutrophil adhesion to the fibrinogen-coated disks was reduced by > 90%. Neutrophils from Mac-1-deficient mice also showed reduced degranulation. Our results demonstrate that Mac-1 plays a critical role in mediating binding of neutrophils to fibrinogen and neutrophil degranulation, but is not necessary for effective neutrophil emigration, which is more dependent upon LFA-1.

Lu, H; Smith, C W; Perrard, J; Bullard, D; Tang, L; Shappell, S B; Entman, M L; Beaudet, A L; Ballantyne, C M

1997-01-01

284

Women Have the Same Desflurane MAC as Men: A Prospective Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Women generally report greater sensitivity to pain than do men, and healthy young women require 20% more anesthetic than healthy age-matched men to prevent movement in response to noxious electrical stimulation. In contrast, MAC for xenon is 26% less in elderly Japanese women than in elderly Japanese men. Whether anesthetic requirement is similar in men and women thus remains in dispute. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the desflurane concentration required to prevent movement in response to skin incision (MAC) differs in men and women. Methods: Using the Dixon “up and down” method, we determined MAC for desflurane in 15 female and 15 male patients undergoing surgery (18–40 yr). Results: MAC was 6.2 ± 0.4% desflurane for women vs. 6.0 ± 0.3% for men (P = 0.31), a difference of only 3%. These data provide 90% power to detect a 9% difference between the groups. Conclusion: MAC of desflurane did not differ between young men and women undergoing surgery with a true surgical incision. While pain sensitivity may differ in women versus men, MAC of desflurane does not. Summary Statement: MAC for desflurane was similar in young adult women and men (6.2 ± 0.4% desflurane for women vs. 6.0 ± 0.3% for men; P = 0.31). This contrasts with previous results in which anesthetic requirement was based on the response to electrical stimulation and with studies showing that women report more pain than men.

Wadhwa, Anupama; Durrani, Jaleel; Sengupta, Papiya; Doufas, Anthony G.; Sessler, Daniel I

2005-01-01

285

Nondestructive Detection of the Internalquality of Apple Using X-Ray and Machine Vision  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The internal quality of apple is impossible to be detected by eyes in the procedure of sorting, which could reduce the apple’s quality reaching market. This paper illustrates an instrument using X-ray and machine vision. The following steps were introduced to process the X-ray image in order to determine the mould core apple. Firstly, lifting wavelet transform was used to get a low frequency image and three high frequency images. Secondly, we enhanced the low frequency image through image’s histogram equalization. Then, the edge of each apple's image was detected using canny operator. Finally, a threshold was set to clarify mould core and normal apple according to the different length of the apple core’s diameter. The experimental results show that this method could on-line detect the mould core apple with less time consuming, less than 0.03 seconds per apple, and the accuracy could reach 92%.

Yang, Fuzeng; Yang, Liangliang; Yang, Qing; Kang, Likui

286

Obtaining Help with AppleWorks V2.0 Data Base Files for the Apple IIGS Computer. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This step-by-step guide to obtaining help for using AppleWorks V2.0 database files with the Apple IIgs computer covers: (1) examining the help list; (2) copying the list; (3) exiting the list; and (4) using the help list options, i.e., arranging the file, copying all or part of the file, deleting part of a file, finding a record, inserting…

Schlenker, Richard M.

287

Determination of catechin and epicatechin in the peel of apple varieties resistant and non-resistant to apple scab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Catechin and epicatechin were analysed in the peel of six apple cultivars (three resistant and three non-resistant to apple\\u000a scab). Two methods of analytical sample preparation following extraction were tested: solid phase extraction and column separation\\u000a with Sephadex LH-20 coupled to a differential refractometric detector. Prior to GC and GC-MS analyses, these compounds were\\u000a silylized. This permitted co-injection with standards

Marek Go??biowski; Edmund Mali?ski; Ma?gorzata Szankin; Mariusz Marszeniuk; Monika Paszkiewicz; Piotr Stepnowski

2010-01-01

288

CLIPS, AppleEvents, and AppleScript: Integrating CLIPS with commercial software  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Many of today's intelligent systems are comprised of several modules, perhaps written in different tools and languages, that together help solve the user's problem. These systems often employ a knowledge-based component that is not accessed directly by the user, but instead operates 'in the background' offering assistance to the user as necessary. In these types of modular systems, an efficient, flexible, and eady-to-use mechanism for sharing data between programs is crucial. To help permit transparent integration of CLIPS with other Macintosh applications, the AI Research Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has extended CLIPS to allow it to communicate transparently with other applications through two popular data-sharing mechanisms provided by the Macintosh operating system: Apple Events (a 'high-level' event mechanism for program-to-program communication), and AppleScript, a recently-released scripting language for the Macintosh. This capability permits other applications (running on either the same or a remote machine) to send a command to CLIPS, which then responds as if the command were typed into the CLIPS dialog window. Any result returned by the command is then automatically returned to the program that sent it. Likewise, CLIPS can send several types of Apple Events directly to other local or remote applications. This CLIPS system has been successfully integrated with a variety of commercial applications, including data collection programs, electronics forms packages, DBMS's, and email programs. These mechanisms can permit transparent user access to the knowledge base from within a commercial application, and allow a single copy of the knowledge base to service multiple users in a networked environment.

Compton, Michael M.; Wolfe, Shawn R.

1994-01-01

289

Baseline susceptibilities to imidacloprid for green apple aphid and spirea aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) collected from apple in the Pacific northwest.  

PubMed

Susceptibilities to the neonicotinyl insecticide imidacloprid were determined for clones of apple aphid, Aphis pomi De Geer, and spirea aphid, Aphis spiraecola Patch, collected from conventional and organic apple orchards and from crab apple and wild apple in Washington state and British Columbia over a period of 6 yr. For aphids collected during 1996--1998, adults were dipped in test solutions by using the Food and Agriculture Organization protocol, and third instars and adults were reared on treated apple leaf disks. During the final 3 yr of study, bioassays involved only third instars on treated leaf material. Tests showed that A. spiraecola was significantly more tolerant to imidacloprid compared with A. pomi. Depending on the bioassay method and aphid developmental stage, average LC50 values for A. spiraecola were 4.4 -5.7 times higher than those for A. pomi established under the same test conditions. Clones of both species from Washington were marginally more tolerant to imidacloprid than clones from British Columbia, but the differences were generally not significant. Average measures of susceptibility for clones from organic orchards or unsprayed trees also did not differ from those for clones from conventional orchards, and there was no evidence for increasing LC50 values over the 6 yr of study. Differences in susceptibility to insecticides between these two anatomically similar species should be considered during the testing of new products for use on apple. PMID:15765682

Lowery, D Thomas; Smirle, Michael J; Foottit, Robert G; Zurowski, Cheryl L; Peryea, Elizabeth H Beers

2005-02-01

290

A Dynamic CFP Allocation and Opportunity Contention-Based WBAN MAC Protocol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

WBANs provide communication services in the vicinity of the human body. Since WBANs utilize both MICS frequency band for implant medical applications and ISM frequency band for medical and consumer electronics (CE) applications, MAC protocols in WBAN should be designed considering flexibility between medical and CE applications. In this letter, we identify the requirements of WBAN MAC protocols and propose a WBAN MAC protocol which satisfies the requirements. In order to provide transmission flexibility for various applications, we present the dynamic CFP allocation and opportunity period. Extensive simulation results show that the proposed protocol achieves improved throughput and latency in WBAN environment compared with IEEE 802.15.4.

Seo, Young-Sun; Kim, Dae-Young; Cho, Jinsung

291

Design and Implementation of Hybrid MAC-Based Robust Architecture for Wireless Sensor Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter, we propose an energy efficient hybrid architecture, the Hybrid MAC-based Robust Architecture (HMR), for wireless sensor networks focusing on MAC layer's scheduling and adaptive security suite as a security sub layer. A hybrid MAC layer with TDMA and CSMA scheduling is designed to prolong network life time, and the multi-channel TDMA based active/sleep scheduling is presented. We also present the security related functionalities needed to employ a flexible security suite to packets dynamically. Implementation and testbed of the proposed framework based on IEEE 802.15.4 are shown as well.

Shon, Taeshik; Kim, Eui-Jik; in, Jeongsik; Park, Yongsuk

292

Disruption of the MacMARCKS gene prevents cranial neural tube closure and results in anencephaly.  

PubMed Central

MacMARCKS is a member of the MARCKS family of protein kinase C (PKC) substrates. Biochemical evidence demonstrates that these proteins integrate calcium and PKC-dependent signals to regulate actin structure at the membrane. We report here that deletion of the MacMARCKS gene prevents cranial neural tube closure in the developing brain, resulting in anencephaly. This suggests a central role for MacMARCKS and the PKC signal transduction pathway in the folding of the anterior neural plate during the early phases of brain formation, and supports the hypothesis that actin-based motility directs cranial neural tube closure. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4

Chen, J; Chang, S; Duncan, S A; Okano, H J; Fishell, G; Aderem, A

1996-01-01

293

76 FR 61740 - Geneon Entertainment (USA) Including On-Site Leased Workers From Interplace, Inc., Apple One and...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Leased Workers From Interplace, Inc., Apple One and Robert Half Legal Santa...leased workers from Interplace, Inc., and Apple One, Santa Monica, California...leased workers from Interplace, Inc., Apple One and Robert Half Legal,...

2011-10-05

294

Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles.  

PubMed

Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 ?M nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. PMID:24379668

Bennet, Devasier; Kang, Se Chan; Gang, Jongback; Kim, Sanghyo

2014-01-01

295

Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles  

PubMed Central

Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 ?M nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics.

Bennet, Devasier; Kang, Se Chan; Gang, Jongback; Kim, Sanghyo

2014-01-01

296

1988 Macelwane Medal to Douglas R. MacAyeal  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Doug MacAyeal is one of the foremost scientists working on ice sheet glaciology. He has focused attention on problems that are critical to ice sheet response to climate change and has developed a powerful capability to develop realistic theoretical models of phenomena of which he has first-hand experience.I met Doug 12 years ago at the University of Maine, where I was seeking a graduate assistant to work with me, measuring patterns of ice deformation in order to investigate the role of the Ross Ice Shelf in regulating ice discharge from the Antarctic ice sheet. I had only recently arrived in Maine, and I have to confess that I expected little more than to find an eager, strong young chap to help out with the field work. I expected to rely on my own meager resources to interpret the data that we would acquire. But instead, the first student I interviewed was Doug—a highly qualified physics graduate from Brown University. He had already developed a catastrophe model of paleoclimate in which global ice cover played a key role. It need hardly be said that I interviewed no others.

Thomas, Robert H.; MacAyeal, Douglas R.

297

A Hybrid MAC Protocol for Cognitive Radio Ad Hoc Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In cognitive radio networks, secondary users exchange control information to utilize the available channels efficiently, to maintain connectivity, to negotiate for data communication such as sender-receiver handshakes, for neighbor discovery etc. This task is not trivial in cognitive radio networks due to the dynamic nature of network environment. Generally, this problem is tackled by using two famous approaches. The first one is the use of common control channel (CCC) and the second one is using channel hopping (a.k.a sequence-based protocols). The use of CCC simplifies the processes of MAC protocols. However, it may not be feasible in cognitive radio networks as the available channels, including control channel, are dynamically changing according to primary user activities. Channel hopping approaches can tolerate the failure of network due to primary user activities. But it causes significant amount of channel access delay which is known as time to rendezvous (TTR). In this paper, we propose a hybrid protocol of these two mechanisms. This hybrid protocol can maintain connectivity and it can guarantee the secondary users to be able to exchange necessary control information in dynamic environment. In our hybrid protocol, we use multiple control channels. If some control channels are unavailable in case of primary user appearances, secondary users still can communicate on different control channels, so it can be more tolerable primary user activities than normal CCC approaches. Channel hopping is performed only for control channels, so it provides relatively small amount of channel access delay.

Htike, Zaw; Lee, Jun; Hong, Choong Seon; Lee, Sungwon

298

MAC protocol for an ATM-based SuperPON  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developments in optical amplifiers and the tendency towards fewer and larger switching stages made feasible and desirable the concept of SuperPONs with a range of 100km. Up to 15000 residential customers can share the SuperPON on a TDMA basis lowering the cost of access to B-ISDN services. Tree PONs require a MAC protocol to arbitrate the access to upstream slots among the competing customer ATM cells in a dynamic and efficient way. The protocol presented in this work combines different access mechanisms according to service quality requirements. All bursty traffic is manipulated transparently using a reservation approach with closed loop control so as to handle the unpredictability of arrivals. In contrast, voice, N-ISDN and other delay sensitive services are provided with unsolicited access permits. In addition, composite cells offered quasi- synchronous permits are used to support STM legacy traffic without echo-cancellers. So, ABR traffic which is delay tolerant and more cost sensitive, can and should be concentrated with full exploitation of multiplexing gain prospects. The permit distribution algorithm focuses on cell spacing, control of CDV, almost jitter free access for synchronous traffic and efficiency for ABR traffic.

Angelopoulos, John D.; Koulouris, J.; Fragoulopoulos, E. K.

1996-11-01

299

Nasa 1990 Multisensor Airborne Campaigns (Macs) for Ecosystem and Watershed Studies.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Multisensor Airborne Campaign (MAC) focus within NASA's former Land Processes research program was conceived to achieve the following objectives: to acquire relatively complete, multisensor data sets for well-studied field sites, to add a strong remot...

D. E. Wickland G. Asrar R. E. Murphy

1991-01-01

300

Petrology of Chondrules and a Diopside-Rich Inclusion in the MAC 88136 EL3 Chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

MAC 88136 (EL3) contains densely-packed enstatite-rich chondrules, metal-rich nodules intergrown with silicate and an unusual large, diopside-rich chondrule-like object. Petrologic and chemical features suggest hot accretion for its components.

Weisberg, M. K.; Ebel, D. S.; Kimura, M.

2012-09-01

301

BIG MAC: A bolometer array for mid-infrared astronomy, Center Director's Discretionary Fund  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The infrared array referred to as Big Mac (for Marshall Array Camera), was designed for ground based astronomical observations in the wavelength range 5 to 35 microns. It contains 20 discrete gallium-doped germanium bolometer detectors at a temperature of 1.4K. Each bolometer is irradiated by a square field mirror constituting a single pixel of the array. The mirrors are arranged contiguously in four columns and five rows, thus defining the array configuration. Big Mac utilized cold reimaging optics and an up looking dewar. The total Big Mac system also contains a telescope interface tube for mounting the dewar and a computer for data acquisition and processing. Initial astronomical observations at a major infrared observatory indicate that Big Mac performance is excellent, having achieved the design specifications and making this instrument an outstanding tool for astrophysics.

Telesco, C. M.; Decher, R.; Baugher, C.

1985-01-01

302

Ber-MAC3: new monoclonal antibody that defines human monocyte/macrophage differentiation antigen.  

PubMed Central

A new monoclonal antibody Ber-MAC3 is reported. It recognises a formol sensitive epitope of a not yet clustered monocyte/macrophage specific 140 kilodalton glycoprotein that is expressed on the cell surface and in the cytoplasm. In 30 cases of acute and chronic leukaemia, Ber-MAC3 staining was restricted to 15 myeloid leukaemias of M4 and M5 types. The tumour cells of two cases of true histiocytic malignancies were Ber-MAC3 positive, whereas those of all 280 malignancies of lymphocytic origin were negative. The latter included 52 cases of Hodgkin's disease and 41 cases of Ki-1 positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas which had previously been classified as true histiocytic lymphomas. Ber-MAC3 therefore seems to be of considerable value for selective identification of monocytes and macrophages at a certain stage of differentiation and seems to be suitable for diagnosing myelomonocytic or monocytic leukaemia and neoplasms of true histiocytic origin. Images

Backe, E; Schwarting, R; Gerdes, J; Ernst, M; Stein, H

1991-01-01

303

Austin MacCormick and the Education of Adult Prisoners: Still Relevant Today.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Austin MacCormick's 1931 model for correctional education is applicable in today's prisons. It describes the program, facilities, teaching staff, and curriculum, which includes literacy, math, social sciences, health, vocational, social, and cultural education. (SK)

Hunsinger, Isabel

1997-01-01

304

Mac-2 Binding Protein Is a Novel E-Selectin Ligand Expressed by Breast Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

Hematogenous metastasis involves the adhesion of circulating tumor cells to vascular endothelium of the secondary site. We hypothesized that breast cancer cell adhesion is mediated by interaction of endothelial E-selectin with its glycoprotein counter-receptor(s) expressed on breast cancer cells. At a hematogenous wall shear rate, ZR-75-1 breast cancer cells specifically adhered to E-selectin expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells when tested in parallel plate flow chamber adhesion assays. Consistent with their E-selectin ligand activity, ZR-75-1 cells expressed flow cytometrically detectable epitopes of HECA-452 mAb, which recognizes high efficiency E-selectin ligands typified by sialofucosylated moieties. Multiple E-selectin reactive proteins expressed by ZR-75-1 cells were revealed by immunoprecipitation with E-selectin chimera (E-Ig chimera) followed by Western blotting. Mass spectrometry analysis of the 72 kDa protein, which exhibited the most prominent E-selectin ligand activity, corresponded to Mac-2 binding protein (Mac-2BP), a heretofore unidentified E-selectin ligand. Immunoprecipitated Mac-2BP expressed sialofucosylated epitopes and possessed E-selectin ligand activity when tested by Western blot analysis using HECA-452 mAb and E-Ig chimera, respectively, demonstrating that Mac-2BP is a novel high efficiency E-selectin ligand. Furthermore, silencing the expression of Mac-2BP from ZR-75-1 cells by shRNA markedly reduced their adhesion to E-selectin expressing cells under physiological flow conditions, confirming the functional E-selectin ligand activity of Mac-2BP on intact cells. In addition to ZR-75-1 cells, several other E-selectin ligand positive breast cancer cell lines expressed Mac-2BP as detected by Western blot and flow cytometry, suggesting that Mac-2BP may be an E-selectin ligand in a variety of breast cancer types. Further, invasive breast carcinoma tissue showed co-localized expression of Mac-2BP and HECA-452 antigens by fluorescence microscopy, underscoring the possible role of Mac-2BP as an E-selectin ligand. In summary, breast cancer cells express Mac-2BP as a novel E-selectin ligand, potentially revealing a new prognostic and therapeutic target for breast cancer.

Shirure, Venktesh S.; Reynolds, Nathan M.; Burdick, Monica M.

2012-01-01

305

Evaluation of the IEEE 802.11p MAC Method for Vehicle-to-Vehicle Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper the medium access control (MAC) me- thod of the upcoming vehicular communication standard IEEE 802.11p has been simulated in a highway scenario with periodic broadcast of time-critical packets (so-called heartbeat messages) in a vehicle-to-vehicle situation. The 802.11p MAC method is based on carrier sense multiple access (CSMA) where nodes lis- ten to the wireless channel before sending.

Katrin Bilstrup; Elisabeth Uhlemann; Erik G. Ström; Urban Bilstrup

2008-01-01

306

A multiband mac protocol for impulse-based UWB ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ultra Wide Band (UWB) technology offers a promis- ing high capacity solution for wireless networks with short-range links. However, MAC and higher-layer ad hoc network protocols that exploit the UWB technology are yet to mature. In this paper, we propose a MAC protocol for use in multi-hop wireless networks that deploy an underlying UWB based physical layer. We adopt a

Ioannis Broustis; Srikanth Krishnamurthy; Michalis Faloutsos; Mart Molle; Jeffrey Foerster

2005-01-01

307

Sepsis reduces isoflurane MAC in a normotensive animal model of sepsis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with sepsis often require anaesthesia for surgical procedures. Anaesthesia can be unpredictable and the most haemodynamically\\u000a stable agents are used. No data are available for the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) requirements in such patients or\\u000a in animal models of sepsis. We have characterized the effect of sepsis on the MAC of isoflurane in a normotensive rodent model\\u000a of sepsis.

