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Sample records for apple replant disease

  1. Towards the intergrated management of apple replant disease using knowledge on disease etiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Young apple orchards that are cultivated on old apple soils often suffer from apple replant disease (ARD). ARD symptom expression is characterized by tree stunting, shortened internodes and discoloured roots, which appears throughout the orchard shortly after orchard establishment when trees are mos...

  2. Rootstock genotype succession influences apple replant disease and root-zone microbial community composition in an orchard soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is a soil-borne disease complex that affects young apple trees in replanted orchards, resulting in stunted growth and reduced yields. New rootstock genotypes with resistance to ARD may help to control this disease. To determine the effects of rootstock genotype succession...

  3. Advances in Brassicaceae seed meal formulation and application for replant disease control in organic apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceae seed meals when used independently do not provide uniform and sufficient control of the pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease. Trials were established at multiple sites to evaluate the efficacy of seed meal formulations for control of this disease in organic production sy...

  4. Progress in Brassicaceae seed meal formulation and application for replant disease control in organic apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceae seed meals when used independently do not provide uniform or sufficient control of the pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease. Trials were established at multiple sites (STM, SR and Tukey orchards) in Washington State to evaluate the efficacy of seed meal formulations for ...

  5. Advances in Brassica seed meal formulation for apple replant disease control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceae seed meals when used independently do not provide uniform and sufficient control of the pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease for this soil amendment to be used as a viable alternative to pre-plant soil fumigation. Therefore, field trials were established at multiple site...

  6. Integration of apple rootstock genotype with reduced Brassica seed meal application rates for replant disease control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-plant soil application of Brassica seed meal (SM) formulations can provide fumigant level control of apple replant disease. However, due to high cost of the SM treatment relative to non-tarped soil fumigation, reduced application rates would likely accelerate commercial adoption of this technolo...

  7. Characterization of apple replant disease-associated microbial communities over multiple growth periods using next-generation sequencing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Replant disease in apple occurs as a result of incompletely understood and variable complexes of soil-borne pathogens that can build up over time in orchard soil. This disease limits economic viability of newly established orchards on replant sites and results in reduced productivity for the life of...

  8. Evaluating systemic semi-selective chemicals for the management of apple replant disease in fumigated and non-fumigated orchards systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) is a phenomenon where apple trees are stunted when replanted onto old apple soil, as the result of apple monoculture resulting in soil microbial changes where pathogenic and parasitic organism s predominate. The main soilborne organisms that cause ARD include oomycetes, f...

  9. Candidate gene approach and transcriptome analysis to elucidate the defense responses in apple rootstocks against replant disease inciting pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The defense response of apple rootstocks to necrotrophic soilborne pathogens that incite apple replant disease (ARD) has not been investigated. In this study, apple root tissues inoculated with Pythium ultimum, including those for mock inoculation, were sampled at 0, 1, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hour ...

  10. Identification of external inoculum sources of apple replant pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is an important disease world-wide and occurs when old apple orchards are replanted with apple. The disease is mainly caused by biological agents, since fumigation alleviates symptom development. The main ARD causative agents are fungi (Rhizoctonia solani AG-5 and AG-6, a...

  11. Differential molecular response of apple rootstocks to replant disease causing soil-borne pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A diversity of soil-borne fungal pathogens cause applereplant diseases” (ARD) with a range of symptoms from diminished productivity to tree death. The molecular mechanisms behind host resistance to these necrotrophic pathogens in perennial root tissues are unknown. It is known from other pathosy...

  12. A multi-phasic approach reveals that apple replant disease is caused by multiple biological agents, with some agents acting synergistically

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease (ARD) has been reported from all major fruit-growing regions of the world, and is often caused by a consortium of biological agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the etiology of ARD in South Africa in six orchard soils, using a multiphasic approach under glasshouse ...

  13. Brassica juncea seed meal particle size influences chemistry but not soil biology-based suppression of individual agents inciting apple replant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple replant disease is incited by a pathogen complex composed of multiple fungal, oomycete and nematode species. Rhizoctonia solani AG-5 is a significant component of this complex and is suppressed via multiple mechanisms in response to Brassica juncea seed meal (SM) amendment. These mechanisms i...

  14. Non-Fumigant management of apple replant disease in organic and conventional systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica tissues are often promoted as a soil amendment for control of soilborne plant diseases due to their production of glucosinolates, which yield anti-microbial compounds upon hydrolysis. Studies demonstrated that mechanisms operating in the control of Rhizoctonia root rot of apple in response ...

  15. Cultural management of microbial community structure to enhance growth of apple in replant soils.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Mark; Granatstein, David M; Elfving, Don C; Mullinix, Kent; Gu, Yu-Huan

    2002-12-01

    ABSTRACT Apple replant disease typically is managed through pre-plant application of broad-spectrum soil fumigants including methyl bromide. The impending loss or restricted use of soil fumigants and the needs of an expanding organic tree fruit industry necessitate the development of alternative control measures. The microbial community resident in a wheat field soil was shown to suppress components of the microbial complex that incites apple replant disease. Pseudomonas putida was the primary fluorescent pseudomonad recovered from suppressive soil, whereas Pseudomonas fluorescens bv. III was dominant in a conducive soil; the latter developed within 3 years of orchard establishment at the same site. In greenhouse studies, cultivation of wheat in replant orchard soils prior to planting apple suppressed disease development. Disease suppression was induced in a wheat cultivar-specific manner. Wheat cultivars that enhanced apple seedling growth altered the dominant fluorescent pseudo-monad from Pseudomonas fluorescens bv. III to Pseudomonas putida. The microbial community resident in replant orchard soils after growing wheat also was suppressive to an introduced isolate of Rhizoctonia solani anastomosis group 5, which causes root rot of apple. Incorporation of high glucosinolate containing rapeseed ('Dwarf Essex') meal also enhanced growth of apple in replant soils through suppression of Rhizoc-tonia spp., Cylindrocarpon spp., and Pratylenchus penetrans. Integration of these methods will require knowledge of the impact of the biofumigant component on the wheat-induced disease-suppressive microbial community. Implementation of these control strategies for management of apple replant disease awaits confirmation from ongoing field validation trials. PMID:18943894

  16. Different bacterial communities in heat and gamma irradiation treated replant disease soils revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis - contribution to improved aboveground apple plant growth?

    PubMed

    Yim, Bunlong; Winkelmann, Traud; Ding, Guo-Chun; Smalla, Kornelia

    2015-01-01

    Replant disease (RD) severely affects apple production in propagation tree nurseries and in fruit orchards worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the effects of soil disinfection treatments on plant growth and health in a biotest in two different RD soil types under greenhouse conditions and to link the plant growth status with the bacterial community composition at the time of plant sampling. In the biotest performed we observed that the aboveground growth of apple rootstock M26 plants after 8 weeks was improved in the two RD soils either treated at 50°C or with gamma irradiation compared to the untreated RD soils. Total community DNA was extracted from soil loosely adhering to the roots and quantitative real-time PCR revealed no pronounced differences in 16S rRNA gene copy numbers. 16S rRNA gene-based bacterial community analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 454-pyrosequencing revealed significant differences in the bacterial community composition even after 8 weeks of plant growth. In both soils, the treatments affected different phyla but only the relative abundance of Acidobacteria was reduced by both treatments. The genera Streptomyces, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Sphingomonas had a higher relative abundance in both heat treated soils, whereas the relative abundance of Mucilaginibacter, Devosia, and Rhodanobacter was increased in the gamma-irradiated soils and only the genus Phenylobacterium was increased in both treatments. The increased abundance of genera with potentially beneficial bacteria, i.e., potential degraders of phenolic compounds might have contributed to the improved plant growth in both treatments. PMID:26635733

  17. Illumina Amplicon Sequencing of 16S rRNA Tag Reveals Bacterial Community Development in the Rhizosphere of Apple Nurseries at a Replant Disease Site and a New Planting Site

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian; Zhang, Qiang; Zhou, Jia; Wei, Qinping

    2014-01-01

    We used a next-generation, Illumina-based sequencing approach to characterize the bacterial community development of apple rhizosphere soil in a replant site (RePlant) and a new planting site (NewPlant) in Beijing. Dwarfing apple nurseries of ‘Fuji’/SH6/Pingyitiancha trees were planted in the spring of 2013. Before planting, soil from the apple rhizosphere of the replant site (ReSoil) and from the new planting site (NewSoil) was sampled for analysis on the Illumina MiSeq platform. In late September, the rhizosphere soil from both sites was resampled (RePlant and NewPlant). More than 16,000 valid reads were obtained for each replicate, and the community was composed of five dominant groups (Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Gemmatimonadetes and Actinobacteria). The bacterial diversity decreased after apple planting. Principal component analyses revealed that the rhizosphere samples were significantly different among treatments. Apple nursery planting showed a large impact on the soil bacterial community, and the community development was significantly different between the replanted and newly planted soils. Verrucomicrobia were less abundant in RePlant soil, while Pseudomonas and Lysobacter were increased in RePlant compared with ReSoil and NewPlant. Both RePlant and ReSoil showed relatively higher invertase and cellulase activities than NewPlant and NewSoil, but only NewPlant soil showed higher urease activity, and this soil also had the higher plant growth. Our experimental results suggest that planting apple nurseries has a significant impact on soil bacterial community development at both replant and new planting sites, and planting on new site resulted in significantly higher soil urease activity and a different bacterial community composition. PMID:25360786

  18. Soil pH, soil type and replant disease affect growth and nutrient absorption in apple rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rootstocks are the foundation of a healthy and productive orchard. They are the interface between the scion and the soil, providing anchorage, water, nutrients, and disease protection that ultimately affect the productivity and sustainability of the orchard. Recent advances in the science of genet...

  19. Interaction of brassicaceous seed meal and apple rootstock on recovery of Pythium spp. and Pratylenchus penetrans from roots grown in replant soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pythium spp. and Pratylenchus penetrans are significant components of the diverse pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease in Washington state. The structure of the Pythium population differs among orchard soils but is composed of multiple pathogenic species. Studies were conducted to d...

  20. Different bacterial communities in heat and gamma irradiation treated replant disease soils revealed by 16S rRNA gene analysis – contribution to improved aboveground apple plant growth?

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Bunlong; Winkelmann, Traud; Ding, Guo-Chun; Smalla, Kornelia

    2015-01-01

    Replant disease (RD) severely affects apple production in propagation tree nurseries and in fruit orchards worldwide. This study aimed to investigate the effects of soil disinfection treatments on plant growth and health in a biotest in two different RD soil types under greenhouse conditions and to link the plant growth status with the bacterial community composition at the time of plant sampling. In the biotest performed we observed that the aboveground growth of apple rootstock M26 plants after 8 weeks was improved in the two RD soils either treated at 50°C or with gamma irradiation compared to the untreated RD soils. Total community DNA was extracted from soil loosely adhering to the roots and quantitative real-time PCR revealed no pronounced differences in 16S rRNA gene copy numbers. 16S rRNA gene-based bacterial community analysis by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and 454-pyrosequencing revealed significant differences in the bacterial community composition even after 8 weeks of plant growth. In both soils, the treatments affected different phyla but only the relative abundance of Acidobacteria was reduced by both treatments. The genera Streptomyces, Bacillus, Paenibacillus, and Sphingomonas had a higher relative abundance in both heat treated soils, whereas the relative abundance of Mucilaginibacter, Devosia, and Rhodanobacter was increased in the gamma-irradiated soils and only the genus Phenylobacterium was increased in both treatments. The increased abundance of genera with potentially beneficial bacteria, i.e., potential degraders of phenolic compounds might have contributed to the improved plant growth in both treatments. PMID:26635733

  1. Replant disease control and soil system resilience to pathogen infestation in response to Brassicaceae seed meal amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulation was compared with pre-plant soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen/parasite re-infestation of organic orchard soils. Application of a Brassica juncea/Sinapis alba SM formulation provided disease cont...

  2. Replant disease control and system resilience to pathogen re-infestation in response to Brassica seed meal amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with pre-plant soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen/parasite re-infestation of orchard soils. Soil fumigation and SM treatments provided similar levels of disease control during the initial g...

  3. Replant disease control and soil system resilience to pathogen infestation in response to Brassicaceae seed meal amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulation was compared with pre-plant soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen/parasite re-infestation of organic orchard soils. Application of a Brassica juncea/Sinapis alba SM formulation provided disease cont...

  4. Tractor-mounted, GPS-based spot fumigation system manages Prunus replant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our research goal was to use recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) and computer technology to apply just the right amount of fumigant where it is most needed (i.e., in a small target treatment zone in and around each tree replanting site) to control Prunus replant disease (PRD). We deve...

  5. Characterization of Cylindrocarpon populations associated with replant disease of almond and peach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth and cumulative yield of replanted almond and peach orchards are often seriously compromised by Prunus replant disease (PRD), a poorly understood soilborne complex affecting successive plantings of Prunus. Previously, our culture-based (CB) and culture-independent (CI) examinations of fungal,...

  6. Managing the almond and stone fruit replant disease complex with less soil fumigant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As much as one-third of California’s almond and stone fruit acreage is infested with potentially debilitating plant parasitic nematodes, and even more of the land is impacted by Prunus replant disease (PRD), a poorly understood soilborne disease complex that suppresses early growth and cumulative yi...

  7. Quantification of Cylindrocarpon in roots of almond and peach trees from orchards affected by Prunus replant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prunus replant disease (PRD) is a poorly understood soilborne complex that suppresses replanted almond and peach orchards in California. Using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches, we found Cylindrocarpon (Cyl) macrodidymum among microorganisms associated with PRD. We developed a qPC...

  8. Identification and Characterization of Salvia miltiorrhizain miRNAs in Response to Replanting Disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaole; Liu, Lin; He, Zhigui; Yang, Shushen; Liang, Zongsuo; Yan, Xijun; He, Yanfeng; Liu, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Replanting disease is a major factor limiting the artificial cultivation of the traditional Chinese medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza. At present, little information is available regarding the role of miRNAs in response to replanting disease. In this study, two small RNA libraries obtained from first-year (FPR) and second-year plant (SPR) roots were subjected to a high-throughput sequencing method. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 110 known and 7 novel miRNAs were annotated in the roots of S. miltiorrhiza. Moreover, 39 known and 2 novel miRNAs were identified and validated for differential expression in FPR compared with SPR. Thirty-one of these miRNAs were further analyzed by qRT-PCR, which revealed that 5 miRNAs negatively regulated the expression levels of 7 target genes involved in root development or stress responses. This study not only provides novel insights into the miRNA content of S. miltiorrhiza in response to replanting disease but also demonstrates that 5 miRNAs may be involved in these responses. Interactions among the differentially expressed miRNAs with their targets may form an important component of the molecular basis of replanting disease in S. miltiorrhiza. PMID:27483013

  9. Correlations between Root-Associated Microorganisms and Peach Replant Disease Symptoms in a California Soil

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiue-in; Ruegger, Paul M.; McKenry, Michael V.; Becker, J. Ole; Borneman, James

    2012-01-01

    Background Replant disease often occurs when certain crops are “replanted” in a soil that had previously supported the same or similar plant species. This disease typically leads to reductions in plant growth, crop yields, and production duration, and its etiology remains ill-defined. The objective of this study was to identify microorganisms associated with peach replant disease symptoms at a field location in California, USA. Soil samples were subjected to treatments to create various levels of replant disease symptoms. Clonal peach seedlings were grown in the treated soils in greenhouse trials. After 6 weeks, plant growth parameters were measured, and both culture and culture-independent analyses were performed to identify root-associated bacteria, fungi and stramenopiles. Results A total of 295,785 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTU) were identified by an Illumina-based, high throughput sequence analysis of rRNA genes. Among the 60 most abundant OTUs, 27 showed significant (P<0.05) negative correlation with peach shoot weights while 10 were positively correlated. Most of these OTUs belonged to the bacterial phylum Proteobacteria (96%), including the classes Gammaproteobacteria (44.4%), Betaproteobacteria (33.3%) and Alphaproteobacteria (22.2%), and the orders Pseudomonadales, Burkholderiales, Chromatiales, Rhodocyclales, and Sphingomonadales. The most abundant fungi were Trichoderma asperellum, Trichoderma virens, Fusarium oxysporum, Ceratocystis fimbriata and Fusarium solani. The most abundant stramenopiles were Pythium vexans, Pythium violae and an unidentified Aplanochytrium species. Validation experiments using sequence-selective quantitative PCR analyses identified negative and positive associations between P. vexans and Trichoderma spp. and peach shoot weights, respectively. Conclusions This study identified numerous microorganisms associated with peach replant symptoms, some of which have been previously identified while others represent new

  10. Transcriptome changes specifically associated with apple (Malus domestica) root defense response during Pythium ultimum infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The defense response of apple rootstocks to necrotrophic soilborne pathogens that incite apple replant disease (ARD) has not been investigated. In this study, root tissues of apple seedlings inoculated with Pythium ultimum, were sampled at 0, 1, 4, 8, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post inoculation (hpi) a...

  11. 2015 Progress Report – Evaluation of the Cornell-Geneva Apple Rootstocks and Other Promising Apple Rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of new apple rootstocks from the Cornell/USDA apple rootstock breeding project, located at Geneva, NY which are resistant to fire blight are rapidly becoming available to the industry. These rootstocks are also dwarfing, tolerant to replant disease and productive. Data on cumulative yield...

  12. Transcriptional regulation of ethylene and jasmonate mediated defense response in apple (Malus domestica) root during Pythium ultimum infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) causes a serious economic loss for the apple industry. Although it has been known that a complex of necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes are the primary causal agent of ARD, the genetic response in apple to infection by these pathogens has not previously been examined. In t...

  13. Isolation and characterization of apple Pythium ultimum response genes and their ethylene and jasmonate mediated transcriptional regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) causes a serious economic loss for the apple industry. Although it has been known that a complex of necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes are the primary causal agents of ARD, the molecular response in apple to infection by these pathogens has not previously been examined. I...

  14. Resilience of orchard replant soils to pathogen re-infestation in response to Brassicaceae seed meal amendment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulation was compared with pre-plant soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen/parasite re-infestation of orchard soils. Soil fumigation and SM treatment provided similar levels of disease control during the initial gr...

  15. Elucidating the molecular responses of apple rootstock resistant to ARD pathogens: Challenges and opportunities for development of genomics-assisted breeding tools

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple Replant Disease (ARD) is one of the major limitations to the establishment of an economically viable orchard on replant sites due to the buildup and long-term survival of pathogen inoculum. Infection by several soilborne necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes is primarily responsible for ARD and res...

  16. Field testing of methyl bromide alternative fumigants for management of nematodes and grape replant disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preplant soil fumigation is a common practice to control plant parasitic nematodes to ensure uniform and healthy grapevine establishment in replant situations. An eight-year field study was conducted to evaluate a number of fumigation methods and rootstock effects on controlling soil pests and prod...

  17. Characterization of fungi (Fusarium and Rhizoctonia) and oomycetes (Phytophthora and Pythium) associated with apple orchards in South Africa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several species of fungi and oomycetes including Fusarium, Rhizoctonia, Phytophthora and Pythium have been reported as root pathogens of apple where they contribute to a phenomenon known as apple replant disease. In South Africa, very little is known about the specific species in these genera and th...

  18. Cylindrocarpon species associated with apple tree roots in South Africa and their quantification using real-time PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cylindrocarpon species are known to be a component of the pathogen/pest complex that incites apple replant disease. In South Africa, no information is available on apple associated Cylindrocarpon species and their pathogenicity. Therefore, these aspects were investigated. Additionally, a genus speci...

  19. Carbon source-dependent efficacy of anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) in suppression of Rhizoctonia root rot of apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rhizoctonia solani AG-5 is a significant component of the pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease (ARD). A non-fumigant alternative, such as ASD, is highly desired for control of ARD. We examined the influence of carbon input as a determinant of ASD efficacy in the supression of apple ...

  20. Replantation of digits

    MedlinePlus

    Risks of this surgery include: Reactions to medications Problems breathing Bleeding Infection Death of the replanted tissue Reduced nerve function or movement in the replanted digit Stiffness of the ...

  1. Reduced rate brassica seed meal amendment efficacy is apple rootstock genotype-dependent

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassica seed meal formulations have been shown to provide effect control of the biologically complex disease phenomenon termed apple replant disease (Mazzola et al., 2015). The seed meal formulation when used at an application rate of 3 ton ac-1 provided disease control that was in some instances ...

  2. Incidence and Pathogenicity of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) Replant Disease in Georgia and North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Jagdale, Ganpati B.; Holladay, Ted; Brannen, P. M.; Cline, W. O.; Agudelo, P.; Nyczepir, A. P.; Noe, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    Blueberry replant disease (BRD) is an emerging threat to continued blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) production in Georgia and North Carolina. Since high populations of ring nematode Mesocriconema ornatum were found to be associated with commercially grown blueberries in Georgia, we hypothesized that M. ornatum may be responsible for predisposing blueberry to BRD. We therefore tested the pathogenicity of M. ornatum on 10-wk-old Rabbiteye blueberries (Vaccinium virgatum) by inoculating with initial populations (Pi) of 0 (water control), 10, 100, 1,000. and 10,000 mixed stages of M. ornatum/pot under both greenhouse (25 ± 2°C) and field microplot conditions. Nematode soil population densities and reproduction rates were assessed 75, 150, 225, and 255, and 75, 150, 225, and 375 d after inoculation (DAI) in both the greenhouse and field experiments, respectively. Plant growth parameters were recorded in the greenhouse and field microplot experiments at 255 and 375 DAI, respectively. The highest M. ornatum population density occurred with the highest Pi level, at 75 and 150 DAI under both greenhouse (P < 0.01) and field (P < 0.01) conditions. However, M. ornatum rate of reproduction increased significantly in pots receiving the lowest Pi level of 10 nematodes/plant compared with the pots receiving Pi levels of 100, 1,000, and 10,000 nematodes 75 DAI. Plant-parasitic nematode populations were determined in commercial blueberry replant sites in Georgia and North Carolina during the 2010 growing season. Mesocriconema ornatum and Dolichodorus spp. were the predominant plant-parasitic nematodes in Georgia and North Carolina, respectively, with M. ornatum occurring in nearly half the blueberry fields sampled in Georgia. Other nematode genera detected in both states included Tylenchorhynchus spp., Hoplolaimus spp., Hemicycliophora spp., and Xiphinema spp. Paratrichodorus spp. was also found only in Georgia. In Georgia, our results indicate that blueberry is a host for M. ornatum

  3. Transcriptional response in apple to fire blight disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple, pear, and other plants in the subfamily Maloideae of the Rosaceae. The goal of this study was to use a global analysis of gene expression to characterize the temporal response of apple to infection by E. amyl...

  4. Brassica seed meal soil amendments transform the rhizosphere microbiome and improve apple production through resistance to pathogen reinfestation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with pre-plant 1,3-dichloropropene/chloropicrin (Telone-C17®) soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen/parasite re-infestation of organic orchard soils at two sites in Washington State. Pre-plant...

  5. Replantation: current concepts and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Reuben A; Battiston, Bruno; Ciclamini, Davide; Titolo, Paolo; Panero, Bernardino; Tos, Pierluigi

    2014-07-01

    Techniques to improve the chance of successful replantation of digits are well established. Indications and contraindications for replantation are generally agreed on, but they continue to evolve as excellent outcomes are achieved at centers with experience and expertise. Form and function can be restored with avulsion injuries and distal amputations, with good results and high patient satisfaction. Increased financial pressure to control the costs of health care and increased accountability for evidence-based outcomes may lead to the regionalization of replantation care and shared decision making in recommending replantation or revision amputation. PMID:24996460

  6. Infection of apple by apple stem grooving virus leads to extensive alterations in gene expression patterns but no disease symptoms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanyi; Ye, Ting; Hao, Lu; Chen, Hui; Wang, Shaojie; Fan, Zaifeng; Guo, Liyun; Zhou, Tao

    2014-01-01

    To understand the molecular basis of viral diseases, transcriptome profiling has been widely used to correlate host gene expression change patterns with disease symptoms during viral infection in many plant hosts. We used infection of apple by Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), which produces no disease symptoms, to assess the significance of host gene expression changes in disease development. We specifically asked the question of whether such asymptomatic infection is attributed to limited changes in host gene expression. Using RNA-seq, we identified a total of 184 up-regulated and 136 down-regulated genes in apple shoot cultures permanently infected by ASGV in comparison with virus-free shoot cultures. As in most plant hosts showing disease symptoms during viral infection, these differentially expressed genes encode known or putative proteins involved in cell cycle, cell wall biogenesis, response to biotic and abiotic stress, development and fruit ripening, phytohormone function, metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation, translation, transport, and photosynthesis. Thus, global host gene expression changes do not necessarily lead to virus disease symptoms. Our data suggest that the general approaches to correlate host gene expression changes under viral infection conditions to specific disease symptom, based on the interpretation of transcription profiling data and altered individual gene functions, may have limitations depending on particular experimental systems. PMID:24736405

  7. Infection of Apple by Apple Stem Grooving Virus Leads to Extensive Alterations in Gene Expression Patterns but No Disease Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Lu; Chen, Hui; Wang, Shaojie; Fan, Zaifeng; Guo, Liyun; Zhou, Tao

    2014-01-01

    To understand the molecular basis of viral diseases, transcriptome profiling has been widely used to correlate host gene expression change patterns with disease symptoms during viral infection in many plant hosts. We used infection of apple by Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), which produces no disease symptoms, to assess the significance of host gene expression changes in disease development. We specifically asked the question of whether such asymptomatic infection is attributed to limited changes in host gene expression. Using RNA-seq, we identified a total of 184 up-regulated and 136 down-regulated genes in apple shoot cultures permanently infected by ASGV in comparison with virus-free shoot cultures. As in most plant hosts showing disease symptoms during viral infection, these differentially expressed genes encode known or putative proteins involved in cell cycle, cell wall biogenesis, response to biotic and abiotic stress, development and fruit ripening, phytohormone function, metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation, translation, transport, and photosynthesis. Thus, global host gene expression changes do not necessarily lead to virus disease symptoms. Our data suggest that the general approaches to correlate host gene expression changes under viral infection conditions to specific disease symptom, based on the interpretation of transcription profiling data and altered individual gene functions, may have limitations depending on particular experimental systems. PMID:24736405

  8. Successful replantation of a forefoot.

    PubMed

    Tsai, T M

    1979-01-01

    This is a report of replantation of a completely severed forefoot which was divided through the distal tarsus by a samurai sword cut. Primary reconstruction of bone, vessels, nerve and skin was carried out 2 hours following amputation. Neither the long extensor nor the long flexor tendons were repaired. Three years following replantation the patient had an excellent result. His foot appeared normal and there was no evident atrophy of the soft tissue of the foot. No claw toe deformity developed. Protective sensation and temperature sense returned and the 2 point discrimination on plantar surface of the toe was 15 mm. The patient can walk and run with a normal gait. PMID:37010

  9. Successful microsurgical replantation of an amputated penis

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Sanchit; Date, Shivprasad V.; Gupta, Arunesh; Baliarsing, Amresh S.

    2016-01-01

    Penile amputation is an uncommon injury for which immediate surgical replantation is warranted. Microsurgical replantation is the “standard” method for penile replantation. Early replantation yields a high success and low complication rate. We report a case of a 34-year-old male who presented with amputation at the proximal penile shaft which was successfully replanted using microsurgical techniques. Minor skin necrosis was noted post-operatively which was debrided and covered with skin graft. Follow-up at 6 months showed satisfactory cosmetic appearance, normal voiding, return of sensations and erectile function. The level of evidence was V. PMID:27274131

  10. Function of the replanted spleen in dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Velcek, F.T.; Kugaczewski, J.T.; Jongco, B.; Shaftan, G.W.; Rao, P.S.; Schiffman, G.; Kottmeier, P.K.

    1982-06-01

    The function of replanted splenic fragments was studied by comparing three groups of five dogs each, one group with intact spleens; one, post-splenectomy; and one with splenic replantation. Fifteen fragments were implanted into the omentum. Howell-Jolly bodies appeared after splenectomy but cleared in the replanted group after several months. /sup 125/I-tagged attenuated pneumococcal clearance studies showed a significant difference between control and replanted group compared with the splenectomized group. The increase of pneumococcal antibody titers after vaccination differed significantly between the splenectomized and the replanted group. All replanted fragments were viable and showed growth over a 2-year period. These studies demonstrate that omental replantation of the canine spleen leads to the maintenance of certain functional splenic parameters comparable to the normal spleen which are significantly different from the splenectomized animal.

  11. Using TIF tarp and reduced fumigation rates for almond replanting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almond replanting still relies on pre-plant soil fumigation to control soil-borne pests and diseases in order to establish productive and healthy trees. With the environmental constraints on fumigant use, fumigation methods for high pest control efficiency and low emissions are needed greatly. In l...

  12. Reassessment of microconidia associated with Diplocarpon mali from diseased apple leaves

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Microconidia were observed in autumn to be commonly associated with acervuli of Diplocarpon mali (anamorph Marssonina coronaria) on diseased apple leaves exhibiting Marssonina leaf blotch symptoms. To clarify the connection with D. mali, cultures derived from single microconidium were obtained, and ...

  13. Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum as a biocontrol agent of postharvest diseases of apple and citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two psycrotrophic yeasts isolated from the surface of lemons have been selected as biocontrol agents of the most common postharvest diseases of apples and citrus that develops during cold storage. The biocontrol yeasts were identified as Cystofilobasidium infirmominiatum and Leucosporidium scottii....

  14. A comparative study of attitudes regarding digit replantation in the US and Japan

    PubMed Central

    Nishizuka, Takanobu; Shauver, Melissa J.; Zhong, Lin; Chung, Kevin C.; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the societal preferences for finger replantation between US and Japan and to investigate factors influencing the preferences. Methods A sample of the general population without current hand disease or condition was recruited via flyers posted in public areas of 2 major academic centers in the US and Japan. The recruited subjects completed a survey presenting finger amputation scenarios and various factors that may affect treatment decisions. We performed univariate analysis using treatment preference as the outcome and all other factors as possible predictors using the chi-square test. Results The majority of respondents in both countries preferred replantation, and there was no significant difference between the US and Japan. Treatment preference was significantly associated with the importance of appearance, recovery time, and the chance of survival of the replanted digit. There was no association between treatment preference and attitudes on body integrity or estimate of stigma towards finger amputees. Japanese participants agreed more with statements of body integrity, and Japanese respondents rated appearance, sensation, and chance of survival of the replant as more important than American participants. Conclusions Patient preference is not driving the decrease in finger replantations in the US. The general public in both countries prefer replantation over wound closure for digit amputations. Level of Evidence Economic/Decision Analysis Level III PMID:26213200

  15. Hand replantation: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a hand replantation. A 43-year-old male presented with an amputated right hand. After clinical and radiological examination of the amputated hand and the forearm stump, the patient was consented for hand replantation procedure. Both bones of the forearm were fixed using K-wires. Careful dissection, trimming and repair of the tendons, vessels (two arteries and one vein) and nerves was achieved. The patient tolerated the procedure well and 2 months later showed a progressive improvement in motor and sensory functions. We suggest that a single-vein repair is sufficient for a successful hand replantation. PMID:27489633

  16. On the Origin and Spread of the Scab Disease of Apple: Out of Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Gladieux, Pierre; Zhang, Xiu-Guo; Afoufa-Bastien, Damien; Valdebenito Sanhueza, Rosa-Maria; Sbaghi, Mohamed; Le Cam, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Background Venturia inaequalis is an ascomycete fungus responsible for apple scab, a disease that has invaded almost all apple growing regions worldwide, with the corresponding adverse effects on apple production. Monitoring and predicting the effectiveness of intervention strategies require knowledge of the origin, introduction pathways, and population biology of pathogen populations. Analysis of the variation of genetic markers using the inferential framework of population genetics offers the potential to retrieve this information. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, we present a population genetic analysis of microsatellite variation in 1,273 strains of V. inaequalis representing 28 orchard samples from seven regions in five continents. Analysis of molecular variance revealed that most of the variation (88%) was distributed within localities, which is consistent with extensive historical migrations of the fungus among and within regions. Despite this shallow population structure, clustering analyses partitioned the data set into separate groups corresponding roughly to geography, indicating that each region hosts a distinct population of the fungus. Comparison of the levels of variability among populations, along with coalescent analyses of migration models and estimates of genetic distances, was consistent with a scenario in which the fungus emerged in Central Asia, where apple was domesticated, before its introduction into Europe and, more recently, into other continents with the expansion of apple growing. Across the novel range, levels of variability pointed to multiple introductions and all populations displayed signatures of significant post-introduction increases in population size. Most populations exhibited high genotypic diversity and random association of alleles across loci, indicating recombination both in native and introduced areas. Conclusions/Significance Venturia inaequalis is a model of invasive phytopathogenic fungus that has now reached the

  17. MECHANISM OF ACTION AND EFFICACY OF SEED MEAL-INDUCED SUPPRESSION OF PATHOGENS INCITING APPLE REPLANT DISEASE DIFFER IN A BRASSICACEAE SPECIES AND TIME-DEPENDENT MANNER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tissues of plant in the family Brassicaceae contain glusinolates, compounds whose dyrolysis results in the release of various bioactive products including isothiocyanates. The broad spectrum of biological activity of these glucosinolate hydrolysis products has led to the promotion of brassicaceae p...

  18. Challenges in Measuring Outcomes Following Digital Replantation

    PubMed Central

    Sebastin, Sandeep J.; Chung, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    In the early period of replantation surgery, the emphasis was on digit survival. Subsequently, with better microsurgical techniques and instrumentation, the focus has shifted to function and in recent years to consideration of cost-effectiveness. Despite over 40 years of effort in refining digital replantation surgery, a rigorous evaluation of the outcomes of digital replantation has not been performed. This is because of the many confounding variables that influence outcome comparisons. These variables include the mechanism of injury (guillotine, crush, avulsion), the injury itself (total, near total, subtotal, partial amputation), and the surgical procedure (replantation, revascularization). In addition, the traditional outcome measures (two-point discrimination, range of motion, grip strength, or the ability to return to work) are reported inconsistently and vary widely among publications. All these factors make meaningful comparison of outcomes difficult. The recent emphasis on outcome research and cost-effectiveness necessitates a rethinking in the way we report outcomes of digital replantation. In this article, the authors summarize the challenges in assessing outcomes of digital replantation and explain the need to measure outcomes using rigorous clinical research designs that incorporate cost-effectiveness studies in the research protocol. PMID:24872766

  19. Emergence of new virulent populations of apple scab from nonagricultural disease reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Christophe; De Gracia, Marie; Leroy, Thibault; Michalecka, Monika; Lindhard-Pedersen, Hanne; Guerin, Fabien; Gladieux, Pierre; Le Cam, Bruno

    2016-02-01

    Plant pathogens adapt readily to new crop varieties in agrosystems, and it is crucial to understand the factors underlying the epidemic spread of new virulent strains if we are to develop more efficient strategies to control them. In this study we used multilocus microsatellite typing, molecular epidemiology tools and a large collection of isolates from cultivated, wild and ornamental apples to investigate the origin of new virulent populations of Venturia inaequalis, an ascomycete fungus causing apple scab on varieties carrying the Rvi6 resistance gene. We demonstrated a common origin at the European scale of populations infecting apples (Malus × domestica) carrying the Rvi6 resistance and Malus floribunda, the progenitor of the Rvi6 resistance. Demographic modeling indicated that the Rvi6-virulent lineage separated several thousands of years ago from populations infecting non-Rvi6 hosts, without detectable gene flow between the two lineages. These findings show that 'breakdowns' of plant resistance genes can be caused by the selection and migration of virulent genotypes from standing genetic variation maintained in environmental disease reservoirs, here ornamental crabapples. This work stresses the need to take better account of pathogen diversity in resistance screenings of breeding lines and in resistance deployment strategies, in order to enhance sustainable disease management. PMID:26428268

  20. The Risk Factors for Failure of an Upper Extremity Replantation: Is the Use of Cigarettes/Tobacco a Significant Factor?

    PubMed Central

    He, Ji-Yin; Chen, Shih-Heng; Tsai, Tsu-Min

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to explore the potential risk factors associated with the failure of an upper extremity replantation with a focus on cigarette or tobacco use. Patients and Methods A cohort of 102 patients with 149 replants (6 extremities, 143 digits) and a mean age of 41 years (range 5 to 72 years) was enrolled in this study. The data collected included age, gender, tobacco/cigarettes use, trauma mechanism, underlying disease (e.g., hypertension (HTN), diabetes mellitus (DM), etc.), and vein graft use. An analysis with a multivariable regression was conducted to identify the risk factors of replant failure and their respective odds ratios (ORs). Results Multilevel generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) with a binomial distribution and logit link showed that smoking did not increase the risk of replant failure (p = 0.234). In addition, the survival of replants was not affected by DM or HTN (p = 0.285 and 0.938, respectively). However, the replantation results were significantly affected by the age of the patients and the mechanism of injury. Patients older than 50 years and those with avulsion or crush injuries tended to have a higher risk of replant failure (OR = 2.29, 6.45, and 5.42, respectively; p = 0.047, 0.028, and 0.032, respectively). Conclusions This study showed that the use of cigarettes/tobacco did not affect the replantation outcome. The main risks for replant failure included being older than 50 years and the trauma mechanism (avulsion or crush injuries). PMID:26513147

  1. Auxin-mediated relationships between apple plants and root inhabiting fungi: impact on root pathogens and potentialities of growth-promoting populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to examine the symbiotic relationship between plant hosts and endophytic fungi recovered in multi-generation replanted apple orchard soils. Based upon results obtained, subsequent studies were oriented toward investigating fungal populations showing a mutualistic symbiotic rel...

  2. Controlled release of Pantoea agglomerans E325 for biocontrol of fire blight disease of apple.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Yong; Pusey, Paul Lawrence; Zhao, Youfu; Korban, Schuyler S; Choi, Hyungsoo; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin

    2012-07-10

    Microencapsulation and controlled release of the biocontrol agent Pantoea agglomerans strain E325 (E325), an antagonist to the bacterial plant pathogen Erwinia amylovora that causes fire blight, a devastating disease of apple and pear, have been investigated. Uniform core-shell alginate microcapsules (AMCs), 60-300 μm in diameter, were fabricated to encapsulate E325 within the core, along with nutrients, to preserve viability and promote proliferation. Controlled release of E325 was achieved by separately adjusting alginate concentrations in the shell and core solutions, and by modifying the AMC size. Viability of E325 was monitored via fluorescent staining, revealing either lack of or minimal stress during or after encapsulation. Proliferation of E325 within AMCs, followed by their subsequent release, and colonization activities within confines of apple flowers were studied under different encapsulation conditions using rfp-labeled E325 to obtain highly promising results. This study provided a 'proof of concept' of the successful use of a microencapsulated biocontrol agent, E325, against E. amylovora, and could serve as a model for further studies on the development of effective plant disease management strategies. PMID:22516094

  3. Fire blight disease reactome: RNA-seq transcriptional profile of apple host plant defense responses to Erwinia amylovora pathogen infection

    PubMed Central

    Kamber, Tim; Buchmann, Jan P.; Pothier, Joël F.; Smits, Theo H. M.; Wicker, Thomas; Duffy, Brion

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility of host plants to fire blight, a major disease threat to pome fruit production globally, is largely unknown. RNA-sequencing data from challenged and mock-inoculated flowers were analyzed to assess the susceptible response of apple to the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. In presence of the pathogen 1,080 transcripts were differentially expressed at 48 h post inoculation. These included putative disease resistance, stress, pathogen related, general metabolic, and phytohormone related genes. Reads, mapped to regions on the apple genome where no genes were assigned, were used to identify potential novel genes and open reading frames. To identify transcripts specifically expressed in response to E. amylovora, RT-PCRs were conducted and compared to the expression patterns of the fire blight biocontrol agent Pantoea vagans strain C9-1, another apple pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans, and mock inoculated apple flowers. This led to the identification of a peroxidase superfamily gene that was lower expressed in response to E. amylovora suggesting a potential role in the susceptibility response. Overall, this study provides the first transcriptional profile by RNA-seq of the host plant during fire blight disease and insights into the response of susceptible apple plants to E. amylovora. PMID:26883568

  4. Fire blight disease reactome: RNA-seq transcriptional profile of apple host plant defense responses to Erwinia amylovora pathogen infection.

    PubMed

    Kamber, Tim; Buchmann, Jan P; Pothier, Joël F; Smits, Theo H M; Wicker, Thomas; Duffy, Brion

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis of resistance and susceptibility of host plants to fire blight, a major disease threat to pome fruit production globally, is largely unknown. RNA-sequencing data from challenged and mock-inoculated flowers were analyzed to assess the susceptible response of apple to the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora. In presence of the pathogen 1,080 transcripts were differentially expressed at 48 h post inoculation. These included putative disease resistance, stress, pathogen related, general metabolic, and phytohormone related genes. Reads, mapped to regions on the apple genome where no genes were assigned, were used to identify potential novel genes and open reading frames. To identify transcripts specifically expressed in response to E. amylovora, RT-PCRs were conducted and compared to the expression patterns of the fire blight biocontrol agent Pantoea vagans strain C9-1, another apple pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. papulans, and mock inoculated apple flowers. This led to the identification of a peroxidase superfamily gene that was lower expressed in response to E. amylovora suggesting a potential role in the susceptibility response. Overall, this study provides the first transcriptional profile by RNA-seq of the host plant during fire blight disease and insights into the response of susceptible apple plants to E. amylovora. PMID:26883568

  5. Apple intake is inversely associated with all-cause and disease-specific mortality in elderly women.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Prince, Richard L; Woodman, Richard J; Bondonno, Catherine P; Ivey, Kerry L; Bondonno, Nicola; Rimm, Eric B; Ward, Natalie C; Croft, Kevin D; Lewis, Joshua R

    2016-03-14

    Higher fruit intake is associated with lower risk of all-cause and disease-specific mortality. However, data on individual fruits are limited, and the generalisability of these findings to the elderly remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to examine the association of apple intake with all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years in a cohort of women aged over 70 years. Secondary analyses explored relationships of other fruits with mortality outcomes. Usual fruit intake was assessed in 1456 women using a FFQ. Incidence of all-cause and disease-specific mortality over 15 years was determined through the Western Australian Hospital Morbidity Data system. Cox regression was used to determine the hazard ratios (HR) for mortality. During 15 years of follow-up, 607 (41·7%) women died from any cause. In the multivariable-adjusted analysis, the HR for all-cause mortality was 0·89 (95% CI 0·81, 0·97) per sd (53 g/d) increase in apple intake, HR 0·80 (95% CI 0·65, 0·98) for consumption of 5-100 g/d and HR 0·65 (95% CI 0·48, 0·89) for consumption of >100 g/d (an apple a day), compared with apple intake of <5 g/d (P for trend=0·03). Our analysis also found that higher apple intake was associated with lower risk for cancer mortality, and that higher total fruit and banana intakes were associated lower risk of CVD mortality (P<0·05). Our results support the view that regular apple consumption may contribute to lower risk of mortality. PMID:26787402

  6. Rapid transcriptional response of apple to fire blight disease revealed by cDNA suppression subtractive hybridization analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of many tree and shrub species of the Rosaceae. Suppression subtractive cDNA hybridization (SSH) was used to identify genes that are differentially up- and down- regulated in apple (Malus X domestica) in response ...

