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Sample records for application methods water

  1. How to save water by choice of irrigation application method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is known that irrigation application method can impact crop water use and water use efficiency, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood, particularly in terms of the water and energy balances during the growing season from pre-irrigation through planting, early growth and yield de...

  2. Metropolitan Water Availability Forecasting Methods and Applications in South Florida

    EPA Science Inventory

    The availability of adequate fresh water is fundamental to the sustainable management of water infrastructures that support both urban needs and agricultural uses in human society. Recent drought events in the U.S. have threatened drinking water supplies for communities in Maryl...

  3. Method for calculating the three-dimensional water concentration coefficients and its industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prel, P.

    1991-12-01

    A three dimensional method for calculating the concentration coefficients of water droplets, its general principles, as well as the details of the calculating computer programs that were used, are described. The applications are presented for locating probes on the Airbus 340 and ATR 72 airplanes, mainly showing the effect of the drop diameter on the measured concentration.

  4. Are fragment-based quantum chemistry methods applicable to medium-sized water clusters?

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dandan; Shen, Xiaoling; Li, Wei; Li, Shuhua

    2016-06-28

    Fragment-based quantum chemistry methods are either based on the many-body expansion or the inclusion-exclusion principle. To compare the applicability of these two categories of methods, we have systematically evaluated the performance of the generalized energy based fragmentation (GEBF) method (J. Phys. Chem. A, 2007, 111, 2193) and the electrostatically embedded many-body (EE-MB) method (J. Chem. Theory Comput., 2007, 3, 46) for medium-sized water clusters (H2O)n (n = 10, 20, 30). Our calculations demonstrate that the GEBF method provides uniformly accurate ground-state energies for 10 low-energy isomers of three water clusters under study at a series of theory levels, while the EE-MB method (with one water molecule as a fragment and without using the cutoff distance) shows a poor convergence for (H2O)20 and (H2O)30 when the basis set contains diffuse functions. Our analysis shows that the neglect of the basis set superposition error for each subsystem has little effect on the accuracy of the GEBF method, but leads to much less accurate results for the EE-MB method. The accuracy of the EE-MB method can be dramatically improved by using an appropriate cutoff distance and using two water molecules as a fragment. For (H2O)30, the average deviation of the EE-MB method truncated up to the three-body level calculated using this strategy (relative to the conventional energies) is about 0.003 hartree at the M06-2X/6-311++G** level, while the deviation of the GEBF method with a similar computational cost is less than 0.001 hartree. The GEBF method is demonstrated to be applicable for electronic structure calculations of water clusters at any basis set. PMID:27263629

  5. A new method for qualitative simulation of water resources systems: 2. Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, M. P.; Seixas, M. J.; Camara, A. S.; Pinheiro, M.

    1987-11-01

    SLIN (Simulação Linguistica) is a new method for qualitative dynamic simulation. As was presented previously (Camara et al., this issue), SLIN relies upon a categorical representation of variables which are manipulated by logical rules. Two applications to water resources systems are included to illustrate SLIN's potential usefulness: the environmental impact evaluation of a hydropower plant and the assessment of oil dispersion in the sea after a tanker wreck.

  6. Neutron transport with the method of characteristics for 3-D full core boiling water reactor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Justin W.

    2006-12-01

    The Numerical Nuclear Reactor (NNR) is a code suite that is being developed to provide high-fidelity multi-physics capability for the analysis of light water nuclear reactors. The focus of the work here is to extend the capability of the NNR by incorporation of the neutronics module, DeCART, for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) applications. The DeCART code has been coupled to the NNR fluid mechanics and heat transfer module STAR-CD for light water reactor applications. The coupling has been accomplished via an interface program, which is responsible for mapping the STAR-CD and DeCART meshes, managing communication, and monitoring convergence. DeCART obtains the solution of the 3-D Boltzmann transport equation by performing a series of 2-D modular ray tracing-based method of characteristics problems that are coupled within the framework of 3-D coarse-mesh finite difference. The relatively complex geometry and increased axial heterogeneity found in BWRs are beyond the modeling capability of the original version of DeCART. In this work, DeCART is extended in three primary areas. First, the geometric capability is generalized by extending the modular ray tracing scheme and permitting an unstructured mesh in the global finite difference kernel. Second, numerical instabilities, which arose as a result of the severe axial heterogeneity found in BWR cores, have been resolved. Third, an advanced nodal method has been implemented to improve the accuracy of the axial flux distribution. In this semi-analytic nodal method, the analytic solution to the transverse-integrated neutron diffusion equation is obtained, where the nonhomogeneous neutron source was first approximated by a quartic polynomial. The successful completion of these three tasks has allowed the application of the coupled DeCART/STAR-CD code to practical BWR problems.

  7. Toward a generic method for studying water renewal, with application to the epilimnion of Lake Tanganyika

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gourgue, Olivier; Deleersnijder, Eric; White, Laurent

    2007-09-01

    We present a method, based on the concept of age and residence time, to study the water renewal in a semi-enclosed domain. We split the water of this domain into different water types. The initial water is the water initially present in the semi-enclosed domain. The renewing water is defined as the water entering the domain of interest. Several renewing water types may be considered depending on their origin. We present the equations for computing the age and the residence time of a certain water type. These timescales are of use to understand the rate at which the water renewal takes place. Computing these timescales can be achieved at an acceptable extra computer cost. The above-mentioned method is applied to study the renewal of epilimnion (i.e. the surface layer) water in Lake Tanganyika. We have built a finite element reduced-gravity model modified to take into account the water exchange between the epilimnion and the hypolimnion (i.e. the bottom layer), the water supply from precipitation and incoming rivers, and the water loss from evaporation and the only outgoing river. With our water renewal diagnoses, we show that the only significant process in the renewal of epilimnion water in Lake Tanganyika is the water exchange between the epilimnion and the hypolimnion, other phenomena being negligible.

  8. Irrigation water sources and irrigation application methods used by U.S. plant nursery producers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paudel, Krishna P.; Pandit, Mahesh; Hinson, Roger

    2016-02-01

    We examine irrigation water sources and irrigation methods used by U.S. nursery plant producers using nested multinomial fractional regression models. We use data collected from the National Nursery Survey (2009) to identify effects of different firm and sales characteristics on the fraction of water sources and irrigation methods used. We find that regions, sales of plants types, farm income, and farm age have significant roles in what water source is used. Given the fraction of alternative water sources used, results indicated that use of computer, annual sales, region, and the number of IPM practices adopted play an important role in the choice of irrigation method. Based on the findings from this study, government can provide subsidies to nursery producers in water deficit regions to adopt drip irrigation method or use recycled water or combination of both. Additionally, encouraging farmers to adopt IPM may enhance the use of drip irrigation and recycled water in nursery plant production.

  9. A numerical analysis on the applicability of the water level fluctuation method for quantifying groundwater recharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, M.; Lee, D.

    2002-12-01

    The water table fluctuation(WTF) method is a conventional method for quantifying groundwater recharge by multiplying the specific yield to the water level rise. Based on the van Genuchten model, an analytical relationship between groundwater recharge and the water level rise is derived. The equation is used to analyze the effects of the depth to water level and the soil properties on the recharge estimate using the WTF method. The results show that the WTF method is reliable when applied to the aquifers of the fluvial sand provided the water table is below 1m depth. However, if it is applied to the silt loam having the water table depth ranging 4~10m, the recharge is overestimated by 30~80%, and the error increases drastically as the water table is getting shallower. A 2-D unconfined flow model with a time series of the recharge rate is developed. It is used for elucidating the errors of the WTF method, which is implicitly based on the tank model where the horizontal flow in the saturated zone is ignored. Simulations show that the recharge estimated by the WTF method is underestimated for the observation well near the discharge boundary. This is due to the fact that the hydraulic stress resulting from the recharge is rapidly dissipating by the horizontal flow near the discharge boundary. Simulations also reveal that the recharge is significantly underestimated with increase in the hydraulic conductivity and the recharge duration, and decrease in the specific yield.

  10. Corn yield and water use efficiency under contrasting irrigation application methods: an AquaCrop study contrasting subsurface drip and sprinkler irrigation methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain corn (Zea mays, L.) is sensitive to soil water availability, which can be influenced by irrigation application method. Four facts motivate deficit irrigation of corn in this region. First, declining Ogallala aquifer well yields limit water availability and thus the area of land that can be irr...

  11. Non Invasive Water Level Monitoring on Boiling Water Reactors Using Internal Gamma Radiation: Application of Soft Computing Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischer, Sebastian; Hampel, Rainer

    2006-07-01

    To provide best knowledge about safety-related water level values in boiling water reactors (BWR) is essentially for operational regime. For the water level determination hydrostatic level measurement systems are almost exclusively applied, because they stand the test over many decades in conventional and nuclear power plants (NPP). Due to the steam generation especially in BWR a specific phenomenon occurs which leads to a water-steam mixture level in the reactor annular space and reactor plenum. The mixture level is a high transient non-measurable value concerning the hydrostatic water level measuring system and it significantly differs from the measured collapsed water level. In particular, during operational and accidental transient processes like fast negative pressure transients, the monitoring of these water levels is very important. In addition to the hydrostatic water level measurement system a diverse water level measurement system for BWR should be used. A real physical diversity is given by gamma radiation distribution inside and outside the reactor pressure vessel correlating with the water level. The vertical gamma radiation distribution depends on the water level, but it is also a function of the neutron flux and the coolant recirculation pump speed. For the water level monitoring, special algorithms are required. An analytical determination of the gamma radiation distribution outside the reactor pressure vessel is impossible due to the multitude of radiation of physical processes, complicated non-stationary radiation source distribution and complex geometry of fixtures. For creating suited algorithms Soft Computing methods (Fuzzy Sets Theory, Artificial Neural Networks, etc.) will be used. Therefore, a database containing input values (gamma radiation distribution) and output values (water levels) had to be built. Here, the database was established by experiments (data from BWR and from a test setup) and simulation with the authorised thermo

  12. A new method of calculating electrical conductivity with applications to natural waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ryan, Joseph N.; Ball, James W.

    2012-01-01

    A new method is presented for calculating the electrical conductivity of natural waters that is accurate over a large range of effective ionic strength (0.0004-0.7 mol kg-1), temperature (0-95 °C), pH (1-10), and conductivity (30-70,000 μS cm-1). The method incorporates a reliable set of equations to calculate the ionic molal conductivities of cations and anions (H+, Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, F-, Cl-, Br-, SO42-, HCO3-, CO32-, NO3-, and OH-), environmentally important trace metals (Al3+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, and Zn2+), and ion pairs (HSO4-, NaSO4-, NaCO3-, and KSO4-). These equations are based on new electrical conductivity measurements for electrolytes found in a wide range of natural waters. In addition, the method is coupled to a geochemical speciation model that is used to calculate the speciated concentrations required for accurate conductivity calculations. The method was thoroughly tested by calculating the conductivities of 1593 natural water samples and the mean difference between the calculated and measured conductivities was -0.7 ± 5%. Many of the samples tested were selected to determine the limits of the method and include acid mine waters, geothermal waters, seawater, dilute mountain waters, and river water impacted by municipal waste water. Transport numbers were calculated and H+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, CO32-, F-, Al3+, Fe2+, NO3-, and HSO4-substantially contributed (>10%) to the conductivity of at least one of the samples. Conductivity imbalance in conjunction with charge imbalance can be used to identify whether a cation or an anion measurement is likely in error, thereby providing an additional quality assurance/quality control constraint on water analyses.

  13. A new method of calculating electrical conductivity with applications to natural waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Ryan, Joseph N.; Ball, James W.

    2012-01-01

    A new method is presented for calculating the electrical conductivity of natural waters that is accurate over a large range of effective ionic strength (0.0004–0.7 mol kg-1), temperature (0–95 °C), pH (1–10), and conductivity (30–70,000 μS cm-1). The method incorporates a reliable set of equations to calculate the ionic molal conductivities of cations and anions (H+, Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+, NH4+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, Ba2+, F-, Cl-, Br-, SO42-, HCO3-, CO32-, NO3-, and OH-), environmentally important trace metals (Al3+, Cu2+, Fe2+, Fe3+, Mn2+, and Zn2+), and ion pairs (HSO4-, NaSO4-, NaCO3-, and KSO4-). These equations are based on new electrical conductivity measurements for electrolytes found in a wide range of natural waters. In addition, the method is coupled to a geochemical speciation model that is used to calculate the speciated concentrations required for accurate conductivity calculations. The method was thoroughly tested by calculating the conductivities of 1593 natural water samples and the mean difference between the calculated and measured conductivities was -0.7 ± 5%. Many of the samples tested were selected to determine the limits of the method and include acid mine waters, geothermal waters, seawater, dilute mountain waters, and river water impacted by municipal waste water. Transport numbers were calculated and H+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, HCO3-, CO32-, F-, Al3+, Fe2+, NO3-, and HSO4- substantially contributed (>10%) to the conductivity of at least one of the samples. Conductivity imbalance in conjunction with charge imbalance can be used to identify whether a cation or an anion measurement is likely in error, thereby providing an additional quality assurance/quality control constraint on water analyses.

  14. Exploring the Application of Community Development Methods on Water Research in Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crane, P. E.

    2012-12-01

    In research and community development focused on water in developing countries, there is a common focus on issues of water quantity and quality. In the best circumstances both are innovative - bringing understanding and solutions to resource poor regions that is appropriate to their unique situations. But the underlying methods and measures for success often differ significantly. Applying critical aspects of community development methods to water research in developing countries could increase the probability of identifying innovative and sustainable solutions. This is examined through two case studies: the first identifies common methods across community development projects in six African countries, and the second examines water quality research performed in Benin, West Africa through the lens of these methods. The first case study is taken from observations gathered between 2008 and 2012 of community development projects focused on water quantity and quality in six sub-Saharan African countries implemented through different non-governmental organizations. These projects took place in rural and peri-urban regions where public utilities were few to none, instance of diarrheal disease was high, and most adults had received little formal education. The water projects included drilling of boreholes, building of rain water tanks, oasis rehabilitation, spring protection, and household biosand filters. All solutions were implemented with hygiene and sanitation components. Although these projects occurred in a wide array of cultural, geographical and climatic regions, the most successful projects shared methods of implementation. These methods are: high levels of stakeholder participation, environmental and cultural adaptation of process and product, and implementation over an extended length of time. The second case study focuses on water quality research performed in Benin, West Africa from 2003 to 2008. This research combined laboratory and statistical analyses with

  15. Adaptation strategies for water supply management in a drought prone Mediterranean river basin: Application of outranking method.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Del Vasto-Terrientes, Luis; Valls, Aida; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The regional water allocation planning is one of those complex decision problems where holistic approach to water supply management considering different criteria would be valuable. However, multi-criteria decision making with diverse indicators measured on different scales and uncertainty levels is difficult to solve. Objective of this paper is to develop scenarios for the future imbalances in water supply and demand for a water stressed Mediterranean area of Northern Spain (Tarragona) and to test the applicability and suitability of an outranking method ELECTRE-III-H for evaluating sectoral water allocation policies. This study is focused on the use of alternative water supply scenarios to fulfil the demand of water from three major sectors: domestic, industrial and agricultural. A detail scenario planning for regional water demand and supply has been discussed. For each future scenario of climate change, the goal is to obtain a ranking of a set of possible actions with regards to different types of indicators (costs, water stress and environmental impact). The analytical method used is based on outranking models for decision aid with hierarchical structures of criteria and ranking alternatives using partial preorders based on pairwise preference relations. We compare several adaptation measures including alternative water sources (reclaimed water and desalination); inter basin water transfer and sectoral demand management coming from industry, agriculture and domestic sectors and tested the sustainability of management actions for different climate change scenarios. Results have shown use of alternative water resources as the most reliable alternative with medium reclaimed water reuse in industry and agriculture and low to medium use of desalination water in domestic and industrial sectors as the best alternative. The proposed method has several advantages such as the management of heterogeneous scales of measurement without requiring any artificial

  16. Method detection limit determination and application of a convenient headspace analysis method for methyl tert-butyl ether in water.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Dennis T; Rochette, Elizabeth A; Ramsey, Philip J

    2002-11-15

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is a common groundwater contaminant, introduced to the environment by leaking petroleum storage tanks, urban runoff, and motorized watercraft. In this study. a simplified (static) headspace analysis method was adapted for determination of MTBE in water samples and soil water extracts. The MDL of the headspace method was calculated to be 2.0 microg L(-1) by the EPA single-concentration design method(1) and 1.2 microg L(-1) by a calibration method developed by Hubaux and Vos (Hubaux, A.; Vos, G. Anal. Chem. 1970,42, 849-855). The MDL calculated with the Hubaux and Vos method was favored because it considers both a true positive and a false positive. The static headspace method was applied to analysis of a tap water sample and a monitoring well sample from a gasoline service station, a river sample, and aqueous extracts from soil excavated during removal of a leaking underground storage tank (LUST). The water samples examined in this study had MTTBE concentrations ranging from 6 to 19 microg L(-1). Aqueous extracts of a soil sample taken from the LUST site had 8 microg L(-1) MTBE. PMID:12463380

  17. Application of the multicomponent lattice Boltzmann simulation method to oil/water dispersions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaton, M. A.; Halliday, I.; Masters, A. J.

    2011-03-01

    We study the propagation of acoustic fields in bounded, two-dimensional, mono-disperse oil/water emulsions using a carefully modified and appropriately calibrated single relaxation time multicomponent lattice Boltzmann equation simulation. Our model is a variant of an algorithm applying both interface forces based on macroscopic surface tensions and a kinematic condition for phase separation, adapted to allow sonic speed variations between its oil and water components. Appropriate second-order accurate acoustic boundary conditions are obtained from a node-based lattice closure with local mass conservation and applicability for varying fluid viscosities. Data from an example simulation of a single oil drop in water interacting with a generated standing acoustic wave are presented and, where appropriate, compared with empirical theories and analogous calculations for a solid object.

  18. Soil Water Content Assessment: Critical Issues Concerning the Operational Application of the Triangle Method

    PubMed Central

    Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of soil water content plays a key role in water management efforts to improve irrigation efficiency. Among the indirect estimation methods of soil water content via Earth Observation data is the triangle method, used to analyze optical and thermal features because these are primarily controlled by water content within the near-surface evaporation layer and root zone in bare and vegetated soils. Although the soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer theory describes the ongoing processes, theoretical models reveal limits for operational use. When applying simplified empirical formulations, meteorological forcing could be replaced with alternative variables when the above-canopy temperature is unknown, to mitigate the effects of calibration inaccuracies or to account for the temporal admittance of the soil. However, if applied over a limited area, a characterization of both dry and wet edges could not be properly achieved; thus, a multi-temporal analysis can be exploited to include outer extremes in soil water content. A diachronic empirical approach introduces the need to assume a constancy of other meteorological forcing variables that control thermal features. Airborne images were acquired on a Sicilian vineyard during most of an entire irrigation period (fruit-set to ripening stages, vintage 2008), during which in situ soil water content was measured to set up the triangle method. Within this framework, we tested the triangle method by employing alternative thermal forcing. The results were inaccurate when air temperature at airborne acquisition was employed. Sonic and aerodynamic air temperatures confirmed and partially explained the limits of simultaneous meteorological forcing, and the use of proxy variables improved model accuracy. The analysis indicates that high spatial resolution does not necessarily imply higher accuracies. PMID:25808771

  19. Soil water content assessment: critical issues concerning the operational application of the triangle method.

    PubMed

    Maltese, Antonino; Capodici, Fulvio; Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of soil water content plays a key role in water management efforts to improve irrigation efficiency. Among the indirect estimation methods of soil water content via Earth Observation data is the triangle method, used to analyze optical and thermal features because these are primarily controlled by water content within the near-surface evaporation layer and root zone in bare and vegetated soils. Although the soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer theory describes the ongoing processes, theoretical models reveal limits for operational use. When applying simplified empirical formulations, meteorological forcing could be replaced with alternative variables when the above-canopy temperature is unknown, to mitigate the effects of calibration inaccuracies or to account for the temporal admittance of the soil. However, if applied over a limited area, a characterization of both dry and wet edges could not be properly achieved; thus, a multi-temporal analysis can be exploited to include outer extremes in soil water content. A diachronic empirical approach introduces the need to assume a constancy of other meteorological forcing variables that control thermal features. Airborne images were acquired on a Sicilian vineyard during most of an entire irrigation period (fruit-set to ripening stages, vintage 2008), during which in situ soil water content was measured to set up the triangle method. Within this framework, we tested the triangle method by employing alternative thermal forcing. The results were inaccurate when air temperature at airborne acquisition was employed. Sonic and aerodynamic air temperatures confirmed and partially explained the limits of simultaneous meteorological forcing, and the use of proxy variables improved model accuracy. The analysis indicates that high spatial resolution does not necessarily imply higher accuracies. PMID:25808771

  20. Field and laboratory arsenic speciation methods and their application to natural-water analysis.

    PubMed

    Bednar, A J; Garbarino, J R; Burkhardt, M R; Ranville, J F; Wildeman, T R

    2004-01-01

    The toxic and carcinogenic properties of inorganic and organic arsenic species make their determination in natural water vitally important. Determination of individual inorganic and organic arsenic species is critical because the toxicology, mobility, and adsorptivity vary substantially. Several methods for the speciation of arsenic in groundwater, surface-water, and acid mine drainage sample matrices using field and laboratory techniques are presented. The methods provide quantitative determination of arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonate (MMA), dimethylarsinate (DMA), and roxarsone in 2-8 min at detection limits of less than 1 microg arsenic per liter (microg As L(-1)). All the methods use anion exchange chromatography to separate the arsenic species and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as an arsenic-specific detector. Different methods were needed because some sample matrices did not have all arsenic species present or were incompatible with particular high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) mobile phases. The bias and variability of the methods were evaluated using total arsenic, As(III), As(V), DMA, and MMA results from more than 100 surface-water, groundwater, and acid mine drainage samples, and reference materials. Concentrations in test samples were as much as 13,000 microg As L(-1) for As(III) and 3700 microg As L(-1) for As(V). Methylated arsenic species were less than 100 microg As L(-1) and were found only in certain surface-water samples, and roxarsone was not detected in any of the water samples tested. The distribution of inorganic arsenic species in the test samples ranged from 0% to 90% As(III). Laboratory-speciation method variability for As(III), As(V), MMA, and DMA in reagent water at 0.5 microg As L(-1) was 8-13% (n=7). Field-speciation method variability for As(III) and As(V) at 1 microg As L(-1) in reagent water was 3-4% (n=3). PMID:14675647

  1. A generic method for projecting and valuing domestic water uses, application to the Mediterranean basin at the 2050 horizon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neverre, Noémie; Dumas, Patrice

    2014-05-01

    The aim is to be able to assess future domestic water demands in a region with heterogeneous levels of economic development. This work offers an original combination of a quantitative projection of demands (similar to WaterGAP methodology) and an estimation of the marginal benefit of water. This method is applicable to different levels of economic development and usable for large-scale hydroeconomic modelling. The global method consists in building demand functions taking into account the impact of both the price of water and the level of equipment, proxied by economic development, on domestic water demand. Our basis is a 3-blocks inverse demand function: the first block consists of essential water requirements for food and hygiene; the second block matches intermediate needs; and the last block corresponds to additional water consumption, such as outdoor uses, which are the least valued. The volume of the first block is fixed to match recommended basic water requirements from the literature, but we assume that the volume limits of blocks 2 and 3 depend on the level of household equipment and therefore evolve with the level of GDP per capita (structural change), with a saturation. For blocks 1 and 2 we determine the value of water from elasticity, price and quantity data from the literature, using the point-extension method. For block 3, we use a hypothetical zero-cost demand and maximal demand with actual water costs to linearly interpolate the inverse demand function. These functions are calibrated on the 24 countries part of the Mediterranean basin using data from SIMEDD, and are used for the projection and valuation of domestic water demands at the 2050 horizon. They enable to project total water demand, and also the respective shares of the different categories of demand (basic demand, intermediate demand and additional uses). These projections are performed under different combined scenarios of population, GDP and water costs.

  2. Application of the SCC-DFTB method to hydroxide water clusters and aqueous hydroxide solutions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tae Hoon; Liang, Ruibin; Maupin, C Mark; Voth, Gregory A

    2013-05-01

    The self-consistent charge density functional tight binding (SCC-DFTB) method has been applied to hydroxide water clusters and a hydroxide ion in bulk water. To determine the impact of various implementations of SCC-DFTB on the energetics and dynamics of a hydroxide ion in gas phase and condensed phase, the DFTB2, DFTB2-γ(h), DFTB2-γ(h)+gaus, DFTB3-diag, DFTB3-diag+gaus, DFTB3-Full+gaus, and DFTB3-3OB implementations have been tested. Energetic stabilities for small hydroxide clusters, OH(-)(H2O)n, where n = 4-7, are inconsistent with the results calculated with the B3LYP and second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) levels of ab initio theory. The condensed phase simulations, OH(-)(H2O)127, using the DFTB2, DFTB2-γ(h), DFTB2-γ(h)+gaus, DFTB3-diag, DFTB3-diag+gaus, DFTB3-Full+gaus and DFTB3-3OB methods are compared to Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations using the BLYP functional. The SCC-DFTB method including a modified O-H repulsive potential and the third order correction (DFTB3-diag/Full+gaus) is shown to poorly reproduce the CPMD computational results, while the DFTB2 and DFTB2-γ(h) method somewhat more closely describe the structural and dynamical nature of the hydroxide ion in condensed phase. The DFTB3-3OB outperforms the MIO parameter set but is no more accurate than DFTB2. It is also shown that the overcoordinated water molecules lead to an incorrect bulk water density and result in unphysical water void formation. The results presented in this paper point to serious drawbacks for various DFTB extensions and corrections for a hydroxide ion in aqueous environments. PMID:23566052

  3. Application of Method of Variation to Analyze and Predict Human Induced Modifications of Water Resource Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dessu, S. B.; Melesse, A. M.; Mahadev, B.; McClain, M.