Ravi Gill; Claudio Martin; Ted McKinnon; Calvin Lain; David Cunningham; William J. Sibbald

1995-01-01

308

Joint MAC-aware routing and load balancing in mesh networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Past approaches to routing in mesh networks either (i) do not account for the MAC-layer interactions between the links in a tractable manner, or (ii) are agnostic to load-balancing across gateways. Our answer to these problems is MaLB (MAC-aware and Load Balanced routing algorithm), a greedy, tractable, and distributed mesh routing algorithm. Since the underlying objective function has high combinatorial

Vivek Mhatre; Henrik Lundgren; François Baccelli; Christophe Diot

2007-01-01

309

Prediction of fatigue S–N curves of composite laminates by Super Mic–Mac  

Microsoft Academic Search

Super Mic–Mac (SMM), an Excel-based program that has extended the original classical laminated plate theory in Mic–Mac to a new capability in durability predictions, was used to demonstrate the capability in predicting fatigue S–N curves of various composite materials, layups of laminates subject to combined loading and hot–wet environmental conditions at various frequency and stress ratios. The prediction agrees well

Sangwook Sihn; Stephen W. Tsai

2005-01-01

310

An adaptive energy-efficient MAC protocol for wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we describe T-MAC, a contention-based Medium Access Control protocol for wireless sensor networks. Applications for these networks have some characteristics (low message rate, insensitivity to latency) that can be exploited to reduce energy consumption by introducing an activesleep duty cycle. To handle load variations in time and location T-MAC introduces an adaptive duty cycle in a novel

Tijs van Dam; Koen Langendoen

2003-01-01

311

Numerical practice for calculating inviscid flow field using MacCormack two-step scheme  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nonlinear instabilities can occur and converge to nonphysical solutions when MacCormack two-step scheme is used in solutions for initial-boundary value problems for hyperbolic systems of conservation laws. In this paper, the cause for this phenomenon and a method for overcoming it have been studied, and a MacCormack two-step scheme with artificial viscosity and a self-adjusting hybrid scheme have been presented.

Li, S.

312

An Investigation into HFC MAC Protocols: Mechanisms, Implementation, and Research Issues  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study comprehensively reviews two HFC MAC protocols: Data-Over-Cable Service Inter-face Specifications (DOCSIS) and IEEE 802.14a. DOCSIS was approved by the ITU as a stan-dard and is supported by many vendors. However, IEEE 802.14a remains a draft due to the delayed standardization process. After briefly introducing the features of HFC networks, the basic operations and mechanisms of these two MAC

Ying-dar Jason Lin; Wei-ming Yin; Chen-yu Huang

2000-01-01

313

A CSMA\\/CA-Based MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long propagation delay, limited bandwidth and high bit error rate pose great challenges in Media Access Control (MAC) protocol design for underwater acoustic networks. In this paper, we proposed an underwater MAC protocol based on Carrier Sensing Multiple Access with Collision Avoidance (CSMA\\/CA), which is called UW-CSMA\\/CA (CSMA\\/CA for underwater). Three areas of improvement are investigated, namely, the control

Dong Fang; Yu Li; Haining Huang; Li Yin

2010-01-01

314

Induction of neutrophil Mac1 integrin expression and superoxide production by the medicinal plant extract gossypol  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gossypol is present in antiinflammatory poultices made from the medicinal treeThespesia populnea. Isolated human neutrophils exposed to 3–20µM gossypol for 15–90 min were assayed in vitro for superoxide production and surface expression of Mac-1 (CD11b\\/CD18). Gossypol increased superoxide production in a time- and concentration-dependent fashion consistent with a moderate, delayed respiratory burst. Surface Mac-1 expression was increased within 15 min

Prosper Benhaim; Stephen J. Mathes; Thomas K. Hunt; Heinz Scheuenstuhl; Christopher C. Benz

1994-01-01

315

Angular MAC: a framework for directional antennas in wireless mesh networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capacity of wireless mesh networks can be enhanced through the use of smart directional antennas, which not only enable nodes\\u000a to have high quality links but also increase network throughput by allowing spatial reuse. This paper proposes a new MAC protocol\\u000a and framework, called Angular MAC (ANMAC) that enables directional antennas in wireless mesh networks. The protocols and algorithms\\u000a of

Erdem Ulukan; Özgür Gürbüz

2008-01-01

316

The impact of IEEE 802.11 MAC strategies on multi-hop wireless mesh networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper analyzes the impact of different MAC (medium access control) and transmission rate adaptation schemes on wireless mesh networks. The considered protocols include three different MAC protocols specified in IEEE 802.11 standards, i.e., 802.11, 802.11e, and 802.11n, and three rate adaptation schemes, i.e., ARF (automatic rate fallback), RBAR (receiver-based auto rate), and 802.11n rate adaptation. We also study the

Seongkwan Kim; Sung-Ju Lee; Sunghyun Choi

2006-01-01

317

Chameleon-MAC: Adaptive and Self* Algorithms for Media Access Control in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) mobile nodes do not have access to a fixed network infrastructure and they set up a communication\\u000a network by themselves. MANETs require implementation of a wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) layer. Existing MAC algorithms\\u000a that consider no mobility, solve the problem of eventually guaranteeing every node with a share of the communications bandwidth.\\u000a In

Pierre Leone; Marina Papatriantafilou; Elad Michael Schiller; Gongxi Zhu

2010-01-01

318

EMAC: An Asynchronous Routing-Enhanced MAC Protocol in Multi-Hop Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional contention-based random-access wireless MAC protocols such as IEEE 802.11 DCF are designed for single-hop wireless networks and do not perform well in multi-hop scenarios due to inefficiency in their medium reservation mechanisms. In this paper, we introduce a new MAC protocol, called EMAC, which improves the efficiency of wireless medium reservation for general asynchronous multi-hop wireless networks. By exploiting

Shu Du; Yanjun Sun; David B. Johnson

2010-01-01

319

Application of an Optimized MacCormack-Type Scheme to Acoustic Scattering Problems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this work, a new optimized MacCormack-type scheme, which is 4th order accurate in time and space, is applied to Problems 1 and 2 of Category 1. The performance of this new scheme is compared to that of the 2-4 MacCormack scheme, and results for Problems 1 and 2 of Category 1 are presented and compared to the exact solutions.

Hixon, Ray; Shih, S. H.; Mankbadi, Reda R.

1997-01-01

320

The MacCAT-T: a clinical tool to assess patients' capacities to make treatment decisions  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: The feasibility, reliability, and validity of a new instrument, the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Treatment (MacCAT-T), which was developed for use by clinicians, was tested. The instrument assesses patients' competence to make treatment decisions by examining their capacities in four areas--understanding information relevant to their condition and the recommended treatment, reasoning about the potential risks and benefits of their choices,

Thomas Grisso; Paul S. Appelbaum; Carolyn Hill-Fotouhi

1997-01-01

321

The effect of diclofenac and ketoprofen on halothane MAC in rabbit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs obviously act also on the central nervous system. We, therefore, studied the effect of diclofenac 3 mg\\/kg and ketoprofen 4 mg\\/kg on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of halothane in 10 New Zealand White rabbits. After determination of halothane MAC, total doses of NSAIDs were administered intravenously as three subdoses: 12.5%, 37.5% and 50% of the total

Michael G. F. Rorarius; Gerhard A. Baer; Timo Metsä-Ketelä

1993-01-01

322

Network-Coding-Based Relay MAC Protocols for Drive-Thru Internet Services in Vehicular Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose the network-coding-based relay MAC protocols that aim at providing drive-thru Internet services to the moving vehicles by utilizing the dedicated short range communication (DSRC) over vehicular networks. Our proposed MAC protocols can adaptively switch between two communications modes according to the highway traffic-load conditions. When the highway traffic load is heavy, our system works under the one-hop communications

Hang Su; Xi Zhang

2010-01-01

323

TSD-CDMA: A QoS MAC Protocol for 4G Integrated Mobile Wireless Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose time\\/space-division CDMA (TSD-CDMA), a TCDMA MAC protocol for 4th-generation (4G) integrated wireless networks. We propose several novel mechanisms for TSD-CDMA to work efficiently in combination with a distributed CDMA protocol. Such a complementary MAC approach greatly increases the scalability of TSD-CDMA networks. We propose novel approaches based on differentiated orthogonal-code channels and directional mutual interference

Chi-hsiang Yeh

2003-01-01

324

Detection of four apple viruses by multiplex RT-PCR assays with coamplification of plant mRNA as internal control  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two multiplex RT-PCR assays with specific coamplification of plant mRNA as an internal control from total nucleic acids are described for the parallel detection of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, Apple stem pitting virus, Apple mosaic virus and Apple stem grooving virus. All are important economically and common pathogens in commercial apple and pear cultivars, except for Apple mosaic virus.

W. Menzel; W. Jelkmann; E. Maiss

2002-01-01

325

Laser scatter feature of surface defect on apples  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A machine vision system for real-time fruit quality inspection was developed. The system consists of a chamber, a laser projector, a TMS-7DSP CCD camera (PULNIX Inc.), and a computer. A Meteor-II/MC frame grabber (Matrox Graphics Inc.) was inserted into the slot of the computer to grab fruit images. The laser projector and the camera were mounted at the ceiling of the chamber. An apple was put in the chamber, the spot of the laser projector was projected on the surface of the fruit, and an image was grabbed. 2 breed of apples was test, Each apple was imaged twice, one was imaged for the normal surface, and the other for the defect. The red component of the images was used to get the feature of the defect and the sound surface of the fruits. The average value, STD value and comentropy Value of red component of the laser scatter image were analyzed. The Standard Deviation value of red component of normal is more suitable to separate the defect surface from sound surface for the ShuijinFuji apples, but for bintang apples, there is more work need to do to separate the different surface with laser scatter image.

Rao, Xiuqin; Ying, Yibin; Cen, YiKe; Huang, Haibo

2006-10-01

326

[Hyperspectral estimation models of chlorophyll content in apple leaves].  

PubMed

The present study chose the apple orchard of Shandong Agricultural University as the study area to explore the method of apple leaf chlorophyll content estimation by hyperspectral analysis technology. Through analyzing the characteristics of apple leaves' hyperspectral curve, transforming the original spectral into first derivative, red edge position and leaf chlorophyll index (LCI) respectively, and making the correlation analysis and regression analysis of these variables with the chlorophyll content to establish the estimation models and test to select the high fitting precision models. Results showed that the fitting precision of the estimation model with variable of LCI and the estimation model with variable of the first derivative in the band of 521 and 523 nm was the highest. The coefficients of determination R2 were 0.845 and 0.839, the root mean square errors RMSE were 2.961 and 2.719, and the relative errors RE% were 4.71% and 4.70%, respectively. Therefore LCI and the first derivative are the important index for apple leaf chlorophyll content estimation. The models have positive significance to guide the production of apple cultivation. PMID:22827091

Liang, Shuang; Zhao, Geng-xing; Zhu, Xi-cun

2012-05-01

327

Considerations for Improving the Capacity and Performance of AeroMACS  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) has progressed from concept through prototype development, testing, and standards development and is now poised for the first operational deployments at nine US airports by the Federal Aviation Administration. These initial deployments will support fixed applications. Mobile applications providing connectivity to and from aircraft and ground-based vehicles on the airport surface will occur at some point in the future. Given that many fixed applications are possible for AeroMACS, it is necessary to now consider whether the existing capacity of AeroMACS will be reached even before the mobile applications are ready to be added, since AeroMACS is constrained by both available bandwidth and transmit power limitations. This paper describes some concepts that may be applied to improve the future capacity of AeroMACS, with a particular emphasis on gains that can be derived from the addition of IEEE 802.16j multihop relays to the AeroMACS standard, where a significant analysis effort has been undertaken.

Kerczewski, Robert J.; Kamali, Behnam; Apaza, Rafael D.; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Dimond, Robert P.

2014-01-01

328

Conformational Stability Analyses of Alpha Subunit I Domain of LFA-1 and Mac-1  

PubMed Central

?2 integrin of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) or macrophage-1 antigen (Mac-1) binds to their common ligand of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and mediates leukocyte-endothelial cell (EC) adhesions in inflammation cascade. Although the two integrins are known to have distinct functions, the corresponding micro-structural bases remain unclear. Here (steered-)molecular dynamics simulations were employed to elucidate the conformational stability of ? subunit I domains of LFA-1 and Mac-1 in different affinity states and relevant I domain-ICAM-1 interaction features. Compared with low affinity (LA) Mac-1, the LA LFA-1 I domain was unstable in the presence or absence of ICAM-1 ligand, stemming from diverse orientations of its ?7-helix with different motifs of zipper-like hydrophobic junction between ?1- and ?7-helices. Meanwhile, spontaneous transition of LFA-1 I domain from LA state to intermediate affinity (IA) state was first visualized. All the LA, IA, and high affinity (HA) states of LFA-1 I domain and HA Mac-1 I domain were able to bind to ICAM-1 ligand effectively, while LA Mac-1 I domain was unfavorable for binding ligand presumably due to the specific orientation of S144 side-chain that capped the MIDAS ion. These results furthered our understanding in correlating the structural bases with their functions of LFA-1 and Mac-1 integrins from the viewpoint of I domain conformational stability and of the characteristics of I domain-ICAM-1 interactions.

Mao, Debin; Lu, Shouqin; Li, Ning; Zhang, Yan; Long, Mian

2011-01-01

329

Interaction between single molecules of Mac-1 and ICAM-1 in living cells: An atomic force microscopy study  

SciTech Connect

The interaction between integrin macrophage differentiation antigen associated with complement three receptor function (Mac-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), which is controlled tightly by the ligand-binding activity of Mac-1, is central to the regulation of neutrophil adhesion in host defense. Several 'inside-out' signals and extracellular metal ions or antibodies have been found to activate Mac-1, resulting in an increased adhesiveness of Mac-1 to its ligands. However, the molecular basis for Mac-1 activation is not well understood yet. In this work, we have carried out a single-molecule study of Mac-1/ICAM-1 interaction force in living cells by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our results showed that the binding probability and adhesion force of Mac-1 with ICAM-1 increased upon Mac-1 activation. Moreover, by comparing the dynamic force spectra of different Mac-1 mutants, we expected that Mac-1 activation is governed by the downward movement of its {alpha}7 helix.

Yang Huayan [Department of Neurobiology, Institute of Neuroscience, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yu Junping [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Fu Guo [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Shi Xiaoli [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xiao Lin; Chen Yizhang [Department of Neurobiology, Institute of Neuroscience, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Fang Xiaohong [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China)], E-mail: xfang@iccas.ac.cn; He Cheng [Department of Neurobiology, Institute of Neuroscience, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)], E-mail: chenghe@online.sh.cn

2007-10-01

330

Effect of ascorbic acid on the odours of cloudy apple juice  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ascorbic acid is used in apple juice as an antibrowning agent. This study investigated the effect of ascorbic acid (0.0–0.2% w\\/v) on the odours of cloudy apple juice using sensory evaluation and gas chromatography (GC). The increase in ascorbic acid concentration in the apple juice resulted in increases in green and unnatural odours and decreases in fresh, fruity and apple-like

Pongsuriya Komthong; Noriyuki Igura; Mitsuya Shimoda

2007-01-01

331

ASSESSING CONSUMER PREFERENCES FOR ORGANIC, ECO-LABELED, AND REGULAR APPLES  

Microsoft Academic Search

We assess consumer choice of eco-labeled, organic, and regular apples, and identify sociodemographic characteristics affecting the choice among those three alternatives. Eco-labeled apples are less desirable than organic when food safety, the environment, and children's needs are considered. Characteristics that may be expected to positively affect the decision to buy eco-labeled apples relative to regular apples actually have the opposite

Maria L. Loureiro; Jill J. McCluskey; Ronald C. Mittelhammer

2001-01-01

332

Os odontoideum: rare cervical lesion.  

PubMed

We report the case of a 22-year-old Marine who presented to the emergency department, after a martial arts exercise, with transient weakness and numbness in all extremities. Computed tomography cervical spine radiographs revealed os odontoideum. Lateral flexion-extension radiographs identified atlanto-axillary instability. This abnormality is rare and can be career ending for military members who do not undergo surgical fusion. PMID:22224150

Robson, Kristie A

2011-11-01

333

Os Odontoideum: Rare Cervical Lesion  

PubMed Central

We report the case of a 22-year-old Marine who presented to the emergency department, after a martial arts exercise, with transient weakness and numbness in all extremities. Computed tomography cervical spine radiographs revealed os odontoideum. Lateral flexion–extension radiographs identified atlanto-axillary instability. This abnormality is rare and can be career ending for military members who do not undergo surgical fusion.

Robson, Kristie A

2011-01-01

334

Monitoring apple flavor by use of quartz microbalances.  

PubMed

"Electronic noses", i.e. arrays of differently coated quartz microbalances (QMB), have been used for selective detection of, and discrimination between, volatile organic compounds (VOC) formed during the post-harvest ripening of apples. The flavor components to be differentiated are chemically rather similar carbonyl compounds, chiefly aldehydes and esters. Because their relative ratios change during the post-harvest ripening period, appropriately selected sensor-active layers lead to characteristic patterns of the sensor responses which can be analyzed via pattern-recognition methods. This enables qualitative and quantitative identification of individual components whereby the post-harvest ripening of apples and other fruits can be monitored. Different kinds of apple differ in type and concentration of individual carbonyl compounds. PMID:11941428

Herrmann, Ute; Jonischkeit, Thorsten; Bargon, Joachim; Hahn, Uwe; Li, Qian-Yi; Schalley, Christoph A; Vogel, Erik; Vögtle, Fritz

2002-03-01

335

Patulin in apple juices from the Romanian market.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine patulin levels in apple-based juices from the Romanian market and to establish a health risk assessment. For this purpose, 50 samples of apple-based juices have been purchased from the Romanian market. Aliquots were extracted by liquid-liquid extraction using ethyl acetate, analysed and quantified using a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The patulin level in the apple juices from Romania ranged between <0.7 ?g/l and 101.9 ?g/l. In 6% of the 50 samples analysed, the maximum limit for patulin as set by the European Union (50 ?g/l) was exceeded. PMID:24914601

Oroian, Mircea; Amariei, Sonia; Gutt, Gheorghe

2014-06-01

336

Characteristics and physiological functions of polyphenols from apples.  

PubMed

Apples contain many kinds of polyphenols, and the main components are oligomeric procyanidins. Applephenon is apple polyphenol extract produced commercially from unripe apples, and has been used as food additive in order to prevent oxidation of components in foods and its application in functional foods is expected. In a lipid metabolism regulation study, administration of Applephenon has the potential to exert strong anti-oxidative activity and to inhibit consumption of vitamin E and anti-oxidative enzymes. Double blind clinical trials of Applephenon on pediatric patients with atopic dermatitis, and tests using type I allergic model mice suggested that Applephenon might regulate allergic reactions. We found the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of Applephenon is greater than 2000 mg/kg in a 90~day consecutive oral administration toxicity test in rats, and Applephenon is safe and acceptable based on mutagenicity tests. PMID:15630302

Akazome, Yoko

2004-01-01

337

Isotopic and Elemental Determination in Some Romanian Apple Fruit Juices  

PubMed Central

H, C, O stable isotope ratios and the content of some heavy elements of 31 Romanian single-strength organic apple juices collected from four Transylvanian areas are discussed in this study. The aim of this study was to measure the 2H/1H, 18O/16O, 13C/12C ratios of these juices and their elemental profile and to establish a database of authentic values to be used for adulteration and authenticity testing. Our results have shown mean values of ?18O = ?4.2‰ and ?D??46.5‰, respectively, for apples from Transylvania and at the same time the mean value of ?13C = ?28.2‰. The content of Cd, Pb, U, Zn, As was below the acceptable limits stipulated in US-EPA standard for drinking water. Cu and Cr limits exceeded for one single juice; Ni content for some apple juices from Maramures, Alba, and Cluj was higher than the acceptable value.