  7. Evaluation of yeasts obtained from Antarctic soil samples as biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple (Malus x domestica)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Psychrotrophic yeasts isolated from soils collected in Antarctica and selected by its capacity of growing in apple juice at low temperatures were evaluated for their potential as biocontrol agents for the management of postharvest diseases of apple during cold storage. Among the species recovered, ...

  8. Tooth replantation after traumatic avulsion: a 27-year follow up.

    PubMed

    Martins, Wilson Denis; Westphalen, Vania Portela Ditzel; Westphalen, Fernando Henrique

    2004-04-01

    This report presents a case of replantation of a traumatically avulsed central incisor in a 32-year-old woman. The tooth was replanted after a 30-min extra-alveolar period. Emergency unconventional immobilization was performed, using 2-0 chromic gut, and a restorative composite made Gunning-type splint. The tooth is still in place 27 years after replantation (1976 to date) without marked resorption. PMID:15025692

  9. [Intraoperative extracorporeal irradiation and replantation in local treatment of primary malignant bone tumors].

    PubMed

    Sabo, D; Bernd, L; Buchner, M; Treiber, M; Wannenmacher, M; Ewerbeck, V; Parsch, D

    2003-11-01

    In 13 patients with primary malignant bone tumors (10 Ewing's sarcoma, 1 parosteal osteosarcoma, 1 adamantinoma recurrence, and 1 MFH) local therapy was performed as intraoperative extracorporeal irradiation and replantation (IEIR) of the involved bone segment (5 tibia, 2 femur, and 6 pelvis). Of the 13 patients (69%), 9 are alive at the time of the follow-up (5 CDF, 4 AWM(treated)) and 4 patients died of disease (DOD). Up to now during the follow-up of 32 months (6-57), no local recurrence was observed in the replanted bone segments. The complication rate was very high (18 complications in 11 of the 13 patients, including 6 cases with complication V degrees according to Ruggieri with loss of the reconstruction). The typical complication is severe local infection necessitating removal of the replant. In cases of mechanical failure, the replanted segment could mostly be preserved by surgical revision and autologous bone grafting. If serious complications can be managed or avoided, functional results can be achieved. IEIR must be seen as an extraordinary reconstruction procedure in cases where established procedures such as endoprosthesis, biological reconstructions, or rotationplasties cannot be used or are refused by the patient. PMID:14615850

  10. [The problem of osteosynthesis in peripheral replantation].

    PubMed

    Winter, I; Zilch, H; Gaudin, B P

    1981-01-01

    In this report, 16 cases of peripheral replantation are described, in which osteosynthesis was carried out by means of AO-mini or small-fragment plates with the obvious advantage of allowing early mobilisation. A disadvantage of this method is that it is necessary to dissect the soft tissue to a greater extent and to elevate the periosteum more than in using Kirschner wires, this dissection to permit sufficient fixation of the plate and screws. As a result, primary technical difficulties in the venous anastomosis may occur and there is a risk of adhesions developing between the extensor apparatus and the bone (two cases). Difficulties occur when using plates and screws for comminuted and juxtaarticular fractures. In these cases Kirschner wire osteosynthesis is preferred. For injuries in zones 1 and 2 in the majority of the cases an osteosynthesis with wire is indicated. Only in cases of replantation in zone 2, where the DIP joint is destroyed, can an arthrodesis be performed by means of a screw. When using the above mentioned osteosynthesis for peripheral replantations, we have achieved good to very good end results in the majority of the cases. PMID:7343424

  11. Managing quarantine-significant post harvest diseases in Pacific Northwest apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported quarantined pathogens that cause speck rot and sphaeropsis rot, respectively, in apple. Due to quarantine regulation, export of apple from Washington State to China was banned from 2012 through 2014. Previous st...

  12. FUMIGATION AND FALLOWING EFFECTS ON REPLANT PROBLEMS IN CALIFORNIA PEACH.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl bromide will no longer be available for soil fumigation after 2005. It is an important pest control material for replant of orchards that suffer from "replant disorder". Several field trials tested effects of fallowing and drip-irrigation applied alternative fumigants. In all cases, methyl...

  13. Replantation of an avulsed ear, using a single arterial anastamosis.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, G; Bhatti, K; Masood, S

    2008-01-01

    Avulsion of the ear is relatively uncommon and replantation a technical challenge. A case in which an avulsed ear was successfully replanted using a single arterial anastamosis is described. The surgical difficulties encountered, the pharmaceutical approach to postoperative care and the problems which resulted from the lack of venous drainage are discussed. PMID:18061545

  14. Hand Replantation with Proximal Row Carpectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Keun; Lee, Hang-Ho; Park, Ji-Kang; Kim, Joo-Yong; Dhawan, Vikas

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present our operative technique and postoperative results of the hand replantation with proximal row carpectomy in cases of complete amputation at the level of wrist joint. From May 2003 to April 2005, five patients suffered from complete amputation of the hand due to industrial trauma. Amputation level was radiocarpal joint in three cases and midcarpal joint in two cases. Three cases represented guillotine type and two cases with local crush type injuries. All were men and the mean age was 26.6 years. The mean follow-up period was 26.8 months. At the time of replantation, the wrist joint was stabilized with transarticular fixation using three to four Kirschner’s wires after performing proximal row carpectomy. Postoperatively, functional results such as muscle strength, range of motion of the wrist and fingers, and sensory recovery were assessed according to Chen’s criteria. Joint width and arthritic changes of the radio-capitate joint were evaluated with radiologic tools. According to Chen’s criteria, the overall results in five cases were classified as grade II. Intrinsic muscle power of hands was found to be grade 4. The mean grip and pinch powers were 41% and 45%, respectively, compared to contralateral hand. The mean arc of flexion–extension of wrist was 53°. Total mean active motion of fingers was 215 degrees. Static two-point discrimination of fingertip ranged from 8 to 13 mm. On the follow-up, computerized tomography showed well-preserved radio-capitate joint space without any arthritic changes. While performing hand replantation after amputation at the radiocarpal or midcarpal level, proximal row carpectomy is a useful procedure to preserve joint motion of the wrist in selected cases. PMID:18855073

  15. Insight into structure dynamics of soil microbiota mediated by the richness of replanted Pseudostellaria heterophylla.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Po; Lin, Sheng; Chu, Leixia; Gao, JiangTao; Azeem, Saadia; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    Consecutive monoculture of crops causes serious diseases and significant decline in yield and quality, and microbes in the rhizosphere are closely linked with plant health. Here we systematically studied the structure dynamics of soil microbiota in the monocropping system of Pseudostellaria heterophlla. The results illustrated that the successive cropping of P. heterophylla shifts the diversity and structure of microbial community in rhizosphere soil of P. heterophylla, showing that the diversity of microbial community in rhizosphere soil of P. heterophylla was decreased with the increase of planting years while the structure of microbial community became more deteriorative. Moreover, the population size of typical pathogens increased and the beneficial bacterial population decreased with the increasing years of monoculture, which resulted in the microecological imbalance in P. heterophylla rhizosphere, thereby caused serious replanting diseases in monocropping system. Our results suggested that structure dynamics of rhizosphere microbial communities were mediated by the richness of replanted P. heterophylla, and thus the replant disease result from the imbalanced microbial structure with a higher ratio of pathogens/beneficial bacteria in rhizosphere soil under monocropping regimes. This finding provides a clue to open a new avenue for modulating the root microbiome to enhance the crop production and sustainability. PMID:27188449

  16. Insight into structure dynamics of soil microbiota mediated by the richness of replanted Pseudostellaria heterophylla

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yong-Po; Lin, Sheng; Chu, Leixia; Gao, JiangTao; Azeem, Saadia; Lin, Wenxiong

    2016-01-01

    Consecutive monoculture of crops causes serious diseases and significant decline in yield and quality, and microbes in the rhizosphere are closely linked with plant health. Here we systematically studied the structure dynamics of soil microbiota in the monocropping system of Pseudostellaria heterophlla. The results illustrated that the successive cropping of P. heterophylla shifts the diversity and structure of microbial community in rhizosphere soil of P. heterophylla, showing that the diversity of microbial community in rhizosphere soil of P. heterophylla was decreased with the increase of planting years while the structure of microbial community became more deteriorative. Moreover, the population size of typical pathogens increased and the beneficial bacterial population decreased with the increasing years of monoculture, which resulted in the microecological imbalance in P. heterophylla rhizosphere, thereby caused serious replanting diseases in monocropping system. Our results suggested that structure dynamics of rhizosphere microbial communities were mediated by the richness of replanted P. heterophylla, and thus the replant disease result from the imbalanced microbial structure with a higher ratio of pathogens/beneficial bacteria in rhizosphere soil under monocropping regimes. This finding provides a clue to open a new avenue for modulating the root microbiome to enhance the crop production and sustainability. PMID:27188449

  17. Replantation surgery in Quebec: The bottlenecks to rapid care

    PubMed Central

    Borsuk, Daniel E; Zadeh, Teanoosh; Lee, Chen; Moore, Karl; Tan, Grace

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Time delays resulting in prolonged ischemia have a significant impact on the successful reattachment of amputated body parts. No studies have addressed the issues surrounding delays from the time of the accident to the start of replantation surgery. The present paper identifies the bottlenecks that prolong the time before patients are able to gain access to a replant team. METHODS A total of 50 patients underwent microsurgical replantation, because of traumatic amputation, at a university-based hospital from 1996 to 2003. The charts were analyzed to ascertain individual time intervals from the onset of injury until the beginning of replant surgery. RESULTS The average length of time for patients who came directly to the replant centre was 3 h 40 min before surgery began. In contrast, for those referred from outlying hospitals, the elapsed time was 6 h 21 min. CONCLUSIONS Two major bottlenecks were found. First, for patients who were referred from other health centres, delays were due to a lack of information as to where patients could receive appropriate replant surgery. Second, delays at the replant centre were primarily due to insufficient physical and human resources in the operating room. PMID:19554107

  18. Replantation vs revision amputation in single digit zone II amputations.

    PubMed

    El-Diwany, M; Odobescu, A; Bélanger-Douet, M; Berbiche, D; Arsenault, J; Bou-Merhi, J; Harris, P G; Danino, A M

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the functional outcomes of zone II amputations treated with either replantation or revision amputation at our institution to better aid patients in their decision making process regarding these treatment options. We conducted a comparative retrospective study. All cases of single digit amputations received at our replantation center between 2007 and 2011 were screened for single digit zone II injuries. These patients were stratified based on the treatment received: replantation vs revision amputation. Patients were called and invited to participate in the research project. Those who accepted to enter the study were asked to complete the Quick-DASH, the Beck Depression Inventory-short form, and a custom made questionnaire. There were seventeen patients with single digit zone II replantation and fourteen patients with similar injuries who underwent revision amputation and agreed to take part in the study. Our data revealed that the duration of sick leave, occupation after injury, professional and social reintegration, discontinued activities, and self-confidence were not statistically different between the two groups. The average hospital stay and the follow-up period of replanted individuals were longer. The replantation group did not have higher levels of pain or cold intolerance, and the global functional and esthetic satisfaction levels were similar between the two groups. Also, Beck Depression Inventory and Quick-DASH scores were not statistically different. Yet, significantly more patients in the replantation group would opt to repeat the replantation than revised patients would opt for revision amputation. From a functional viewpoint, our study suggests that revision amputation is not superior to replantation in zone II single digit amputations. This is valuable information that should be given to patients when deciding on the treatment process and to insure a proper informed consent. PMID:25858276

  19. Downscaling climate change scenarios for apple pest and disease modeling in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, M.; Stoeckli, S.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Calanca, P.; Rotach, M. W.; Fischer, A. M.; Duffy, B.; Samietz, J.

    2011-08-01

    As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously not affected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests and diseases have been developed, which model their phenology depending on actual weather conditions and suggest management decisions on that basis. Assessing the future risk of pest-related damages requires future weather data at high temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we use a combined stochastic weather generator and re-sampling procedure for producing site-specific hourly weather series representing present and future (1980-2009 and 2045-2074 time periods) climate conditions in Switzerland. The climate change scenarios originate from the ENSEMBLES multi-model projections and provide probabilistic information on future regional changes in temperature and precipitation. Hourly weather series are produced by first generating daily weather data for these climate scenarios and then using a nearest neighbor re-sampling approach for creating realistic diurnal cycles. These hourly weather series are then used for modeling the impact of climate change on important life phases of the codling moth and on the number of predicted infection days of fire blight. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are two major pest and disease threats to apple, one of the most important commercial and rural crops across Europe. Results for the codling moth indicate a shift in the occurrence and duration of life phases relevant for pest control. In southern Switzerland, a 3rd generation per season occurs only very rarely under today's climate conditions but is projected to become normal in the 2045-2074 time period. While the potential risk for a 3rd generation is also significantly increasing in northern Switzerland (for most stations from roughly 1

  20. Downscaling climate change scenarios for apple pest and disease modeling in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschi, M.; Stoeckli, S.; Dubrovsky, M.; Spirig, C.; Calanca, P.; Rotach, M. W.; Fischer, A. M.; Duffy, B.; Samietz, J.

    2012-02-01

    As a consequence of current and projected climate change in temperate regions of Europe, agricultural pests and diseases are expected to occur more frequently and possibly to extend to previously non-affected regions. Given their economic and ecological relevance, detailed forecasting tools for various pests and diseases have been developed, which model their phenology, depending on actual weather conditions, and suggest management decisions on that basis. Assessing the future risk of pest-related damages requires future weather data at high temporal and spatial resolution. Here, we use a combined stochastic weather generator and re-sampling procedure for producing site-specific hourly weather series representing present and future (1980-2009 and 2045-2074 time periods) climate conditions in Switzerland. The climate change scenarios originate from the ENSEMBLES multi-model projections and provide probabilistic information on future regional changes in temperature and precipitation. Hourly weather series are produced by first generating daily weather data for these climate scenarios and then using a nearest neighbor re-sampling approach for creating realistic diurnal cycles. These hourly weather series are then used for modeling the impact of climate change on important life phases of the codling moth and on the number of predicted infection days of fire blight. Codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are two major pest and disease threats to apple, one of the most important commercial and rural crops across Europe. Results for the codling moth indicate a shift in the occurrence and duration of life phases relevant for pest control. In southern Switzerland, a 3rd generation per season occurs only very rarely under today's climate conditions but is projected to become normal in the 2045-2074 time period. While the potential risk for a 3rd generation is also significantly increasing in northern Switzerland (for most stations from roughly 1

  1. Above-knee amputation followed by femoral replantation: 21-year follow-up results after lower limb replantation.

    PubMed

    Renner, Antal; Szentirmai, Annamária; Sántha, Andrea; Viola, Tamás; Gyárfás, Ferenc; Melly, András; Varga, Péter; Retteghy, Tibor

    2016-08-01

    In this article, we report successful treatment of serious complications of replantation after traumatic mid-third femoral amputation. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has been reported in the literature. A 38-year-old healthy male sustained a mid-third right traumatic femoral amputation. We performed replantation. Oliguria and anuria occurred and were treated successfully with hemofiltration and hemodialysis. Six years later, patient walked wearing orthopedic shoes and also protective sensibility recovered on the limb. Serious complications of proximal lower limb replantation can be treated successfully and the limb can be saved. PMID:27499326

  2. New insights into the characterization of Colletotrichum species associated with apple diseases in southern Brazil and Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Velho, Aline Cristina; Alaniz, Sandra; Casanova, Leticia; Mondino, Pedro; Stadnik, Marciel J

    2015-04-01

    Colletotrichum species are associated with Apple bitter rot (ABR) and Glomerella leaf spot (GLS). Whereas both apple diseases occur frequently in Brazil, only the former has been reported in Uruguay. This work was aimed at identifying and comparing morpho-cultural characteristics and pathogenic variability of thirty-nine Colletotrichum isolates from both countries. Sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and β-tubulin (TUB2) allowed the identification of three species causing ABR and GLS in Brazil, i.e., Colletotrichum fructicola, Colletotrichum karstii, and Colletotrichum nymphaeae; and three species causing ABR in Uruguay, i.e., C. fructicola, Colletotrichum theobromicola, and Colletotrichum melonis. Six groups of colony colours were recorded with group 1 (mycelium white to pink and in reverse pinkish) and group 2 (mycelium white to grey and in reverse pinkish) the most frequent. Isolates of C. fructicola and C. theobromicola were sensitive to benomyl, while C. karstii, C. nymphaeae, and C. melonis were resistant. Conidia were predominantly cylindrical for C. fructicola and C. karstii, fusiform for C. nymphaeae and C. melonis, and obclavate for C. theobromicola. Brazilian isolates caused ABR in wounded fruits, but only five in non-wounded ones. Uruguayan isolates produced symptoms in fruits with or without previous wounding. All Brazilian isolates from GLS and twelve from ABR were able to cause GLS symptoms, while a sole Uruguayan ABR-isolate caused leaf spot symptoms. This study gives a better insight on the new species causing apple disease in both countries and discusses their pathogenic potential. PMID:25813510

  3. Evidence that the rab5 effector APPL1 mediates APP-βCTF-induced dysfunction of endosomes in Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, S; Sato, Y; Mohan, P S; Peterhoff, C; Pensalfini, A; Rigoglioso, A; Jiang, Y; Nixon, R A

    2016-05-01

    β-Amyloid precursor protein (APP) and its cleaved products are strongly implicated in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Endosomes are highly active APP processing sites, and endosome anomalies associated with upregulated expression of early endosomal regulator, rab5, are the earliest known disease-specific neuronal response in AD. Here, we show that the rab5 effector APPL1 (adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology domain, phosphotyrosine binding domain and leucine zipper motif) mediates rab5 overactivation in Down syndrome (DS) and AD, which is caused by elevated levels of the β-cleaved carboxy-terminal fragment of APP (βCTF). βCTF recruits APPL1 to rab5 endosomes, where it stabilizes active GTP-rab5, leading to pathologically accelerated endocytosis, endosome swelling and selectively impaired axonal transport of rab5 endosomes. In DS fibroblasts, APPL1 knockdown corrects these endosomal anomalies. βCTF levels are also elevated in AD brain, which is accompanied by abnormally high recruitment of APPL1 to rab5 endosomes as seen in DS fibroblasts. These studies indicate that persistent rab5 overactivation through βCTF-APPL1 interactions constitutes a novel APP-dependent pathogenic pathway in AD. PMID:26194181

  4. Transcriptional regulation of ethylene and jasmonate mediated defense response in apple (Malus domestica) root during Pythium ultimum infection

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sungbong; Lv, Jingyi; Fazio, Gennaro; Mazzola, Mark; Zhu, Yanmin

    2014-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is a significant economic restraint to the successful re-establishment of new apple orchards on sites previously planted to the same crop. Pythium ultimum, an oomycete, is a significant component of the ARD pathogen complex. Although ethylene (ET)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-mediated defense responses are intensively studied in the foliar pathosystem, the transferability of this knowledge to the interaction between a perennial root system and soilborne pathogens is unknown. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the ET/JA-mediated defense response is conserved in roots of tree crops in response to infection by P. ultimum. Apple genes with the annotated function of ET/JA biosynthesis, MdERF (ethylene response factor) for signaling transduction and a gene encoding a pathogenesis-related (PR) protein (β-chitinase, the target of ERF) were identified from the apple genome sequences. The transcriptional profiles of these genes during P. ultimum infection and after exogenous ET and/or JA treatment were characterized using qRT-PCR. Several genes showed a 10- to 60-fold upregulation in apple root tissue 24-48 h post inoculation (hpi). Exogenous ET and JA treatment exhibited either a positive or negative influence on expression of ET or JA biosynthesis genes, depending upon gene isoforms and the tissue types, while the expression of MdERF and the PR protein encoding gene was upregulated by both ET and JA treatment. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that ET/JA-mediated defense pathways are functional in the root system of perennial tree species defending soilborne pathogens. PMID:26504552

  5. Prognostic factors on survival rate of fingers replantation

    PubMed Central

    Lima, José Queiroz; Carli, Alberto De; Nakamoto, Hugo Alberto; Bersani, Gustavo; Crepaldi, Bruno Eiras; de Rezende, Marcelo Rosa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the factors that influence the survival rate of replantation and revascularization of the thumb and/or fingers. Methods: We included fifty cases treated in our department from May 2012 to October 2013 with total or partial finger amputations, which had blood perfusion deficit and underwent vascular anastomosis. The parameters evaluated were: age, gender, comorbidities, trauma, time and type of ischemia, mechanism, the injured area, number of anastomosed vessels and use of vein grafts. The results were statistically analyzed and type I error value was set at p <0.05 . Results: Fifty four percent of the 50 performed replantation survived. Of 15 revascularizations performed, the survival rate was 93.3%. The only factor that affected the survival of the amputated limb was the necessity of venous anastomosis. Conclusion: We could not establish contraindications or absolute indications for the replantation and revascularization of finger amputations in this study. Level of Evidence III, Retropective Study. PMID:26327788

  6. Treatment of Necrotic Calcified Tooth Using Intentional Replantation Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Arvin, Armita; Darvish, Alireza; Aflaki, Sareh

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. If the teeth are impacted by a chronic irritant, the pulp space possibly will undergo calcific changes that may impede access opening during root canal treatment. In such cases that conventional endodontic treatment is impossible or impractical, intentional replantation may be considered as a last solution to preserve the tooth. Methods. After failing to perform conventional root canal therapy for a necrotic calcified right mandibular second premolar, the tooth was gently extracted. The root apex was resected and the root end cavity was prepared and filled with calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement. Then, the extracted tooth was replanted in its original position. Results. After a year the tooth was asymptomatic, and the size of periapical radiolucency was remarkably reduced and no clinical sign of ankylosis was observed. Conclusion. Intentional replantation of the necrotic calcified teeth could be considered as an alternative to teeth extraction, especially for the single-rooted teeth and when nonsurgical and surgical endodontic procedures seem impossible. PMID:24716000

  7. Penile Replantation After Five Hours of Warm Ischemia.

    PubMed

    Facio, Fernando N; Spessoto, Luis C; Arruda, Pedro; Paiva, Cristiano S; Arruda, José G; Facio, Maria F

    2015-05-01

    Although a rare occurrence, this event may occur as a result of self-mutilation among individuals with psychiatric disturbances or due to work-related accidents, iatrogenic injuries or the actions of individuals motivated by jealously, rage and feelings of betrayal. In western societies, most penile amputations are the result of self-aggression during a psychotic episode, the treatment of victims involves resuscitation, stabilization and immediate psychiatric support. The amputated tissue must be preserved under hypothermic conditions. Micro-surgery is currently the most widely employed method for penile replantation. This paper describes a successful case of penile replantation following 5 hours of warm ischemia. PMID:26793508

  8. Management of Traumatized Permanent Incisors. Revascularization and Delayed Replantation.

    PubMed

    Gharechahi, Maryam; Shojaeian, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    This article reports a clinical case of a 9-year-old boy with a traumatic injury to the maxillary central incisors 24 hours after a fall in his schoolyard. The upper left central incisor was avulsed and was kept in saliva for four hours from the moment of trauma until its replantation. The right one was necrotized after one month. We describe successful revascularization treatment of right necrotic immature upper incisor and delayed replantation of left one. After 18 months, radiolucent lesions in the periapical areas of both maxillary central incisors had healed, and root apex development was noted with thickening of the walls in tooth #8. PMID:26939157

  9. Elucidating the molecular responses of apple rootstock resistant to ARD pathogens: challenges and opportunities for development of genomics-assisted breeding tools.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yanmin; Fazio, Gennaro; Mazzola, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is a major limitation to the establishment of economically viable orchards on replant sites due to the buildup and long-term survival of pathogen inoculum. Several soilborne necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes are primarily responsible for ARD, and symptoms range from serious inhibition of growth to the death of young trees. Chemical fumigation has been the primary method used for control of ARD, and manipulating soil microbial ecology to reduce pathogen density and aggressiveness is being investigated. To date, innate resistance of apple rootstocks as a means to control this disease has not been carefully explored, partly due to the complex etiology and the difficulty in phenotyping the disease resistance. Molecular defense responses of plant roots to soilborne necrotrophic pathogens are largely elusive, although considerable progress has been achieved using foliar disease systems. Plant defense responses to necrotrophic pathogens consist of several interacting modules and operate as a network. Upon pathogen detection by plants, cellular signals such as the oscillation of Ca(2+) concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and protein kinase activity, lead to plant hormone biosynthesis and signaling. Jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) are known to be fundamental to the induction and regulation of defense mechanisms toward invading necrotrophic pathogens. Complicated hormone crosstalk modulates the fine-tuning of transcriptional reprogramming and metabolic redirection, resulting in production of antimicrobial metabolites, enzyme inhibitors and cell wall refortification to restrict further pathogenesis. Transcriptome profiling of apple roots in response to inoculation with Pythium ultimum demonstrated that there is a high degree of conservation regarding the molecular framework of defense responses compared with those observed with foliar tissues. It is conceivable that the timing and intensity of genotype-specific defense responses

  10. Elucidating the molecular responses of apple rootstock resistant to ARD pathogens: challenges and opportunities for development of genomics-assisted breeding tools

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yanmin; Fazio, Gennaro; Mazzola, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Apple replant disease (ARD) is a major limitation to the establishment of economically viable orchards on replant sites due to the buildup and long-term survival of pathogen inoculum. Several soilborne necrotrophic fungi and oomycetes are primarily responsible for ARD, and symptoms range from serious inhibition of growth to the death of young trees. Chemical fumigation has been the primary method used for control of ARD, and manipulating soil microbial ecology to reduce pathogen density and aggressiveness is being investigated. To date, innate resistance of apple rootstocks as a means to control this disease has not been carefully explored, partly due to the complex etiology and the difficulty in phenotyping the disease resistance. Molecular defense responses of plant roots to soilborne necrotrophic pathogens are largely elusive, although considerable progress has been achieved using foliar disease systems. Plant defense responses to necrotrophic pathogens consist of several interacting modules and operate as a network. Upon pathogen detection by plants, cellular signals such as the oscillation of Ca2+ concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) burst and protein kinase activity, lead to plant hormone biosynthesis and signaling. Jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene (ET) are known to be fundamental to the induction and regulation of defense mechanisms toward invading necrotrophic pathogens. Complicated hormone crosstalk modulates the fine-tuning of transcriptional reprogramming and metabolic redirection, resulting in production of antimicrobial metabolites, enzyme inhibitors and cell wall refortification to restrict further pathogenesis. Transcriptome profiling of apple roots in response to inoculation with Pythium ultimum demonstrated that there is a high degree of conservation regarding the molecular framework of defense responses compared with those observed with foliar tissues. It is conceivable that the timing and intensity of genotype-specific defense responses

  11. Apple Browning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemecology, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students investigate the effects of selected natural and synthetic substances on the rate of apple browning. Includes background information for the teacher, a list of necessary materials, and student instructions. (KR)

  12. Newton's Apple

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-01-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his…

  13. Delayed tooth replantation: MTA as root canal filling.

    PubMed

    Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Saito, Célia Tomiko Matida Hamata; Hamanaka, Elizane Ferreira; Poi, Wilson Roberto

    2014-01-01

    MTA has been investigated as a root-end filling material. Its mechanism of action has some similarities to that of Ca(OH)2. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the repair process taking place in the delayed replantation of monkey teeth using calcium hydroxide and MTA as root canal filling materials. Five monkeys had their lateral incisors extracted and bench-dried for 60 minutes. After root canal preparation, the teeth were assigned to two groups according to root canal filling material: I, calcium hydroxide; and II, MTA. The same treatment sequence was followed for both groups: coronal seal, periodontal ligament removal, immersion of the tooth in 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride, irrigation of the socket with saline and replantation. Both groups exhibited replacement resorption, areas of ankylosis and absence of inflammatory root resorption. Statistically similar results (p > 0.05) were observed for both groups regarding replacement root resorption, but the groups differed significantly (p < 0.05) regarding the occurrence of ankylosis. MTA may be a viable clinical option for filling teeth submitted to delayed replantation, and is an acceptable option for treating replanted permanent teeth in order to prevent tooth resorption, particularly when dressing changes are not possible. PMID:25337936

  14. Functional and subjective results of 20 thumb replantations.

    PubMed

    Ciclamini, Davide; Tos, Pierluigi; Magistroni, Ernesta; Panero, Bernardino; Titolo, Paolo; Da Rold, Ilaria; Battiston, Bruno

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to analyse the results of 20 thumb replantations with special and exhaustive attention on functional outcomes. Twenty patients with traumatic thumb amputation were enrolled in the study. Range of motion, grip strength, sensory recovery, and subjective perception of overall hand function recovery were measured. The average age at the time of surgery was 35 years (range, 13-73 years). The mean follow-up was 3.25 years (range, 1.9-10.25 years). The long-term results of thumb replantation confirmed satisfactory outcomes in terms of general upper limb function, handgrip and pinch strength, and social and work reintegration. Sensory recovery remained unsatisfactory despite the fact that we did not need to perform any kind of revision surgery as a consequence of inadequate thumb sensibility. For the first time in the existing literature, no functional parameter that contributes to the assessment of the function of replanted thumbs has been excluded. We resume in the same study the analysis of all functional parameters that are useful to define results of thumb replantation. PMID:23265785

  15. Microsurgical Replantation of a Two-Segment Total Scalp Avulsion.

    PubMed

    Hu, Weiguo; Henry, Anne-Sophie; Lucas, Camille; Ta, Pierre; Philandrianos, Cécile; Kerfant, Nathalie

    2016-06-01

    Total scalp avulsion is a rare and severe injury that may be life threatening and can result in devastating disfigurement and psychological trauma. Microsurgical hair-bearing scalp replantation is considered the procedure of choice and should be performed by a skilled surgical team. Replantation of a multifragmented scalp is even rarer and shows random results. Only 2 patients have been reported, resulting in partial or total necrosis of implanted fragments. The authors describe the successful replantation of a totally avulsed 2-segment scalp in a 63-year-old woman whose hair was entrapped in the propeller shaft of a ship. The avulsed scalp involved both eyebrows, the frontal region, the upper part of both ears, and most of the occipital portion. After initial management including correction of hemorrhagic shock, the patient underwent emergency scalp replantation by microsurgical anastomosis of 3 arteries and 4 veins and the use of 2 vein grafts.According to authors' experience, multifragmented scalp avulsion imposes emergency relocation using as many microsurgical sutures as possible and implementation of vein grafts to ensure optimal revascularization of the avulsed scalp. PMID:27171945

  16. Indications and Case Series of Intentional Replantation of Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed; Alim Marvasti, Laleh; Kolahdouzan, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    This case series aims to comprehensively introduce intentional replantation with a focus on its indications and case selection in endodontics. In all represented cases, calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement is used for root-end filling. This case series demonstrates twenty cases of IR and extraoral root-end resection and filling with CEM cement. All the selected teeth had a failed endodontic treatment and required surgical/nonsurgical endodontic (re)treatment or extraction. Subsequent to gentle tooth extraction, an appropriate root-end cavity was prepared and filled with CEM cement. Then the tooth was replanted; maximun procedure time was 15 min. A total of 18 cases (90%) were successful over a mean follow-up period of 15.5 months. It can be concluded that intentional replantation with careful case selection can have a high success rate over 2 years. Intentional replantation may be a suitable treatment option for both trained general practitioners and specialists provided that the extraction is simple and straightforward. PMID:24396380

  17. A Few Bad Apples: A Model of Disease Influenced Agent Behaviour in a Heterogeneous Contact Environment

    PubMed Central

    Enright, Jessica; Kao, Rowland R.

    2015-01-01

    For diseases that infect humans or livestock, transmission dynamics are at least partially dependent on human activity and therefore human behaviour. However, the impact of human behaviour on disease transmission is relatively understudied, especially in the context of heterogeneous contact structures such as described by a social network. Here, we use a strategic game, coupled with a simple disease model, to investigate how strategic agent choices impact the spread of disease over a contact network. Using beliefs that are based on disease status and that build up over time, agents choose actions that stochastically determine disease spread on the network. An agent’s disease status is therefore a function of both his own and his neighbours actions. The effect of disease on agents is modelled by a heterogeneous payoff structure. We find that the combination of network shape and distribution of payoffs has a non-trivial impact on disease prevalence, even if the mean payoff remains the same. An important scenario occurs when a small percentage (called noncooperators) have little incentive to avoid disease. For diseases that are easily acquired when taking a risk, then even when good behavior can lead to disease eradication, a small increase in the percentage of noncooperators (less than 5%) can yield a large (up to 25%) increase in prevalence. PMID:25734661

  18. A few bad apples: a model of disease influenced agent behaviour in a heterogeneous contact environment.

    PubMed

    Enright, Jessica; Kao, Rowland R

    2015-01-01

    For diseases that infect humans or livestock, transmission dynamics are at least partially dependent on human activity and therefore human behaviour. However, the impact of human behaviour on disease transmission is relatively understudied, especially in the context of heterogeneous contact structures such as described by a social network. Here, we use a strategic game, coupled with a simple disease model, to investigate how strategic agent choices impact the spread of disease over a contact network. Using beliefs that are based on disease status and that build up over time, agents choose actions that stochastically determine disease spread on the network. An agent's disease status is therefore a function of both his own and his neighbours actions. The effect of disease on agents is modelled by a heterogeneous payoff structure. We find that the combination of network shape and distribution of payoffs has a non-trivial impact on disease prevalence, even if the mean payoff remains the same. An important scenario occurs when a small percentage (called noncooperators) have little incentive to avoid disease. For diseases that are easily acquired when taking a risk, then even when good behavior can lead to disease eradication, a small increase in the percentage of noncooperators (less than 5%) can yield a large (up to 25%) increase in prevalence. PMID:25734661

  19. Replantation versus Prosthetic Fitting in Traumatic Arm Amputations: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Iris A.; Kon, Moshe; Schuurman, Arnold H.; van Minnen, L. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Traumatic arm amputations can be treated with replantation or surgical formalization of the stump with or without subsequent prosthetic fitting. In the literature, many authors suggest the superiority of replantation. This systematic review compared available literature to analyze whether replantation is functionally and psychologically more profitable than formalization and prosthetic fitting in patients with traumatic arm amputation. Methods Functional outcome and satisfaction levels were recorded of patients with amputation levels below elbow, through elbow, and above elbow. Results Functional outcomes of 301 replantation patients and 172 prosthesis patients were obtained. In the replantation group, good or excellent functional scores were reported in 39% of above elbow, 55% of through elbow, and 50% of below elbow amputation cases. Nearly 100% of patients were satisfied with the replanted limb. In the prosthesis group, full use of the prosthesis was attained in 48% of above elbow and in 89% of below elbow amputation patients. Here, 29% of patients elected not to use the prosthesis for reasons including pain and functional superfluity. In both replantation patients and prosthesis wearers, a below elbow amputation yielded better functional results than higher amputation levels. Conclusions Replantation of a traumatically amputated arm leads to good function and higher satisfaction rates than a prosthesis, regardless of the objective functional outcome. Sensation and psychological well-being seem the two major advantages of replantation over a prosthesis. The current review of the available literature shows that in carefully selected cases replantation could be the preferred option of treatment. PMID:26340003

  20. Systems approach-based mitigation of postharvest diseases to overcome trade barriers for Washington apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis rot caused by S. pyriputrescens were reported as new postharvest fruit rot diseases in Washington State in the mid-2000s. Both diseases can cause significant postharvest losses of fruit if left uncontrolled, and the two fungi have be...

  1. Newton's Apple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendry, Archibald W.

    2007-05-01

    Isaac Newton may have seen an apple fall, but it was Robert Hooke who had a better idea of where it would land. No one really knows whether or not Isaac Newton actually saw an apple fall in his garden. Supposedly it took place in 1666, but it was a tale he told in his old age more than 60 years later, a time when his memory was failing and his recollections of events did not always match known facts. However, one thing is certain-falling objects were to play a key part in Newton's eventual understanding of how objects move.

  2. Salvage of replanted upper extremities with major soft-tissue complications.

    PubMed

    Cavadas, Pedro C

    2007-01-01

    Soft-tissue complications in the replantation wound, either septic or non-septic, are the main cause of failure in major extremity replantations. In the presence of necrosis or infection, vascular errosion or thrombosis readily develops and can lead to limb loss. Very aggressive surgical treatment has been recommended to salvage the replanted limb in these highly unstable clinical situations. Over a 10-year period, 423 amputated parts were replanted, 56 of which were replants proximal to the wrist. The experience of the author in treating 11 cases of critical soft-tissue necrosis (four septic and seven non-septic) after major replantation of the upper extremity with aggressive debridement and flap coverage, is reported. All flaps and limbs survived. PMID:17478136

  3. Apple's Macintosh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Description of the Macintosh personal, educational, and business computer produced by Apple covers cost; physical characteristics including display devices, circuit boards, and built-in features; company-produced software; third-party produced software; memory and storage capacity; word-processing features; and graphics capabilities. (MBR)

  4. Traveling Apples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland Unified School District, Rowland Heights, CA.

    Teacher-developed materials for a basic computer literacy and utilization program for elementary students in grades 3-6 are included in this 4-part packet, which was originally prepared for use with or without the Apple IIe "traveling" microcomputers shared by 15 Rowland Unified School District elementary schools. Implementation procedures are…

  5. Hand replantation: First experience in a sub-Saharan African country (Togo)

    PubMed Central

    Amouzou, Komla Sena; Amakoutou, Komla; Bakriga, Batarabadja; Abalo, Anani; Dossim, Assang

    2016-01-01

    Fifty years after Chen has performed the first forearm replantation, we report our first case of hand replantation in a sub-Saharan African country. The etiology of the amputation was machete due to interpersonal violence. The amputation was trans-carpal, guillotine-type, subtotal non-viable maintained with a small skin bridge. The replantation procedure was successful. At one year follow-up, the functional result according to Chen's criteria was excellent. Through this first experience, we can state that hand replantation can be performed successfully both in survival and function in a non-specialized hospital of a sub-Saharan African country. PMID:27274133

  6. Pulp revascularization for immature replanted teeth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nagata, J Y; Rocha-Lima, T F; Gomes, B P; Ferraz, C C; Zaia, A A; Souza-Filho, F J; De Jesus-Soares, A

    2015-09-01

    Immature avulsed teeth are not usually treated with pulp revascularization because of the possibility of complications. However, this therapy has shown success in the treatment of immature teeth with periapical lesions. This report describes the case of an immature replanted tooth that was successfully treated by pulp revascularization. An 8-year-old boy suffered avulsion on his maxillary left lateral incisor. The tooth showed incomplete root development and was replanted after 30 minutes. After diagnosis, revascularization therapy was performed by irrigating the root canal and applying a calcium hydroxide paste and 2% chlorhexidine gel for 21 days. In the second session, the intracanal dressing was removed and a blood clot was stimulated up to the cervical third of the root canal. Mineral trioxide aggregate was placed as a cervical barrier at the entrance of the root canal and the crown was restored. During the follow-up period, periapical repair, apical closure and calcification in the apical 4 mm of the root canal was observed. An avulsed immature tooth replanted after a brief extra-alveolar period and maintained in a viable storage medium may be treated with revascularization. PMID:26219350

  7. Cortical motor activation patterns following hand transplantation and replantation.

    PubMed

    Brenneis, C; Löscher, W N; Egger, K E; Benke, T; Schocke, M; Gabl, M F; Wechselberger, G; Felber, S; Pechlaner, S; Margreiter, R; Piza-Katzer, H; Poewe, W

    2005-10-01

    We studied cortical activation patterns by functional MRI in a patient who received bilateral hand transplantation after amputation 6 years ago and in a patient who had received unilateral hand replantation within 2 hours after amputation. In the early postoperative period, the patient who had had the hand transplantation revealed strong activation of a higher motor area, only weak activation of the primary sensorimotor motor cortex and no activation of the primary somatosensory cortex. At 1-year follow-up, a small increase in primary sensorimotor motor cortex activation was observed. Activation of the primary somatosensory cortex was only seen at the 2 year follow-up. By contrast, after hand replantation, the activation pattern was similar to that of the uninjured hand within 6 weeks. This included activation of the primary sensorimotor motor cortex, higher motor areas and primary somatosensory cortex. Transplantation after long-standing amputation results in cortical reorganization occurring over a 2-year period. In contrast, hand replantation within a few hours preserves a normal activation pattern. PMID:16055246

  8. Microsurgical replantation of partial avulsion of the scalp. Case report.

    PubMed

    Svensson, H; Njalsson, T

    1995-06-01

    An 8-year-old girl was bitten by a dog and, as well as minor wounds, had a complete avulsion of the central part of the scalp covering an area of 8 x 10 cm. By rotating the replant 180 degrees and by using 5 cm long vein grafts, two sleeve anastomoses, and two end-to-end anastomoses the blood supply was restored. The operation lasted nine hours, and she stayed in hospital for 12 days. Her clinical course was uneventful. At follow-up 23 months later the cosmetic and functional results were good. PMID:7569816

  9. Are Red Apples Sweeter Than Green Apples?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Chris

    1999-01-01

    Describes how a classroom observation of apples led to the development of a science project. Discusses the correlation between the greenness and the acidity of apples. Finds that the greener the apple, the lower its pH, and thus the more acidic and less sweet it tastes. (Author/CCM)

  10. Recombinant DNA technology in apple.

    PubMed

    Gessler, Cesare; Patocchi, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    This review summarizes the achievements of almost 20 years of recombinant DNA technology applied to apple, grouping the research results into the sections: developing the technology, insect resistance, fungal disease resistance, self-incompatibility, herbicide resistance, fire blight resistance, fruit ripening, allergens, rooting ability, and acceptance and risk assessment. The diseases fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora, and scab, caused by Venturia inaequalis, were and still are the prime targets. Shelf life improvement and rooting ability of rootstocks are also relevant research areas. The tools to create genetically modified apples of added value to producers, consumers, and the environment are now available. PMID:17522823

  11. Assessment of survival rates compared according to the Tamai and Yamano classifications in fingertip replantations

    PubMed Central

    Dadaci, Mehmet; Ince, Bilsev; Altuntas, Zeynep; Bitik, Ozan; Kamburoglu, Haldun Onuralp; Uzun, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Background: The fingertip is the most frequently injured and amputated segment of the hand. There are controversies about defining clear indications for microsurgical replantation. Many classification systems have been proposed to solve this problem. No previous study has simultaneously correlated different classification systems with replant survival rate. The aim of the study is to compare the outcomes of fingertip replantations according to Tamai and Yamano classifications. Materials and Methods: 34 consecutive patients who underwent fingertip replantation between 2007 and 2014 were retrospectively reviewed with respect to the Tamai and Yamano classifications. The medical charts from record room were reviewed. The mean age of the patients was 36.2 years. There were 30 men and 4 women. All the injuries were complete amputations. Of the 34 fingertip amputations, 19 were in Tamai zone 2 and 15 were in Tamai zone 1. When all the amputations were grouped in reference to the Yamano classification, 6 were type 1 guillotine, 8 were type 2 crush and 20 were type 3 crush avulsions. Results: Of the 34 fingertips, 26 (76.4%) survived. Ten (66.6%) of 15 digits replanted in Tamai zone 1 and 16 (84.2%) of 19 digits replanted in Tamai zone 2 survived. There were no replantation failures in Yamano type 1 injuries (100%) and only two failed in Yamano type 2 (75%). Replantation was successful in 14 of 20 Yamano type 3 injuries, but six failed (70%). The percentage of success rates was the least in the hybridized groups of Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 2 and Tamai zone 1-Yamano type 3. Although clinically distinct, the survival rates between the groups were not statistically significantly different. Conclusions: The level and mechanism of injury play a decisive role in the success of fingertip replantation. Success rate increases in proximal fingertip amputations without crush injury. PMID:27512220

  12. Thumb Replantation Using the Superficial Palmar Branch of the Radial Artery.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sang Hyun; Bahar-Moni, Ahmed Suparno; Park, Hyun Chul

    2016-08-01

    The thumb is the most important part of the hand. If thumb is amputated, all efforts should be made to replant it to preserve hand functions. Good functional outcome can be obtained with successful thumb replantation than with other reconstructive surgery. We present a case of thumb amputation of a 44 -year-old male with severe damage to the soft tissues and bony structures of the radial part of the hand. We performed the replantation anastomosing the superficial palmar branch of the radial artery as donor artery as the proximal part of thumb digital arteries were severely damaged due to crush injury and got favorable result. PMID:27625540

  13. Delayed Replantation of Avulsed Teeth: Two Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Savas, Selcuk; Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Akcay, Merve; Koseoglu, Serhat

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents two cases of delayed replantation of avulsed maxillary central incisors after an extended dry extra-alveolar period. Eight-year-old boy and 10-year-old boy presented with avulsed maxillary central incisors due to trauma occurring 27 and 7 hours earlier, respectively. Treatment guidelines for avulsed mature/immature permanent teeth with prolonged extra-oral time were carried out for the teeth and the extra-oral endodontic treatment was completed. After having been repositioned, the teeth were stabilized for 4 weeks and prophylactic antibiotic was prescribed. Clinical and radiographic controls were done after 18 months for Case I and 12 months for Case II. During the follow-up periods the teeth reported in these cases have remained in a stable, functional position but revealed clinical initial replacement resorption and ankylosis. PMID:25810928

  14. Treatment of fingertip amputation: comparison of results between microsurgical replantation and pocket principle.

    PubMed

    Yabe, Tetsuji; Tsuda, Tomoyuki; Hirose, Shunsuke; Ozawa, Toshiyuki

    2012-05-01

    In this article, a comparison of replantation using microsurgical replantation (replantation) and the Brent method and its modification (pocket principle) in the treatment of fingertip amputation is reported. As a classification of amputation level, we used Ishikawa's subzone classification of fingertip amputation, and the cases of amputations only in subzone 2 were included in this study. Between these two groups, there was no statistical difference in survival rate, postoperative atrophy, or postoperative range of motion. In terms of sensory recovery, some records were lost and exact study was difficult. But there was no obvious difference between these cases. In our comparison of microsurgical replantation versus the pocket principle in treatment of subzone 2 fingertip amputation, there was no difference in postoperative results. Each method has pros and cons, and the surgeon should choose which technique to use based on his or her understanding of the characteristics of both methods. PMID:22399251

  15. Ten years of replantation surgery at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Charles University Hospital, Prague.