    2010-12-01

    Water resource systems have often used gravitational surface and subsurface flows because of their practicality in hydrological modeling and prediction. Activities such as inter/intra-basin water transfer, the use of small pumps and the construction of micro-ponds challenge the tradition of natural rivers as water resource management unit. On the contrary, precipitation is barely affected by topography and plot harvesting in wet regions can be more manageable than diverting from rivers. Therefore, it is indicative to attend to systems where precipitation drives the dynamics while the internal mechanics constitutes spectrum of human activity and decision in a network of plots. The trade-in volume and path of harvested precipitation depends on water balance, energy balance and the kinematics of supply and demand. Method of variation can be used to understand and predict the implication of local excess precipitation harvest and exchange on the natural water system. A system model was developed using the variational form of Euler-Bernoulli’s equation for the Kenyan Mara River basin. Satellite derived digital elevation models, precipitation estimates, and surface properties such as fractional impervious surface area, are used to estimate the available water resource. Four management conditions are imposed in the model: gravitational flow, open water extraction and high water use investment at upstream and downstream respectively. According to the model, the first management maintains the basin status quo while the open source management could induce externality. The high water market at the upstream in the third management offers more than 50% of the basin-wide total revenue to the upper third section of the basin thus may promote more harvesting. The open source and upstream exploitation suggest potential drop of water availability to downstream. The model exposed the latent potential of economic gradient to reconfigure the flow network along the direction where the

  4. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, F.S.; Silver, G.L.

    1991-04-30

    A method is described for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  5. Water treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Martin, Frank S.; Silver, Gary L.

    1991-04-30

    A method for reducing the concentration of any undesirable metals dissolved in contaminated water, such as waste water. The method involves uniformly reacting the contaminated water with an excess amount of solid particulate calcium sulfite to insolubilize the undesirable metal ions, followed by removal thereof and of the unreacted calcium sulfite.

  6. Applicability of the doubly labelled water method to the rhinoceros auklet, Cerorhinca monocerata

    PubMed Central

    Shirai, Masaki; Ito, Motohiro; Yoda, Ken; Niizuma, Yasuaki

    2012-01-01

    Summary The doubly labelled water (DLW) method is an isotope-based technique that is used to measure the metabolic rates of free-living animals. We validated the DLW method for measuring metabolic rates in five rhinoceros auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata) compared with simultaneous measurements using the respirometric method. We calculated the CO2 production rate of four auklets (mean initial body mass: 552 g±36 s.d.) injected with DLW, using the one- and two-pool models. The metabolic rate during the 24-h measurements in a respirometric chamber for resting auklets averaged 16.30±1.66 kJ h−1 (n = 4). The metabolic rates determined using the one- and two-pool models in the DLW method for the same period as the respirometric measurement averaged 16.61±2.13 kJ h−1 (n = 4) and 16.16±2.10 kJ h−1 (n = 4), respectively. The mean absolute percent error between the DLW and respirometric methods was 8.04% using the one-pool model and was slightly better than that with the two-pool model. The differences in value between the DLW and respirometric methods are probably due to oxygen isotope turnover, which eliminated only 10–14% of the initial enrichment excess. PMID:23213394

  7. Development and application of a shipboard method for spectrophotometric determination of trace dissolved manganese in estuarine and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Sichao; Huang, Yongming; Yuan, Dongxing; Zhu, Yong; Zhou, Tingjin

    2015-01-01

    A shipboard method for the determination of trace dissolved manganese in estuarine and coastal waters was developed using a technique of reverse flow injection analysis, which adopted a 1-m liquid waveguide capillary cell and spectrophotometric detection of manganese derivation with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN). The design of dual-sample-carrier speeded up the sample throughput and eliminated the Schlieren effect. The salinity of estuarine and coastal waters caused a huge increase in the blank absorption value at the maximum absorption wavelength; therefore, a less sensitive detection wavelength was selected to achieve a low blank value while the method sensitivity was not significantly decreased. Method parameters were optimized. The salinity effect from estuarine and coastal waters was carefully investigated, and interference from iron was evaluated. The proposed method had high sensitivity with a detection limit of 3.0 nmol L-1 and a wide linear range of 10-1500 nmol L-1 for dissolved manganese in seawater (S=35). The analytical results of five water samples with different salinities obtained using the proposed method showed good agreement with those using a reference ICP-MS method. The sample throughput of the proposed method was 120 h-1, which was capable of obtaining high spatial and temporal resolution data in shipboard analysis. The proposed method had the advantages of convenient application in estuarine and coastal waters with different salinities, low detection limit, as well as high sample throughput. The proposed method was successfully applied to a 24 h on-line analysis and a shipboard underway analysis of dissolved manganese in the Jiulongjiang Estuary.

  8. Application of response surface methodology for determination of methyl red in water samples by spectrophotometry method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodadoust, Saeid; Ghaedi, Mehrorang

    2014-12-01

    In this study a rapid and effective method (dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was developed for extraction of methyl red (MR) prior to its determination by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Influence variables on DLLME such as volume of chloroform (as extractant solvent) and methanol (as dispersive solvent), pH and ionic strength and extraction time were investigated. Then significant variables were optimized by using a Box-Behnken design (BBD) and desirability function (DF). The optimized conditions (100 μL of chloroform, 1.3 mL of ethanol, pH 4 and 4% (w/v) NaCl) resulted in a linear calibration graph in the range of 0.015-10.0 mg mL-1 of MR in initial solution with R2 = 0.995 (n = 5). The limits of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.005 and 0.015 mg mL-1, respectively. Finally, the DLLME method was applied for determination of MR in different water samples with relative standard deviation (RSD) less than 5% (n = 5).

  9. Application of Chemometric Methods for Assessment and Modelling of Microbiological Quality Data Concerning Coastal Bathing Water in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Papaioannou, Agelos; Rigas, George; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos

    2014-01-01

    Background Worldwide, the aim of managing water is to safeguard human health whilst maintaining sustainable aquatic and associated terrestrial, ecosystems. Because human enteric viruses are the most likely pathogens responsible for waterborne diseases from recreational water use, but detection methods are complex and costly for routine monitoring, it is of great interest to determine the quality of coastal bathing water with a minimum cost and maximum safety. Design and methods This study handles the assessment and modelling of the microbiological quality data of 2149 seawater bathing areas in Greece over 10-year period (1997-2006) by chemometric methods. Results Cluster analysis results indicated that the studied bathing beaches are classified in accordance with the seasonality in three groups. Factor analysis was applied to investigate possible determining factors in the groups resulted from the cluster analysis, and also two new parameters were created in each group; VF1 includes E. coli, faecal coliforms and total coliforms and VF2 includes faecal streptococci/enterococci. By applying the cluster analysis in each seasonal group, three new groups of coasts were generated, group A (ultraclean), group B (clean) and group C (contaminated). Conclusions The above analysis is confirmed by the application of discriminant analysis, and proves that chemometric methods are useful tools for assessment and modeling microbiological quality data of coastal bathing water on a large scale, and thus could attribute to effective and economical monitoring of the quality of coastal bathing water in a country with a big number of bathing coasts, like Greece. Significance for public health The microbiological protection of coastal bathing water quality is of great interest for the public health authorities as well as for the economy. The present study proves that this protection can be achieved by monitoring only two microbiological parameters, E. coli and faecal streptococci

  10. Application of 2D-Nonlinear Shallow Water Model of Tsunami by using Adomian Decomposition Method

    SciTech Connect

    Waewcharoen, Sribudh; Boonyapibanwong, Supachai; Koonprasert, Sanoe

    2008-09-01

    One of the most important questions in tsunami modeling is the estimation of tsunami run-up heights at different points along a coastline. Methods for numerical simulation of tsunami wave propagation in deep and shallow seas are well developed and have been widely used by many scientists (2001-2008). In this paper, we consider a two-dimensional nonlinear shallow water model of tsunami given by Tivon Jacobson is work [1]. u{sub t}+uu{sub x}+{nu}u{sub y} -c{sup 2}(h{sub x}+(h{sub b}){sub x}) {nu}{sub t}+u{nu}{sub x}+{nu}{nu}{sub y} = -c{sup 2}(h{sub y}+(h{sub b}){sub y}) h{sub t}+(hu){sub x}+(h{nu}){sub y} = 0 g-shore, h is surface elevation and s, t is time, u is velocity of cross-shore, {nu} is velocity of along-shore, h is surface elevation and h{sub b} is function of shore. This is a nondimensionalized model with the gravity g and constant reference depth H factored into c = {radical}(gH). We apply the Adomian Decompostion Method (ADM) to solve the tsunami model. This powerful method has been used to obtain explicit and numerical solutions of three types of diffusion-convection-reaction (DECR) equations. The ADM results for the tsunami model yield analytical solutions in terms of a rapidly convergent infinite power series. Symbolic computation, numerical results and graphs of solutions are obtained by Maple program.

  11. Application of nonlinear-regression methods to a ground-water flow model of the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tiedeman, C.R.; Kernodle, J.M.; McAda, D.P.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the application of nonlinear-regression methods to a numerical model of ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin, New Mexico. In the Albuquerque Basin, ground water is the primary source for most water uses. Ground-water withdrawal has steadily increased since the 1940's, resulting in large declines in water levels in the Albuquerque area. A ground-water flow model was developed in 1994 and revised and updated in 1995 for the purpose of managing basin ground- water resources. In the work presented here, nonlinear-regression methods were applied to a modified version of the previous flow model. Goals of this work were to use regression methods to calibrate the model with each of six different configurations of the basin subsurface and to assess and compare optimal parameter estimates, model fit, and model error among the resulting calibrations. The Albuquerque Basin is one in a series of north trending structural basins within the Rio Grande Rift, a region of Cenozoic crustal extension. Mountains, uplifts, and fault zones bound the basin, and rock units within the basin include pre-Santa Fe Group deposits, Tertiary Santa Fe Group basin fill, and post-Santa Fe Group volcanics and sediments. The Santa Fe Group is greater than 14,000 feet (ft) thick in the central part of the basin. During deposition of the Santa Fe Group, crustal extension resulted in development of north trending normal faults with vertical displacements of as much as 30,000 ft. Ground-water flow in the Albuquerque Basin occurs primarily in the Santa Fe Group and post-Santa Fe Group deposits. Water flows between the ground-water system and surface-water bodies in the inner valley of the basin, where the Rio Grande, a network of interconnected canals and drains, and Cochiti Reservoir are located. Recharge to the ground-water flow system occurs as infiltration of precipitation along mountain fronts and infiltration of stream water along tributaries to the Rio Grande; subsurface

  12. HETEROTROPHIC PLATE COUNT BACTERIA IN POTABLE WATER: MONITORING METHODS AND APPLICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The heterotrophic plate count (HPC), formerly known as the standard plate count, is a useful tool for enumerating bacteria in potable water. his chapter briefly reviews the development of the heterotrophic bacterial plate count for use in water quality measurements in the United ...

  13. APPLICATION OF MODIFIED ALUMINUM AND GFASS METHODS TO BERYLLIUM DETERMINATION IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    On July 25, 1990, the USEPA proposed to establish a drinking water standard for beryllium of 1.0 ug/L. he proposed standard will require water utilities to demonstrate compliance through a set of monitoring requirements. he EPA has recommended three analytical techniques that can...

  14. A resilience perspective to water risk management: case-study application of the adaptation tipping point method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gersonius, Berry; Ashley, Richard; Jeuken, Ad; Nasruddin, Fauzy; Pathirana, Assela; Zevenbergen, Chris

    2010-05-01

    In a context of high uncertainty about hydrological variables due to climate change and other factors, the development of updated risk management approaches is as important as—if not more important than—the provision of improved data and forecasts of the future. Traditional approaches to adaptation attempt to manage future water risks to cities with the use of the predict-then-adapt method. This method uses hydrological change projections as the starting point to identify adaptive strategies, which is followed by analysing the cause-effect chain based on some sort of Pressures-State-Impact-Response (PSIR) scheme. The predict-then-adapt method presumes that it is possible to define a singular (optimal) adaptive strategy according to a most likely or average projection of future change. A key shortcoming of the method is, however, that the planning of water management structures is typically decoupled from forecast uncertainties and is, as such, inherently inflexible. This means that there is an increased risk of under- or over-adaptation, resulting in either mal-functioning or unnecessary costs. Rather than taking a traditional approach, responsible water risk management requires an alternative approach to adaptation that recognises and cultivates resiliency for change. The concept of resiliency relates to the capability of complex socio-technical systems to make aspirational levels of functioning attainable despite the occurrence of possible changes. Focusing on resiliency does not attempt to reduce uncertainty associated with future change, but rather to develop better ways of managing it. This makes it a particularly relevant perspective for adaptation to long-term hydrological change. Although resiliency is becoming more refined as a theory, the application of the concept to water risk management is still in an initial phase. Different methods are used in practice to support the implementation of a resilience-focused approach. Typically these approaches

  15. Estimating free-living human energy expenditure: Practical aspects of the doubly labeled water method and its applications

    PubMed Central

    Kazuko, Ishikawa-Takata; Kim, Eunkyung; Kim, Jeonghyun; Yoon, Jinsook

    2014-01-01

    The accuracy and noninvasive nature of the doubly labeled water (DLW) method makes it ideal for the study of human energy metabolism in free-living conditions. However, the DLW method is not always practical in many developing and Asian countries because of the high costs of isotopes and equipment for isotope analysis as well as the expertise required for analysis. This review provides information about the theoretical background and practical aspects of the DLW method, including optimal dose, basic protocols of two- and multiple-point approaches, experimental procedures, and isotopic analysis. We also introduce applications of DLW data, such as determining the equations of estimated energy requirement and validation studies of energy intake. PMID:24944767

  16. Application of selected methods of remote sensing for detecting carbonaceous water pollution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, E. M.; Fosbury, W. J.

    1972-01-01

    The use of aerial photography to determine the nature and extent of water pollution from carbonaceous materials is discussed. Flights were conducted over the Galveston Bay estuarine complex. Ground truth data were developed from field sampling of the waters in a region near the Houston Ship Channel. Tests conducted in the field were those for the following physical and chemical factors: (1) ph, (2) dissolved oxygen, (3) temperature, and (4) light penetration. Laboratory analyses to determine various properties of the water are described and the types of instruments used are identified. Results of the analyses are presented as charts and graphs.

  17. Detection of Microbial Water Quality Indicators and Fecal Waterborne Pathogens in Environmental Waters: A Review of Methods, Applications, and Limitations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental waters are important reservoirs of pathogenic microorganisms, many of which are of fecal origin. In most cases, the presence of pathogens is determined using surrogate bacterial indicators. In other cases, direct detection of the pathogen in question is required. M...

  18. Application of EOF/PCA-based methods in the post-processing of GRACE derived water variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    Two problems that users of monthly GRACE gravity field solutions face are 1) the presence of correlated noise in the Stokes coefficients that increases with harmonic degree and causes ‘striping', and 2) the fact that different physical signals are overlaid and difficult to separate from each other in the data. These problems are termed the signal-noise separation problem and the signal-signal separation problem. Methods that are based on principal component analysis and empirical orthogonal functions (PCA/EOF) have been frequently proposed to deal with these problems for GRACE. However, different strategies have been applied to different (spatial: global/regional, spectral: global/order-wise, geoid/equivalent water height) representations of the GRACE level 2 data products, leading to differing results and a general feeling that PCA/EOF-based methods are to be applied ‘with care'. In addition, it is known that conventional EOF/PCA methods force separated modes to be orthogonal, and that, on the other hand, to either EOFs or PCs an arbitrary orthogonal rotation can be applied. The aim of this paper is to provide a common theoretical framework and to study the application of PCA/EOF-based methods as a signal separation tool due to post-process GRACE data products. In order to investigate and illustrate the applicability of PCA/EOF-based methods, we have employed them on GRACE level 2 monthly solutions based on the Center for Space Research, University of Texas (CSR/UT) RL04 products and on the ITG-GRACE03 solutions from the University of Bonn, and on various representations of them. Our results show that EOF modes do reveal the dominating annual, semiannual and also long-periodic signals in the global water storage variations, but they also show how choosing different strategies changes the outcome and may lead to unexpected results.

  19. Method for desalinating water

    SciTech Connect

    Diggs, R.E.

    1982-08-10

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for removing contaminants from water having solid contaminants dissolved therein. Contaminated water flows across a grid and into a storage tank. The grid utilizes solar energy to heat that water to a predetermined temperature. A heat transfer structure which is dome-shaped and receives water from the storage tank and a preheater means utilizing solar energy heats the water to a further predetermined temperature. An evaporator means receives the heated water and exposes it to a vacuum condition so that the temperature of the water is above the saturation temperature. The water is thus vaporized, and solid contaminants dissolved therein are separated therefrom. The solids are deposited on a plurality of moving belts and are then moved into a solids removal system. The solids removal system comprises a plurality of trap door pairs upon which the solids are deposited and which are sequentially opened so that the vacuum conditions existing in the evaporator are not disturbed. Vapor transferring means removes the water vapor from the evaporator and transfers it to the heat transfer structure wherein it is condensed to form distillate which is free of solid contaminants. Distillate removal means then removes the distillate from the heat transfer structure to collection or usage means.

  20. Application of Computer-Assisted Dispute Resolution Methods to Water Resources Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardwell, H. E.

    2006-12-01

    Although technical information has been used for centuries to support water resources decision making, the increased technical capabilities due to ever-more powerful computational resources has allowed a larger number of groups to participate in the technical analysis for water decisions. And the public increasingly demands more involvement by affected stakeholders in these decisions about public resources. Yet water management challenges involve complex technical and scientific issues. Stakeholders, public representatives, decision-makers and experts frequently have different levels of knowledge and comfort with technical aspects of a problem. When left to experts alone, computer models may be seen as "black boxes" and may not be trusted by stakeholders and decision-makers. An alternative is to involve stakeholders and decision-makers in the development and design of decision support models from the beginning. This kind of approach can be referred to as collaborative modeling. Here we present a collaborative modeling approach which has been developed by the Corps over the last fifteen years called Shared Vision Planning. Shared Vision Planning is a combination of three common practices that have a long history in water resources management: 1) traditional planning; 2) technical systems modeling; and 3) structured collaboration with a broad range of stakeholders. Aside from the intensive and continuous collaboration, the thing that most sets SVP apart is the use of collaboratively developed, transparent decision-support models that then serve as primary tools for plan formulation and evaluation. SVP models are typically integrated tools in that they include hydrologic and hydraulic simulations, along with economic, environmental other performance measure. We present past and current cases where collaborative modeling approaches have been used by the Corps to involve stakeholders early and often in the technical analysis that supports the planning process. We will

  1. Application of classification-tree methods to identify nitrate sources in ground water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spruill, T.B.; Showers, W.J.; Howe, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine if nitrate sources in ground water (fertilizer on crops, fertilizer on golf courses, irrigation spray from hog (Sus scrofa) wastes, and leachate from poultry litter and septic systems) could be classified with 80% or greater success. Two statistical classification-tree models were devised from 48 water samples containing nitrate from five source categories. Model I was constructed by evaluating 32 variables and selecting four primary predictor variables (??15N, nitrate to ammonia ratio, sodium to potassium ratio, and zinc) to identify nitrate sources. A ??15N value of nitrate plus potassium 18.2 indicated inorganic or soil organic N. A nitrate to ammonia ratio 575 indicated nitrate from golf courses. A sodium to potassium ratio 3.2 indicated spray or poultry wastes. A value for zinc 2.8 indicated poultry wastes. Model 2 was devised by using all variables except ??15N. This model also included four variables (sodium plus potassium, nitrate to ammonia ratio, calcium to magnesium ratio, and sodium to potassium ratio) to distinguish categories. Both models were able to distinguish all five source categories with better than 80% overall success and with 71 to 100% success in individual categories using the learning samples. Seventeen water samples that were not used in model development were tested using Model 2 for three categories, and all were correctly classified. Classification-tree models show great potential in identifying sources of contamination and variables important in the source-identification process.

  2. Application of acoustical methods for estimating water flow and constituent loads in Perdido Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grubbs, J.W.; Pittman, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Water flow and quality data were collected from December 1994 to September 1995 to evaluate variations in discharge, water quality, and chemical fluxes (loads) through Perdido Bay, Florida. Data were collected at a cross section parallel to the U.S. Highway 98 bridge. Discharges measured with an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and computed from stage-area and velocity ratings varied roughly between + or - 10,000 cubic feet per second during a typical tidal cycle. Large reversals in flow direction occurred rapidly (less than 1 hour), and complete reversals (resulting in near peak net-upstream or downstream discharges) occurred within a few hours of slack water. Observations of simultaneous upstream and downstream flow (bidirectional flow) were quite common in the ADCP measurements, with opposing directions of flow occurring predominantly in vertical layers. Continuous (every 15 minutes) discharge data were computed for the period from August 18, 1995, to September 28, 1995, and filtered daily mean discharge values were computed for the period from August 19 to September 26, 1995. Data were not computed prior to August 18, 1995, either because of missing data or because the velocity rating was poorly defined (because of insufficient data) for the period prior to landfall of hurricane Erin (August 3, 1995). The results of the study indicate that acoustical techniques can yield useful estimates of continuous (instantaneous) discharge in Perdido Bay. Useful estimates of average daily net flow rates can also be obtained, but the accuracy of these estimates will be limited by small rating shifts that introduce bias into the instantaneous values that are used to compute the net flows. Instantaneous loads of total nitrogen ranged from -180 to 220 grams per second for the samples collected during the study, and instantaneous loads of total phosphorous ranged from -10 to 11 grams per second (negative loads indicate net upstream transport). The chloride concentrations

  3. Application of a biosorbent to soil: a potential method for controlling water pollution by pesticides.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Martín, Alba; Rodríguez-Cruz, M Sonia; Andrades, M Soledad; Sánchez-Martín, María J

    2016-05-01

    Different strategies are now being optimized to prevent water from agricultural areas being contaminated by pesticides. The aim of this work was to optimize the adsorption of non-polar (tebuconazole, triadimenol) and polar (cymoxanil, pirimicarb) pesticides by soils after applying the biosorbent spent mushroom substrate (SMS) at different rates. The adsorption isotherms of pesticides by three soils and SMS-amended soils were obtained and the adsorption constants were calculated. The distribution coefficients (K d) increased 1.40-23.1 times (tebuconazole), 1.08-23.7 times (triadimenol), 1.31-42.1 times (cymoxanil), and 0.55-23.8 times (pirimicarb) for soils amended with biosorbent at rates between 2 and 75 %. Increasing the SMS rates led to a constant increase in adsorption efficiency for non-polar pesticides but not for polar pesticides, due to the increase in the organic carbon (OC) content of soils as indicated by K OC values. The OC content of SMS-amended soils accounted for more than 90 % of the adsorption variability of non-polar pesticides, but it accounted for only 56.3 % for polar pesticides. The estimated adsorption of SMS-amended soils determined from the individual adsorption of soils and SMS was more consistent with real experimental values for non-polar pesticides than for polar pesticides. The results revealed the use of SMS as a tool to optimize pesticide adsorption by soils in dealing with specific contamination problems involving these compounds. PMID:26832876

  4. Greenhouse Gases Emission from Land Application of Swine Waste Water: A Comparison of Three Different Swine Slurry Application Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural activities (including land application of animal manures) account for about 20% of the total human induced global warming budget due to emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). Recently, there has been an increasing emphasis on controlling these emissions from livestock operations. One of...

  5. Borehole data-collection methods applicable for the regional observation and monitor well program, Southwest Florida Water Management District

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, John J.

    1981-01-01

    Management of ground-water resources within the Southwest Florida Water Management District requires that hydrogeologic characteristics of water-bearing rocks and quality characteristics of water be described. Wells for the District 's Regional Observation and Monitor Well Program are drilled specifically to collect data to describe the ground-water resource. Suggested borehole data-collection methods for these wells include drilling in stages; running geophysical logs at the completion of each stage; collection of water-level and specific-conductance data before, during, and after a day 's drilling; specific-capacity determinations after a day 's drilling; and placing a packer in the gypsiferous and anhydritic limestone and dolomite for water-level and water-quality data. (USGS)

  6. Methods of preparation and modification of advanced zero-valent iron nanoparticles, their properties and application in water treatment technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filip, Jan; Kašlík, Josef; Medřík, Ivo; Petala, Eleni; Zbořil, Radek; Slunský, Jan; Černík, Miroslav; Stavělová, Monika

    2014-05-01

    Zero-valent iron nanoparticles are commonly used in modern water treatment technologies. Compared to conventionally-used macroscopic iron or iron microparticles, the using of nanoparticles has the advantages given mainly by their generally large specific surface area (it drives their high reactivity and/or sorption capacity), small dimensions (it allows their migration e.g. in ground water), and particular physical and chemical properties. Following the applications of zero-valent iron particles in various pilot tests, there arose several critical suggestions for improvements of used nanomaterials and for development of new generation of reactive nanomaterials. In the presentation, the methods of zero-valent iron nanoparticles synthesis will be summarized with a special attention paid to the thermally-induced solid-state reaction allowing preparation of zero-valent iron nanoparticles in an industrial scale. Moreover, the method of thermal reduction of iron-oxide precursors enables to finely tune the critical parameters (mainly particle size and morphology, specific surface area, surface chemistry of nanoparticles etc.) of resulting zero-valet iron nanoparticles. The most important trends of advanced nanoparticles development will be discussed: (i) surface modification of nanomaterilas, (ii) development of nanocomposites and (iii) development of materials for combined reductive-sorption technologies. Laboratory testing of zero-valent iron nanoparticles reactivity and migration will be presented and compared with the field observations: the advanced zero-valent iron nanoparticles were used for groundwater treatment at the locality contaminated by chlorinated hydrocarbons (VC, DCE, TCE and PCE) and reacted nanoparticles were extracted from the sediments for their fate assessment. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support by the Technology Agency of the Czech Republic "Competence Centres" (project No. TE01020218) and the EU FP7 (project NANOREM).

  7. Application of the methods of gas dynamics to water flows with free surface I : flows with no energy dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preiswerk, Ernst

    1940-01-01

    The application is treated in sufficient detail to facilitate as much as possible its application by the engineer who is less familiar with the subject. The present work was undertaken with two objects in view. In the first place, it is considered as a contribution to the water analogy of gas flows, and secondly, a large portion is devoted to the general theory of the two-dimensional supersonic flows.

  8. Effects of Irrigation Method and Level of Water Application on Fruit Size and Yield in Red Raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) during the First Year of Full Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was done to determine the effects of irrigation method and amount of water application on production and fruit quality in red raspberry. Two cultivars, 'Meeker' and 'Coho', were irrigated by overhead sprinkler or subsurface drip at 50, 100, and 150% of the estimated crop evapotranspiration (...

  9. Effects of Irrigation Method and Level of Water Application on Fruit Size and Yield in Red Raspberry during the First Year of Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was done to determine the effects of irrigation method and level of water application on early production of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.). Two cultivars, ‘Meeker’ and ‘Coho’, were irrigated by overhead sprinkler or subsurface drip at 50, 100, and 150% of the estimated crop evapotranspirat...