Magdas, Dana Alina; Dehelean, Adriana; Puscas, Romulus

2012-01-01

338

Correction to Noreen and MacLeod (2012).  

PubMed

Reports an error in "It's all in the detail: Intentional forgetting of autobiographical memories using the autobiographical think/no-think task" by Saima Noreen and Malcolm D. MacLeod (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 2013[Mar], Vol 39[2], 375-393). Figure 7 was erroneously identical to Figure 4. The correct version of Figure 7 appears in the correction. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2012-15390-001.) Using a novel autobiographical think/no-think procedure (ATNT; a modified version of the think/no-think task), 2 studies explored the extent to which we possess executive control over autobiographical memory. In Study 1, 30 never-depressed participants generated 12 positive and 12 negative autobiographical memories. Memories associated with cue-personal word pairings were learned to criterion. Participants were then asked to recall the memory associated with some of the cue-personal word pairs (i.e., think condition) or to avoid saying or thinking about the memory associated with others (i.e., no-think condition). In a subsequent test of recall, systematic forgetting effects emerged for no-think autobiographical memories compared to baseline that received neither no-think nor think instructions. These findings were extended and replicated in a second ATNT study (using a further 30 never-depressed participants), which showed that the forgetting of autobiographical memories in the no-think condition was unlikely to be a function of thought substitution or demand characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:24707782

2014-05-01

339

Using the Apple LaserWriter at ANL  

SciTech Connect

Using the Apple LaserWriter at ANL (ANL/TM 452) explains how Argonne computer users (with CMS, MVS, or VAX/VMS accounts) can print quality text and graphics on the Apple LaserWriter. Currently, applications at Argonne that are compatible with the Apple LaserWriter include Waterloo Script, CA/ISSCO graphics software (i.e., Cuechart, Tellagraf, and Disspla), SAS/Graph, ANSYS (version 4.2), and some personal computer test and graphics software. This manual does not attempt to cover use of the Apple LaserWriter with other applications, though some information on the handling of PostScript-compatible files may be valid for other applications. Refer to the documentation of those applications to learn how they work with the Apple LaserWriter. Most of the information in this manual applies to the Allied Linotype L300P typesetter in Building 222. However, the typesetter is not a high volume output device and should be used primarily for high quality (1250 and 2500 dots per inch) final copy output for Laboratory publications prior to making printing plates. You should print all drafts and proof pages on LaserWriers or other printers compatible with the PostScript page description language. Consult with Graphic Arts (at extension 2-5603) to determine the availability of the typesetter for printing the final copy of your document or graphics application. Since the Apple LaserWriter itself produces good quality output (300 dots per inch), we expect that most internal documents consisting of test or graphics will continue to be printed at LaserWriters distributed throughout the Laboratory. 5 figs., 2 tabs.

Errion, S.M.; Thommes, M.M. Caruthers, C.M. (ed.)

1987-09-01

340

Choosing between an apple and a chocolate bar: the impact of health and taste labels.  

PubMed

Increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables is a central component of improving population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest health is of lower importance than taste. This study assesses the impact of using a simple descriptive label to highlight the taste as opposed to the health value of fruit on the likelihood of its selection. Participants (N=439) were randomly allocated to one of five groups that varied in the label added to an apple: apple; healthy apple; succulent apple; healthy and succulent apple; succulent and healthy apple. The primary outcome measure was selection of either an apple or a chocolate bar as a dessert. Measures of the perceived qualities of the apple (taste, health, value, quality, satiety) and of participant characteristics (restraint, belief that tasty foods are unhealthy, BMI) were also taken. When compared with apple selection without any descriptor (50%), the labels combining both health and taste descriptors significantly increased selection of the apple ('healthy & succulent' 65.9% and 'succulent & healthy' 62.4%), while the use of a single descriptor had no impact on the rate of apple selection ('healthy' 50.5% and 'succulent' 52%). The strongest predictors of individual dessert choice were the taste score given to the apple, and the lack of belief that healthy foods are not tasty. Interventions that emphasize the taste attributes of healthier foods are likely to be more effective at achieving healthier diets than those emphasizing health alone. PMID:24155964

Forwood, Suzanna E; Walker, Alexander D; Hollands, Gareth J; Marteau, Theresa M

2013-01-01

341

Apple Seeks To Regain Its Stature in World of Academic Computing.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Managers of Apple Computer, the company that pioneered campus personal computing and later lost most of its share of the market, are again focusing energies on academic buyers. Campus technology officials, even those fond of Apples, are greeting the company's efforts with caution. Some feel it may be too late for Apple to regain a significant…

Young, Jeffrey R.; Blumenstyk, Goldie

1998-01-01

342

Fungal Disease and Fruit Quality in an Apple Orchard Converted from Integrated Production to Organic Production  

Microsoft Academic Search

Interest in organic food is increasing among consumers, thus making it possible to improve the profitability of Swedish apples. One way to obtain a swift increase in organic apple production is to convert existing orchards to organic growing. The main objective of this study was to compare the horticultural performance of an apple orchard converted to organic growing with the

Åsa Jönssson; Hilde Nybom; Kimmo Rumpunen

2009-01-01

343

Dumping Low and High Resolution Graphics on the Apple IIe Microcomputer System.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper discusses and outlines procedures for obtaining a hard copy of the graphic output of a microcomputer or "dumping a graphic" using the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Hardware configurations and instructions for high resolution and…

Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.; Ruckman, Frank, Jr.

344

Control of postharvest decay of apple fruit by Aureobasidium pullulans and induction of defense responses  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biocontrol activity of Aureobasidium pullulans on decay of apple fruit caused by Botrytis cinerea and Penicilliumexpansum, and its ability to induce biochemical defense responses in apple tissue, were investigated. In apple wounds, A. pullulans multiplied rapidly and controlled decay caused by either B. cinerea or P. expansum. At the end of the storage period, A. pullulans reduced the incidence

Antonio Ippolito; Ahmed El Ghaouth; Charles L. Wilson; Michael Wisniewski

2000-01-01

345

Combined treatment of apples by pulsed electric fields and by heating at moderate temperature  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, the specific influence of combined pulsed electric fields (PEF) and thermal treatment on the textural properties of apple tissue and apple juice expression are discussed. Force relaxation curves were analysed for different regimes of PEF and thermal pretreatment of apple tissue. The concept of the effective relaxation time t? was used to characterise the different modes of

Nikolai I. Lebovka; Iurie Praporscic; Eugene Vorobiev

2004-01-01

346

A genetic linkage map of Venturia inaequalis, the causal agent of apple scab  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Venturia inaequalis is an economically-important disease of apple causing annual epidemics of scab worldwide. The pathogen is a heterothallic ascomycete with an annual cycle of sexual reproduction on infected apple leaf litter, followed by several cycles of asexual reproduction during the apple growing season. Current disease control is achieved mainly through scheduled applications of fungicides. Genetic linkage maps are

Xiangming Xu; Tony Roberts; Dez Barbara; Nick G Harvey; Liqiang Gao; Daniel J Sargent

2009-01-01

347

Consumer value structures towards supermarket versus farm shop purchase of apples from integrated production in Belgium  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper compares consumer motivation for buying “Integrated production” certified and labelled apples through either farm shops or supermarkets. The research methodology builds on means-end-chain (MEC) theory, with data collected through personal laddering interviews in Belgium. Hierarchical value maps, which visualise motivational structures of supermarket and farm shop purchase of quality labelled apples, are presented. Apple buyers at both outlet

Jan Vannoppen; Wim Verbeke; Guido Van Huylenbroeck

2002-01-01

348

Shelf life of minimally processed apple (cv. Jonagored) determined by colour changes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Physical, chemical and sensory changes of cut apple (cv. Jonagored) stored in the dark at 4 °C were evaluated. Colour was found to be the critical parameter for this product. Apple cubes underwent severe surface browning primarily during the initial days of storage. The shelf-life of cut apple was therefore very limited, to three days maximum.Sensory analyses and objective quality

A. M. C. N Rocha; A. M. M. B Morais

2003-01-01

349

Pectin esterase activity and pectin methyl esterification in heated golden delicious apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pectin methylesterase activity and the degree of methyl esterification of cell wall pectins were measured in Golden Delicious apples after a 4 day heat treatment at 38° and after subsequent storage at 0° of heated and unheated apples. Enzyme activity increased similarly during storage in both heated and unheated apples, although heated fruit softened much less than unheated. During storage,

Joshua D. Klein; Jacob Hanzon; Peter L. Irwin; Noah Ben Shalom; Susan Luria

1995-01-01

350

Effects of relative humidity on apple quality under simulated shelf temperature storage  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of relative humidity (RH) on the quality of ‘Braeburn’ and ‘Jonagold’ apples were studied at 20°C under 30, 65 and 95% RH conditions. The aim of the research was to assess the effects of RH on apple quality under retailers’ shelf temperatures. Mealy texture may develop by holding apples at high RH (95%), and 20°C for some time

K Tu; J De Baerdemaeker

2000-01-01

351

Partial wetting - a potential water management saver for peach and apple  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial wetting (PW) of soil in peach and apple orchards in the Goulburn Valley was investigated during the 2000\\/01 season. Both, peach and apple irrigation supply exceeded derived crop water requirements by 2- fold, due to low levels of canopy light interception (<35%). For peach and apple, PW did not impact vegetative vigour (shoot or fruit growth), yield, fruit quality,

Mark O'Connell; Ian Goodwin

2003-01-01

352

Validation of Chinese version of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR) in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders.  

PubMed

There is a lack of validated instruments assessing the decision-making capacity to consent to clinical research of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders who speak Chinese. This study aimed to determine the validity and reliability of the Chinese version of MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR). The MacCAT-CR using a hypothetical study, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) assessed 139 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient was 0.74. The intra-class coefficients for understanding, appreciation, and reasoning scores ranged from 0.53 to 0.81. Regarding validity, the understanding, appreciation and reasoning scores were negatively correlated with the PANSS (r ranged from -0.27 to -0.33), and the negative subscale score (r ranged from -0.31 to -0.37) as well as positively correlated with the MMSE (r ranged from 0.26 to 0.43). All pvalues were less than 0.01. The factor analysis explained 57.6 % of the total variance; specifically, Components 1 and 2 contributed 44.5% and 13.1 % of the variance respectively. These findings indicate that the Chinese version of the MacCAT-CR is a reliable and valid instrument to assess the decision-making capacity to consent to clinical research of patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. PMID:23928212

Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Wu, Bo-Jian; Chen, Hsing-Kang; Liao, Hsun-Yi; Lee, Shin-Min; Sun, Hsiao-Ju

2013-12-15

353

[Occurrence of plant protection product residues in apples in 2007].  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to present occurrence of plant protection product residues in apples in 2007. Gas chromatographic and spectroscopy methods were used. The most frequently found were fungicides: dithiocarbamate residues (18% of the analysed samples), captan residues (13%), pyrimethanil residues (6%) and insecticides: chlorpiryfos residues (6%), diazinon residues (6%) and pirimicarb residues (5%). 5.6% of analysed samples exceeded the national Maximum Residue Level established for apples. Violations were found for: flusilazole (n = 2), propiconazole (n = 2), cyprodinil (n = 1), dimethoate (n = 1), fenitrothion (n = 1). PMID:19143426

Machowska, Anna; S?owik-Borowiec, Magdalena; Szpyrka, Ewa; Sad?o, Stanis?aw

2008-01-01

354

Enzyme synthesis of oligosaccharides using cashew apple juice as substrate.  

PubMed

The use of agriculture substrates in industrial biotechnological processes has been increasing because of their low cost. In this work, the use of clarified cashew apple juice was investigated as substrate for enzyme synthesis of prebiotic oligosaccharide. The results showed that cashew apple juice is a good source of reducing sugars and can be used as substrate for the production of dextransucrase by Leuconostoc citreum B-742 for the synthesis of oligosaccharides using the crude enzyme. Optimal oligosaccharide yield (approximately 80%) was obtained for sucrose concentrations lower than 60 g/L and reducing sugar concentrations higher than 100 g/L. PMID:19608414

Rabelo, Maria Cristiane; Fontes, Claudia P M L; Rodrigues, Sueli

2009-12-01

355

Payload for the first experimental Indian communication satellite 'APPLE'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A development history is presented for the Communication Payload of the Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE) geosynchronous satellite, which had to meet stringent technological and scheduling requirements. The APPLE spacecraft objectives have allowed the gaining of expertise in communication payload design that is applicable to the Indian National Satellite system. Payload subsystems were developed separately, and the communication transponder was devised after their integration. Attention is given to a quality assurance program, encompassing all aspects of material and component selection, design, fabrication, and testing and evaluation. Design work began in 1977, and an engineering model was completed by the end of 1978.

Lasrado, L.; Ramiah, V.; Shetty, P. N. R.; Pillai, N. S.; Singh, S. K.; Singh, B.; Gupta, R. K.; Garg, V. K.; Saxena, R.; Singh, R.

1983-11-01

356

Identification of selected apple pests based on selected graphical parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of this work was a neural identification of selected apple tree orchard pests. The classification was conducted on the basis of graphical information coded in the form of selected geometric characteristics of agrofags, presented on digital images. A neural classification model is presented in this paper, optimized using learning sets acquired on the basis of information contained in digital photographs of pests. In particular, the problem of identifying 6 selected apple pests, the most commonly encountered in Polish orchards, has been addressed. In order to classify the agrofags, neural modelling methods were utilized, supported by digital analysis of image techniques.

Boniecki, P.; Koszela, K.; Piekarska-Boniecka, H.; Nowakowski, K.; Przyby?, J.; Zaborowicz, M.; Raba, B.; Dach, J.

2013-07-01

357

Disappearance of patulin during alcoholic fermentation of apple juice.  

PubMed Central

Eight yeast strains were used in three typical American processes to ferment apple juice containing 15 mg of added patulin per liter. Patulin was reduced to less than the minimum detectable level of 50 microgram/liter in all but two cases; in all cases, the level of patulin was reduced by over 99% during alcoholic fermentation. In unfermented samples of apple juice, the concentration of added patulin declined by only 10% when the juice was held for 2 weeks, a period equivalent to the time required for fermentation.

Stinson, E E; Osman, S F; Huhtanen, C N; Bills, D D

1978-01-01

358

Mac1+/Gr1+ cells contribute to transfusion-related acute lung injury.  

PubMed

Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a serious complication associated with blood transfusion and can cause transfusion associated fatalities. Both antibody dependent and non-dependent mechanisms are involved in TRALI, as proposed over the past years. Nonetheless, many details of the immune cells involved in TRALI, particularly the Mac1(+)/Gr1(+) cells from donors, are not fully understood yet. Here we used an in vitro transwell system and a mouse model to study the role of donor leukocytes, present in the donor material, in the occurrence of TRALI reactions. We found that there is a number of immature myeloid cells with Mac1(+)/Gr1(+) phenotype present in the red blood cell (RBC) products, when prepared by regular methods. We found that murine Mac1(+)/Gr1(+) cells from stored RBC products display an elevated MHC I and CD40 expression, as well as an enhanced tumor necrosis factor alpha(TNF-?), interlukin-6(IL-6) and macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) secretion. When tested in a transwell endothelial migration assay, Mac1(+)/Gr1(+) cells showed a significant capability to cross the endothelial barrier. In vivo investigation demonstrated that compared to the purified RBC transfusion, more murine Mac1(+)/Gr1(+) cells from the regular method produced RBC sequestered in the lung, which associated to shorter survival. Taken together, these data suggest that donor derived Mac1(+)/Gr1(+) cells can play a significant role in TRALI reactions, and that reduction of Mac1(+)/Gr1(+) cell number from RBC products is necessary to control the severity of TRALI reactions in clinic. PMID:23548440

Hu, Xing-bin; Yin, Dan-dan; Chen, Yao-zhen; Yang, Hai-feng Ou; Zhang, Xian-qing

2013-12-01

359

Application of the Multi-Step Automatic Calibration Scheme (MACS) to NWS River Forecast Center Basins  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditionally, the River Forecasting Centers (RFCs) under the National Weather Service (NWS) employ manual techniques to calibrate conceptual rainfall-runoff models used for flood prediction and water resources management. The manual calibration technique relies on time-consuming manual estimation of the model parameters and often requires the expertise of someone familiar with the models. This current study, in collaboration with the NWS, looks at the implementation of an automatic calibration scheme, using the existing NWS River Forecast System software. The Multi-Step Automatic Calibration Scheme (MACS) represents a departure from previously developed single-step, single-criterion automatic calibration techniques. The three-step procedure alternately calibrates the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) and SNOW-17 model parameters for low flows and peak flows using a global search method, the Shuffled Complex Evolution developed at the University of Arizona (SCE-UA). MACS selects parameter values based on a progressive evaluation of different objective function values for each parameter in the optimization scheme. RFC manual calibration and MACS are compared statistically and through visual inspection of the hydrographs. MACS has been applied to basins in the following RFCs, allowing for comparisons based on differing regional and basin characteristics: North Central RFC, Southeast RFC, Alaska RFC, and the Colorado River Basin RFC. Results from the application of MACS in these regions indicate comparable performance of the automatic calibration procedure to that of manual calibration. This study provides evidence of the applicability of automatic calibration methods, specifically the MACS technique, to various hydrologic regimes within the NWS RFCs. The automatic procedure aims to improve RFC efficiency and results from this study demonstrate that the MACS procedure can be incorporated into an operational setting and provide time-saving quality calibrations.

Tomkins, C. D.

2001-05-01

360

MOBILE4. 1: Highway-vehicle mobile-source emission-factor model (Apple MacIntosh version) (for microcomputers). Model-Simulation  

SciTech Connect

MOBILE4.1 is the latest revision to EPA's highway vehicle mobile source emission factor model. Relative to MOBILE4, it contains numerous revisions and provides the user with additional options for modeling highway vehicle emission factors. it will calculate emission factors for hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide, (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from highway motor vehicles. It calculates emission factors for eight individual vehicle types, in two regions of the country (low and high altitude). The emission factors depend on various conditions such as ambient temperature, fuel volatility, speed, and mileage accrual rates. It will estimate emission factors for any calendar year between 1960 and 2020 inclusive. The 25 most recent model years are considered in operation in each calendar year. EPA is requiring that states and others preparing emission inventories for nonattainment areas for CO and ozone to use MOBILE4.1 in the development of the base year 1990 emission inventories required under the Clean Air Act of 1990.

Not Available

1991-08-01

361

An Energy-Efficient MAC Protocol Using Dynamic Queue Management for Delay-Tolerant Mobile Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Conventional MAC protocols for wireless sensor network perform poorly when faced with a delay-tolerant mobile network environment. Characterized by a highly dynamic and sparse topology, poor network connectivity as well as data delay-tolerance, delay-tolerant mobile sensor networks exacerbate the severe power constraints and memory limitations of nodes. This paper proposes an energy-efficient MAC protocol using dynamic queue management (EQ-MAC) for power saving and data queue management. Via data transfers initiated by the target sink and the use of a dynamic queue management strategy based on priority, EQ-MAC effectively avoids untargeted transfers, increases the chance of successful data transmission, and makes useful data reach the target terminal in a timely manner. Experimental results show that EQ-MAC has high energy efficiency in comparison with a conventional MAC protocol. It also achieves a 46% decrease in packet drop probability, 79% increase in system throughput, and 25% decrease in mean packet delay.