    PubMed

    Kletenský, J; Nejedlý, A; Pros, Z; Svoboda, S; Tvrdek, M

    1994-01-01

    The authors present results of the ten years replantation surgery centre at the department of plastic surgery in Prague. The presented series of patients includes 393 persons operated on because of amputation or ischaemic injury to the region of the upper extremity. The number of replantations and revascularisations in the individual years is analysed, as well as the age of the patients, type of injury, mechanism of injury and operation results. PMID:7618394

  16. Cross-cultural variation in preference for replantation or revision amputation: Societal and surgeon views.

    PubMed

    Maroukis, Brianna L; Shauver, Melissa J; Nishizuka, Takanobu; Hirata, Hitoshi; Chung, Kevin C

    2016-04-01

    Treatment decisions after an injury like finger amputation are made based on injury and patient factors. However, decisions can also be influenced by provider and patient preferences. We compared hand surgeon and societal preferences and attitudes regarding finger amputation treatment in Japan and the US. We performed a cross-sectional survey with subjects derived from large tertiary care academic institutions in the US and Japan. We secured 100% participation of American hand surgeon members of the Finger Replantation and Amputation Multicenter Study and presenting hand surgeons at the 32nd Annual meeting of the Central Japanese Society for Surgery of the Hand. Societal preferences were gathered from volunteers at the 2 universities in the US and Japan. There were no significant differences in estimations of function, sensation, or appearance after replantation; American and Japanese societal participants preferred replantation compared to surgeons, although this was more pronounced in Japan. The Japanese society displayed more negative attitudes toward finger amputees than did Japanese surgeons. American respondents anticipated more public stigmatisation of amputees than did American surgeons. Societal preference for replantation was not caused by inflated expectations of outcomes after replantation. Japanese societal preference was likely driven by negative views of finger amputees. American society noted no decrease in physical health after amputation, but did note a quality of life decrease attributed to public stigmatisation. Japanese society and surgeons had a stronger preference for replantation than American society and surgeons, possibly attributed to cultural differences. PMID:26961436

  17. What's an Adam's Apple?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's an Adam's Apple? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's an Adam's Apple? Print A A A Text Size You're ... the throat. This is what's called an Adam's apple. Everyone's larynx grows during puberty, but a girl's ...

  18. Apple latent spherical virus vector as vaccine for the prevention and treatment of mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants by bean yellow mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Nozomi; Kon, Tatsuya; Yamagishi, Noriko; Takahashi, Tsubasa; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2014-11-01

    We investigated the protective effects of a viral vector based on an Apple latent spherical virus (ALSV) harboring a segment of the Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) genome against mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma plants caused by BYMV infection. In pea plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine and challenge inoculated with BYMV expressing green fluorescence protein, BYMV multiplication occurred in inoculated leaves, but was markedly inhibited in the upper leaves. No mosaic symptoms due to BYMV infection were observed in the challenged plants pre-inoculated with the ALSV vaccine. Simultaneous inoculation with the ALSV vaccine and BYMV also prevented mosaic symptoms in broad bean and eustoma plants, and BYMV accumulation was strongly inhibited in the upper leaves of plants treated with the ALSV vaccine. Pea and eustoma plants were pre-inoculated with BYMV followed by inoculation with the ALSV vaccine to investigate the curative effects of the ALSV vaccine. In both plant species, recovery from mosaic symptoms was observed in upper leaves and BYMV accumulation was inhibited in leaves developing post-ALSV vaccination. These results show that ALSV vaccination not only prevents mosaic diseases in pea, broad bean, and eustoma, but that it is also effective in curing these diseases. PMID:25386843

  19. Sources and availability of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens inoculum in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens (SP) is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infections of apple fruit by the fungus occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. SP also is the cause of a twig dieback and canker disease o...

  20. Intracanal dressing and root canal filling materials in tooth replantation: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Trevisan, Carolina Lunardelli; Brandini, Daniela Atili; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Luvizuto, Eloá Rodrigues; Dos Santos, Cláudia Letícia Vendrame

    2012-02-01

    The prognosis of tooth replantation is usually related to the need of endodontic treatment, which has a direct relationship with the occurrence of root resorptions. Several studies have been undertaken in an attempt to prevent, delay, or treat these complications, which are the main causes of loss of replanted teeth. This literature review examines research evidence on intracanal dressings and root canal filling materials used in cases of tooth replantation. A comprehensive search was performed in the Medline/Pubmed, Bireme and Scielo full-text electronic journal databases to retrieve English-language articles referring to these topics that had been published between 1964 and 2010. Calcium hydroxide (CH) remains the usually recommended choice as an intracanal medicament in replanted teeth; however, there is evidence to support the initial use of a corticosteroid-antibiotic combination such as Ledermix paste to control potential early resorption, prior to the introduction of CH where the beneficial effect in the treatment of progressive root resorption has been well proven. Regarding root filling materials, CH-containing sealers are a good option because of their biological properties. Accurate diagnosis and adequate treatment plan may constitute very complex tasks, particularly in tooth avulsion because several variables are involved. In addition to the technical knowledge and clinical experience directed toward the quality of treatment, patient education may favorably influence the survival of replanted teeth. PMID:22230725

  1. Evaluation of laser photobiomodulation (λ 780 nm) on repair of dental replantation in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos de Carvalho, Fabíola; Vasconcelos, Rebeca M.; Santos, Laila; dos Santos Barbosa, Artur F.; Aguiar, Marcio C.; Cangussu, Maria Cristina T.; Pinheiro, Antônio Luiz B.; Pedreira Ramalho, Luciana M.

    2014-02-01

    Up to date the success of tooth replantation is still limited. The majority of the teeth is lost due to progressive external root resorption. The aim of this study was to assess, histologically, the effect of laser photobiomodulation on repair after tooth replantation. Sixty Wistar Albinus rats had the right upper incisor extracted and then divided into 4 groups: G1 - absence of storage medium; G2 - milk u s e d as storage medium; G3 - milk used as storage medium a n d followed by GaAlAs laser irradiation on dental surfaces and at the entrance of alveolus; G4 - milk used as storage medium associated with laser irradiation as in G3 before and after replantation on the buccal and palatal mucosa every 48 hours for 15 days. The animals were sacrificed at 15, 30 and 60 days after replantation. The results showed that after 15 days G4 exhibit more intense chronic inflammation, with presence of clastic cells and moderate inflammatory root resorption (p<0.05) when compared to G3, which presented absence of those parameters. At day 30 in G1, G2 and G4 mild to moderate chronic inflammation and severe external root resorption were observed. G3 remained with no inflammation and inflammatory root resorption with 30 and 60 days of healing experimental times. The results suggest that laser irradiation on the dental entrance of the dental alveolus prior to tooth replantation has a positive biomodulative effect on the healing process in rats.

  2. Delayed tooth replantation in rats: effect of systemic antibiotic therapy with amoxicillin and tetracycline.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Weglis Dyanne de Souza; Silva, Cristina Antoniali; Melo, Moriel Evangelista; Silva, Vanessa Ferreira da; Almeida, Melyna Marques de; Pedrini, Denise; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Panzarini, Sônia Regina

    2015-12-01

    Systemic antibiotic therapy (SAT) has usually been recommended after tooth replantation, but its actual value has been questioned. As there are no reports in the literature about its influence on tooth replantation, the aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of systemic administration of antibiotics (amoxicillin and tetracycline) at the different phases of the repair process (7, 15, 30 days) in delayed rat tooth replantation. Ninety Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) had their maxillary right incisors extracted and bench-dried for 60 min. The dental papilla, enamel organ, pulp tissue, and root surface-adhered periodontal ligament were removed, and the teeth were replanted. The animals received no antibiotics (n = 30) or were medicated systemically with amoxicillin (n = 30) and tetracycline (n = 30), and were euthanized after 7, 15, and 30 days. Regardless of the evaluation period, the acute inflammatory infiltrate was less intense and root resorption presented smaller extent and depth in the group treated with amoxicillin. The results suggest that SAT has a positive influence on the repair process in delayed tooth replantation and that amoxicillin is an excellent treatment option. PMID:26332890

  3. Rootstock-regulated gene expression patterns associated with fire blight resistance in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Desirable apple varieties are clonally propagated by grafting vegetative scions onto rootstocks. Rootstocks influence many phenotypic traits of the scion, including resistance to pathogens such as Erwinia amylovora, which causes fire blight, the most serious bacterial disease of apple....

  4. Effect of potential methyl bromide alternatives on plant parasitic nematodes and grape yield under vineyard replant conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Root-knot (Meloidogyne spp.) and citrus (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) nematodes are often present in vineyards affected by “replant problems” of grapes in California. Methyl bromide (MB) has been used to control these nematodes and other soil borne pathogens prior to replanting new vineyards, but, exc...

  5. Micropropagation of apple--a review.

    PubMed

    Dobránszki, Judit; da Silva, Jaime A Teixeira

    2010-01-01

    Micropropagation of apple has played an important role in the production of healthy, disease-free plants and in the rapid multiplication of scions and rootstocks with desirable traits. During the last few decades, in apple, many reliable methods have been developed for both rootstocks and scions from a practical, commercial point of view. Successful micropropagation of apple using pre-existing meristems (culture of apical buds or nodal segments) is influenced by several internal and external factors including ex vitro (e.g. genotype and physiological state) and in vitro conditions (e.g., media constituents and light). Specific requirements during stages of micropropagation, such as the establishment of in vitro cultures, shoot multiplication, rooting of microshoots and acclimatization are summarized in this review. New approaches for increasing shoot multiplication and rooting for apple and current use of micropropagated plantlets as tools in basic and applied research are also discussed. PMID:20188809

  6. Replantation of an avulsed tooth with an extended extra oral period.

    PubMed

    Kubasad, Girish; Ghivari, Sheetal; Garg, Khushboo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we have reported a case of the replantation of a maxillary incisor with an extended extraoral period following a traumatic avulsion. After storage in normal saline, the root surface of the avulsed tooth was conditioned with citric acid and treated with a triple antibiotic solution. The tooth socket was filled with Emdogain before replantation. A 12 month, 18 month and a 5 year follow-up clinical examination revealed the patient to be asymptomatic, and the tooth was functional. The recall radiograph showed no evidence of renewed periradicular breakdown and apical root resorption. PMID:23649072

  7. The Apple IIc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freiberger, Paul

    1984-01-01

    Description of the portable Apple IIc includes its flat panel display; a new microprocessor, the 65CO2; its new design language; layout; documentation, including interactive tutorials; software support; and cost. Apple IIc's competitors and its new printer, the Scribe, are also discussed. (MBR)

  8. WHOLE SURFACE IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION FOR MACHINE VISION INSPECTION OF APPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 in the US serve as reminders of food safety in produce. Unpasteurized apple juice/cider has been identified as a repeated source of E. coli O157:H7 contamination. Apples with diseased or fungal contaminated surfaces, and open skin cuts and bruises may become sites...

  9. Treatment of root surface in delayed tooth replantation: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Gulinelli, Jéssica Lemos; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Pedrini, Denise; Brandini, Daniela Atili

    2008-06-01

    The time elapsed between a trauma and tooth replantation usually ranges from 1 to 4 h. The chances of root surface damage are higher when tooth replantation is not performed immediately or if the avulsed tooth is not stored in an adequate medium. This invariably leads to necrosis of pulp tissue, periodontal ligament cells and cementum, thus increasing the possibility of root resorption, which is the main cause of loss of replanted teeth. This paper presents a comprehensive review of literature on root surface treatments performed in cases of delayed tooth replantation with necrotic cemental periodontal ligament. Journal articles retrieved from PubMed/MedLine, Bireme and Scielo databases were reviewed. It was observed that, when there are no periodontal ligament remnants and contamination is under control, replacement resorption and ankylosis are the best results and that, although these events will end up leading to tooth loss, this will happen slowly with no loss of the alveolar ridge height, which is important for future prosthesis planning. PMID:18410388

  10. Occurrence and phenotypes of pyrimethanil resistance in penicillium expansum from apple in Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium expansum is the primary cause of blue mold of apple. Pyrimethanil is a recently registered postharvest fungicide for control of postharvest diseases in apple. To monitor pyrimethanil resistance, 779 isolates of P. expansum were collected from decayed apple fruit in 2010 and 2011 from fiv...

  11. Controlled continuous systemic heparinization increases success rate of artery-only anastomosis replantation in single distal digit amputation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Yong; Kim, Hak Soo; Heo, Sang Taek; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Replantation is a prime indication for distal digital amputation, as it helps restore hand aesthetics and functions; however, venous anastomosis is often not feasible. Previous studies used systemic anticoagulation in distal digital artery only anastomosis replantation surgery to improve replantation success rate, however, which yielded limited level of clinical evidence. This study aimed to compare controlled continuous heparinization (CCH) and intermittent bolus heparinization (IBH) for surgical outcome and clinical variables after single distal digital artery only anastomosis replantation surgery. A single-institution, retrospective cohort study was performed. Out of 324 patients who underwent digital replantation surgery, we focused the study for the Zone I and II single distal digital amputation patients excluding confounding factors. Sixty-one patients were included in this study and underwent artery-only anastomosis replantation surgery with postoperative CCH (34 patients) or IBH (27 patients) protocols. The CCH group targeted activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) at 51 to 70 seconds, monitoring aPTT levels every eight hours and administering 100 mg of aspirin per day. The IBH group received 300 mg of aspirin per day and underwent IBH (12,500 U). Both groups received intravenous prostaglandin E1 drips (10 μg). To verify the factors affecting the success rate of the heparin protocol, patient factors, clinical factors, and operative factors were extracted from the medical records. Statistical analysis with inverse probability of treatment weights propensity score methods compared treatment outcomes and clinical variables. The CCH group's replantation success rate was higher (91.17% vs 59.25%), and the transfusion rate was increased (P = 0.032). However, the significant decrease in hemoglobin levels (>15%) did not differ between the groups (P = 0.108). Multivariable logistic regression analysis with potent univariate variables (P

  12. Brassica seed meal soil amendments transform the rhizosphere microbiome and improve apple production through resistance to pathogen reinfestation.

    PubMed

    Mazzola, Mark; Hewavitharana, Shashika S; Strauss, Sarah L

    2015-04-01

    Brassicaceae seed meal (SM) formulations were compared with preplant 1,3-dichloropropene/chloropicrin (Telone-C17) soil fumigation for the ability to control apple replant disease and to suppress pathogen or parasite reinfestation of organic orchard soils at two sites in Washington State. Preplant soil fumigation and an SM formulation consisting of either Brassica juncea-Sinapis alba or B. juncea-B. napus each provided similar levels of disease control during the initial growing season. Although tree growth was similar in fumigated and SM-amended soil during the initial growing season, tree performance in terms of growth and yield was commonly superior in B. juncea-S. alba SM-amended soil relative to that in fumigated soil at the end of four growing seasons. SM-amended soils were resistant to reinfestation by Pratylenchus penetrans and Pythium spp. relative to fumigated soils and corresponded with enhanced tree performance. Phytotoxic symptoms were observed in response to SM amendment at one of two orchard sites, were dependent upon season of application, and occurred in an SM formulation-specific manner. After 2 years, the rhizosphere microbiome in fumigated soils had reverted to one that was indistinguishable from the no-treatment control. In contrast, rhizosphere soils from the SM treatment possessed unique bacterial and fungal profiles, including specific microbial elements previously associated with suppression of plant-pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, and nematodes. Overall diversity of the microbiome was reduced in the SM treatment rhizosphere, suggesting that enhanced "biodiversity" was not instrumental in achieving system resistance or pathogen suppression. PMID:25412009

  13. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  14. Biotechnology and apple breeding in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Megumi; Hatsuyama, Yoshimichi; Harada, Takeo; Fukasawa-Akada, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Apple is a fruit crop of significant economic importance, and breeders world wide continue to develop novel cultivars with improved characteristics. The lengthy juvenile period and the large field space required to grow apple populations have imposed major limitations on breeding. Various molecular biological techniques have been employed to make apple breeding easier. Transgenic technology has facilitated the development of apples with resistance to fungal or bacterial diseases, improved fruit quality, or root stocks with better rooting or dwarfing ability. DNA markers for disease resistance (scab, powdery mildew, fire-blight, Alternaria blotch) and fruit skin color have also been developed, and marker-assisted selection (MAS) has been employed in breeding programs. In the last decade, genomic sequences and chromosome maps of various cultivars have become available, allowing the development of large SNP arrays, enabling efficient QTL mapping and genomic selection (GS). In recent years, new technologies for genetic improvement, such as trans-grafting, virus vectors, and genome-editing, have emerged. Using these techniques, no foreign genes are present in the final product, and some of them show considerable promise for application to apple breeding. PMID:27069388

  15. The Diminishing Apple.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Catherine

    2002-01-01

    Introduces the Apple Ocean activity which teaches about the diminishing natural resources of the earth including drinkable water, habitable land, and productive areas while working with fractions, ratios, and proportions. (YDS)

  16. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes in Fresh Apples and Caramel Apples.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Joelle K; Carstens, Christina K; Bathija, Vriddi M; Narula, Sartaj S; Parish, Mickey; Tortorello, Mary Lou

    2016-05-01

    An outbreak of listeriosis in late 2014 and early 2015 associated with caramel apples led to questions about how this product became a vector for Listeria monocytogenes. This investigation aimed to determine information about the survival and growth of L. monocytogenes in both fresh apples and caramel apples, specifically examining the effects of site and level of inoculation, inoculum drying conditions, and storage temperature. At a high inoculation level (7 log CFU per apple), L. monocytogenes inoculated at the stem end proliferated on Gala caramel apples at both 5 and 25°C and on Granny Smith caramel apples at 25°C by as much as 3 to 5 log CFU per apple. Fresh apples and caramel apples inoculated at the equatorial surface supported survival but not growth of the pathogen. Growth rates (μmax) for apples inoculated at the stem end, as determined using the Baranyi and Roberts growth model, were 1.64 ± 0.27 and 1.38 ± 0.20 log CFU per apple per day for Gala and Granny Smith caramel apples, respectively, stored at 25°C. At a low inoculation level (3 log CFU per apple), L. monocytogenes inoculated at the stem end and the equatorial surface survived but did not grow on fresh Gala and Granny Smith apples stored at 25°C for 49 days; however, on caramel apples inoculated at the stem end, L. monocytogenes had significant growth under the same conditions. Although certain conditions did not support growth, the pathogen was always detectable by enrichment culture. The inoculation procedure had a significant effect on results; when the inoculum was allowed to dry for 24 h at 5°C, growth was significantly slowed compared with inoculum allowed to dry for 2 h at 25°C. Variation in stick materials did affect L. monocytogenes survival, but these differences were diminished once sticks were placed into caramel apples. PMID:27296414

  17. Genital self-amputation or the Klingsor syndrome: Successful non-microsurgical penile replantation.

    PubMed

    El Harrech, Y; Abaka, N; Ghoundale, O; Touiti, D

    2013-10-01

    Self-mutilations of the external genitals in psychiatric patients also known as Klingsor syndrome is a rare urologic trauma. Men with religious conflicts, low self-esteem, unresolved transsexual issues and feelings of guilt are the most vulnerable. This condition requires immediate surgical intervention. Currently replantation involves meticulous microsurgery and has become the primary method for managing these patients. In this paper, we report a case of self amputation of penis in a patient with a psychiatric history significant for schizopfrenia. Because of the unavailability of a microscope in our department, a non-microsurgical replantation without microscopic magnification was attempted. After surgery, normal appearance and function including a good normal voiding, sensation, and erections were observed. PMID:24311919

  18. Successful replantation of a portion of the upper and lower lip with the oral commissure.

    PubMed

    DeLeon, Ashley N; Rinard, Jeremy R; Mahabir, Raman C

    2014-01-01

    The orofacial region consists of numerous structures that interact in an intricate and dynamic fashion with the oral commissure playing a central role in facial function, expression, and cosmesis. Traumatic amputations of this complex are rare. This case illustrates the successful replantation of portions of the right upper and lower lip with the oral commissure in a 6-year-old girl after traumatic amputation by a dog bite. PMID:23511745

  19. A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella sp. in Washington state

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples in 2003-05, a fruit rot disease was observed on stored apples collected from packinghouses. The disease appeared to originate from infections of wounds on the fruit, and lesions were brown and decayed tissues were spongy. Lambertella sp. was consiste...

  20. Calcium hydroxide mixed with camphoric p-monochlorophenol or chlorhexidine in delayed tooth replantation.

    PubMed

    Trevisan, Carolina Lunardelli; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Brandini, Daniela Atili; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Luvizuto, Eloá Rodrigues; Dos Santos, Cláudia Letícia Vendrame; Saito, Célia Tomiko Hamada Matida

    2011-11-01

    This study evaluated the repair process after delayed replantation of rat teeth, using calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) mixed with camphorated p-monochlorophenol (CMCP), chlorhexidine 2% (CHX), or saline as temporary root canal dressing to prevent and/or control inflammatory radicular resorption. Thirty Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinos) had their right upper incisor extracted, which was bench-dried for 60 minutes. The dental papilla, the enamel organ, the dental pulp, and the periodontal ligament were removed. The teeth were immersed in 2% acidulated-phosphate sodium fluoride solution for 10 minutes. The root canals were dried with absorbent paper cones and divided into 3 groups of 10 animals according to root canal dressing used: group 1: Ca(OH)2 + saline, group 2: Ca(OH)2 + CMCP, and group 3: Ca(OH)2 + CHX 2%. Before replanting, the teeth sockets were irrigated with saline. Histological analysis revealed the presence of inflammatory resorption, replacement resorption, and ankylosis in all 3 groups. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference between group 3 and the other groups. The use of Ca(OH)2 mixed with CMCP or CHX did not show an advantage over the use of Ca(OH)2 mixed with saline in preventing and/or controlling inflammatory resorption in delayed replantation of rat teeth. PMID:22067873

  1. Autotoxic Ginsenosides in the Rhizosphere Contribute to the Replant Failure of Panax notoginseng

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Min; Zhang, Xiaodan; Xu, Yanguo; Mei, Xinyue; Jiang, Bingbing; Liao, Jingjing; Yin, Zhaobo; Zheng, Jianfen; Zhao, Zhi; Fan, Liming; He, Xiahong; Zhu, Youyong; Zhu, Shusheng

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Sanqi ginseng (Panax notoginseng) growth is often hampered by replant failure. In this study, we aimed to examine the role of autotoxicity in Sanqi replant failures and assess the role of ginsenosides in autotoxicity. Methods The autotoxicities were measured using seedling emergence bioassays and root cell vigor staining. The ginsenosides in the roots, soils, and root exudates were identified with HPLC-MS. Results The seedling emergence and survival rate decreased significantly with the continuous number of planting years from one to three years. The root exudates, root extracts, and extracts from consecutively cultivated soils also showed significant autotoxicity against seedling emergence and growth. Ginsenosides, including R1, Rg1, Re, Rb1, Rb3, Rg2, and Rd, were identified in the roots and consecutively cultivated soil. The ginsenosides, Rg1, Re, Rg2, and Rd, were identified in the root exudates. Furthermore, the ginsenosides, R1, Rg1, Re, Rg2, and Rd, caused autotoxicity against seedling emergence and growth and root cell vigor at a concentration of 1.0 µg/mL. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that autotoxicity results in replant failure of Sanqi ginseng. While Sanqi ginseng consecutively cultivated, some ginsenosides can accumulate in rhizosphere soils through root exudates or root decomposition, which impedes seedling emergence and growth. PMID:25695831

  2. A radiographic study of the effect of various retrograde fillings on periapical healing after replantation.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, J O; Pitt Ford, T R

    1994-12-01

    An effective retrograde sealing procedure places great demands upon both technique and materials. Prevention of micro-leakage, biocompatibility and stability of the material in the apical tissues are very important. To evaluate potential retrograde filling materials, a replantation model has been developed in which extracted permanent molars were replanted in monkeys after apicectomy of each root, preparation of a 2-mm deep retrograde cavity and its sealing with various dental materials. Prior to retro-filling the remaining pulp was exposed to saliva. Apicected molars which were infected and did not receive retrograde fillings served as positive controls. Periapical healing was evaluated radiographically after 8 weeks based on planimetric measurements of the size of the periapical radiolucency. The following dental materials were tested: amalgam, glass ionomer cement, calcium-hydroxide lining cement, AH 26 root canal sealer, various zinc oxide-eugenol cements, Cavit, and gutta-percha with various sealers. The materials which were associated with better apical healing than the infected controls were glass ionomer cement, Cavit, and the zinc oxide-eugenol cements. When plain zinc oxide-eugenol or IRM were combined with a gutta-percha core, healing was best and not statistically different from normal apices. It was concluded that radiographic assessment at 8 weeks of molar teeth retrograde filled prior to replantation could be a valuable method for discrimination of potentially useful materials in vivo. PMID:7867616

  3. About APPLE II Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-19

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180 deg. requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  4. About APPLE II Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; Zimoch, D.

    2007-01-01

    The operation of an APPLE II based undulator beamline with all its polarization states (linear horizontal and vertical, circular and elliptical, and continous variation of the linear vector) requires an effective description allowing an automated calculation of gap and shift parameter as function of energy and operation mode. The extension of the linear polarization range from 0 to 180° requires 4 shiftable magnet arrrays, permitting use of the APU (adjustable phase undulator) concept. Studies for a pure fixed gap APPLE II for the SLS revealed surprising symmetries between circular and linear polarization modes allowing for simplified operation. A semi-analytical model covering all types of APPLE II and its implementation will be presented.

  5. Determination of amygdalin in apple seeds, fresh apples and processed apple juices.

    PubMed

    Bolarinwa, Islamiyat F; Orfila, Caroline; Morgan, Michael R A

    2015-03-01

    Cyanogenic glycosides are natural plant toxicants. Action by endogenous plant enzymes can release hydrogen cyanide causing potential toxicity issues for animals including humans. We have quantified amygdalin in seeds from different apple varieties, determined the effects of processing on the amygdalin content of apple juice and quantified amygdalin in commercially-available apple juices. Amygdalin contents of seeds from fifteen varieties of apples ranged from 1 mg g(-1) to 4 mg g(-1). The amygdalin content of commercially-available apple juice was low, ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 mg ml(-1) for pressed apple juice and 0.001-0.007 mg ml(-1) for long-life apple juice. Processing led to juice with low amygdalin content, ranging from 0.01 mg ml(-1) to 0.08 mg ml(-1). The results presented show that the amygdalin contents of commercially-available apple juices are unlikely to present health problems to consumers. PMID:25306368

  6. The effect of apple feeding on markers of colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Poulsen, Morten; Mortensen, Alicja; Binderup, Mona-Lise; Langkilde, Søren; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2011-01-01

    Regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risks of certain cancers and other diseases in observational studies and animal models of human diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether feeding of rats with whole raw apple has potentially chemopreventive properties by affecting markers of colon cancer. The end-point was preneoplastic changes in the colon known as aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Rats initiated with the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were given 0, 5, or 10 g apple/day for 13 wk. The group fed 5 g apple but not 10 g had a significantly lower number of ACF (P = 0.009) compared to the initiated control. DNA damage evaluated by the comet assay was significantly increased in leucocytes of DMH-treated animals (P = 0.021). No antigenotoxic effect of apple feeding was apparent in the colon. Apple feeding tended to lower DNA damage in the liver (P = 0.136 in DMH-initiated and P = 0.284 in noninitiated rats). Liver alanine aminotransferase was significantly increased in rats fed apples (P = 0.008 in DMH-initiated and P = 0.019 in noninitiated rats). In conclusion, feeding whole fresh apple may affect the occurrence of preneoplastic changes in the rat colon, but the effect was not gradual. PMID:21432724

  7. Preliminary evaluation of apple germplasm from Kazakhstan for resistance to blue mold decay caused by Penicillium expansum after harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blue mold of apples, incited by Penicillium expansum, causes extensive loss on stored apples worldwide. Despite the severity of this problem, apple breeders do not evaluate their crosses for resistance to this disease, because there has been little resistance to blue mold in the gene pool of the ge...

  8. The Apple III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ditlea, Steve

    1982-01-01

    Describes and evaluates the features, performance, peripheral devices, available software, and capabilities of the Apple III microcomputer. The computer's operating system, its hardware, and the commercially produced software it accepts are discussed. Specific applications programs for financial planning, accounting, and word processing are…

  9. Growth of Listeria monocytogenes within a Caramel-Coated Apple Microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Max C.; Wanless, Brandon J.; Bedale, Wendy; Czuprynski, Charles

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 2014 multistate listeriosis outbreak was linked to consumption of caramel-coated apples, an unexpected and previously unreported vehicle for Listeria monocytogenes. This outbreak was unanticipated because both the pH of apples (<4.0) and the water activity of the caramel coating (<0.80) are too low to support Listeria growth. In this study, Granny Smith apples were inoculated with approximately 4 log10 CFU of L. monocytogenes (a cocktail of serotype 4b strains associated with the outbreak) on each apple’s skin, stem, and calyx. Half of the apples had sticks inserted into the core, while the remaining apples were left intact. Apples were dipped into hot caramel and stored at either 7°C or 25°C for up to 11 or 28 days, respectively. Data revealed that apples with inserted sticks supported significantly more L. monocytogenes growth than apples without sticks under both storage conditions. Within 3 days at 25°C, L. monocytogenes populations increased >3 log10 in apples with sticks, whereas only a 1-log10 increase was observed even after 1 week for caramel-coated apples without sticks. When stored at 7°C, apples with sticks exhibited an approximately 1.5-log10 increase in L. monocytogenes levels at 28 days, whereas no growth was observed in apples without sticks. We infer that insertion of a stick into the apple accelerates the transfer of juice from the interior of the apple to its surface, creating a microenvironment at the apple-caramel interface where L. monocytogenes can rapidly grow to levels sufficient to cause disease when stored at room temperature. PMID:26463161

  10. Small bowel obstruction caused by dried apple

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Sally; Hong, Khiem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Small bowel obstruction in a virgin abdomen is an uncommon surgical condition. While malignancy, inflammatory bowel disease and foreign body are the main reported causes, undigested food bezoar causing bowel obstruction is a rare entity. We report a case of small bowel obstruction secondary to dried preserved apple having re-expanded within the gastrointestinal tract. Presentation of case A 69 year old male presented with severe abdominal distension, generalized abdominal tenderness and obstipation for 1 week. Small bowel obstruction (SBO) was confirmed on plain abdominal X-ray and CT imaging. An emergency explorative laparatomy identified a sausage-shaped intra-luminal foreign body obstructing the distal ileum. An enterotomy was performed which revealed a rehydrated, donut-shaped piece of dried apple. Discussion Swallowed items that pass through the pylorus rarely cause obstruction as they are usually small enough to pass through the rest of the bowel without difficulty. We postulate that in our patient that the dried apple was originally small enough to pass through the pylorus. However during small bowel, its’ highly absorbable nature resulted in an increase in size that prevented its’ passage through the ileocecal valve. A simple in-vitro experiment discovered that dried apple has a potential to reabsorb fluid and expand up to 35% of its initial size within 72 h. Conclusion This report illustrates the potential for dried food substances to cause intra-luminal SBO after significant expansion with rehydration. PMID:25841159

  11. Apple Strength Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Syn, C

    2009-12-22

    Strength of the apple parts has been noticed to decrease, especially those installed by the new induction heating system since the LEP campaign started. Fig. 1 shows the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), yield strength (YS), and elongation of the installed or installation-simulated apples on various systems. One can clearly see the mean values of UTS and YS of the post-LEP parts decreased by about 8 ksi and 6 ksi respectively from those of the pre-LEP parts. The slight increase in elongation seen in Fig.1 can be understood from the weak inverse relationship between the strength and elongation in metals. Fig.2 shows the weak correlation between the YS and elongation of the parts listed in Fig. 1. Strength data listed in Figure 1 were re-plotted as histograms in Figs. 3 and 4. Figs. 3a and 4a show histograms of all UTS and YS data. Figs. 3b and 4b shows histograms of pre-LEP data and Figs. 3c and 4c of post-LEP data. Data on statistical scatter of tensile strengths have been rarely published by material suppliers. Instead, only the minimum 'guaranteed' strength data are typically presented. An example of strength distribution of aluminum 7075-T6 sheet material, listed in Fig. 5, show that its scatter width of both UTS and YS for a single sheet can be about 6 ksi and for multi-lot scatter can be as large as 11 ksi even though the sheets have been produced through well-controlled manufacturing process. By approximating the histograms shown in Figs. 3 and 4 by a Gaussian or similar type of distribution curves, one can plausibly see the strength reductions in the later or more recent apples. The pre-LEP data in Figs. 3b and 4b show wider scatter than the post-LEP data in Figs. 3c and 4c and seem to follow the binomial distribution of strength indicating that the apples might have been made from two different lots of material, either from two different vendors or from two different melts of perhaps slightly different chemical composition by a single vendor. The post

  12. A postharvest fruit rot of apple caused by Lambertella corni-maris in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples conducted in Washington State from 2003 to 2005, an unknown fruit rot was observed on stored apples collected from commercial fruit packinghouses. This disease was present in 66 of the 179 grower lots sampled, accounting for an average 1 to 3% of the...

  13. Apple Image Processing Educator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunther, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    A software system design is proposed and demonstrated with pilot-project software. The system permits the Apple II microcomputer to be used for personalized computer-assisted instruction in the digital image processing of LANDSAT images. The programs provide data input, menu selection, graphic and hard-copy displays, and both general and detailed instructions. The pilot-project results are considered to be successful indicators of the capabilities and limits of microcomputers for digital image processing education.

  14. Management of external perforating root resorption by intentional replantation followed by Biodentine restoration

    PubMed Central

    Pruthi, Preeti Jain; Dharmani, Umesh; Roongta, Ruchika; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Resorption of tooth structures can occur as a result of physiological, pathological, and idiopathic factors. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can prevent its serious complications. This case report presents surgical endodontic management of a trauma-induced perforating external root resorption, which was diagnosed with the help of cone beam computed tomography. Following root canal treatment, intentional replantation of the tooth was performed so as to expose the opening of the resorption defect to allow for complete debridement and closure. Eighteen months follow-up showed arrest of root resorption, and progressive healing of the defect. PMID:26604965

  15. Surgical management with intentional replantation on a tooth with palato-radicular groove

    PubMed Central

    Forero-López, Jorge; Gamboa-Martínez, Luis; Pico-Porras, Laura

    2015-01-01

    A palato-radicular groove (PRG) is a developmental anomaly primarily found in the maxillary lateral incisors. It is a potential communication path between the root canal and the periodontium that decreases the survival prognosis of the affected tooth, therefore compromising the stability of the dental structure in the oral cavity. The aim of this case report is to present an original technique where a PRG was treated by means of intracanal disinfection, PRG sealing with glass ionomer, replantation with intentional horizontal 180 degree rotation of the tooth, and an aesthetic veneer placed to provide adequate tooth morphology. The clinical and biological benefits of this novel technique are presented and discussed. PMID:25984480

  16. Management of external perforating root resorption by intentional replantation followed by Biodentine restoration.

    PubMed

    Pruthi, Preeti Jain; Dharmani, Umesh; Roongta, Ruchika; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2015-01-01

    Resorption of tooth structures can occur as a result of physiological, pathological, and idiopathic factors. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can prevent its serious complications. This case report presents surgical endodontic management of a trauma-induced perforating external root resorption, which was diagnosed with the help of cone beam computed tomography. Following root canal treatment, intentional replantation of the tooth was performed so as to expose the opening of the resorption defect to allow for complete debridement and closure. Eighteen months follow-up showed arrest of root resorption, and progressive healing of the defect. PMID:26604965

  17. Fatal bilateral lower-limb deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism following single digit replantation.

    PubMed

    Leung, Anderson S M; Fok, Margaret W M; Fung, Boris K K

    2015-06-01

    Venous thromboembolism in hand surgery is rare. There is no report in the literature on postoperative mortality from venous thromboembolism following microsurgery in upper limbs. We report the case of a 56-year-old Chinese man who died from pulmonary embolism as a result of bilateral lower-limb deep vein thrombosis following prolonged surgery under general anaesthesia after replantation of a finger. This case raises awareness of the need for precautions against venous thromboembolism following prolonged microsurgery and identification of high-risk patients. PMID:26045073

  18. Volatility of patulin in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Kryger, R A

    2001-08-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain fungi, such as those found commonly on apples. The patulin content of apple juice is a regulatory concern because patulin is a suspected carcinogen and mutagen. A simple model of the apple juice concentration process was carried out to examine the possible contamination of patulin in apple aroma, a distillate produced commercially in the concentration of apple juice. The results show no evidence for patulin volatility, and document a reduction in patulin content by at least a factor of 250 in the apple distillate obtained from apple juice. Furthermore, a survey of several commercial apple aroma samples found no evidence of patulin content. PMID:11513722

  19. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar

    PubMed Central

    Ravi, GR

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Radicular cysts are by far the most common cystic lesions of the jaw. However, those arising from primary teeth are comparatively rare, comprising only 0.5 to 3.3%. The aim of this paper is to present clinical, radiographic and histopathological characteristics of radicular cyst associated with a primary mandibular molar causing unusual displacement of the permanent successor. Extraction of primary tooth along with extirpation of cyst was done under local anesthesia. The displaced premolar was also extracted and then replanted in the socket after proper alignment. Healing was uneventful and the space of missing primary molar was maintained by band and loop space maintainer. The relationship between intracanal medicaments and rapid growth of cyst, as mentioned in literature was observed in our case too. Thus, pulpotomy treated primary teeth should receive periodic postoperative radiographic examination and absence of clinical symptoms does not mean that a pulpotomy treated tooth is healthy. How to cite this article: Lamba G, Ravi GR. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):70-74. PMID:26124586

  20. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Gagandeep; Ravi, G R

    2015-01-01

    Radicular cysts are by far the most common cystic lesions of the jaw. However, those arising from primary teeth are comparatively rare, comprising only 0.5 to 3.3%. The aim of this paper is to present clinical, radiographic and histopathological characteristics of radicular cyst associated with a primary mandibular molar causing unusual displacement of the permanent successor. Extraction of primary tooth along with extirpation of cyst was done under local anesthesia. The displaced premolar was also extracted and then replanted in the socket after proper alignment. Healing was uneventful and the space of missing primary molar was maintained by band and loop space maintainer. The relationship between intracanal medicaments and rapid growth of cyst, as mentioned in literature was observed in our case too. Thus, pulpotomy treated primary teeth should receive periodic postoperative radiographic examination and absence of clinical symptoms does not mean that a pulpotomy treated tooth is healthy. How to cite this article: Lamba G, Ravi GR. Replantation of Displaced Underlying Successor and Marsupialization of Radicular Cyst associated with a Primary Molar. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(1):70-74. PMID:26124586

  1. Ethanol and lactic acid production using sap squeezed from old oil palm trunks felled for replanting.

    PubMed

    Kosugi, Akihiko; Tanaka, Ryohei; Magara, Kengo; Murata, Yoshinori; Arai, Takamitsu; Sulaiman, Othman; Hashim, Rokiah; Hamid, Zubaidah Aimi Abdul; Yahya, Mohd Khairul Azri; Yusof, Mohd Nor Mohd; Ibrahim, Wan Asma; Mori, Yutaka

    2010-09-01

    Old oil palm trunks that had been felled for replanting were found to contain large quantities of high glucose content sap. Notably, the sap in the inner part of the trunk accounted for more than 80% of the whole trunk weight. The glucose concentration of the sap from the inner part was 85.2g/L and decreased towards the outer part. Other sugars found in relatively low concentrations were sucrose, fructose, galactose, xylose, and rhamnose. In addition, oil palm sap was found to be rich in various kinds of amino acids, organic acids, minerals and vitamins. Based on these findings, we fermented the sap to produce ethanol using the sake brewing yeast strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kyokai no.7. Ethanol was produced from the sap without the addition of nutrients, at a comparable rate and yield to the reference fermentation on YPD medium with glucose as a carbon source. Likewise, we produced lactic acid, a promising material for bio-plastics, poly-lactate, from the sap using the homolactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus lactis ATCC19435. We confirmed that sugars contained in the sap were readily converted to lactic acid with almost the same efficiency as the reference fermentation on MSR medium with glucose as a substrate. These results indicate that oil palm trunks felled for replanting are a significant resource for the production of fuel ethanol and lactic acid in palm oil-producing countries such as Malaysia and Indonesia. PMID:20547348

  2. 75 FR 11071 - Removal of Varietal Restrictions on Apples from Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... insects and diseases through the pathway of all varieties of M. domestica fresh apples to be very low... of introducing insects and diseases through the pathway of all varieties of M. domestica fresh...