  10. A sensitive gas chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric method for detection of alkylating agents in water: application to acrylamide in drinking water, coffee and snuff.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Hermes Licea; Osterman-Golkar, Siv

    2003-08-01

    A sensitive analytical method for the analysis of acrylamide and other electrophilic agents in water has been developed. The amino acid L-valine served as a nucleophilic trapping agent. The method was applied to the analysis of acrylamide in 0.2-1 mL samples of drinking water or Millipore-filtered water, brewed coffee, or water extracts of snuff. The reaction product, N-(2-carbamoylethyl)valine, was incubated with pentafluorophenyl isothiocyanate to give a pentafluorophenylthiohydantoin (PFPTH) derivative. This derivative was extracted with diethyl ether, separated from excess reagent and impurities by a simple extraction procedure, and analyzed by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. (2H3)Acrylamide, added before the reaction with L-valine, was used as internal standard. Acrylamide and the related compound, N-methylolacrylamide, gave the same PFPTH derivative. The concentrations of acrylamides were < or = 0.4 nmol L(-1) (< or = 0.03 microg acrylamide L(-1)) in water, 200 to 350 nmol L(-1) in brewed coffee, and 10 to 34 nmol g(-1) snuff in portion bags, respectively. The precision (the coefficient of variation was 5%) and accuracy of the method were good. The detection limit was considerably lower than that of previously published methods for the analysis of acrylamide. PMID:12964603

  11. Application of a contaminant mass balance method at an old landfill to assess the impact on water resources.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Nanna I; Milosevic, Nemanja; Bjerg, Poul L

    2012-12-01

    Old and unlined landfill sites pose a risk to groundwater and surface water resources. While landfill leachate plumes in sandy aquifers have been studied, landfills in clay till settings and their impact on receiving water bodies are not well understood. In addition, methods for quantitatively linking soil and groundwater contamination to surface water pollution are required. This paper presents a method which provides an estimate of the contaminant mass discharge, using a combination of a historical investigation and contaminant mass balance approach. The method works at the screening level and could be part of a risk assessment. The study site was Risby Landfill, an old unlined landfill located in a clay till setting on central Zealand, Denmark. The contaminant mass discharge was determined for three common leachate indicators: chloride, dissolved organic carbon and ammonium. For instance, the mass discharge of chloride from the landfill was 9.4 ton/year and the mass discharge of chloride to the deep limestone aquifer was 1.4 ton/year. This resulted in elevated concentrations of leachate indicators (chloride, dissolved organic carbon and ammonium) in the groundwater. The mass discharge of chloride to the small Risby Stream down gradient of the landfill was approximately 31 kg/year. The contaminant mass balance method worked well for chloride and dissolved organic carbon, but the uncertainties were elevated for ammonium due to substantial spatial variability in the source composition and attenuation processes in the underlying clay till. PMID:22868040

  12. Application of bimodal distribution to the detection of changes in uranium concentration in drinking water collected by random daytime sampling method from a large water supply zone.

    PubMed

    Garboś, Sławomir; Święcicka, Dorota

    2015-11-01

    The random daytime (RDT) sampling method was used for the first time in the assessment of average weekly exposure to uranium through drinking water in a large water supply zone. Data set of uranium concentrations determined in 106 RDT samples collected in three runs from the water supply zone in Wroclaw (Poland), cannot be simply described by normal or log-normal distributions. Therefore, a numerical method designed for the detection and calculation of bimodal distribution was applied. The extracted two distributions containing data from the summer season of 2011 and the winter season of 2012 (nI=72) and from the summer season of 2013 (nII=34) allowed to estimate means of U concentrations in drinking water: 0.947 μg/L and 1.23 μg/L, respectively. As the removal efficiency of uranium during applied treatment process is negligible, the effect of increase in uranium concentration can be explained by higher U concentration in the surface-infiltration water used for the production of drinking water. During the summer season of 2013, heavy rains were observed in Lower Silesia region, causing floods over the territory of the entire region. Fluctuations in uranium concentrations in surface-infiltration water can be attributed to releases of uranium from specific sources - migration from phosphate fertilizers and leaching from mineral deposits. Thus, exposure to uranium through drinking water may increase during extreme rainfall events. The average chronic weekly intakes of uranium through drinking water, estimated on the basis of central values of the extracted normal distributions, accounted for 3.2% and 4.1% of tolerable weekly intake. PMID:26143355

  13. Prediction of Floor Water Inrush: The Application of GIS-Based AHP Vulnerable Index Method to Donghuantuo Coal Mine, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Qiang; Liu, Yuanzhang; Liu, Donghai; Zhou, Wanfang

    2011-09-01

    Floor water inrush represents a geohazard that can pose significant threat to safe operations for instance in coal mines in China and elsewhere. Its occurrence is controlled by many factors, and the processes are often not amenable to mathematical expressions. To evaluate the water inrush risk, the paper proposes the vulnerability index approach by coupling the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and geographic information system (GIS). The detailed procedures of using this innovative approach are shown in a case study in China (Donghuantuo Coal Mine). The powerful spatial data analysis functions of GIS was used to establish the thematic layer of each of the six factors that control the water inrush, and the contribution weights of each factor was determined with the AHP method. The established AHP evaluation model was used to determine the threshold value for each risk level with a histogram of the water inrush vulnerability index. As a result, the mine area was divided into five regions with different vulnerability levels which served as general guidelines for the mine operations. The prediction results were further corroborated with the actual mining data, and the evaluation result is satisfactory.

  14. The development of TXRF method and its application on the study of trace elements in water at SSRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. L.; Yu, H. S.; Li, L. N.; Wei, X. J.; Huang, Y. Y.

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study is the development of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF) method at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF). In this paper, the SR-TXRF setup and the related experimental methods and results for the determination of trace elements in water were described. Compared with the conventional lab TXRF, the detection limits obtained in our experiment are very lower due to the advantages of synchrotron radiation, which varied from 1.11 pg (Cr) to 0.28 pg (Zn). The average deviation of the specimen replicates is below 5%, and the deviations of measured element concentrations for Cr, Mn, Co, Ni and Cu by SR-TXRF are within 10% compared with the values by ICP-MS, so our TXRF results are agreed with those obtained by ICP-MS for the detected metals. Based on the results, the SR-TXRF setup and method have been feasible for the quantitative analysis of multi-elements in water at SSRF and that will play an important role in the research area for the environmental liquid samples analysis.

  15. Methods for Using Ground-Water Model Predictions to Guide Hydrogeologic Data Collection, with Applications to the Death Valley Regional Ground-Water Flow System

    SciTech Connect

    Claire R. Tiedeman; M.C. Hill; F.A. D'Agnese; C.C. Faunt

    2001-07-31

    Calibrated models of ground-water systems can provide substantial information for guiding data collection. This work considers using such models to guide hydrogeologic data collection for improving model predictions, by identifying model parameters that are most important to the predictions. Identification of these important parameters can help guide collection of field data about parameter values and associated flow-system features that can lead to improved predictions. Methods for identifying parameters important to predictions include prediction scaled sensitivities (PSS), which account for uncertainty on individual parameters as well as prediction sensitivity to parameters, and a new ''value of improved information'' (VOII) method, which includes the effects of parameter correlation in addition to individual parameter uncertainty and prediction sensitivity. The PSS and VOII methods are demonstrated using a model of the Death Valley regional ground-water flow system. The predictions of interest are advective-transport paths originating at sites of past underground nuclear testing. Results show that for two paths evaluated, the most important parameters include a subset of five or six of the 23 defined model parameters. Some of the parameters identified as most important are associated with flow-system attributes that do not lie in the immediate vicinity of the paths. Results also indicate that the PSS and VOII methods can identify different important parameters. Because the methods emphasize somewhat different criteria for parameter importance, it is suggested that parameters identified by both methods be carefully considered in subsequent data collection efforts aimed at improving model predictions.

  16. A study of alternative methods for reclaiming oxygen from carbon dioxide and water by a solid-electrolyte process for spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Two alternative technical approaches were studied for application of an electrochemical process using a solid oxide electrolyte (zirconia stabilized by yttria or scandia) to oxygen reclamation from carbon dioxide and water, for spacecraft life support systems. Among the topics considered are the advisability of proceeding to engineering prototype development and fabrication of a full scale model for the system concept, the optimum choice of method or approach to be carried into prototype development, and the technical problem areas which exist.

  17. Photochemical-spectrofluorimetric method for the determination of benzoylurea insecticides: applications in river water samples and in technical formulations.

    PubMed

    Gil-Garcia, M D; Martínez-Galera, M; López-López, T; Martínez-Vidal, J L; Mahedero, M C; Salinas, F

    2001-01-26

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation was used to obtain fluorescent photoproducts from four non-fluorescent benzoylurea (BU) insecticides (flufenoxuron (FLF), lufenuron (LUF), hexaflumuron (HF) and triflumuron (TRF)). The effect of solvent, pH (in aqueous solutions), organic solvent percentage and UV irradiation time on the excitation and emission wavelengths and fluorescence intensity were investigated. The largest fluorescence signals and the shortest UV irradiation time were obtained in methanol, ethanol and 2-propanol. Linear calibration graphs were established in the interval between 0.025 and 1.000 microg ml(-1) from FLF and TRF and between 0.050 and 1.000 microg ml(-1) from LUF and HF with regression coefficients larger than 0.99. A method based on the use of the first-derivative of the spectra of photoproducts was applied to the determination of BU insecticides in river water samples and in technical formulations. The mean recoveries ranged from 95.0% to 110.0% in river water samples and from 92.0% to 101.0% in technical formulations, according to the compound. A preconcentration step, using LLE, allowed to reach the concentration levels established by the EU directive for pesticides in drinking water. PMID:18968181

  18. Public involvement in multi-objective water level regulation development projects-evaluating the applicability of public involvement methods

    SciTech Connect

    Vaentaenen, Ari . E-mail: armiva@utu.fi; Marttunen, Mika . E-mail: Mika.Marttunen@ymparisto.fi

    2005-04-15

    Public involvement is a process that involves the public in the decision making of an organization, for example a municipality or a corporation. It has developed into a widely accepted and recommended policy in environment altering projects. The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) took force in 2000 and stresses the importance of public involvement in composing river basin management plans. Therefore, the need to develop public involvement methods for different situations and circumstances is evident. This paper describes how various public involvement methods have been applied in a development project involving the most heavily regulated lake in Finland. The objective of the project was to assess the positive and negative impacts of regulation and to find possibilities for alleviating the adverse impacts on recreational use and the aquatic ecosystem. An exceptional effort was made towards public involvement, which was closely connected to planning and decision making. The applied methods were (1) steering group work, (2) survey, (3) dialogue, (4) theme interviews, (5) public meeting and (6) workshops. The information gathered using these methods was utilized in different stages of the project, e.g., in identifying the regulation impacts, comparing alternatives and compiling the recommendations for regulation development. After describing our case and the results from the applied public involvement methods, we will discuss our experiences and the feedback from the public. We will also critically evaluate our own success in coping with public involvement challenges. In addition to that, we present general recommendations for dealing with these problematic issues based on our experiences, which provide new insights for applying various public involvement methods in multi-objective decision making projects.

  19. Development, validation and application of a method to analyze phenols in water samples by solid phase micro extraction-gas chromatography-flame ionization detector.

    PubMed

    Lanças, Fernando M; Olivares, Igor R B; Alves, Priscila M

    2007-01-01

    In this work the development, validation and application of method using Solid Phase Microexctration (SPME) for the analyses of five pollutants (phenol, 2-nitrophenol, 2,4-dimethylphenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol and 4-chloro, 3-methyl phenol) in supplying water, using gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID) is described. The optimal conditions obtained for SPME were: fiber type: Poliacrylate (PA); extraction time: 40 minutes; extraction temperature: 70 degrees C; amount of salt added to sample (NaCl): 15%; desorption temperature: 8 minutes. The parameters studied in the method validation were: limit of detection (0.3 and 3.5 microg.L(- 1)); precision, measured by the variation coefficient (between 2.1 and 8.8%); calibration curve and linearity, by using the external standardization method (between 1 and 50 50 microg.L(- 1)). After the methodology development, samples of water collected in Atibaia River (São Paulo - Brazil) were analyzed, using the optimized methodology. Three water samples collected in the rain season showed a peak with retention time close to 4-chloro, 3 methyl phenol further analyzed by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry for the identity confirmation. In spite of the fact that none target compounds were found in the river water samples analyzed, the presence of two phenols different from those investigated (p-terc butyl phenol; butylated hydroxytoluene) were detected. These results together with the results of the limit of detection (that showed to be lower than the maximum concentration of phenols demanded by different environment control agencies), and the results of the validation, indicate the applicability of this method for the analysis of selected phenols in river water samples. PMID:17562456

  20. Application of precipitation methods for the production of water-insoluble drug nanocrystals: production techniques and stability of nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Xia, Dengning; Gan, Yong; Cui, Fude

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on using precipitation (bottom-up) method to produce water-insoluble drug nanocrystals, and the stability issues of nanocrystals. The precipitation techniques for production of ultra-fine particles have been widely researched for last few decades. In these techniques, precipitation of solute is achieved by addition of a non-solvent for solute called anti-solvent to decrease the solvent power for the solute dissolved in a solution. The anti-solvent can be water, organic solvents or supercritical fluids. In this paper, efforts have been made to review the precipitation techniques involving the anti-solvent precipitation by simple mixing, impinging jet mixing, multi-inlet vortex mixing, the using of high-gravity, ultrasonic waves and supercritical fluids. The key to the success of yielding stable nanocrystals in these techniques is to control the nucleation kinetics and particle growth through mixing during precipitation based on crystallization theories. The stability issues of the nanocrystals, such as sedimentation, Ostwald ripening, agglomeration and cementing of crystals, change of crystalline state, and the approaches to stabilizing nanocrystals are also discussed in detail. PMID:23651396

  1. Application of the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method for snow water equivalent retrieval based on passive microwave measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, J.; Durand, M. T.; Vanderjagt, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method is a retrieval algorithm based on Bayes' rule, which starts from an initial state of snow/soil parameters, and updates it to a series of new states by comparing the posterior probability of simulated snow microwave signals before and after each time of random walk. It is a realization of the Bayes' rule, which gives an approximation to the probability of the snow/soil parameters in condition of the measured microwave TB signals at different bands. Although this method could solve all snow parameters including depth, density, snow grain size and temperature at the same time, it still needs prior information of these parameters for posterior probability calculation. How the priors will influence the SWE retrieval is a big concern. Therefore, in this paper at first, a sensitivity test will be carried out to study how accurate the snow emission models and how explicit the snow priors need to be to maintain the SWE error within certain amount. The synthetic TB simulated from the measured snow properties plus a 2-K observation error will be used for this purpose. It aims to provide a guidance on the MCMC application under different circumstances. Later, the method will be used for the snowpits at different sites, including Sodankyla, Finland, Churchill, Canada and Colorado, USA, using the measured TB from ground-based radiometers at different bands. Based on the previous work, the error in these practical cases will be studied, and the error sources will be separated and quantified.

  2. Analysis of water-soluble polysaccharides in an edible medicinal plant Epimedium: method development, validation, and application.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua-Feng; Niu, Li-Li; Yang, Xiao-Hua; Li, Lu

    2014-01-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides are important constituents with evident health benefits in Epimedium. The aim of this study was to establish a specific, accurate, reproducible, and sensitive phenol-sulfuric acid method for the quantitative assay of Epimedium polysaccharides and to determine polysaccharides in Epimedium samples from Chinese markets. Galactose was adopted as the standard monosaccharide, and 486 nm was chosen as the detection wavelength. The optimal conditions for the color reaction were obtained using single factor experiments and an orthogonal test: temperature, 20 degrees C; amount of 5% phenol, 0.3 mL; amount of concentrated sulfuric acid, 3.5 mL; incubation time, 20 min; and addition sequence, phenol-sample-sulfuric acid. The colored sample solution after chromogenic reaction exhibited high stability within 2 h. The calibration curve was linear within the range 5.00-60.00 micro g/mL, and the correlation coefficient of the regression equation was 0.999. LOD and LOQ were 1.65 and 5.00 microg/mL, respectively. Recovery, intraday precision, interday precision, and accuracy were 97.43 to 103.80%, 0.73 to 3.48%, 1.21 to 2.75%, and 97.74 to 101.62%, respectively. Polysaccharides in 26 samples of Epimedium collected from different provinces of China were quantified by the proposed colorimetric method, and a large variation of contents of polysaccharides was observed among these samples. PMID:25051626

  3. Evaluation of methods to detect and control nitrification inhibition with specific application to incinerator flue-gas scrubber water

    SciTech Connect

    Daigger, G.T.; Sadick, T.E.

    1998-11-01

    Two procedures for determining the maximum specific growth rate of nitrifying bacteria in the presence of inhibitors were evaluated. One procedure uses a population of nitrifying bacteria and a short-term (6-hour) batch assay to determine the impact of the test wastewater on the maximum specific growth rate of the nitrifiers. The difference in the specific nitrification rate for the subject population between a control and the test wastewater quantifies the effect of the constituents in the test wastewater on the nitrifier maximum specific growth rate. The second procedure uses batch fill-and-draw bioreactors operated under steady-state conditions to determine the minimum mean cell residence time for growth of the nitrifiers. The need to assess nitrification inhibition at two large municipal wastewater treatment plants provided the opportunity to evaluate these two procedures. Incineration of biosolids is practiced at both of these plants, and it was shown that in-plant recycle of the multiple-hearth flue-gas scrubber water can be inhibitory to nitrification. Results from extensive testing indicated that hydrocyanic acid (HCN), present in the scrubber water, is the probable inhibitor. Consistent results were obtained at both plants. They indicated that HCN concentrations on the order of 0.1 to 0.2 mg/L resulted in a reduction in the nitrifier maximum specific growth rate of approximately 50%. Treatment methods were evaluated at each plant and implemented. At one plant, aerobic biological treatment of the incinerator sidestream is being practiced. At the other facility, cyanide is thermally destroyed in afterburners before contact with the wet scrubbing system.

  4. Application of the Methods of Gas Dynamics to Water Flows with Free Surface II : Flows with Momentum Discontinuities (hydraulic Jumps)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Preiswerk, Ernst

    1940-01-01

    In this paper an introduction to shock polar diagrams is given which then leads into an examination of water depths in hydraulic jumps. Energy loss during these jumps is considered along with an extended look at elementary solutions of flow. An experimental test set-up is described and the results presented.

  5. Water resources by orbital remote sensing: Examples of applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martini, P. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Selected applications of orbital remote sensing to water resources undertaken by INPE are described. General specifications of Earth application satellites and technical characteristics of LANDSAT 1, 2, 3, and 4 subsystems are described. Spatial, temporal and spectral image attributes of water as well as methods of image analysis for applications to water resources are discussed. Selected examples are referred to flood monitoring, analysis of water suspended sediments, spatial distribution of pollutants, inventory of surface water bodies and mapping of alluvial aquifers.

  6. Development of a Rapid Soil Water Content Detection Technique Using Active Infrared Thermal Methods for In-Field Applications

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Francesca; Pallottino, Federico; Costa, Corrado; Rimatori, Valentina; Giorgi, Stefano; Papetti, Patrizia; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of active infrared thermography and thermometry in combination with multivariate statistical partial least squares analysis as rapid soil water content detection techniques both in the laboratory and the field. Such techniques allow fast soil water content measurements helpful in both agricultural and environmental fields. These techniques, based on the theory of heat dissipation, were tested by directly measuring temperature dynamic variation of samples after heating. For the assessment of temperature dynamic variations data were collected during three intervals (3, 6 and 10 s). To account for the presence of specific heats differences between water and soil, the analyses were regulated using slopes to linearly describe their trends. For all analyses, the best model was achieved for a 10 s slope. Three different approaches were considered, two in the laboratory and one in the field. The first laboratory-based one was centred on active infrared thermography, considered measurement of temperature variation as independent variable and reported r = 0.74. The second laboratory–based one was focused on active infrared thermometry, added irradiation as independent variable and reported r = 0.76. The in-field experiment was performed by active infrared thermometry, heating bare soil by solar irradiance after exposure due to primary tillage. Some meteorological parameters were inserted as independent variables in the prediction model, which presented r = 0.61. In order to obtain more general and wide estimations in-field a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis on three classes of percentage of soil water content was performed obtaining a high correct classification in the test (88.89%). The prediction error values were lower in the field with respect to laboratory analyses. Both techniques could be used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System for obtaining detailed information on soil

  7. Application of near surface geophysical methods to image water table response in an Alpine Meadow, Northern California.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, M.; Blacic, T. M.; Craig, M. S.; Yarnell, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    Meadows are recognized for their value to the ecological, hydrologic, and aesthetic functions of a watershed. As natural water retention sinks, meadows attenuate floods, improve water quality and support herbaceous vegetation that stabilize streambanks and promote high biodiversity. Alpine meadows are especially vital, serving as freshwater sources and distributing to lower lying provinces through ground and surface water interaction. These complexes are highly vulnerable to drought conditions, altered seasonal precipitation patterns, and mismanaged land use. One such location, Van Norden meadow located in the Donner Summit area west of Lake Tahoe, is one of the largest sub-alpine meadows in the Sierra Nevada mountain range of Northern California. Van Norden meadow offers a natural hydrologic laboratory. Ownership transfer of the area from a local land trust to the Forestry Service requires restoration toward natural meadow conditions, and involves notching the dam in 2016 to reduce currently impounded water volumes from 250 to less than 50 acre-feet. To monitor the effects of notching the dam on the upstream meadow conditions, better understanding of the surface and groundwater hydrology both pre-and post-base level alteration is required. Comprehensive understanding of groundwater flux that supports meadow reaches relies on knowledge of their often complex stratigraphic and structural subsurface framework. In recent years hydrogeophysics has emphasized the combination of near surface geophysical techniques, collaborated with well and borehole measures, to qualitatively define these parameters. Building on a preliminary GPR investigation conducted in 2014, in which 44 270 MHz transect lines were collected, we returned to Van Norden meadow in late summer 2015 to collect lower frequency GPR (50 and 100 MHz) and electrical resistivity profiles to better define the groundwater table, sedimentary, and structural features of the meadow.

  8. Development of a rapid soil water content detection technique using active infrared thermal methods for in-field applications.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Francesca; Pallottino, Federico; Costa, Corrado; Rimatori, Valentina; Giorgi, Stefano; Papetti, Patrizia; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of active infrared thermography and thermometry in combination with multivariate statistical partial least squares analysis as rapid soil water content detection techniques both in the laboratory and the field. Such techniques allow fast soil water content measurements helpful in both agricultural and environmental fields. These techniques, based on the theory of heat dissipation, were tested by directly measuring temperature dynamic variation of samples after heating. For the assessment of temperature dynamic variations data were collected during three intervals (3, 6 and 10 s). To account for the presence of specific heats differences between water and soil, the analyses were regulated using slopes to linearly describe their trends. For all analyses, the best model was achieved for a 10 s slope. Three different approaches were considered, two in the laboratory and one in the field. The first laboratory-based one was centred on active infrared thermography, considered measurement of temperature variation as independent variable and reported r = 0.74. The second laboratory-based one was focused on active infrared thermometry, added irradiation as independent variable and reported r = 0.76. The in-field experiment was performed by active infrared thermometry, heating bare soil by solar irradiance after exposure due to primary tillage. Some meteorological parameters were inserted as independent variables in the prediction model, which presented r = 0.61. In order to obtain more general and wide estimations in-field a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis on three classes of percentage of soil water content was performed obtaining a high correct classification in the test (88.89%). The prediction error values were lower in the field with respect to laboratory analyses. Both techniques could be used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System for obtaining detailed information on soil heterogeneity

  9. Method for treating waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Helke, R.C.

    1980-12-02

    A method useful for treating waste water is disclosed wherein waste water is collected in a first vessel and a portion of the large solid particles are filtered from said waste waters. The liquid waste including suspended solid particles is combined with a solids coagulant, effective in coagulating solid particles, and the waste is disinfected. In one embodiment, coagulation and disinfection occurs simultaneously in a single treatment vessel. In the treatment vessel, the disinfectant and the coagulant are reacted with the waste waters to form gas bubbles and coagulated solid particles. The reaction of the disinfectant causes a substantial portion of the coagulated solids contained in the treatment vessel to float to the upper portion of the treatment vessel as a result of being carried to the surface by the gas bubbles. The clarified waste water is then removed from an outer chamber in the treatment vessel. In another embodiment, waste water is disinfected by radiation so that gas bubbles are not formed by the disinfection reaction. In this embodiment the coagulated solids are floated to the surface of the treatment vessel by providing small gas, i.e., air, bubbles in the treatment vessel generated from an extraneous source.

  10. Online solid phase extraction LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor fungicides and its applicability to surface water samples.