Li, Jie; Li, Qiyue; Qu, Yugui; Zhao, Baohua

2011-01-01

362

[The os lunato-triquetrum].  

PubMed

The os lunato-triquetrum is a fusion of the lunate with the triquetral bone. It is the most frequent anomalie of the carpe and nearly always asymptomatic. The coalition is mostly an isolated event or part of a syndrome of multiple anomalies. A case report of four patients with an synostosis between the lunate and the triquetrum is represented, two of them were members of African people. The high incidence in Africa and the geographical distribution of the described anomalie in black people of African descent are seen - under anthropological points of view - as ethnogenetic and ethnohistorical events. PMID:2735104

Förstner, H

1989-01-01

363

Efficient virus-induced gene silencing in apple, pear and Japanese pear using Apple latent spherical virus vectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective technology for the analysis of gene functions in plants. Though there\\u000a are many reports on virus vectors for VIGS in plants, no VIGS vectors available for Rosaceae fruit trees were reported so far. We present an effective VIGS system in apple, pear, and Japanese pear using Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) vectors.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Inoculation

Shintarou Sasaki; Noriko Yamagishi; Nobuyuki Yoshikawa

2011-01-01

364

Apple puree-alginate edible coating as carrier of antimicrobial agents to prolong shelf-life of fresh-cut apples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend the shelf-life of fresh-cut fruit. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on the shelf-life of fresh-cut ‘Fuji’ apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air filled polypropylene trays and wrapped with polypropylene film. Changes in headspace atmosphere, color, firmness, sensory quality and microbial growth

María A. Rojas-Graü; Rosa M. Raybaudi-Massilia; Robert C. Soliva-Fortuny; Roberto J. Avena-Bustillos; Tara H. McHugh; Olga Martín-Belloso

2007-01-01

365

Multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells and in Acanthamoeba castellanii.  

PubMed

Survival and distribution of legionellae in the environment are assumed to be associated with their multiplication in amoebae, whereas the ability to multiply in macrophages is usually regarded to correspond to pathogenicity. Since most investigations focused on Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, we examined the intracellular multiplication of different Legionella species in Mono Mac 6 cells, which express phenotypic and functional features of mature monocytes, and in Acanthamoeba castellanii, an environmental host of Legionella spp. According to the bacterial doubling time in Mono Mac 6 cells and in A. castellanii, seven clusters of legionellae could be defined which could be split further with regard to finer differences. L. longbeachae serogroup 1, L. jordanis, and L. anisa were not able to multiply in either A. castellanii or Mono Mac 6 cells and are members of the first cluster. L. dumoffi did not multiply in Mono Mac 6 cells but showed a delayed multiplication in A. castellanii 72 h after infection and is the only member of the second cluster. L. steigerwaltii, L. gormanii, L. pneumophila serogroup 6 ATCC 33215, L. bozemanii, and L. micdadei showed a stable bacterial count in Mono Mac 6 cells after infection but a decreasing count in amoebae. They can be regarded as members of the third cluster. As the only member of the fourth cluster, L. oakridgensis was able to multiply slight in Mono Mac 6 cells but was killed within amoebae. A strain of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Philadelphia obtained after 30 passages on SMH agar and a strain of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Philadelphia obtained after intraperitoneal growth in guinea pigs are members of the fifth cluster, which showed multiplication in Mono Mac 6 cells but a decrease of bacterial counts in A. castellanii. The sixth cluster is characterized by intracellular multiplication in both host cell systems and consists of several strains of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Philadelphia, a strain of L. pneumophila serogroup 2, and a fresh clinical isolate of L. pneumophila serogroup 6. Members of the seventh cluster are a strain of agar-adapted L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Bellingham and a strain of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 Bellingham which was passaged fewer than three times on BCYE alpha agar after inoculation and intraperitoneal growth in guinea pigs. In comparison to members of the sixth cluster, both strains showed a slightly enhanced multiplication in Mono Mac 6 cells but a reduced multiplication in amoebae. From our investigations, we could demonstrate a correlation between prevalence of a given Legionella species and their intracellular multiplication in Mono Mac 6 cells. Multiplication of members of the genus Legionella in A. castellanii seems to be dependent on mechanisms different from those in monocytes. PMID:9097418

Neumeister, B; Schöniger, S; Faigle, M; Eichner, M; Dietz, K

1997-04-01

366

Review article \\/ Article de synthèse A review of non-fungicidal approaches for the control of apple scab  

Microsoft Academic Search

Apple scab is the single most important disease of apple in Canada and the most costly to control. Failure to control apple scab results in severe yield losses and a reduction in market value of harvested fruits. Currently, the strategy to control apple scab relies on multiple applications of fungi- cides. These sprays are a significant cost to growers and

Odile Carisse; Megan Dewdney

2002-01-01

367

Overexpression of MAC30 is associated with poor clinical outcome in human non-small-cell lung cancer.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to detect MAC30 expression in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to analyze its association with prognosis of NSCLC patients. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR was performed to examine the expression of MAC30 mRNA in 20 cases of NSCLC and corresponding non-tumor tissue samples. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of MAC30 in 95 NSCLC tissues. We found that the expression levels of MAC30 mRNA in NSCLC tissues were significantly higher than those in corresponding non-tumor tissues. High-level MAC30 expression was correlated with poor tumor differentiation, TNM stage, and lymph node metastasis. Patients with high expression levels of MAC30 showed lower overall survival rate than those with low expression levels. Multivariate analysis showed that high MAC30 protein expression was an independent prognostic factor for NSCLC patients. Our study suggests that over-expression of MAC30 may play an important role in the progression of NSCLC and MAC30 expression may offer a valuable marker for predicting the outcome of patients with NSCLC. PMID:23229099

Han, Kai-Yu; Gu, Xin; Wang, Hao-Ran; Liu, Dong; Lv, Fu-Zhen; Li, Jia-Ning

2013-04-01

368

Detection of constitutive heterodimerization of the integrin Mac-1 subunits by fluorescence resonance energy transfer in living cells.  

PubMed

Macrophage differentiation antigen associated with complement three receptor function (Mac-1) belongs to beta2 subfamily of integrins that mediate important cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Biochemical studies have indicated that Mac-1 is a constitutive heterodimer in vitro. Here, we detected the heterodimerization of Mac-1 subunits in living cells by means of two fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) techniques (fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy) and our results demonstrated that there is constitutive heterodimerization of the Mac-1 subunits and this constitutive heterodimerization of the Mac-1 subunits is cell-type independent. Through FRET imaging, we found that heterodimers of Mac-1 mainly localized in plasma membrane, perinuclear, and Golgi area in living cells. Furthermore, through analysis of the estimated physical distances between cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fused to Mac-1 subunits, we suggested that the conformation of Mac-1 subunits is not affected by the fusion of CFP or YFP and inferred that Mac-1 subunits take different conformation when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, respectively. PMID:16782049

Fu, Guo; Yang, Hua-yan; Wang, Chen; Zhang, Feng; You, Zhen-dong; Wang, Gui-ying; He, Cheng; Chen, Yi-zhang; Xu, Zhi-zhan

2006-08-01

369

Detection of constitutive heterodimerization of the integrin Mac-1 subunits by fluorescence resonance energy transfer in living cells  

SciTech Connect

Macrophage differentiation antigen associated with complement three receptor function (Mac-1) belongs to {beta}{sub 2} subfamily of integrins that mediate important cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Biochemical studies have indicated that Mac-1 is a constitutive heterodimer in vitro. Here, we detected the heterodimerization of Mac-1 subunits in living cells by means of two fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) techniques (fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy) and our results demonstrated that there is constitutive heterodimerization of the Mac-1 subunits and this constitutive heterodimerization of the Mac-1 subunits is cell-type independent. Through FRET imaging, we found that heterodimers of Mac-1 mainly localized in plasma membrane, perinuclear, and Golgi area in living cells. Furthermore, through analysis of the estimated physical distances between cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fused to Mac-1 subunits, we suggested that the conformation of Mac-1 subunits is not affected by the fusion of CFP or YFP and inferred that Mac-1 subunits take different conformation when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) and human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293T cells, respectively.

Fu Guo [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Neurobiology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang Huayan [Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Neurobiology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wang Chen [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhang Feng [Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Neurobiology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); You Zhendong [Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Neurobiology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wang Guiying [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); He Cheng [Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Neurobiology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Chen Yizhang [Institute of Neuroscience, Department of Neurobiology, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: yzchen0928@yahoo.com; Xu Zhihan [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)]. E-mail: zzxu@mail.shcnc.ac.cn

2006-08-04

370

Determination of (187)Os in molybdenite by ICP-MS with neutron-induced (186)Os and (188)Os spikes.  

PubMed

The article describes a method for the determination of (187)Os in molybdenite by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS) with neutron-induced (186)Os and (188)Os spike. The spike used in the present work was prepared in line with the principle by which artificial nuclides are produced in a nuclear reaction. The concentration and isotopic composition of osmium in the prepared spike were evaluated accurately with the isotope dilution method, using negative thermal ion mass spectrometry (N-TIMS). The advantage of this method is that using (186)Os and (188)Os double spikes can effectively compensate for the mass discrimination effects of ICP-MS. Thus, the common correction practice for mass bias in the isotope dilution method with a single spike is unnecessary. In addition, the method enables one to reduce the determined error arising from instrumental instability. The precision for the (187)Os/((186)Os+(188)Os) ratio was approximately 2% (2sigma, RSD), but in the case of (187)Os/(186)Os, (187)Os/(188)Os and (186)Os/(188)Os, precision ranged from 2.0 to 8% (2sigma, RSD). The results for (187)Os concentration in a molybdenite sample determined with this method showed good agreement with reference values. PMID:18968429

Qu, W; Du, A; Zhao, D

2001-10-31

371

CONSTRUCTION OF SHORT PERIOD APPLE II TYPE UNDULATORS AT SOLEIL  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present here the conception, construction and magnetic measurements of APPLE II type undulators of 44 and 36 mm period at SOLEIL. Such short period undulators are difficult to design and construct because of the reduced dimensions of the magnets, leading to small support structures which are more easily bent by the magnetic forces. The design of the support structures

F. Briquez; O. Chubar; M.-E. Couprie; T. El Ajjouri; F. Marteau; A. Mary; K. Tavakoli; Synchrotron SOLEIL

372

Computers in Astronomy: Astronomy on an Apple Macintosh.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents a review of computer programs written for the Apple Macintosh computer that teach astronomy. Reviews general programs, along with some which deal more specifically with sky travel, star charting, the solar system, Halley's Comet, and stargazing. Includes the name and address of each producer. (TW)

Mosley, John E.

1987-01-01

373

Unexpected Diversity during Community Succession in the Apple Flower Microbiome  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Despite its importance to the host, the flower microbiome is poorly understood. We report a culture-independent, community-level assessment of apple flower microbial diversity and dynamics. We collected flowers from six apple trees at five time points, starting before flowers opened and ending at petal fall. We applied streptomycin to half of the trees when flowers opened. Assessment of microbial diversity using tag pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that the apple flower communities were rich and diverse and dominated by members of TM7 and Deinococcus-Thermus, phyla about which relatively little is known. From thousands of taxa, we identified six successional groups with coherent dynamics whose abundances peaked at different times before and after bud opening. We designated the groups Pioneer, Early, Mid, Late, Climax, and Generalist communities. The successional pattern was attributed to a set of prevalent taxa that were persistent and gradually changing in abundance. These taxa had significant associations with other community members, as demonstrated with a cooccurrence network based on local similarity analysis. We also detected a set of less-abundant, transient taxa that contributed to general tree-to-tree variability but not to the successional pattern. Communities on trees sprayed with streptomycin had slightly lower phylogenetic diversity than those on unsprayed trees but did not differ in structure or succession. Our results suggest that changes in apple flower microbial community structure are predictable over the life of the flower, providing a basis for ecological understanding and disease management.

Shade, Ashley; McManus, Patricia S.; Handelsman, Jo

2013-01-01

374

The Multilingual Apple: Languages in New York City. Second Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This collection of papers tells the story of how languages other than English have contributed to making New York City a culturally vibrant and linguistically diverse city. Part 1, "Introduction to the Multilingual Apple," features "New York's Multilingualism: World Languages and Their Role in a U.S. City" (Ofelia Garcia). Part 2, "The Language of…

Garcia, Ofelia, Ed.; Fishman, Joshua A., Ed.

375

A Computerized Weather Station for the Apple IIe.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Predicting weather conditions is a topic of interest for students who want to make plans for outside activities. This paper discusses the development of an inexpensive computer-interfaced classroom weather station using an Apple IIe computer that provides the viewer with up to the minute digital readings of inside and outside temperature,…

Lorson, Mark V.

376

Apple Stack Cake for Dessert: Appalachian Regional Foods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

How is the culture of Appalachia conveyed through its foods? Local experts in Appalachian counties were asked to create a hypothetical menu for a meal that was representative of their home region. Fried chicken and ham were the preferred main dishes and dessert selections focused on apple pie and peach or blackberry cobbler. Virtually everyone…

Shortridge, Barbara G.

2005-01-01

377

Join Newton's Apple on a Global Science Adventure!  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes Newton's Apple, the PBS family science show that explores how biology, chemistry, physics, and other sciences are integral parts of everyday life and includes demonstrations, activities, and inquiry-based discussions that encourage students to discover science for themselves. Presents highlights of the show for the year and contact…

Vespy, Linda

1996-01-01

378

Newton's Apple 13th Season. Free Educational Materials.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This educational materials packet was designed to help teachers use the Public Broadcasting Service's (PBS) program called "Newton's Apple" in the classroom. This book contains information on how these materials support the latest science standards; an index to the 13th season lesson pages and an index to the past three seasons; a science subject…

Twin Cities Public Television, St. Paul, MN.

379

Plant Disease Lesson: Fire blight of apple and pear  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This plant disease lesson on Fire blight of apple and pear (caused by Erwinia amylovora) includes information on symptoms and signs, pathogen biology, disease cycle and epidemiology, disease management, and the significance of the disease. Selected references are listed and a glossary is also available for use with this resource.

Kenneth B. Johnson, (Oregon State University;)

2000-07-26

380

Detection of Brownheart in ‘Braeburn’ apple by transmission NIR spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Braeburn’ apples containing the internal browning disorder, Brownheart, were examined by transmission NIR spectroscopy to determine whether sample orientation and degree of browning were significant factors requiring consideration in the design of online detection systems. Two hundred and forty fruit were preselected using a clinical MRI system to have a uniform range of the disorder from 0 to 100%. This

C. J. Clark; V. A. McGlone; R. B. Jordan

2003-01-01

381

Cold acclimation improves regrowth of cryopreserved apple shoot tips.  

PubMed

Cryopreservation is important for safeguarding the genetic resources of apple germplasm in Kazakhstan, the center of origin for apples. In this study, conducted with five apple genotypes [Malus domestica Borkh. and Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem] we determined cold hardiness and the effect of cold acclimation on shoot tip recovery following cryopreservation using two techniques. Apple shoot tips were cold acclimated (CA) for 0 to 6 weeks and cryopreserved using PVS2 vitrification and encapsulation dehydration (ED). Cold hardiness was indicated by the temperature at which 50 percent of the shoot tips were lethally injured (LT50). For non-acclimated shoots, LT50 ranged from -6.7 degree C to -9.3 degree C. These LT50 values resembled the natural cold hardiness of field grown plants and resulted in 10-12 percent regrowth after cryopreservation. Acclimated plantlets had LT50 values of -12 degree C to -15 degree C after 1 to 3 weeks CA, and after 3 weeks CA, cryopreservation resulted in 65 percent regrowth. There were no significant differences between the two techniques for regrowth of shoot tips after each cold acclimation period. Overall, 2 to 5 weeks CA produced high regrowth for each of the five cultivars tested. Three weeks of alternating temperature CA can be recommended as a standard protocol for Malus germplasm cryopreservation. These conditions resulted in moderate (60 percent) to high (80 percent) recovery for all five genotypes tested with both cryopreservation methods used. PMID:19274311

Kushnarenko, Svetlana V; Romadanova, Natalia V; Reed, Barbara M

2009-01-01

382

The Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow: 1989 Evaluation Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report discusses in detail the 1988-89 evaluation study developed by the University of California at Los Angeles Center for Technology Assessment and the Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow (ACOT) administration for the purpose of determining the impact of the ACOT project on students, teachers, and parents. Both student achievement in writing and…

Baker, Eva L.; And Others

383

Detection of filter media derived haze in apple juice concentrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Haze particles were centrifugally recovered from selected apple juice concentrates produced in the Rio Negro region of Argentina during the production year 1992. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis, light and electron microscopy were combined with a number of haze composition screening tests to characterize the haze morphologically and compositionally. Screening tests indicated all concentrate samples contained pectin, and 6 out

T. Beveridge; J. E. Harrison; L. Veto; E. N. Pallares

1996-01-01

384

Outside-In Signal Transmission by Conformational Changes in Integrin Mac-11  

PubMed Central

Intracellular signals associated with or triggered by integrin ligation can control cell survival, differentiation, proliferation, and migration. Despite accumulating evidence that conformational changes regulate integrin affinity to its ligands, how integrin structure regulates signal transmission from the outside to the inside of the cell remains elusive. Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer, we addressed whether conformational changes in integrin Mac-1 are sufficient to transmit outside-in signals in human neutrophils. Mac-1 conformational activation induced by ligand occupancy or activating Ab binding, but not integrin clustering, triggered similar patterns of intracellular protein tyrosine phosphorylation, including Akt phosphorylation, and inhibited spontaneous neutrophil apoptosis, indicating that global conformational changes are critical for Mac-1-dependent outside-in signal transduction. In neutrophils and myeloid K562 cells, ligand ICAM-1 or activating Ab binding promoted switchblade-like extension of the Mac-1 extracellular domain and separation of the ?M and ?2 subunit cytoplasmic tails, two structural hallmarks of integrin activation. These data suggest the primacy of global conformational changes in the generation of Mac-1 outside-in signals.

Lefort, Craig T.; Hyun, Young-Min; Schultz, Joanne B.; Law, Foon-Yee; Waugh, Richard E.; Knauf, Philip A.; Kim, Minsoo

2010-01-01

385

Implementation of a reference management system, MacRefer, under HyperCard.  

PubMed

We have developed a reference management system, MacRefer, using HyperTalk on Macintosh personal computers. Using this program, one can automatically acquire data from databases created by EndNote Plus and from OVID- or Medlar-formatted records downloaded via an online use of Medline. The MacRefer's capability of formatting bibliographic database in user-defined formats is comparable with the exemplified bibliography maker, EndNote Plus. Moreover, MacRefer has several competitive features, which are insufficiently equipped with EndNote Plus. For example, MacRefer is capable of (1) maintaining subsets within a database, (2) executing complex, structured searches combining up to nine keywords for any data field with the results and search conditions preserved, and (3) easily browsing (a portion of) reference database. Although MacRefer cannot be recognized as an absolute alternative of EndNote Plus because of several limitations inherent to HyperCard, the compensatory use of these two programs will expand the personal utilization of bibliographic databases. PMID:8835840

Sato, H; Sato, S; Horikoshi, I

1996-06-01

386

Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination (GeoMAC) wildland fire perimeters, 2008  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination (GeoMAC) has been collecting and storing data on wildland fire perimeters since August 2000. The dataset presented via this U.S. Geological Survey Data Series product contains the GeoMAC wildland fire perimeter data for the calendar year 2008, which are based upon input from incident intelligence sources, Global Positioning System (GPS) data, and infrared (IR) imagery. Wildland fire perimeter data are obtained from the incidents, evaluated for completeness and accuracy, and processed to reflect consistent field names and attributes. After a quality check, the perimeters are loaded to GeoMAC databases, which support the GeoMAC Web application for access by wildland fire managers and the public. The wildland fire perimeters are viewed through the Web application. The data are subsequently archived according to year and state and are made available for downloading through the Internet in shapefile and Keyhole Markup Language (KML) format. These wildland fire perimeter data are also retained for historical, planning, and research purposes. The datasets that pertain to this report can be found on the Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center HTTP site at http://rmgsc.cr.usgs.gov/outgoing/GeoMAC/historic_fire_data/. The links are also provided on the sidebar.