  3. The soil microbiome – what does it tell us?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When young blueberry bushes are planted in an established field that already contains mature blueberry bushes, the young bushes tend not to perform well. This syndrome is called replant disease. In other systems, such as apple replant disease, the causal organisms vary by geographic region and usual...

  4. Pre-plant soil fumigation with reduced rates under low permeable films for tree nursery production, orchard and vineyard replanting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-plant soil fumigation is a common agricultural practice in orchard and vineyard replanting as well as in nursery production of fruit and nut trees in CA. Identification of pest control strategies with low chemical inputs to reduce environmental impact are of interest. Therefore, the objective of...

  5. Novel Technologies for Processing Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The desire to develop methods to use machine vision to simultaneous inspect apples for quality issues and for contamination has resulted in the development of a number of new technologies for processing apples. First, a number of imaging techniques and detection methods were developed under laborato...

  6. The gravity apple tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa Aldama, Mariana

    2015-04-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion.

  7. Controlled continuous systemic heparinization increases success rate of artery-only anastomosis replantation in single distal digit amputation: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Yong; Kim, Hak Soo; Heo, Sang Taek; Kwon, Ho; Jung, Sung-No

    2016-06-01

    Replantation is a prime indication for distal digital amputation, as it helps restore hand aesthetics and functions; however, venous anastomosis is often not feasible. Previous studies used systemic anticoagulation in distal digital artery only anastomosis replantation surgery to improve replantation success rate, however, which yielded limited level of clinical evidence. This study aimed to compare controlled continuous heparinization (CCH) and intermittent bolus heparinization (IBH) for surgical outcome and clinical variables after single distal digital artery only anastomosis replantation surgery.A single-institution, retrospective cohort study was performed. Out of 324 patients who underwent digital replantation surgery, we focused the study for the Zone I and II single distal digital amputation patients excluding confounding factors. Sixty-one patients were included in this study and underwent artery-only anastomosis replantation surgery with postoperative CCH (34 patients) or IBH (27 patients) protocols. The CCH group targeted activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) at 51 to 70 seconds, monitoring aPTT levels every eight hours and administering 100 mg of aspirin per day. The IBH group received 300 mg of aspirin per day and underwent IBH (12,500 U). Both groups received intravenous prostaglandin E1 drips (10 μg). To verify the factors affecting the success rate of the heparin protocol, patient factors, clinical factors, and operative factors were extracted from the medical records. Statistical analysis with inverse probability of treatment weights propensity score methods compared treatment outcomes and clinical variables.The CCH group's replantation success rate was higher (91.17% vs 59.25%), and the transfusion rate was increased (P = 0.032). However, the significant decrease in hemoglobin levels (>15%) did not differ between the groups (P = 0.108). Multivariable logistic regression analysis with potent univariate variables (P < .10

  8. Analysis of Fusarium avenaceum metabolites produced during wet apple core rot.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Jens Laurids; Phipps, Richard Kerry; Nielsen, Kristian Fog; Schroers, Hans-Josef; Frank, Jana; Thrane, Ulf

    2009-02-25

    Wet apple core rot (wACR) is a well-known disease of susceptible apple cultivars such as Gloster, Jona Gold, and Fuji. Investigations in apple orchards in Slovenia identified Fusarium avenaceum, a known producer of several mycotoxins, as the predominant causal agent of this disease. A LC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous detection of thirteen F. avenaceum metabolites including moniliformin, acuminatopyrone, chrysogine, chlamydosporol, antibiotic Y, 2-amino-14,16-dimethyloctadecan-3-ol (2-AOD-3-ol), aurofusarin, and enniatins A, A1, B, B1, B2, and B3 from artificially and naturally infected apples. Levels of moniliformin, antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, and enniatins A, A1, B, and B1 were quantitatively examined in artificially inoculated and naturally infected apples, whereas the remaining metabolites were qualitatively detected. Metabolite production was examined in artificially inoculated apples after 3, 7, 14, and 21 days of incubation. Most metabolites were detected after 3 or 7 days and reached significantly high levels within 14 or 21 days. The highest levels of moniliformin, antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, and the combined sum of enniatins A, A1, B, and B1 were 7.3, 5.7, 152, and 12.7 microg g(-1), respectively. Seventeen of twenty naturally infected apples with wACR symptoms contained one or more of the metabolites. Fourteen of these apples contained moniliformin, antibiotic Y, aurofusarin, and enniatins in levels up to 2.9, 51, 167, and 3.9 microg g(-1), respectively. Acuminatopyrone, chrysogine, chlamydosporol, and 2-AOD-3-ol were detected in 4, 11, 4, and 10 apples, respectively. During wet apple core rot, F. avenaceum produced high amounts of mycotoxins, which may pose a risk for consumers of apple or processed apple products. PMID:19170495

  9. Geneva apple rootstock performance in New York state and progress in commercialization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of new apple rootstocks from the Cornell/USDA apple rootstock breeding project, located at Geneva NY which are resistant to the bacterial disease fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) are rapidly becoming available. Some named rootstock genotypes from this program have previously been tested in s...

  10. Sources and availability of inoculum and seasonal survival of Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is the cause of Sphaeropsis rot, a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus is believed to occur in the orchard, and symptoms develop during storage or in the market. S. pyriputrescens also is the cause of a twig dieb...

  11. Using functional genomics to identify molecular markers for fire blight resistance (Erwinia amylovora) in apple (Malus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and some woody ornamentals in the rose family (Rosaceae). The goal of this project is to use a functional genomics approach to develop tools to breed fire blight resistant apples. Six hundred fifty...

  12. Control of speck rot in apple fruit caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis with pre- and postharvest fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but symptoms develop during storage. In this study, selected pre- and postharvest fungicides were evaluated for control of s...

  13. Wound responses of wild apples suggest multiple resistance mechanism against blue mold decay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blue mold caused primarily by Penicillium expansum and to a lesser extent other Penicillium spp. is the most destructive disease of stored apples in the US and worldwide. It was recently shown that resistance to blue mold exists in wild apple germplasms, Malus sieversii, from Kazakhstan and central...

  14. Preharvest applications of fungicides for control of Sphaeropsis rot in stored apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens is a recently reported postharvest fruit rot disease of apple in Washington State and causes significant economic losses. Infection of apple fruit by the fungus occurs in the orchard, but decay symptoms develop during storage or in the market. The...

  15. First report of pyrimethanil resistance in Botrytis cinerea from stored apples in Pennsylvania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. (teleomorph Botryotinia fuckeliana [de Bary] Whetzel) causes gray mold on apple fruit which is an economically significant disease. A survey of commercial packinghouses in Washington State revealed that gray mold accounted for 28% of the decayed apples in storage. Fungici...

  16. Biological Control of Apple Ring Rot on Fruit by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens 9001.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Han, Li-Rong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Fu, Xuechi; Chen, Xinyi; Zhang, Lixia; Mei, Ruhong; Wang, Qi

    2013-06-01

    Apple ring rot disease, caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea (Moug. ex. Fr) Ces. et de Not., is one of the most important diseases on apple fruits. In this study, strain 9001 isolated from healthy apple fruits from an infested orchard was evaluated for its biocontrol activity against apple ring rot in vitro and in vivo. Strain 9001 showed obvious antagonistic activity to B. dothidea YL-1 when plated on potato dextrose agar. Soaking healthy apples in the bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 prior to artificial inoculation of fungal pathogen resulted in a dramatic decrease in disease incidence when compared to the control. Moreover, either field application in the growth season or postharvest treatment of apples from infected orchards with bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 resulted in significantly reduced disease incidence within the storage period for 4 months at room temperature. Based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and the gyrA gene, strain 9001 was identified as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. These results indicated that B. amyloliquefaciens 9001 could be a promising agent in biocontrol of apple ring rot on fruit, which might help to minimize the yield loss of apple fruit during the long postharvest period. PMID:25288943

  17. Implementation of molecular marker technologies in the apple rootstock breeding program in Geneva - challenges and successes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Geneva® Apple Rootstock Breeding program was initiated in the early 1970’s with the overarching goal of developing disease resistant, productive and precocious apple rootstocks. Near the turn of the century the program was joined with USDA ARS resources and in addition to focusing on releasing ...

  18. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  19. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  20. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  1. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  2. 7 CFR 33.5 - Apples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples. 33.5 Section 33.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.5 Apples. Apples mean fresh whole...

  3. The effect of perfusion on post-operative viability in the replanted rabbit ear: measured by laser Doppler flowmetry and skin temperature.

    PubMed

    Pietilä, J; von Smitten, K; Sundell, B

    1985-01-01

    The effect of perfusion by heparinized Ringer solution on post-operative microcirculation in rabbit ear replants was studied. One ear in each of five rabbits was replanted after perfusion with heparinized Ringer solution and these were compared with five replantations of rabbit ears without perfusion. The ears were studied post-operatively for 2 1/2 days by skin temperature monitoring and Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF). During the first day after replantation the perfused ears had better capillary flow, whereafter no significant differences were noted. LDF was more sensitive to changes in capillary blood flow, and this seems to make the reproducibility of LDF poor. It is, however, a suitable method for continued observation of post-operative viability. PMID:2937141

  4. Enzymatic browning reactions in apple and apple products.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, J J; Richard-Forget, F C; Goupy, P M; Amiot, M J; Aubert, S Y

    1994-01-01

    This review examines the parameters of enzymatic browning in apple and apple products that is, phenolic compounds, polyphenoloxidases, and other factors (ascorbic acid and peroxidases), both qualitatively and quantitatively. Then the relationships between intensity of browning and the browning parameters are discussed, including a paragraph on the methods used for browning evaluation. Finally, the different methods for the control of browning are presented. PMID:8011143

  5. Investigation on the inheritance of strain specific resistance to Erwinia amylovora in an apple rootstock segregating population

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    E. amylovora is the causative agent of apple rootstock blight. This disease is becoming more important as more susceptible and yet desirable scion cultivars are utilized in production. Utilization of disease resistant apple rootstocks increases the survivability of young trees infected by fire blig...

  6. Functional genomic response of apple to fire blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this project is to use a functional genomic analysis to characterize the response of apple (Malus x domestica) to fire blight disease and in doing so, identify new opportunities for improving fire blight resistance. cDNA suppression subtractive hybridization and cDNA-AFLP analysis were ...

  7. DELAYED TOOTH REPLANTATION AFTER ROOT SURFACE TREATMENT WITH SODIUM HYPOCHLORITE AND SODIUM FLUORIDE: HISTOMORPHOMETRIC ANALYSIS IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Sottovia, André Dotto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Lauris, José Roberto Pereira

    2006-01-01

    In cases of delayed tooth replantation, non-vital periodontal ligament remnants have been removed with sodium hypochlorite in an attempt to control root resorption. Nevertheless, reports of its irritating potential in contact with the alveolar connective tissue have been described. Therefore, this study evaluated the healing process on delayed replantation of rat teeth, after periodontal ligament removal by different treatment modalities. Twenty-four rats, assigned to 3 groups (n=8), had their upper right incisor extracted and left on the workbench for desiccation during 60 min. Afterwards, the teeth in group I were immersed in saline for 2 min. In group II, root surfaces were scrubbed with gauze soaked in saline for 2 min; and in group III, scrubbing was done with gauze soaked in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution. Thereafter, root surfaces were etched with 37% phosphoric acid and immersed in 2% acidulate-phosphate sodium fluoride solution, at pH 5.5. Root canals were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste and the teeth were replanted. The animals were sacrificed 60 days postoperatively and the pieces containing the replanted teeth were processed and paraffin-embedded. Semi-serial transversally sections were obtained from the middle third of the root and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histomorphometric analysis. Data were analyzed statistically using Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's tests. The results showed that root structure and cementum extension were more affected by resorption in group III (p<0.05). All groups were affected by root resorption but the treatment performed in group III was the least effective for its control. The treatment accomplished in groups I and II yielded similar results to each other. PMID:19089038

  8. Histopathological evaluation of the effects of variable extraoral dry times and enamel matrix proteins (enamel matrix derivatives) application on replanted dogs' teeth.

    PubMed

    Barbizam, Joao V B; Massarwa, Rasha; da Silva, Lea Assed Bezerra; da Silva, Raquel Assed Bezerra; Nelson-Filho, Paulo; Consolaro, Alberto; Cohenca, Nestor

    2015-02-01

    The extra-alveolar dry period and storage medium in which the tooth was kept prior to replantation remain the critical factors affecting the survival and regeneration of the damaged periodontium. When the replantation is delayed, replacement root resorption is the most common complication following replantation of an avulsed tooth. The aim of this histological study was to evaluate the periodontal healing of replanted dogs' teeth after 20 min (short) and 60 min (long) extraoral dry time with and without the application of enamel matrix proteins. Eighty mature premolar roots (40 teeth) maxillary and mandibular premolars were extracted, the root canals were accessed, instrumented, and filled using a lateral condensation technique, and the access cavity was restored with amalgam. Each root was randomly assigned to one of experimental groups: Groups I and II: Roots were replanted after an extraoral dry time of 20 min. In group II, Emdogain(®) (Biora, Malmo, Sweden) was applied directly to the external root surface with complete coverage. Groups III and IV: Roots were replanted after an extraoral dry time of 60 min. In group IV, Emdogain(®) was applied to the whole external root surface before replantation. Roots that replanted within a total extraoral dry time of 10 min were used as negative controls, while those replanted after 90 min of extraoral dry time were assigned as positive controls. After 4 months, the dogs were euthanized, and the maxillary and mandibular processes were processed for histology and microscopically evaluated. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences (P = 0.1075) among the experimental groups. The results of this study show that 20 min of extraoral dry time is as detrimental to the PDL cells as 60 or 90 min of extraoral dry time, with avulsed dogs' teeth, even when replanted with an inductive material such as EMD. This study provides strong evidence in relation to the threshold of the extraoral dry time of avulsed teeth

  9. Coverage of defect over toes after failure of microsurgical replantation with medial sural artery perforator flap: A case report.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gordon; Jeong, Euicheol

    2016-02-01

    In this report, we present a case of toe reconstruction with a medial sural artery perforator free flap after failure of replantation. A 35-year-old male suffered a crush injury from a heavy object falling over the left 1st, 2nd, and 3rd toes and underwent microsurgical replantation of the toes at an outside facility. Over the next 2 weeks, ischemic necrosis of all the toes developed. This condition was very frustrating for the patient who had very high expectations of preserving the toes, and also for the surgeon to determine the optimal method to reconstruct the distal foot and toes. After debridement of non-viable tissues, the defect over the toes was resurfaced using a medial sural artery perforator free flap and full thickness skin graft. Subsequently, several minor operations, including interdigitation, excision of neuromas, and defatting procedure were performed to complete his reconstruction. Eighteen months later, the patient had very aesthetically pleasing and fully functional toes. A medial sural artery perforator free flap may be used to repair the soft tissue defect on the toes after failed replantation, and provides sufficient skin. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microsurgery 36:161-164, 2016. PMID:25867277

  10. Surgical Re-entry of an Intentionally Replanted Periodontally Compromised Tooth Treated with Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF): Hopeless to Hopeful.

    PubMed

    Ryana, Haneet Kour; Srinath, Rashmi; Prakash, Shobha

    2016-06-01

    Intentional replantation is generally contraindicated in periodontally compromised teeth however, there are reports suggesting that it can be a successful treatment alternative for periodontally involved hopeless teeth. Currently there is dearth of evidence regarding the success of this therapy, especially evidence for the effectiveness of autologous platelet rich fibrin is lacking. We present a case report of a 23-year-old male patient with periodontally hopeless left maxillary central incisor having bone loss extending beyond root apex. The tooth was gently extracted and replanted utilizing root conditioning and combined regenerative therapy (Xenograft, PRF and Type I Collagen Membrane). Surgical re-entry at nine months revealed bone formation in the apical third of the tooth. At one year, 87% radiographic bone gain was accomplished. The improvement in the clinical and radiographic parameters reinforced by the re-entry surgery findings strongly suggest that intentional replantation may be a cost-effective substitute to implants and tooth supported prosthesis in situations where conventional periodontal therapy would yield compromised outcomes. PMID:27504421

  11. Surgical Re-entry of an Intentionally Replanted Periodontally Compromised Tooth Treated with Platelet Rich Fibrin (PRF): Hopeless to Hopeful

    PubMed Central

    Srinath, Rashmi; Prakash, Shobha

    2016-01-01

    Intentional replantation is generally contraindicated in periodontally compromised teeth however, there are reports suggesting that it can be a successful treatment alternative for periodontally involved hopeless teeth. Currently there is dearth of evidence regarding the success of this therapy, especially evidence for the effectiveness of autologous platelet rich fibrin is lacking. We present a case report of a 23-year-old male patient with periodontally hopeless left maxillary central incisor having bone loss extending beyond root apex. The tooth was gently extracted and replanted utilizing root conditioning and combined regenerative therapy (Xenograft, PRF and Type I Collagen Membrane). Surgical re-entry at nine months revealed bone formation in the apical third of the tooth. At one year, 87% radiographic bone gain was accomplished. The improvement in the clinical and radiographic parameters reinforced by the re-entry surgery findings strongly suggest that intentional replantation may be a cost-effective substitute to implants and tooth supported prosthesis in situations where conventional periodontal therapy would yield compromised outcomes. PMID:27504421

  12. The APPL "Learning Map"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Root Learning, a learning consulting organization with a background in strategic planning, recognizes the knowledge gap that frequently exists between a leadership team and the rest of an organization. Team members supposedly working toward the same goal don't always have the same vision as to where the organization is headed, and they may not understand how the piece they are accountable for fits into the big picture. To address these complex problems, Root Learning utilizes the age-old tools of sarcasm, metaphor and graphics (much in the same way that ASK uses a traditional storytelling format.) The company is best known for creating "Learning Maps" like this one: humorous drawings based on the inner workings of an organization. Their purpose is to put complex topics on the table, to stimulate discussion, and to ultimately give team members a common vision of where the organization is going and what role they personally play in getting there. APPL knows how effective it is to incorporate new and engaging techniques into its knowledge sharing programs. By collaborating with Root Learning, we were able to expand the knowledge of the organization and add one more of these techniques to our repertoire.

  13. Root removal to improve disease management in replanted Washington red raspberry fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Washington leads the nation in the production of red raspberries for processing. Soilborne pathogens are a production constraint in this $61 million industry with growers relying on preplant soil fumigation for their management. However, current fumigation methods can be ineffective, leading to repl...

  14. Connecting your Apple to Octopus 7600's

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G.W. Jr.

    1983-01-17

    In UCID-19588, Communicating between the Apple and the Wang, we described how to take Apple DOS text files and send them to the Wang, and how to return Wang files to the Apple. It is also possible to use your Apple as an Octopus terminal, and to exchange files with Octopus 7600's. Presumably, you can also talk to the Crays, or any other part of the system. This connection has another virtue. It eliminates one of the terminals in your office.

  15. Apple Tree Dental: An Innovative Oral Health Solution.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Deborah; Helgeson, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    The Surgeon General's Report on Oral Health called attention to the "silent epidemic" of dental disease. Older adults and other vulnerable people continue to suffer disproportionately from dental disease and inadequate access to care. As a society and as dental professionals, we face multiple challenges to care for our aging patients, parents and grandparents. Apple Tree Dental's community collaborative practice model illustrates a sustainable, patient-centered approach to overcoming barriers to care across the lifespan. PMID:26357816

  16. Ensuring the genetic diversity of apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples (Malus × domestica Borkh.) are a nutritious source of antioxidants, polyphenolics, vitamins, and fiber. Many of the apple cultivars that are currently produced were identified over a century ago and do not offer resistance to pathogens and tolerance to climatic threats. Apple breeding program...

  17. Use of replanted mangroves as nursery grounds by shrimp communities in Gazi Bay, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crona, B. I.; Rönnbäck, P.

    2005-11-01

    This study quantitatively assessed the distribution of postlarval and juvenile shrimps in natural, degraded and replanted stands of Sonneratia alba mangroves in Gazi Bay, Kenya in 2002-2003. Two plantations (matrix and integrated) differing in historical status and planting strategy were studied. Sampling was conducted using stake nets (2 mm mesh), each net enclosing 9 m 2 of intertidal microhabitat. A total of 615 shrimps from 19 species/taxa were caught, including several penaeid species of major commercial importance. Penaeids dominated the catch (66%) followed by Macrobrachium spp. (16%) and Acetes sp. (6%). Shrimp abundance ranged from 0.42 to 10.0 ind. per net (9 m 2) for individual sites across spring tides and significant differences were detected between sites and over time ( p<0.001). Results showed no significant difference in diversity of species/taxa between sites. However, multivariate analysis revealed significant differences in community assemblages between sites, except for the natural stand and integrated plantation. These two sites harbored higher abundances of the majority of all taxa caught. The observed distribution patterns are discussed with regard to measured environmental parameters such as elevation, structural complexity and sediment characteristics.

  18. Transcriptomic profiling of apple in response to inoculation with a pathogen (P. expansum) and a non-pathogen (P. digitatum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mould of pome fruits, is a major postharvest pathogen in all producing countries. To develop a better understanding of disease resistance mechanisms in apples, a comprehensive transcriptional analysis of apple gene expression in response to a compatibl...

  19. Biological Control of Apple Anthracnose by Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128, an Antagonistic Rhizobacterium

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the suppression of the disease development of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum in harvested apples using an antagonistic rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128 (APEC128). Out of 30 bacterial isolates from apple rhizosphere screened for antagonistic activity, the most effective strain was APEC128 as inferred from the size of the inhibition zone. This strain showed a greater growth in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth compared to other growth media. There was a reduction in anthracnose symptoms caused by the two fungal pathogens in harvested apples after their treatment with APEC128 in comparison with non-treated control. This effect is explained by the increased production of protease and amylase by APEC128, which might have inhibited mycelial growth. In apples treated with different APEC128 suspensions, the disease caused by C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum was greatly suppressed (by 83.6% and 79%, respectively) in treatments with the concentration of 1 × 108 colony forming units (cfu)/ml compared to other lower dosages, suggesting that the suppression of anthracnose development on harvested apples is dose-dependent. These results indicated that APEC128 is one of the promising agents in the biocontrol of apple anthracnose, which might help to increase the shelf-life of apple fruit during the post-harvest period. PMID:27298600

  20. Biological Control of Apple Anthracnose by Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128, an Antagonistic Rhizobacterium.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Soo; Balaraju, Kotnala; Jeon, Yongho

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated the suppression of the disease development of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. acutatum in harvested apples using an antagonistic rhizobacterium Paenibacillus polymyxa APEC128 (APEC128). Out of 30 bacterial isolates from apple rhizosphere screened for antagonistic activity, the most effective strain was APEC128 as inferred from the size of the inhibition zone. This strain showed a greater growth in brain-heart infusion (BHI) broth compared to other growth media. There was a reduction in anthracnose symptoms caused by the two fungal pathogens in harvested apples after their treatment with APEC128 in comparison with non-treated control. This effect is explained by the increased production of protease and amylase by APEC128, which might have inhibited mycelial growth. In apples treated with different APEC128 suspensions, the disease caused by C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum was greatly suppressed (by 83.6% and 79%, respectively) in treatments with the concentration of 1 × 10(8) colony forming units (cfu)/ml compared to other lower dosages, suggesting that the suppression of anthracnose development on harvested apples is dose-dependent. These results indicated that APEC128 is one of the promising agents in the biocontrol of apple anthracnose, which might help to increase the shelf-life of apple fruit during the post-harvest period. PMID:27298600

  1. Diversity and Domestication of Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Species within Malus are genetically diverse. Individuals within the USDA-ARS National Plant Germplasm System have been identified with ploidies ranging from diploid to hexaploid. Chloroplast sequence data from seven regions have revealed genetic relationships among apple species and has aided in ...

  2. Dry bin filler for apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A unique dry bin filler for apples using a sequenced tray was developed to reduce bruising in packing operations. Research and commercial trials in West Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Washington State demonstrated the ability to fill bins evenly and with low damage. Cultivars with different bruising su...

  3. Multispectral inspection station detects defects on apples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throop, James A.; Aneshansley, Daniel J.; Anger, Bill

    2000-12-01

    The performance of a multi-spectral apple inspection station capable of orienting some cultivars, conveying, and presenting apples to a camera at five apples per second is described. Apples are pre-sized and hand placed on the conveying devices to rotate about an axis passing through both the stem and calyx of each apple. An image of each apple is captured at four different wavelengths through a common aperture. Special optics and filters allow simultaneous image capture of apple reflectance for wavelength bands of 540 nm, 650 nm, 750 nm, and 950 nm, each with a bandwidth of approximately 60 nm. As each apple is conveyed laterally and rotated through the camera's field of view, 6 regions of interest representing most of the apple's surface at each wavelength band are captured. The images are processed to segment each defect from the surrounding undamaged tissue and the area of each defect is recorded. Typical defects such as new bruises, bruises on stored apples, scab, sooty blotch, corking, rot, russet, and insect damage are detected. Data is shown quantifying the ability of the inspection station to sort damaged apples into appropriate grades for correct pricing in the processing industry.

  4. Patulin is a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor favouring the colonization of apples by Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Snini, Selma P; Tannous, Joanna; Heuillard, Pauline; Bailly, Sylviane; Lippi, Yannick; Zehraoui, Enric; Barreau, Christian; Oswald, Isabelle P; Puel, Olivier

    2016-08-01

    The blue mould decay of apples is caused by Penicillium expansum and is associated with contamination by patulin, a worldwide regulated mycotoxin. Recently, a cluster of 15 genes (patA-patO) involved in patulin biosynthesis was identified in P. expansum. blast analysis revealed that patL encodes a Cys6 zinc finger regulatory factor. The deletion of patL caused a drastic decrease in the expression of all pat genes, leading to an absence of patulin production. Pathogenicity studies performed on 13 apple varieties indicated that the PeΔpatL strain could still infect apples, but the intensity of symptoms was weaker compared with the wild-type strain. A lower growth rate was observed in the PeΔpatL strain when this strain was grown on nine of the 13 apple varieties tested. In the complemented PeΔpatL:patL strain, the ability to grow normally in apple and the production of patulin were restored. Our results clearly demonstrate that patulin is not indispensable in the initiation of the disease, but acts as a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor for P. expansum. This conclusion was strengthened by the fact that the addition of patulin to apple infected by the PeΔpatL mutant restored the normal fungal colonization in apple. PMID:26582186

  5. Association Between Apple Consumption and Physician Visits

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Matthew A.; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Sirovich, Brenda E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Fruit consumption is believed to have beneficial health effects, and some claim, “An apple a day keeps the doctor away.” OBJECTIVE To examine the relationship between eating an apple a day and keeping the doctor away. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A cross-sectional study of a nationally representative sample of the noninstitutionalized US adult population. A total of 8728 adults 18 years and older from the 2007–2008 and 2009–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey completed a 24-hour dietary recall questionnaire and reported that the quantity of food they ate was reflective of their usual daily diet. EXPOSURES Daily apple eaters (consuming the equivalent of at least 1 small apple daily, or 149 g of raw apple) vs non–apple eaters, based on the reported quantity of whole apple consumed during the 24-hour dietary recall period. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome measure was success at “keeping the doctor away,” measured as no more than 1 visit (self-reported) to a physician during the past year; secondary outcomes included successful avoidance of other health care services (ie, no overnight hospital stays, visits to a mental health professional, or prescription medications). RESULTS Of 8399 eligible study participants who completed the dietary recall questionnaire, we identified 753 adult apple eaters (9.0%)—those who typically consume at least 1 small apple per day. Compared with the 7646 non–apple eaters (91.0%), apple eaters had higher educational attainment, were more likely to be from a racial or ethnic minority, and were less likely to smoke (P < .001 for each comparison). Apple eaters were more likely, in the crude analysis, to keep the doctor (and prescription medications) away: 39.0% of apple eaters avoided physician visits vs 33.9%of non–apple eaters (P = .03). After adjusting for sociodemographic and health-related characteristics, however, the association was no longer statistically significant

  6. Occurrence of Apple stem grooving virus in commercial apple seedlings and analysis of its coat protein sequence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virus infections are responsible for reduced yield and quality in many crops, and are especially problematic in vegetatively-propagated crops such as apple. Three major viruses (Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and Apple stem pitting virus) affect apple trees in Kore...

  7. Apple cuticle: the perfect interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, Eric; Arey, Bruce

    2010-06-01

    The domestic apple might well be called an 'extreme' fruit. In the arid Northwest United States, the fruit often tolerates surface temperatures ranging from -2 °C in the early spring to 50 °C in the heat of summer, and again to -2 °C during controlled postharvest storage for up to 12 months. During its 18-month existence, the apple maintains a cuticle that is dynamic and environmentally responsive to protect against 1) cellular water loss during desiccation stress and 2) excessive uptake of standing surface moisture. Physiological disorders of the peel such as russeting, cracking, splitting, flecking and lenticel marking, develop as epidermal cells respond to rapid changes in ambient conditions at specific developmental stages during the growing season. Resultant market losses underlie research investigating the nature of apple cuticle growth and development. Ultrastructural analysis of the pro-cuticle using scanning electron microscopy indicates an overlapping network of lipid-based distally-elongating microtubules--produced by and connected to epidermal cells--which co-polymerize to form an organic solvent-insoluble semi-permeable cutin matrix. Microtubule elongation, aggregation, and polymerization function together as long as the fruit continues to enlarge. The nature of lipid transport from the epidermal cells through the cell wall to become part of the cuticular matrix was explored using an FEI Helios NanoLabTM DualBeamTM focused ion beam/scanning electron microscope on chemically- and cryo-fixed peel tissue from mature or freshly harvested apples. Based on microtubule dimensions, regular projections found at the cell/cuticle interface suggest an array of microtubule-like structures associated with the epidermal cell.

  8. Orienting apples for imaging using their inertial properties and random apple loading

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The inability to control apple orientation during imaging has hindered development of automated systems for sorting apples for defects such as bruises and for safety issues such as fecal contamination. Recently, a potential method for orienting apples based on their inertial properties was discovere...

  9. Candidate insect vectors of apple proliferation in Northwest Spain.

    PubMed

    Miñarro, Marcos; Somoano, Aitor; Moreno, Aránzazu; García, Rocío Rosa

    2016-01-01

    The apple proliferation (AP) disease is spread mostly by two psyllids. Each species plays a predominant role as AP vector that changes regionally. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify the AP vectors in each region where the disease is present. This research aimed at identifying the psyllid community in apple orchards from Asturias (NW Spain) and studying their possible role in AP transmission. Yellow sticky traps were used to monitor psyllid community in five cider-apple orchards during 2 years. 3678 individuals belonging to 22 species were identified. We confirmed the presence of the two known vectors, Cacopsylla picta and Cacopsylla melanoneura, although they occurred in relatively low numbers (2.1 and 0.7 % of total catches, respectively). Most collected psyllids are not supposed to use apple as host, and their occurrence is likely favoured by landscape structure and an insect-friendly management. Phytoplasma detection was performed by squash-capture real-time PCR. The pathogen was detected in six species (Cacopsylla crataegi, Cacopsylla mali, Ctenarytaina spatulata, Ctenarytaina eucalypti and the two known AP vectors). Based on abundance and AP-detection rate C. picta is likely the main species spreading AP in our region. However, the low density of the known vectors does not match the widespread and high tree damage level observed in Asturias. The discovery of other four psyllid species carrying the phytoplasma reveals that our knowledge on the potential vectors is limited and that more research is clearly needed to unravel the role of the psyllid fauna in disease transmission in our orchards. PMID:27536523

  10. [Optimising care structures for severe hand trauma and replantation and chances of launching a national network].

    PubMed

    Haas, E M; Volkmer, E; Holzbach, T; Wallmichrath, J; Engelhardt, T O; Giunta, R E

    2013-12-01

    Severe hand traumata have a significant impact on our health system and on insurance companies, respectively. It is estimated that 33% of all occupational injuries and 9% of all invalidity pensions are due to severe hand trauma. Unfortunately, these high numbers are not only due to the severity of the trauma but to organisational deficiencies. Usually, the patient is treated at the general surgical emergency in the first place and only then forwarded to a microsurgeon. This redirection increases the time that is required for the patient to finally arrive at an expert for hand surgery. On the one hand, this problem can be explained by the population's lack of awareness for distinguished experts for hand and microsurgery, on the other hand, the emergency network, or emergency doctors in particular are not well informed about where to take a patient with a severe hand trauma - clearly a problem of communication between the hospitals and the ambulance. It is possible to tackle this problem, but put participating hand trauma centres have to work hand in hand as a network and thus exploit synergy effects. The French system "FESUM" is a good example for such a network and even comprises centres in Belgium and Switzerland. To improve the treatment of severe hand trauma, a similar alliance was initiated in Germany just recently. The pilot project "Hand Trauma Alliance" (www.handverletzung.com) was started in April 2013 and currently comprises two hospitals within the region of upper Bavaria. The network provides hand trauma replantation service on a 24/7 basis and aims at shortening the way from the accident site to the fully qualified hand surgeon, to improve the therapy of severe hand injuries and to optimise acute patient care in general. In order to further increase the alliance's impact it is intended to extend the project's scope from regional to national coverage - nevertheless, such an endeavour can only be done in collaboration with the German Society for Hand

  11. Dental pulp in mature replanted human teeth: morphological alterations and metalloproteineses-2 and -9, Annexin-5, BCL-2 and iNOS modulation.

    PubMed

    Leone, A; Angelova Volponi, A; Uzzo, M L; Spatola, G F; Jurjus, A; Vandevska-Radunovic, V

    2015-01-01

    Tooth replantation, as a treatment concept, has been subject to controversies regarding the mechanism as well as the various parameters underlying this process. This work aimed to study time-related changes in the pulp of replanted mature human premolars through the changes in the levels of certain factors involved in the underlying mechanisms of pulpal tissue healing after replantation. Eleven experimental mature teeth were extracted, immediately replanted in the original socket and left without any other intervention for 1, 2, 3 and 12 weeks before re-extraction. Three premolars served as control. All specimens were subject to histological analysis and the levels of MMP-2, MMP-9, Annexin V, iNOS and BCL-2 (anti-apoptotic family) were analyzed employing immunohistochemistry. The results showed degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), inflammatory cell infiltrate, loss in pulpo-dentine interface and loss of odontoblasts in the dental pulp tissue. This was accompanied by increase over time of MMP-9, Annexin V, iNOS and a decrease of BCL-2 and MMP-2, suggesting that apoptosis increased throughout the experimental period. PMID:26753662

  12. Identification, characterization and mycotoxigenic ability of Alternaria spp. causing core rot of apple fruit in Greece.

    PubMed

    Ntasiou, Panagiota; Myresiotis, Charalampos; Konstantinou, Sotiris; Papadopoulou-Mourkidou, Euphemia; Karaoglanidis, George S

    2015-03-16

    Alternaria core rot is a major postharvest disease of apple fruit in several countries of the world, including Greece. The study was conducted aiming to identify the disease causal agents at species level, investigate the aggressiveness of Alternaria spp. isolates and the susceptibility of different apple varieties and determine the mycotoxigenic potential of Alternaria spp. isolates from apple fruit. Seventy-five Alternaria spp. isolates obtained from apple fruit showing core rot symptoms were identified as either Alternaria tenuissima or Alternaria arborescens at frequencies of 89.3 and 11.7%, respectively, based on the sequence of endopolygalacturonase (EndoPG) gene. Artificial inoculations of fruit of 4 different varieties (Fuji, Golden Delicious, Granny Smith and Red Delicious) and incubation at two different temperatures (2 and 25°C) showed that fruit of Fuji variety were the most susceptible and fruit of Golden Delicious the most resistant to both pathogens. In addition, the production of 3 mycotoxins, alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) and tentoxin (TEN) was investigated in 30 isolates of both species. Mycotoxin determination was conducted both in vitro, on artificial nutrient medium and in vivo on artificially inoculated apple fruit, using a high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The results showed that most of the isolates of both species were able to produce all the 3 metabolites both in vivo and in vitro. On apple fruit A. tenuissima isolates produced more AOH than A. arborescens isolates, whereas the latter produced more TEN than the former. Such results indicate that Alternaria core rot represents a major threat of apple fruit production not only due to quantitative yield losses but also for qualitative deterioration of apple by-products. PMID:25560914

  13. Evaluation of the topical effect of alendronate on the root surface of extracted and replanted teeth. Microscopic analysis on rats' teeth.

    PubMed

    Lustosa-Pereira, Adriana; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Bernardineli, Norberti; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro; Bortoluzzi, Eduardo Antunes

    2006-02-01

    The treatment of choice for tooth avulsion is replantation. The ideal replantation should be realized as quickly as possible, or at least, the avulsed tooth should be kept in an adequate solution to preserve the periodontal ligament attached to the root. If that is not possible, treatment of the radicular surface should be done in order to prevent radicular resorption. The purpose of this study was to test sodium alendronate as a substance for topical treatment of the radicular surface of avulsed teeth in an attempt to prevent the occurrence of dental resorptions. Fifty-four rat maxillary right central incisors were extracted and replanted. Group I--extra-alveolar dry period of 15 min, intracanal dressing with calcium hydroxide (CALEN, S.S. White, Artigos Dentários LTDA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) and replantation; Groups II and III - extra-alveolar dry periods of 30 and 60 min, respectively, immersion in 1% sodium hypochlorite for 30 min for removal of the periodontal ligament, washing in saline solution for 5 min, and treatment of the radicular surface with 3.2 mg/l sodium alendronate solution for 10 min. Intracanal dressing with calcium hydroxide and replantation followed. At 15, 60, and 90 days post-reimplantation, the animals were killed and the samples obtained and processed for microscopic analysis. The results indicated that sodium alendronate was able to reduce the incidence of radicular resorption, but not of dental ankylosis. No significant differences were observed regarding variations in the extra-alveolar periods among the groups. PMID:16422756

  14. A new antioxidant beverage produced with green tea and apple.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Perez, Jose M; Vidal-Guevara, Maria L; Zafrilla, Pilar; Morillas-Ruiz, Juana M

    2014-08-01

    Green tea and apple are natural products with health benefits. These healthy properties are linked closely to the antioxidant compounds, mainly phenolic compounds. These antioxidant compounds have a potential for preventing and treating cancer, cardiovascular, inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases in humans. The aim of the present work was to design a new beverage with high antioxidant power combining extracts of green tea and apple, studying the antioxidant composition and activity, organoleptic properties (colour) and stability status during storage at different temperatures. The majority compounds identified in the beverage were flavan-3-ols, being the (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate which had the highest concentration. After storage, floridzine was the compound with lower decrease of concentration. The new designed beverage had a good colour, and high antioxidant activity and stability at room temperature, so that the beverage needs no refrigeration, showing potential for the development of new healthy functional beverages. PMID:24601928

  15. Computational Identification of Candidate Genes Involved in Response to Fire Blight in Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight (Erwinia amylovora) is a destructive bacterial disease affecting plants in the Rosaceae including apple, pear, and quince. The disease is common in North America, and kills blossoms, shoots, limbs, and, sometimes, entire trees. Bioinformatics tools were used in collaboration with a NRI-f...

  16. DIFFERENTIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY TO FIRE BLIGHT IN COMMERCIAL AND EXPERIMENTAL APPLE ROOTSTOCK CULTIVARS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Geneva rootstock breeding program has developed several new rootstocks that exhibit disease resistance to Erwinia amylovora. Utilization of disease resistant apple rootstocks increases the survivability of young trees infected by fire blight. The goal of this experiment was to further investigat...

  17. A new postharvest fruit rot in apple and pear caused by Phacidium lacerum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During surveys for postharvest diseases of apples and pears, an unknown postharvest fruit rot was observed in Washington State. The disease appeared to originate from infection of the stem and calyx tissue of the fruit or wounds on the fruit. An unknown pycnidial fungus was consistently isolated fro...

  18. The apple genome: ripe for harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An international consortium of plant report sequencing of the cultivated apple (Malus x domestica) genome (Velasco et al., this issue). Apples are among the most widely grown and consumed fruits in temperate regions of the world. This is in part due to years of extensive breeding and selection the ...

  19. 9,250 Apples for the Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uston, Ken

    1983-01-01

    Discusses Apple Computer Inc.'s plan to donate an Apple IIe to eligible elementary/secondary schools in California, dealer incentives for conducting orientation sessions for school personnel, and school uses of the computer (including peer tutoring and teacher education). Also discusses similar efforts of other microcomputer manufacturers. (JN)

  20. Unique characteristics of Geneva apple rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Geneva® apple rootstock breeding program has been operating since the early 1970’s. It is a unique program in that it had access to important germplasm resources that later became the USDA ARS apple collection in Geneva, NY. This genetic diversity allowed for the achievement of one of the proj...

  1. Prediction of Apple Quality by Optical Properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optical properties (i.e., absorption and scattering) are useful for assessing the internal quality of apples such as firmness and soluble solids content (SSC). A spatially-resolved hyperspectral imaging technique was developed to measure the optical properties of apples for predicting fruit firmness...

  2. Apple function genomics: from fruit to root

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genotype-specific fruit ripening patterns of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) are closely associated with the at-harvest quality and the post-harvest storability. To elucidate the molecular networks and identify the key genes regulating apple fruit maturation and ripening processes, large-scale ...

  3. Evaluation of the Apple Classroom of Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitabchi, Gloria

    The Memphis Apple Classroom of Tomorrow (ACOT), one of seven ACOT locations, was a joint project of the city schools and Apple Computer. The ACOT consisted of a class of 30 fifth grade students in an inner city school, who were selected on the basis of the willingness of the students and their parents to participate and to use computers in the…

  4. Apple function genomics: from fruit to root

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genotype-specific fruit ripening patterns of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh) are closely associated with the at-harvest quality and the post-harvest storability. To elucidate the molecular networks and identify the key genes regulating apple fruit maturation and ripening processes, large-scale a...

  5. SED/Apple Computer, Inc., Partnership Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Peter F.

    1991-01-01

    In 1990, the New York State Education Department (SED), Apple Computer, Inc., Boards of Cooperative Educational Services (BOCES), and school districts formed a partnership to explore the contribution technology can make to schools based on Apple Computer's Learning Society and SED's Long-Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary…

  6. Historic American apple cultivars: Identification and availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples have been important throughout the centuries in North America. Historic books, publications, and nursery catalogs were surveyed to identify apple cultivars that were propagated and grown in the United States prior to 1908. We collected synonym, introduction date, and original source country i...

  7. PEOPLE IN PHYSICS: Newton's apple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandford Smith, Daniel

    1997-03-01

    This essay has a long history. It was triggered at university by one of my tutors describing the dispute between Robert Hooke and Isaac Newton. He conjured up an image of Newton sitting at his desk doing calculations while Hooke went down mineshafts trying to detect a change in the strength of gravity. To someone who was finding the maths content of a physics degree somewhat challenging this was a symbolic image. I believe that the story of Newton and the apple illustrates the complex nature of scientific discovery.