    PubMed

    Gulkowska, Anna; Buerge, Ignaz J; Poiger, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    A sensitive and selective analytical method, based on online solid phase extraction coupled to LC-MS/MS, was developed and validated to determine traces of several recently introduced fungicides in surface water and wastewater. The list of target analytes included eight succinate dehydrogenase inhibitors (bixafen, boscalid, fluopyram, flutolanil, fluxapyroxad, isopyrazam, penflufen, and penthiopyrad), and two other fungicides with different modes of action, fenpyrazamine and fluopicolide. Detection and quantification limits in various matrices were in the range of 0.1 to 2 and 0.5 to 10 ng/L, respectively. Moderate signal suppression was observed in surface water (≤15%) and wastewater (≤25%) and was well compensated by the selected internal standard. The intra- and inter-day precisions were generally <10 and <20%, respectively. The applicability of the method was demonstrated in a study on the occurrence of fungicides in the river Glatt, Switzerland, that drains a catchment area of 419 km(2) with a substantial proportion of agricultural land. Of the studied compounds, only boscalid and fluopicolide were detected in flow-proportional weekly composite samples, generally at low concentrations up to 15 and 5 ng/L, respectively. While fluopicolide was detected in only 30% of the samples above the LOD of 0.5 ng/L, boscalid was detected in all samples analyzed between March and October 2012. PMID:25146353

  11. Combining Methods to Describe Important Marine Habitats for Top Predators: Application to Identify Biological Hotspots in Tropical Waters

    PubMed Central

    Thiers, Laurie; Louzao, Maite; Ridoux, Vincent; Le Corre, Matthieu; Jaquemet, Sébastien; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2014-01-01

    In tropical waters resources are usually scarce and patchy, and predatory species generally show specific adaptations for foraging. Tropical seabirds often forage in association with sub-surface predators that create feeding opportunities by bringing prey close to the surface, and the birds often aggregate in large multispecific flocks. Here we hypothesize that frigatebirds, a tropical seabird adapted to foraging with low energetic costs, could be a good predictor of the distribution of their associated predatory species, including other seabirds (e.g. boobies, terns) and subsurface predators (e.g., dolphins, tunas). To test this hypothesis, we compared distribution patterns of marine predators in the Mozambique Channel based on a long-term dataset of both vessel- and aerial surveys, as well as tracking data of frigatebirds. By developing species distribution models (SDMs), we identified key marine areas for tropical predators in relation to contemporaneous oceanographic features to investigate multi-species spatial overlap areas and identify predator hotspots in the Mozambique Channel. SDMs reasonably matched observed patterns and both static (e.g. bathymetry) and dynamic (e.g. Chlorophyll a concentration and sea surface temperature) factors were important explaining predator distribution patterns. We found that the distribution of frigatebirds included the distributions of the associated species. The central part of the channel appeared to be the best habitat for the four groups of species considered in this study (frigatebirds, brown terns, boobies and sub-surface predators). PMID:25494047

  12. An experimental application of the Periodic Tracer Hierarchy (PERTH) method to quantify time-variable water and solute transport in a sloping soil lysimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pangle, L. A.; Cardoso, C.; Kim, M.; Lora, M.; Wang, Y.; Troch, P. A. A.; Harman, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Water molecules traverse myriad flow paths and spend different lengths of time on or within the landscape before they are discharged into a stream channel. The transit-time distribution (TTD) is a probability distribution that represents the range and likelihood of transit times for water and conservative solutes within soils and catchments, and is useful for comparative analysis and prediction of solute transport into streams. The TTD has customarily been assumed to be time-invariant in practical applications, but is understood to vary due to unsteady flow rates, changes in water-balance partitioning, and shifting flow pathways. Recent theoretical advances have clarified how the distribution of transit times experienced by water and solutes within a stream channel at any moment in time is conditional on the specific series of precipitation events preceding that time. Observations resolving how TTDs vary during a specific sequence of precipitation events could be obtained by introducing unique and conservative tracers during each event and quantifying their distinct breakthrough curves in the stream. At present, the number of distinct and conservative tracers available for this purpose is insufficient. Harman and Kim [Harman, C.J. and Kim, M., 2014, Geophysical Research Letters, 41, 1567-1575] proposed a new experimental method—based on the establishment of periodic steady-state conditions—that allows multiple overlapping breakthrough curves of non-unique tracers to be decomposed, thus enabling analysis of the distinct TTDs associated with their specific times of introduction through precipitation. We present results from one of the first physical experiments to test this methodology. Our experiment involves a sloping lysimeter (10° slope) that contains one cubic meter of crushed basalt rock (loamy sand texture), an irrigation system adaptable to controlled tracer introductions, and instruments that enable total water balance monitoring. We imposed a repeated

  13. Application of a DNA-based luminescence switch-on method for the detection of mercury(II) ions in water samples from Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hong-Zhang; Leung, Ka-Ho; Fu, Wai-Chung; Shiu-Hin Chan, Daniel; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2012-12-01

    Mercury is a highly toxic environmental contaminant that damages the endocrine and central nervous systems. In view of the contamination of Hong Kong territorial waters with anthropogenic pollutants such as trace heavy metals, we have investigated the application of our recently developed DNA-based luminescence methodology for the rapid and sensitive detection of mercury(II) ions in real water samples. The assay was applied to water samples from Shing Mun River, Nam Sang Wai and Lamma Island sea water, representing natural river, wetland and sea water media, respectively. The results showed that the system could function effectively in real water samples under conditions of low turbidity and low metal ion concentrations. However, high turbidity and high metal ion concentrations increased the background signal and reduced the performance of this assay.

  14. Methods and tools to simulate the effect of economic instruments in complex water resources systems. Application to the Jucar river basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Nicolas, Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The main challenge of the BLUEPRINT to safeguard Europe's water resources (EC, 2012) is to guarantee that enough good quality water is available for people's needs, the economy and the environment. In this sense, economic policy instruments such as water pricing policies and water markets can be applied to enhance efficient use of water. This paper presents a method based on hydro-economic tools to assess the effect of economic instruments on water resource systems. Hydro-economic models allow integrated analysis of water supply, demand and infrastructure operation at the river basin scale, by simultaneously combining engineering, hydrologic and economic aspects of water resources management. The method made use of the simulation and optimization hydroeconomic tools SIMGAMS and OPTIGAMS. The simulation tool SIMGAMS allocates water resources among the users according to priorities and operating rules, and evaluate economic scarcity costs of the system by using economic demand functions. The model's objective function is designed so that the system aims to meet the operational targets (ranked according to priorities) at each month while following the system operating rules. The optimization tool OPTIGAMS allocates water resources based on an economic efficiency criterion: maximize net benefits, or alternatively, minimizing the total water scarcity and operating cost of water use. SIMGAS allows to simulate incentive water pricing policies based on marginal resource opportunity costs (MROC; Pulido-Velazquez et al., 2013). Storage-dependent step pricing functions are derived from the time series of MROC values at a certain reservoir in the system. These water pricing policies are defined based on water availability in the system (scarcity pricing), so that when water storage is high, the MROC is low, while low storage (drought periods) will be associated to high MROC and therefore, high prices. We also illustrate the use of OPTIGAMS to simulate the effect of ideal water

  15. The water method combined with chromoendoscopy enhances adenoma detection.

    PubMed

    Leung, Joseph W; Ransibrahmanakul, Kanat; Toomsen, Lee; Mann, Surinder K; Siao-Salera, Rodelei; Leung, Felix W

    2011-04-01

    BACKGROUND: The water method is easy-to-learn and improves colonoscopy outcomes. Dye-spray chromoendoscopy enhances ADR but has not been widely accepted for routine application in screening or surveillance colonoscopy. HYPOTHESIS: With dye added to the water used in the water method, ADR can be enhanced compared with the water or air method alone. OBJECTIVE: To compare ADR determined by the air method, water method alone, and water method with indigo carmine (0.008%) added. DESIGN: Review of prospectively collected data in a performance improvement program. SETTING: VA endoscopy unit. PATIENT: Screening or surveillance colonoscopy. METHODS: Patients (n=50/group) underwent colonoscopy with each of the three methods. Water method involved warm water infusion in lieu of air insufflation coupled with removal of residual air by suction and residual feces by water exchange. ADR and procedural data were collected prospectively to monitor performance. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: ADR. RESULTS: ADR in the air method, water method alone and water method with indigo carmine were 36%, 40% and 62%, respectively. Water method with indigo carmine produced significantly higher ADR than the air or water method alone (p<0.05). LIMITATIONS: Non-randomized data, single VA site, retrospective comparison. Absence of significant difference between air and water methods could be a type II error due to small number of patients CONCLUSIONS: The approach with indigo carmine added to the water used in the water method yielded significantly higher ADR than the water or the air method alone. The data suggest that a prospective RCT to compare the different methods is warranted. PMID:21776426

  16. Development of highly sensitive cadmium iondashselective electrodes by titration method and its application to cadmium ion determination in industrial waste water.

    PubMed

    Ito, S; Asano, Y; Wada, H

    1997-04-01

    Characteristics of cadmium iondashselective electrode made cadmium sulphide (CdS)-silver sulphide (Ag(2)S) mixture were studied. CdS-Ag(2)S mixtures were obtained by gas/solid-phase reaction between silver-cadmium mixed powder and hydrogen sulphide gas (dry method) and by ionic reaction between cadmium-silver mixed ions and sulphide ion (wet method). As a result, it was found that the CdS-Ag(2)S mixture had to be made in the condition of excess existence of sulfur and had better regulate the excess sulfur quantity minimum, for the CdS-Ag(2)S pressed membrane gave a good Nernstian response against the cadmium ion concentration change. As the best way, CdS-Ag(2)S mixture was obtained by adding sulphide ion solution to 5 mol% cadmium ion and 95 mol% silver ion mixed solution while measuring silver sulphide (Ag(2)S) electrode potential as an indicator electrode. According to the reaction was stopped when the potential variation from the initial potential in the sulphide ion solution reached at 87-116 mV which the sulphide ion concentration became 10(-3) - 10(-4) of the initial concentration, the cadmium ion membrane pressed diameter of 8 mm and thickness of 2 mm showed a Nernstian response from 10(-8) to 10(-1) M of cadmium ion concentration. Furthermore, aiming to its application for industrial waste water, masking buffer for interfering metal ions such as lead ion (Pb(2+)) and copper ion (Cu(2+)), which were possibly coexisted and to adjust total ionic strength and pH of sample was developed. The present Cd(2+) iondashselective electrode was applied to the determination of Cd(2+) in the industrial waste water. The good regression line with correlation factor of 0.984 was obtained compared with the conventional atomic absorption spectroscopy. PMID:18966791

  17. Field Application of the Micro Biological Survey Method for a Simple and Effective Assessment of the Microbiological Quality of Water Sources in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Arienzo, Alyexandra; Sobze, Martin Sanou; Wadoum, Raoul Emeric Guetiya; Losito, Francesca; Colizzi, Vittorio; Antonini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines, “safe drinking-water must not represent any significant risk to health over a lifetime of consumption, including different sensitivities that may occur between life stages”. Traditional methods of water analysis are usually complex, time consuming and require an appropriately equipped laboratory, specialized personnel and expensive instrumentation. The aim of this work was to apply an alternative method, the Micro Biological Survey (MBS), to analyse for contaminants in drinking water. Preliminary experiments were carried out to demonstrate the linearity and accuracy of the MBS method and to verify the possibility of using the evaluation of total coliforms in 1 mL of water as a sufficient parameter to roughly though accurately determine water microbiological quality. The MBS method was then tested “on field” to assess the microbiological quality of water sources in the city of Douala (Cameroon, Central Africa). Analyses were performed on both dug and drilled wells in different periods of the year. Results confirm that the MBS method appears to be a valid and accurate method to evaluate the microbiological quality of many water sources and it can be of valuable aid in developing countries. PMID:26308038

  18. Analysis of the herbicide diuron, three diuron degradates, and six neonicotinoid insecticides in water-Method details and application to two Georgia streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hladik, Michelle L.; Calhoun, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of the widely used herbicide diuron, three degradates of diuron, and six neonicotinoid insecticides in environmental water samples is described. Filtered water samples were extracted by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with no additional cleanup steps. Quantification of the pesticides from the extracted water samples was done by using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Recoveries in test water samples fortified at 20 nanograms per liter (ng/L) for each compound ranged from 75 to 97 percent; relative standard deviations ranged from 5 to 10 percent. Method detection limits (MDLs) in water ranged from 3.0 to 6.2 ng/L using LC/MS/MS. The method was applied to water samples from two streams in Georgia, Sope Creek and the Chattahoochee River. Diuron and 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) were detected in 100 and 80 percent, respectively, of the samples from the Chattahoochee River, whereas Sope creek had detection frequencies of 15 percent for diuron and 31 percent for 3,4-DCA. Detection frequencies for the neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, were 60 percent for the Chattahoochee River and 85 percent for Sope Creek. Field matrix-spike recoveries for each compound, when averaged over four water samples, ranged from 79 to 100 percent. The average percentage difference between replicate pairs for all compounds detected in the field samples was 10.1 (± 4.5) percent.

  19. Using new approaches to environmental decision-making: An application of integrated assessment methods to water resource issues in the binational Lower Rio Grande basin

    SciTech Connect

    Mathis, M.L.

    1999-12-31

    This article examines a unique application of integrated assessment methodologies to analyze water scarcity, development and the environment in the semi-arid Lower Rio Grande/Rio Bravo watershed. US and Mexican data are analyzed to produce an integrated baseline report of current socio-economic, ecological, water supply and demand, water quality, and management conditions and trends. The baseline report provides the basis for subsequent analysis of alternative future scenarios for the region. Scenarios are developed by combining demographic projections with alternatives for future water availability, irrigation technologies, and management practices. The integrated assessment methodology is evaluated as a general tool for environmental decision-making. Problems encountered in applying the methodology are discussed, as are possibilities for improvements. The article concludes that, despite inherent difficulties, integrated assessments can provide a powerful framework by which to analyze complex environmental issues involving different disciplines and large amounts of information.

  20. A new precipitation weighted method for determining the meteoric water line for hydrological applications demonstrated using Australian and global GNIP data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Catherine E.; Crawford, Jagoda

    2012-09-01

    SummaryThe relationship between δ2H and δ18O in precipitation at a site, known as the local meteoric water line (LMWL), is normally defined using an ordinary least squares regression (OLSR) which gives equal weighting to all data points regardless of the precipitation amount they represent. However, smaller precipitation amounts are more likely to have a lower D-excess due to re-evaporation of raindrops below the cloud-base or biases in the sampling method. In this paper we present an equation for a precipitation amount weighted least squares regression (PWLSR) that will correct these biases for use in groundwater and surface hydrology applications. New LMWL equations are presented for Australian sites in the Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (GNIP), where the PWLSR consistently produces a LMWL with a larger gradient than the OLSR. Perth and Alice Springs exhibit the largest change in slope. This is consistent with the higher frequency of small monthly precipitation amounts with low D-excess values occurring at these sites in summer for Perth and throughout the year for Alice Springs. The PWLSR method was also applied to 288 stations in the GNIP data base (N > 36) and the difference between the slopes of the LMWLs (Δa = slopePWLSR-slopeOLSR) calculated for these stations. The mean change in slope, Δa was 0.12 with 56% of sites showing an increase in slope or positive Δa value and 44% having a decrease in slope or negative Δa. Sites with Mediterranean climates showed the greatest increase in slope. The magnitude of the change in slope followed some general trends showing a positive correlation with average δ2H and δ18O composition and rainfall variability, and negative correlation with period of record (N).

  1. Method for treating waste water

    SciTech Connect

    Masaki, Y.; Odawara, Y.; Shimizu, N.

    1982-10-26

    The invention relates to an improvement of the floc-formation property of activated sludge contained in waste water. A waste water treatment process comprises steps culturing a novel strain-alcaligenes faecalis hrl-1-and adding the cultured cells to to-be-treated waste water.

  2. Robust and Superhydrophobic Surface Modification by a "Paint + Adhesive" Method: Applications in Self-Cleaning after Oil Contamination and Oil-Water Separation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Baiyi; Qiu, Jianhui; Sakai, Eiichi; Kanazawa, Nobuhiro; Liang, Ruilu; Feng, Huixia

    2016-07-13

    Conventional superhydrophobic surfaces have always depended on expensive, sophisticated, and fragile roughness structures. Therefore, poor robustness has turned into the bottleneck for large-scale industrial applications of the superhydrophobic surfaces. To handle this problem, a superhydrophobic surface with firm robustness urgently needs to be developed. In this work, we created a versatile strategy to fabricate robust, self-cleaning, and superhydrophobic surfaces for both soft and hard substrates. We created an ethanol based suspension of perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane-mdodified calcium carbonate nanoparticles which can be sprayed onto both hard and soft substrates to form superhydrophobic surfaces. For all kinds of substrates, spray adhesive was directly coated onto abluent substrate surfaces to promote the robustness. These superhydrophobic surfaces showed remarkable robustness against knife scratch and sandpaper abrasion, while retaining its superhydrophobicity even after 30 abrasion cycles with sandpaper. What is more, the superhydrophobic surfaces have shown promising potential applications in self-cleaning and oil-water separation. The surfaces retained their self-cleaning property even immersed in oil. In addition to oil-water separation, the water contents in oil after separation of various mixtures were all below 150 ppm, and for toluene even as low as 55 ppm. Furthermore, the as-prepared device for oil-water separation could be cycled 6 times and still retained excellent oil-water separation efficiency. PMID:27286474

  3. Application of remote sensing to water resources problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clapp, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    The following conclusions were reached concerning the applications of remote sensing to water resources problems: (1) Remote sensing methods provide the most practical method of obtaining data for many water resources problems; (2) the multi-disciplinary approach is essential to the effective application of remote sensing to water resource problems; (3) there is a correlation between the amount of suspended solids in an effluent discharged into a water body and reflected energy; (4) remote sensing provides for more effective and accurate monitoring, discovery and characterization of the mixing zone of effluent discharged into a receiving water body; and (5) it is possible to differentiate between blue and blue-green algae.

  4. Dynamic Programming Applications in Water Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yakowitz, Sidney

    1982-08-01

    The central intention of this survey is to review dynamic programming models for water resource problems and to examine computational techniques which have been used to obtain solutions to these problems. Problem areas surveyed here include aqueduct design, irrigation system control, project development, water quality maintenance, and reservoir operations analysis. Computational considerations impose severe limitation on the scale of dynamic programming problems which can be solved. Inventive numerical techniques for implementing dynamic programming have been applied to water resource problems. Discrete dynamic programming, differential dynamic programming, state incremental dynamic programming, and Howard's policy iteration method are among the techniques reviewed. Attempts have been made to delineate the successful applications, and speculative ideas are offered toward attacking problems which have not been solved satisfactorily.

  5. Method and apparatus for tritiated water separation

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, David A.; Duncan, James B.; Jensen, George A.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention is a membrane method and apparatus for separating isotopic water constituents from light water. The method involves providing a supported membrane of an aromatic polyphosphazene and pressurizing the water on one side of the membrane thereby forcing the light water through the supported membrane while isotopic water constituents are retained or vice versa. The apparatus of the present invention includes an aromatic polyphosphazene placed on a porous support and means for pressurizing water through the membrane while certain isotopic water constituents are retained.

  6. Method and apparatus for tritiated water separation

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, D.A.; Duncan, J.B.; Jensen, G.A.

    1995-09-19

    The present invention is a membrane method and apparatus for separating isotopic water constituents from light water. The method involves providing a supported membrane of an aromatic polyphosphazene and pressurizing the water on one side of the membrane thereby forcing the light water through the supported membrane while isotopic water constituents are retained or vice versa. The apparatus of the present invention includes an aromatic polyphosphazene placed on a porous support and means for pressurizing water through the membrane while certain isotopic water constituents are retained. 1 fig.

  7. Extraction of Antioxidants from Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Leaves—Optimization by Response Surface Method and Application in Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    PubMed Central

    Segovia, Francisco; Lupo, Bryshila; Peiró, Sara; Gordon, Michael H.; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a typical Spanish plant. During processing, 60% are leaves. The aim of this work is to model and optimize the extraction of polyphenol from borage leaves using the response surface method (RSM) and to use this extract for application in emulsions. The responses were: total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant capacity by ORAC, and rosmarinic acid by HPLC. The ranges of the variables temperature, ethanol content and time were 50–90 °C, 0%–30%–60% ethanol (v/v), and 10–15 min. For ethanolic extraction, optimal conditions were at 75.9 °C, 52% ethanol and 14.8 min, yielding activity of 27.05 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 115.96 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 11.02 mg/L rosmarinic acid. For water extraction, optimal activity was achieved with extraction at 98.3 °C and 22 min, with responses of 22.3 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 81.6 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 3.9 mg/L rosmarinic acid. The significant variables were ethanol concentration and temperature. For emulsions, the peroxide value was inhibited by 60% for 3% extract concentration; and 80% with 3% extract concentration and 0.2% of BSA. The p-anisidine value between the control and the emulsion with 3% extract was reduced to 73.6% and with BSA 86.3%, and others concentrations had similar behavior. PMID:26784875

  8. Extraction of Antioxidants from Borage (Borago officinalis L.) Leaves-Optimization by Response Surface Method and Application in Oil-in-Water Emulsions.

    PubMed

    Segovia, Francisco; Lupo, Bryshila; Peiró, Sara; Gordon, Michael H; Almajano, María Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Borage (Borago officinalis L.) is a typical Spanish plant. During processing, 60% are leaves. The aim of this work is to model and optimize the extraction of polyphenol from borage leaves using the response surface method (RSM) and to use this extract for application in emulsions. The responses were: total polyphenol content (TPC), antioxidant capacity by ORAC, and rosmarinic acid by HPLC. The ranges of the variables temperature, ethanol content and time were 50-90 °C, 0%-30%-60% ethanol (v/v), and 10-15 min. For ethanolic extraction, optimal conditions were at 75.9 °C, 52% ethanol and 14.8 min, yielding activity of 27.05 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 115.96 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 11.02 mg/L rosmarinic acid. For water extraction, optimal activity was achieved with extraction at 98.3 °C and 22 min, with responses of 22.3 mg GAE/g DW TPC; 81.6 mg TE/g DW in ORAC and 3.9 mg/L rosmarinic acid. The significant variables were ethanol concentration and temperature. For emulsions, the peroxide value was inhibited by 60% for 3% extract concentration; and 80% with 3% extract concentration and 0.2% of BSA. The p-anisidine value between the control and the emulsion with 3% extract was reduced to 73.6% and with BSA 86.3%, and others concentrations had similar behavior. PMID:26784875

  9. Method of treating waste water

    DOEpatents

    Deininger, James P.; Chatfield, Linda K.

    1995-01-01

    A process of treating water to remove metal ion contaminants contained therein, said metal ion contaminants selected from the group consisting of metals in Groups 8, 1b, 2b, 4a, 5a, or 6a of the periodic table, lanthanide metals, and actinide metals including transuranic element metals, by adjusting the pH of a metal ion contaminant-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with a mixture of an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount the mixture of ferrate and water soluble salt effective to reduce the metal ion contaminant concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced metal ion contaminant concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced metal ion contaminant concentration from the admixture is provided. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

  10. Application of the water table fluctuation method for estimating evapotranspiration at two phreatophyte-dominated sites under hyper-arid environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ping; Grinevsky, Sergey O.; Pozdniakov, Sergey P.; Yu, Jingjie; Dautova, Dina S.; Min, Leilei; Du, Chaoyang; Zhang, Yichi

    2014-11-01

    Shallow groundwater is primarily discharged via evapotranspiration (ETg) in arid and semi-arid riparian systems; however, the quantification of ETg remains a challenge in regional water resource assessments of such systems. In this study, the diagnostic indicators of groundwater evapotranspiration processes and the principles of applying the water table fluctuation (WTF) method to estimate ETg based on seasonal groundwater level changes were presented. These techniques were then used to investigate groundwater evapotranspiration processes at two sites dominated by phreatophytes (Tamarix ramosissima and Populus euphratica) within hyper-arid desert environments in northwestern China for the period 2010-2012. The results indicate that steady declines in the water table, which are commonly attributed to groundwater evapotranspiration, occurred at both sites during the growing season. Based on the proposed WTF method, the estimated ETg was 0.63-0.73 mm/d at the Tamarix ramosissima site and 1.89-2.33 mm/d at the Populus euphratica site during the summer months (June-August). Numerical simulations using a one-dimensional root water uptake model indicate that the seasonal variations in ETg at both sites were primarily dependent on the potential evaporation rates. Comparisons with previous studies on plant transpiration at similar sites in this area show that these results are reasonable. It is apparent that the WTF method can provide a simple and relatively inexpensive method of estimating ETg on a large scale in arid/semi-arid regions. However, there are significant uncertainties associated with time-dependent lateral flow rates, which creates a challenge when applying this method. In addition, the selection of calculation periods that show steady declines in the groundwater level can be somewhat subjective. To enhance the performance of the WTF method based on seasonal water table declines, further research on the estimation of lateral flow rates should be performed

  11. New on-line method for water isotope analysis of fluid inclusions in speleothems using laser absorption spectroscopy: Application to stalagmites from Borneo and Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Affolter, Stéphane; Fleitmann, Dominik; Nele Meckler, Anna; Leuenberger, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Speleothems are recognised as key continental archives for paleoclimate reconstructions. They contain fluid inclusions representing past drip water trapped in the calcite structure. Speleothem can be precisely dated and therefore the oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopes of fluid inclusions constitute powerful proxies for paleotemperature or to investigate changes in the moisture source over several interglacial-glacial cycles. To liberate fluid inclusion water and to analyse its isotopic composition, a new online extraction method developed at Bern is used. The principle can be summarised as follows: Prior to crushing, the sample is placed into a copper tube, fixed to the line previously heated to 140° C and flushed with a nitrogen and standard water mixture. Thereafter, the speleothem sample is crushed using a simple hydraulic crushing device and the released water from fluid inclusions is transferred by the nitrogen-standard water mixture flow to a Picarro L1102-i isotopic liquid water and water vapor analyser. The measuring principle is based on wavelength-scanned cavity ring-down spectroscopy (WS-CRDS) technology that allows us to simultaneously monitor hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. Reproducibility of standard water measurements is typically better than 1.5 o for δD and 0.4 o for δ18O. With this method, we successfully analysed δD and δ18O isotopic composition of a stalagmite from Northern Borneo (tropical West Pacific) covering almost two glacial-interglacial cycles from MIS 12 to early MIS 9 (460-330 ka) as well as recent samples from Switzerland and Borneo. These results are used in combination with calcite δ18O to reconstruct paleotemperature. Currently, we are measuring a stalagmite from Milandre cave (Jura, Switzerland) covering the Bølling-Allerød, Younger Dryas cold phase and the Holocene.

  12. Method of treating waste water

    DOEpatents

    Deininger, J. Paul; Chatfield, Linda K.

    1991-01-01

    A process of treating water to remove transuranic elements contained therein by adjusting the pH of a transuranic element-containing water source to within the range of about 6.5 to about 14.0, admixing the water source with an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in an amount sufficient to form a precipitate within the water source, the amount of ferrate effective to reduce the transuranic element concentration in the water source, permitting the precipitate in the admixture to separate and thereby yield a supernatant liquid having a reduced transuranic element concentration, and separating the supernatant liquid having the reduced transuranic element concentration from the admixture is provided. Additionally, a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, can be added with the alkali or alkaline earth ferrate in the process to provide greater removal efficiencies. A composition of matter including an alkali or alkaline earth ferrate and a water soluble salt, e.g., a zirconium salt, is also provided.