Walters, Sandra P.; Schneider, Norma J.; Guthrie, John D.

2011-01-01

387

Distinct binding affinities of Mac-1 and LFA-1 in neutrophil activation.  

PubMed

Macrophage-1 Ag (Mac-1) and lymphocyte function-associated Ag-1 (LFA-1), two ?2 integrins expressed on neutrophils (PMNs), mediate PMN recruitment cascade by binding to intercellular adhesive molecule 1. Distinct functions of LFA-1-initiating PMN slow rolling and firm adhesion but Mac-1-mediating cell crawling are assumed to be governed by the differences in their binding affinities and kinetic rates. In this study, we applied an adhesion frequency approach to compare their kinetics in the quiescent and activated states using three molecular systems, constitutively expressed receptors on PMNs, wild-type and high-affinity (HA) full-length constructs transfected on 293T cells, and wild-type and HA recombinant extracellular constructs. Data indicate that the difference in binding affinity between Mac-1 and LFA-1 is on-rate dominated with slightly or moderately varied off-rate. This finding was further confirmed when both ?2 integrins were activated by chemokines (fMLF or IL-8), divalent cations (Mg(2+) or Mn(2+)), or disulfide bond lockage on an HA state. Structural analyses reveal that such the kinetics difference is likely attributed to the distinct conformations at the interface of Mac-1 or LFA-1 and intercellular adhesive molecule 1. This work furthers the understandings in the kinetic differences between Mac-1 and LFA-1 and in their biological correlations with molecular activation and structural bases. PMID:23514737

Li, Ning; Mao, Debin; Lü, Shouqin; Tong, Chunfang; Zhang, Yan; Long, Mian

2013-04-15

388

A Study on Energy Efficient MAC Protocol of Wireless Sensor Network for Ubiquitous Agriculture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various technologies are used in the agricultural sites now. Especially, the recent application of sensor network related technology is quite notable. Considering the efficiency of MAC protocol of WSN is being researched in various aspects, it is believed that a research on how to apply the MAC protocol to agriculture would be also required. This research is based on the sensor node developed by Sunchon University ITRC. Once the sensor nodes are effectively located in the farm, they operate for a long time and they are rarely relocated once installed. The concentration of multiple sensor nodes in a narrow area is another characteristic the sensor node. The purpose of this research is to select a sensor network MAC protocol, which would be most proper to agricultural site with good energy efficiency and excellent transmission delay performance. The applicable protocols such as S-MAC and X-MAC were set up for the installation environment. They were compared and a methodology to select the most optimum protocol to agricultural site is suggested.

Lee, Ho-Chul; Lee, Ji-Woong; Hwang, Jeong-Hwan; Yoe, Hyun

389

In vitro bioaccessibility of copper, iron, zinc and antioxidant compounds of whole cashew apple juice and cashew apple fibre (Anacardium occidentale L.) following simulated gastro-intestinal digestion.  

PubMed

Considering the lack of research studies about nutrients' bioaccessibility in cashew apple, in this study the whole cashew apple juice and the cashew apple fibre were submitted to simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The samples were analysed before and after digestion and had their copper, iron, zinc, ascorbic acid, total extractable phenols and total antioxidant activity assessed. As a result, for the whole cashew apple juice, the content of copper and iron minerals bioaccessible fraction were 15% and 11.5% and for zinc this level was 3.7%. Regarding the cashew apple fibre, the bioaccessible fraction for these minerals was lower than 5%. The ascorbic acid, total extractable polyphenols and total antioxidant activity bioaccessible fraction for whole cashew apple juice showed bioaccessibility percentages of 26.2%, 39% and 27%, respectively, while for the cashew apple fibre, low bioaccessibles levels were found. The bioacessible percentage of zinc, ascorbic acid and total extractable polyphenols were higher in cashew apple juice than cashew apple fibre. PMID:24837932

de Lima, Ana Cristina Silva; Soares, Denise Josino; da Silva, Larissa Morais Ribeiro; de Figueiredo, Raimundo Wilane; de Sousa, Paulo Henrique Machado; de Abreu Menezes, Eveline

2014-10-15

390

Portable programming on parallel/networked computers using the Application Portable Parallel Library (APPL)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Application Portable Parallel Library (APPL) is a subroutine-based library of communication primitives that is callable from applications written in FORTRAN or C. APPL provides a consistent programmer interface to a variety of distributed and shared-memory multiprocessor MIMD machines. The objective of APPL is to minimize the effort required to move parallel applications from one machine to another, or to a network of homogeneous machines. APPL encompasses many of the message-passing primitives that are currently available on commercial multiprocessor systems. This paper describes APPL (version 2.3.1) and its usage, reports the status of the APPL project, and indicates possible directions for the future. Several applications using APPL are discussed, as well as performance and overhead results.

Quealy, Angela; Cole, Gary L.; Blech, Richard A.

1993-01-01

391

Estimation of continental Os/Os values by using Os/Os and Nd/Nd ratios in marine manganese nodules.  

PubMed

The relationship between (187)Os/(186)Os and (143)Nd/(144)Nd in different manganese nodule fields is used to determine the (187)Os/(186)Os ratio of the continental terrains bounding the major ocean basins. The Atlantic Ocean drainages yield (187)Os/(186)Os of about 11; the Pacific Ocean, between 25 and 36; and the western Indian Ocean, 20. By assuming a two-component continental crust composed of "ultramafic rocks" (high Os concentration, low (187)Os/(186)Os) and "granite" with only radiogenic (187)Os produced in accessory Re-bearing molybdenite, the ultramafic contribution to weathering is about 0.2%. Some or most of this may come from the alteration of oceanic ultramafics. PMID:16578780

Turekian, K K; Luck, J M

1984-12-01

392

Estimation of continental 187Os/186Os values by using 187Os/186Os and 143Nd/144Nd ratios in marine manganese nodules  

PubMed Central

The relationship between 187Os/186Os and 143Nd/144Nd in different manganese nodule fields is used to determine the 187Os/186Os ratio of the continental terrains bounding the major ocean basins. The Atlantic Ocean drainages yield 187Os/186Os of about 11; the Pacific Ocean, between 25 and 36; and the western Indian Ocean, 20. By assuming a two-component continental crust composed of “ultramafic rocks” (high Os concentration, low 187Os/186Os) and “granite” with only radiogenic 187Os produced in accessory Re-bearing molybdenite, the ultramafic contribution to weathering is about 0.2%. Some or most of this may come from the alteration of oceanic ultramafics.

Turekian, Karl K.; Luck, Jean-Marc

1984-01-01

393

Analyses of Expressed Sequence Tags from Apple1  

PubMed Central

The domestic apple (Malus domestica; also known as Malus pumila Mill.) has become a model fruit crop in which to study commercial traits such as disease and pest resistance, grafting, and flavor and health compound biosynthesis. To speed the discovery of genes involved in these traits, develop markers to map genes, and breed new cultivars, we have produced a substantial expressed sequence tag collection from various tissues of apple, focusing on fruit tissues of the cultivar Royal Gala. Over 150,000 expressed sequence tags have been collected from 43 different cDNA libraries representing 34 different tissues and treatments. Clustering of these sequences results in a set of 42,938 nonredundant sequences comprising 17,460 tentative contigs and 25,478 singletons, together representing what we predict are approximately one-half the expressed genes from apple. Many potential molecular markers are abundant in the apple transcripts. Dinucleotide repeats are found in 4,018 nonredundant sequences, mainly in the 5?-untranslated region of the gene, with a bias toward one repeat type (containing AG, 88%) and against another (repeats containing CG, 0.1%). Trinucleotide repeats are most common in the predicted coding regions and do not show a similar degree of sequence bias in their representation. Bi-allelic single-nucleotide polymorphisms are highly abundant with one found, on average, every 706 bp of transcribed DNA. Predictions of the numbers of representatives from protein families indicate the presence of many genes involved in disease resistance and the biosynthesis of flavor and health-associated compounds. Comparisons of some of these gene families with Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) suggest instances where there have been duplications in the lineages leading to apple of biosynthetic and regulatory genes that are expressed in fruit. This resource paves the way for a concerted functional genomics effort in this important temperate fruit crop.

Newcomb, Richard D.; Crowhurst, Ross N.; Gleave, Andrew P.; Rikkerink, Erik H.A.; Allan, Andrew C.; Beuning, Lesley L.; Bowen, Judith H.; Gera, Emma; Jamieson, Kim R.; Janssen, Bart J.; Laing, William A.; McArtney, Steve; Nain, Bhawana; Ross, Gavin S.; Snowden, Kimberley C.; Souleyre, Edwige J.F.; Walton, Eric F.; Yauk, Yar-Khing

2006-01-01

394

Towards an improved apple reference transcriptome using RNA-seq.  

PubMed

The reference genome of apple (Malus × domestica) has been available since 2010. Despite being a milestone in apple genomics, the reference genome is difficult to be used as a reference in RNA-seq (RNA sequencing) analysis, a widespread technology in transcriptomic studies. One of the major limitations appears to be the low coverage of the reference transcriptome in RNA-seq mapping of reads. To improve the reference transcriptome, we obtained 14 sets of strand-specific RNA-seq data of 168.5 million reads in total from fruit of Golden Delicious (GD, the source of the reference genome) in varying growth and developmental stages. Using a combination of genome-guided assembly and de novo assembly, the apple reference transcriptome was improved to a collection of 71,178 genes or transcripts, which includes 53,654 genes predicted originally (with MDP prefixed in their IDs) and 17,524 novel transcripts. Of these novel transcripts, 8,144 were identified from reads directly mapped to the reference genome while the remaining 9,380 were extracted from de novo assemblies of reads that could not be initially mapped to the reference genome. Evaluating the improved apple reference transcriptome with reads from Golden Delicious and other genotypes used in this and other studies showed that it allowed 62.5 ± 9.3-82.3 ± 2.7 % of reads to be mapped, a marked increase from the low rates of 37.4 ± 7.7-46.6 ± 7.1 % offered by the original reference transcriptome. The improved reference transcriptome therefore represents a step forward towards a complete reference transcriptome in apple. PMID:24532088

Bai, Yang; Dougherty, Laura; Xu, Kenong

2014-06-01

395

AeroMACS C-Band Interference Modeling and Simulation Results  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new C-band (5091-5150 MHz) airport communications system designated as Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System (AeroMACS) is being planned under the Federal Aviation Administration s NextGen program. It is necessary to establish practical limits on AeroMACS transmission power from airports so that the threshold of interference into the Mobile Satellite Service (Globalstar) feeder uplinks is not exceeded. To help provide guidelines for these limits, interference models have been created with the commercial software Visualyse Professional. In this presentation, simulation results were shown for the aggregate interference power at low earth orbit from AeroMACS transmitters at each of up to 757 airports in the United States, Canada, Mexico, and the surrounding area. Both omni-directional and sectoral antenna configurations were modeled. Effects of antenna height, beamwidth, and tilt were presented.

Wilson, Jeffrey

2010-01-01

396

The MacArthur adjudicative competence study: development and validation of a research instrument.  

PubMed

Assessment of competence to stand trial is a common evaluation that can have substantial consequences for defendants and the criminal justice system. Despite a voluminous literature, much remains unknown. An obstacle to progress in understanding what is better termed "adjudicative competence" is the absence of structured, standardized research measures for assessment of defendants. This article presents the legal framework, assessment strategy, instrument description, psychometric properties, and construct validation of the MacArthur Structured Assessment of the Competencies of Criminal Defendants (MacSAC-CD). The measures meet or exceed accepted indices of internal consistency, and interscorer agreement. Observed patterns of correlations among measures support the underlying theoretical structure of competence-related abilities. Moreover, the MacSAC-CD distinguishes groups of competent and incompetent defendants; reflects changes in competence status; and correlates positively with clinical judgments, negatively with psychopathology and impaired cognitive functioning, and negligibly with cynicism toward the justice system. PMID:9146101

Hoge, S K; Bonnie, R J; Poythress, N; Monahan, J; Eisenberg, M; Feucht-Haviar, T

1997-04-01

397

A network architecture for precision formation flying using the IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Precision Formation Flying missions involve the tracking and maintenance of spacecraft in a desired geometric formation. The strong coupling of spacecraft in formation flying control requires inter-spacecraft communication to exchange information. In this paper, we present a network architecture that supports PFF control, from the initial random deployment phase to the final formation. We show that a suitable MAC layer for the application protocol is IEEE's 802.11 MAC protocol. IEEE 802.11 MAC has two modes of operations: DCF and PCF. We show that DCF is suitable for the initial deployment phase while switching to PCF when the spacecraft are in formation improves jitter and throughput. We also consider the effect of routing on protocol performance and suggest when it is profitable to turn off route discovery to achieve better network performance.

Clare, Loren P.; Gao, Jay L.; Jennings, Esther H.; Okino, Clayton

2005-01-01

398

Squamous differentiation in primary urothelial carcinoma of the urinary tract as seen by MAC387 immunohistochemistry  

PubMed Central

Squamous differentiation (SqD) is variably present in urinary tract tumours, but its significance remains unclear. In this study, SqD was assessed by immunohistochemistry using the monoclonal antibody Mac387 in 145 urothelial tumours (bladder, n?=?115; renal pelvis, n?=?30). Mac387 detects the myelomonocytic L1 antigen; a member of the calgranulin family shared by epithelial cells and keratinocytes. L1 antigen was shown in SqD in urothelial carcinomas of the bladder or the renal pelvis, including 11 cases with focal SqD unrecognised by conventional analysis. SqD is more frequent in renal pelvic tumours (p?=?0.027) and increases with grade/stage mainly in bladder carcinoma (grade, p?=?0.05; stage, p?=?0.005). Stage Ta/T1 bladder carcinomas with SqD recurred more (p?=?0.021). In conclusion, Mac387 efficiently shows SqD in urothelial tumours.

Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Requena, Maria J; Alvarez-Kindelan, Jose; Quintero, Ana; Blanca, Ana; Montironi, Rodolfo

2007-01-01

399

Performance Analysis of IEEE 802.15.3 MAC Protocol with Different ACK Polices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wireless personal area network (WPAN) is an emerging wireless technology for future short range indoor and outdoor communication applications. The IEEE 802.15.3 medium access control (MAC) is proposed, specially, for short range high data rates applications, to coordinate the access to the wireless medium among the competing devices. This paper uses analytical model to study the performance analysis of WPAN (IEEE 802.15.3) MAC in terms of throughput, efficient bandwidth utilization, and delay with various acknowledgment schemes under different parameters. Also, some important observations are obtained, which can be very useful to the protocol architectures. Finally, we come up with some important research issues to further investigate the possible improvements in the WPAN MAC.

Mehta, S.; Kwak, K. S.

400

A combined treatment of UV-light and radio frequency electric field for the inactivation of Escherichia coli K-12 in apple juice.  

PubMed

Radio frequency electric fields (RFEF) and UV-light treatments have been reported to inactivate bacteria in liquid foods. However, information on the efficacy of bacterial inactivation by combined treatments of RFEF and UV-light technologies is limited. In this study, we investigated the relationship between cell injury and inactivation of Escherichia coli K-12 in apple juice treated with a combination of RFEF and UV-light. Apple juice purchased from a wholesale distributor was inoculated with E. coli K-12 at 7.8 log CFU/ml, processed with a laboratory scale RFEF unit at 20 kHz, 15 kV/cm for 170 micros at a flow rate of 540 ml/min followed by UV-light treatment (254 nm) for 12s at 25, 30 and 40 degrees C. Treated samples were analyzed for leakage of UV-substances as a function of membrane damage and were plated (0.1 ml) on Sorbitol MacConkey Agar (SMAC) and Trypticase Soy Agar (TSA) plates to determine the viability loss and percent injury. At 40 degrees C, UV-light treatment alone caused 5.8 log reduction of E. coli in apple juice while RFEF caused only 2.8 log reduction. A combination of the two processing treatments did not increase cell injury or leakage of intracellular bacterial UV-substances more than that from the UV-light treatment. Similarly, the viability loss determined was not significantly (P<0.05) different than UV-light treatment alone. However, the UV-substances determined in apple juice treated with RFEF was significantly (P>0.05) different than UV-light treated samples. The results of this study suggest that RFEF treatment causes more injury to the bacterial cells leading to more leakage of intracellular UV-substances than cells treated with UV-light alone. Also, the effect of the two processing treatment combination on bacterial inactivation was not additive. PMID:20116875

Ukuku, Dike O; Geveke, David J

2010-03-31

401

MAC/GMC 4.0 User's Manual: Example Problem Manual. Volume 3  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is the third volume in the three volume set of User's Manuals for the Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells Version 4.0 (MAC/GMC 4.0). Volume 1 is the Theory Manual, Volume 2 is the Keywords Manual, and this document is the Example Problems Manual. MAC/GMC 4.0 is a composite material and laminate analysis software program developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It is based on the generalized method of cells (GMC) micromechanics theory, which provides access to the local stress and strain fields in the composite material. This access grants GMC the ability to accommodate arbitrary local models for inelastic material behavior and various types of damage and failure analysis. MAC/GMC 4.0 has been built around GMC to provide the theory with a user-friendly framework, along with a library of local inelastic, damage, and failure models. Further, application of simulated thermo-mechanical loading, generation of output results, and selection of architectures to represent the composite material, have been automated in MAC/GMC 4.0. Finally, classical lamination theory has been implemented within MAC/GMC 4.0 wherein GMC is used to model the composite material response of each ply. Consequently, the full range of GMC composite material capabilities is available for analysis of arbitrary laminate configurations as well. This volume provides in-depth descriptions of 43 example problems, which were specially designed to highlight many of the most important capabilities of the code. The actual input files associated with each example problem are distributed with the MAC/GMC 4.0 software; thus providing the user with a convenient starting point for their own specialized problems of interest.

Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

2002-01-01

402

MAC/GMC 4.0 User's Manual: Keywords Manual. Volume 2  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is the second volume in the three volume set of User's Manuals for the Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells Version 4.0 (MAC/GMC 4.0). Volume 1 is the Theory Manual, this document is the Keywords Manual, and Volume 3 is the Example Problem Manual. MAC/GMC 4.0 is a composite material and laminate analysis software program developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center. It is based on the generalized method of cells (GMC) micromechanics theory, which provides access to the local stress and strain fields in the composite material. This access grants GMC the ability to accommodate arbitrary local models for inelastic material behavior and various types of damage and failure analysis. MAC/GMC 4.0 has been built around GMC to provide the theory with a user-friendly framework, along with a library of local inelastic, damage, and failure models. Further, applications of simulated thermo-mechanical loading, generation of output results, and selection of architectures to represent the composite material have been automated in MAC/GMC 4.0. Finally, classical lamination theory has been implemented within MAC/GMC 4.0 wherein GMC is used to model the composite material response of each ply. Consequently, the full range of GMC composite material capabilities is available for analysis of arbitrary laminate configurations as well. This volume describes the basic information required to use the MAC/GMC 4.0 software, including a 'Getting Started' section, and an in-depth description of each of the 22 keywords used in the input file to control the execution of the code.

Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

2002-01-01

403

The clinical efficacy and safety of a fluoroquinolone-containing regimen for pulmonary MAC disease.  