  8. Molecular characterization of cisgenic lines of apple 'Gala' carrying the Rvi6 scab resistance gene.

    PubMed

    Vanblaere, Thalia; Flachowsky, Henryk; Gessler, Cesare; Broggini, Giovanni A L

    2014-01-01

    Using resistance genes from a crossable donor to obtain cultivars resistant to diseases and the use of such cultivars in production appears an economically and environmentally advantageous approach. In apple, introgression of resistance genes by classical breeding results in new cultivars, while introducing cisgenes by biotechnological methods maintains the original cultivar characteristics. Recently, plants of the popular apple 'Gala' were genetically modified by inserting the apple scab resistance gene Rvi6 (formerly HcrVf2) under control of its own regulatory sequences. This gene is derived from the scab-resistant apple 'Florina' (originally from the wild apple accession Malus floribunda 821). The vector used for genetic modification allowed a postselection marker gene elimination to achieve cisgenesis. In this work, three cisgenic lines were analysed to assess copy number, integration site, expression level and resistance to apple scab. For two of these lines, a single insertion was observed and, despite a very low expression of 0.07- and 0.002-fold compared with the natural expression of 'Florina', this was sufficient to induce plant reaction and reduce fungal growth by 80% compared with the scab-susceptible 'Gala'. Similar results for resistance and expression analysis were obtained also for the third line, although it was impossible to determine the copy number and TDNA integration site-such molecular characterization is requested by the (EC) Regulation No. 1829/2003, but may become unnecessary if cisgenic crops become exempt from GMO regulation. PMID:23998808

  9. Anti-cancer properties of phenolics from apple waste on colon carcinogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    McCann, M J; Gill, C I R; O' Brien, G; Rao, J R; McRoberts, W C; Hughes, P; McEntee, R; Rowland, I R

    2007-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in Western countries. The World Health Organisation identifies diet as a critical risk factor in the development and progression of this disease and the protective role of high levels of fruit and vegetable consumption. Several studies have shown that apples contain several phenolic compounds that are potent anti-oxidants in humans. However, little is known about other beneficial properties of apple phenolics in cancer. We have used the HT29, HT115 and CaCo-2 cell lines as in vitro models to examine the effect of apple phenolics (0.01-0.1% apple extract) on key stages of colorectal carcinogenesis, namely; DNA damage (Comet assay), colonic barrier function (TER assay), cell cycle progression (DNA content assay) and invasion (Matrigel assay). Our results indicate that a crude extract of apple phenolics can protect against DNA damage, improve barrier function and inhibit invasion (p<0.05). The anti-invasive effects of the extract were enhanced with twenty-four hour pretreatment of cells (p<0.05). We have shown that a crude apple extract from waste, rich in phenolic compounds, beneficially influences key stages of carcinogenesis in colon cells in vitro. PMID:17300861

  10. Identification of gene-specific markers for resistance to Erwinia amylovora (fire blight) in Malus (apple) by a functional genomics approach

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight, caused by Erwinia amylovora (Ea), is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and other plants in the rose family (Rosaceae). 650 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) associated with fire blight were identified from Ea-challenged apple leaf tissue by suppression subtractive hybrid...

  11. Delayed replantation of an avulsed maxillary premolar with open apex: a 24 months follow-up case report.

    PubMed

    Ravi, K S; Pinky, C; Kumar, Shikhar; Vanka, Amit

    2013-01-01

    Avulsion of permanent teeth is most serious of all dental injuries and accounts for 1-16% of all traumatic injuries, of which maxillary incisors are most commonly involved. However, in this report a rare case of isolated avulsed immature premolar has been described. The patient had reported more than 3 hours after the trauma with a tooth stored in dry condition and soil contamination. The prognosis depends on measures taken at the place of accident or the time immediately after avulsion. Replantation is the treatment of choice, but cannot always be performed immediately. An appropriate emergency management and treatment plan is important for good prognosis. In this report stepwise management of an avulsed immature maxillary premolar with extended period of dry storage has been described followed up for a period of 2 yrs. PMID:24021335

  12. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  13. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  14. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  15. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  16. 7 CFR 33.50 - Apples for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples for processing. 33.50 Section 33.50 Agriculture... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Interpretive Rules § 33.50 Apples for processing. The terms “apples for processing” as used in § 33.12 of this part apply only and is restricted to...

  17. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) is a pest of major concern to apple, Malus x domestica (Borkh.) production in eastern North America. Host-plant resistance to apple maggot among apple germplasm has been previously evaluated among a small number of exotic Malus accessions and domestic hyb...

  18. Photoprotective effects of apple peel nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bennet, Devasier; Kang, Se Chan; Gang, Jongback; Kim, Sanghyo

    2014-01-01

    Plants contain enriched bioactive molecules that can protect against skin diseases. Bioactive molecules become unstable and ineffective due to unfavorable conditions. In the present study, to improve the therapeutic efficacy of phytodrugs and enhance photoprotective capability, we used poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) as a carrier of apple peel ethanolic extract (APETE) on permeation-enhanced nanoparticles (nano-APETE). The in vitro toxicity of nano-APETE-treated dermal fibroblast cells were studied in a bioimpedance system, and the results coincided with the viability assay. In addition, the continuous real-time evaluations of photodamage and photoprotective effect of nano-APETE on cells were studied. Among three different preparations of nano-APETE, the lowest concentration provided small, spherical, monodispersed, uniform particles which show high encapsulation, enhanced uptake, effective scavenging, and sustained intracellular delivery. Also, the nano-APETE is more flexible, allowing it to permeate through skin lipid membrane and release the drug in a sustained manner, thus confirming its ability as a sustained transdermal delivery. In summary, 50 μM nano-APETE shows strong synergistic photoprotective effects, thus demonstrating its higher activity on target sites for the treatment of skin damage, and would be of broad interest in the field of skin therapeutics. PMID:24379668

  19. Reconstruction and Intentional Replantation of a Maxillary Central Incisor with a Complete Vertical Root Fracture: A Rare Case Report with Three Years Follow up

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Deepti

    2015-01-01

    Vertical root fractures in teeth present with challenges not only with diagnosis but also with management. The prognosis in such teeth is generally questionable with extraction of the tooth being the most common treatment option. However, conservative treatment options such as reconstruction of the fractured fragments with adhesive resin followed by intentional replantation have been recently suggested. There are only a few case reports that describe management of complete vertical root fracture by reconstruction of fragments. The present case report describes successful management of an unusual complete vertical root fracture of a maxillary right central incisor in a 23-year-old male by reconstructing the fragments with a dual cure resin followed by intentional replantation. At the three year follow up, the tooth was asymptomatic, radiographically sound with probing depth and mobility within normal physiological limits. PMID:26501026

  20. VIEWPOINT – Vitiligo and alopecia areata: Apples and oranges?

    PubMed Central

    Harris, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Vitiligo and alopecia areata are common autoimmune diseases of the skin. Vitiligo is caused by the destruction of melanocytes and results in the appearance of white patches on any part of the body, while alopecia areata is characterized by patchy hair loss primarily on the scalp, but may also involve other areas as well. At first glance, the two diseases appear to be quite different, targeting different cell types and managed using different treatment approaches. However, the immune cell populations and cytokines that drive each disease are similar, they are closely associated within patients and their family members, and vitiligo and alopecia areata have common genetic risk factors, suggesting that they share a similar pathogenesis. Like apples and oranges, vitiligo and alopecia areata have some obvious differences, but similarities abound. Recognizing both similarities and differences will promote research into the pathogenesis of each disease, as well as the development of new treatments. PMID:24131336

  1. Ergonomic evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard

    SciTech Connect

    Tittiranonda, P.; Burastero, S.; Shih, M.; Rempel, D.

    1994-05-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the Apple Adjustable Keyboard based on subjective preference and observed joint angles during typing. Thirty five keyboard users were asked to use the Apple adjustable keyboard for 7--14 days and rate the various characteristics of the keyboard. Our findings suggest that the most preferred opening angles range from 11--20{degree}. The mean ulnar deviation on the Apple Adjustable keyboard is 11{degree}, compared to 16{degree} on the standard keyboard. The mean extension was decreased from 24{degree} to 16{degree} when using the adjustable keyboard. When asked to subjectively rate the adjustable keyboard in comparison to the standard, the average subject felt that the Apple Adjustable Keyboard was more comfortable and easier to use than the standard flat keyboard.

  2. Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibe, Mary; MacLaren, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Describes the Goldstone Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) project as a way of teaching astronomy concepts to middle school students. The project provides students opportunities to work with professional scientists. (SOE)

  3. Production of apple snail for space diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Motoki, Shigeru; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.; Katayama, Naomi

    For food production in space at recycling bio-elements under closed environment, appropriate organisms should be chosen to drive the closed materials recycle loop. We propose a combination of green algae, photosynthetic protozoa, and aquatic plants such as Wolffia spp., for the primary producer fixing solar energy to chemical form in biomass, and apple snail, Pomacea bridgesii, which converts this biomass to animal meat. Because of high proliferation rate of green algae or protozoa compared to higher plants, and direct conversion of them to apple snail, the efficiency of food production in this combination is high, in terms of energy usage, space for rearing, and yield of edible biomass. Furthermore, green algae and apple snail can form a closed ecological system with exchanging bio-elements between two member, i.e. excreta of snail turn to fertilizer of algae, and grown algae become feed for snail. Since apple snail stays in water or on wet substrate, control of rearing is easy to make. Mass production technology of apple snail has been well established to utilize it as human food. Nutrients of apple snail are also listed in the standard tables of food composition in Japan. Nutrients for 100 g of apple snail canned in brine are energy 340 kJ, protein 16.5 g, lipid 1.0 g, cholesterol 240 mg, carbohydrate 0.8 g, Ca 400 mg, Fe 3.9 mg, Zn 1.5 mg. It is rich in minerals, especially Ca and Fe. Vitamin contents are quite low, but K 0.005 mg, B2 0.09 mg, B12 0.0006 mg, folate 0.001 mg, and E 0.6 mg. The amino acid score of apple snail could not be found in literature. Overall, apple snail provides rich protein and animal lipid such as cholesterol. It could be a good source of minerals. However, it does not give enough vitamin D and B12 , which are supposed to be supplemented by animal origin foods. In terms of acceptance in food culture, escargot is a gourmet menu in French dishes, and six to ten snail, roughly 50 g, are served for one person. Apple snail reaches to 30 g

  4. Analysis of the healing process in delayed tooth replantation after root canal filling with calcium hydroxide, Sealapex and Endofill: a microscopic study in rats.

    PubMed

    Negri, Márcia Regina; Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Gulinelli, Jéssica Lemos; Saito, Célia Tomiko Matida Hamata

    2008-12-01

    The major concern in the therapeutics of tooth replantation refers to the occurrence of root resorption and different approaches have been proposed to prevent or treat these complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate tissue response to delayed replantation of anterior rat teeth treated endodontically using calcium hydroxide, Sealapex, and Endofill without the placement of gutta-percha cones. Thirty rats had their right upper incisor extracted and maintained in dry storage for 60 min. After removal of the dental papilla, enamel organ, pulp tissue, and periodontal ligament remnants, the teeth were immersed in 2% sodium fluoride phosphate acidulated, pH 5.5, for 10 min. The root canals were dried with absorbent paper points and the teeth were assigned to three groups (n = 10) according to the filling material. Group I - calcium hydroxide and propyleneglycol paste, Group II - Sealapex, and Group III - Endofill. The sockets were irrigated with saline and the teeth were replanted. Replacement resorption, inflammatory resorption and ankylosis were observed in all groups. Although the occurrence of inflammatory resorption was less frequent in Group I, there were no statistically significant differences among the groups. It may be concluded that compared to the paste, filling the root canals with Sealapex and Endofill sealers without the placement of gutta-percha cones did not provide better results. PMID:19021658

  5. Replantation of a maxillary second molar after removal of a third molar with a dentigerous cyst: Case report and 12-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Peñarrocha-Diago, María A.; Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Peñarrocha-Diago, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the replantation of a maxillary second right molar, which had been removed for surgical reasons in order to remove a dentigerous cyst associated with the adjacent third molar, and the case’s 12-month follow-up. A 51-year-old man presented swelling in the right maxillary area. Radiographic examination showed a large radiolucency in close proximity to the third molar, suggesting a follicular cyst. The third molar was extracted and the cyst underwent curettage. The second molar had to be extracted to enable complete removal of the cyst and to achieve primary closure of the wound, which would have been impossible without repositioning the molar. With this objective, extraoral endodontic treatment was performed, the root-end was resected and prepared with ultrasonic retrotips, and root-end filling was accomplished with MTA before the molar was replanted. At the 12-month follow-up, the tooth showed no clinical signs or symptoms, probing depth was no greater than 3 mm and radiographic examination showed no evidence of root resorption or periapical lesion. Key words:Replantation, maxillary molar, follicular cyst, dentigerous cyst. PMID:24790721

  6. Using functional genomics to develop tools to breed fire blight resistant apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a destructive disease of apple (Malus), pear (Pyrus) and other plants in the rose family (Rosaceae). Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) using cDNA from pathogen and mock-inoculated samples, and cDNA-AFLP analysis were used to ident...

  7. Functional genomic analysis of apple (Malus) EST's associated with fire blight (Erwinia amylovora)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The goal of this project is to use a functional genomic analysis to characterize the response of apple to fire blight disease and thereby, identify new opportunities for improving fire blight resistance. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) are derived from the mRNA isolated from a tissue and provide a c...

  8. First report of brown rot on apple fruit caused by Monilinia fructicola in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Brown rot, caused by Monilinia fructicola (G. Wint.) Honey, is the most devastating disease of stone fruits in North America resulting in significant economic losses. The fungus has been recently reported to cause pre and postharvest brown rot on apple fruit in Germany, Italy, and Serbia. However, M...

  9. Management of bull’s-eye rot of apple using pre- and postharvest fungicides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bull’s-eye rot caused by Cryptosporiopsis kienholzii, Neofabraea alba, N. malicorticis and N. perennans is a common postharvest disease of apple and pear in the US Pacific Northwest. Fruit infection by these causal fungi occurs in the orchard and is latent at harvest. A primary practice for control ...

  10. Analysis of apple (Malus) responses to bacterial pathogens using an oligo microarray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight is a devastating disease of apple (Malus x domestica) caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora (Ea). When infiltrated into host leaves, Ea induces reactions similar to a hypersensitive response (HR). Type III (T3SS) associated effectors, especially DspA/E, are suspected to ha...

  11. Using an apple (Malus) microarray for expression analysis of responses to compatible and incompatible pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight is a devastating disease of apple (Malus x domestica) caused by the bacterial pathogen Erwinia amylovora (Ea). Ea enters the plant through blossom nectaries or wounds, multiplies in the apoplast and spreads through the plant via vascular tissues. When infiltrated into host leaves, Ea ind...

  12. Relative Susceptibility of Quince, Pear, and Apple Cultivars to Fire Blight Following Greenhouse Inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora (EA) is one of the most serious diseases of plants in the family Rosaceae, and Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) is considered one of the most susceptible host genera. Apple (Malus sp.) and pear (Pyrus sp.) cultivars ranging from most susceptible to most resistan...

  13. The infection capacity of P. expansum and P. digitatum on apples and histochemical analysis of host response.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, L; Teixidó, N; Torres, R; Usall, J; Viñas, I

    2012-07-16

    Fruit ripening is a complex process that involves a variety of biochemical changes and is also associated with increased susceptibility to pathogens. The present study determined the effects of fruit maturity and storage conditions on the infection capacity of a host (P. expansum) and non-host (P. digitatum) pathogen on apple. A range of inoculum concentrations and two different storage temperatures were utilized. Exposure to P. expansum at 20 °C resulted in significant differences in rot dynamics in apples collected at the earliest harvest date compared to all later harvest dates and inoculum concentrations assayed. Greater differences in infection capacity between harvests were obtained when fruit was stored at low temperature (0 °C). In contrast, P. digitatum was able to infect apples only under specific conditions and disease symptoms were limited to the initial wound inoculation site. When apples were resistant to P. digitatum, a visible browning reaction around the infection site was observed. Histochemical analyses of tissues surrounding the wound site were conducted. A positive reaction for lignin was observed in immature apples as early as 1 day after inoculation with either pathogen. Experiments conducted with the non-host pathogen indicated that lignification was an essential component of resistance in apples harvested prior to maturity or at commercial maturity. Apples harvested at an over-mature stage and inoculated with P. digitatum did not show evidence of staining for lignin until 7 days post-inoculation. Control samples only showed positive reaction in immature harvest. Results demonstrated that the maturity stage of fruit is an important factor in apple resistance to both P. expansum and P. digitatum and that lignin accumulation seems to play an important role when resistance is observed. Moreover, this is the first report demonstrating that P. digitatum, a non-host pathogen, has a limited capacity to infect apples. PMID:22727432

  14. Survey of apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and apple stem grooving virus occurrence in Korea and frequency of mixed infections in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the absence of knowledge of the distribution of Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) in apples in Korea, we carried out a survey for these viruses in Gyeongsang and Chungcheong provinces in 2014. A total of 65 samples were collected and tested by RT-PCR...

  15. Evaluation of two formulations containing mineral trioxide aggregate on delayed tooth replantation: relevance of RANKL/RANK/OPG system.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Beatriz Farias; Souza, Carlos Eduardo Chrzanowski Pereira; Silva, Daniela Nascimento; Etges, Adriana; Campos, Maria Martha

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of White MTA (WMTA) and MTA Fillapex(®) on root resorption, when used for root canal filling, in a rat model of delayed tooth replantation, with special focus on the RANKL/RANK/OPG system. Maxillary right central incisors of male rats were extracted (total N = 48), and exposed to dry environment for 30 min. The animals were allocated into four groups: (1) WMTA; (2) MTA Fillapex; (3) Calcium hydroxide; (4) Negative control. After periodontal ligament removal, root canals were filled with the corresponding material and replanted. After 10 and 60 days, qualitative and semi-quantitative histological and immunohistochemical analyses were carried out. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Tukey's post hoc adjustment was used, at 10 and 60 days, to compare the experimental groups in terms of the inflammatory scores and in terms of the changes in OPG, RANK and RANKL. Both WMTA and MTA Fillapex groups displayed inflammatory and replacement resorption, with the presence of dento-alveolar ankylosis, similarly to that observed for calcium hydroxide, in either 10 or 60 days. Notably, a slight increase of the inflammatory process was observed in both MTA groups. Quantitatively, inflammation score analysis showed a significant difference between the calcium hydroxide and the control group at 10 days. On 60 days, dento-alveolar ankylosis was found significantly increased in the MTA Fillapex, in comparison to the control group (p < 0.05). For immunohistochemical analysis, the expression of both RANK and RANKL was reduced in calcium hydroxide and WMTA groups, from 10 to 60 days of evaluation, an effect that was accompanied by increased OPG immunolabelling. Otherwise, the MTA Fillapex group presented a general increase of RANKL immunopositivity, similarly to that observed in the negative control group. Our data showed that none of tested materials was able to fully prevent the root resorption, although the white MTA cement presented an

  16. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Word Processing Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 word processor files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading the word processor files, selecting the print option, printing files, and obtaining additional help. For each step, a diagram of the…

  17. Constructing and Using an Apple IIe Computer AppleWorks Document Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This document presents a step-by-step procedure for setting up a document library of personal word processing, database, and spreadsheet files using the Apple IIe computer and the AppleWorks subprogram database. This library, which can serve both as a running record of files created and as a means for easy retrieval, uses 10 fields or categories…

  18. Printing AppleWorks Data Base Files with the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to printing AppleWorks database files using the Apple IIe computer covers (1) naming the report; (2) selecting a printer; and (3) printing the report for both the labels and the tables formats. Twenty-one sample screen displays which illustrate the steps and examples of the printed reports are included. (MES)

  19. Constructing AppleWorks Word Processing Files for the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to constructing word processing files using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) adding files to the desktop; (3) selecting the word processor option; (4) naming the file; (5) setting tabs; (6) selecting print options; and (7) saving the file. Sixteen sample screen displays…

  20. Constructing AppleWorks Data Base Files for the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to creating database files using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) adding files to the desktop; (3) selecting the database option; (4) naming the file; (5) naming categories or fields; (6) inserting data; (7) changing database file formats; (8) altering the file layout;…

  1. Printing AppleWorks V2.0 Spreadsheet Files Using the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for printing AppleWorks version 2.0 spreadsheet files using the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading spreadsheet files; selecting the print option; printing entire files; and for printing specific rows, columns, or blocks of the file. For…

  2. Restricted streptomycin use in apple orchards did not adversely alter the soil bacteria communities.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Fiona; Smith, Daniel P; Owens, Sarah M; Duffy, Brion; Frey, Jürg E

    2013-01-01

    Streptomycin has been authorized for restricted use in the prevention of the fire blight disease of pome fruit orchards in the EU and Switzerland. This study addresses the important topic of the influence of the use of streptomycin in agriculture on the total bacteria community within the soil ecosystem. Soil samples were taken from soils under apple trees, prior to streptomycin application and 2 weeks post streptomycin application or water application (untreated control). High throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing was used to generate datasets from the soils under apple trees in apple orchards from three different locations in Switzerland. We hypothesized that the use of streptomycin would reduce the bacterial diversity within the soil samples and enhance a reduction in the variety of taxa present. Bacterial species such as Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas are intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics and as such it is of interest to investigate if the use of streptomycin provided a selective advantage for these bacteria in the soil ecosystem. The application of streptomycin did not influence the abundance and diversities of major bacteria taxa of the soils or the Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Stenotrophomonas species. We also discovered that apple orchards under the same management practices, did not harbor the same bacterial communities. The restricted application of streptomycin in the protection of apple orchards from the fire blight pathogen Erwinia amylovora under the guidelines in Switzerland did not alter either the bacterial diversity or abundance within these soil ecosystems. PMID:24550889

  3. Red-fleshed Apples: Old Autochthonous Fruits as a Novel Source of Anthocyanin Antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Faramarzi, Shadab; Pacifico, Severina; Yadollahi, Abbas; Lettieri, Annamaria; Nocera, Paola; Piccolella, Simona

    2015-09-01

    In order to promote breeding programs and a full reintroduction into production of two local red-fleshed apple varieties grown in Bekran and Bastam (Iran), the evaluation of their antioxidant properties was of interest. LC-MS(n) based metabolic fingerprinting analyses were applied to investigate the anthocyanin content of both peel and flesh components of the fruits. Cyanidin-3-O-hexoside isomers were present in both 'Bekran' and 'Bastam' apples, whereas 'Bekran' apple was a valuable source of anthocyanin rutinose derivatives. Employing DPPH(•), ABTS(•+), and ORAC methods, the antiradical efficacy was evaluated. The ability of the investigated fruit components to scavenge OH(•), and O(2) (•-) reactive species was also assessed. ID(50) values highlighted the massive antioxidant response of 'Bekran' peel component, able to counteract by 50 % OH(•), and O(2) (•-) at 130.3 and 91.6 μg/mL, respectively. The cytoprotective screening towards HeLa, HepG2, A549, SH-5YSY, and SK-N-BE(2)-C cell lines evidenced that the investigated Iranian red-fleshed apple fruits were able to exert a significant antioxidant response in hydrogen peroxide oxidized cell systems. Data collected suggested that the revaluation of 'Bekran' and 'Bastam' apple cultivars could represent a precious source of antioxidant compounds whose dietary intake could improve the human well-being reducing risks of free radical related chronic and degenerative diseases. PMID:26134879

  4. Phytic Acid Enhances Biocontrol Activity of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa against Penicillium expansum Contamination and Patulin Production in Apples

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qiya; Zhang, Hongyin; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zheng, Xiangfeng; Qian, Jingya

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in combination with phytic acid (PA) on blue mold decay and patulin contamination of apples was investigated. Results from this study show that different concentrations of PA were effective in reducing the disease incidence of apples and that PA at concentration of 4 μmol/mL, decreased the incidence of blue mold decay in apples from 86.1 to 62.5%, and showed higher control efficacy compared to untreated, control fruit during storage at 20°C. However, R. mucilaginosa combined with PA (4 μmol/mL) showed better control efficacy of blue mold decay than R. mucilaginosa used as single treatment, the disease incidence was reduced to 62.5% and lesion diameter on apples was reduced to 16.59 cm. In in vitro experiments, the addition of PA enhanced the biocontrol effect of R. mucilaginosa against the growth of Penicillium expansum and reduced patulin level when compared with either R. mucilaginosa or PA used separately. R. mucilaginosa together with PA, improved the inhibition of patulin production in wounded apples, decreasing the content of patulin by 89.6% compared to the control, under experimental conditions. Both R. mucilaginosa and R. mucilaginosa in combination with PA degraded patulin in vitro. In conclusion, the appropriate combination of R. mucilaginosa and PA may provide an effective biocontrol method for reducing postharvest decay of apples. PMID:26635764

  5. Phytic Acid Enhances Biocontrol Activity of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa against Penicillium expansum Contamination and Patulin Production in Apples.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qiya; Zhang, Hongyin; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zheng, Xiangfeng; Qian, Jingya

    2015-01-01

    The effect of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in combination with phytic acid (PA) on blue mold decay and patulin contamination of apples was investigated. Results from this study show that different concentrations of PA were effective in reducing the disease incidence of apples and that PA at concentration of 4 μmol/mL, decreased the incidence of blue mold decay in apples from 86.1 to 62.5%, and showed higher control efficacy compared to untreated, control fruit during storage at 20°C. However, R. mucilaginosa combined with PA (4 μmol/mL) showed better control efficacy of blue mold decay than R. mucilaginosa used as single treatment, the disease incidence was reduced to 62.5% and lesion diameter on apples was reduced to 16.59 cm. In in vitro experiments, the addition of PA enhanced the biocontrol effect of R. mucilaginosa against the growth of Penicillium expansum and reduced patulin level when compared with either R. mucilaginosa or PA used separately. R. mucilaginosa together with PA, improved the inhibition of patulin production in wounded apples, decreasing the content of patulin by 89.6% compared to the control, under experimental conditions. Both R. mucilaginosa and R. mucilaginosa in combination with PA degraded patulin in vitro. In conclusion, the appropriate combination of R. mucilaginosa and PA may provide an effective biocontrol method for reducing postharvest decay of apples. PMID:26635764

  6. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization, and performance

    PubMed Central

    Krens, Frans A.; Schaart, Jan G.; van der Burgh, Aranka M.; Tinnenbroek-Capel, Iris E. M.; Groenwold, Remmelt; Kodde, Linda P.; Broggini, Giovanni A. L.; Gessler, Cesare; Schouten, Henk J.

    2015-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After 3 years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arker)F(ree) vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic lines were free of scab

  7. Cisgenic apple trees; development, characterization, and performance.

    PubMed

    Krens, Frans A; Schaart, Jan G; van der Burgh, Aranka M; Tinnenbroek-Capel, Iris E M; Groenwold, Remmelt; Kodde, Linda P; Broggini, Giovanni A L; Gessler, Cesare; Schouten, Henk J

    2015-01-01

    Two methods were developed for the generation of cisgenic apples. Both have been successfully applied producing trees. The first method avoids the use of any foreign selectable marker genes; only the gene-of-interest is integrated between the T-DNA border sequences. The second method makes use of recombinase-based marker excision. For the first method we used the MdMYB10 gene from a red-fleshed apple coding for a transcription factor involved in regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Red plantlets were obtained and presence of the cisgene was confirmed. Plantlets were grafted and grown in a greenhouse. After 3 years, the first flowers appeared, showing red petals. Pollination led to production of red-fleshed cisgenic apples. The second method used the pM(arker)F(ree) vector system, introducing the scab resistance gene Rvi6, derived from apple. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, followed by selection on kanamycin, produced genetically modified apple lines. Next, leaves from in vitro material were treated to activate the recombinase leading to excision of selection genes. Subsequently, the leaf explants were subjected to negative selection for marker-free plantlets by inducing regeneration on medium containing 5-fluorocytosine. After verification of the marker-free nature, the obtained plants were grafted onto rootstocks. Young trees from four cisgenic lines and one intragenic line, all containing Rvi6, were planted in an orchard. Appropriate controls were incorporated in this trial. We scored scab incidence for three consecutive years on leaves after inoculations with Rvi6-avirulent strains. One cisgenic line and the intragenic line performed as well as the resistant control. In 2014 trees started to overcome their juvenile character and formed flowers and fruits. The first results of scoring scab symptoms on apple fruits were obtained. Apple fruits from susceptible controls showed scab symptoms, while fruits from cisgenic and intragenic lines were free of scab

  8. Apples and Cardiovascular Health—Is the Gut Microbiota a Core Consideration?

    PubMed Central

    Koutsos, Athanasios; Tuohy, Kieran M.; Lovegrove, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    There is now considerable scientific evidence that a diet rich in fruits and vegetables can improve human health and protect against chronic diseases. However, it is not clear whether different fruits and vegetables have distinct beneficial effects. Apples are among the most frequently consumed fruits and a rich source of polyphenols and fiber. A major proportion of the bioactive components in apples, including the high molecular weight polyphenols, escape absorption in the upper gastrointestinal tract and reach the large intestine relatively intact. There, they can be converted by the colonic microbiota to bioavailable and biologically active compounds with systemic effects, in addition to modulating microbial composition. Epidemiological studies have identified associations between frequent apple consumption and reduced risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. Human and animal intervention studies demonstrate beneficial effects on lipid metabolism, vascular function and inflammation but only a few studies have attempted to link these mechanistically with the gut microbiota. This review will focus on the reciprocal interaction between apple components and the gut microbiota, the potential link to cardiovascular health and the possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26016654

  9. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  10. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple products subcategory. 407.20 Section 407.20 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple... processing of apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated...

  11. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  12. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  13. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  14. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  15. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  16. 40 CFR 407.10 - Applicability; description of the apple juice subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... apple juice subcategory. 407.10 Section 407.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Juice Subcategory § 407.10 Applicability; description of the apple juice... apples into apple juice or apple cider. When a plant is subject to effluent limitations covering...

  17. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  18. 40 CFR 407.20 - Applicability; description of the apple products subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Applicability; description of the apple... SOURCE CATEGORY Apple Products Subcategory § 407.20 Applicability; description of the apple products... apples into apple products. The processing of apples into caustic peeled or dehydrated products...

  19. Prediction and diagnosis of apple fruit physiological disorders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple postharvest physiological disorders, characterized by peel or flesh necrosis, result in significant yearly financial losses in commercial operations. Stakeholders have identified the need for effective, consistent control measures for apple postharvest physiological disorders and the developme...

  20. Detection of internal browning in apples by light transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upchurch, Bruce L.; Throop, James A.; Aneshansley, Daniel J.

    1995-01-01

    Light transmittance in the 450 to 1050 nanometer (nm) region was evaluated as a nondestructive technique for identifying apples with internal browning. Shorter wavelengths of light (< 800 nm) were attenuated more than longer wavelengths (> 800 nm). A transmission difference between 720 and 810 nm was used to segregate apples with internal browning from good apples. Only 7.4% of the apples were misclassified in a training set. When applied to a larger validation set, 8.0% of the apples with internal browning were misclassified. For both sets, the only apples misclassified were those with very slight browning that was very difficult to detect visually were misclassified, but none of the apples with slight to severe browning was misclassified. For nondefective apples, 6.1% were identified as having internal browning, because bruises and internal browning had the same effect on the spectral composition.

  1. Production of fuels and chemicals from apple pomace

    SciTech Connect

    Hang, Y.D.

    1987-03-01

    Nearly 36 million tons of apples are produced annually in the US. Approximately 45% of the total US apple production is used for processing purposes. The primary by-product of apple processing is apple pomace. It consists of the presscake resulting from pressing apples for juice or cider, including the presscake obtained in pressing peel and core wastes generated in the manufacture of apple sauce or slices. More than 500 food processing plants in the US produce a total of about 1.3 million metric tons of apple pomace each year, and it is likely that annual disposal fees exceed $10 million. Apple pomace has the potential to be used for the production of fuels (ethanol and biogas containing 60% methane) and food-grade chemicals. These uses will be reviewed in this article.

  2. Using the Apple II as a Laboratory Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Marvin L.; Layman, John W.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses using Apple II microcomputers for measuring resistance, temperature, and light intensity. Also discusses digital input and output and timing techniques. Although focusing on Apple II, the circuits and programs described may be applicable to other microcomputers. (JN)

  3. Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope System Theory of Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, George R.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this learning module is to enable learners to describe how the Goldstone-Apple Valley Radio Telescope (GAVRT) system functions in support of Apple Valley Science and Technology Center's (AVSTC) client schools' radio astronomy activities.

  4. Volatiles from apple trees infested with light brown apple moth larvae attract the parasitoid Dolichogenidia tasmanica.

    PubMed

    Suckling, D M; Twidle, A M; Gibb, A R; Manning, L M; Mitchell, V J; Sullivan, T E S; Wee, S L; El-Sayed, A M

    2012-09-26

    The volatile compounds emitted from uninfested apple seedlings, cv. Royal Gala, and apple seedlings infested with generalist herbivore Epiphyas postvittana larvae were sampled using headspace collection and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Nine additional compounds were only detected in infested apple seedlings [including benzyl alcohol, (E)-β-ocimene, benzyl cyanide, indole, (E)-nerolidol, and four unidentified compounds]. Infested apple seedlings produced larger amounts of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, 4,8-dimethyl-1,3(E),7-nonatriene, methyl salicylate, β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, (E,E)-α-farnesene, and (Z)-3-hexenyl benzoate than uninfested plants. Female parasitoids flew exclusively upwind to infested and not to uninfested apple seedlings in wind tunnel choice tests and preferred infested leaflets in still air, even after the removal of larvae. The attraction of a parasitoid to infested apple seedlings in the laboratory and in the field to apple and many other plants in at least six families supports considerable generality of the tritrophic signaling process. PMID:22950817

  5. Oxyresveratrol as an antibrowning agent for cloudy apple juices and fresh-cut apples.

    PubMed

    Li, Haitao; Cheng, Ka-Wing; Cho, Chi-Hin; He, Zhendan; Wang, Mingfu

    2007-04-01

    Antibrowning activities of Morus alba L. twig extracts, oxyresveratrol, and mulberroside A isolated from mulberry twig on cloudy apple juices and fresh-cut apple slices were evaluated by monitoring the change of a* value, total color difference (DeltaE), and visual observation. It was found, similar to 4-hexylresorcinol, that oxyresveratrol could effectively inhibit browning in cloudy apple juices at a concentration as low as 0.01% and that mulberry twig extract also showed remarkable antibrowning effects on cloudy apple juices. However, for fresh-cut apple slices, mulberry twig extract and oxyresveratrol needed to be used in combination at least with ascorbic acid to exhibit their antibrowning effects. Apple slice samples treated by dipping in a solution containing 0.001 M oxyresveratrol, 0.5 M isoascorbic acid, 0.05 M calcium chloride, and 0.025 M acetylcysteine did not undergo any substantial browning reaction for 28 days at 4 degrees C. However mulberroside A did not show antibrowning effects on cloudy apple juices although it is also a good mushroom tyrosinase inhibitor. PMID:17335224

  6. Appl1 and Appl2 are Expendable for Mouse Development But Are Essential for HGF-Induced Akt Activation and Migration in Mouse Embryonic Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yinfei; Xin, Xiaoban; Coffey, Francis J; Wiest, David L; Dong, Lily Q; Testa, Joseph R

    2016-05-01

    Although Appl1 and Appl2 have been implicated in multiple cellular activities, we and others have found that Appl1 is dispensable for mouse embryonic development, suggesting that Appl2 can substitute for Appl1 during development. To address this possibility, we generated conditionally targeted Appl2 mice. We found that ubiquitous Appl2 knockout (Appl2-/-) mice, much like Appl1-/- mice, are viable and grow normally to adulthood. Intriguingly, when Appl1-/- mice were crossed with Appl2-/- mice, we found that homozygous Appl1;Appl2 double knockout (DKO) animals are also viable and grossly normal with regard to reproductive potential and postnatal growth. Appl2-null and DKO mice were found to exhibit altered red blood cell physiology, with erythrocytes from these mice generally being larger and having a more irregular shape than erythrocytes from wild type mice. Although Appl1/2 proteins have been previously shown to have a very strong interaction with phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (Pi3k) in thymic T cells, Pi3k-Akt signaling and cellular differentiation was unaltered in thymocytes from Appl1;Appl2 (DKO) mice. However, Appl1/2-null mouse embryonic fibroblasts exhibited defects in HGF-induced Akt activation, migration, and invasion. Taken together, these data suggest that Appl1 and Appl2 are required for robust HGF cell signaling but are dispensable for embryonic development and reproduction. PMID:26445298

  7. Alar and Apples: Newspaper Coverage of a Major Risk Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Sharon M.; And Others

    A study reviewed coverage in 13 newspapers during 1989 of the issue of spraying the pesticide Alar on apples. Using VU/TEXT, a newspaper database, 297 articles in 13 newspapers that included the specified code words "Alar" with or without "apple" or "apples" were retrieved and analyzed using a 33-question coding instrument which recorded general…

  8. Cold Acclimation Improves Regrowth of Cryopreserved Apple Shoot Tips

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cryopreservation is important for preserving the genetic resources of apple germplasm in Kazakhstan, the center of origin for apples. In this study of five apple genotypes [Malus domestica Borkh. and Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem] we determined cold hardiness and the effect of cold acclimation o...

  9. Transcriptomic analysis of apple fruit ripening and texture attributes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular events regulating cultivar-specific apple fruit ripening and sensory quality are largely unknown. Such knowledge is essential for genomic-assisted apple breeding and postharvest quality management. The ripening behavior and texture attributes of two apple cultivars, ‘Pink Lady’ and ‘Honey...

  10. The vulnerability of US apple (Malus) genetic resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple is one of the top three U.S. fruit crops in production and value. Apple production has high costs for land, labor and inputs, and orchards are a long-term commitment. Production is dominated by only a few apple scion cultivars and rootstocks, which increases susceptibility to dynamic external ...

  11. Establishing Commercial Utility of Behavioral Control for Apple Maggot Fly

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple maggot fly is a key summer pest of apples throughout eastern North America, and poses an increasing threat to apple production in the Northwest. If left unchecked, the threat of AMF injury to fruit can be severe, resulting in complete loss of marketable crop. To combat AMF infestation, comme...

  12. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  13. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  14. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  15. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  16. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The Apple Crop Insurance Provisions for the 2005 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  17. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  18. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  19. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  20. 7 CFR 33.12 - Apples not subject to regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples not subject to regulation. 33.12 Section 33.12... REGULATIONS REGULATIONS ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Exemptions § 33.12 Apples not subject... this part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination: (a) A quantity of...

  1. 7 CFR 457.158 - Apple crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apple crop insurance provisions. 457.158 Section 457... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.158 Apple crop insurance provisions. The apple crop insurance provisions for the 2011 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  2. High-pressure washing treatments to remove obscure mealybug (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) and lightbrown apple moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) from harvested apples.