  13. Advancing computational methods for calibration of the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT): Application for modeling climate change impacts on water resources in the Upper Neuse Watershed of North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercan, Mehmet Bulent

    Watershed-scale hydrologic models are used for a variety of applications from flood prediction, to drought analysis, to water quality assessments. A particular challenge in applying these models is calibration of the model parameters, many of which are difficult to measure at the watershed-scale. A primary goal of this dissertation is to contribute new computational methods and tools for calibration of watershed-scale hydrologic models and the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, in particular. SWAT is a physically-based, watershed-scale hydrologic model developed to predict the impact of land management practices on water quality and quantity. The dissertation follows a manuscript format meaning it is comprised of three separate but interrelated research studies. The first two research studies focus on SWAT model calibration, and the third research study presents an application of the new calibration methods and tools to study climate change impacts on water resources in the Upper Neuse Watershed of North Carolina using SWAT. The objective of the first two studies is to overcome computational challenges associated with calibration of SWAT models. The first study evaluates a parallel SWAT calibration tool built using the Windows Azure cloud environment and a parallel version of the Dynamically Dimensioned Search (DDS) calibration method modified to run in Azure. The calibration tool was tested for six model scenarios constructed using three watersheds of increasing size (the Eno, Upper Neuse, and Neuse) for both a 2 year and 10 year simulation duration. Leveraging the cloud as an on demand computing resource allowed for a significantly reduced calibration time such that calibration of the Neuse watershed went from taking 207 hours on a personal computer to only 3.4 hours using 256 cores in the Azure cloud. The second study aims at increasing SWAT model calibration efficiency by creating an open source, multi-objective calibration tool using the Non

  14. Physical retrieval of precipitation water contents from Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) data. Part 2: Retrieval method and applications (report version)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, William S.

    1990-01-01

    A physical retrieval method for estimating precipitating water distributions and other geophysical parameters based upon measurements from the DMSP-F8 SSM/I is developed. Three unique features of the retrieval method are (1) sensor antenna patterns are explicitly included to accommodate varying channel resolution; (2) precipitation-brightness temperature relationships are quantified using the cloud ensemble/radiative parameterization; and (3) spatial constraints are imposed for certain background parameters, such as humidity, which vary more slowly in the horizontal than the cloud and precipitation water contents. The general framework of the method will facilitate the incorporation of measurements from the SSMJT, SSM/T-2 and geostationary infrared measurements, as well as information from conventional sources (e.g., radiosondes) or numerical forecast model fields.

  15. Application of a Developed Method for the Extraction of Triazines in Surface Waters and Storage Prior to Analysis to Seawaters of Galicia (Northwest Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-González, Noelia; Beceiro-González, Elisa; González-Castro, María José; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad

    2013-01-01

    A simple method based on solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography for simultaneous determination of nine triazine herbicides (ametryn, atrazine, cyanazine, prometryn, propazine, simazine, simetryn, terbuthylazine, and terbutryn) in surface water samples was developed and validated. Under optimized conditions, 50 mL of water sample was pumped through the Oasis HLB cartridge, and triazines were eluted with 3 mL acetone. Finally the extract was concentrated to dryness, reconstituted with 1 mL methanol : water (1 : 1) and injected into the HPLC-DAD system. The stability of the herbicides on the cartridges at −18 and 4°C was also evaluated, and the recoveries obtained after three weeks of storage were satisfactory for all compounds. The analytical features of the proposed method were satisfactory: repeatability and intermediate precision were <10% and recoveries in spiked river water and seawater samples were higher than 93% for all compounds studied. Limits of quantification (varied from 0.46 to 0.98 µg L−1) were adequately allowing the determination of these compounds at the levels requested by the 2008/105/EC Directive. Finally, this method was applied to the analysis of 50 seawater samples from Galicia (northwest Spain). PMID:24228007

  16. Application of a developed method for the extraction of triazines in surface waters and storage prior to analysis to seawaters of Galicia (northwest Spain).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-González, Noelia; Beceiro-González, Elisa; González-Castro, María José; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad

    2013-01-01

    A simple method based on solid-phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography for simultaneous determination of nine triazine herbicides (ametryn, atrazine, cyanazine, prometryn, propazine, simazine, simetryn, terbuthylazine, and terbutryn) in surface water samples was developed and validated. Under optimized conditions, 50 mL of water sample was pumped through the Oasis HLB cartridge, and triazines were eluted with 3 mL acetone. Finally the extract was concentrated to dryness, reconstituted with 1 mL methanol : water (1 : 1) and injected into the HPLC-DAD system. The stability of the herbicides on the cartridges at -18 and 4°C was also evaluated, and the recoveries obtained after three weeks of storage were satisfactory for all compounds. The analytical features of the proposed method were satisfactory: repeatability and intermediate precision were <10% and recoveries in spiked river water and seawater samples were higher than 93% for all compounds studied. Limits of quantification (varied from 0.46 to 0.98 µg L⁻¹) were adequately allowing the determination of these compounds at the levels requested by the 2008/105/EC Directive. Finally, this method was applied to the analysis of 50 seawater samples from Galicia (northwest Spain). PMID:24228007

  17. Optimal calibration method for water distribution water quality model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zheng Yi

    2006-01-01

    A water quality model is to predict water quality transport and fate throughout a water distribution system. The model is not only a promising alternative for analyzing disinfectant residuals in a cost-effective manner, but also a means of providing enormous engineering insights into the characteristics of water quality variation and constituent reactions. However, a water quality model is a reliable tool only if it predicts what a real system behaves. This paper presents a methodology that enables a modeler to efficiently calibrate a water quality model such that the field observed water quality values match with the model simulated values. The method is formulated to adjust the global water quality parameters and also the element-dependent water quality reaction rates for pipelines and tank storages. A genetic algorithm is applied to optimize the model parameters by minimizing the difference between the model-predicted values and the field-observed values. It is seamlessly integrated with a well-developed hydraulic and water quality modeling system. The approach has provided a generic tool and methodology for engineers to construct the sound water quality model in expedient manner. The method is applied to a real water system and demonstrated that a water quality model can be optimized for managing adequate water supply to public communities. PMID:16854809

  18. Development of a new seminested PCR method for detection of Legionella species and its application to surveillance of legionellae in hospital cooling tower water.

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, H; Yamamoto, H; Arima, K; Fujii, J; Maruta, K; Izu, K; Shiomori, T; Yoshida, S

    1997-01-01

    The presence of PCR inhibitors in water samples is well known and contributes to the fact that a practical PCR assay has not been developed for legionella surveillance. In this study, we devised a new seminested PCR assay for detection of Legionella spp. in water samples as a means of overriding the PCR inhibitors without loss of sensitivity. The seminested PCR assay utilized primers to amplify the 16S rRNA gene (LEG primers) of 39 Legionella spp. The assay was specific to legionellae, and the sensitivity was 1 fg of extracted Legionella DNA in laboratory examination. To evaluate the feasibility and sensitivity of the PCR assay in identifying the presence of legionellae, it was used to survey Legionella contamination in the water of 49 cooling towers of 32 hospitals. A commercially available EnviroAmp Legionella kit and a culture method were also used in the survey for comparison with the seminested PCR assay. The detection rates of legionellae in the samples were 91.8% (45 of 49) by the PCR assay and 79.5% (39 of 49) by the culture method. The EnviroAmp kit revealed that 30.6% of the water samples (15 of 49) contained inhibitors of the PCR amplification. However, the seminested PCR assay could produce the Legionella-specific DNA bands in 14 of the 15 samples. Although 8 of the 14 samples were positive in the first-step PCR, 6 of the 14 samples became positive in the second-step PCR. These results suggest that the effect of PCR inhibitors in samples, if any, can be reduced because of the dilution of the sample in the second-step PCR and that sensitivity of detection can be increased by the second-step PCR. Thus, the seminested PCR assay with LEG primers to amplify the 16S rRNA gene of 39 Legionella spp. was a practical and sensitive method to detect Legionella spp. in water samples. PMID:9212400

  19. Water harvesting applications for rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although water harvesting techniques have been used effectively in irrigated agriculture and domestic water supplies, there seems to have been little continued exploitation of the same techniques in arid and semiarid rangeland restoration. A review of the history of rangeland water harvesting allow...

  20. Experimental evaluation of the applicability of phase, amplitude, and combined methods to determine water flux and thermal diffusivity from temperature time series using VFLUX 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Dylan J.; Lautz, Laura K.; Briggs, Martin A.; Gordon, Ryan P.; McKenzie, Jeffrey M.

    2015-12-01

    Vertical fluid exchange between surface water and groundwater can be estimated using diurnal signals from temperature time series methods based on amplitude ratios (Ar), phase shifts (Δϕ), or combined use of both (ArΔϕ). The Ar, Δϕ, and ArΔϕ methods are typically applied in conditions where one or more of their underlying assumptions are violated, and the reliability of the various methods in response to non-ideal conditions is unclear. Additionally, ArΔϕ methods offer the ability to estimate thermal diffusivity (κe) without assuming any thermal parameters, although the value of such output has not been broadly tested. The Ar, Δϕ, and ArΔϕ methods are tested under non-steady, 1D flows in sand column experiments, and multi-dimensional flows in heterogeneous media in numerical modeling experiments. Results show that, in non-steady flow conditions, estimated κe values outside of a plausible range for streambed materials (0.028-0.180 m2 d-1) coincide with time periods with erroneous flux estimates. In heterogeneous media, sudden changes of κe with depth also coincide with erroneous flux estimates. When (known) fluxes are variable in time, poor identification of Δϕ leads to poor flux estimates from Δϕ and ArΔϕ methods. However, when fluxes are steady, or near zero, ArΔϕ methods provide the most accurate flux estimates. This comparison of Ar, Δϕ and ArΔϕ methods under non-ideal conditions provides guidance on their use. In this study, ArΔϕ methods have been coded into a new version of VFLUX, allowing users easy access to recent advances in heat tracing.

  1. Direct methods for radionuclides measurement in water environment.

    PubMed

    Chernyaev, A; Gaponov, I; Kazennov, A

    2004-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the direct method of anthropogenic radionuclide measurement in the water environment. Opportunities of application of submersible gamma-spectrometers for in situ underwater measurements of gamma-radiating nuclides and also the direct method for 90Sr detection are considered. PMID:15162871

  2. Assessing and comparing the total antioxidant capacity of commercial beverages: application to beers, wines, waters and soft drinks using TRAP, TEAC and FRAP methods.

    PubMed

    Queirós, Raquel B; Tafulo, Paula A R; Sales, M Goreti F

    2013-01-01

    This work measures and tries to compare the Antioxidant Capacity (AC) of 50 commercial beverages of different kinds: 6 wines, 12 beers, 18 soft drinks and 14 flavoured waters. Because there is no reference procedure established for this purpose, three different optical methods were used to analyse these samples: Total Radical trapping Antioxidant Parameter (TRAP), Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) and Ferric ion Reducing Antioxidant Parameter (FRAP). These methods differ on the chemical background and nature of redox system. The TRAP method involves the transfer of hydrogen atoms while TEAC and FRAP involves electron transfer reactions. The AC was also assessed against three antioxidants of reference, Ascorbic acid (AA), Gallic acid (GA) and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethyl- 2-carboxylic acid (Trolox). The results obtained were analyzed statistically. Anova one-way tests were applied to all results and suggested that methods and standards exhibited significant statistical differences. The possible effect of sample features in the AC, such as gas, flavours, food colouring, sweeteners, acidity regulators, preservatives, stabilizers, vitamins, juice percentage, alcohol percentage, antioxidants and the colour was also investigated. The AC levels seemed to change with brand, kind of antioxidants added, and kind of flavour, depending on the sample. In general, higher ACs were obtained for FRAP as method, and beer for kind of sample, and the standard expressing the smaller AC values was GA. PMID:22931382

  3. Domestic applications for aerospace waste and water management technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disanto, F.; Murray, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    Some of the aerospace developments in solid waste disposal and water purification, which are applicable to specific domestic problems are explored. Also provided is an overview of the management techniques used in defining the need, in utilizing the available tools, and in synthesizing a solution. Specifically, several water recovery processes will be compared for domestic applicability. Examples are filtration, distillation, catalytic oxidation, reverse osmosis, and electrodialysis. Solid disposal methods will be discussed, including chemical treatment, drying, incineration, and wet oxidation. The latest developments in reducing household water requirements and some concepts for reusing water will be outlined.

  4. New energy partitioning scheme based on the self-consistent charge and configuration method for subsystems: Application to water dimer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korchowiec, Jacek; Uchimaru, Tadafumi

    2000-01-01

    The charge-transfer energy in water dimer is analyzed. The analysis is based on self-consistent charge and configuration method for subsystems (SCCCMS). The SCCCMS, as such, is not restricted to any computational schemes and can be applied at Hartree-Fock (HF), post-HF, and density functional levels of theory. In our approach, the interaction energy is decomposed into deformation (DEF), electrostatic (ES), polarization (P), charge transfer (CT), and exchange (EX) [exchange-correlation (XC)] contributions. The CT energy is derived from the energy surface spanned in the populational space. The intermediate results obtained during construction of this energy surface, such as chemical potentials, hardness and softness parameters, are of particular interest in the theory of chemical reactivity and, thus, these values are discussed as well. The influence of basis set and computational method is analyzed. The numerical values of the energy components obtained at the HF level of theory are compared with those of Kitaura-Morokuma (KM) and reduced variational space (RVS) analyses. It is shown that SCCCMS correctly describes the polarization process. The CT contribution is less dependent on the basis set than KM or RVS scheme and is free from the basis set superposition error (BSSE). It is demonstrated that the CT energy is of little importance for the water dimer. In addition, the amount of CT calculated in our scheme is almost identical to that obtained from the supermolecule calculations.

  5. An optical method to assess water clarity in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Kulshreshtha, Anuj; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2015-12-01

    Accurate estimation of water clarity in coastal regions is highly desired by various activities such as search and recovery operations, dredging and water quality monitoring. This study intends to develop a practical method for estimating water clarity based on a larger in situ dataset, which includes Secchi depth (Z sd ), turbidity, chlorophyll and optical properties from several field campaigns in turbid coastal waters. The Secchi depth parameter is found to closely vary with the concentration of suspended sediments, vertical diffuse attenuation coefficient K d (m(-1)) and beam attenuation coefficient c (m(-1)). The optical relationships obtained for the selected wavelengths (i.e. 520, 530 and 540 nm) exhibit an inverse relationship between Secchi depth and the length attenuation coefficient (1/(c + K d )). The variation in Secchi depth is expressed in terms of undetermined coupling coefficient which is composed of light penetration factor (expressed by z(1%)K d (λ)) and a correction factor (ξ) (essentially governed by turbidity of the water column). This method of estimating water clarity was validated using independent in situ data from turbid coastal waters, and its results were compared with those obtained from the existing methods. The statistical analysis of the measured and the estimated Z sd showed that the present method yields lower error when compared to the existing methods. The spatial structures of the measured and predicted Z sd are also highly consistent with in situ data, which indicates the potential of the present method for estimating the water clarity in turbid coastal and associated lagoon waters. PMID:26559556

  6. Application of Geographic Information System Methods to Identify Areas Yielding Water that will be Replaced by Water from the Colorado River in the Vidal and Chemehuevi Areas, California, and the Mohave Mesa Area, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spangler, Lawrence E.; Angeroth, Cory E.; Walton, Sarah J.

    2008-01-01

    elevation of the accounting surface. Differences in elevation between water levels and the accounting surface range from -0.2 to -11.3 feet, with most values exceeding -7.0 feet. In general, the ArcGIS Triangulated Irregular Network (TIN) Contour and Natural Neighbor tools reasonably represent areas where the elevation of water levels in wells is above, below, and near (within ? 0.84 foot) the elevation of the accounting surface in the Vidal and Chemehuevi study areas and accurately delineate areas around outlying wells and where anomalies exist. The TIN Contour tool provides a strict linear interpolation while the Natural Neighbor tool provides a smoothed interpolation. Using the default options in ArcGIS, the Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW) and Spline tools also reasonably represent areas above, below, and near the accounting surface in the Vidal and Chemehuevi areas. However, spatial extent of and boundaries between areas above, below, and near the accounting surface vary among the GIS methods, which results largely from the fundamentally different mathematical approaches used by these tools. The limited number and spatial distribution of wells in comparison to the size of the areas, and the locations and relative differences in elevation between water levels and the accounting surface of wells with anomalous water levels also influence the contouring by each of these methods. Qualitatively, the Natural Neighbor tool appears to provide the best representation of the difference between water-level and accounting-surface elevations in the study areas, on the basis of available well data.

  7. Development, validation, and application of a method for the GC-MS analysis of fipronil and three of its degradation products in samples of water, soil, and sediment.

    PubMed

    de Toffoli, Ana L; da Mata, Kamilla; Bisinoti, Márcia C; Moreira, Altair B

    2015-01-01

    A method for the identification and quantification of pesticide residues in water, soil, and sediment samples has been developed, validated, and applied for the analysis of real samples. The specificity was determined by the retention time and the confirmation and quantification of analyte ions. Linearity was demonstrated over the concentration range of 20 to 120 µg L(-1), and the correlation coefficients varied between 0.979 and 0.996, depending on the analytes. The recovery rates for all analytes in the studied matrix were between 86% and 112%. The intermediate precision and repeatability were determined at three concentration levels (40, 80, and 120 µg L(-1)), with the relative standard deviation for the intermediate precision between 1% and 5.3% and the repeatability varying between 2% and 13.4% for individual analytes. The limits of detection and quantification for fipronil, fipronil sulfide, fipronil-sulfone, and fipronil-desulfinyl were 6.2, 3.0, 6.6, and 4.0 ng L(-1) and 20.4, 9.0, 21.6, and 13.0 ng L(-1), respectively. The method developed was used in water, soil, and sediment samples containing 2.1 mg L(-1) and 1.2% and 5.3% of carbon, respectively. The recovery of pesticides in the environmental matrices varied from 88.26 to 109.63% for the lowest fortification level (40 and 100 µg kg(-1)), from 91.17 to 110.18% for the intermediate level (80 and 200 µg kg(-1)), and from 89.09 to 109.82% for the highest fortification level (120 and 300 µg kg(-1)). The relative standard deviation for the recovery of pesticides was under 15%. PMID:26357886

  8. Development and application of a multi-residue method for the determination of 53 pharmaceuticals in water, sediment, and suspended solids using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Aminot, Yann; Litrico, Xavier; Chambolle, Mélodie; Arnaud, Christine; Pardon, Patrick; Budzindki, Hélène

    2015-11-01

    Comprehensive source and fate studies of pharmaceuticals in the environment require analytical methods able to quantify a wide range of molecules over various therapeutic classes, in aqueous and solid matrices. Considering this need, the development of an analytical method to determine 53 pharmaceuticals in aqueous phase and in solid matrices using a combination of microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction, and liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry is reported. Method was successfully validated regarding linearity, repeatability, and overall protocol recovery. Method detection limits (MDLs) do not exceed 1 ng L(-1) for 40 molecules in aqueous matrices (6 ng L(-1) for the 13 remaining), while subnanogram per gram MDLs were reached for 38 molecules in solid phase (29 ng g(-1) for the 15 remaining). Losses due to preparative steps were assessed for the 32 analytes associated to their labeled homologue, revealing an average loss of 40 % during reconcentration, the most altering step. Presence of analytes in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent aqueous phase and suspended solids (SS) as well as in river water, SS, and sediments was then investigated on a periurban river located in the suburbs of Bordeaux, France, revealing a major contribution of WWTP effluent to the river contamination. Sorption on river SS exceeded 5 % of total concentration for amitriptyline, fluoxetine, imipramine, ritonavir, sildenafil, and propranolol and appeared to be submitted to a seasonal influence. Sediment contamination was lower than the one of SS, organic carbon content, and sediment fine element proportion was accountable for the highest measured concentrations. PMID:26353747

  9. Behavior and Distribution of Heavy Metals Including Rare Earth Elements, Thorium, and Uranium in Sludge from Industry Water Treatment Plant and Recovery Method of Metals by Biosurfactants Application

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lidi; Kano, Naoki; Sato, Yuichi; Li, Chong; Zhang, Shuang; Imaizumi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the behavior, distribution, and characteristics of heavy metals including rare earth elements (REEs), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) in sludge, the total and fractional concentrations of these elements in sludge collected from an industry water treatment plant were determined and compared with those in natural soil. In addition, the removal/recovery process of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, and Ni) from the polluted sludge was studied with biosurfactant (saponin and sophorolipid) elution by batch and column experiments to evaluate the efficiency of biosurfactant for the removal of heavy metals. Consequently, the following matters have been largely clarified. (1) Heavy metallic elements in sludge have generally larger concentrations and exist as more unstable fraction than those in natural soil. (2) Nonionic saponin including carboxyl group is more efficient than sophorolipid for the removal of heavy metals in polluted sludge. Saponin has selectivity for the mobilization of heavy metals and mainly reacts with heavy metals in F3 (the fraction bound to carbonates) and F5 (the fraction bound to Fe-Mn oxides). (3) The recovery efficiency of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, and Cr) reached about 90–100% using a precipitation method with alkaline solution. PMID:22693485

  10. Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pierre Babka

    2002-10-31

    The Multi-Application Small Light Water Reactor (MASLWR ) project was conducted under the auspices of the Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The primary project objective was to develop the conceptual design for a safe and economic small, natural circulation light water reactor, to address the economic and safety attributes of the concept, and to demonstrate the technical feasibility by testing in an integral test facility.

  11. Selective spectroscopic methods for water analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidya, B.

    1997-06-24

    This dissertation explores in large part the development of a few types of spectroscopic methods in the analysis of water. Methods for the determination of some of the most important properties of water like pH, metal ion content, and chemical oxygen demand are investigated in detail. This report contains a general introduction to the subject and the conclusions. Four chapters and an appendix have been processed separately. They are: chromogenic and fluorogenic crown ether compounds for the selective extraction and determination of Hg(II); selective determination of cadmium in water using a chromogenic crown ether in a mixed micellar solution; reduction of chloride interference in chemical oxygen demand determination without using mercury salts; structural orientation patterns for a series of anthraquinone sulfonates adsorbed at an aminophenol thiolate monolayer chemisorbed at gold; and the role of chemically modified surfaces in the construction of miniaturized analytical instrumentation.

  12. Application of a stream-aquifer model to Monument Creek for development of a method to estimate transit losses for reusable water, El Paso County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kuhn, Gerhard; Arnold, L. Rick

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Colorado Springs Utilities, the Colorado Water Conservation Board, and the El Paso County Water Authority, began a study in 2004 to (1) apply a stream-aquifer model to Monument Creek, (2) use the results of the modeling to develop a transit-loss accounting program for Monument Creek, (3) revise the existing transit-loss accounting program for Fountain Creek to incorporate new water-management strategies and allow for incorporation of future changes in water-management strategies, and (4) integrate the two accounting programs into a single program with a Web-based user interface. The purpose of this report is to present the results of applying a stream-aquifer model to the Monument Creek study reach. More...

  13. Methods for Chemical Analysis of Fresh Waters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golterman, H. L.

    This manual, one of a series prepared for the guidance of research workers conducting studies as part of the International Biological Programme, contains recommended methods for the analysis of fresh water. The techniques are grouped in the following major sections: Sample Taking and Storage; Conductivity, pH, Oxidation-Reduction Potential,…

  14. INTERIM METHOD FOR DETERMINING ASBESTOS IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manual describes an interim electron microscope (EM) procedure for measuring the concentration of asbestos in water samples. The main features of the method include filtering the sample through a sub-micron polycarbonate membrane filter, examining an EM specimen grid in a tr...

  15. Application of a real-space three-dimensional image reconstruction method in the structural analysis of noncrystalline biological macromolecules enveloped by water in coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Wataru; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2011-08-01

    Coherent x-ray diffraction microscopy is a novel technique in the structural analyses of particles that are difficult to crystallize, such as the biological particles composing living cells. As water is indispensable for maintaining particles in functional structures, sufficient hydration of targeted particles is required during sample preparation for diffraction microscopy experiments. However, the water enveloping particles also contributes significantly to the diffraction patterns and reduces the electron-density contrast of the sample particles. In this study, we propose a protocol for the structural analyses of particles in water by applying a three-dimensional reconstruction method in real space for the projection images phase-retrieved from diffraction patterns, together with a developed density modification technique. We examined the feasibility of the protocol through three simulations involving a protein molecule in a vacuum, and enveloped in either a droplet or a cube-shaped water. The simulations were carried out for the diffraction patterns in the reciprocal planes normal to the incident x-ray beam. This assumption and the simulation conditions corresponded to experiments using x-ray wavelengths of shorter than 0.03 Å. The analyses demonstrated that our protocol provided an interpretable electron-density map. Based on the results, we discuss the advantages and limitations of the proposed protocol and its practical application for experimental data. In particular, we examined the influence of Poisson noise in diffraction patterns on the reconstructed three-dimensional electron density in the proposed protocol. PMID:21929015

  16. Storm Water Management Model Applications Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) is a dynamic rainfall-runoff simulation model that computes runoff quantity and quality from primarily urban areas. This manual is a practical application guide for new SWMM users who have already had some previous training in hydrolog...

  17. Water control well treating solution and method

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J. L.; Mancillas, G.

    1984-10-16

    A well treating solution is shown for changing the relative permeability of a formation being treated to water. The solution is made by mixing an amphoteric polymeric material, a mutual solvent and a surface active agent in a brine carrier liquid. The well treating solution is injected into the formation at pump rates below the fracture gradient of the formation. The well is briefly shut-in, after which production can be resumed. The treating solution and method taught lower the permeability of the producing formation to water without substantially affecting the formation's permeability to oil and gas.

  18. Proposal of New Water Electrode Method Used for Short-time Testing Method of Water Treeing and Consideration on Temperature Effects of Water Tree Initiation and Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehara, Hiroaki; Kudo, Katsutoshi; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Kanekawa, Teruo; Tsuboi, Yuichi; Ushiwata, Kodai; Yoshimitsu, Tetsuo

    Water treeing occurs when ac voltage is applied to electrical insulation system such as those in power cables and power apparatus. From a practical viewpoint, research on water treeing has been mostly performed under high-frequency ac voltage application. However, power cables and power apparatuses are also used under dc voltage application owing to progress in inverter technology. The inverter drive of a rotating electrical machine has spread and expanded for global warming prevention and maintenance improvement. An underwater motor is used in the water. In an underwater motor driven by the voltage of an inverter, it is necessary to consider the water treeing of motor insulation and connected cable insulation with a drive board. Thus far, the water electrode method that utilizes an ac voltage of high frequency has been used in conducting the accelerating experimental method of water treeing for a long time. On the other hand, an inverter with surge voltage generates an equivalent ac frequency by the application of a multifrequency pulse voltage similar to a pulse width modulation (PWM) control wave. Therefore, there is a possibility of committing a mistake in real-machine reliability evaluation because the initiation and propagation mechanisms are different from those in the case of a real-machine even if we can reproduce water treeing by increasing the basic frequency. In this paper, we investigated the new water electrode method and the temperature effects on water tree initiation and propagation. Furthermore, we compared the experimental results between 500Hz and 50Hz by using the new water electrode method from the view point of temperature.

  19. Application of surface geophysics to ground-water investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zohdy, Adel A.R.; Eaton, Gordon P.; Mabey, Don R.