PubMed

Despite recent advances in chemotherapy, the treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) disease remains unsatisfactory. Judging from its MIC, fluoroquinolones including gatifloxacin (GFLX) are expected to demonstrate efficacy against MAC disease. However, there have been few clinical studies using fluoroquinolones. Therefore, a prospective study to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of a fluoroquinolone-containing regimen for the treatment of pulmonary MAC disease was conducted. In this trial, patients with pulmonary MAC disease received protocol-guided combined chemotherapy with rifampin (RFP) and ethambutol (EB) plus either GFLX or clarithromycin (CAM). Adult patients who fulfilled the criteria of the ATS definition of pulmonary MAC disease were enrolled in this study. The patients provided their informed consent, and treatments were administered for 1 year. Of 27 patients enrolled from three facilities, 14 patients were treated with the CAM-containing regimen and 13 patients were treated with the GFLX-containing regime. Four patients did not complete the 1-year treatment because of adverse events. Nine patients (64.3%) in the CAM group and 11 patients (84.6%) in the GFLX group achieved eradication of pathogens. Adverse events were observed more frequently in the GFLX group than in the CAM group. However, there were no severe adverse events in either group. The long-term results showed a similar relapse rate between the CAM and GFLX groups. The fluoroquinolone-containing regimen demonstrated both high efficacy and relative safety for pulmonary MAC disease that was similar to that of the CAM-containing regimen, which is considered to be the standard regimen. PMID:21927844

Fujita, Masaki; Kajiki, Akira; Tao, Yoshiaki; Miyazaki, Masayuki; Ouchi, Hiroshi; Harada, Eiji; Ikegame, Satoshi; Matsumoto, Takemasa; Uchino, Junji; Watanabe, Kentaro; Nakanishi, Yoichi

2012-04-01

404

The National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire in the Macular Telangiectasia (MacTel) Project  

PubMed Central

Purpose To describe vision-targeted health-related quality of life (HR-QOL), measured with the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25) in a cohort of patients with macular telangiectasia (MacTel) type 2 and to evaluate the relationship between visual acuity and NEI-VFQ-25 scores. Methods This was an analysis of cross-sectional baseline data from a longitudinal natural history study. Patients with MacTel type 2 were enrolled in the Natural History Study of The Macular Telangiectasia Project (The MacTel Project). NEI-VFQ-25 were completed at enrollment. Linear correlation and regression analyses were used to relate baseline NEI-VFQ-25 overall and subscale scores to visual acuity. Results Participants reported lower vision-related functioning measured by the NEI-VFQ-25 in most of the domains measured by the NEI VFQ compared with that of a normal reference group (P < 0.001 for all domains except color vision). Visual acuity was found to be associated with the NEI-VFQ-25 in many of the domains measuring degree of difficulty with common visual activities. Conclusions This is the first cross-sectional cohort study to assess vision targeted HR-QOL in patients with MacTel type 2. Patients with MacTel type 2 reported markedly reduced visual functioning compared to reports of a normal reference group. These findings provide support to the use of the NEI-VFQ-25 in patients with MacTel type 2 to measure the effect of disease and potential therapies on vision-targeted HR-QOL.

Clemons, Traci E.; Gillies, Mark C.; Chew, Emily Y.; Bird, Alan C.; Peto, Tunde; Figueroa, Maria; Harrington, Molly W.

2011-01-01

405

On the Achievable Efficiency-Fairness Tradeoff in Utility-Optimal MAC Protocols  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use the network utility maximization (NUM) framework to create an efficient and fair medium access control (MAC) protocol for wireless networks. By adjusting the parameters in the utility objective functions of NUM problems, we control the tradeoff between efficiency and fairness of radio resource allocation through a rigorous and systematic design. In this paper, we propose a scheduling-based MAC protocol. Since it provides an upper-bound on the achievable performance, it establishes the optimality benchmarks for comparison with other algorithms in related work.

Lee, Jang-Won; Chiang, Mung; Calderbank, A. Robert

406

Cloning and immunoreactivity of the 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac receptors in the central nervous system of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii  

PubMed Central

Biogenic amines are implicated in several mental disorders, many of which involve social interactions. Simple model systems, such as crustaceans, are often more amenable than vertebrates for studying mechanisms underlying behaviors. Although various cellular responses of biogenic amines have been characterized in crustaceans, the mechanisms linking these molecules to behavior remain largely unknown. Observed effects of serotonin receptor agonists and antagonists in abdomen posture, escape responses, and fighting have led to the suggestion that biogenic amine receptors may play a role in modulating interactive behaviors. As a first step in understanding this potential role of such receptors, we have cloned and fully sequenced two serotonin receptors, 5-HT1Mac and 5-HT2Mac, from the CNS of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii, and have mapped their CNS immunohistochemical distribution. 5-HT1Mac was found primarily on the membranes of subsets of cells in all CNS ganglia, in fibers that traverse all CNS regions, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of cells in the brain, circum- and subesophageal ganglia (SEG), most of which also appear to contain dopamine. The pattern of 5-HT2Mac immunoreactivity was found to differ significantly, being found mostly in the central neuropil area of all ganglia, in glomeruli of the brain’s olfactory lobes, and in the cytoplasm of a small number of neurons in the SEG, thoracic and some abdominal ganglia. The observed differences in terms of localization, distribution within cells, and intensity of immunoreactive staining throughout the prawn’s CNS suggest that these receptors are likely to play different roles.

Vazquez-Acevedo, Nietzell; Reyes-Colon, Dalynes; Ruiz-Rodriguez, Eduardo A.; Rivera, Nilsa M.; Rosenthal, Joshua; Kohn, Andrea B.; Moroz, Leonid L.; Sosa, Maria A.

2009-01-01

407

Os isotope systematics in ocean island basalts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New Re-Os isotopic results for Os-poor basalts from St. Helena, the Comores, Samoa, Pitcairn and Kerguelen dramatically expand the known range of initial Os-186/Os-187 ratios in Ocean Island Basalts (OIBs) to values as high as 1.7. In contrast to the Os isotopic uniformity of Os-rich basalts from the HIMU islands of Tubuai and Mangaia found by Hauri and Hart, our values for St. Helena span most of the known range of Os isotopic variability in oceanic basalts (initial O-187/Os-186 ranges from 1.2 to 1.7). Generation of such radiogenic Os in the mantle requires melting of source materials that contain large proportions of recycled oceanic crust. The very low Os concentrations of most of the basalts analyzed here, however, leave them susceptible to modification via interaction with materials containing radiogenic Os in the near-surface environment. Thus the high Os-186/Os-187 ratios may result from assimilation of radiogenic Os-rich marine sediments, such as Mn oxides, within the volcanic piles traversed by these magmas en route to the surface. Furthermore, the Os isotopic signatures of Os-rich, olivine-laden OIBs may reflect the accumulation of lithospheric olivine, rather than simply their mantle source characteristics. The extent to which these processes alter the view of the mantle obtained via study of Re-Os systematics in oceanic basalts is uncertain. These effects must be quantified before Re-Os systematics in OIBs can be used with confidence to investigate the nature of mantle heterogeneity and its causes.

Reisberg, Laurie; Zindler, Alan; Marcantonio, Franco; White, William; Wyman, Derek; Weaver, Barry

1993-12-01

408

Relationship between clinical efficacy for pulmonary MAC and drug-sensitivity test for isolated MAC in a recent 6-year period.  

PubMed

There are a few recent reports about the relationship between the clinical effect and drug-sensitivity test. We investigated the relationship between the clinical efficacy of treatment for pulmonary Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and drug-sensitivity test for isolated MAC by comparison between data from 2005 to 2007 and from 2008 to 2010. We studied 60 patients who satisfied diagnostic criteria of nontuberculous mycobacterial infection established by the American Thoracic Society in 2007 and who received combination therapy using rifampicin (RFP), ethambutol (EB), streptomycin (SM), and clarithromycin (CAM). Average CAM dosage was increased from the early (517 mg/day) to the later (800 mg/day) period. Sputum conversion rate increased from 63% in the early period to 83% in the later period. Clinical improvement also increased from 38% in the early period to 53% in the later period. The causative microorganisms isolated were M. avium in 35 patients and M. intracellulare in 25. In both periods, isolated MAC strains showed excellent minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for CAM. Regarding the relationship between clinical efficacy and MICs of RFP, EB, CAM, and SM, most patients with good clinical effects showed low MIC for CAM in both periods. Good clinical efficacy, including the sputum conversion rate, was obtained with an increased dose of CAM in the later period. We speculate that the increased dose of CAM influenced the good clinical effect in both periods. PMID:22205543

Kobashi, Yoshihiro; Abe, Masaaki; Mouri, Keiji; Obase, Yasushi; Kato, Shigeki; Oka, Mikio

2012-08-01

409

Practical application of the MacArthur competence assessment tool-criminal adjudication (MacCAT-CA) in a public sector forensic setting.  

PubMed

Several instruments have been developed to assess defendants' competence to stand trial (CST). These instruments have become increasingly sophisticated mainstays of CST evaluation research. Less is known, however, about their clinical utility. Continuous quality-improvement (CQI) efforts within forensic practice are one means of helping ascertain the effectiveness and efficiency of the use of these measures, especially in public sector settings. In this article, the authors describe a CQI project examining the use of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool-Criminal Adjudication (MacCAT-CA) on an inpatient forensic evaluation service. Results of a small, local CQI project cannot be generalized to all settings. However, from this CQI experience, the authors found the MacCAT-CA to be advantageous in assessing CST in certain defendants. Given some limitations of its practical utility, including its use with defendants putting forth poor effort, those with significant cognitive impairments, and those from various cultural backgrounds, the authors did not find that it would be an efficient practice to utilize the instrument in all CST assessments within a busy, public sector, inpatient forensic evaluation service. Having the instrument available for use as an adjunct to a clinical interview in particular cases may offer the most advantage. In addition, it is a useful tool for educating trainees about complex CST domains. This case-based CQI project reveals some basic strengths and weaknesses of the instrument and offers direction for further exploration in a systematic research study. PMID:16844797

Pinals, Debra A; Tillbrook, Chad E; Mumley, Denise L

2006-01-01

410

APPL proteins modulate DNA repair and radiation survival of pancreatic carcinoma cells by regulating ATM.  

PubMed

Despite intensive multimodal therapies, the overall survival rate of patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is still poor. The chemo- and radioresistance mechanisms of this tumor entity remain to be determined in order to develop novel treatment strategies. In cancer, endocytosis and membrane trafficking proteins are known to be utilized and they also critically regulate essential cell functions like survival and proliferation. On the basis of these data, we evaluated the role of the endosomal proteins adaptor proteins containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain and a leucine zipper motif (APPL)1 and 2 for the radioresistance of pancreatic carcinoma cells. Here, we show that APPL2 expression in pancreatic cancer cells is upregulated after irradiation and that depletion of APPL proteins by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly reduced radiation survival in parallel to impairing DNA double strand break (DSB) repair. In addition, APPL knockdown diminished radiogenic hyperphosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). Activated ATM and APPL1 were also shown to interact after irradiation, suggesting that APPL has a more direct role in the phosphorylation of ATM. Double targeting of APPL proteins and ATM caused similar radiosensitization and concomitant DSB repair perturbation to that observed after depletion of single proteins, indicating that ATM is the central modulator of APPL-mediated effects on radiosensitivity and DNA repair. These data strongly suggest that endosomal APPL proteins contribute to the DNA damage response. Whether targeting of APPL proteins is beneficial for the survival of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains to be elucidated. PMID:24763056

Hennig, J; McShane, M P; Cordes, N; Eke, I

2014-01-01

411

APPL proteins modulate DNA repair and radiation survival of pancreatic carcinoma cells by regulating ATM  

PubMed Central

Despite intensive multimodal therapies, the overall survival rate of patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas is still poor. The chemo- and radioresistance mechanisms of this tumor entity remain to be determined in order to develop novel treatment strategies. In cancer, endocytosis and membrane trafficking proteins are known to be utilized and they also critically regulate essential cell functions like survival and proliferation. On the basis of these data, we evaluated the role of the endosomal proteins adaptor proteins containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain and a leucine zipper motif (APPL)1 and 2 for the radioresistance of pancreatic carcinoma cells. Here, we show that APPL2 expression in pancreatic cancer cells is upregulated after irradiation and that depletion of APPL proteins by small interfering RNA (siRNA) significantly reduced radiation survival in parallel to impairing DNA double strand break (DSB) repair. In addition, APPL knockdown diminished radiogenic hyperphosphorylation of ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM). Activated ATM and APPL1 were also shown to interact after irradiation, suggesting that APPL has a more direct role in the phosphorylation of ATM. Double targeting of APPL proteins and ATM caused similar radiosensitization and concomitant DSB repair perturbation to that observed after depletion of single proteins, indicating that ATM is the central modulator of APPL-mediated effects on radiosensitivity and DNA repair. These data strongly suggest that endosomal APPL proteins contribute to the DNA damage response. Whether targeting of APPL proteins is beneficial for the survival of patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains to be elucidated.

Hennig, J; McShane, M P; Cordes, N; Eke, I

2014-01-01

412

A Hybrid Path-Oriented Code Assignment CDMA-Based MAC Protocol for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

Due to the characteristics of underwater acoustic channel, media access control (MAC) protocols designed for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWASNs) are quite different from those for terrestrial wireless sensor networks. Moreover, in a sink-oriented network with event information generation in a sensor field and message forwarding to the sink hop-by-hop, the sensors near the sink have to transmit more packets than those far from the sink, and then a funneling effect occurs, which leads to packet congestion, collisions and losses, especially in UWASNs with long propagation delays. An improved CDMA-based MAC protocol, named path-oriented code assignment (POCA) CDMA MAC (POCA-CDMA-MAC), is proposed for UWASNs in this paper. In the proposed MAC protocol, both the round-robin method and CDMA technology are adopted to make the sink receive packets from multiple paths simultaneously. Since the number of paths for information gathering is much less than that of nodes, the length of the spreading code used in the POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol is shorter greatly than that used in the CDMA-based protocols with transmitter-oriented code assignment (TOCA) or receiver-oriented code assignment (ROCA). Simulation results show that the proposed POCA-CDMA-MAC protocol achieves a higher network throughput and a lower end-to-end delay compared to other CDMA-based MAC protocols.

Chen, Huifang; Fan, Guangyu; Xie, Lei; Cui, Jun-Hong

2013-01-01

413

What is a Mammal? Answers from Dr. Ross MacPhee (Beyond Penguins and Polar Bears Podcast Extras)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article includes a series of short video segments in which Ross MacPhee, curator in the Department of Mammalogy of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) discusses polar mammals and their adaptations. As a paleomammalogist, MacPhee travels around the world studying mammals of the ancient past as well as those of today.

Payo, Robert; Chasteen, Stephanie; Macphee, Ross; History, American M.

414

Oxygen-Isotope Systematics of the Fayalite-Bearing Assemblages in MAC 88107, CO-Like Carbonaceous Chondrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report on mineralogy, petrography, and O-isotope compositions of the fayalite-bearing assemblages in the CO-like MAC 88107. We infer that these assemblages formed in situ on the MAC 88107 chondrite parent asteroid during fluid-rock interaction.

Krot, A. N.; Nagashima, K.

2012-09-01

415

Changing the Shape of American Radio Drama: Innovation and Representation in Archibald MacLeish's "The Fall of the City."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The (CBS Radio) Columbia Workshop, formed in 1936, encouraged the writing and production of creative, non-traditional radio drama such as Archibald MacLeish's verse play "The Fall of the City," which aired on April 11, 1937. MacLeish considered radio the ideal medium for poetry because it offers only aural stimuli without competition from visual…

Novak, Glenn D.

416

Using AppleWorks V2.0 To Construct Data Base Files for Use with the Apple IIGS Computer. First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This step-by-step guide to using AppleWorks V2.0 to construct database files for use with the Apple IIGS computer covers (1) program loading; (2) selecting the add files menu; (3) selecting a different disk; (4) selecting disk 1; (5) selecting the database option; (6) naming the file; (7) the blinking block cursor; (8) naming categories or fields;…

Schlenker, Richard M.

417

Use of an Apple IIe microcomputer for pyrolysis data acquisition  

SciTech Connect

An Apple IIe microcomputer is being used to collect data and to control a pyrolysis system. Pyrolysis data for bitumen and kerogen are widely used to estimate source rock maturity. For a detailed analysis of kinetic parameters, however, data must be obtained more precisely than for routine pyrolysis. The authors discuss the program which controls the temperature ramp of the furnace that heats the sample, and collects data from a thermocouple in the furnace and from the flame ionization detector measuring evolved hydrocarbons. These data are stored on disk for later use by programs that display the results of the experiment or calculate kinetic parameters. The program is written in Applesoft BASIC with subroutines in Apple assembler for speed and efficiency.

Not Available

1988-02-01

418

Purification and Properties of Apple Fruit Malic Enzyme 1  

PubMed Central

Malic enzyme was isolated and purified from mature apple fruits (Malus sylvestris, Miller) by utilizing procedures probably applicable to other soluble enzymes in this and similar tissues. The physical properties of apple fruit malic enzyme are similar to those reported for malic enzyme from other plant and animal sources. It is specific for l-malate, TPN and requires a divalent cation for activity. In contrast to the pigeon liver enzyme, supplemental TPN is not required for oxalacetic decarboxylase activity of the fruit enzyme. The pH optimum of the malic enzyme varied with the l-malate concentration and the nature of the divalent cation present. d-Malate activated the oxidation of l-malate at rate-limiting concentrations. Images

Dilley, David R.

1966-01-01

419

The toxicology and safety of apple polyphenol extract.  

PubMed

Apple polyphenol extract has strong antioxidant activity and various physiological functions, and is used in Japan as a food additive and nutritional supplements. Here, we tested the consumption safety of Applephenon, which is a polyphenol extract produced from unripe apples. The Ames test without S9 mixture revealed that Applephenon, had slight mutagenicity at a high concentration of 2500 microg/plate; however, both chromosomal aberration test and the micronucleus test found no significant mutagenicity. Furthermore, an acute oral-toxicity test, and a 90-day subchronic-toxicity test showed no significant hematological, clinical, chemical, histopathological, or urinary effects at a dose of 2000 mg/kg. These results confirm that Applephenon is safe and no toxic at average dietary level. PMID:15110105

Shoji, T; Akazome, Y; Kanda, T; Ikeda, M

2004-06-01

420

Collaboration for Education with the Apple Learning Interchange  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a progressive effort to deliver online education and outreach resources in collaboration with the Apple Learning Interchange, a free community for educators. We have created a resource site with astronomy activities, video training for the activities, and the possibility of interactive training through video chat services. Also in development is an online textbook for graduate and advanced undergraduate courses in stellar evolution, featuring an updatable and annotated text with multimedia content, online lectures, podcasts, and a framework for interactive simulation activities. Both sites will be highly interactive, combining online discussions, the opportunity for live video interaction, and a growing library of student work samples. This effort promises to provide a compelling model for collaboration between science educators and corporations. As scientists, we provide content knowledge and a compelling reason to communicate, while Apple provides technical expertise, a deep knowledge of online education, and a way for us to reach a wide audience of higher education, community outreach, and K-12 educators.

Young, Patrick A.; Zimmerman, T.; Knierman, K. A.