    PubMed

    Whiting, D C; Hoy, L E; Maindonald, J H; Connolly, P G; McDonald, R M

    1998-12-01

    Mixed life stages of obscure mealybug, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), and late 1st-instar or early 2nd-instar lightbrown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), on 'Royal Gala' apples (Malus domestica Borkhausen) were exposed to standard packhouse processing with and without addition of high-pressure apple washer treatments. Insect removal and mortality were assessed. After standard packhouse processing approximately 60% of P. viburni remained on their host apples. The 2 high-pressure apple washer treatments (500 and 800 psi at 2.0 rods/s) were equally effective and significantly reduced the number of P. viburni on apples compared with the packhouse control. High-pressure apple washer removal by location decreased in the following order: calyx cavity outside the sepals > cheek approximately stem cavity > or = calyx beneath sepals. About half of the E. postvittana larvae infesting apples was removed by standard packhouse processing. Removal rates were similar for all locations on open-calyxed apples. However, no removal occurred from the calyx beneath the sepals if the apple calyx was closed. All 4 high-pressure apple washer treatments tested (500 and 800 psi at 1.0 and 2.0 rods/s) halved the number of larvae on the apple exterior relative to the packhouse control. The pattern of removal for larvae on open-calyxed apples was calyx outside sepals approximately stem cavity > calyx beneath the sepals approximately cheek. A similar pattern was evident for larvae on closed-calyxed apples, except insects beneath the sepals evaded removal. The persistence of insects on the apple cheek reflects the high proportion of larvae inside tunnels in this location compared with other apple locations. Removal of internally positioned insects was much lower than that of externally positioned insects. PMID:9887685

  3. Differential expression of biphenyl synthase gene family members in fire-blight-infected apple 'Holsteiner Cox'.

    PubMed

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Gaid, Mariam M; Belkheir, Asma K; Hänsch, Robert; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-02-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a devastating disease of apple (Malus × domestica). The phytoalexins of apple are biphenyls and dibenzofurans, whose carbon skeleton is formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS), a type III polyketide synthase. In the recently published genome sequence of apple 'Golden Delicious', nine BIS genes and four BIS gene fragments were detected. The nine genes fall into four subfamilies, referred to as MdBIS1 to MdBIS4. In a phylogenetic tree, the BIS amino acid sequences from apple and Sorbus aucuparia formed an individual cluster within the clade of the functionally diverse type III polyketide synthases. cDNAs encoding MdBIS1 to MdBIS4 were cloned from fire-blight-infected shoots of apple 'Holsteiner Cox,' heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and functionally analyzed. Benzoyl-coenzyme A and salicoyl-coenzyme A were the preferred starter substrates. In response to inoculation with E. amylovora, the BIS3 gene was expressed in stems of cv Holsteiner Cox, with highest transcript levels in the transition zone between necrotic and healthy tissues. The transition zone was the accumulation site of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins. Leaves contained transcripts for BIS2 but failed to form immunodetectable amounts of BIS protein. In cell cultures of apple 'Cox Orange,' expression of the BIS1 to BIS3 genes was observed after the addition of an autoclaved E. amylovora suspension. Using immunofluorescence localization under a confocal laser-scanning microscope, the BIS3 protein in the transition zone of stems was detected in the parenchyma of the bark. Dot-shaped immunofluorescence was confined to the junctions between neighboring cortical parenchyma cells. PMID:22158676

  4. Membrane-targeted HrpNEa can modulate apple defense gene expression.

    PubMed

    Vergne, E; de Bernonville, T Dugé; Dupuis, F; Sourice, S; Cournol, R; Berthelot, P; Barny, M A; Brisset, M N; Chevreau, E

    2014-02-01

    Fire blight caused by Erwinia amylovora is the major bacterial disease of tribe Maleae, including apple. Among the proteins secreted by this bacterium, HrpNEa, also called harpin, is known to induce hypersensitive response in nonhost plants and to form amyloid oligomers leading to pore opening in the plasma membrane and alteration of membrane homeostasis. To better understand the physiological effects of HrpNEa in the host plant, we produced transgenic apple plants expressing HrpNEa with or without a secretion signal peptide (SP). HrpNEa expressed with a SP was found to be associated within the membrane fraction, in accordance with amyloidogenic properties and the presence of transmembrane domains revealed by in silico analysis. Expression analysis of 28 apple defense-related genes revealed gene modulations in the transgenic line expressing membrane-targeted HrpNEa. While apple transgenic trees displaying a high constitutive expression level of SP-HrpNEa showed a slight reduction of infection frequency after E. amylovora inoculation, there was no decrease in the disease severity. Thus HrpNEa seems to act as an elicitor of host defenses, when localized in the host membrane. PMID:24156770

  5. Developing Inventory Records Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing inventory records in the AppleWorks program using an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 17 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the inventory records…

  6. Developing Simple Financial Records Using the AppleWorks Spreadsheet Subprogram, Apple IIe or GS Computers, and a Duodisk Drive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing simple financial records using the AppleWorks spreadsheet subprogram with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer which has a Duodisk or two disk drives. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 34 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the spreadsheet…

  7. Setting Up Letters Using the AppleWorks Word Processor Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for setting up letter word processing files using the AppleWorks program with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS computer which has a Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 16 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of word…

  8. Developing Simple Budgets Using the AppleWorks Spreadsheet Subprogram, Apple IIe or GS Computers, and a Single Disk Drive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing spreadsheet files in the AppleWorks program using an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with a single disk drive. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 36 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the spreadsheet development sequence. (EW)

  9. Building Parts Inventory Files Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for building database files using the AppleWorks program with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 25 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the database file building…

  10. Rootstock effects on gene expression patterns in apple tree scions.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Philip J; Rytter, Jo; Detwiler, Elizabeth A; Travis, James W; McNellis, Timothy W

    2003-11-01

    Like many fruit trees, apple trees (Malus pumila) do not reproduce true-to-type from seed. Desirable cultivars are clonally propagated by grafting onto rootstocks that can alter the characteristics of the scion. For example, the M.7 EMLA rootstock is semi-dwarfing and reduces the susceptibility of the scion to Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease. In contrast, the M.9 T337 rootstock is dwarfing and does not alter fire blight susceptibility of the scion. This study represents a comprehensive comparison of gene expression patterns in scions of the 'Gala' apple cultivar grafted to either M.7 EMLA or M.9 T337. Expression was determined by cDNA-AFLP coupled with silver staining of the gels. Scions grafted to the M.9 T337 rootstock showed higher expression of a number of photosynthesis-related, transcription/translation-related, and cell division-related genes, while scions grafted to the M.7 EMLA rootstock showed increased stress-related gene expression. The observed differences in gene expression showed a remarkable correlation with physiological differences between the two graft combinations. The roles that the differentially expressed genes might play in tree stature, stress tolerance, photosynthetic activity, fire blight resistance, and other differences conferred by the two rootstocks are discussed. PMID:15010615

  11. Apple phenolics as nutraceuticals: assessment, analysis and application.

    PubMed

    Rana, Shalika; Bhushan, Shashi

    2016-04-01

    Humankind is presently engulfed by convenience quench, modern life style and urbanized diet system leading to progression in array of health disorders. The past decade confronted cardiometabolic disorder (21.8 %), lower respiratory and chronic obstructive lung disease (12.5 %) as the major causes of death world over. In anticipation, scientific communities' have demonstrated the role of healthy diets, especially those rich in fruits and vegetables, for management of such health related issues. These horticultural  crops are considered as a good source of polyphenols such as dihydrochalcones, flavanols, flavonols, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. The present article reviews the efforts made to assess the potential of apple phenolic compounds present in fresh fruits, leaves, bark and pomace as dietary polyphenols. Considering the positive impact of such phytochemicals on human health, various nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and phenolic-rich food products are presently available on market shelves. On analytical front, improved instrumentation based on liquid chromatography (HPLC, UPLC, LC/MS/MS) have made the assessment of phenolics more rapid and reliable. Thus, owing to the emergent interest in natural compounds, it is pertinent to discuss the latest significant research findings on therapeutic aspects along with probable metabolic mechanisms of dietary polyphenols found in apples and their implications on human health. PMID:27413201

  12. Bioanalytical characterization of apple juice from 88 grafted and nongrafted apple varieties grown in Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Lanzerstorfer, Peter; Wruss, Jürgen; Huemer, Stefan; Steininger, Andrea; Müller, Ulrike; Himmelsbach, Markus; Borgmann, Daniela; Winkler, Stephan; Höglinger, Otmar; Weghuber, Julian

    2014-02-01

    The compositional characteristics of untreated pure juice prepared from 88 apple varieties grown in the region of Eferding/Upper Austria were determined. Many of the analyzed varieties are noncommercial, old varieties not present in the market. The aim of the study was to quantitate the mineral, phosphate, trace elements, and polyphenolic content in order to identify varieties that are of particular interest for a wider distribution. Great variations among the investigated varieties could be found. This holds especially true for the total polyphenolic content (TPC) ranging from 103.2 to 2,275.6 mg/L. A clear dependence of the antioxidant capacity on the TPC levels was detected. Bioinformatics was employed to find specific interrelationships, such as Mg²⁺/Mn²⁺ and PO₄³⁻/K⁺, between the analyzed bio- and phytochemical parameters. Furthermore, special attention was drawn on putative effects of grafting on the phytochemical composition of apple varieties. By grafting 27 different apple varieties on two trees grown close to each other, it could be shown that the apple fruits remain their characteristic phytochemical composition. Finally, apple juice prepared from selected varieties was further characterized by additional biochemical analysis including cytotoxicity, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, and α-amylase activity tests. Cytotoxicity and inhibition of EGFR activation were found to be dependent on the TPC, while α-amylase activity was reduced by the apple juices independent of the presence of polyphenolic substances. Taken together selected apple varieties investigated within this study might serve as preferable sources for the development of apple-based food with a strong focus on health beneficial effects. PMID:24410208

  13. NEWTON'S APPLE 14th Season Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichmann, Sue, Ed.

    This guide was developed to help teachers use the 14th season of NEWTON'S APPLE in their classrooms and contains lessons formatted to follow the National Science Education Standards. The "Overview,""Main Activity," and "Try-This" sections were created with inquiry-based learning in mind. Each lesson page begins with "Getting Started," which…

  14. POTENTIAL EXPOSURE OF APPLE THINNERS TO PHOSALONE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Apple thinning results in considerable human contact with foliage, fruit, and limbs. This work often occurs during that portion of the growing season when trees are most frequently being sprayed for insect conrol. Therefore, of all workers exposed to pesticide residues upon reent...

  15. Questions and Answers: Apple Juice and Arsenic

    MedlinePlus

    ... This could be due to different amounts of arsenic in orchard soils. Testing a small number of samples of different ... organic apples come from trees that grow in soil that may contain arsenic. The FDA is not aware of any data ...

  16. Hormonal and anatomical effects of apple rootstocks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In greenhouse experiments, two-year-old 'Fuji' apple scions (Malus ×domestica, 'Fuji') on size-controlling rootstocks (dwarfing to vigorous), were grown for one season and shoot growth was measured to confirm size-controlling effects. In the next season, xylem sap was collected to determine hydraul...

  17. The Geneva apple rootstock breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ancient practice of clonal propagation of perennial fruit crops by means of grafting was transformed when humans realized that certain properties of selected root systems could be beneficial for increasing productivity of that fruit crop. Certain clonal apple rootstocks were recognized for their...

  18. APPLE In-Service Programming for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Edward

    This book is designed to provide teachers with techniques for entering and modifying BASIC programs on Apple computers. The underlying theme is that a teacher need not become a programmer to benefit from being able to use and modify BASIC programs. The key to the successful use of software in the classroom is the ability to individualize software…

  19. Communicating between the Apple and the Wang

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, G.W., Downey, R.

    1982-10-26

    This manual covers what the beginner needs to know in order to transfer files between an Apple's Microcomputer and a Wang's OIS Word Processor. We have also tried to indicate where the experienced user might want to look for additional details. We cover the use of Apple Writer )(, VisiTerm, VisiCalc, and EasyWriter Professional. For us, the two most useful connections are from Applewriter to Wang and from Visicalc to Wang. From Wang to Apple Writer via Visiterm may have some value. Files can be transferred by VisiTerm to Wang, but they arrive with RETURNS in the middle of words, which have to be edited out, so we do not recommend it. We describe how to go from EasyWriter to Wang, but we do not know how to go from Wang to EasyWriter. We see no reason to go from Wang to VisiCalc, so we haven't thought about it. All instructions are given for a typical configuration of the Apple, namely the one on which this manual was composed. It is detailed in the section on Hardware and Software.

  20. Apple Mealiness Detection Using Hyperspectral Scattering Technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mealiness is a symptom of internal fruit disorder, which is characterized by abnormal softness and lack of free juice in the fruit. This research investigated the potential of hyperspectral scattering technique for detecting mealy apples. Spectral scattering profiles between 600 nm and 1,000 nm were...

  1. Mom, Apple Pie, and the American Dream.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grambs, Jean Dresden

    1982-01-01

    Discusses how the mom-and-apple-pie facet of the American dream no longer seems to be working. Ways to redefine that dream so that women, men, children, and families are comfortable with each other and are able to develop a mutual dependence which also allows for mutual independence are examined. (RM)

  2. Making Apple Computers Accessible to Blind Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renouf, Andrew; Phillips, Susan

    The study examined the feasibility of adapting commercially available educational software to a speech synthesizer compatible with the Apple II for use with 15 visually impaired students 8 to 12 years old. Ss were pre-tested on measures of auditory discrimination, computer literacy, keyboard proficiency, spelling, and language. Ss then received…

  3. Optical Properties of Bruised Apple Tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the optical properties of apple tissue, especially bruised tissue, can help us prevent or mitigate bruise occurrence during harvest and postharvest operations, and develop an effective method for detecting bruises during sorting and grading. This research was aimed at determining the o...

  4. An ADC Interface for the Apple II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leiker, P. Steven

    1990-01-01

    Described is the construction of a simple analog-to-digital convertor circuit to interface an Apple II+ microcomputer to a light sensor used in conjunction with a holographic gear inspector. A list of parts, circuit diagram, and a simple BASIC program for the convertor are provided. (CW)

  5. Some Aspects of Enzymatic Browning in Apples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liffen, C. L.; Cleeve, H. N.

    1975-01-01

    Describes material modified from the Nuffield advanced chemistry course to make it meaningful and relevant to pupils in the middle school. Discusses a series of simple experiments on apple browning and summarizes the browning process and its control. (Author/GS)

  6. A global conservation strategy for apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple (Malus x domestica) production is #17 for agricultural products both in the U.S. and world with a value of more than $31 billion worldwide. This important perennial crop is expensive to produce, with high costs for land, labor and inputs. The industry is dominated by a relatively few number of...

  7. Lessons learned from the Apple stores.

    PubMed

    Pinkney, Henry; Baum, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Medical practices have an opportunity to improve the services that they offer their patients. Practices can look at other businesses and industries for examples of outstanding customer service. This article will discuss the services provided by Apple, Inc., and how medical practices can learn from this industry giant and improve the services that they offer patients. PMID:22594067

  8. Sustainable Biocontrol of Apple Insect Pests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biocontrol of insect pests is a cornerstone to sustainable production of apples and other crops. The ecology of orchards lends itself to the application of many management options which will enhance the sustainability of biocontrol. Orchards remain in place for decades, allowing for an evolution o...

  9. Metabolomic Change Precedes Apple Superficial Scald Symptoms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic profiling of 621 metabolites was employed to characterize metabolomic changes associated with ‘Granny Smith’ apple superficial scald development following 1-MCP or DPA treatment. Partial least squares-discriminant analyses were used to link metabolites with scald, postharvest treatments, ...

  10. Proteome Analysis of Pathogen-Responsive Proteins from Apple Leaves Induced by the Alternaria Blotch Alternaria alternata

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Cai-xia; Tian, Yi; Cong, Pei-hua

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the defence mechanisms used by apple leaves against Alternaria alternate pathogen infection is important for breeding purposes. To investigate the ultrastructural differences between leaf tissues of susceptible and resistant seedlings, in vitro inoculation assays and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis were conducted with two different inoculation assays. The results indicated that the resistant leaves may have certain antifungal activity against A. alternate that is lacking in susceptible leaves. To elucidate the two different host responses to A. alternate infection in apples, the proteomes of susceptible and resistant apple leaves that had or had not been infected with pathogen were characterised using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF MS). MS identified 43 differentially expressed proteins in two different inoculation assays. The known proteins were categorised into 5 classes, among these proteins, some pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins, such as beta-1,3-glucanase, ascorbate peroxidase (APX), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and mal d1, were identified in susceptible and resistant hosts and were associated with disease resistance of the apple host. In addition, the different levels of mal d1 in susceptible and resistant hosts may contribute to the outstanding anti-disease properties of resistant leaves against A. alternate. Taken together, the resistance mechanisms of the apple host against A. alternate may be a result of the PR proteins and other defence-related proteins. Given the complexity of the biology involved in the interaction between apple leaves and the A. alternate pathogen, further investigation will yield more valuable insights into the molecular mechanisms of suppression of the A. alternate pathogen. Overall, we outline several novel insights into the response of apple leaves to pathogen attacks. These findings

  11. Efficacy of salicylic acid to reduce Penicillium expansum inoculum and preserve apple fruits.

    PubMed

    da Rocha Neto, Argus Cezar; Luiz, Caroline; Maraschin, Marcelo; Di Piero, Robson Marcelo

    2016-03-16

    Apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide. Blue mold (Penicillium expansum) is one of the major diseases in apples postharvest, leading to wide use of fungicides and the search for alternative products to control the pathogen. In this context, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of salicylic acid (SA) as an alternative product to control blue mold and to preserve the physicochemical characteristics of apple fruit postharvest. The antimicrobial effect of SA was determined both in vitro and in situ, by directly exposing conidia to solutions of different concentrations SA or by inoculating the fruit with P. expansum and treating them curatively, eradicatively, or preventively with a 2.5mM SA solution. The physiological effects of SA on fruit were determined by quantifying the weight loss, total soluble solids content, and titratable acidity. In addition, the accumulation of SA in the fruit was determined by HPLC. SA (2.5mM) inhibited 100% of fungal germination in vitro and also controlled blue mold in situ when applied eradicatively. In addition, HPLC analysis demonstrated that SA did not persist in apple fruit. SA also maintained the physicochemical characteristics of fruit of different quality categories. Thus, SA may be an alternative to the commercial fungicides currently used against P. expansum. PMID:26808096

  12. Long-term suppression of Pythium abappressorium induced by Brassica juncea seed meal amendment is biologically mediated

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence indicates that seed meal of Brassica juncea is an effective biofumigant against Pythium spp., an important biological component contributing to apple replant disease. However, the ability of this seed meal to render disease suppression even after termination of allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) e...

  13. Apple Procyanidins Suppress Amyloid β-Protein Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Toshihiko; Sunagawa, Tadahiro; Kanda, Tomomasa; Tagashira, Motoyuki; Shirasawa, Takuji; Shimizu, Takahiko

    2011-01-01

    Procyanidins (PCs) are major components of the apple polyphenols (APs). We previously reported that treatment with PC extended the mean lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans (Sunagawa et al., 2011). In order to estimate the neuroprotective effects of PC, we investigated the antiaggregative activity of PC on amyloid β-protein (Aβ) aggregation, which is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. We herein report that PC significantly suppressed Aβ42 aggregation and dissociated Aβ42 aggregates in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that PC is a potent suppressor of Aβ aggregation. Furthermore, PC significantly inhibited Aβ42 neurotoxicity and stimulated proliferation in PC-12 cells. These results suggested that the PC and AP acted as neuroprotective factors against toxic Aβ aggregates. PMID:21826271

  14. Genetic Diversity of a Natural Population of Apple stem pitting virus Isolated from Apple in Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Ju Yeon; Joa, Jae Ho; Choi, Kyung San; Do, Ki Seck; Lim, Han Cheol; Chung, Bong Nam

    2014-06-01

    Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), of the Foveavirus genus in the family Betaflexiviridae, is one of the most common viruses of apple and pear trees. To examine variability of the coat protein (CP) gene from ASPV, eight isolates originating from 251 apple trees, which were collected from 22 apple orchards located in intensive apple growing areas of the North Gyeongsang and North Jeolla Provinces in Korea, were sequenced and compared. The nucleotide sequence identity of the CP gene of eight ASPV isolates ranged from 77.0 to 97.0%, while the amino acid sequence identity ranged from 87.7 to 98.5%. The N-terminal region of the viral CP gene was highly variable, whereas the C-terminal region was conserved. Genetic algorithm recombination detection (GARD) and single breakpoint recombination (SBP) analyses identified base substitutions between eight ASPV isolates at positions 54 and 57 and position 771, respectively. GABranch analysis was used to determine whether the eight isolates evolved due to positive selection. All values in the GABranch analysis showed a ratio of substitution rates at non-synonymous and synonymous sites (dNS/dS) below 1, suggestive of strong negative selection forces during ASPV CP history. Although negative selection dominated CP evolution in the eight ASPV isolates, SLAC and FEL tests identified four possible positive selection sites at codons 10, 22, 102, and 158. This is the first study of the ASPV genome in Korea. PMID:25289003

  15. Salicylic acid confers enhanced resistance to Glomerella leaf spot in apple.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Shi, Xiangpeng; Li, Baohua; Zhang, Qingming; Liang, Wenxing; Wang, Caixia

    2016-09-01

    Glomerella leaf spot (GLS) caused by Glomerella cingulata is a newly emergent disease that results in severe defoliation and fruit spots in apple. Currently, there are no effective means to control this disease except for the traditional fungicide sprays. Induced resistance by elicitors against pathogens infection is a widely accepted eco-friendly strategy. In the present study, we investigated whether exogenous application of salicylic acid (SA) could improve resistance to GLS in a highly susceptible apple cultivar (Malus domestica Borkh. cv. 'Gala') and the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that pretreatment with SA, at 0.1-1.0 mM, induced strong resistance against GLS in 'Gala' apple leaves, with SA treated leaves showing significant reduction in lesion numbers and disease index. Concurrent with the enhanced disease resistance, SA treatment markedly increased the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and defence-related enzyme activities, including catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO). As expected, SA treatment also induced the expression levels of five pathogenesis-related (PR) genes including PR1, PR5, PR8, Chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase. Furthermore, the most pronounced and/or rapid increase was observed in leaves treated with SA and subsequently inoculated with G. cingulata compared to the treatment with SA or inoculation with the pathogen. Together, these results suggest that exogenous SA triggered increase in reactive oxygen species levels and the antioxidant system might be responsible for enhanced resistance against G. cingulata in 'Gala' apple leaves. PMID:27139585

  16. CAMAPPLE: CAMAC interface to the Apple computer

    SciTech Connect

    Oxoby, G.J.; Trang, Q.H.; Williams, S.H.

    1981-04-01

    The advent of the personal microcomputer provides a new tool for the debugging, calibration and monitoring of small scale physics apparatus, e.g., a single detector being developed for a larger physics apparatus. With an appropriate interface these microcomputer systems provide a low cost (1/3 the cost of a comparable minicomputer system), convenient, dedicated, portable system which can be used in a fashion similar to that of portable oscilloscopes. Here, an interface between the Apple computer and CAMAC which is now being used to study the detector for a Cerenkov ring-imaging device is described. The Apple is particularly well-suited to this application because of its ease of use, hi-resolution graphics, peripheral bus and documentation support.

  17. Apple - Indian experimental geostationary communication satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, U. R.; Vasagam, R. M.

    Developmental steps, responsibilities, design goals, performance characteristics, and support systems for the ISRO Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment (APPLE) experimental GEO communication satellite are described. The spacecraft underwent structural, thermal, engineering, prototype, and flight qualification tests in India before being shipped to Guyana for launch on the third Ariane test flight. APPLE carries a redundant C-band communication transponder fed by a 900 mm diam parabolic reflector. A 6 GHz uplink and 4 GHz downlink are processed through a diplexer, with the receiver employing a low noise GaAs FET amplifier. In-orbit telemetry is provided by a 4095 MHz beacon with a data rate of 64 bits/sec. Two solar panels supply 210 W of power, while an on-board Ni-Cd storage battery stores 240 Wh for the ascent and during eclipse. Teleconferencing has been successfully performed using the spacecraft link.

  18. UV inactivation of bacteria in apple cider.

    PubMed

    Geveke, David J

    2005-08-01

    Apple cider, inoculated with Escherichia coli and Listeria innocua, was processed using a simple UV apparatus. The apparatus consisted of a low-pressure mercury lamp surrounded by a coil of UV transparent tubing. Cider was pumped through the tubing at flow rates of 27 to 83 ml/min. The population of E. coli K-12 was reduced by 3.4 +/- 0.3 log after being exposed for 19 s at a treatment temperature of 25 degrees C. The population of L. innocua, which was more resistant to UV, was reduced by 2.5 +/- 0.1 log after being exposed for 58 s. The electrical energy for the process was 34 J/ml and is similar to that for conventional thermal processing. UV processing has the potential to improve the safety and extend the shelf life of apple cider. PMID:21132989

  19. Integrated pest management of "Golden Delicious" apples.

    PubMed

    Simončič, A; Stopar, M; Velikonja Bolta, Š; Bavčar, D; Leskovšek, R; Baša Česnik, H

    2015-01-01

    Monitoring of plant protection product (PPP) residues in "Golden Delicious" apples was performed in 2011-2013, where 216 active substances were analysed with three analytical methods. Integrated pest management (IPM) production and improved IPM production were compared. Results were in favour of improved IPM production. Some active compounds determined in IPM production (boscalid, pyraclostrobin, thiacloprid and thiametoxam) were not found in improved IPM production. Besides that, in 2011 and 2012, captan residues were lower in improved IPM production. Risk assessment was also performed. Chronic exposure of consumers was low in general, but showed no major differences for IPM and improved IPM production for active substances determined in both types of production. Analytical results were compared with the European Union report of 2010 where 1.3% of apple samples exceeded maximum residue levels (MRLs), while MRL exceedances were not observed in this survey. PMID:25848854

  20. Ethylene binding site affinity in ripening apples

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, S.M. . Dept. of Horticultural Science); Sisler, E.C. )

    1993-09-01

    Scatchard plots for ethylene binding in apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), which were harvested weekly for 5 weeks to include the ethylene climacteric rise, showed C[sub 50] values (concentration of ethylene needed to occupy 50% of the ethylene binding sites) of 0.10, 0.11, 0.34, 0.40, and 0.57 [mu]l ethylene/liter[sup [minus]1], respectively, for each of the 5 weeks. Higher ethylene concentrations were required to saturate the binding sites during the climacteric rise than at other times. Diffusion of [sup 14]C-ethylene from the binding sites was curvilinear and did not show any indication of multiple binding sites. Ethylene was not metabolized by apple tissue.

  1. Genetics of leucine aminopeptidase in apple.

    PubMed

    Manganaris, A G; Alston, F H

    1992-01-01

    Six zones of LAP activity were detected in apples, some of them tissue specific. Genetic studies in four of them revealed the presence of four genes LAP-1, LAP-2, LAP-3 and LAP-4 with 4, 5, 4 and 4 alleles respectively including two null alleles. There were no big differences in allelic frequency within cultivars, selections, rootstocks and Malus species. Close linkage was found between LAP-2 and resistance to mildew derived from 'White Angel'. PMID:24202517

  2. Identification of genes differentially expressed during interaction of resistant and susceptible apple cultivars (Malus x domestica) with Erwinia amylovora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The necrogenic enterobacterium, Erwinia amylovora is the causal agent of the fire blight (FB) disease in many Rosaceae species, including apple and pear. During the infection process, the bacteria induce an oxidative stress response with kinetics similar to those induced in an incompatible bacteria-...

  3. Development of PCR assays for diagnosis of the pathogens Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported postharvest diseases of apple. Fruit infection by the pathogens occurs in the orchard but remains latent before harvest. Symptoms develop after harvest and are simil...

  4. Carbon source-dependent volatile production and ASD efficacy for suppression of apple root pathogens and parasites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) has been shown to be effective in the control of a wide range of soil-borne plant pathogens but has not been examined as a means for disease control in perennial fruit crops such as apple. Since ASD has demonstrated a broad spectrum of biological activity, it may ...

  5. Spatial heterogeneity, incidence-incidence, and incidence-lesion density relationship of apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) in managed orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spatial pattern of apple scab was characterized using 10 years of disease incidence and lesion density data collected in commercial orchards located in Quebec, Canada. Distributional analyses indicated that scab incidence was better characterized by the beta-binomial than the binomial distribut...

  6. TRANSGENIC EXPRESSION OF THE ERWINIA AMYLOVORA (FIRE BLIGHT) EFFECTOR PROTEIN EOP1 SUPRESSES HOST BASAL DEFENSE MECHANISMS IN MALUS (APPLE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erwinia amylovora (Ea) is the causative agent of fire blight, a devastating disease of apple and pear. Like many other plant and animal bacterial pathogens Ea utilizes a type three secretion system (TTSS) to deliver effector proteins into plant host cells. Once inside the host cell, effector protei...

  7. The chemically inducible expression of Erwinia amylovora bacterial effectors EopB1 and HopCEa in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erwinia amylovora, the causal agent of fire blight disease, utilizes a type three secretion system to deliver effector proteins into plant host cells. To investigate the role of individual bacterial effector proteins, we have engineered an apple host that transgenically expresses the bacterial effe...

  8. Characterization of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) in Apple (Malus 6domestica Borkh.) and their evolutionary history of the Rosaceae family

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The family of resistance gene analogues (RGAs) with a nucleotide-binding site (NBS) domain accounts for the largest number of disease resistance genes and is one of the largest gene families in plants. We have identified 868 RGAs in the genome of the apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) cultivar ‘Golden...

  9. Potential of osmoadaptation for improving Pantoea agglomerans E325 as biocontrol agent for fire blight of apple and pear

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pantoea agglomerans biocontrol strain E325 is the active ingredient in a commercial product for fire blight, a destructive disease of apple and pear initiated by Erwinia amylovora in flowers. Osmoadaptation, involving the combination of saline osmotic stress and osmolyte amendment to growth media, w...

  10. Temperature suppresses decay on apple fruit by affecting Penicillium solitum conidial germination, mycelial growth and polygalacturonase activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium solitum causes blue mold on apples during storage which results in economic losses. Information pertaining to growth and decay caused by this pathogen is important for developing disease control strategies. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of temperature on decay caused by P. solitum ...

  11. PCR assays for diagnosis of postharvest fruit rots and early detection of Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens in apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Speck rot caused by Phacidiopycnis washingtonensis and Sphaeropsis rot caused by Sphaeropsis pyriputrescens are two recently reported postharvest diseases of apple. Infection of fruit by the pathogens occurs in the orchard, but symptoms develop after harvest and are similar to that of gray mold caus...

  12. An analysis of ash and isotopic carbon discrimination (delta13C) methods to evaluate water use efficiency in apple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple cultivars are selected for fruit quality, disease and insect resistance, not water use efficiency (WUE), however, the need for more water use efficient crops is accelerating due to climate change and increased competition for water resources. On a whole plant basis, calculation of water use e...

  13. Evaluation of apple juice quality using spectral fluorescence signatures.

    PubMed

    Poryvkina, L; Tsvetkova, N; Sobolev, I

    2014-01-01

    In current work the method of in vivo evaluation of apple juice degree of naturalness based on Spectral Fluorescence Signature (SFS) is proposed. SFS spectra of intact apple juice were measured as excitation-emission matrix by specially designed compact spectrofluorimeter with front-face optical layout - Instant Screener Compact (LDI AS, Estonia). The data were analysed using PCA method with a view to evaluate the information of polyphenol's content in different commercial juices. Results of PCA analysis have shown a clear separation of juice reconstituted from concentrate, unclarified pasteurised juice and personally squeezed apple juice at the two dimensional PCs space. For implementation of apple juice analysis into spectrofluorimeter software the k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN) Search technique was used. The implemented model was tested using 19 different samples of apple juice. Results of test demonstrate that SFS-PCA-kNN method can provide quick nondestructive analysis of naturalness degree of commercial apple juice. PMID:24444977

  14. Streptomycin application has no detectable effect on bacterial community structure in apple orchard soil.

    PubMed

    Shade, Ashley; Klimowicz, Amy K; Spear, Russell N; Linske, Matthew; Donato, Justin J; Hogan, Clifford S; McManus, Patricia S; Handelsman, Jo

    2013-11-01

    Streptomycin is commonly used to control fire blight disease on apple trees. Although the practice has incited controversy, little is known about its nontarget effects in the environment. We investigated the impact of aerial application of streptomycin on nontarget bacterial communities in soil beneath streptomycin-treated and untreated trees in a commercial apple orchard. Soil samples were collected in two consecutive years at 4 or 10 days before spraying streptomycin and 8 or 9 days after the final spray. Three sources of microbial DNA were profiled using tag-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes: uncultured bacteria from the soil (culture independent) and bacteria cultured on unamended or streptomycin-amended (15 μg/ml) media. Multivariate tests for differences in community structure, Shannon diversity, and Pielou's evenness test results showed no evidence of community response to streptomycin. The results indicate that use of streptomycin for disease management has minimal, if any, immediate effect on apple orchard soil bacterial communities. This study contributes to the profile of an agroecosystem in which antibiotic use for disease prevention appears to have minimal consequences for nontarget bacteria. PMID:23974143

  15. Streptomycin Application Has No Detectable Effect on Bacterial Community Structure in Apple Orchard Soil

    PubMed Central

    Shade, Ashley; Klimowicz, Amy K.; Spear, Russell N.; Linske, Matthew; Donato, Justin J.; Hogan, Clifford S.; McManus, Patricia S.

    2013-01-01

    Streptomycin is commonly used to control fire blight disease on apple trees. Although the practice has incited controversy, little is known about its nontarget effects in the environment. We investigated the impact of aerial application of streptomycin on nontarget bacterial communities in soil beneath streptomycin-treated and untreated trees in a commercial apple orchard. Soil samples were collected in two consecutive years at 4 or 10 days before spraying streptomycin and 8 or 9 days after the final spray. Three sources of microbial DNA were profiled using tag-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes: uncultured bacteria from the soil (culture independent) and bacteria cultured on unamended or streptomycin-amended (15 μg/ml) media. Multivariate tests for differences in community structure, Shannon diversity, and Pielou's evenness test results showed no evidence of community response to streptomycin. The results indicate that use of streptomycin for disease management has minimal, if any, immediate effect on apple orchard soil bacterial communities. This study contributes to the profile of an agroecosystem in which antibiotic use for disease prevention appears to have minimal consequences for nontarget bacteria. PMID:23974143

  16. Sustainability of three apple production systems.

    PubMed

    Reganold, J P; Glover, J D; Andrews, P K; Hinman, H R

    2001-04-19

    Escalating production costs, heavy reliance on non-renewable resources, reduced biodiversity, water contamination, chemical residues in food, soil degradation and health risks to farm workers handling pesticides all bring into question the sustainability of conventional farming systems. It has been claimed, however, that organic farming systems are less efficient, pose greater health risks and produce half the yields of conventional farming systems. Nevertheless, organic farming became one of the fastest growing segments of US and European agriculture during the 1990s. Integrated farming, using a combination of organic and conventional techniques, has been successfully adopted on a wide scale in Europe. Here we report the sustainability of organic, conventional and integrated apple production systems in Washington State from 1994 to 1999. All three systems gave similar apple yields. The organic and integrated systems had higher soil quality and potentially lower negative environmental impact than the conventional system. When compared with the conventional and integrated systems, the organic system produced sweeter and less tart apples, higher profitability and greater energy efficiency. Our data indicate that the organic system ranked first in environmental and economic sustainability, the integrated system second and the conventional system last. PMID:11309616

  17. Acidification of apple and orange hosts by Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum.

    PubMed

    Vilanova, L; Viñas, I; Torres, R; Usall, J; Buron-Moles, G; Teixidó, N

    2014-05-16

    New information about virulence mechanisms of Penicillium digitatum and Penicillium expansum could be an important avenue to control fungal diseases. In this study, the ability of P. digitatum and P. expansum to enhance their virulence by locally modulating the pH of oranges and apples was evaluated. For each host, pH changes with a compatible pathogen and a non-host pathogen were recorded, and the levels of different organic acids were evaluated to establish possible relationships with host pH modifications. Moreover, fruits were harvested at three maturity stages to determine whether fruit maturity could affect the pathogens' virulence. The pH of oranges and apples decreased when the compatible pathogens (P. digitatum and P. expansum, respectively) decayed the fruit. The main organic acid detected in P. digitatum-decayed oranges was galacturonic acid produced as a consequence of host maceration in the rot development process. However, the obtained results showed that this acid was not responsible for the pH decrease in decayed orange tissue. The mixture of malic and citric acids could at least contribute to the acidification of P. digitatum-decayed oranges. The pH decrease in P. expansum decayed apples is related to the accumulation of gluconic and fumaric acids. The pH of oranges and apples was not affected when the non-host pathogen was not able to macerate the tissues. However, different organic acid contents were detected in comparison to healthy tissues. The main organic acids detected in P. expansum-oranges were oxalic and gluconic and in P. digitatum-apples were citric, gluconic and galacturonic. Further research is needed to identify the pathogenicity factors of both fungi because the contribution of organic acids has profound implications. PMID:24667317

  18. Getting Started with AppleWorks Data Base. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a hands-on teaching tool for beginning users of the AppleWorks database software. It was developed to allow Apple IIGS users who are generally familiar with their machine and its peripherals to build a simple AppleWorks database file using version 2.0 or 2.1 of the program, and to store, print, and manipulate the file. The materials…

  19. Apple Peel Supplemented Diet Reduces Parameters of Metabolic Syndrome and Atherogenic Progression in ApoE−/− Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Jaime; Donoso, Wendy; Sandoval, Nathalie; Reyes, María; Gonzalez, Priscila; Gajardo, Monica; Morales, Erik; Neira, Amalia; Razmilic, Iván; Yuri, José A.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) represent about 30% of all causes of death worldwide. The development of CVD is related in many cases with the previous existence of metabolic syndrome (MS). It is known that apple consumption has a cardiovascular protecting effect, containing phenolic compounds with antioxidant effect, which are concentrated in the fruit peel. The objective of this study was to test the effect of apple peel consumption in a murine model of MS and apoE−/− mice. Apple supplemented diets reduced the biochemical parameters (glycaemia, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ureic nitrogen, triglycerides, insulin, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)) of MS model in CF1 mice significantly. The model apoE−/− mouse was used to evaluate the capacity of the apple peel to revert the progression of the atherogenesis. FD with HAP reverts cholesterol significantly and slows down the progression of the plate diminishing the cholesterol accumulation area. With these results, it can be concluded that the consumption of apple peel reduces several MS parameters and the atherogenic progression in mice. PMID:26075004

  20. Apple Peel Supplemented Diet Reduces Parameters of Metabolic Syndrome and Atherogenic Progression in ApoE-/- Mice.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Jaime; Donoso, Wendy; Sandoval, Nathalie; Reyes, María; Gonzalez, Priscila; Gajardo, Monica; Morales, Erik; Neira, Amalia; Razmilic, Iván; Yuri, José A; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular Diseases (CVD) represent about 30% of all causes of death worldwide. The development of CVD is related in many cases with the previous existence of metabolic syndrome (MS). It is known that apple consumption has a cardiovascular protecting effect, containing phenolic compounds with antioxidant effect, which are concentrated in the fruit peel. The objective of this study was to test the effect of apple peel consumption in a murine model of MS and apoE-/- mice. Apple supplemented diets reduced the biochemical parameters (glycaemia, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ureic nitrogen, triglycerides, insulin, and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)) of MS model in CF1 mice significantly. The model apoE-/- mouse was used to evaluate the capacity of the apple peel to revert the progression of the atherogenesis. FD with HAP reverts cholesterol significantly and slows down the progression of the plate diminishing the cholesterol accumulation area. With these results, it can be concluded that the consumption of apple peel reduces several MS parameters and the atherogenic progression in mice. PMID:26075004

  1. Oviposition preference of Oriental fruit moth [Grapholita molesta (Busck), Lepidoptera: Tortricidae] for apple cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oviposition preferences and apple cultivar selection by fruit pests may impact integrated pest management in apple orchards. Experiments were conducted to study oviposition preferences of Oriental fruit moth ( Grapholita molesta [Busck], Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) on ten commercially important apple ...

  2. Organelle DNA polymorphism in apple cultivars and rootstocks.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, S; Kato, S; Imakawa, S; Mikami, T; Shimamoto, Y

    1992-05-01

    Restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) have been used to detect chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA variation among 18 apple cultivars and three rootstocks. The distribution of RFLP patterns allowed the assignment of these genotypes into three groups of cytoplasmic relatedness. Our results also demonstrate maternal inheritance of cp- and mtDNAs in apple. Thus, the organelle DNA assay provides a convenient and reliable method to assess cytoplasmic diversity within the apple germ-plasm collection and to trace the maternal lineages involved in the evolution of apple. PMID:24202920

  3. Developing Data Base Files Using the AppleWorks Data Base Subprogram and Apple IIe or GS Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Developed around the technology of the Apple duodisk drive, five and one-fourth inch floppy disks, and the 1.3 version of the AppleWorks program, this manual is designed for use as a "how to" training device in developing database files. The guide is meant to be used with Apple IIe or IIGS computers which have a duodisk or two disk drives and an…

  4. Erwinia amylovora modifies phenolic profiles of susceptible and resistant apple through its type III secretion system.

    PubMed

    Pontais, Isabelle; Treutter, Dieter; Paulin, Jean-Pierre; Brisset, Marie-Noëlle

    2008-03-01

    Fire blight is a disease affecting Maloideae caused by the necrogenic bacterium Erwinia amylovora, which requires the type III protein secretion system (TTSS) for pathogenicity. Profiles of methanol-extractable leaf phenolics of two apple (Malus x domestica) genotypes with contrasting susceptibility to this disease were analyzed by HPLC after infection. Some qualitative differences were recorded between the constitutive compositions of the two genotypes but in both of them dihydrochalcones accounted for more than 90% of total phenolics. Principal component analysis separated leaves inoculated with a virulent wild-type strain from those inoculated with a non-pathogenic TTSS-defective mutant or with water. The changes in levels of the various groups of phenolics in response to the virulent bacterium were similar between the two genotypes, with a significant decrease of dihydrochalcones and a significant increase of hydroxycinnamate derivatives. Differences between genotypes were, however, recorded in amplitude and kinetic of variation in these groups. Occurrence of oxidation and polymerization reactions is proposed, based on the browning process of infected tissues, but whether some by-products act in defense as toxic compounds remain to be tested. Among direct antibacterial constitutive compounds present in apple leaves, the dihydrochalcone phloretin only was found at levels close to lethal concentrations in both genotypes. However, E. amylovora exhibited the ability to stabilize this compound at sublethal levels even in the resistant apple, rejecting the hypothesis of its involvement in the resistance of this genotype. PMID:18275458

  5. Identification of a xyloglucan-specific endo-(1-4)-beta-D-glucanase inhibitor protein from apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) as a potential defense gene against Botryosphaeria dothidea.

    PubMed

    Bai, Suhua; Dong, Chaohua; Zhu, Jun; Zhang, Yugang; Dai, Hongyi

    2015-02-01

    Botryosphaeria dothidea is the causal agent of apple ring rot which is a highly destructive apple disease in China. Here, a putative xyloglucan-specific endo-(1-4)-beta-d-glucanase inhibitor protein from Malus×domestica (designated as MdXEGIP1) was found to be involved in defense against B. dothidea infection. MdXEGIP1 shares high amino acid sequence identity with other apple XEGIPs, but exhibited significantly different responses to B. dothidea infection. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed that MdXEGIP1 expression was significantly induced in shoot bark of apple plant by B. dothidea and showed different expression pattern in resistant and susceptible apple cultivars. In resistant cultivar, MdXEGIP1 expression was elevated with larger amplitude than that in susceptible cultivar after B. dothidea infection. MdXEGIP1 expression was also significantly enhanced by treatment with exogenous methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid in apple plantlets. Further investigation revealed that recombinant MdXEGIP1 has significant inhibitor activity to XEGs from family 12 and 74 of glycoside hydrolase. More importantly, recombinant MdXEGIP1 inhibited crude enzyme solution of XEG from B. dothidea, suggesting that MdXEGIP1 might protect apple plant from B. dothidea infection by inhibiting XEG activity. Taken together, the results indicated that MdXEGIP1 is a potential defense gene against B. dothidea in apple. PMID:25575987

  6. Apples in the Apple Library--How One Library Took a Byte.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertel, Monica

    1983-01-01

    Summarizes automation of a specialized library at Apple Computer, Inc., describing software packages chosen for the following functions: word processing/text editing; cataloging and circulation; reference; and in-house databases. Examples of each function and additional sources of information on software and equipment mentioned in the article are…

  7. Particle size affects Brassica seed meal-induced pathogen suppression of Rhizoctonia solani AG-5

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    R. solani AG-5 is a component of the pathogen complex that incites apple replant disease, and is suppressed via multiple mechanisms in response to B. juncea seed meal (SM) amendment. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) functions in suppression of this pathogen during the initial 24 h period post-seed meal a...

  8. Development of the First Cisgenic Apple with Increased Resistance to Fire Blight

    PubMed Central

    Kost, Thomas D.; Gessler, Cesare; Jänsch, Melanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Patocchi, Andrea; Broggini, Giovanni A. L.

    2015-01-01

    The generation and selection of novel fire blight resistant apple genotypes would greatly improve the management of this devastating disease, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Such resistant genotypes are currently developed by conventional breeding, but novel breeding technologies including cisgenesis could be an alternative approach. A cisgenic apple line C44.4.146 was regenerated using the cisgene FB_MR5 from wild apple Malus ×robusta 5 (Mr5), and the previously established method involving A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the fire blight susceptible cultivar ‘Gala Galaxy’ using the binary vector p9-Dao-FLPi. The line C44.4.146 was shown to carry only the cisgene FB_MR5, controlled by its native regulatory sequences and no transgenes were detected by PCR or Southern blot following heat induced recombinase-mediated elimination of the selectable markers. Although this line contains up to 452 bp of vector sequences, it still matches the original definition of cisgenesis. A single insertion of T-DNA into the genome of 'Gala Galaxy' in chromosome 16 was identified. Transcription of FB_MR5 in line C44.4.146 was similar to the transcription in classically bred descendants of Mr5. Three independent shoot inoculation experiments with a Mr5 avirulent strain of Erwinia amylovora were performed using scissors or syringe. Significantly lower disease symptoms were detected on shoots of the cisgenic line compared to those of untransformed 'Gala Galaxy'. Despite the fact that the pathogen can overcome this resistance by a single nucleotide mutation, this is, to our knowledge, the first prototype of a cisgenic apple with increased resistance to fire blight. PMID:26624292

  9. Development of the First Cisgenic Apple with Increased Resistance to Fire Blight.

    PubMed

    Kost, Thomas D; Gessler, Cesare; Jänsch, Melanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Patocchi, Andrea; Broggini, Giovanni A L

    2015-01-01

    The generation and selection of novel fire blight resistant apple genotypes would greatly improve the management of this devastating disease, caused by Erwinia amylovora. Such resistant genotypes are currently developed by conventional breeding, but novel breeding technologies including cisgenesis could be an alternative approach. A cisgenic apple line C44.4.146 was regenerated using the cisgene FB_MR5 from wild apple Malus ×robusta 5 (Mr5), and the previously established method involving A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the fire blight susceptible cultivar 'Gala Galaxy' using the binary vector p9-Dao-FLPi. The line C44.4.146 was shown to carry only the cisgene FB_MR5, controlled by its native regulatory sequences and no transgenes were detected by PCR or Southern blot following heat induced recombinase-mediated elimination of the selectable markers. Although this line contains up to 452 bp of vector sequences, it still matches the original definition of cisgenesis. A single insertion of T-DNA into the genome of 'Gala Galaxy' in chromosome 16 was identified. Transcription of FB_MR5 in line C44.4.146 was similar to the transcription in classically bred descendants of Mr5. Three independent shoot inoculation experiments with a Mr5 avirulent strain of Erwinia amylovora were performed using scissors or syringe. Significantly lower disease symptoms were detected on shoots of the cisgenic line compared to those of untransformed 'Gala Galaxy'. Despite the fact that the pathogen can overcome this resistance by a single nucleotide mutation, this is, to our knowledge, the first prototype of a cisgenic apple with increased resistance to fire blight. PMID:26624292

  10. Unraveling apple fruit metabolism: Storage management opportunities and beyond

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple fruit has become a staple fruit commodity in many markets worldwide, making year-round availability crucial to retail chains. Consequently, apple storage practices have become increasingly sophisticated to meet rising quality expectations of fresh taste and a blemish free appearance. Modern ...