    1974-01-01

    This manual reviews the standard methods of surface geophysics applicable to ground-water investigations. It covers electrical methods, seismic and gravity methods, and magnetic methods. The general physical principles underlying each method and its capabilities and limitations are described. Possibilities for non-uniqueness of interpretation of geophysical results are noted. Examples of actual use of the methods are given to illustrate applications and interpretation in selected geohydrologic environments. The objective of the manual is to provide the hydrogeologist with a sufficient understanding of the capabilities, imitations, and relative cost of geophysical methods to make sound decisions as to when to use of these methods is desirable. The manual also provides enough information for the hydrogeologist to work with a geophysicist in designing geophysical surveys that differentiate significant hydrogeologic changes.

  20. Water Management Applications of Advanced Precipitation Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, L. E.; Braswell, G.; Delaney, C.

    2012-12-01

    Advanced precipitation sensors and numerical models track storms as they occur and forecast the likelihood of heavy rain for time frames ranging from 1 to 8 hours, 1 day, and extended outlooks out to 3 to 7 days. Forecast skill decreases at the extended time frames but the outlooks have been shown to provide "situational awareness" which aids in preparation for flood mitigation and water supply operations. In California the California-Nevada River Forecast Centers and local Weather Forecast Offices provide precipitation products that are widely used to support water management and flood response activities of various kinds. The Hydrometeorology Testbed (HMT) program is being conducted to help advance the science of precipitation tracking and forecasting in support of the NWS. HMT high-resolution products have found applications for other non-federal water management activities as well. This presentation will describe water management applications of HMT advanced precipitation products, and characterization of benefits expected to accrue. Two case examples will be highlighted, 1) reservoir operations for flood control and water supply, and 2) urban stormwater management. Application of advanced precipitation products in support of reservoir operations is a focus of the Sonoma County Water Agency. Examples include: a) interfacing the high-resolution QPE products with a distributed hydrologic model for the Russian-Napa watersheds, b) providing early warning of in-coming storms for flood preparedness and water supply storage operations. For the stormwater case, San Francisco wastewater engineers are developing a plan to deploy high resolution gap-filling radars looking off shore to obtain longer lead times on approaching storms. A 4 to 8 hour lead time would provide opportunity to optimize stormwater capture and treatment operations, and minimize combined sewer overflows into the Bay.ussian River distributed hydrologic model.

  1. Copper-Catalyzed Formal [2+2+1] Heteroannulation of Alkenes, Alkylnitriles, and Water: Method Development and Application to a Total Synthesis of (±)-Sacidumlignan D.

    PubMed

    Ha, Tu M; Chatalova-Sazepin, Claire; Wang, Qian; Zhu, Jieping

    2016-08-01

    A copper-catalyzed three-component reaction of alkenes, alkylnitriles, and water affords γ-butyrolactones in good yields. The domino process involves an unprecedented hydroxy-cyanoalkylation of alkenes and subsequent lactonization with the creation of three chemical bonds and a quaternary carbon center. The synthetic potential of this novel [2+2+1] heteroannulation reaction was illustrated by a concise total synthesis of (±)-sacidumlignan D. PMID:27337057

  2. Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water

    DOEpatents

    Amonette, James E.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Gorby, Yuri A.; Cole, Charles R.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Kaplan, Daniel I.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II).

  3. Method of removing oxidized contaminants from water

    DOEpatents

    Amonette, J.E.; Fruchter, J.S.; Gorby, Y.A.; Cole, C.R.; Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1998-07-21

    The present invention is a method for removing oxidized contaminant(s) from water. More specifically, the invention has the steps of contacting water containing the oxidized contaminant(s) with a layered aluminosilicate having Fe(II). The aluminosilicate may contain naturally occurring Fe(II), or the Fe(II) may be produced by reducing Fe(III) that is initially present. Reduction may be either by exposure to a chemical or biological reductant. Contacting the water containing oxidized contaminant(s) may be by (1) injection of Fe(II)-containing layered aluminosilicate, via a well, into a saturated zone where it is likely to intercept the contaminated water; (2) injection of contaminated water into a vessel containing the Fe(II)-bearing layered aluminosilicate; and (3) first reducing Fe(III) in the layered aluminosilicate to Fe(II) by injection of a biological or chemical reductant, into an aquifer or vessel having sufficient Fe(III)-bearing aluminosilicate to produce the necessary Fe(II). 8 figs.

  4. Part I: temporal and spatial distribution of multiclass pesticide residues in lake waters of Northern Greece: application of an optimized SPE-UPLC-MS/MS pretreatment and analytical method.

    PubMed

    Kalogridi, Eleni-Chrysoula; Christophoridis, Christophoros; Bizani, Erasmia; Drimaropoulou, Garyfallia; Fytianos, Konstantinos

    2014-06-01

    The present work describes the application of an analytical procedure, utilizing ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry instrumentation, for the determination of 253 multiclass pesticides, classified in six different groups. Solid phase extraction was applied for the isolation and pre-concentration of target compounds in water samples. Surface waters of the lakes located in Northern Greece (Volvi, Doirani, and Kerkini), were collected in two time periods (fall/winter 2010 and spring/summer 2011) and analyzed, applying the developed analytical methods. Spatial distribution of detected pesticides was visualized using interpolation methods and geographical information systems (GIS). Pesticides with maximum concentrations were amitrole, propoxur, simazine, chlorpyrifos, carbendazim, triazophos, disulfoton-sulfone, pyridaben, sebuthylazine, terbuthylazine, atrazine, atrazine-desethyl, bensulfuron-methyl, metobromuron, metribuzin, rotenone, pyriproxyfen, and rimsulfuron. In Lake Kerkini, mainly carbamates and triazines were determined at elevated concentrations, near the coastal point of the NW side of the lake. Seasonal variations were strong among the applied pesticide classes and determined concentrations, indicating the contribution of pesticide application patterns and rainfall. Lake Doirani exhibited organophosphate pesticides at higher concentrations mainly at coastal points, while triazines emerged as the main pollutant during spring sampling. Lake Volvi exhibited the highest pesticide concentrations, mostly triazines and ureas at the central part of the lake. The occurrence of extreme values and nonconstant seasonal variations indicated that the concentrations were increased disproportionately during the second sampling, as a result of the varying contribution of pollution sources right after the application period. In all cases, the total concentration of pesticides increased during the second sampling period. PMID

  5. Nanofiltration technology in water treatment and reuse: applications and costs.

    PubMed

    Shahmansouri, Arash; Bellona, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Nanofiltration (NF) is a relatively recent development in membrane technology with characteristics that fall between ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis (RO). While RO membranes dominate the seawater desalination industry, NF is employed in a variety of water and wastewater treatment and industrial applications for the selective removal of ions and organic substances, as well as certain niche seawater desalination applications. The purpose of this study was to review the application of NF membranes in the water and wastewater industry including water softening and color removal, industrial wastewater treatment, water reuse, and desalination. Basic economic analyses were also performed to compare the profitability of using NF membranes over alternative processes. Although any detailed cost estimation is hampered by some uncertainty (e.g. applicability of estimation methods to large-scale systems, labor costs in different areas of the world), NF was found to be a cost-effective technology for certain investigated applications. The selection of NF over other treatment technologies, however, is dependent on several factors including pretreatment requirements, influent water quality, treatment facility capacity, and treatment goals. PMID:25714628

  6. Application of ensemble-based methods for assimilating 4D ERT data at the groundwater-river water interaction zone based on a coupled hydrogeophysical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Johnson, T.; Hammond, G. E.; Zachara, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic groundwater-river water exchange between the Columbia River and the Hanford 300 Area has substantial influence on flow and transport processes and biogeochemical cycles at the site. Existing research efforts have shown that the groundwater-river water interaction zone is a heterogeneous and highly dynamic region exhibiting variability over a range of space and time scales. Since it is insufficient to rely on well-based information to characterize the spatially variable subsurface properties within this interaction zone, we have installed a large-scale (300 m by 300 m) 3-dimensional electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) array to monitor river water intrusion and retreat at a temporal resolution of four images per day, using a novel time lapse ERT imaging methodology that explicitly accommodates the sharp, transient bulk conductivity contrast at the water table. The 4-dimensional electrical geophysical data is incorporated into ensemble-based data assimilation algorithms (e.g., ensemble Kalman filter and ensemble smoother) to statistically estimate the heterogeneous permeability field at the groundwater-river water interaction zone, which is critical for modeling flow and biogeochemical transport processes at the site. A new high performance computing capability has been developed to couple the ERT imaging code E4D (Johnson et al., 2010) with the site-scale flow and transport code, PFLOTRAN (Hammond et al., 2012), which serves as the forward simulator of the hydrogeophysical data assimilation. The joint, parallel, multi-physics code is able to simulate well-based pressure and pore-fluid conductivity measurements, as well as spatially continuous ERT measurements collected throughout the experiment. The data assimilation framework integrates both the well-based point measurements and spatially continuous ERT measurements in a sequential Bayesian manner. Our study demonstrates the effectiveness of ERT data for large-scale characterization of subsurface

  7. Evaluated the adverse effects of cadmium and aluminum via drinking water to kidney disease patients: Application of a novel solid phase microextraction method.

    PubMed

    Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Naeemullah; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Shah, Faheem; Arain, Mohammad Balal; Arain, Salma Aslam

    2016-04-01

    In present study aluminum (Al) and cadmium (Cd) were determined in ground water samples and assesses human health risks associated with elevated concentrations of toxic metals in dissolved form, using a novel solid phase microextraction (SPμE). Ground water sample (n=200) and biological sample (blood) of patients having chronic kidney disorders (CKD) along with healthy control subjects of same area (southern part of Pakistan) were collected. A simple system, including the micropipette tip packed with modified ionic liquid-activated carbon cloth (IL-ACC) coated with 8-hydroxyqunilone (8-HQ) attached to syringe. The analytes in water and acid digested blood samples were manually drawn for 2-10 cycles (drawing/discharging) at different pH range. The analytes sorbed on coated ACC were then desorbed with 2.0molL(-1) HNO3 in ethanol by drawing/discharging cycles for 1-5 times. The concentration of extracted analytes was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer. The influence of different variables on the extraction efficiency of Cd and Al, were optimized. The Al and Cd concentrations in groundwater were found to be elevated than recommended limits by the World Health Organization. The urinary N-acetyl-h-glucosaminidase values were significantly higher in CKD patients as compared to refrent subjects (p<0.001). The significant variation in levels of Cd and Al were observed in blood samples of CKD patients than referents subjects (p<0.01). The strong positive correlation among Al and Cd levels in groundwater versus blood samples of CKD patients (r=0.82-0.85) p<0.01) was observed than those values calculated for referent subjects (r=0.425-0.536). PMID:27037653

  8. Analysis methods for photovoltaic applications

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Because photovoltaic power systems are being considered for an ever-widening range of applications, it is appropriate for system designers to have knowledge of and access to photovoltaic power systems simulation models and design tools. This brochure gives brief descriptions of a variety of such aids and was compiled after surveying both manufacturers and researchers. Services available through photovoltaic module manufacturers are outlined, and computer codes for systems analysis are briefly described. (WHK)

  9. Directional microwave applicator and methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Arndt, G. Dickey (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A miniature microwave antenna is disclosed which may be utilized for biomedical applications such as, for example, radiation induced hyperthermia through catheter systems. One feature of the antenna is that it possesses azimuthal directionality despite its small size. This directionality permits targeting of certain tissues while limiting thermal exposure of adjacent tissue. One embodiment has an outer diameter of about 0.095'' (2.4 mm) but the design permits for smaller diameters.

  10. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  11. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  12. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  13. BOREHOLE SENSING METHODS FOR GROUND-WATER INVESTIGATIONS AT HAZARDOUS WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Geophysical methods are becoming a cost effective approach to providing answers to hydrogeologic questions associated with ground-water contamination. Geophysical methods applicable to hazardous waste site investigations can be broken into two categories: surface and subsurface m...

  14. NASA Data for Water Resources Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toll, David; Houser, Paul; Arsenault, Kristi; Entin, Jared

    2004-01-01

    Water Management Applications is one of twelve elements in the Earth Science Enterprise National Applications Program. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is supporting the Applications Program through partnering with other organizations to use NASA project results, such as from satellite instruments and Earth system models to enhance the organizations critical needs. The focus thus far has been: 1) estimating water storage including snowpack and soil moisture, 2) modeling and predicting water fluxes such as evapotranspiration (ET), precipitation and river runoff, and 3) remote sensing of water quality, including both point source (e.g., turbidity and productivity) and non-point source (e.g., land cover conversion such as forest to agriculture yielding higher nutrient runoff). The objectives of the partnering cover three steps of: 1) Evaluation, 2) Verification and Validation, and 3) Benchmark Report. We are working with the U.S. federal agencies including the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) and the Department of Agriculture (USDA). We are using several of their Decision Support Systems (DSS) tools. This includes the DSS support tools BASINS used by EPA, Riverware and AWARDS ET ToolBox by USBR and SWAT by USDA and EPA. Regional application sites using NASA data across the US. are currently being eliminated for the DSS tools. The current NASA data emphasized thus far are from the Land Data Assimilation Systems WAS) and MODIS satellite products. We are currently in the first two steps of evaluation and verification validation. Water Management Applications is one of twelve elements in the Earth Science Enterprise s National Applications Program. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is supporting the Applications Program through partnering with other organizations to use NASA project results, such as from satellite instruments and Earth system models to enhance the organizations critical needs. The focus thus far has been: 1

  15. Application of response surface method for optimization of dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction of water-soluble components of Rosa damascena Mill. essential oil.

    PubMed

    Sereshti, Hassan; Karimi, Maryam; Samadi, Soheila

    2009-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was applied for the determination of Rose water constituents. The effective parameters such as volume of extraction and disperser solvents, temperature, and salt effect were inspected by a full factorial design to identify important parameters and their interactions. It showed that salt addition had no effect on the efficiency. Next, a central composite design was applied to obtain optimum point of the important parameters. The optimal condition was obtained as 37.0 microL for extractor, 0.42 mL for disperser and temperature for 48 degrees C. The main components that were extracted at the optimum point were benzeneethanol (24.87%), geraniol (23.07%), beta-citronellol (22.38%), nerol (8.48%), eugenol (5.98%) and linalool (5.62%). PMID:19091322

  16. Sodium MRI: methods and applications.

    PubMed

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-05-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges, limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  17. Sodium MRI: Methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-01-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges and limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  18. Radiative Transfer: Methods and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Bernhard; Emde, Claudia; Buras, Robert; Kylling, Arve

    Solar and terrestrial radiation is the driver of atmospheric dynamics and chemistry and can be exploited by remote sensing algorithms to determine atmospheric composition. For this purpose, accurate radiative transfer models are needed. Here, a modern radiative transfer tool developed over many years at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics is explained. As an application, the remote sensing of cloud microphysics using the angular distribution of reflected solar radiance in the rainbow and backscatter glory is shown, with special emphasis on the polarization of radiation.

  19. Water Calibration Measurements for Neutron Radiography: Application to Water Content Quantification in Porous Media

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Misun; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Voisin, Sophie; Cheng, Chu-lin; Perfect, Edmund; Horita, Juske; Warren, Jeffrey

    2013-04-01

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 2 mm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector / scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

  20. Water calibration measurements for neutron radiography: Application to water content quantification in porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, M.; Bilheux, H. Z.; Voisin, S.; Cheng, C. L.; Perfect, E.; Horita, J.; Warren, J. M.

    2013-04-01

    Using neutron radiography, the measurement of water thickness was performed using aluminum (Al) water calibration cells at the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) Cold-Guide (CG) 1D neutron imaging facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN, USA. Calibration of water thickness is an important step to accurately measure water contents in samples of interest. Neutron attenuation by water does not vary linearly with thickness mainly due to beam hardening and scattering effects. Transmission measurements for known water thicknesses in water calibration cells allow proper correction of the underestimation of water content due to these effects. As anticipated, strong scattering effects were observed for water thicknesses greater than 0.2 cm when the water calibration cells were positioned close to the face of the detector/scintillator (0 and 2.4 cm away, respectively). The water calibration cells were also positioned 24 cm away from the detector face. These measurements resulted in less scattering and this position (designated as the sample position) was used for the subsequent experimental determination of the neutron attenuation coefficient for water. Neutron radiographic images of moist Flint sand in rectangular and cylindrical containers acquired at the sample position were used to demonstrate the applicability of the water calibration. Cumulative changes in the water volumes within the sand columns during monotonic drainage determined by neutron radiography were compared with those recorded by direct reading from a burette connected to a hanging water column. In general, the neutron radiography data showed very good agreement with those obtained volumetrically using the hanging water-column method. These results allow extension of the calibration equation to the quantification of unknown water contents within other samples of porous media.

  1. Development of an UPLC-MS/MS Sulfonamide Multi-residue Method and its Application to Water, Manure Slurry, and Soils from Swine Rearing Facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An analytical method was developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQ-MS/MS) to simultaneously analyze 14 sulfonamides (SA) in six minutes. Despite the rapidity of the assay the system was properly re-equilibrated in this time. No carryo...

  2. Development of an UPLC-MS/MS Sulfonamide Multi-residue Method and It's Application to Water, Manure Slurry, and Soils from Swine Rearing Facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An analytical method was developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole-tandem mass spectrophotometry (UPLC-TQ-MS/MS) to simultaneously analyze 14 sulfonamides (SA) in six minutes. The instrumental detection limit based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) > 3, was below 1 pg/µL...

  3. Application of chemometrics in river water classification.

    PubMed

    Kowalkowski, Tomasz; Zbytniewski, Radosław; Szpejna, Jacek; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2006-02-01

    The main aim of this work is focused on water quality classification of the Brda river (Poland) and evaluation of pollution data obtained by the monitoring measurement during the period 1994-2002. The study presents the application of selected chemometric techniques to the pollution monitoring dataset, namely, cluster analysis, principal component analysis, discriminant analysis and factor analysis. The obtained results allowed to determine natural clusters and groups of monitoring locations with similar pollution character and identify important discriminant variables. Chemometric analysis confirmed the classification of water purity of the Brda river made by the Inspection of Environmental Protection but the results showed more differentiation between monitored locations. This enables better evaluation of the water quality in a monitored region. On the basis of the chemometric approach, it was also found that some locations were under the high influence of municipal contamination, and some others under the influence of agriculture (discharges from fields) within the observed time period. PMID:16442142

  4. Comparative genomics: methods and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haubold, Bernhard; Wiehe, Thomas

    2004-09-01

    Interpreting the functional content of a given genomic sequence is one of the central challenges of biology today. Perhaps the most promising approach to this problem is based on the comparative method of classic biology in the modern guise of sequence comparison. For instance, protein-coding regions tend to be conserved between species. Hence, a simple method for distinguishing a functional exon from the chance absence of stop codons is to investigate its homologue from closely related species. Predicting regulatory elements is even more difficult than exon prediction, but again, comparisons pinpointing conserved sequence motifs upstream of translation start sites are helping to unravel gene regulatory networks. In addition to interspecific studies, intraspecific sequence comparison yields insights into the evolutionary forces that have acted on a species in the past. Of particular interest here is the identification of selection events such as selective sweeps. Both intra- and interspecific sequence comparisons are based on a variety of computational methods, including alignment, phylogenetic reconstruction, and coalescent theory. This article surveys the biology and the central computational ideas applied in recent comparative genomics projects. We argue that the most fruitful method of understanding the functional content of genomes is to study them in the context of related genomic sequences. In particular, such a study may reveal selection, a fundamental pointer to biological relevance.

  5. Method of arsenic removal from water

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2010-10-26

    A method for low-cost arsenic removal from drinking water using chemically prepared bottom ash pre-treated with ferrous sulfate and then sodium hydroxide. Deposits on the surface of particles of bottom ash form of activated iron adsorbent with a high affinity for arsenic. In laboratory tests, a miniscule 5 grams of pre-treated bottom ash was sufficient to remove the arsenic from 2 liters of 2400 ppb (parts per billion) arsenic-laden water to a level below 50 ppb (the present United States Environmental Protection Agency limit). By increasing the amount of pre-treated bottom ash, even lower levels of post-treatment arsenic are expected. It is further expected that this invention supplies a very low-cost solution to arsenic poisoning for large population segments.

  6. Phytosterols: applications and recovery methods.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, P; Cabral, J M S

    2007-09-01

    Phytosterols, or plant sterols, are compounds that occur naturally and bear close structural resemblance to cholesterol, but have different side-chain configurations. Phytosterols are relevant in pharmaceuticals (production of therapeutic steroids), nutrition (anti-cholesterol additives in functional foods, anti-cancer properties), and cosmetics (creams, lipstick). Phytosterols can be obtained from vegetable oils or from industrial wastes, which gives an added value to the latter. Considerable efforts have been recently dedicated to the development of efficient processes for phytosterol isolation from natural sources. The present work aims to summarize information on the applications of phytosterols and to review recent approaches, mainly from the industry, for the large-scale recovery of phytosterols. PMID:17123816

  7. 40 CFR 799.6756 - TSCA partition coefficient (n-octanol/water), generator column method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .../water), generator column method. 799.6756 Section 799.6756 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... coefficient (n-octanol/water), generator column method. (a) Scope—(1) Applicability. This section is intended... tissue. (v) This section describes a method for determining the Kow based on the dynamic coupled...

  8. 40 CFR 799.6756 - TSCA partition coefficient (n-octanol/water), generator column method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .../water), generator column method. 799.6756 Section 799.6756 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... coefficient (n-octanol/water), generator column method. (a) Scope—(1) Applicability. This section is intended... tissue. (v) This section describes a method for determining the Kow based on the dynamic coupled...

  9. Water recycling system using thermopervaporation method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitta, K.; Ashida, A.; Mitani, K.; Ebara, K.; Yamada, A.

    1986-01-01

    A water recycling system concept for the crew of the space station is presented. A thermopervaporation method is a new key technology used for the distillation process, utilizing a hydrophobic membrane. An experimental study of thermopervaporation revealed that the permeation depends on the gap between the membrane and the cooling surface in the condensation room: the steam diffusion occurs with gaps less than 5 mm while natural convection becomes dominant with gaps more than 5 mm. A brief discussion of the system operation is also described.

  10. Application of TDR to water level measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, A.; Hansen, B.; Schelde, K.

    2000-09-01

    A specialised time domain reflectometry (TDR) probe for measuring water level in tanks collecting surface runoff was developed, calibrated and field-tested. The water level probe — in the form of a slightly modified soil moisture probe — was developed as part of a TDR measuring system designed for continuous monitoring of soil water content and surface runoff in plot studies of water erosion and sediment transport. A computer algorithm for the analysis of TDR traces from the new probe was developed and incorporated into existing software for automated acquisition and analysis of TDR data. Laboratory calibration showed that water level could be measured with sufficient accuracy (standard deviation <2 mm) for a range of applications in hydrology. Soil erosion is typically a short duration process closely linked to soil moisture content and rainfall intensity. A major benefit of integrating time critical measurements of surface runoff and soil moisture into a single system is the synchronisation of measurements. Measurements were made on a regular schedule except during rainfall events when the measuring rate depended on rainfall intensity. In a parallel calibration study it was shown that the performance of the TDR probe was comparable to a commercial ultrasonic liquid level sensor used for measuring runoff at an erosion site not instrumented for automated TDR measurements.

  11. Hybrid codes: Methods and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Winske, D. ); Omidi, N. )

    1991-01-01

    In this chapter we discuss hybrid'' algorithms used in the study of low frequency electromagnetic phenomena, where one or more ion species are treated kinetically via standard PIC methods used in particle codes and the electrons are treated as a single charge neutralizing massless fluid. Other types of hybrid models are possible, as discussed in Winske and Quest, but hybrid codes with particle ions and massless fluid electrons have become the most common for simulating space plasma physics phenomena in the last decade, as we discuss in this paper.

  12. Geomatic methods at the service of water resources modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina, José-Luis; Rodríguez-Gonzálvez, Pablo; Molina, Mª Carmen; González-Aguilera, Diego; Espejo, Fernando

    2014-02-01

    Acquisition, management and/or use of spatial information are crucial for the quality of water resources studies. In this sense, several geomatic methods arise at the service of water modelling, aiming the generation of cartographic products, especially in terms of 3D models and orthophotos. They may also perform as tools for problem solving and decision making. However, choosing the right geomatic method is still a challenge in this field. That is mostly due to the complexity of the different applications and variables involved for water resources management. This study is aimed to provide a guide to best practices in this context by tackling a deep review of geomatic methods and their suitability assessment for the following study types: Surface Hydrology, Groundwater Hydrology, Hydraulics, Agronomy, Morphodynamics and Geotechnical Processes. This assessment is driven by several decision variables grouped in two categories, classified depending on their nature as geometric or radiometric. As a result, the reader comes with the best choice/choices for the method to use, depending on the type of water resources modelling study in hand.

  13. Application of ion-sensitive sensors in water quality monitoring.

    PubMed

    Winkler, S; Rieger, L; Saracevic, E; Pressl, A; Gruber, G

    2004-01-01

    Within the last years a trend towards in-situ monitoring can be observed, i.e. most new sensors for water quality monitoring are designed for direct installation in the medium, compact in size and use measurement principles which minimise maintenance demand. Ion-sensitive sensors (Ion-Sensitive-Electrode--ISE) are based on a well known measurement principle and recently some manufacturers have released probe types which are specially adapted for application in water quality monitoring. The function principle of ISE-sensors, their advantages, limitations and the different methods for sensor calibration are described. Experiences with ISE-sensors from applications in sewer networks, at different sampling points within wastewater treatment plants and for surface water monitoring are reported. An estimation of investment and operation costs in comparison to other sensor types is given. PMID:15685986

  14. Empirical Distributional Semantics: Methods and Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Trevor; Widdows, Dominic

    2009-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, a range of methods have been developed that are able to learn human-like estimates of the semantic relatedness between terms from the way in which these terms are distributed in a corpus of unannotated natural language text. These methods have also been evaluated in a number of applications in the cognitive science, computational linguistics and the information retrieval literatures. In this paper, we review the available methodologies for derivation of semantic relatedness from free text, as well as their evaluation in a variety of biomedical and other applications. Recent methodological developments, and their applicability to several existing applications are also discussed. PMID:19232399

  15. AMMOS software: method and application.

    PubMed

    Pencheva, T; Lagorce, D; Pajeva, I; Villoutreix, B O; Miteva, M A

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in computational sciences enabled extensive use of in silico methods in projects at the interface between chemistry and biology. Among them virtual ligand screening, a modern set of approaches, facilitates hit identification and lead optimization in drug discovery programs. Most of these approaches require the preparation of the libraries containing small organic molecules to be screened or a refinement of the virtual screening results. Here we present an overview of the open source AMMOS software, which is a platform performing an automatic procedure that allows for a structural generation and optimization of drug-like molecules in compound collections, as well as a structural refinement of protein-ligand complexes to assist in silico screening exercises. PMID:22183534

  16. Infrared-spectrometric determination of D2O in biological fluids. Reappraisal of the method and application to the measurement of total body water and daily water turnover in the dog.