2006-12-01

421

Mercury residues in south Florida apple snails (Pomacea paludosa)  

SciTech Connect

Mercury concentrations in the sediments of south Florida wetlands have increased three fold in the last century. Because south Florida is home to many endemic and endangered species, it is important to understand the potential impacts of mercury in this ecosystem`s food web. Recent research by Malley et al. has shown mollusks to be sensitive indicators of methyl mercury which can reflect small differences in background methyl mercury concentrations. In this study, we attempted to determine if the apple snail (Pomacea paludosa) or its eggs are good indicators of bioavailable mercury. Then, using the apple snail as an indicator, we attempted to determine geographic differences in the concentrations of mercury in south Florida. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

Eisemann, J.D.; Beyer, W.N.; Morton, A. [National Biological Services, Laurel, MD (United States)] [National Biological Services, Laurel, MD (United States); Bennetts, R.E. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)] [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1997-05-01

422

A study of the physiological changes and the nutritional qualities of irradiated apples and the effect of irradiation on apples stored at room temperature  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of ?-irradiation on the metabolism and nutritional qualities of cold Delicious apples and on the lethality of verticillate pathogenic fungi have been studied. The storage effect of irradiation on apples at room temperature has been observed. The results showed that the respiratory intensity of irradiated apple at 0.3-0.5 kGy was near or lower than that of unirradiated apple after 15 days irradiation. The amount of ethylene release was obviously inhibited when fruits were irradiated with 0.3-0.7 kGy. The flesh firmness of apple irradiated with 0.3-0.9 kGy was higher than that of unirradiated apple with the increasing of storage time. The negative correlations between the flesh firmness and the activities of pectinesterase (PE), polygalacturonase (PG) were observed when the dosage was lower than 1.5 kGy. The 2.0 kGy irradiation damaged the ultrastructure of cells, induced the softening of apple. When apples were irradiated with 0.7-2.0 kGy, the contents of 4 important volatile components of apple would be decreased. However, the dosage mentioned above had no effects on the pure chemicals. The studies showed that there was no significant effect of irradiation with 0.3-2.0 kGy on the nutritional qualities of apples and this dosage range could effectively control the verticillate pathogenic fungi. The result of storage experiments showed that the rotting fruits were obviously decreased by 0.3-0.9 kGy irradiation.

Chuanyao, Wang; Mengyue, Jiang; Meixu, Gao; xiuye, Ma; Shufen, Zhang; Shucheng, Liu

1993-07-01

423

Queueing Analysis and Delay Mitigation in IEEE 802.11 Random Access MAC based Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an analytic model for evaluating the queueing delays at nodes in an IEEE 802.11 MAC based wireless network. The model can account for arbitrary arrival patterns, packet size distributions and number of nodes. Our model gives closed form expressions for obtaining the delay and queue length characteristics. We model each node as a discrete time

Omesh Tickoo; Biplab Sikdar

2004-01-01

424

Outdoor IEEE 802.11 Cellular Networks: Radio and MAC Design and Their Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper explores the feasibility of designing an outdoor cellular network based on the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 802.11 standard, which was originally developed for wireless local area networks. Specifically, the performance of the 802.11 radio and medium access control (MAC) protocol in outdoor environments is investigated. For channels typical in cellular networks, we study the radio

Kin K. Leung; Martin V. Clark; Bruce McNair; Zoran Kostic; Leonard J. Cimini; Jack H. Winters

2007-01-01

425

Channel based adaptive resource allocation at the MAC layer in UMTS TD-CDMA systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a scheduling strategy at the MAC level for the TDD\\/TCDMA UMTS third generation air interface. More precisely, we consider the uplink of a single-cell pedestrian outdoor scenario. Within this context we investigate the advantage of scheduling the different services that can be offered to the system, characterized by different quality and delay requirements, taking both the service priority

Mirko Ferracioli; Velio Tralli; Roberto Verdone

2000-01-01

426

Assessing Internalizing, Externalizing, and Attention Problems in Young Children: Validation of the MacArthur HBQ  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To test the validity of the MacArthur Health and Behavior Questionnaire (HBQ) using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis to determine optimal thresholds for the HBQ in predicting Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version-IV (DISC-IV)diagnoses. The roles of child sex, level of impairment, and physical health in…

Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Schreiber, Jane E.; Schmidt, Nicole L.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Essex, Marilyn J.; Goldsmith, H. H.

2007-01-01

427

An Evaluation of the MacMagic Program at Davidson Middle School.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This report evaluates the second year of the MacMagic program at Davidson Middle School in San Rafael, California. The program uses Macintosh computers, video cameras, tape recorders, and other related technology in a team teaching environment to enhance thinking and learning in an integrated English, history, and multimedia course. Children from…

Mergendoller, John R.; Pardo, Elly B.

428

Modification of MacFee Incision: A Balance Between Cosmesis and Accessibility.  

PubMed

Incision design is a critical element of operative planning. Incisions are chosen with the aim of optimizing exposure of relevant neck levels and minimizing morbidity. Various incisions have been proposed over the years but none fulfilled the criterias of ideal incisions. We propose a modification of MacFee s incision which is the balance between cosmesis and exposure. PMID:25018613

Kudva, Adarsh; Hemavathi, U; Patil, B R

2014-09-01

429

DOMINO: Detecting MAC Layer Greedy Behavior in IEEE 802.11 Hotspots  

Microsoft Academic Search

IEEE 802.11 works properly only if the stations respect the MAC protocol. We show in this paper that a greedy user can substantially increase his share of bandwidth, at the expense of the other users, by slightly modifying the driver of his network adapter. We explain how easily this can be performed, in particular, with the new generation of adapters.

Maxim Raya; Imad Aad; Jean-pierre Hubaux; Alaeddine El Fawal

2006-01-01

430

DOMINO: Detecting MAC layer greedy behavior in IEEE 802.11 hotspots  

Microsoft Academic Search

IEEE 802.11 works properly only if the stations respect the MAC protocol. We show in this paper that a greedy user can substantially increase his share of bandwidth, at the expense of the other users, by slightly modifying the driver of his network adapter. We explain how easily this can be performed, in particular with the new generation of adapters.

Maxim Rayay

431

Multiuser MIMO MAC with statistical CSI and MMSE receiver: feedback strategies and transmitter optimization  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a multi-input multi-output (MIMO) multiple access channel (MAC) where the base station has perfect channel state information (CSI), while the mobiles have only partial CSI. The statistical CSI at the mobiles can be obtained either by implicit (during downlink transmission) or explicit (via a low rate control channel) feedback. The base applies a linear multiuser MMSE receiver and

Eduard A. Jorswieck; Aydin Sezgin; Holger Boche; Elena Costa

2006-01-01

432

Detecting DIF in Polytomous Items Using MACS, IRT and Ordinal Logistic Regression  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the present study was to compare the Type I error rate and power of two model-based procedures, the mean and covariance structure model (MACS) and the item response theory (IRT), and an observed-score based procedure, ordinal logistic regression, for detecting differential item functioning (DIF) in polytomous items. A simulation…

Elosua, Paula; Wells, Craig

2013-01-01

433

MacMentoring: Using Technology and Counseling with At-Risk Youth.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The MacMentoring Project was designed to "hook" disenfranchised youth back into school by building self-esteem while teaching them transferable computer skills. The project was conceived with two key assumptions: adolescents have poor attendance, poor school behavior, and low self-esteem due, in part, to their poor response to previous teaching…

Casey, John A.; Ramsammy, Rima

434

Design, construction, prototype tests and performance of a vertex chamber for the MAC detector  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design considerations, construction techniques, prototype tests and performance characteristics of a pressurized drift chamber used in the MAC detector at PEP are described. The chamber consists of 324 aluminized mylar tubes of 6.9 mm diameter with wall thickness of 100 mum. With appropriate shielding it operates successfully at 4.6 cm from the beam line. It was simple to construct

W. W. Ash; H. R. Band; E. D. Bloom; M. Bosman; T. Camporesi; G. B. Chadwick; M. C. Delfino; R. de Sangro; W. T. Ford; M. W. Gettner; G. P. Goderre; G. L. Godfrey; D. E. Groom; R. B. Hurst; J. R. Johnson; K. H. Lau; T. L. Lavine; R. E. Leedy; I. Lippi; T. Maruyama; R. L. Messner; J. H. Moromisato; L. J. Moss; F. Muller; H. N. Nelson; I. Peruzzi; M. Piccolo; R. Prepost; J. Pyrlik; N. Qi; A. L. Read; D. M. Ritson; L. J. Rosenberg; W. D. Shambroom; J. C. Sleeman; J. G. Smith; J. P. Venuti; P. G. Verdini; E. von Goeler; H. B. Wald; R. Weinstein; D. E. Wiser; R. W. Zdarko

1987-01-01

435

Analysis and convergence of the MAC scheme. Part 1: The linear problem  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The MAC discretization of fluid flow is analyzed for the stationary Stokes equations. It is proved that the discrete approximations do in fact converge to the exact solutions of the flow equations. Estimates using mesh dependent norms analogous to the standard H(sup 1) and L(sup 2) norms are given for the velocity and pressure, respectively.

Nicolaides, R. A.

1991-01-01

436

Analyzing the MAC-level behavior of wireless networks in the wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present Wit, a non-intrusive tool that builds on passive moni- toring to analyze the detailed MAC-level behavior of operational wireless networks. Wit uses three processing steps to construct an enhanced trace of system activity. First, a robust merging proce- dure combines the necessarily incomplete views from multiple, in- dependent monitors into a single, more complete trace of wireless activity.

Ratul Mahajan; Maya Rodrig; David Wetherall; John Zahorjan

2006-01-01

437

Analyzing the MAC-level behavior of wireless networks in the wild  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present Wit, a non-intrusive tool that builds on passive monitoring to analyze the detailed MAC-level behavior of operational wireless networks. Wit uses three processing steps to construct an enhanced trace of system activity. First, a robust merging procedure combines the necessarily incomplete views from multiple, independent monitors into a single, more complete trace of wireless activity. Next, a novel

Ratul Mahajan; Maya Rodrig; David Wetherall; John Zahorjan

2006-01-01

438

Multi-Channel MAC Protocols Aiming at Aggressive Use of Vacant Resources with Two Transceivers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-Channel MAC protocols increase network throughput because multiple data transmissions can take place simultaneously. However, existing Multi-Channel MAC protocols do not take full advantage of the multi-channel environment, because they lack a mechanism allowing wireless stations to acquire vacant channel and time resources. In this paper, we first establish the basic model of existing Multi-Channel MAC protocols to know the capability of the most important existing protocols. Next, under the condition that each station can use only two transceivers, we propose Multi-Channel MAC protocols that effectively utilize idle channels and potentially available time resources of stations by employing bursts and interrupted frame transfers. We assume a transceiver can behave as either a transmitter or a receiver but not both at the same time. Moreover, we show the effectiveness of our proposal by computer simulation. Furthermore, through the evaluation in the case that each station can use more than two transceivers, we confirm two transceivers' case is best solution in terms of both attained throughput and hardware complexity.

Tanigawa, Yosuke; Tode, Hideki; Murakami, Koso

439

MAC mode atomic force microscopy studies of living samples, ranging from cells to fresh tissue.  

PubMed

Magnetic AC mode (MAC mode) atomic force microscopy (AFM), a novel type of tapping mode AFM in which the cantilever is driven directly by a magnetic field, is a powerful tool for imaging with high spatial resolution and better signal-to-noise in liquid environment. It may largely extend the application of AFM to living samples, especially those are sensitive to cantilever forces, even to multilayer tissue samples. However, there are few reports on the imaging of living cells by MAC mode AFM previously. In our present study, we explore the optimal imaging conditions of MAC mode AFM on living astrocytes and fresh arterial intima surface. We also used nude tips for PicoTREC panel (i.e., Aux in BNC, a new data collecting channel) to image living samples and discussed its difference with phase imaging. We show that living biological samples can be imaged by MAC mode AFM at details of comparable resolution as those by high resolution scanning electron microscopy. Furthermore, the combination of height, amplitude, phase and TREC panel signals provide abundant informations for the characteristics of living samples, such as topography, profile, stiffness and adhesion. PMID:17045399

Ge, Guanglu; Han, Dong; Lin, Danying; Chu, Weiguo; Sun, Yunxu; Jiang, Lei; Ma, Wanyun; Wang, Chen

2007-01-01

440

The Mac Internet Tour Guide: Cruising the Internet the Easy Way. [First Edition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Published exclusively for MacIntosh computer users, this guide provides an overview of Internet resources for new and experienced users. E-mail, file transfer, and decompression software used to access the resources are included on a 800k, 3.5 inch disk. The following chapters are included: (1) "What Is the Internet" covers finding your way…

Fraase, Michael

441

Characterizing MAC Refrigerant Emissions From Heavy-Duty On and Offroad Vehicles in California. Final Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study provides a first-of-its-kind, mass-based measurement of R134a emissions from heavyduty MAC systems. This groundbreaking effort also collected key information regarding the characteristics of these systems, and provides a foundation for improved...

R. Baker

2010-01-01

442

Performance evaluation of the WiMedia MAC protocol in high density wireless environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless networks based on the WiMedia specifications provide a good way to build low cost and robust networks with considerably high data rates. This work investigates the limits of these networks, especially in terms of scalability and time behavior. With a WiMedia MAC (media access control) protocol simulator we analyzed scenarios with up to 80 simultaneous nodes per channel and

Frank Leipold; Sergio Bovelli; Simon Brandner; Bernd Muller-Rathgeber

2008-01-01

443

CEFPI 2000 Design Portfolio: James D. MacConnell Award Winner.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents an architectural description of the Edmonds-Woodway High School (Washington), winner of the James D. MacConnel Award from the Council of Educational Facility Planners, International. Photos, floor plans, and project data and school statistics are included. (GR)

Educational Facility Planner, 2000

2000-01-01

444

An empirical analysis of the IEEE 802.11 MAC layer handoff process  

Microsoft Academic Search

IEEE 802.11 based wireless networks have seen rapid growth and deployment in the recent years. Critical to the 802.11 MAC operation, is the handoff function which occurs when a mobile node moves its association from one access point to another. In this paper, we present an empirical study of this handoff process at the link layer, with a detailed breakup

Arunesh Mishra; Minho Shin; William A. Arbaugh

2003-01-01

445

Investigation of the IEEE 802.11 medium access control (MAC) sublayer functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Analysis of the draft IEEE 802.11 wireless local area network (WLAN) standard is needed to characterize the expected performance of the standard's ad hoc and infrastructure networks. The performance of the medium access control (MAC) sublayer, which consists of distributed coordination function (DCF) and point coordination function (PCF), is determined by simulating asynchronous data traffic in a 1 Mbps ad

B. P. Crow; I. Widjaja; J. G. Kim; P. Sakai

1997-01-01

446

The Big Mac and Teaching about Japan. Footnotes. Volume 8, Number 5  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Big Mac can be effective tool in helping students achieve a better understanding of Japan. It can defeat Orientalist stereotypes about the Japanese--and also challenge young people who might have oversimplified notions of what exactly occurs when U.S. fast food chains take root in another culture. Many deride McDonald's as a villain…

Ellington, Lucien

2003-01-01

447

Annual Survey of PC- and Mac-Based Library System Vendors.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents the results of a survey of 18 vendors of PC- and Mac-based multifunction library systems that include either circulation or patron access catalogs. Highlights include software alone or turnkey systems, operating systems, programming language, sales, profitability, and support staff. (LRW)

Library Systems Newsletter, 1995

1995-01-01

448

Measurement Properties of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories at Ages One and Two Years.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Psychometric properties of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) were examined. Findings suggested that the CDI reflects the progress of language development within the age range 10 to 27 months. Findings support caution in using results to identify individuals at risk for language deficits, to compare groups with different…

Feldman, Heidi M.; Dollaghan, Christine A.; Campbell, Thomas F.; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Janosky, Janine E.; Paradise, Jack L.

2000-01-01

449

Performance of MAC protocols in linear VANETs under different attenuation and fading conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are an important example of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) because they can save lives by improving safety on our road networks. They are difficult to design however due their inherent characteristics e.g., quickly changing topology, node density and relative speeds of vehicles. These characteristics also make current wireless media access control (MAC) protocols unsuitable

B. Blaszczyszyn; P. Muhlethaler; Y. Toor

2009-01-01

450

Performance Investigation into an IEEE 802.14 MAC Protocol for HFC Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper provides insight into the performance of a candidate IEEE 802.14 MAC protocol for hybrid fibre\\/coax (HFC) networks, by simulation. The simulations make use of two types of input traffic: measured traffic traces, and randomly generated memoryless traffic. It is confirmed that the protocol does not reach congestion collapse under any traffic load, and this is found to hold

Milosh V. Ivanovich; Moshe Zukerman; Ron Addie

1997-01-01

451

Mutual Anonymous Communications: A New Covert Channel Based on Splitting Tree MAC  

Microsoft Academic Search

Known covert channel based on splitting algorithms in Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols requires the receiver's knowledge of the sender's identity. In this paper we present a new covert channel that does not have this restriction. In such a channel, multiple senders may operate independently without knowing each other, and the receiver can learn the transmitted information without knowing the

Zhenghong Wang; Jing Deng; Ruby B. Lee

2007-01-01

452

Application of Multihop Relay for Performance Enhancement of AeroMACS Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new transmission technology, based on IEEE 802.16-2009 (WiMAX), is currently being developed for airport surface communications. A C-band spectrum allocation at 5091-5150 MHz has been created by ITU to carry this application. The proposed technology, known as AeroMACS, will be used to support fixed and mobile ground to ground applications and services. This article proposes and demonstrates that IEEE 802.16j-amendment-based WiMAX is most feasible for AeroMACS applications. This amendment introduces multihop relay as an optional deployment that may be used to provide additional coverage and/or enhance the capacity of the network. Particular airport surface radio coverage situations for which IEEE 802.16-2009-WiMAX provides resolutions that are inefficient, costly, or excessively power consuming are discussed. In all these cases, it is argued that 16j technology offers a much better alternative. A major concern about deployment of AeroMACS is interference to co-allocated applications such as the Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) feeder link. Our initial simulation results suggest that no additional interference to MSS feeder link is caused by deployment of IEEE 802.16j-based AeroMACS.

Kamali, Behnam; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Kerczewski, Robert J.

2012-01-01

453

MacIntyre, Moral Value, and Mahayana Buddhism: Embracing the Unthinkable in Moral Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Introduces an interpretation of intrinsic moral value, drawing from Mahayana Buddhist teachings to forestall anticipated objections to that interpretation and indicating some implications of that interpretation for the practice of moral education. The paper draws from Alasdair MacIntyre's meta-ethics in its discussion of the debate on moral…

Vokey, Daniel

1999-01-01

454

Mineral-chemical comparisons of MAC88105 with Yamato lunar meteorites  

SciTech Connect

The new lunar meteorite MAC88105 has been studied by mineral-chemical techniques and was compared with the Yamato lunar meteorites. Clast types and pyroxene compositions of MAC88105 indicate that evidence for a pairing with any known lunar meteorites is unlikely. Clast-laden vitric breccia and comminuted mineral fragments in glassy matrix are common components as in other lunar meteorites, but granulitic clasts are not as common as in other lunar meteorites. The large and common granulite-like meta-igneous clasts still preserve lath-shaped plagioclase crystals with fine-grained olivine and pyroxenes in the interstices. Pyroxenes with mg number = Mg {times} 100/(Mg + Fe) between 70-48 mol% are common, but more Mg-rich pyroxenes and plutonic pyroxenes from nonmare pristine crustal rocks are rare. One basaltic clast contains pyroxenes with zoning trends more MG-rich than the above mg range and than those of the VLT basalts common in lunar meteorites. MAC88105 preserves true glass in the matrix as observed by a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The preservation of glassy materials indicates that MAC 88105 had a metamorphic annealing history different from other lunar meteorites.

Takeda, Hiroshi; Mori, Hiroshi; Saito, Jun (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)); Miyamoto, Masamichi (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

1991-11-01

455

Dependence of AeroMACS Interference on Airport Radiation Pattern Characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

AeroMACS (Aeronautical Mobile Airport Communications System), which is based upon the IEEE 802.16e mobile wireless standard, is expected to be implemented in the 5091-5150 MHz frequency band. As this band is also occupied by Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) feeder uplinks, AeroMACS must be designed to avoid interference with this incumbent service. The aspects of AeroMACS operation that present potential interference are under analysis in order to enable the definition of standards that assure that such interference will be avoided. In this study, the cumulative interference power distribution at low earth orbit from AeroMACS transmitters at the 497 major airports in the contiguous United States was simulated with the Visualyse Professional software. The dependence of the interference power on the number of antenna beams per airport, gain patterns, and beam direction orientations was simulated. As a function of these parameters, the simulation results are presented in terms of the limitations on transmitter power required to maintain the cumulative interference power under the established threshold.