  11. Nutritional enrichment of fresh apple (Royal Gala) by vacuum impregnation.

    PubMed

    Xie, J; Zhao, Y

    2003-09-01

    This study evaluates the use of vacuum impregnation (VI) for developing nutritionally fortified fresh cut apples (Royal Gala). Cut apples were immersed in diluted high fructose corn syrup (20% w/w or 50% w/w) containing calcium or zinc. A vacuum pressure of 50 mmHg was applied for 15 min following atmospheric pressure restoration for 30 min while samples remained in the VI solution. Nutraceutical content and physicochemical properties of the apples immediately after VI were determined. Storability of VI apples at 6 degrees C and 90% relative humidity was also studied based on the color and texture of apples. Results indicated that 15-20% of the Daily Reference Intake of calcium and above 40% of the Daily Reference Intake of zinc could be obtained in 200 g fresh cut apples. VI treatments in 20% w/w high fructose corn syrup solutions had little effects on the physicochemical properties of apples. Storage study showed that VI with zinc significantly improved color stability, and calcium enhanced the firmness of the apples. PMID:12907403

  12. First report of apple mosaic virus in Alaska

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV, family Bromoviridae, genus Ilarvirus) is one of the oldest and most economically important viruses of apples (Malus x domestica Borkh.). Yield losses may vary from negligible to as high as fifty percent, depending on the affected cultivar. Although ApMV is found worldwide...

  13. Genome to phenome mapping in apple using historical data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple (Malus domestica) is one of the world’s most valuable fruit crops. Its large size and long juvenile phase make it a particularly promising candidate for marker-assisted selection (MAS). However, advances in MAS in apple have been limited by a lack of phenotype and genotype data from sufficien...

  14. Mapping Malus sieversii: A valuable genetic resource for apple breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Plant Genetic Resources Unit has established a collection of Malus from around the world in order to preserve and develop genetic resources important to the apple industry. Among this collection is Malus sieversii, the main progenitor of the domestic apple, collected from Central Asia ...

  15. Formatting Data Disks for Use with the Apple IIe Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to formatting disks using the AppleWorks software on the Apple IIe computer covers (1) loading the program; (2) formatting the disk; (3) volume naming; and (4) exiting the format options. Eleven sample screen displays illustrate the steps. (MES)

  16. Apple IIe Computers and Appleworks Training Mini Course Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    The instructional materials included in this document are designed to introduce students to the Apple IIe computer and to the word processing and database portions of the AppleWorks program. The materials are intended for small groups of students, each of whom has use of a computer during class and for short periods between classes. The course…

  17. Fire Blight Resistance of Budagovsky 9 Apple Rootstock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Erwinia amylovora the causal agent of fire blight can result in a fatal infection of the apple rootstock known as rootstock blight. Budagovsky 9 (B.9) apple rootstock is reported to be highly susceptible to rootstock blight, although multiple field trials report B.9 to be resistant to rootstock bli...

  18. Gene expression profiles of auxin metabolism in maturing apple fruit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variation exists among apple genotypes in fruit maturation and ripening patterns that influences at-harvest fruit firmness and postharvest storability. Based on the results from our previous large-scale transcriptome profiling on apple fruit maturation and well-documented auxin-ethylene crosstalk, t...

  19. Sharing the Arts of the Blue Ridge Mountains. Apple Dolls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Martha; Gailey, Lamar

    This module on apple dolls is one of eight modules designed to provide instruction on authentic Blue Ridge Mountain crafts to adult basic education students at a low cost. Contents include notes on the apple doll making; process used, including equipment and materials, as well as method described narratively and graphically; and the followup,…

  20. Cytology of infection of apple leaves by Diplocarpon mali

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diplocarpon mali, the causal agent of Marssonina leaf blotch of apple, causes severe defoliation during the growing season. Little information is available on the mode of infection and infection process. In this study, the infection strategies of D. mali in apple leaves were investigated using fluor...

  1. Chapter 11. Quality evaluation of apple by computer vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple is one of the most consumed fruits in the world, and there is a critical need for enhanced computer vision technology for quality assessment of apples. This chapter gives a comprehensive review on recent advances in various computer vision techniques for detecting surface and internal defects ...

  2. Morphological and chemical characterization of the kei apple (Dovyalis spp)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dovyalis (Tropical apple) is an exotic fruit originated in Africa, reddish-orange color and high acidity. Tropical apricot or Kei apple (Dovyalis hebecarpa X D. abyssinica) P.I. 112086, is a natural cross which resulted from a mixed planting of D. hebecarpa and D. abyssinica at the Subtropical Horti...

  3. Cold storage to control codling moth larvae in fresh apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), found in exported apples, Malus sylvestris (L.) var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf., can disrupt international markets. Cold storage at 1.1°C was examined for possible control on three physiological larval states in ‘Fuji’ apples: diapausing ...

  4. Monte Carlo Simulations of Light Propagation in Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports on the investigation of light propagation in fresh apples in the visible and short-wave near-infrared region using Monte Carlo simulations. Optical properties of ‘Golden Delicious’ apples were determined over the spectral range of 500-1100 nm using a hyperspectral imaging method, ...

  5. Reading Michael Apple--The Sociological Imagination at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen J.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Michael Apple's contribution to the sociology of education and education policy analysis and the politics of education. It focuses on ways of "reading" Apple as an intellectual and an activist and looks at the trajectory of his work over a long and illustrious career.

  6. A real-time apple grading system using multicolor space.

    PubMed

    Toylan, Hayrettin; Kuscu, Hilmi

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter "a" of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold) were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples. PMID:24574880

  7. A Real-Time Apple Grading System Using Multicolor Space

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This study was focused on the multicolor space which provides a better specification of the color and size of the apple in an image. In the study, a real-time machine vision system classifying apples into four categories with respect to color and size was designed. In the analysis, different color spaces were used. As a result, 97% identification success for the red fields of the apple was obtained depending on the values of the parameter “a” of CIE L*a*b*color space. Similarly, 94% identification success for the yellow fields was obtained depending on the values of the parameter y of CIE XYZ color space. With the designed system, three kinds of apples (Golden, Starking, and Jonagold) were investigated by classifying them into four groups with respect to two parameters, color and size. Finally, 99% success rate was achieved in the analyses conducted for 595 apples. PMID:24574880

  8. Patulin surveillance in apple cider and juice marketed in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kerri L; Bobe, Gerd; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2009-06-01

    Patulin is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple juices. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of patulin in (i) apple cider produced and marketed by Michigan apple cider mills during the fall seasons of 2002 to 2003 and 2003 to 2004 and (ii) apple juice and cider, including shelf-stable products, marketed in retail grocery stores in Michigan throughout 2005 and 2006. End product samples (n=493) obtained from 104 Michigan apple cider mills were analyzed for patulin concentration by using solid-phase extraction followed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Patulin was detected (> or =4 microg/liter) in 18.7% of all cider mill samples, with 11 samples (2.2%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. A greater percentage of cider samples obtained from mills using thermal pasteurization contained detectable patulin (28.4%) than did those from mills using UV light radiation (13.5%) or no pathogen reduction treatment (17.0%). Among retail grocery store samples (n=159), 23% of apple juice and cider samples contained detectable patulin, with 18 samples (11.3%) having patulin concentrations of > or =50 microg/liter. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) action level for patulin is 50 microg/kg. Some apple juice samples obtained from retail grocery stores had exceptionally high patulin concentrations, ranging up to 2700 microg/liter. Collectively, these results indicate that most apple cider and juice test samples from Michigan were below the FDA action level for patulin but that certain apple cider and juice processors have inadequate controls over patulin concentrations in final products. The industry, overall, should focus on improved quality of fruit used in juice production and improve culling procedures to reduce patulin concentrations. PMID:19610336

  9. Integration of BpMADS4 on various linkage groups improves the utilization of the rapid cycle breeding system in apple.

    PubMed

    Weigl, Kathleen; Wenzel, Stephanie; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2015-02-01

    Rapid cycle breeding in apple is a new approach for the rapid introgression of agronomically relevant traits (e.g. disease resistances) from wild apple species into domestic apple cultivars (Malus × domestica Borkh.). This technique drastically shortens the long-lasting juvenile phase of apple. The utilization of early-flowering apple lines overexpressing the BpMADS4 gene of the European silver birch (Betula pendula Roth.) in hybridization resulted in one breeding cycle per year. Aiming for the selection of non-transgenic null segregants at the end of the breeding process, the flower-inducing transgene and the gene of interest (e.g. resistance gene) that will be introgressed by hybridization need to be located on different chromosomes. To improve the flexibility of the existing approach in apple, this study was focused on the development and characterization of eleven additional BpMADS4 overexpressing lines of four different apple cultivars. In nine lines, the flowering gene was mapped to different linkage groups. The differences in introgressed T-DNA sequences and plant genome deletions post-transformation highlighted the unique molecular character of each line. However, transgenic lines demonstrated no significant differences in flower organ development and pollen functionality compared with non-transgenic plants. Hybridization studies using pollen from the fire blight-resistant wild species accession Malus fusca MAL0045 and the apple scab-resistant cultivar 'Regia' indicated that BpMADS4 introgression had no significant effect on the breeding value of each transgenic line. PMID:25370729

  10. Merging Spreadsheet and Word Processing Files Using AppleWorks V2.0 and the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for merging spreadsheet and word processing files using AppleWorks version 2.0 and the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading spreadsheet and word processor files, transferring spreadsheet files to the clipboard, merging spreadsheet and…

  11. Merging Data Base and Word Processing Files Using AppleWorks V2.0 and the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for merging database and word processing files using AppleWorks version 2.0 and the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading database files, transferring database files to the clipboard, merging database files into word processor files,…

  12. Converting Spreadsheet Files into Data Base Files Using AppleWorks V2.0 and the Apple IIGS Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This guide was developed as a "how to" training device for converting spreadsheet files into database files using AppleWorks version 2.0 on the Apple IIGS computer with two disk drives. Step-by-step instructions are provided for loading spreadsheet files, transferring spreadsheet files to the monitor, printing spreadsheet files, and using the data…

  13. Economic analysis of a self-propelled apple harvest and in-field sorting machine for the apple industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. apple industry, which generated more than $2.7 billion revenue at the farm gate in 2013, is facing critical challenges in decreased availability of labor and increased labor and production cost. To address these challenges, a self-propelled apple harvest and automated in-field sorting machi...

  14. Using AppleWorks V1.3 To Construct Data Base Files for the Apple IIe Computer. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to using AppleWorks V1.3 to construct database files for the Apple IIe computer covers (1) program loading; (2) selecting the add files to the desktop option; (3) naming the file; (4) the blinking block cursor; (5) naming categories or fields; (6) moving to insert data; (7) inserting data; (8) changing database file…

  15. Using AppleWorks V1.3 To Construct Word Processing Files for the Apple IIe Computer. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This step-by-step guide to using AppleWorks V1.3 to construct word processing files for the Apple IIe computer covers (1) program loading; (2) selecting the add files to the desktop option; (3) selecting a different disk; (4) selecting disk 2; (5) selecting the word processor option; (6) naming the file; (7) setting tabs; (8) selecting print…

  16. Characteristics and performance of four new apple rootstock from the Cornell-USDA apple rootstock breeding program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2010, the apple rootstock breeding program at Geneva, NY released 4 new apple rootstocks (Geneva® 210, Geneva® 214, Geneva® 890 and Geneva® 969). G.210 is a semi-dwarfing rootstock with vigor similar to M.7, with high productivity similar to M.9 and resistance to fire blight, phytophthora root ro...

  17. Dw2 a new dwarfing locus in apple rootstocks and relationship to induction of early bearing in apple scions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ability of certain apple rootstocks to dwarf their scions has been known for centuries and spurred a revolution in apple production. In this investigation, several breeding populations, in multiple replicated field and pot experiments were used to ascertain the degree of dwarfing of segregating...

  18. Identification of irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horak, Celina I.; Di Giorgio, Marina; Kairiyama, Eulogia

    2009-07-01

    The irradiation treatment of fresh fruits and vegetables for phytosanitary purposes is a satisfactory alternative method to others like fumigation and cold and hot treatments. Its use is increasing in several countries, and at present its approval is under revision by the National Regulatory Authorities. To verify the control process, apart from irradiation and dosimetry certificates, National Authorities require complementary evidence to show the efficacy of this treatment, especially when the documentation is not clear. The irradiation of fresh fruits produces single and double fragmentation in the DNA molecule, which can be measured using the microgel electrophoresis of individual cell (comet assay). The purpose of this work was to evaluate if it is possible to identify the irradiated apples for phytosanitary purposes from the others that were not treated. The possibility to estimate the absorbed dose was also evaluated. The methodology was carried out on the cell suspension obtained from irradiated seed cells with incremental doses (100, 200 and 300 Gy). The irradiation treatment for phytosanitary purposes to avoid emergency of codling moth ( Cydia pomonella) is 200 Gy. The fragmentation produced in the irradiated samples was proportional with the incremental doses applied. These results show that with this methodology it can be determined if the apple was irradiated or not. This comet assay is a simple, economical and interesting method that can be used, in case of necessity, by the National Authorities.

  19. Genetic control of biennial bearing in apple

    PubMed Central

    Guitton, Baptiste; Kelner, Jean-Jacques; Velasco, Riccardo; Gardiner, Susan E.; Chagné, David; Costes, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Although flowering in mature fruit trees is recurrent, floral induction can be strongly inhibited by concurrent fruiting, leading to a pattern of irregular fruiting across consecutive years referred to as biennial bearing. The genetic determinants of biennial bearing in apple were investigated using the 114 flowering individuals from an F1 population of 122 genotypes, from a ‘Starkrimson’ (strong biennial bearer)בGranny Smith’ (regular bearer) cross. The number of inflorescences, and the number and the mass of harvested fruit were recorded over 6 years and used to calculate 26 variables and indices quantifying yield, precocity of production, and biennial bearing. Inflorescence traits exhibited the highest genotypic effect, and three quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on linkage group (LG) 4, LG8, and LG10 explained 50% of the phenotypic variability for biennial bearing. Apple orthologues of flowering and hormone-related genes were retrieved from the whole-genome assembly of ‘Golden Delicious’ and their position was compared with QTLs. Four main genomic regions that contain floral integrator genes, meristem identity genes, and gibberellin oxidase genes co-located with QTLs. The results indicated that flowering genes are less likely to be responsible for biennial bearing than hormone-related genes. New hypotheses for the control of biennial bearing emerged from QTL and candidate gene co-locations and suggest the involvement of different physiological processes such as the regulation of flowering genes by hormones. The correlation between tree architecture and biennial bearing is also discussed. PMID:21963613

  20. Mutation of the Erwinia amylovora argD gene causes arginine auxotrophy, nonpathogenicity in apples, and reduced virulence in pears.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Laura S; Lehman, Brian L; Peter, Kari A; McNellis, Timothy W

    2014-11-01

    Fire blight is caused by Erwinia amylovora and is the most destructive bacterial disease of apples and pears worldwide. In this study, we found that E. amylovora argD(1000)::Tn5, an argD Tn5 transposon mutant that has the Tn5 transposon inserted after nucleotide 999 in the argD gene-coding region, was an arginine auxotroph that did not cause fire blight in apple and had reduced virulence in immature pear fruits. The E. amylovora argD gene encodes a predicted N-acetylornithine aminotransferase enzyme, which is involved in the production of the amino acid arginine. A plasmid-borne copy of the wild-type argD gene complemented both the nonpathogenic and the arginine auxotrophic phenotypes of the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant. However, even when mixed with virulent E. amylovora cells and inoculated onto immature apple fruit, the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant still failed to grow, while the virulent strain grew and caused disease. Furthermore, the pCR2.1-argD complementation plasmid was stably maintained in the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant growing in host tissues without any antibiotic selection. Therefore, the pCR2.1-argD complementation plasmid could be useful for the expression of genes, markers, and reporters in E. amylovora growing in planta, without concern about losing the plasmid over time. The ArgD protein cannot be considered an E. amylovora virulence factor because the argD(1000)::Tn5 mutant was auxotrophic and had a primary metabolism defect. Nevertheless, these results are informative about the parasitic nature of the fire blight disease interaction, since they indicate that E. amylovora cannot obtain sufficient arginine from apple and pear fruit tissues or from apple vegetative tissues, either at the beginning of the infection process or after the infection has progressed to an advanced state. PMID:25172854

  1. Apple EIN3 BINDING F-box 1 inhibits the activity of three apple EIN3-like transcription factors

    PubMed Central

    Tacken, Emma J.; Ireland, Hilary S.; Wang, Yen-Yi; Putterill, Jo; Schaffer, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Fruit ripening in Malus× domestica (apple) is controlled by ethylene. Work in model species has shown that following the detection of ethylene, the ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 3 (EIN3) transcription factor is stabilized, leading to an increase in transcript accumulation of ethylene-responsive genes, such as POLYGALACTURONASE1 (PG1). In the absence of ethylene, the EIN3 BINDING F-box (EBF) proteins rapidly degrade EIN3 via the ubiquitination/SCF (Skp, Cullin, F-Box) proteasome pathway. In this study, we aim to identify and characterize the apple EBF genes, and test their activity against apple EIN3-like proteins (EILs). Methodology The apple genome sequence was mined for EBF-like genes. The expression of EBF-like genes was measured during fruit development. Using a transient assay in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, the activity of three apple EILs was tested against the PG1 promoter, with and without ethylene and EBF1. Principal results Four EBF-like genes in apple were identified and grouped into two sub-clades. Sub-clade I genes had constant expression over fruit development while sub-clade II genes increased in expression at ripening. EBF1 was shown to reduce the transactivation of the apple PG1 promoter by the EIL1, EIL2 and EIL3 transcription factors in the presence of ethylene. Conclusions The apple EBF1 gene identified here is likely to be a functionally conserved EBF orthologue, modulating EIL activity in apples. The activity of EBF1 suggests that it is not specific to a single EIL, instead acting as a global regulator of apple EIL transcription factors. PMID:23585922

  2. Gabor feature-based apple quality inspection using kernel principal component analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Automated inspection of apple quality involves computer recognition of good apples and blemished apples based on geometric or statistical features derived from apple images. This paper introduces a Gabor feature-based kernel, principal component analysis (PCA) method; by combining Gabor wavelet rep...

  3. Use of cyclodextrin-based polymer for patulin analysis in apple juice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Penicillium expansum, one of the patulin producing fungi that causes decay on apple, is recognized as the main source of patulin contamination on apple and apple products. The widely used method for patulin analysis in apple juice is liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate followed by HPLC-UV or...

  4. Creating, Storing, and Dumping Low and High Resolution Graphics on the Apple IIe Microcomputer System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.

    This description of procedures for dumping high and low resolution graphics using the Apple IIe microcomputer system focuses on two special hardware configurations that are commonly used in schools--the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Special…

  5. 3D Surface Reconstruction and Analysis in Automated Apple Stem-End/Calyx Identification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Machine vision methods are widely used in apple defect detection and quality grading applications. Currently, 2D near-infrared (NIR) imaging of apples is often used to detect apple defects because the image intensity of the defect is different from the normal apple tissue. However, a drawback of t...

  6. Gene expression profiles for two auxin transporters during apple fruit maturation and ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The maturation and ripening patterns of apple varieties differ greatly due to their long history of cultivation, self-incompatible nature and the high-level heterozygosity of the apple genome. The ripening season across elite apple cultivars can span more than three months. Apple maturation and ripe...

  7. The history of apple breeding in People’s Republic Of China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    China is the leading apple production country in the world. Its apple area and production in 2006 was 1,898,000 hectares and 26,000,000 tons, accounting for more than 35% of the global apple area and production, respectively. New cultivars are very important to development of the apple industry. Chi...

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  9. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  10. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  11. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. 319.56-27... § 319.56-27 Apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Any variety of Malus domestica apples may be imported into the United States from Japan, and Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United...

  12. Patulin in apple-based foods: occurrence and safety evaluation.

    PubMed

    Beretta, B; Gaiaschi, A; Galli, C L; Restani, P

    2000-05-01

    Patulin is a mycotoxin produced by certain species of Penicillium and Aspergillus, often detectable in mouldy fruits and their derivatives. On the basis of a PMTDI of 0.4 microgram/kg bw, limit values of 50 micrograms/kg or 50 micrograms/l of patulin have been set in fruit derivatives. To estimate the quantity of patulin that can be taken in with the diet, we analysed by HPLC samples of apples and apple derivatives which are most likely to be contaminated with patulin. In apple juices and in homogenized baby-foods, the mycotoxin concentration was always below the established limits, while in some samples of juice with pulp the mycotoxin content exceeded the safe levels. In rotten apples, not only was the amount of patulin extraordinarily high in the rotten area, but the mycotoxin had also spread to the part unaffected by mould. The data presented in this study indicate that the intake of patulin with apple derivatives is usually below the tolerable level of 0.4 microgram/kg bw/day, but since the patulin content in apples can vary considerably, the quality of fruits used in the production of apple derivatives should be strictly controlled in order not to exceed the safe limits. PMID:10945107

  13. Considerations for implementing machine vision for detecting watercore in apples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upchurch, Bruce L.; Throop, James A.

    1993-05-01

    Watercore in apples is a physiological disorder that affects the internal quality of the fruit. Growers can experience serious economic losses due to internal breakdown of the apple if watercored apples are placed unknowingly into long term storage. Economic losses can also occur if watercore is detected and the entire `lot' is downgraded; however, a gain can be obtained if watercored fruit is segregated and marketed as a premium apple soon after harvest. Watercore is characterized by the accumulation of fluid around the vascular bundles replacing air spaces between cells. This fluid reduces the light scattering properties of the apple. Using machine vision to measure the amount of light transmitted through the apple, watercored apples were segregated according to the severity of damage. However, the success of the method was dependent upon two factors. First, the sensitivity of the camera dictated the classes of watercore that could be detected. A highly sensitive camera could separate the less severe classes at the expense of not distinguishing between the more severe classes. A second factor which is common to most quality attributes in perishable commodities is the elapsed time after harvest at which the measurement was made. At the end of the study, light transmission levels decreased to undetectable levels with the initial camera settings for all watercore classes.

  14. Comparing Apples and Pears: Women's Perceptions of Their Body Size and Shape

    PubMed Central

    Hediger, Mary L.; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Stanford, Joseph B.; Peterson, C. Matthew; Croughan, Mary S.; Chen, Zhen; Louis, Germaine M. Buck

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is a growing public health problem among reproductive-aged women, with consequences for chronic disease risk and reproductive and obstetric morbidities. Evidence also suggests that body shape (i.e., regional fat distribution) may be independently associated with risk, yet it is not known if women adequately perceive their shape. This study aimed to assess the validity of self-reported body size and shape figure drawings when compared to anthropometric measures among reproductive-aged women. Methods Self-reported body size was ascertained using the Stunkard nine-level figures and self-reported body shape using stylized pear, hourglass, rectangle, and apple figures. Anthropometry was performed by trained researchers. Body size and body mass index (BMI) were compared using Spearman's correlation coefficient. Fat distribution indicators were compared across body shapes for nonobese and obese women using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's exact test. Percent agreement and kappa statistics were computed for apple and pear body shapes. Results The 131 women studied were primarily Caucasian (81%), aged 32 years, with a mean BMI of 27.1 kg/m2 (range 16.6–52.8 kg/m2). The correlation between body size and BMI was 0.85 (p<0.001). Among nonobese women, waist-to-hip ratios (WHR) were 0.75, 0.75, 0.80, and 0.82 for pear, hourglass, rectangle, and apple, respectively (p<0.001). Comparing apples and pears, the percent agreement (kappa) for WHR≥0.80 was 83% (0.55). Conclusions Self-reported size and shape were consistent with anthropometric measures commonly used to assess obesity and fat distribution, respectively. Self-reported body shape may be a useful proxy measure in addition to body size in large-scale surveys. PMID:22873752

  15. Genes responding to water deficit in apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) roots

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Individual plants adapt to their immediate environment using a combination of biochemical, morphological and life cycle strategies. Because woody plants are long-lived perennials, they cannot rely on annual life cycle strategies alone to survive abiotic stresses. In this study we used suppression subtractive hybridization to identify genes both up- and down-regulated in roots during water deficit treatment and recovery. In addition we followed the expression of select genes in the roots, leaves, bark and xylem of ‘Royal Gala’ apple subjected to a simulated drought and subsequent recovery. Results In agreement with studies from both herbaceous and woody plants, a number of common drought-responsive genes were identified, as well as a few not previously reported. Three genes were selected for more in depth analysis: a high affinity nitrate transporter (MdNRT2.4), a mitochondrial outer membrane translocase (MdTOM7.1), and a gene encoding an NPR1 homolog (MpNPR1-2). Quantitative expression of these genes in apple roots, bark and leaves was consistent with their roles in nutrition and defense. Conclusions Additional genes from apple roots responding to drought were identified using suppression subtraction hybridization compared to a previous EST analysis from the same organ. Genes up- and down-regulated during drought recovery in roots were also identified. Elevated levels of a high affinity nitrate transporter were found in roots suggesting that nitrogen uptake shifted from low affinity transport due to the predicted reduction in nitrate concentration in drought-treated roots. Suppression of a NPR1 gene in leaves of drought-treated apple trees may explain in part the increased disease susceptibility of trees subjected to dehydrative conditions. PMID:25004790

  16. The Apple of the mind's eye: Everyday attention, metamemory, and reconstructive memory for the Apple logo.

    PubMed

    Blake, Adam B; Nazarian, Meenely; Castel, Alan D

    2015-01-01

    People are regularly bombarded with logos in an attempt to improve brand recognition, and logos are often designed with the central purpose of memorability. The ubiquitous Apple logo is a simple design and is often referred to as one of the most recognizable logos in the world. The present study examined recall and recognition for this simple and pervasive logo and to what degree metamemory (confidence judgements) match memory performance. Participants showed surprisingly poor memory for the details of the logo as measured through recall (drawings) and forced-choice recognition. Only 1 participant out of 85 correctly recalled the Apple logo, and fewer than half of all participants correctly identified the logo. Importantly, participants indicated higher levels of confidence for both recall and recognition, and this overconfidence was reduced if participants made the judgements after, rather than before, drawing the logo. The general findings did not differ between Apple and PC users. The results provide novel support for theories of attentional saturation, inattentional amnesia, and reconstructive memory; additionally they show how an availability heuristic can lead to overconfidence in memory for logos. PMID:25721103

  17. Cell biology apps for Apple devices.

    PubMed

    Stark, Louisa A

    2012-01-01

    Apps for touch-pad devices hold promise for guiding and supporting learning. Students may use them in the classroom or on their own for didactic instruction, just-in-time learning, or review. Since Apple touch-pad devices (i.e., iPad and iPhone) have a substantial share of the touch-pad device market (Campbell, 2012), this Feature will explore cell biology apps available from the App Store. My review includes iPad and iPhone apps available in June 2012, but does not include courses, lectures, podcasts, audiobooks, texts, or other books. I rated each app on a five-point scale (1 star = lowest; 5 stars = highest) for educational and production values; I also provide an overall score. PMID:22949420

  18. Polyphenols profile and antioxidant activity of skin and pulp of a rare apple from Marche region (Italy)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Apples are an important source of polyphenols in the human diet and the consumption of this fruit has been linked to the prevention of degenerative diseases. Results Catechins, procyanidins, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonol glycosides, dihydrochalcone glycosides and one anthocyanin: cyanidin-3-O-galactoside, were identified both in the peel and pulp. Procyanidins, catechins and flavonols represent the main constituents of peel. Concerning the antioxidant activity, in the reduction of the stable DPPH radical and in the inhibition of lipid peroxidation, the ethanolic extracts of red peel and red pulp showed a good similar activity comparable to ascorbic acid in the DPPH test and about ten times more active than BHT in the lipoxygenase test, and were much more active than aqueous extracts. The ORAC value of red pulp aqueous extract resulted comparable to that of red berries: vaccinium, rubus and ribes, foods appreciated for their health value. Conclusion This apple contains an appreciable amount of polyphenols also in the flesh; this variety with red flesh can also be useful for researchers engaged in apples varietal innovation in addition to being used as food apple. PMID:25067944

  19. Suppressing Sorbitol Synthesis Substantially Alters the Global Expression Profile of Stress Response Genes in Apple (Malus domestica) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ting; Wang, Yi; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Dandekar, Abhaya M; Xu, Kenong; Han, Zhenhai; Cheng, Lailiang

    2015-09-01

    Sorbitol is a major product of photosynthesis in apple (Malus domestica) that is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and stress tolerance. However, little is known about how the global transcript levels in apple leaves respond to decreased sorbitol synthesis. In this study we used RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) profiling to characterize the transcriptome of leaves from transgenic lines of the apple cultivar 'Greensleeves' exhibiting suppressed expression of aldose-6-phosphate reductase (A6PR) to gain insights into sorbitol function and the consequences of decreased sorbitol synthesis on gene expression. We observed that, although the leaves of the low sorbitol transgenic lines accumulate higher levels of various primary metabolites, only very limited changes were found in the levels of transcripts associated with primary metabolism. We suggest that this is indicative of post-transcriptional and/or post-translational regulation of primary metabolite accumulation and central carbon metabolism. However, we identified significantly enriched gene ontology terms belonging to the 'stress related process' category in the antisense lines (P-value < 0.05). These include genes involved in the synthesis/degradation of abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) disease resistance genes and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter genes. This suggests that sorbitol plays a role in the responses of apple trees to abiotic and biotic stresses. PMID:26076968

  20. Results after replantation of avulsed permanent teeth. II. Periodontal healing and the role of physiologic storage and antiresorptive-regenerative therapy.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Yango; Filippi, Andreas; Kirschner, Horst

    2005-04-01

    The status of the periodontal ligament (PDL) and of the pulp are decisive for the healing of avulsed and replanted teeth. A tooth rescue box was developed and distributed to offer optimal storage conditions for avulsed teeth. The therapy comprised extraoral endodontic treatment and applications of medicaments to enhance periodontal healing. In this long-term clinical study the healing results following avulsion and replantation were investigated. Twenty-eight permanent teeth in 24 patients were evaluated. The extraoral storage media and periods varied considerably. Soon after avulsion six teeth were stored in a cell culture medium (tooth rescue box Dentosafe) for 1-53 h; the PDL was defined as not compromised. Sixteen teeth were stored in a non-physiologic situation temporarily, the PDL was considered as compromised. Six teeth were stored in non-physiologic conditions for longer periods; the condition of the PDL was defined as hopeless. On 14 teeth antiresorptive-regenerative therapy (ART) with the local application of glucocorticoids and enamel matrix derivative and the systemic administration of doxycyclin was used. In all teeth extraoral endodontic treatment by retrograde insertion of posts was performed. The mean observation period was 31.2 months (+/-24.1; 5.1-100.2; median: 23.8). All six teeth rescued physiologically healed with a functional PDL (functional healing, FH) irrespective of the storage period. Of eight teeth with a compromised PDL on which ART was used, three teeth healed with a functional PDL. All other teeth showed replacement resorption, in three teeth additionally infection-related resorption was recorded. The predominant influence on the healing results was the immediate physiologic rescue of avulsed teeth (chi-square, P = 0.0001). The use of ART seemed to support FH (chi-square, P = 0.0547) in teeth with a compromised PDL. No other factors (maturity of roots, crown fractures, gender, age, antibiotics) were related to healing. In a linear

  1. "You've Got to Know Your Apples."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dettre, Judith

    1980-01-01

    Presented is a satire on employee training, retraining, efficiency experts, consultants, team training, peer teaching, and behavioral objectives--based on the training of apple sorters at the Fantabalous Fruit Farm. (KC)

  2. Using the Apple Macintosh and MULTIPLAN Spreadsheet to Analyze Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodrow, Janice E. J.

    1986-01-01

    Describes the use of the Apple Macintosh and MULTIPLAN spreadsheet to record and analyze test data. Provides step-by-step instructions on data entry, item difficulty and discrimination calculations, test reliability, score distribution, and graphing of distributions. (JM)

  3. Effect of sonication on eliminating of phorate in apple juice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhe; Chen, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Hu, Xiaosong

    2012-01-01

    The degradation of phorate in apple juice by sonication was investigated in the present study. Results showed that sonication was effective in eliminating phorate in apple juice, and the ultrasonic power and sonication time significantly influenced the degradation of phorate (p<0.05). The degradation of phorate followed the first-order kinetics model well. Phorate-oxon and phorate sulfoxide were identified as the degradation products of phorate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Moreover, the toxicity of apple juice samples spiked with phorate was significantly reduced by sonication (p<0.05). The quality indexes of apple juice including pH, titratable acidity (TA), electrical conductivity (EC), total soluble solids (TSS), and the contents of sucrose, glucose and fructose were not affected by sonication, and no visible difference in color was observed between the sonicated samples and the control. PMID:21669544

  4. Hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence for assessing apple maturity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple maturity encompasses multiple quality attributes, including skin and flesh color, flesh firmness, soluble solids, starch, acid, and ethylene production. Nondestructive measurement of these quality attributes is needed for better determining optimal harvest time and implementing appropriate pos...

  5. [On the metabolism of sulphur dioxide in apples (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kalus, W H

    1978-07-31

    Apples of the two varieties, Boskoop and Brettacher, were exposed to 35S labeled sulphur dioxide. After storage at several conditions the distribution of 35S-activity among the three fractions, sulphite, sulphate and sulphonate was examined. The major portion of the radioactivity was found in the sulphate fraction. The activity decreased remarkably from the peel towards the core. Appreciable differences in distribution patterns were found between the two apples varieties. PMID:695961

  6. Analysis and evaluation of a fruit bin for apples.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Ashraful; Yadama, Vikram; Cofer, William F; Englund, Karl R

    2014-12-01

    A fruit bin is an essential part of apple harvesting, storage, and transport. The lateral pressure distribution on the bin walls by apples in the bin are not well understood, thus making it harder to predict the behavior of the vertical walls of the bin. In this study, a bin was loaded with apples and deflections of the base and a vertical wall were experimentally measured and then modeled using finite element methods to understand typical static load distribution. One of the factors determining the accuracy of an analytical model is accurate representation of load distribution on the structure. A mathematical model was used to validate the lateral pressure distribution applied by the apples on the vertical walls and the bottom plate of the bin. The effect of unit weight of an apple and the angle of repose of apples on load distribution in the bin has been analyzed. Angle of repose is found to be a significant parameter for the lateral pressure distribution on the bin walls. A nonlinear lateral pressure distribution was observed along the depth from top to bottom of the bin. The resulting finite element model allows for comparison of deformation behavior of fruit bins constructed with a variety of materials, such as plywood, wood plastic composites, or a thermoplastic polymer. Although this study dealt with bins for apples, the sensitivity analyses for a range of unit weights and angles of repose for apples makes the analysis results versatile for use with other kinds of fruits and vegetables that fall within the reported range of unit weight and angle of repose. PMID:25477638

  7. Transgenic apple (Malus x domestica) shoot showing low browning potential.

    PubMed

    Murata, M; Haruta, M; Murai, N; Tanikawa, N; Nishimura, M; Homma, S; Itoh, Y

    2000-11-01

    Transgenic apple shoots were prepared from leaf disks by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens carrying the kanamycin (KM) resistance gene and antisense polyphenol oxidase (PPO) DNA. Four transgenic apple lines that grew on the medium containing 50 microgram/mL KM were obtained. They contained the KM resistance gene and grew stably on the medium for >3 years. Two transgenic shoot lines containing antisense PPO DNA in which PPO activity was repressed showed a lower browning potential than a control shoot. PMID:11087467

  8. Apple Puree-Alginate Edible Coating as Carrier of Antimicrobial Agents to Prolong Shelf-Life of Fresh-Cut Apples

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible coatings with antimicrobial agents can extend the shelf-life of fresh-cut fruit. The effect of lemongrass, oregano oil and vanillin incorporated in apple puree-alginate edible coatings, on the shelf-life of fresh-cut Fuji apples, was investigated. Coated apples were packed in air-filled pol...

  9. Developing Simple Grade Books Using the AppleWorks Spreadsheet Subprogram, Apple IIe or GS Computers, and a Duodisk or Two Disk Drives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for developing grade books using the AppleWorks spreadsheet subprogram with an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer which has a Duodisk or two disk drives and an 80-column card. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 41 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the…

  10. Blank Computer Floppy Disk Formatting Using the AppleWorks Program, Apple IIe or GS Computers and a Duodisk or Two Disk Drives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This manual is a "how to" training device for formatting blank floppy disks in the AppleWorks program using an Apple IIe or Apple IIGS Computer with Duodisk or two disk drives. The manual provides step-by-step directions, and includes 11 figures depicting the computer screen at the various stages of the formatting sequence. (EW)

  11. Modeling apple surface temperature dynamics based on weather data.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00-18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of "Fuji" apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management. PMID:25350507

  12. Modeling Apple Surface Temperature Dynamics Based on Weather Data

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lei; Peters, Troy; Zhang, Qin; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2014-01-01

    The exposure of fruit surfaces to direct sunlight during the summer months can result in sunburn damage. Losses due to sunburn damage are a major economic problem when marketing fresh apples. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a model for simulating fruit surface temperature (FST) dynamics based on energy balance and measured weather data. A series of weather data (air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, and wind speed) was recorded for seven hours between 11:00–18:00 for two months at fifteen minute intervals. To validate the model, the FSTs of “Fuji” apples were monitored using an infrared camera in a natural orchard environment. The FST dynamics were measured using a series of thermal images. For the apples that were completely exposed to the sun, the RMSE of the model for estimating FST was less than 2.0 °C. A sensitivity analysis of the emissivity of the apple surface and the conductance of the fruit surface to water vapour showed that accurate estimations of the apple surface emissivity were important for the model. The validation results showed that the model was capable of accurately describing the thermal performances of apples under different solar radiation intensities. Thus, this model could be used to more accurately estimate the FST relative to estimates that only consider the air temperature. In addition, this model provides useful information for sunburn protection management. PMID:25350507

  13. Culturable fungi of stored 'golden delicious' apple fruits: a one-season comparison study of organic and integrated production systems in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Granado, José; Thürig, Barbara; Kieffer, Edith; Petrini, Liliane; Fliessbach, Andreas; Tamm, Lucius; Weibel, Franco P; Wyss, Gabriela S

    2008-11-01

    The effects of organic and integrated production systems on the culturable fungal microflora of stored apple fruits from five matched pairs of certified organic and integrated 'Golden Delicious' farms were studied at five representative production sites in Switzerland. Isolated fungi were identified morphologically. Colonization frequency (percentage of apples colonized), abundance (colony numbers), and diversity (taxon richness) were assessed for each orchard. The standard quality of the stored fruits was comparable for both organic and integrated apples and complied with national food hygiene standards. Yeasts (six taxa) and the yeast-like fungus Aureobasidium pullulans were the dominant epiphytes, filamentous fungi (21 taxa) the dominant endophytes. The most common fungi occurred at all sites and belonged to the "white" and "pink" yeasts, yeast-like A. pullulans, filamentous fungi Cladosporium spp., Alternaria spp., and sterile filamentous fungi. Canonical correspondence analysis of the total fungal community revealed a clear differentiation among production systems and sites. Compared to integrated apples, organic apples had significantly higher frequencies of filamentous fungi, abundance of total fungi, and taxon diversity. The effects of the production system on the fungal microflora are most likely due to the different plant protection strategies. The incidence of potential mycotoxin producers such as Penicillium and Alternaria species was not different between production systems. We suggest that higher fungal diversity may generally be associated with organic production and may increase the level of beneficial and antagonistically acting species known for their potential to suppress apple pathogens, which may be an advantage to organic apples, e.g., in respect to natural disease control. PMID:18473135

  14. Effect of insecticide regimens on biological control of Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) by Peristenus spp. (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) in New York apple orchards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple producers in New York state and the northeastern US have formidable pest and disease pressures and utilize a range of chemical regimens that rely heavily on broad-spectrum organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticides. The tarnished plant bug Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), a...

  15. Identification and mapping of genes differentially expressed during interaction of resistant and susceptible apple cultivars (Malus x domestica) with Erwinia amylovora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The necrogenic enterobacterium, Erwinia amylovora (Ea) is the causal agent of the fire blight (FB) disease of many Rosaceae species, including apple and pear. During the infection process, the bacteria induce an oxidative stress response with kinetics similar to those induced in an incompatible bac...

  16. Effects of long-term continuous cropping on soil nematode community and soil condition associated with replant problem in strawberry habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingyue; Lewis, Edwin E.; Liu, Qizhi; Li, Heqin; Bai, Chunqi; Wang, Yuzhu

    2016-08-01

    Continuous cropping changes soil physiochemical parameters, enzymes and microorganism communities, causing “replant problem” in strawberry cultivation. We hypothesized that soil nematode community would reflect the changes in soil conditions caused by long-term continuous cropping, in ways that are consistent and predictable. To test this hypothesis, we studied the soil nematode communities and several soil parameters, including the concentration of soil phenolic acids, organic matter and nitrogen levels, in strawberry greenhouse under continuous-cropping for five different durations. Soil pH significantly decreased, and four phenolic acids, i.e., p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, accumulated with time under continuous cropping. The four phenolic acids were highly toxic to Acrobeloides spp., the eudominant genus in non-continuous cropping, causing it to reduce to a resident genus after seven-years of continuous cropping. Decreased nematode diversity indicated loss of ecosystem stability and sustainability because of continuous-cropping practice. Moreover, the dominant decomposition pathway was altered from bacterial to fungal under continuous cropping. Our results suggest that along with the continuous-cropping time in strawberry habitat, the soil food web is disturbed, and the available plant nutrition as well as the general health of the soil deteriorates; these changes can be indicated by soil nematode community.