    PubMed

    Zweens, J; Frankena, H; Reicher, A; Zijlstra, W G

    1980-05-01

    The determination of D2) in biological fluids by means of infrared spectrometry was reinvestigated. When the temperature of a solution, containing D2O in the range from natural abundance to 5 ml . 1-1 increases, its absorbance decreases and the wavenumber of maximum absorption shifts to a higher value. Both changes are linearly related to the change in temperature. Storage for 17 d in either glass or polyethylene tubes does not affect the D2O concentration. Purification of biological fluids by vacuum-sublimation removes all substances which also absorb at the O-D vibration band and the recovery of D2O from plasma and urine is complete. The partition ratio of D2O between plasma water and red cell water equals unity, and the same holds for plasma water and urine water over a wide range of urine flows and osmolalities. The arterial and urinary disappearance curves of D2O, measured over several days, both permit the calculation of the total amount of body water (Vbw), the daily water turn-over (F) and the half-time of water in the body (t1 PMID:7191098

  17. Subjective evidence based ethnography: method and applications.

    PubMed

    Lahlou, Saadi; Le Bellu, Sophie; Boesen-Mariani, Sabine

    2015-06-01

    Subjective Evidence Based Ethnography (SEBE) is a method designed to access subjective experience. It uses First Person Perspective (FPP) digital recordings as a basis for analytic Replay Interviews (RIW) with the participants. This triggers their memory and enables a detailed step by step understanding of activity: goals, subgoals, determinants of actions, decision-making processes, etc. This paper describes the technique and two applications. First, the analysis of professional practices for know-how transferring purposes in industry is illustrated with the analysis of nuclear power-plant operators' gestures. This shows how SEBE enables modelling activity, describing good and bad practices, risky situations, and expert tacit knowledge. Second, the analysis of full days lived by Polish mothers taking care of their children is described, with a specific focus on how they manage their eating and drinking. This research has been done on a sub-sample of a large scale intervention designed to increase plain water drinking vs sweet beverages. It illustrates the interest of SEBE as an exploratory technique in complement to other more classic approaches such as questionnaires and behavioural diaries. It provides the detailed "how" of the effects that are measured at aggregate level by other techniques. PMID:25579747

  18. SU-E-T-46: Application of a Twin-Detector Method for the Determination of the Mean Photon Energy Em at Points of Measurement in a Water Phantom Surrounding a GammaMed HDR 192Ir Brachytherapy Source

    SciTech Connect

    Chofor, N; Poppe, B; Nebah, F; Harder, D

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In a brachytherapy photon field in water the fluence-averaged mean photon energy Em at the point of measurement correlates with the radiation quality correction factor kQ of a non water-equivalent detector. To support the experimental assessment of Em, we show that the normalized signal ratio NSR of a pair of radiation detectors, an unshielded silicon diode and a diamond detector can serve to measure quantity Em in a water phantom at a Ir-192 unit. Methods: Photon fluence spectra were computed in EGSnrc based on a detailed model of the GammaMed source. Factor kQ was calculated as the ratio of the detector's spectrum-weighted responses under calibration conditions at a 60Co unit and under brachytherapy conditions at various radial distances from the source. The NSR was investigated for a pair of a p-type unshielded silicon diode 60012 and a synthetic single crystal diamond detector 60019 (both PTW Freiburg). Each detector was positioned according to its effective point of measurement, with its axis facing the source. Lateral signal profiles were scanned under complete scatter conditions, and the NSR was determined as the quotient of the signal ratio under application conditions x and that at position r-ref = 1 cm. Results: The radiation quality correction factor kQ shows a close correlation with the mean photon energy Em. The NSR of the diode/diamond pair changes by a factor of two from 0–18 cm from the source, while Em drops from 350 to 150 keV. Theoretical and measured NSR profiles agree by ± 2 % for points within 5 cm from the source. Conclusion: In the presence of the close correlation between radiation quality correction factor kQ and photon mean energy Em, the NSR provides a practical means of assessing Em under clinical conditions. Precise detector positioning is the major challenge.

  19. Geophysical Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferre, Ty P.A.; Binley, Andrew M.; Blasch, Kyle W.; Callegary, James B.; Crawford, Steven M.; Fink, James B.; Flint, Alan L.; Flint, Lorraine E.; Hoffmann, John P.; Izbicki, John A.; Levitt, Marc T.; Pool, Donald R.; Scanlon, Bridget R.

    2007-01-01

    While numerical modeling has revolutionized our understanding of basin-scale hydrologic processes, such models rely almost exclusively on traditional measurements?rainfall, streamflow, and water-table elevations?for calibration and testing. Model calibration provides initial estimates of ground-water recharge. Calibrated models are important yet crude tools for addressing questions about the spatial and temporal distribution of recharge. An inverse approach to recharge estimation is taken of necessity, due to inherent difficulties in making direct measurements of flow across the water table. Difficulties arise because recharging fluxes are typically small, even in humid regions, and because the location of the water table changes with time. Deep water tables in arid and semiarid regions make recharge monitoring especially difficult. Nevertheless, recharge monitoring must advance in order to improve assessments of ground-water recharge. Improved characterization of basin-scale recharge is critical for informed water-resources management. Difficulties in directly measuring recharge have prompted many efforts to develop indirect methods. The mass-balance approach of estimating recharge as the residual of generally much larger terms has persisted despite the use of increasing complex and finely gridded large-scale hydrologic models. Geophysical data pertaining to recharge rates, timing, and patterns have the potential to substantially improve modeling efforts by providing information on boundary conditions, by constraining model inputs, by testing simplifying assumptions, and by identifying the spatial and temporal resolutions needed to predict recharge to a specified tolerance in space and in time. Moreover, under certain conditions, geophysical measurements can yield direct estimates of recharge rates or changes in water storage, largely eliminating the need for indirect measures of recharge. This appendix presents an overview of physically based, geophysical methods

  20. Assessment of Crop Water Requirement Methods for Annual Agricultural Water Allocation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aghdasi, F.; Sharifi, M. A.; van der Tol, C.

    2010-05-01

    The potential use of remote sensing in water resource and in particular in irrigation management has been widely acknowledged. However, in reality, operational applications of remote sensing in irrigation management are few. In this study, the applicability of the main available remote sensing based techniques of irrigation management is evaluated in a pilot area in Iran. The evaluated techniques include so called Crop Water Requirement "CWR" methods for the planning of annual water allocation in irrigated agriculture. A total of 40 years of historical weather data were classified into wet, normal, and dry years using a Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI). For each of these three classes the average CWR was calculated. Next, by applying Markov Chain Process to the time series of precipitation, the expected CWR for the forthcoming planning year was estimated. Using proper interpolation techniques the expected CWR at each station was converted to CWR map of the area, which was then used for annual water allocation planning. To estimate the crop water requirement, methods developed for the DEMETER project (DEMonstration of Earth observation Technologies in Routine irrigation advisory services) and Surface Energy Balance System "SEBS" algorithm were used, and their results were compared with conventional methods, including FAO-56 and lysimeter data amongst others. Use was made of both ASTER and MODIS images to determine crop water requirement at local and regional scales. Four methods of estimating crop coefficients were used: DEMETER Kc-NDVI, DEMETER Kc-analytical, FAO-56 and SEBS algorithm. Results showed that DEMETER (analytical approach) and FAO methods with lowest RMSE are more suitable methods for determination of crop coefficient than SEBS, which gives actual rather than potential evapotranspiration. The use of ASTER and MODIS images did not result in significantly different crop coefficients in the pilot area for the DEMETER analytical approach (α=0

  1. 40 CFR 799.6756 - TSCA partition coefficient (n-octanol/water), generator column method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .../water), generator column method. 799.6756 Section 799.6756 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... coefficient (n-octanol/water), generator column method. (a) Scope—(1) Applicability. This section is intended... liquid chromatographic (DCCLC) technique, a technique commonly referred to as the generator column...

  2. 40 CFR 799.6756 - TSCA partition coefficient (n-octanol/water), generator column method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .../water), generator column method. 799.6756 Section 799.6756 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... coefficient (n-octanol/water), generator column method. (a) Scope—(1) Applicability. This section is intended... liquid chromatographic (DCCLC) technique, a technique commonly referred to as the generator column...

  3. 40 CFR 799.6756 - TSCA partition coefficient (n-octanol/water), generator column method.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .../water), generator column method. 799.6756 Section 799.6756 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... coefficient (n-octanol/water), generator column method. (a) Scope—(1) Applicability. This section is intended... liquid chromatographic (DCCLC) technique, a technique commonly referred to as the generator column...

  4. Discontinuous Galerkin Methods: Theory, Computation and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, B.; Karniadakis, G. E.; Shu, C-W

    2000-12-31

    This volume contains a survey article for Discontinuous Galerkin Methods (DGM) by the editors as well as 16 papers by invited speakers and 32 papers by contributed speakers of the First International Symposium on Discontinuous Galerkin Methods. It covers theory, applications, and implementation aspects of DGM.

  5. Comparative Analysis of Seepage Losses From Nighttime Water Level Changes and Water Balance Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, A.; Shukla, S.; Wu, C.

    2013-12-01

    Several techniques including Darcy's theory of one and two dimensional groundwater flow, seepage meters, and water balance have been used in the past to estimate seepage from impoundments such as reservoirs, ponds, and constructed wetlands. These methods result in varying level of errors in seepage estimates depending on method and biogeophysical setting to which they are applied. In this study, we explore a simple yet effective method of estimating groundwater fluxes for two stormwater impoundments (SIs) and a partially drained wetland located in agricultural areas using diurnal changes in surface water levels inside these systems. Days with no inflow, outflow, and rainfall were selected to minimize the effect of the error associated water balance components on seepage estimation. Difference in water levels between 20:00 hrs and 5:00 hrs was calculated for the selected days. Only nighttime change was considered keeping in mind the fact that evapotranspiration is negligible during night and hence, the change in water levels can be attributed to seepage alone. Seepage from the analysis of night-time change in the water levels was compared to the estimates from the water balance method with seepage being the residual component of the balance. Results show that seepage constitutes a large part of total outflow from the impoundments (29% and 17% for SI1 during 2008-2009 and 2009-2010 respectively, 30% for SI2 during 2009-2010 and seepage was greater than the total surface water outflow from SI2 during 2010-2011). Accuracy of this method varied from 5% to 41% for first and 4% to 29% for the second SI. Considering that errors as high as 100% have been reported with the use of Darcy's approach, the errors from our method are lower. The lower errors combined with ease of application without using the hydraulic conductivity values makes our approach feasible for other similar systems. Improved seepage estimate from the proposed method will result in quantification of

  6. Methods for virus recovery in water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Food safety is intimately connected to water sanitary quality as water is used at almost every node in the food production process. Common contaminating pathogens in water are human enteric viruses, many of which are responsible for foodborne disease outbreaks in the United States and other high-inc...

  7. COMBINING METHODS FOR THE REDUCTION OF OXYCHLORINE RESIDUALS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous investigations have shown ferrous iron application to be an effective and economically feasible method of removing residual chlorine dioxide and chlorite iron from drinking water. This treatment, however, was not effective in reducing concentrqations of chlorate iron. ...

  8. A new tritiated water measurement method with plastic scintillator pellets.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Etsuko; Iwasaki, Noriko; Kato, Yuka; Tomozoe, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    A new tritiated water measurement method with plastic scintillator pellets (PS-pellets) by using a conventional liquid scintillation counter was developed. The PS-pellets used were 3 mm in both diameter and length. A low potassium glass vial was filled full with the pellets, and tritiated water was applied to the vial from 5 to 100 μl. Then, the sample solution was scattered in the interstices of the pellets in a vial. This method needs no liquid scintillator, so no liquid organic waste fluid is generated. The counting efficiency with the pellets was approximately 48 % when a 5 μl solution was used, which was higher than that of conventional measurement using liquid scintillator. The relationship between count rate and activity showed good linearity. The pellets were able to be used repeatedly, so few solid wastes are generated with this method. The PS-pellets are useful for tritiated water measurement; however, it is necessary to develop a new device which can be applied to a larger volume and measure low level concentration like an environmental application. PMID:26856930

  9. Optical method for water pollution remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yi; Wu, Jian

    1998-08-01

    The random facet physics model is adopted to develop the water wave scattering theory that is used to calculate distributions of the diffusely reflected light from rough air-water surfaces. The depolarization is discussed in detail, which shows that the water surface diffused light is partly depolarized in all direction except the back. For a solid matter surface with strong roughness, even in the back- scattered light, the depolarized component occupies an obvious part. When the local incidence angle (Theta) i satisfies the Brewsterr condition for pure water, the scattered light is line polarized, only the S polarized component can be observed at this direction. In the polluted water case, or something is floating on the water, the received light is partly polarized or even unpolarized at the same direction. These differences suggest us to arbitrate water contamination qualitatively by realizing the received light depolarization.

  10. Application of the solid dispersion method to the controlled release of medicine. IV. Precise control of the release rate of a water soluble medicine by using the solid dispersion method applying the difference in the molecular weight of a polymer.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, H; Ozeki, T; Kanaya, Y; Oishi, K

    1993-05-01

    Solid dispersions were prepared by the evaporation of ethanol after dissolving into ethanol a water soluble medicine (oxprenolol hydrochloride (OXP)), four grades of water insoluble ethylcellulose (EC) and four grades of water soluble hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC), both having different molecular weights. The precise control of the release rat of a water soluble medicine by applying the difference in the molecular weight of polymers was attempted. The pore size distribution in solid dispersion granules was measured before and after the dissolution test by mercury intrusion porosimetry to clarify the mechanism of medicine release from the granules when the molecular weights of polymers were different. The state of medicine in the solid dispersions was analyzed by thermal analysis and X-ray diffractometry. Although the difference was slight, the release rate of OXP from the granules of the OXP-HPC system decreased as the molecular weight of HPC increased. The release behavior of OXP in the OXP-EC system was scarcely affected by the molecular weight of EC. However, in the OXP-EC-HPC system, the release rate markedly decreased with a larger molecular weight of EC. It was thought from the results of the pore size distribution that there were two types of release routes for OXP; dissolving directly into the dissolution medium and diffusing in the swelled HPC phase, caused by the addition of HPC. The decrease in the release rate of OXP in the OXP-EC-HPC system was caused by the increase in the ratio of OXP dissolving via the latter route, occurring with a larger molecular weight of EC. These results suggest that it is feasible to precisely control the release of a water soluble medicine by varying the molecular weight of the polymers in the solid dispersion. PMID:8339340

  11. Electromagnetic Imaging Methods for Nondestructive Evaluation Applications

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yiming; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic nondestructive tests are important and widely used within the field of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). The recent advances in sensing technology, hardware and software development dedicated to imaging and image processing, and material sciences have greatly expanded the application fields, sophisticated the systems design and made the potential of electromagnetic NDE imaging seemingly unlimited. This review provides a comprehensive summary of research works on electromagnetic imaging methods for NDE applications, followed by the summary and discussions on future directions. PMID:22247693

  12. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of water-immersion colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Mizukami, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    Colonoscopy techniques combining or replacing air insufflation with water infusion are becoming increasingly popular. They were originally designed to reduce colonic spasms, facilitate cecal intubation, and lower patient discomfort and the need for sedation. These maneuvers straighten the rectosigmoid colon and enable the colonoscope to be inserted deeply without causing looping of the colon. Water-immersion colonoscopy minimizes colonic distension and improves visibility by introducing a small amount of water. In addition, since pain during colonoscopy indicates risk of bowel perforation and sedation masks this important warning, this method has the potential to be the favored insertion technique because it promotes patient safety without sedation. Recently, this water-immersion method has not only been used for colonoscope insertion, but has also been applied to therapy for sigmoid volvulus, removal of lesions, lower gastrointestinal bleeding, and therapeutic diagnosis of abnormal bowel morphology and irritable bowel syndrome. Although a larger sample size and prospective head-to-head-designed studies will be needed, this review focuses on the usefulness of water-immersion colonoscopy for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:26074684

  13. Diagnostic and therapeutic applications of water-immersion colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Shinya; Mizukami, Takeshi

    2015-06-01

    Colonoscopy techniques combining or replacing air insufflation with water infusion are becoming increasingly popular. They were originally designed to reduce colonic spasms, facilitate cecal intubation, and lower patient discomfort and the need for sedation. These maneuvers straighten the rectosigmoid colon and enable the colonoscope to be inserted deeply without causing looping of the colon. Water-immersion colonoscopy minimizes colonic distension and improves visibility by introducing a small amount of water. In addition, since pain during colonoscopy indicates risk of bowel perforation and sedation masks this important warning, this method has the potential to be the favored insertion technique because it promotes patient safety without sedation. Recently, this water-immersion method has not only been used for colonoscope insertion, but has also been applied to therapy for sigmoid volvulus, removal of lesions, lower gastrointestinal bleeding, and therapeutic diagnosis of abnormal bowel morphology and irritable bowel syndrome. Although a larger sample size and prospective head-to-head-designed studies will be needed, this review focuses on the usefulness of water-immersion colonoscopy for diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:26074684

  14. Extending the applicability of multigrid methods

    SciTech Connect

    Brannick, J; Brezina, M; Falgout, R; Manteuffel, T; McCormick, S; Ruge, J; Sheehan, B; Xu, J; Zikatanov, L

    2006-09-25

    Multigrid methods are ideal for solving the increasingly large-scale problems that arise in numerical simulations of physical phenomena because of their potential for computational costs and memory requirements that scale linearly with the degrees of freedom. Unfortunately, they have been historically limited by their applicability to elliptic-type problems and the need for special handling in their implementation. In this paper, we present an overview of several recent theoretical and algorithmic advances made by the TOPS multigrid partners and their collaborators in extending applicability of multigrid methods. Specific examples that are presented include quantum chromodynamics, radiation transport, and electromagnetics.

  15. Study methods for disinfection water for injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishkanich, Alexander; Zhevlakov, Alexander; Kascheev, Sergey; Polyakov, Vladimir; Sidorov, Igor; Ruzankina, Julia; Yakovlev, Alexey; Mak, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Experimental results presented in this study tends to explore viruses in the water for their further decontamination under the influence of laser radiation (λ=220-390 nm). Conducted a series of experiments to study the dependence of water quality from the effects of laser radiation. Correlation between degree of survival of viruses and power density. The results showed that all the analyzed samples of water is clearing from bacteria to 98%. Preliminary tests of the prototype laboratory system UFOVI has opened up new opportunities for water sterilizing.

  16. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality criteria. 227.31 Section 227.31 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) OCEAN DUMPING CRITERIA FOR THE EVALUATION OF PERMIT APPLICATIONS FOR OCEAN DUMPING OF MATERIALS Definitions § 227.31 Applicable marine water...

  17. Secondary recovery method utilizing thickened water

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, W.D.

    1980-10-07

    Hydrocarbons are recovered from subterranean formations by injecting into a hydrocarbon bearing formation via an injection well a fluid comprising water containing a small amount of a water-soluble, sulfated, ethoxylated polyphenol, forcing the said fluid through the formation and recovering hydrocarbons through a production well. The fluids employed may, if desired, contain an alkaline agent such as sodium hydroxide.

  18. Community of Practice Applications from WaterNet: The NASA Water Cycle Solutions Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D.; Brilly, M.; Gregoric, G.; Polajnar, J.; Houser, P.; Rodell, M.; Lehning, M.

    2009-04-01

    WaterNet is a new international network of researchers, stakeholders, and end-users of remote sensing tools that will benefit the water resources management community. It addresses a means for enhancing the social and economic developments of nations by increased use of practical research products from the terrestrial water cycle for making informed decisions. This paper provides a summary of the Water Cycle Community of Practice (CoP) plans and examples of Land Surface Model (LSM) applications for extreme events - floods, droughts, and heavy snowstorms in Europe. It discusses the concept of NASA's solutions networks focusing on the WaterNet. It invites EGU teams to join our WaterNet network. The NASA Water cycle Solutions Network's goal is to improve and optimize the sustained ability of water cycle researchers, stakeholders, organizations and networks to interact, identify, harness, and extend NASA research results to augment decision support tools and meet national needs. Our team is developing WaterNet by engaging relevant NASA water cycle research and community-of-practice organizations, to develop what we term an "actionable database" that can be used to communicate and connect NASA Water cycle research Results (NWRs) towards the improvement of water-related Decision Support Tools (DSTs). Recognizing that the European Commission and European Space Agency have also developed many related research products (EWRs), we seek to learn about these and network with the EU teams to include their information in the WaterNet actionable data base. Recognizing the many existing highly valuable water-related science and application networks in the US and EU, we focus the balance of our efforts on enabling their interoperability - facilitating access and communications among decision-makers and scientists. We present results of our initial focus on identification, collection, and analysis of the two end points, these being the NWRs and EWRs and water related DSTs. We

  19. Thermal Methods for Investigating Ground-Water Recharge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blasch, Kyle W.; Constantz, Jim; Stonestrom, David A.

    2007-01-01

    flux in the subsurface is difficult, prompting investigators to pursue indirect methods. Geophysical approaches that exploit the coupled relation between heat and water transport provide an attractive class of methods that have become widely used in investigations of recharge. This appendix reviews the application of heat to the problem of recharge estimation. Its objective is to provide a fairly complete account of the theoretical underpinnings together with a comprehensive review of thermal methods in practice. Investigators began using subsurface temperatures to delineate recharge areas and infer directions of ground-water flow around the turn of the 20th century. During the 1960s, analytical and numerical solutions for simplified heat- and fluid-flow problems became available. These early solutions, though one-dimensional and otherwise restricted, provided a strong impetus for applying thermal methods to problems of liquid and vapor movement in systems ranging from soils to geothermal reservoirs. Today?s combination of fast processors, massive data-storage units, and efficient matrix techniques provide numerical solutions to complex, three-dimensional transport problems. These approaches allow researchers to take advantage of the considerable information content routinely achievable in high-accuracy temperature work.

  20. Engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1989-01-01

    Some engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods are presented and the discussion focuses on the dependency matrix that indicates the relationship between problem functions and variables. Coordination of the subproblem optimizations is shown to be typically achieved through the use of exact or approximate sensitivity analysis. Areas for further development are identified.

  1. Engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelemy, Jean-Francois M.

    1988-01-01

    Some engineering applications of heuristic multilevel optimization methods are presented and the discussion focuses on the dependency matrix that indicates the relationship between problem functions and variables. Coordination of the subproblem optimizations is shown to be typically achieved through the use of exact or approximate sensitivity analysis. Areas for further development are identified.

  2. Some Recent Applications of Nuclear Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Csikai, J.; Dóczi, R.

    2005-11-01

    In this paper among the wide-ranging applications of nuclear methods the following topics were selected: a) Nuclear safeguards, illicit trafficking and demining; b) Bulk hydrogen analysis; c) Radiopharmaceuticals and related charged particle reactions; d) Accelerator transmutation of radioactive waste; e) Validation of nuclear data libraries by differential and integral measurements.

  3. The Revised OB-1 Method for Metal-Water Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Westfall, Robert Michael; Wright, Richard Q

    2010-01-01

    The OB-1 method for the calculation of the minimum critical mass (mcm) of fissile actinides in metal/water systems was described in a 2008 Nuclear Science and Engineering (NS&E) article. The purpose of the present work is to update and expand the application of this method with current nuclear data, including data uncertainties. The mcm and the hypothetical fissile metal density ({rho}{sub F}) in grams of metal/liter are obtained by a fit to values predicted with transport calculations. The input parameters required are thermal values for fission and absorption cross sections and nubar. A factor of ({radical}{pi})/2 is used to convert to Maxwellian averaged values. The uncertainties for the fission and capture cross sections and the estimated nubar uncertainties are used to determine the uncertainties in the mcm, either in percent or grams.

  4. Water turbine system and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Costin, Daniel P.

    2009-02-10

    A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

  5. Water turbine system and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Costin, Daniel P.

    2011-05-10

    A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

  6. Water turbine system and method of operation

    DOEpatents

    Costin, Daniel P.

    2010-06-15

    A system for providing electrical power from a current turbine is provided. The system includes a floatation device and a mooring. A water turbine structure is provided having an upper and lower portion wherein the lower portion includes a water fillable chamber. A plurality of cables are used to couple the system where a first cable couples the water turbine to the mooring and a second cable couples the floatation device to the first cable. The system is arranged to allow the turbine structure to be deployed and retrieved for service, repair, maintenance and redeployment.

  7. Community of Practice Applications from WaterNet: The NASA Water Cycle Solutions Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, D.; Brilly, M.; Gregoric, G.; Polajnar, J.; Houser, P.; Rodell, M.; Lehning, M.

    2009-04-01

    WaterNet is a new international network of researchers, stakeholders, and end-users of remote sensing tools that will benefit the water resources management community. It addresses a means for enhancing the social and economic developments of nations by increased use of practical research products from the terrestrial water cycle for making informed decisions. This paper provides a summary of the Water Cycle Community of Practice (CoP) plans and examples of Land Surface Model (LSM) applications for extreme events - floods, droughts, and heavy snowstorms in Europe. It discusses the concept of NASA's solutions networks focusing on the WaterNet. It invites EGU teams to join our WaterNet network. The NASA Water cycle Solutions Network's goal is to improve and optimize the sustained ability of water cycle researchers, stakeholders, organizations and networks to interact, identify, harness, and extend NASA research results to augment decision support tools and meet national needs. Our team is developing WaterNet by engaging relevant NASA water cycle research and community-of-practice organizations, to develop what we term an "actionable database" that can be used to communicate and connect NASA Water cycle research Results (NWRs) towards the improvement of water-related Decision Support Tools (DSTs). Recognizing that the European Commission and European Space Agency have also developed many related research products (EWRs), we seek to learn about these and network with the EU teams to include their information in the WaterNet actionable data base. Recognizing the many existing highly valuable water-related science and application networks in the US and EU, we focus the balance of our efforts on enabling their interoperability - facilitating access and communications among decision-makers and scientists. We present results of our initial focus on identification, collection, and analysis of the two end points, these being the NWRs and EWRs and water related DSTs. We

  8. EPA METHODS FOR VIRUS DETECTION IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of different types of human enteric viruses cause waterborne outbreaks when individuals are exposed to contaminated drinking and recreational waters. Members of the enterovirus group cause numerous diseases, including gastroenteritis, encephalitis, meningitis, myocard...