Wilson, Jeffrey D.

2012-01-01

456

Topic 2: Energy Efficient MAC Layer Communication Protocols for Low Power Wireless Devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a wireless network, each mobile device relies on its limited battery power for receiving, transmitting and processing data. Greater the energy capacity of the battery, longer the run time (operational time) of the wireless device. The energy consumption can be reduced by developing energy-efficient communication protocols at several layers of network stack like Application, Transport, MAC, and Network layer.

Duncan S. Wong; Agnes H. Chan

457

A Slow Start Power Control MAC Protocol for Mobile Ad HOC Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose a MAC protocol for mobile ad hoc networks that uses power control for the RTS\\/CTS and DATA frame transmissions in order to improve energy and capacity utilization efficiency. Unlike IEEE 802.11, in our scheme the RTS frames are not sent using the maximum transmission power to silence neighbouring nodes, and the CTS frames do not silence all receiving

Vasilis S. Gkamas; Emmanouel A. Varvarigos

2006-01-01

458

Moraine Area Career System (MACS). Technology Preparation Final Report for 1992.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Moraine Area Career System (MACS) Tech Prep Applied Academics Core project was undertaken to develop a written replicable model core of applied academics for selected vocational-technical programs that would emphasize Illinois goals for learning and technical content (including critical and computer literacy). A tech prep advisory council…

Moraine Valley Community Coll., Palos Hills, IL.

459

Influence of Bit Error Rate on the Performance of IEEE 802.11 MAC Protocol  

Microsoft Academic Search

IEEE 802.11 is the most important standard for wireless local area networks (WLANs). In the IEEE 802.11 WLANs, distributed coordination function (DCF) is a fundamental medium access control (MAC) protocol, whose performance has been studied analytically in the literature. However, there is no research work that takes into account different incoming traffic load, network size, hidden terminal problem, and the

Xiaolong Li; Qing-An Zeng

2007-01-01

460

Berkeley Lab Scientist Named MacArthur ''Genius'' Fellow for Audio Preservation Research  

ScienceCinema

Audio Preservationist Carl Haber was named a MacArthur Fellow in 2013. The Fellowship is a $625,000, no-strings-attached grant for individuals who have shown exceptional creativity in their work and the promise to do more. Learn more at http://www.macfound.org/fellows.

461

Berkeley Lab Scientist Named MacArthur ''Genius'' Fellow for Audio Preservation Research  

SciTech Connect

Audio Preservationist Carl Haber was named a MacArthur Fellow in 2013. The Fellowship is a $625,000, no-strings-attached grant for individuals who have shown exceptional creativity in their work and the promise to do more. Learn more at http://www.macfound.org/fellows.

Haber, Carl

2013-09-24

462

Command Relations at the Operational Level of War. Kenney, MacArthur, and Arnold.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

As Gen Douglas MacArthur's air commander in the Southwest Pacific theater during World War II, Gen George C. Kenney applied operational insights, intellectual acumen, and innovative drive that made airpower a vital part of the Allied victory. An important...

J. T. Griffith

1999-01-01

463

Performance evaluation of dynamic bandwidth sharing-based MAC protocol over WDM\\/Ethernet-PON  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a novel MAC protocol adopting time division duplex (TDD) technology, which can extend total subscribers for WDM\\/Ethernet passive optical network (WE-PON) at the expense of downstream bandwidth. To compensate sacrificed downstream bandwidth, we employ an efficient threshold decision and dynamic bandwidth (DBA) algorithm that maximize protocol performance. For reliable performance validation, it is simulated using

Bokrae Jung; Hyunho Yun; Taeyeon Kim; Jeongju Yoo; Minho Kang

2006-01-01

464

Co-Designing Multi-Packet Reception, Network Coding, And MAC Using A Simple Predictive Model.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We design a cross-layer approach to optimize the joint use of multi- packet reception and network coding, in order to relieve congestion. We construct a model for the behavior of the 802.11 MAC and apply it to several key canonical topology components and...

J. Cloud L. Zeger M. Medard

2010-01-01

465

Detection and prevention of MAC layer misbehavior in ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Selfish behavior at the MAC layer can have devastating side effects on the performance of wireless networks, similar to the effects of DoS attacks. In this paper we focus on the prevention and detection of the manipulation of the backoff mechanism by selfish nodes in 802.11. We first propose an algorithm to ensure honest backoffs when at least one, either

Alvaro A. Cárdenas; Svetlana Radosavac; John S. Baras

2004-01-01

466

Application of Multihop Relay for Performance Enhancement of AeroMACS Networks  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new transmission technology, based on IEEE 802.16-2009 (WiMAX), is currently being developed for airport surface communications. A C-band spectrum allocation at 5091 to 5150 MHz has been created by International Telecommunications Union (ITU) to carry this application. The proposed technology, known as AeroMACS, will be used to support fixed and mobile ground to ground applications and services. This article proposes and demonstrates that IEEE 802.16j-amendment-based WiMAX is most feasible for AeroMACS applications. This amendment introduces multihop relay as an optional deployment that may be used to provide additional coverage and/or enhance the capacity of the network. Particular airport surface radio coverage situations for which IEEE 802.16-2009-WiMAX provides resolutions that are inefficient, costly, or excessively power consuming are discussed. In all these cases, it is argued that 16j technology offers a much better alternative. A major concern about deployment of AeroMACS is interference to co-allocated applications such as the Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) feeder link. Our initial simulation results suggest that no additional interference to MSS feeder link is caused by deployment of IEEE 802.16j-based AeroMACS.

Kamali, Behnam; Wilson, Jeffrey D.; Kerczewski, Robert J.

2012-01-01

467

Berkeley Lab Scientist Named MacArthur ''Genius'' Fellow for Audio Preservation Research  

ScienceCinema

Audio Preservationist Carl Haber was named a MacArthur Fellow in 2013. The Fellowship is a $625,000, no-strings-attached grant for individuals who have shown exceptional creativity in their work and the promise to do more. Learn more at http://www.macfound.org/fellows.

Haber, Carl

2013-10-22

468

Scalable Video Streaming Adaptive to Time-Varying IEEE 802.11 MAC Parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This letter proposes a QoS control method for video streaming service over wireless networks. Based on statistical analysis, the time-varying MAC parameters highly related to channel condition are selected to predict available bitrate. Adaptive bitrate control of scalably-encoded video guarantees continuity in streaming service even if the channel condition changes abruptly.

Lee, Kyung-Jun; Suh, Doug-Young; Park, Gwang-Hoon; Huh, Jae-Doo

469

OFDM-MAC algorithms and their impact on TCP performance in next generation mobile networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Next generation wireless systems employ Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) physical layer owing to the high data rate transmissions that are possible without increase in bandwidth. While TCP performance has been extensively studied for interaction with link layer ARQ, little attention has been given to the interaction of TCP with MAC layer. In this work, we explore cross-layer interactions in

L. A. Prashanth; K. Gopinath

2008-01-01

470

Microwave-assisted air dehydration of apple and mushroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

Microwave-assisted hot-air dehydration of apple and mushroom was performed with low-power microwave energy. The purpose of the investigation was to compare hot-air drying and microwave-assisted hot-air drying. The air velocity, the microwave output power and the air temperature were the variables in the experiments. The microwave energy was supplied by either microwave applicators with transverse magnetic (TM) modes as dominant

Tomas Funebo; Thomas Ohlsson

1998-01-01

471

Science Sampler: Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project involved thousands of student scientists across the nation in the collection and analysis of astronomical data using a 34-meter radio telescope. These students contributed to the work of the world's foremost authorities on space science when they forwarded their information to NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) scientists. The JPL scientists used the information to expand their studies of Jupiter, Uranus, and variable quasars.

Maclaren, Dave; Ibe, Mary

2003-05-01

472

Modeling Light Interception and Transpiration of Apple Tree Canopies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Adequate light distribution within the tree canopy is also needed to secure high fruit quality because shade Sap flow in the trunk of two different-sized apple trees (Malus causes a reduction in fruit weight and other symptoms sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf. cv. Splendour\\/ of fruit immaturity such as decreased fruit color, fruit MM.106 and Braeburn\\/M.9) was measured

Steve Green; Keith McNaughton; J. N. Wünsche; Brent Clothier

2003-01-01

473

Inhibitory effects of various antibrowning agents on apple slices  

Microsoft Academic Search

A comprehensive study to evaluate the relative antibrowning activity of 36 known compounds was conducted. Five chemical groups, including carboxylic acids, ascorbic acid derivatives, sulfur containing amino acids, phenolic acids and other miscellaneous compounds, were tested on apple slices under the same conditions. Among the compounds tested, oxalic acid, oxalacetic acid, ascorbic acid-2-phosphate, cysteine, glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, kojic acid and 4-hexyl

S. M. Son; K. D. Moon; C. Y. Lee

2001-01-01

474

Climate change adaptation practices of apple growers in Nagano, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

By an interview survey with apple growers in Nagano Prefecture, Japan, we found that their recognition of and reaction to\\u000a climate change depends on their sales channels. Against rising air temperature, more farmers on direct sales (Type D farmers)\\u000a than those on sales via the markets (Type M farmers) recognized the delay in fruit maturity as the effect of climate

Mariko Fujisawa; Kazuhiko Kobayashi

2011-01-01

475

A Very Low Power MAC (VLPM) Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks  

PubMed Central

Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) consist of a limited number of battery operated nodes that are used to monitor the vital signs of a patient over long periods of time without restricting the patient’s movements. They are an easy and fast way to diagnose the patient’s status and to consult the doctor. Device as well as network lifetime are among the most important factors in a WBAN. Prolonging the lifetime of the WBAN strongly depends on controlling the energy consumption of sensor nodes. To achieve energy efficiency, low duty cycle MAC protocols are used, but for medical applications, especially in the case of pacemakers where data have time-limited relevance, these protocols increase latency which is highly undesirable and leads to system instability. In this paper, we propose a low power MAC protocol (VLPM) based on existing wakeup radio approaches which reduce energy consumption as well as improving the response time of a node. We categorize the traffic into uplink and downlink traffic. The nodes are equipped with both a low power wake-up transmitter and receiver. The low power wake-up receiver monitors the activity on channel all the time with a very low power and keeps the MCU (Micro Controller Unit) along with main radio in sleep mode. When a node [BN or BNC (BAN Coordinator)] wants to communicate with another node, it uses the low-power radio to send a wakeup packet, which will prompt the receiver to power up its primary radio to listen for the message that follows shortly. The wake-up packet contains the desired node’s ID along with some other information to let the targeted node to wake-up and take part in communication and let all other nodes to go to sleep mode quickly. The VLPM protocol is proposed for applications having low traffic conditions. For high traffic rates, optimization is needed. Analytical results show that the proposed protocol outperforms both synchronized and unsynchronized MAC protocols like T-MAC, SCP-MAC, B-MAC and X-MAC in terms of energy consumption and response time.

Ullah, Niamat; Khan, Pervez; Kwak, Kyung Sup

2011-01-01

476

Comparative study of mitral annular calcification (MAC) with cardiac arrhythmias in dialysis patients.  

PubMed

Cardiac arrhythmias and myocardial malfunction are very frequent in uremic patients. The pathogenesis and etiology of arrhythmias are very complex and still unknown. The sedimentation of calcium salt in myocardial structures is one of the reasons for emergence of cardiac arrhythmias (AV conduction defects, ectopic arrhythmias). The appearance of mitral annular calcification (MAC), as the expression of the speed up process of atherosclerosis, was noted in younger uremic patients especially during hemodialysis. The aim of our research was to compare the incidence of MAC and cardiac arrhythmias in patients on hemodialysis. Our study included 40 patients, 24 male and 16 female, in the age between 20 and 60. Patients were mostly from Zagreb and the Counties of Zagreb (35%), Karlovac (10%), Slavonski Brod (7.5%), Varazdin (5%) and Pozega (5%). All 40 patients received 24 hours of Holter monitoring and 2-D echocardiography of M-mode. The patients were divided in two groups: I MAC+ (N = 23) and II MAC- (N = 17). Frequency of cardiac arrhythmias in group I was: atrial fibrillation N = 0; conduction defects N = 2 (1%); ventricularectopy Lown grade 3-5 N = 15 (65%); supraventricular ectopy N = 8 (34%), while the frequency of cardiac arrhythmias in group II was: atrial fibrillation N = 0; conduction defects N = 0; ventricular ectopy Lown grade 3-5 N = 6 (35%), supraventricular ectopy N = 6 (35%). During statistical processing the significant connection of MAC+ and frequency of cardiac arrhythmias was noticed. For both groups we have not noticed statistical significance in cardiac arrhythmia compared to electrolytes, risk factors PTH, and age. The time of hemodialysis treatment is one of possible factors for incidence of cardiac arrhythmias influenced by MAC. We noticed statistically significant (p < 0.05) difference of rhythm disorders between group I and group II especially for the ventricular ectopic activity, the frequency of which was higher in group I than in group II. MAC has probably significant role in dialysis patients for the development of cardiac arrhythmias within the framework of series of complicated multifactorial patogenetic mechanisms. PMID:9225510

Jeren-Struji?, B; Raos, V; Jeren, T; Horvatin-Godler, S

1997-06-01

477

Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple juice. 1. Effect of existing production methods.  

PubMed

Apples are an important source of flavonoids in the human diet. The effect of processing apples into juice on polyphenolic antioxidant content and activity is described. Raw juice obtained from Jonagold apples by pulping and straight pressing or after pulp enzyming had an antioxidant activity that was only 10 and 3%, respectively, of the activity of the fresh apples. The levels of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid in the juice were reduced to between 50% (chlorogenic acid) and 3% (catechins). Most of the antioxidants were retained in the pomace rather than being transferred into the juice. Apparently, most of the antioxidant compounds are absorbed to the solid matter of the pomace. In apple juice, 45% of the total measured antioxidant activity could be ascribed to the analyzed antioxidants. For three apple cultivars tested (Elstar, Golden Delicious, and Jonagold), the processing methods had similar effects. The results indicate that processing can have a major impact on the bioactivity of products. PMID:12452634

Van Der Sluis, Addie A; Dekker, Matthijs; Skrede, Grete; Jongen, Wim M F

2002-12-01

478

Natural enemies of woolly apple aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Washington State.  

PubMed

Woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann), has become a pest of increasing importance in Washington apple orchards in the past decade. The increase in aphid outbreaks appears to be associated with changes in pesticide programs and disruption of biological control. We sampled woolly apple aphid colonies in central Washington apple orchards for natural enemies of this pest from 2006 to 2008. The most common predators encountered were Syrphidae (Syrphus opinator Osten Sacken, Eupeodes fumipennis Thomson, and Eupeodes americanus Wiedemann); Chrysopidae (Chrysopa nigricornis Burmeister); and Coccinellidae (Coccinella transversoguttata Brown and Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville). The specialist syrphid Heringia calcarata Loew was recorded for the first time occurring in Washington apple orchards. The only parasitoid found in aerial colonies of woolly apple aphid was Aphelinus mali Haldeman; root colonies, however, were not parasitized. Identification of important natural enemies provides a better basis for conservation biological control of this pest. PMID:23321082

Gontijo, Lessando M; Cockfield, Stephen D; Beers, Elizabeth H

2012-12-01

479

MacA is a Second Cytochrome c Peroxidase of Geobacter sulfurreducens  

PubMed Central

The metal-reducing ?-proteobacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens produces a large number of c-type cytochromes, many of which have been implicated in the transfer of electrons to insoluble metal oxides. Among these, the dihemic MacA was assigned a central role. Here we have produced G. sulfurreducens MacA by recombinant expression in Escherichia coli and have solved its three-dimensional structure in three different oxidation states. Sequence comparisons group MacA into the family of diheme cytochrome c peroxidases, and the protein indeed showed hydrogen peroxide reductase activity with ABTS2– as an electron donor. The observed KM was 38.5 ± 3.7 ?M H2O2 and vmax was 0.78 ± 0.03 ?mol H2O2·min–1·mg–1, resulting in a turnover number kcat = 0.46 · s–1. In contrast, no Fe(III) reductase activity was observed. MacA was found to display similar electrochemical properties to other bacterial diheme peroxidases, in additional to the ability to electrochemically mediate electron transfer to the soluble cytochrome PpcA. Differences in activity between CcpA and MacA can be rationalized with structural variations in one of the three loop regions, loop 2, that undergo conformational changes during reductive activation of the enzyme. This loop is adjacent to the active site heme and forms an open loop structure rather than a more rigid helix as in CcpA. For the activation of the protein the loop has to displace the distal ligand to the active site heme, H93, in loop 1. A H93G variant showed an unexpected formation of a helix in loop 2 and disorder in loop 1, while a M297H variant that altered the properties of the electron transfer heme abolished reductive activation.

Seidel, Julian; Hoffmann, Maren; Ellis, Katie E.; Seidel, Antonia; Spatzal, Thomas; Gerhardt, Stefan; Elliott, Sean J.

2012-01-01

480

Direct measurement of nitrous oxide MAC and neurologic monitoring in rats during anesthesia under hyperbaric conditions.  

PubMed

The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of nitrous oxide necessary to prevent purposeful movement in rats has not been directly measured; rather, it has been extrapolated because the required partial pressure exceeds 760 mm Hg, or 1 atm absolute pressure (ATA). Values reported have ranged from 1.36 to 2.20 ATA (136-220 vol%, or 1034-1672 mm Hg). By maintaining general anesthesia at 2.25 ATA (1710 mm Hg), we directly measured the nitrous oxide MAC in 17 Long-Evans rats during mechanical ventilation and monitoring of two-channel electroencephalogram, compressed spectral array and cortical evoked potentials, electrocardiograph, and respiratory and anesthetic gases by mass spectrometry. After a minimal stabilization period of 30 min during ventilation by 1.8 ATA nitrous oxide and 0.45 ATA oxygen, MAC measurements were begun. Each rat was given up to three noxious electrical stimulations of 50 V by 10-ms-duration pulses at 50/s for 45 s. The partial pressure of nitrous oxide was decreased by approximately 10% after each negative response. The MAC was taken as the nitrous oxide concentration midway between that at which there was no response and that at which the rat moved purposefully. The nitrous oxide MAC in Long-Evans rats was determined to be 1.55 +/- 0.16 ATA (mean +/- SD). Hyperbaric nitrous oxide decreased electroencephalogram wave frequency to a predominantly theta rhythm of increased amplitude. Cortical evoked potentials had decreased wave amplitudes and increased latencies with increasing partial pressures > 0.75 ATA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1443718

Russell, G B; Graybeal, J M

1992-12-01

481

Tracheal wheezes during methacholine airway challenge (MAC) in workers exposed to occupational hazards.  

PubMed

Methacholine airway challenge (MAC) is a simple and useful means to assess bronchial hyperreactivity in workers exposed to various occupational hazards. Recently, wheeze detection by tracheal auscultation has been proposed as an indicator of bronchial responsiveness during bronchial provocation test in children. Our aim was to examine the relationship between the appearance of wheezes and the concurrent changes in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) observed during MAC test in adults. Three cumulative doses of a methacholine solution (100 micrograms, 500 micrograms and 1500 micrograms) were inhaled by 45 workers with occupational exposure to flour dust. Spirometry was done using an electronic spirometer. Tracheal sounds were recorded with an electronic stethoscope placed over the anterior cervical trian