  17. Effects of long-term continuous cropping on soil nematode community and soil condition associated with replant problem in strawberry habitat

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xingyue; Lewis, Edwin E.; Liu, Qizhi; Li, Heqin; Bai, Chunqi; Wang, Yuzhu

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping changes soil physiochemical parameters, enzymes and microorganism communities, causing “replant problem” in strawberry cultivation. We hypothesized that soil nematode community would reflect the changes in soil conditions caused by long-term continuous cropping, in ways that are consistent and predictable. To test this hypothesis, we studied the soil nematode communities and several soil parameters, including the concentration of soil phenolic acids, organic matter and nitrogen levels, in strawberry greenhouse under continuous-cropping for five different durations. Soil pH significantly decreased, and four phenolic acids, i.e., p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, accumulated with time under continuous cropping. The four phenolic acids were highly toxic to Acrobeloides spp., the eudominant genus in non-continuous cropping, causing it to reduce to a resident genus after seven-years of continuous cropping. Decreased nematode diversity indicated loss of ecosystem stability and sustainability because of continuous-cropping practice. Moreover, the dominant decomposition pathway was altered from bacterial to fungal under continuous cropping. Our results suggest that along with the continuous-cropping time in strawberry habitat, the soil food web is disturbed, and the available plant nutrition as well as the general health of the soil deteriorates; these changes can be indicated by soil nematode community. PMID:27506379

  18. Effects of long-term continuous cropping on soil nematode community and soil condition associated with replant problem in strawberry habitat.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingyue; Lewis, Edwin E; Liu, Qizhi; Li, Heqin; Bai, Chunqi; Wang, Yuzhu

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping changes soil physiochemical parameters, enzymes and microorganism communities, causing "replant problem" in strawberry cultivation. We hypothesized that soil nematode community would reflect the changes in soil conditions caused by long-term continuous cropping, in ways that are consistent and predictable. To test this hypothesis, we studied the soil nematode communities and several soil parameters, including the concentration of soil phenolic acids, organic matter and nitrogen levels, in strawberry greenhouse under continuous-cropping for five different durations. Soil pH significantly decreased, and four phenolic acids, i.e., p-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamic acid and p-coumaric acid, accumulated with time under continuous cropping. The four phenolic acids were highly toxic to Acrobeloides spp., the eudominant genus in non-continuous cropping, causing it to reduce to a resident genus after seven-years of continuous cropping. Decreased nematode diversity indicated loss of ecosystem stability and sustainability because of continuous-cropping practice. Moreover, the dominant decomposition pathway was altered from bacterial to fungal under continuous cropping. Our results suggest that along with the continuous-cropping time in strawberry habitat, the soil food web is disturbed, and the available plant nutrition as well as the general health of the soil deteriorates; these changes can be indicated by soil nematode community. PMID:27506379

  19. Effect of high-carbon dioxide atmospheres on infestations of apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae) in apples.

    PubMed

    Agnello, Arthur M; Spangler, Steve M; Minson, Eve S; Harris, Tracy; Kain, David P

    2002-04-01

    Short-term storage regimens containing elevated atmospheres of carbon dioxide (CO2) were evaluated for their ability to disinfest newly harvested 'McIntosh' apples of apple maggot, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh). Infested fruits containing newly laid eggs were either placed directly into the high-CO2 atmosphere at 10 degrees C to expose this life stage, or else held first for 7 d at room temperature, to allow development to the neonate larval stage. Treatment combinations consisted of three different CO2 levels (10.6, 14.9, and 19.0% CO2) and two periods of exposure (7 and 14 d). Apple maggot eggs subjected to the treatments always exhibited some survival, which was lower for the 14-d than the 7-d exposure periods. In contrast, newly hatched larvae were less able to survive the treatments. The 7-d exposure allowed low levels of survival of this life stage, but virtually none survived the 14-d exposure period. To determine the age at which eggs become more susceptible to high-CO2 atmospheres, infested fruits containing eggs three or 3d old were submitted to a 14-d exposure to 19.0% CO2. Survival of 3-d old eggs was similar to that of eggs exposed at an age of 1 d or less, but this dropped to near zero for 5-d old eggs, indicating an increase in susceptibility sometime during the 3-5-d age range. Fruits exposed to 19.0% CO2 for 14 d were significantly firmer than untreated fruits. No apparent browning, internal breakdown or other fruit defects were detected in any of the treatments. PMID:12020036

  20. CLIPS, AppleEvents, and AppleScript: Integrating CLIPS with commercial software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Compton, Michael M.; Wolfe, Shawn R.

    1994-01-01

    Many of today's intelligent systems are comprised of several modules, perhaps written in different tools and languages, that together help solve the user's problem. These systems often employ a knowledge-based component that is not accessed directly by the user, but instead operates 'in the background' offering assistance to the user as necessary. In these types of modular systems, an efficient, flexible, and eady-to-use mechanism for sharing data between programs is crucial. To help permit transparent integration of CLIPS with other Macintosh applications, the AI Research Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has extended CLIPS to allow it to communicate transparently with other applications through two popular data-sharing mechanisms provided by the Macintosh operating system: Apple Events (a 'high-level' event mechanism for program-to-program communication), and AppleScript, a recently-released scripting language for the Macintosh. This capability permits other applications (running on either the same or a remote machine) to send a command to CLIPS, which then responds as if the command were typed into the CLIPS dialog window. Any result returned by the command is then automatically returned to the program that sent it. Likewise, CLIPS can send several types of Apple Events directly to other local or remote applications. This CLIPS system has been successfully integrated with a variety of commercial applications, including data collection programs, electronics forms packages, DBMS's, and email programs. These mechanisms can permit transparent user access to the knowledge base from within a commercial application, and allow a single copy of the knowledge base to service multiple users in a networked environment.

  1. 'Fuji' and 'Delicious' apple volatile production during high CO2 or low O2 controlled atmosphere storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apple [Malus sylvestris var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] fruit contain many diverse biochemical pathways that are differentially regulated according to development and ripening. From these pathways numerous volatiles contributing to apple aroma are produced. Although apple fruit have an extended s...

  2. Susceptibility of fruit from diverse apple and crabapple germplasm to attack from plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is an important apple pest that significantly hinders sustainable apple production in eastern North America. The potential for host plant resistance to plum curculio among apple (Malus) germplasm has never been rigorously ev...

  3. New SRC APPLE II variable polarization beamline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severson, M.; Bissen, M.; Fisher, M. V.; Rogers, G.; Reininger, R.; Green, M.; Eisert, D.; Tredinnick, B.

    2011-09-01

    SRC has recently commissioned a new Varied Line-Spacing Plane Grating Monochromator (VLS-PGM) utilizing as its source a 1 m long APPLE II insertion device in short-straight-section 9 of the Aladdin storage ring. The insertion device reliably delivers horizontal, vertical, and right and left circularly polarized light to the beamline. Measurements from an in situ polarimeter can be used for undulator corrections to compensate for depolarizing effects of the beamline. The beamline has only three optical elements and covers the energy range from 11.1 to 270 eV using two varied line-spacing gratings. A plane mirror rotates to illuminate the gratings at the correct angle to cancel the defocus term at all photon energies. An exit slit and elliptical-toroid refocusing mirror complete the beamline. Using a 50 μm exit slit, the beamline provides moderate to high resolution, with measured flux in the mid 10 12 (photons/s/200 mA) range, and a spot size of 400 μm horizontal by 30 μm vertical.

  4. New SRC APPLE ll Variable Polarization Beamline

    SciTech Connect

    M Severson; M Bissen; M Fisher; G Rogers; R Reininger; M Green; D Eisert; B Tredinnick

    2011-12-31

    SRC has recently commissioned a new Varied Line-Spacing Plane Grating Monochromator (VLS-PGM) utilizing as its source a 1 m long APPLE II insertion device in short-straight-section 9 of the Aladdin storage ring. The insertion device reliably delivers horizontal, vertical, and right and left circularly polarized light to the beamline. Measurements from an in situ polarimeter can be used for undulator corrections to compensate for depolarizing effects of the beamline. The beamline has only three optical elements and covers the energy range from 11.1 to 270 eV using two varied line-spacing gratings. A plane mirror rotates to illuminate the gratings at the correct angle to cancel the defocus term at all photon energies. An exit slit and elliptical-toroid refocusing mirror complete the beamline. Using a 50 {mu}m exit slit, the beamline provides moderate to high resolution, with measured flux in the mid 10{sup 12} (photons/s/200 mA) range, and a spot size of 400 {mu}m horizontal by 30 {mu}m vertical.

  5. Functional analysis and expression profiling of HcrVf1 and HcrVf2 for development of scab resistant cisgenic and intragenic apples.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Sameer G; Schaart, Jan G; Groenwold, Remmelt; Jacobsen, Evert; Schouten, Henk J; Krens, Frans A

    2011-04-01

    Apple scab resistance genes, HcrVf1 and HcrVf2, were isolated including their native promoter, coding and terminator sequences. Two fragment lengths (short and long) of the native gene promoters and the strong apple rubisco gene promoter (P(MdRbc)) were used for both HcrVf genes to test their effect on expression and phenotype. The scab susceptible cultivar 'Gala' was used for plant transformations and after selection of transformants, they were micrografted onto apple seedling rootstocks for scab disease tests. Apple transformants were also tested for HcrVf expression by quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). For HcrVf1 the long native promoter gave significantly higher expression that the short one; in case of HcrVf2 the difference between the two was not significant. The apple rubisco gene promoter proved to give the highest expression of both HcrVf1 and HcrVf2. The top four expanding leaves were used initially for inoculation with monoconidial isolate EU-B05 which belongs to race 1 of V. inaequalis. Later six other V. inaequalis isolates were used to study the resistance spectra of the individual HcrVf genes. The scab disease assays showed that HcrVf1 did not give resistance against any of the isolates tested regardless of the expression level. The HcrVf2 gene appeared to be the only functional gene for resistance against Vf avirulent isolates of V. inaequalis. HcrVf2 did not provide any resistance to Vf virulent strains, even not in case of overexpression. In conclusion, transformants carrying the apple-derived HcrVf2 gene in a cisgenic as well as in an intragenic configuration were able to reach scab resistance levels comparable to the Vf resistant control cultivar obtained by classical breeding, cv. 'Santana'. PMID:21293908

  6. Scar skin and dapple apple viroids are seed-borne and persistent in infected apple trees.

    PubMed

    Hadidi, A; Hansen, A J; Parish, C L; Yang, X

    1991-01-01

    The closely related apple scar skin viroid (ASSV) and dapple apple viroid (DAV) were identified in whole seeds from infected pome fruits by hybridization of extracted nucleic acids with a 32P-labelled ASSV cRNA probe. Viroid amounts were greater in seed coats and subcoats than in seed cotyledons and embryos. ASSV or DAV was also detected in nucleic acid extracts from infected seeds, cotyledons and embryos by reverse transcription/polymerase chain reaction with viroid-cDNA-specific primers followed by Southern blot hybridization analysis of the amplified products with an ASSV cRNA probe. These results indicate that ASSV and DAV are seed-borne. ASSV and DAV were also found in the anthers, petals, receptacles, leaves, bark and roots of infected trees. The results suggest that viroid-infected trees constitute potential sources of the viroid in field spread. ASSV and DAV infections have been observed sporadically in commercial orchards in the United States and Canada and the infected trees have been eliminated. The use of viroid-free sources of seeds, seedlings, rootstocks and budwood should greatly reduce the risk of the future spread of the viroid. PMID:1796215

  7. Arsenic and lead in juice: apple, citrus, and apple-base.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Denise; Hooper, Cassandra; Shi, Xingyi

    2012-12-01

    Exposure limits for arsenic and lead in drinking water have long been established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and new regulations regarding the presence of these contaminants in bottled water went into effect in California in 2009. No comparable exposure limits or regulations are available, however, for juices and other beverages that may contain arsenic and lead. In the study described in this article, 20 apple juices (or ciders), 15 apple-containing juices, one grape, and one citrus juice were analyzed for arsenic and lead. Arsenic was detected in all juices while lead was detected in more than 94% of juices analyzed. Twelve samples (32%) demonstrated arsenic levels nearly at or above the drinking water exposure limit of 10 parts per billion. No juices contained lead above drinking water exposure limits. Expanding drinking water limits to include juices (and other frequently consumed beverages) would better protect consumers while regular testing of these juices would better inform consumers of the risks posed by specific juices and brands. PMID:23270108

  8. [Study on hyperspectral characteristics of apple florescence canopy].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xi-Cun; Zhao, Geng-Xing; Lei, Tong; Li, Xi-Can; Chen, Zhi-Qiang

    2009-10-01

    The present study aims to systematically analyze the hyperspectral characteristics of apple florescence canopy and explore the sensitive spectra to provide the theoretical basis for large area apple information extracting and remote sensing retrieval for nutrition diagnosis. Based on the 120 hyperspectral data of apple florescence canopy acquired with ASD Field Spec 3 portable object spectrometer, the effects of different sample numbers on hyperspectral characteristics were analyzed. Using variance analysis method, the hyperspectral characteristics of apple florescence canopy and the sensitive wave bands were obtained. The results showed that with the increase in cumulative sample numbers, the hyperspectrum curves of apple florescence became stable and smooth. At the 550 nm green peak and the 760-1,300 nm reflection plateau, the reflection rate reduced with the increase in flowering amount, while in the red valley of 670 nm, the reflection rate increased with the increase in flowering amount; At the wave bands of 350-500, 600-680 and 760-1,300 nm, the variance analysis results showed very significant differences, indicating that they were sensitive wave bands of florescence canopy. With the increase in flowering amount, the red-edge position, the red-edge slope and red edge area tended to decrease gradually. PMID:20038043

  9. Laser scatter feature of surface defect on apples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Xiuqin; Ying, Yibin; Cen, YiKe; Huang, Haibo

    2006-10-01

    A machine vision system for real-time fruit quality inspection was developed. The system consists of a chamber, a laser projector, a TMS-7DSP CCD camera (PULNIX Inc.), and a computer. A Meteor-II/MC frame grabber (Matrox Graphics Inc.) was inserted into the slot of the computer to grab fruit images. The laser projector and the camera were mounted at the ceiling of the chamber. An apple was put in the chamber, the spot of the laser projector was projected on the surface of the fruit, and an image was grabbed. 2 breed of apples was test, Each apple was imaged twice, one was imaged for the normal surface, and the other for the defect. The red component of the images was used to get the feature of the defect and the sound surface of the fruits. The average value, STD value and comentropy Value of red component of the laser scatter image were analyzed. The Standard Deviation value of red component of normal is more suitable to separate the defect surface from sound surface for the ShuijinFuji apples, but for bintang apples, there is more work need to do to separate the different surface with laser scatter image.

  10. Transcriptome profiling analysis of cultivar-specific apple fruit ripening and texture attributes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular events regulating cultivar-specific apple fruit ripening and sensory quality are largely unknown. Such knowledge is essential for genomic-assisted apple breeding and postharvest quality management. In this study, transcriptome profile analysis, scanning electron microscopic examination an...

  11. Multiple plant hormones and cell wall metabolism regulate apple fruit maturation patterns and texture attributes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Molecular events regulating apple fruit ripening and sensory quality are largely unknown. Such knowledge is essential for genomic-assisted apple breeding and postharvest quality management. In this study, a parallel transcriptome profile analysis, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination and...

  12. Transcriptomic events associated with internal browning of apple during postharvest storage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although apple (Malus x domestica) is of economic importance, little information is available about the transriptomic profiling of postharvest disorders, particularly internal browning. This study aimed to explore changes in the apple transcriptome associated with development of flesh browning durin...

  13. Fast Estimation of Dietary Fiber Content in Apple.

    PubMed

    Le Gall, Sophie; Even, Sonia; Lahaye, Marc

    2016-02-17

    Dietary fibers (DF) are one of the nutritional benefits of fleshy fruit consumption that is becoming a quality criterion for genetic selection by breeders. However, the AOAC total DF content determination is not readily amenable for screening large fruit collections. A new screening method of DF content in an apple collection based on the automated preparation of cell wall material as an alcohol-insoluble residue (AIR) is proposed. The yield of AIR from 27 apple genotypes was compared with DF measured according to AOAC method 985.29. Although residual protein content in AIRs did not affect DF measurement, subtraction of starch content above 3% dry weight in AIRs was needed to agree with AOAC measured DF. A fast colorimetric screening of starch in AIR was developed to detect samples needing correction. The proposed method may prove useful for the rapid determination of DF in collections of other fleshy fruit besides apple. PMID:26813795

  14. Apple Snail: a Bio Cleaner of the Water Free Surface.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassiri, Golnaz

    2005-11-01

    Oil spills from tankers represent a threat for shorelines and marine life. Despite continuing research, there has been little change in the fundamental technology for dealing with oil spills. An experimental investigation of the feeding strategy of Apple snails from the water free surface, called surface film feeding, is being studied motivated by the need to develop new techniques to recover oil spills. To feed on floating food (usually a thin layer of microorganisms), the apple snail forms a funnel with its foot and pulls the free surface toward the funnel. High speed imaging and particle image velocimetry were used in the present investigation to measure the free surface motion and to investigate the mechanism used by the apple snails to pull the free surface. The results suggest that the snail pulls the free surface via the wavy motion of the muscles in its funnel.

  15. A baseline measure of tree and gastropod biodiversity in replanted and natural mangrove stands in malaysia: langkawi island and sungai merbok.

    PubMed

    Hookham, Brenda; Shau-Hwai, Aileen Tan; Dayrat, Benoit; Hintz, William

    2014-08-01

    THE DIVERSITIES OF MANGROVE TREES AND OF THEIR ASSOCIATED GASTROPODS WERE ASSESSED FOR TWO MANGROVE REGIONS ON THE WEST COAST OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA: Langkawi Island and Sungai Merbok. The mangrove area sampled on Langkawi Island was recently logged and replanted, whereas the area sampled in Sungai Merbok was part of a protected nature reserve. Mangrove and gastropod diversity were assessed in four 50 m(2) (10 × 5 m) sites per region. The species richness (S), Shannon Index (H') and Evenness Index (J') were calculated for each site, and the mean S, H' and J' values were calculated for each region. We report low tree and gastropod S, H' and J' values in all sites from both regions. For Langkawi Island, the mean S, H' and J' values for mangrove trees were S = 2.00±0, H' = 0.44±0.17 and J' = 0.44±0.17; the mean S, H' and J' values for gastropods were S = 4.00±1.63, H' = 0.96±0.41 and J' = 0.49±0.06. In Sungai Merbok, the mean S, H' and J' values for mangrove trees were S = 1.33±0.58, H' = 0.22±0.39 and J' = 0.22 ±0.39; the mean S, H' and J' values for gastropods were S = 4.75±2.22, H' = 1.23±0.63 and J' = 0.55±0.12. This study emphasises the need for baseline biodiversity measures to be established in mangrove ecosystems to track the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances and to inform management and restoration efforts. PMID:25210584

  16. A Baseline Measure of Tree and Gastropod Biodiversity in Replanted and Natural Mangrove Stands in Malaysia: Langkawi Island and Sungai Merbok

    PubMed Central

    Hookham, Brenda; Shau-Hwai, Aileen Tan; Dayrat, Benoit; Hintz, William

    2014-01-01

    The diversities of mangrove trees and of their associated gastropods were assessed for two mangrove regions on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia: Langkawi Island and Sungai Merbok. The mangrove area sampled on Langkawi Island was recently logged and replanted, whereas the area sampled in Sungai Merbok was part of a protected nature reserve. Mangrove and gastropod diversity were assessed in four 50 m2 (10 × 5 m) sites per region. The species richness (S), Shannon Index (H’) and Evenness Index (J’) were calculated for each site, and the mean S, H’ and J’ values were calculated for each region. We report low tree and gastropod S, H’ and J’ values in all sites from both regions. For Langkawi Island, the mean S, H’ and J’ values for mangrove trees were S = 2.00±0, H’ = 0.44±0.17 and J’ = 0.44±0.17; the mean S, H’ and J’ values for gastropods were S = 4.00±1.63, H’ = 0.96±0.41 and J’ = 0.49±0.06. In Sungai Merbok, the mean S, H’ and J’ values for mangrove trees were S = 1.33±0.58, H’ = 0.22±0.39 and J’ = 0.22 ±0.39; the mean S, H’ and J’ values for gastropods were S = 4.75±2.22, H’ = 1.23±0.63 and J’ = 0.55±0.12. This study emphasises the need for baseline biodiversity measures to be established in mangrove ecosystems to track the impacts of anthropogenic disturbances and to inform management and restoration efforts. PMID:25210584

  17. Analysis of hyperspectral scattering images using locally linear embedding algorithm for apple mealiness classification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral scattering technique provides a means for assessing the structural and/or physical properties of apples. It could thus be useful for detection of apple mealiness, which is a symptom of physiological disorder, resulting in an undesirable texture and taste for apples and degrading their ...

  18. Alteration of 'Granny Smith' Apple Peel Metabolic Profiles by Postharvest UV/Visable Irradiation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Light exposure stimulates an array of responses in apple peel including photosynthesis and pigment metabolism. While the specifics of many metabolic processes stimulated by light are known, impacts of light on primary metabolism in apple peel are relatively uncharacterized. ‘Granny Smith’ apples, ...

  19. Language Arts, Social Studies and Science. Apple IIGS Computer Appleworks Data Base Training Mini Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.; And Others

    These training minicourse materials include class schedules, a description of class composition, class outlines, and a list of handouts for using AppleWorks database applications with the Apple IIGS computer in language arts, social studies, and science. Classes for each content area include introductions to the Apple IIGS computer, to the…

  20. Apple Seeks To Regain Its Stature in World of Academic Computing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.; Blumenstyk, Goldie

    1998-01-01

    Managers of Apple Computer, the company that pioneered campus personal computing and later lost most of its share of the market, are again focusing energies on academic buyers. Campus technology officials, even those fond of Apples, are greeting the company's efforts with caution. Some feel it may be too late for Apple to regain a significant…

  1. Detection of drought tolerant genes within seedling apple rootstocks in Syria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This investigation was conducted to detect the drought tolerant genes (four genes) within seedling apple rootstocks derived from five apple genotypes, including Syrian apple cultivars. The results showed that the gene MdPepPro (a cyclophilin) was found in all studied genotypes and their progenies e...

  2. Dumping Low and High Resolution Graphics on the Apple IIe Microcomputer System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Richard K., Jr.; Ruckman, Frank, Jr.

    This paper discusses and outlines procedures for obtaining a hard copy of the graphic output of a microcomputer or "dumping a graphic" using the Apple Dot Matrix Printer with the Apple Parallel Interface Card, and the Imagewriter Printer with the Apple Super Serial Interface Card. Hardware configurations and instructions for high resolution and…

  3. First report of Penicillium carneum causing blue mold on stored apples in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blue mold decay occurs during long term storage of apples and is predominantly caused by Penicillium expansum Link. Apples harvested in 2010 were stored in controlled atmosphere at a commercial Pennsylvania apple packing and storage facility, and were examined for occurrence of decay in May 2011. ...

  4. ONLINE HYPERSPECTRAL LINE-SCAN FLUORESCENCE IMAGING FOR SAFETY INSPECTION OF APPLES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A recently developed fast hyperspectral line-scan imaging system integrated with a commercial apple-sorting machine was evaluated for rapid detection of animal feces matter on apples online. Golden Delicious apples obtained from a local orchard were artificially contaminated with a thin smear of co...

  5. Teaching Bad Apples: A Fun Way to Tackle Difficult Teaching Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turcotte, Nathaniel; Betrus, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    "Teaching Bad Apples" is a game developed in 2014 for current and future teachers. It plays much like "Apples to Apples" or "Cards Against Humanity," with each player in turn reading a situation card, followed by the other players choosing their response cards. Each situation, however dramatic or bizarre, is…

  6. Effect of home processing on the distribution and reduction of pesticide residues in apples.

    PubMed

    Kong, Z; Shan, W; Dong, F; Liu, X; Xu, J; Li, M; Zheng, Y

    2012-08-01

    The effect of home processing (washing, peeling, coring and juicing) on residue levels of chlorpyrifos, β-cypermethrin, tebuconazole, acetamiprid and carbendazim in apple segments was investigated. The pesticide residues were determined by UPLC-MS/MS and GC with a flame photometric (FPD) and electron capture detection (ECD). The results indicated that the pesticide residue levels in the apple peel and core were higher compared with in the apple flesh. After peeled and cored apple was processed into apple juice and pomace, chlorpyrifos, β-cypermethrin and tebuconazole were concentrated in the apple pomace. However, residues of acetamiprid and carbendazim were exceptions. The apple pomace was free of acetamiprid, which was mainly present in the apple juice. After washing the mean loss of chlorpyrifos, β-cypermethrin, tebuconazole, acetamiprid and carbendazim from apples under recommended dosage and twofold higher dosage were 17-21%, 6.7-7.1%, 13-32%, 42-67% and 47-50%, respectively. The pesticide residues were significantly reduced in the edible part of the apple except for β-cypermethrin during peeling and coring process. The removal effect of apple juicing was found to be the most pronounced on β-cypermethrin residue, which was reduced in the range of 81-84%, and the reductions of chlorpyrifos, tebuconazole, acetamiprid and carbendazim upon apple juicing were in the range of 15-36%. PMID:22738391

  7. Field Evaluation of Apple Rootstocks for Orchard Performance and Fire Blight Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2002, apple rootstock trials using three scion cultivars were established at Geneva, NY to evaluate 64 apple (Malus X domestica) rootstocks for horticultural performance and fire blight resistance. Field trials compared several elite Geneva® apple rootstocks, which were bred for tolerance to fir...

  8. Inhibition of Shiga Toxin 2 (Stx2) in Apple Juices and its Resistance to Pasteurization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the present study, we evaluated Shiga toxin (Stx2) activity in apple juices by measuring a decrease in dehydrogenase activity of Vero cells with the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Freshly prepared juice from Red Delicious apples and Golden Delicious apples inhibited the biological activity...

  9. Biodiversity of Total Phenolics, Antioxidant Capacity, and Juice Quality in Apple Cider Taxa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Apples are known to contain antioxidants that may play an important role in human health by providing protection against reactive free radicals affecting a wide range of biological molecules including nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins. While fresh apple juice is a main product of processed apples,...

  10. Choosing between an Apple and a Chocolate Bar: the Impact of Health and Taste Labels

    PubMed Central

    Forwood, Suzanna E.; Walker, Alexander D.; Hollands, Gareth J.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing the consumption of fruit and vegetables is a central component of improving population health. Reasons people give for choosing one food over another suggest health is of lower importance than taste. This study assesses the impact of using a simple descriptive label to highlight the taste as opposed to the health value of fruit on the likelihood of its selection. Participants (N=439) were randomly allocated to one of five groups that varied in the label added to an apple: apple; healthy apple; succulent apple; healthy and succulent apple; succulent and healthy apple. The primary outcome measure was selection of either an apple or a chocolate bar as a dessert. Measures of the perceived qualities of the apple (taste, health, value, quality, satiety) and of participant characteristics (restraint, belief that tasty foods are unhealthy, BMI) were also taken. When compared with apple selection without any descriptor (50%), the labels combining both health and taste descriptors significantly increased selection of the apple (’healthy & succulent’ 65.9% and ‘succulent & healthy’ 62.4%), while the use of a single descriptor had no impact on the rate of apple selection (‘healthy’ 50.5% and ‘succulent’ 52%). The strongest predictors of individual dessert choice were the taste score given to the apple, and the lack of belief that healthy foods are not tasty. Interventions that emphasize the taste attributes of healthier foods are likely to be more effective at achieving healthier diets than those emphasizing health alone. PMID:24155964

  11. Return bloom in 'Stayman' apple with NAA and/or ethephon: 2007 through 2009

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Following a season in which apple trees produce a full crop, many cultivars fail to produce enough bloom the next year for an adequate crop. Obtaining good return bloom is a problem for many apple growers. Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are recommended to enhance return bloom in apple. This study...

  12. SuperPILOT: A Comprehensive Computer-Assisted Instruction Programming Language for the Apple II Computer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falleur, David M.

    This presentation describes SuperPILOT, an extended version of Apple PILOT, a programming language for developing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) with the Apple II computer that includes the features of its early PILOT (Programmed Inquiry, Learning or Teaching) ancestors together with new features that make use of the Apple computer's advanced…

  13. Effect of surround WP on behavior and mortality of the apple maggot (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a key pest in apple production areas located in the northeastern and midwestern United States and the eastern provinces of Canada. The development of Surround WP has offered a new approach for controlling apple maggot fly...

  14. 77 FR 791 - Kasugamycin; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Apples in Michigan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... AGENCY Kasugamycin; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Apples in Michigan... Kasugamycin (CAS No. 6980-18-3) to treat up to 10,000 acres of apples to control fire blight. The applicant... use of kasugamycin on apples to control fire blight. Information in accordance with 40 CFR part...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great...

  16. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  17. 7 CFR 319.56-27 - Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of... and Vegetables § 319.56-27 Fuji variety apples from Japan and the Republic of Korea. Fuji variety apples may be imported into the United States from Japan and the Republic of Korea only in...

  18. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  19. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great...

  20. 78 FR 11173 - Kasugamycin; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Apples in Michigan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... AGENCY Kasugamycin; Receipt of Application for Emergency Exemption for Use on Apples in Michigan... kasugamycin (CAS No. 6980-18-3) to treat up to 10,000 acres of apples to control fire blight. The applicant... kasugamycin on apples to control fire blight. Information in accordance with 40 CFR part 166 was submitted...

  1. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  2. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great...

  3. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great...

  4. 7 CFR 319.56-22 - Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. 319... Vegetables § 319.56-22 Apples and pears from certain countries in Europe. (a) Importations allowed. The... applicable provisions of this subpart: (1) Apples from Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Great...

  5. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  6. 76 FR 16440 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits, Town of Apple Valley, San Bernardino...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits, Town of Apple Valley... expected application from the Town of Apple Valley, CA, for an incidental take permit (ITP) under the... Dale Evans Parkway, Apple Valley, CA 92307. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jen Lechuga,...

  7. 7 CFR 319.56-20 - Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania... Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-20 Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand. Apples and pears from Australia (including Tasmania) and New Zealand may be imported only in...

  8. High-efficiency generation of RNAi mutants of apple by use of multi-vector transformation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high-efficiency transformation and selection system was used to create apple RNAi mutants for determination of function of candidate genes in resistance of apple to Erwinia amylovora (fire blight). The M.26 apple genotype was transformed with a mixture of five RNAi EST-silencing vectors in each t...

  9. [Unhealthy weight loss. Erosion by apple cider vinegar].

    PubMed

    Gambon, D L; Brand, H S; Veerman, E C I

    2012-12-01

    Erosive tooth wear was diagnosed in the dentition of a 15-year-old girl with a Moroccan background. After an anamnesis, extensive analysis of possible risk factors and a study of the pattern of erosion, it was concluded that the erosive tooth wear was induced by daily consumption of a glass of apple cider vinegar Further investigation revealed that in North-African culture, women have used apple cider vinegar to achieve weight loss for generations. Bodybuilders are also known to make use of this method of weight reduction. PMID:23373303

  10. An analysis of mineral uptake in apple rootstock seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, A J; Werts, J M; Watkins, R

    1982-06-01

    Eight families from biparental crosses of apple rootstocks and 12 families from open pollinated Malus spp. were analysed in 2 years for N, P, K, Ca and Mg content of the foliage. Highly significant differences were found between the families for all elements. There were no significant differences between the means of the biparental group and the open pollinated group. Ca and K content were significantly more variable in the open pollinated families compared with the biparental families. It is suggested that this increased variation could prove useful in breeding for efficiency of mineral uptake by apple rootstocks. PMID:24270336

  11. Identification of selected apple pests based on selected graphical parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boniecki, P.; Koszela, K.; Piekarska-Boniecka, H.; Nowakowski, K.; Przybył, J.; Zaborowicz, M.; Raba, B.; Dach, J.

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this work was a neural identification of selected apple tree orchard pests. The classification was conducted on the basis of graphical information coded in the form of selected geometric characteristics of agrofags, presented on digital images. A neural classification model is presented in this paper, optimized using learning sets acquired on the basis of information contained in digital photographs of pests. In particular, the problem of identifying 6 selected apple pests, the most commonly encountered in Polish orchards, has been addressed. In order to classify the agrofags, neural modelling methods were utilized, supported by digital analysis of image techniques.

  12. Determination of Minerals in Apples by ICP AES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duxbury, Mark

    2003-10-01

    A laboratory experiment is described that involves the elemental analysis of apples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (IICP AES). The results of the experiment allow students to predict the cold-storage stability of apples. During the experiment the sample-preparation techniques and digestion procedures involved in elemental analysis of solid organic samples are introduced and the optimization of the ICP AES is explored. The method detailed can easily be adapted for the analysis of a wider range of elements. The laboratory experiment may also be undertaken using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) with only minor modifications in the sample-preparation procedure.

  13. Differential Expression of Biphenyl Synthase Gene Family Members in Fire-Blight-Infected Apple ‘Holsteiner Cox’ 1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Chizzali, Cornelia; Gaid, Mariam M.; Belkheir, Asma K.; Hänsch, Robert; Richter, Klaus; Flachowsky, Henryk; Peil, Andreas; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Liu, Benye; Beerhues, Ludger

    2012-01-01

    Fire blight, caused by the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, is a devastating disease of apple (Malus × domestica). The phytoalexins of apple are biphenyls and dibenzofurans, whose carbon skeleton is formed by biphenyl synthase (BIS), a type III polyketide synthase. In the recently published genome sequence of apple ‘Golden Delicious’, nine BIS genes and four BIS gene fragments were detected. The nine genes fall into four subfamilies, referred to as MdBIS1 to MdBIS4. In a phylogenetic tree, the BIS amino acid sequences from apple and Sorbus aucuparia formed an individual cluster within the clade of the functionally diverse type III polyketide synthases. cDNAs encoding MdBIS1 to MdBIS4 were cloned from fire-blight-infected shoots of apple ‘Holsteiner Cox,’ heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli, and functionally analyzed. Benzoyl-coenzyme A and salicoyl-coenzyme A were the preferred starter substrates. In response to inoculation with E. amylovora, the BIS3 gene was expressed in stems of cv Holsteiner Cox, with highest transcript levels in the transition zone between necrotic and healthy tissues. The transition zone was the accumulation site of biphenyl and dibenzofuran phytoalexins. Leaves contained transcripts for BIS2 but failed to form immunodetectable amounts of BIS protein. In cell cultures of apple ‘Cox Orange,’ expression of the BIS1 to BIS3 genes was observed after the addition of an autoclaved E. amylovora suspension. Using immunofluorescence localization under a confocal laser-scanning microscope, the BIS3 protein in the transition zone of stems was detected in the parenchyma of the bark. Dot-shaped immunofluorescence was confined to the junctions between neighboring cortical parenchyma cells. PMID:22158676

  14. Integration of physical and genetic maps in apple confirms whole-genome and segmental duplications in the apple genome

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yuepeng; Zheng, Danman; Vimolmangkang, Sornkanok; Khan, Muhammad A.; Beever, Jonathan E.; Korban, Schuyler S.

    2011-01-01

    A total of 355 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were developed, based on expressed sequence tag (EST) and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-end sequence databases, and successfully used to construct an SSR-based genetic linkage map of the apple. The consensus linkage map spanned 1143 cM, with an average density of 2.5 cM per marker. Newly developed SSR markers along with 279 SSR markers previously published by the HiDRAS project were further used to integrate physical and genetic maps of the apple using a PCR-based BAC library screening approach. A total of 470 contigs were unambiguously anchored onto all 17 linkage groups of the apple genome, and 158 contigs contained two or more molecular markers. The genetically mapped contigs spanned ∼421 Mb in cumulative physical length, representing 60.0% of the genome. The sizes of anchored contigs ranged from 97 kb to 4.0 Mb, with an average of 995 kb. The average physical length of anchored contigs on each linkage group was ∼24.8 Mb, ranging from 17.0 Mb to 37.73 Mb. Using BAC DNA as templates, PCR screening of the BAC library amplified fragments of highly homologous sequences from homoeologous chromosomes. Upon integrating physical and genetic maps of the apple, the presence of not only homoeologous chromosome pairs, but also of multiple locus markers mapped to adjacent sites on the same chromosome was detected. These findings demonstrated the presence of both genome-wide and segmental duplications in the apple genome and provided further insights into the complex polyploid ancestral origin of the apple. PMID:21743103

  15. Effect of the width of the herbicide strip on mite dynamics in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Hardman, J M; Franklin, J L; Bostanian, N J; Thistlewood, H M A

    2011-03-01

    Herbicide strips are used in apple orchards to promote tree growth and survival, to increase yield and to reduce the risk of rodent damage to tree bark. However, herbicide strips, particularly wider ones, may cause problems including soil erosion, reduced organic matter, leaching of nitrates into ground water and increased incidence of plant diseases and pests, including two-spotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch. In this 2 year study we monitored mite dynamics in apple trees and used sticky bands on tree trunks to determine rates of T. urticae immigration into Nova Spy apple trees in plots with wide (2 m) or narrow (0.5 m) herbicide strips. Use of wider herbicide strips promoted two risk factors that could trigger outbreaks of tetranychid mites. First, concentrations of leaf N in apple trees were higher and those of P and K were lower with the wide strips. Such changes in nutritional quality of leaves would increase the potential for more rapid population growth of T. urticae, and to a lesser extent, the European red mite, Panonychus ulmi (Koch). Second, there were higher rates of T. urticae immigration from the ground cover vegetation into the trees. In 2006, and for most of 2007, densities of T. urticae were higher with wide herbicide strips, whereas densities of P. ulmi were not enhanced. However, by late August to early September in 2007, densities of both tetranychids were lower with wide herbicide strips. This is because both risk factors were counterbalanced, and eventually negated, by the enhanced action of phytoseiid predators, mostly Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten. From July through September 2006, ratios of phytoseiids to tetranychids were always several-fold lower with wide herbicide strips but in 2007, from mid-July onwards, predator-prey ratios were usually several-fold higher with wide strips. However, this numerical response of phytoseiids to prey density can only occur where the pesticide program in orchards is not too harsh on phytoseiids

  16. Effect of pre-cooling, fruit coating and packaging on postharvest quality of apple.

    PubMed

    Wijewardane, R M Nilanthi Anuruddika; Guleria, S P S

    2013-04-01

    Freshly harvested apple fruits cv.'Royal Delicious' were subjected to Surface coating with 1, 1.5, 2% neem oil (Azadirachta indica) and 10, 15, 20% marigold flower (Tagetes erectus) extracts with pre cooling on apple storage quality was tested. Then the fruits were analyzed for physicochemical and physiological characters such as loss in weight, fruit firmness, total soluble solids (TSS) content, titratable acidity (TA), pH, reducing sugar contents, pectin, total anthocyanin, polygalacturonase (PG) activity and fruit spoilage. The results revealed that, the 1.5-2% concentration of neem oil as a surface coating along with pre-cooling was the most effective by retaining better physiochemical characteristics, in addition, significantly lowering disease incidence. Similarly, packaging of fruits with corrugated fiber board (CFB) boxes + paper mould trays, CFB + Polyethylene (PE) liners and shrink wrapped tray packing during storage (18-25 °C and 65-75% RH), revealed that 2% neem oil surface coating with shrink wrap tray packing resulted the better retention of storage life and, whereas, the treatment effect on physico-chemical characteristics of fruits were significant (p < 0.05). However, the treatment effect was statistically at par with the marigold extract application with shrink wrapped tray packing in pre cooled fruits (10-15 °C, 70-75% RH) during ambient storage (18-25 ° C, 65-75% RH). PMID:24425923

  17. Streptomycin use in apple orchards did not increase abundance of mobile resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Brion; Holliger, Eduard; Walsh, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Streptomycin is used as a first-line defense and tetracycline as a second-line defense, in the fight against fire blight disease in apple and pear orchards. We have performed the first study to quantitatively analyze the influence of streptomycin use in agriculture on the abundance of streptomycin and tetracycline resistance genes in apple orchards. Flowers, leaves, and soil were collected from three orchard sites in 2010, 2011, and 2012. Gene abundance distribution was analyzed using two-way anova and principal component analysis to investigate relationships between gene abundance data over time and treatment. The mobile antibiotic resistance genes, strA, strB, tetB, tetM, tetW, and the insertion sequence IS1133, were detected prior to streptomycin treatment in almost all samples, indicating the natural presence of these resistance genes in nature. Statistically significant increases in the resistance gene abundances were occasional, inconsistent, and not reproducible from one year to the next. We conclude that the application of streptomycin in these orchards was not associated with sustained increases in streptomycin or tetracycline resistance gene abundances. PMID:24164283

  18. Cultivable bacteria isolated from apple trees cultivated under different crop systems: Diversity and antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides.

    PubMed

    Dos Passos, João Frederico M; da Costa, Pedro B; Costa, Murilo D; Zaffari, Gilmar R; Nava, Gilberto; Boneti, José Itamar; de Oliveira, Andréia Mara R; Passaglia, Luciane M P

    2014-09-01

    This study evaluated the diversity of cultivable plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with apple trees cultivated under different crop management systems and their antagonistic ability against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil from apple trees cultivated in organic and conventional orchards in southern Brazil were collected, together with soil samples from an area never used for agriculture (native field). Bacteria were identified at the genus level by PCR-RFLP and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, and were evaluated for some PGP abilities. The most abundant bacterial genera identified were Enterobacter (27.7%), Pseudomonas (18.7%), Burkholderia (13.7%), and Rahnella (12.3%). Sixty-nine isolates presented some antagonist activity against C. gloeosporioides. In a greenhouse experiment, five days after exposure to C. gloeosporioides, an average of 30% of the leaf area of plants inoculated with isolate 89 (identified as Burkholderia sp.) were infected, whereas 60 to 73% of the leaf area of untreated plants was affected by fungal attack. Our results allowed us to infer how anthropogenic activity is affecting the bacterial communities in soil associated with apple tree crop systems, and to obtain an isolate that was able to delay the emergence of an important disease for this culture. PMID:25249780

  19. Potential of polyphenols from an aqueous extract of apple peel as inhibitors of free radicals: An experimental and computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendoza-Wilson, Ana María; Armenta-Vázquez, Martín Elí; Castro-Arredondo, Sergio Ivan; Espinosa-Plascencia, Angélica; Robles-Burgueño, María del Refugio; González-Ríos, Humberto; González-León, Alberto; Balandrán-Quintana, René R.

    2013-03-01

    The apple peel, which is an agro-industrial byproduct, has a high content of natural antioxidants and could be a source of functional ingredients for easily oxidizable foods, as well as a source of nutraceuticals for the treatment of diseases of oxidative origin. The ability to inhibit free radicals of an apple peel aqueous extract (APAE) and its fraction of procyanidins (P) was investigated, based on both the second-order rate constants (Ks) and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (ILP). For this purpose, ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry (UV-Vis) adapted to stopped-flow, and computational methodologies as Density Functional Theory (DFT) were used. It was found that the P fraction was the one that showed the highest Ks in aqueous medium, while the largest percentage of ILP in emulsion was accomplished by the APAE. The compounds which could confer the high antiradical activity to apple peel are mainly quercetin-3-galactoside, quercetin-3-glucoside, procyanidin B-2 and cyanidin-3-glucoside.

  20. Cultivable bacteria isolated from apple trees cultivated under different crop systems: Diversity and antagonistic activity against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

    PubMed Central

    dos Passos, João Frederico M.; da Costa, Pedro B.; Costa, Murilo D.; Zaffari, Gilmar R.; Nava, Gilberto; Boneti, José Itamar; de Oliveira, Andréia Mara R.; Passaglia, Luciane M.P.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the diversity of cultivable plant growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria associated with apple trees cultivated under different crop management systems and their antagonistic ability against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Samples of roots and rhizospheric soil from apple trees cultivated in organic and conventional orchards in southern Brazil were collected, together with soil samples from an area never used for agriculture (native field). Bacteria were identified at the genus level by PCR-RFLP and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA, and were evaluated for some PGP abilities. The most abundant bacterial genera identified were Enterobacter (27.7%), Pseudomonas (18.7%), Burkholderia (13.7%), and Rahnella (12.3%). Sixty-nine isolates presented some antagonist activity against C. gloeosporioides. In a greenhouse experiment, five days after exposure to C. gloeosporioides, an average of 30% of the leaf area of plants inoculated with isolate 89 (identified as Burkholderia sp.) were infected, whereas 60 to 73% of the leaf area of untreated plants was affected by fungal attack. Our results allowed us to infer how anthropogenic activity is affecting the bacterial communities in soil associated with apple tree crop systems, and to obtain an isolate that was able to delay the emergence of an important disease for this culture. PMID:25249780