  9. Development of a method for environmentally friendly chemical peptide synthesis in water using water-dispersible amino acid nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Due to the vast importance of peptides in biological processes, there is an escalating need for synthetic peptides to be used in a wide variety of applications. However, the consumption of organic solvent is extremely large in chemical peptide syntheses because of the multiple condensation steps in organic solvents. That is, the current synthesis method is not environmentally friendly. From the viewpoint of green sustainable chemistry, we focused on developing an organic solvent-free synthetic method using water, an environmentally friendly solvent. Here we described in-water synthesis technology using water-dispersible protected amino acids. PMID:21867548

  10. Development, validation, and application of a novel LC-MS/MS trace analysis method for the simultaneous quantification of seven iodinated X-ray contrast media and three artificial sweeteners in surface, ground, and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ens, Waldemar; Senner, Frank; Gygax, Benjamin; Schlotterbeck, Götz

    2014-05-01

    A new method for the simultaneous determination of iodated X-ray contrast media (ICM) and artificial sweeteners (AS) by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) operated in positive and negative ionization switching mode was developed. The method was validated for surface, ground, and drinking water samples. In order to gain higher sensitivities, a 10-fold sample enrichment step using a Genevac EZ-2 plus centrifugal vacuum evaporator that provided excellent recoveries (90 ± 6 %) was selected for sample preparation. Limits of quantification below 10 ng/L were obtained for all compounds. Furthermore, sample preparation recoveries and matrix effects were investigated thoroughly for all matrix types. Considerable matrix effects were observed in surface water and could be compensated by the use of four stable isotope-labeled internal standards. Due to their persistence, fractions of diatrizoic acid, iopamidol, and acesulfame could pass the whole drinking water production process and were observed also in drinking water. To monitor the fate and occurrence of these compounds, the validated method was applied to samples from different stages of the drinking water production process of the Industrial Works of Basel (IWB). Diatrizoic acid was found as the most persistent compound which was eliminated by just 40 % during the whole drinking water treatment process, followed by iopamidol (80 % elimination) and acesulfame (85 % elimination). All other compounds were completely restrained and/or degraded by the soil and thus were not detected in groundwater. Additionally, a direct injection method without sample preparation achieving 3-20 ng/L limits of quantification was compared to the developed method. PMID:24590107

  11. Evaluation of different field methods for measuring soil water infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Fonseca, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Soil infiltrability, together with rainfall characteristics, is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the direct measurement of water infiltration rates or its indirect deduction from other soil characteristics or properties has become indispensable for the evaluation and modelling of the previously mentioned processes. Indirect deductions from other soil characteristics measured under laboratory conditions in the same soils, or in other soils, through the so called "pedo-transfer" functions, have demonstrated to be of limited value in most of the cases. Direct "in situ" field evaluations have to be preferred in any case. In this contribution we present the results of past experiences in the measurement of soil water infiltration rates in many different soils and land conditions, and their use for deducing soil water balances under variable climates. There are also presented and discussed recent results obtained in comparing different methods, using double and single ring infiltrometers, rainfall simulators, and disc permeameters, of different sizes, in soils with very contrasting surface and profile characteristics and conditions, including stony soils and very sloping lands. It is concluded that there are not methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil conditions by the land management, but also due to the manipulation of the surface

  12. Method Development and Monitoring of Cyanotoxins in Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes method development of two ambient water LC/MS/MS methods for microcystins, cylindrospermopsin and anatoxin-a. Ruggedness of the methods will be demonstrated by evaluation of quality control samples derived from various water bodies across the country.

  13. Assessment of didecyldimethylammonium chloride as a ballast water treatment method.

    PubMed

    van Slooten, Cees; Peperzak, Louis; Buma, Anita G J

    2015-01-01

    Ballast water-mediated transfer of aquatic invasive species is considered a major threat to marine biodiversity, marine industry and human health. A ballast water treatment is needed to comply with International Maritime Organization (IMO) ballast water discharge regulations. Didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) was tested for its applicability as a ballast water treatment method. The treatment of the marine phytoplankton species Tetraselmis suecica, Isochrysis galbana and Chaetoceros calcitrans showed that at 2.5 µL L(-1) DDAC was able to inactivate photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and disintegrate the cells after 5 days of dark incubation. The treatment of natural marine plankton communities with 2.5 µL L(-1) DDAC did not sufficiently decrease zooplankton abundance to comply with the IMO D-2 standard. Bivalve larvae showed the highest resistance to DDAC. PSII efficiency was inactivated within 5 days but phytoplankton cells remained intact. Regrowth occurred within 2 days of incubation in the light. However, untreated phytoplankton exposed to residual DDAC showed delayed cell growth and reduced PSII efficiency, indicating residual DDAC toxicity. Natural marine plankton communities treated with 5 µL L(-1) DDAC showed sufficient disinfection of zooplankton and inactivation of PSII efficiency. Phytoplankton regrowth was not detected after 9 days of light incubation. Bacteria were initially reduced due to the DDAC treatment but regrowth was observed within 5 days of dark incubation. Residual DDAC remained too high after 5 days to be safely discharged. Two neutralization cycles of 50 mg L(-1) bentonite were needed to inactivate residual DDAC upon discharge. The inactivation of residual DDAC may seriously hamper the practical use of DDAC as a ballast water disinfectant. PMID:25182049

  14. Field Deployable Method for Arsenic Speciation in Water

    PubMed Central

    Voice, Thomas C.; Flores del Pino, Lisveth V.; Havezov, Ivan; Long, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Contamination of drinking water supplies by arsenic is a world-wide problem. Total arsenic measurements are commonly used to investigate and regulate arsenic in water, but it is well understood that arsenic occurs in several chemical forms, and these exhibit different toxicities. It is problematic to use laboratory-based speciation techniques to assess exposure as it has been suggested that the distribution of species is not stable during transport in some types of samples. A method was developed in this study for the on-site speciation of the most toxic dissolved arsenic species: As (III), As (V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA). Development criteria included ease of use under field conditions, applicable at levels of concern for drinking water, and analytical performance. The approach is based on selective retention of arsenic species on specific ion-exchange chromatography cartridges followed by selective elution and quantification using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Water samples can be delivered to a set of three cartridges using either syringes or peristaltic pumps. Species distribution is stable at this point, and the cartridges can be transported to the laboratory for elution and quantitative analysis. A set of ten replicate spiked samples of each compound, having concentrations between 1 and 60 µg/L, were analyzed. Arsenic recoveries ranged from 78–112 % and relative standard deviations were generally below 10%. Resolution between species was shown to be outstanding, with the only limitation being that the capacity for As (V) was limited to approximately 50 µg/L. This could be easily remedied by changes in either cartridge design, or the extraction procedure. Recoveries were similar for two spiked hard groundwater samples indicating that dissolved minerals are not likely to be problematic. These results suggest that this methodology can be use for analysis of the four primary arsenic species of concern in

  15. Field Deployable Method for Arsenic Speciation in Water.

    PubMed

    Voice, Thomas C; Flores Del Pino, Lisveth V; Havezov, Ivan; Long, David T

    2011-01-01

    Contamination of drinking water supplies by arsenic is a world-wide problem. Total arsenic measurements are commonly used to investigate and regulate arsenic in water, but it is well understood that arsenic occurs in several chemical forms, and these exhibit different toxicities. It is problematic to use laboratory-based speciation techniques to assess exposure as it has been suggested that the distribution of species is not stable during transport in some types of samples. A method was developed in this study for the on-site speciation of the most toxic dissolved arsenic species: As (III), As (V), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA). Development criteria included ease of use under field conditions, applicable at levels of concern for drinking water, and analytical performance.The approach is based on selective retention of arsenic species on specific ion-exchange chromatography cartridges followed by selective elution and quantification using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy. Water samples can be delivered to a set of three cartridges using either syringes or peristaltic pumps. Species distribution is stable at this point, and the cartridges can be transported to the laboratory for elution and quantitative analysis. A set of ten replicate spiked samples of each compound, having concentrations between 1 and 60 µg/L, were analyzed. Arsenic recoveries ranged from 78-112 % and relative standard deviations were generally below 10%. Resolution between species was shown to be outstanding, with the only limitation being that the capacity for As (V) was limited to approximately 50 µg/L. This could be easily remedied by changes in either cartridge design, or the extraction procedure. Recoveries were similar for two spiked hard groundwater samples indicating that dissolved minerals are not likely to be problematic. These results suggest that this methodology can be use for analysis of the four primary arsenic species of concern in

  16. Thermochemical method for producing hydrogen from water

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, K.; Kondo, W.; Kumagai, T.

    1980-02-12

    A closed system for obtaining hydrogen from water is provided by combining a first step of obtaining hydrogen by reacting water and ferrous halide, a second step of converting triiron tetraoxide produced as a by-product in the first step to ferrous sulfate, a third step of obtaining oxygen and by-products by thermally decomposing said ferrous sulfate, and a fourth step of returning said by-products by thermally decomposing said ferrous sulfate, and a fourth step of returning said by-products obtained in the third step to any of the previous steps.

  17. Computational methods for industrial radiation measurement applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, R.P.; Guo, P.; Ao, Q.

    1996-12-31

    Computational methods have been used with considerable success to complement radiation measurements in solving a wide range of industrial problems. The almost exponential growth of computer capability and applications in the last few years leads to a {open_quotes}black box{close_quotes} mentality for radiation measurement applications. If a black box is defined as any radiation measurement device that is capable of measuring the parameters of interest when a wide range of operating and sample conditions may occur, then the development of computational methods for industrial radiation measurement applications should now be focused on the black box approach and the deduction of properties of interest from the response with acceptable accuracy and reasonable efficiency. Nowadays, increasingly better understanding of radiation physical processes, more accurate and complete fundamental physical data, and more advanced modeling and software/hardware techniques have made it possible to make giant strides in that direction with new ideas implemented with computer software. The Center for Engineering Applications of Radioisotopes (CEAR) at North Carolina State University has been working on a variety of projects in the area of radiation analyzers and gauges for accomplishing this for quite some time, and they are discussed here with emphasis on current accomplishments.

  18. Discharges in Water and Applications to Wasted Water Treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamabe, Chobei; Yamashita, Takanori; Ihara, Satoshi

    Recently the electrical discharge in water has been used for the water treatment. In this study, various shape of electrodes were examined to observe and measure the electrical discharge phenomena in water. Both the Marx generator and the pulsed power generator were used to generate the discharge in water. The oscillation on the waveforms of both applied voltage and discharge current was observed using the pulsed power generator whose peak applied voltage was about 80-120 kV and its discharge repetition rate was about one pulse per thirty seconds although it wasn't observed on the waveforms in the practical use of the high voltage generator (peak applied voltage was about 30-40 kV) with high repetition rate of discharge (20-300 pulses per second). Bubbles were introduced into the discharge region of main electrode using the ejector and the generation of hydroxyl radicals (OH) was confirmed by the measurement of emission spectrum of discharge in water and the intensity of OH radicals increased with the ratio of G/L (where, G is gas flow rate and L is water flow rate). The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was also measured and this reactor system was applied for the de-color of water.

  19. Probabilistic structural analysis methods and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruse, T. A.; Wu, Y.-T.; Dias, B.; Rajagopal, K. R.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced algorithm for simulating the probabilistic distribution of structural responses due to statistical uncertainties in loads, geometry, material properties, and boundary conditions is reported. The method effectively combines an advanced algorithm for calculating probability levels for multivariate problems (fast probability integration) together with a general-purpose finite-element code for stress, vibration, and buckling analysis. Application is made to a space propulsion system turbine blade for which the geometry and material properties are treated as random variables.

  20. Harmony Search Method: Theory and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Gao, X. Z.; Govindasamy, V.; Xu, H.; Wang, X.; Zenger, K.

    2015-01-01

    The Harmony Search (HS) method is an emerging metaheuristic optimization algorithm, which has been employed to cope with numerous challenging tasks during the past decade. In this paper, the essential theory and applications of the HS algorithm are first described and reviewed. Several typical variants of the original HS are next briefly explained. As an example of case study, a modified HS method inspired by the idea of Pareto-dominance-based ranking is also presented. It is further applied to handle a practical wind generator optimal design problem. PMID:25945083

  1. Using models to determine irrigation applications for water management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Simple models are used by field researchers and production agriculture to estimate crop water use for the purpose of scheduling irrigation applications. These are generally based on a simple volume balance approach based on estimates of soil water holding capacity, irrigation application amounts, pr...

  2. Analytical methods for water disinfection byproducts in foods and beverages.

    PubMed

    Raymer, J H; Pellizzari, E; Childs, B; Briggs, K; Shoemaker, J A

    2000-01-01

    The determination of exposure to drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) requires an understanding of how drinking water comes into contact with human through multiple pathways. In order to facilitate the investigation of human exposure to DBPs via foods and beverages, analytical method development efforts were initiated for haloacetonitriles, haloketones, chloropicrin, and the haloacetic acids (HAAs) in these matrices. The recoveries of the target analytes were investigated from composite foods and beverages. Individual foods and beverages used to investigate the general applicability of the developed methods were selected for testing based on their watercontent and frequency of consumption. The haloacetonitriles, the haloketones, and chloral hydrate were generally well recovered (70-130%), except for bromochloroacetonitrile (64%) and dibromoacetonitrile (55%), from foods spiked after homogenization and following extraction with methyl-t-butyl ether (MTBE); the addition of acetone was found to be necessary to improve recoveries from beverages. The process of homogenization resulted in decreased recoveries for the more volatile analytes despite the presence of dry ice. The HAAs were generally well recovered (70-130%), except for trichloroacetic acid (58%) and tribromoacetic acid (132%), from foods but low recoveries and emulsion formation were experienced with some beverages. With both groups of analytes, certain matrices were more problematic (as measured by volatility losses, emulsion formation) than others with regard to processing and analyte recovery. PMID:11138673

  3. Method for thermochemical decomposition of water

    DOEpatents

    Abraham, Bernard M.; Schreiner, Felix

    1977-01-11

    Water is thermochemically decomposed to produce hydrogen by the following sequence of reactions: KI, NH.sub.3, CO.sub. 2 and water in an organic solvent such as ethyl or propyl alcohol are reacted to produce KHCO 3 and NH.sub.4 I. The KHCO.sub.3 is thermally decomposed to K.sub.2 CO.sub.3, H.sub.2 O and CO.sub.2, while the NH.sub.4 I is reacted with Hg to produce HgI.sub.2, NH.sub.3 and H.sub.2. The K.sub.2 CO.sub.3 obtained by calcining KHCO.sub.3 is then reacted with HgI.sub.2 to produce Hg, KI, CO and O.sub.2. All products of the reaction are recycled except hydrogen and oxygen.

  4. Alternative cooling tower water treatment methods

    SciTech Connect

    Wilsey, C.A.

    1996-11-01

    The factors that contribute to proper water balance include total alkalinity, calcium hardness, and pH. In order to keep the cooling tower from scaling or corroding, a manipulation of these components is often necessary. This has traditionally been achieved with the use of chemicals, including but not limited to the following: acid, soda ash, sodium bicarbonate, calcium bicarbonate, algicide, and bactericide. Extensive research has shown that a balanced water system can also be achieved by using the proper combination of copper with a known halogen. Microbiologists have determined that a small amount of copper, acting as a supplement to chlorine at 0.4 ppm, has the same efficiency as 2.0 ppm free chlorine. Therefore, by using the following combination of components and procedures, the desired results can still be achieved: production of copper compound ions as a supplement to the chemical regimen; analysis and manipulation of make-up water; the use of copper as a coagulant for reduction of scale; copper as a supplemental bacterial disinfectant; and copper as an algicide.

  5. Exploiting interfacial water properties for desalination and purification applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Hongwu; Varma, Sameer; Nyman, May Devan; Alam, Todd Michael; Thuermer, Konrad; Holland, Gregory P.; Leung, Kevin; Liu, Nanguo; Xomeritakis, George K.; Frankamp, Benjamin L.; Siepmann, J. Ilja; Cygan, Randall Timothy; Hartl, Monika A.; Travesset, Alex; Anderson, Joshua A.; Huber, Dale L.; Kissel, David J.; Bunker, Bruce Conrad; Lorenz, Christian Douglas; Major, Ryan C.; McGrath, Matthew J.; Farrow, Darcie; Cecchi, Joseph L.; van Swol, Frank B.; Singh, Seema; Rempe, Susan B.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Clawson, Jacalyn S.; Feibelman, Peter Julian; Houston, Jack E.; Crozier, Paul Stewart; Criscenti, Louise Jacqueline; Chen, Zhu; Zhu, Xiaoyang; Dunphy, Darren Robert; Orendorff, Christopher J.; Pless, Jason D.; Daemen, Luke L.; Gerung, Henry; Ockwig, Nathan W.; Nenoff, Tina Maria; Jiang, Ying-Bing; Stevens, Mark Jackson

    2008-09-01

    A molecular-scale interpretation of interfacial processes is often downplayed in the analysis of traditional water treatment methods. However, such an approach is critical for the development of enhanced performance in traditional desalination and water treatments. Water confined between surfaces, within channels, or in pores is ubiquitous in technology and nature. Its physical and chemical properties in such environments are unpredictably different from bulk water. As a result, advances in water desalination and purification methods may be accomplished through an improved analysis of water behavior in these challenging environments using state-of-the-art microscopy, spectroscopy, experimental, and computational methods.

  6. SARAL/Altika for inland water: current and potential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarpanelli, Angelica; Brocca, Luca; Barbetta, Silvia; Moramarco, Tommaso; Santos da Silva, Joécila; Calmant, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    Although representing less than 1% of the total amount of water on Earth the freshwater is essential for terrestrial life and human needs. Over one third of the world's population is not served by adequate supplies of clean water and for this reason freshwater wars are becoming one of the most pressing environmental issues exacerbating the already difficult tensions between the riparian nations. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we have surprisingly poor knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface discharge. In-situ gauging networks quantify the instantaneous water volume in the main river channels but provide few information about the spatial dynamics of surface water extent, such as floodplain flows and the dynamics of wetlands. The growing reduction of hydrometric monitoring networks over the world, along with the inaccessibility of many remote areas and the difficulties for data sharing among developing countries feed the need to develop new procedures for river discharge estimation based on remote sensing technology. The major challenge in this case is the possibility of using Earth Observation data without ground measurements. Radar altimeters are a valuable tool to retrieve hydrological information from space such as water level of inland water. More than a decade of research on the application of radar altimetry has demonstrated its advantages also for monitoring continental water, providing global coverage and regular temporal sampling. The high accuracy of altimetry data provided by the latest spatial missions and the convincing results obtained in the previous applications suggest that these data may be employed for hydraulic/hydrological applications as well. If used in synergy with the modeling, the potential benefits of the altimetry measurements can grow significantly. The new SARAL French-Indian mission, providing improvements in terms of vertical accuracy and spatial resolution of the onboard altimeter Altika, can offer a great

  7. Complex admixtures of clathrate hydrates in a water desalination method

    DOEpatents

    Simmons, Blake A.; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Dedrick, Daniel E.; Anderson, David W.

    2009-07-14

    Disclosed is a method that achieves water desalination by utilizing and optimizing clathrate hydrate phenomena. Clathrate hydrates are crystalline compounds of gas and water that desalinate water by excluding salt molecules during crystallization. Contacting a hydrate forming gaseous species with water will spontaneously form hydrates at specific temperatures and pressures through the extraction of water molecules from the bulk phase followed by crystallite nucleation. Subsequent dissociation of pure hydrates yields fresh water and, if operated correctly, allows the hydrate-forming gas to be efficiently recycled into the process stream.

  8. Low hardness organisms: Culture methods, sensitivities, and practical applications

    SciTech Connect

    DaCruz, A.; DaCruz, N.; Bird, M.

    1995-12-31

    EPA Regulations require biomonitoring of permitted effluent and stormwater runoff. Several permit locations were studied, in Virginia, that have supply water and or stormwater runoff which ranges in hardness from 5--30 mg/L. Ceriodaphnia dubia (dubia) and Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) were tested in reconstituted water with hardnesses from 5--30 mg/L. Results indicated osmotic stresses present in the acute tests with the fathead minnow as well as chronic tests for the dubia and the fathead minnow. Culture methods were developed for both organism types in soft (30 mg) reconstituted freshwater. Reproductivity and development for each organisms type meets or exceeds EPA testing requirements for moderately hard organisms. Sensitivities were measured over an 18 month interval using cadmium chloride as a reference toxicant. Additionally, sensitivities were charted in contrast with those of organisms cultured in moderately hard water. The comparison proved that the sensitivities of both the dubia and the fathead minnow cultured in 30 mg water increased, but were within two standard deviations of the organism sensitivities of those cultured in moderately hard water. Latitude for use of organisms cultured in 30 mg was documented for waters ranging in hardness from 10--100 mg/L with no acclimation period required. The stability of the organism sensitivity was also validated. The application was most helpful in stormwater runoff and in effluents where the hardness was 30 mg/L or less.

  9. Welcome to Methods and Applications in Fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, David; Mély, Yves; Wolfbeis, Otto S.

    2013-03-01

    On behalf of the Editorial Board of Methods and Applications in Fluorescence and IOP Publishing we are delighted to invite you to read the first articles in our new journal. Methods and Applications in Fluorescence is forged out of the renowned MAF conference series of the same name and we fully expect the natural synergy between the two to provide the ideal platform for moving the field of fluorescence forward. Our aim is for this new journal to reflect the truly global and diverse impact fluorescence is having across many disciplines and help fluorescence achieve its full potential. Just as MAF is the leading conference in fluorescence we are confident of the high impact of this new journal. Methods and Applications in Fluorescence has a distinguished Editorial Board that is drawn from the MAF conference Permanent Steering Committee. Together with the Editorial Board and the rest of the community, the journal will closely track the very latest developments in fluorescence while delivering a fair and constructive review process. We are very pleased that this journal is backed by the Institute of Physics, one of the world's premier learned societies. IOP Publishing has a wealth of experience in science publishing that dates back to 1874. It is a not-for-profit organization that publishes over 60 journals, many on multidisciplinary topics and many including seminal contributions from Nobel Laureates. Any funding surplus generated by IOP Publishing goes directly back into science through the Institute of Physics, thus helping to nurture science for future generations. We invite submissions as regular articles, review articles and technical notes within the scope of the journal, which includes all the major aspects of fluorescence. This covers both theory and experiment across spectroscopy, imaging, materials, labels, probes and sensors. The applications of fluorescence to emerging areas in bionanotechnology, nanotechnology and medicine are very much part of the

  10. Methods for collection and analysis of water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rainwater, Frank Hays; Thatcher, Leland Lincoln

    1960-01-01

    This manual contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to collect, preserve, and analyze water samples. Throughout, the emphasis is on obtaining analytical results that accurately describe the chemical composition of the water in situ. Among the topics discussed are selection of sampling sites, frequency of sampling, field equipment, preservatives and fixatives, analytical techniques of water analysis, and instruments. Seventy-seven laboratory and field procedures are given for determining fifty-three water properties.

  11. Method and plant for storing fresh water

    SciTech Connect

    Dunkers, K.R.

    1988-04-05

    A tank for storage of a confined quantity of freshwater in a large body of saltwater is described comprising an upper annular support having flotation means so that the annular support can freely float in the body of salt water, vertically supported only by the flotation means; a non-expandable flexible skirt of sheet material extending downwardly from the annual support to define an open-bottomed storage tank; means on the skirt to maintain the skirt in a generally vertical downward orientation from the annual support while the support floats in the saltwater.

  12. Measuring Plant Water Status: A Simple Method for Investigative Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Donald H.; Anderson, Jay E.

    1980-01-01

    Describes a method suitable for quantitative studies of plant water status conducted by high school or college students and the calculation of the relative water content (RWC) of a plant. Materials, methods, procedures, and results are discussed, with sample data figures provided. (CS)

  13. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) METHOD STUDY 12, CYANIDE IN WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA Method Study 12, Cyanide in Water reports the results of a study by EMSL-Cincinnati for the parameters, Total Cyanide and Cyanides Amendable to Chlorination, present in water at microgram per liter levels. Four methods: pyridine-pyrazolone, pyridine-barbituric acid, electrode...

  14. Application of water quality guidelines and water quantity calculations to decisions for beneficial use of treated water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Minh Phung T.; Castle, James W.; Rodgers, John H.

    2011-12-01

    Water reuse guidelines were compiled as a decision-analysis screening tool for application to potential water reuse for irrigation, livestock watering, aquaculture, and drinking. Data compiled from the literature for water reuses yielded guideline values for over 50 water quality parameters, including concentrations of inorganic and organic constituents as well as general water chemistry parameters. These water quality guidelines can be used to identify constituents of concern in water, to determine the levels to which the constituents must be treated for water reuse applications, and assess the suitability of treated water for reuse. An example is provided to illustrate the application of water quality guidelines for decision analysis. Water quantity analysis was also investigated, and water volumes required for producing 16 different crops in 15 countries were estimated as an example of applying water quantity in the decision-making process regarding the potential of water reuse. For each of the countries investigated, the crop that produces the greatest yield in terms of weight per water volume is tomatoes in Australia, Brazil, Italy, Japan, Saudi Arabia, Turkey, USA; sugarcane in Chad, India, Indonesia, Sudan; watermelons in China; lettuce in Egypt, Mexico; and onions (dry) in Russia.

  15. Methods for determination of inorganic substances in water and fluvial sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, Marvin J., (Edited By); Friedman, Linda C.

    1989-01-01

    Chapter Al of the laboratory manual contains methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey to analyze samples of water, suspended sediments, and bottom material for their content of inorganic constituents. Included are methods for determining the concentration of dissolved constituents in water, the total recoverable and total of constituents in water-suspended sediment samples, and the recoverable and total concentrations of constituents in samples of bottom material. The introduction to the manual includes essential definitions and a brief discussion of the use of significant figures in calculating and reporting analytical results. Quality control in the water-analysis laboratory is discussed, including the accuracy and precision of analyses, the use of standard-reference water samples, and the operation of an effective quality-assurance program. Methods for sample preparation and pretreatment are given also. A brief discussion of the principles of the analytical techniques involved and their particular application to water and sediment analysis is presented. The analytical methods of these techniques are arranged alphabetically by constituent. For each method, the general topics covered are the application, the principle of the method, the interferences, the apparatus and reagents required, a detailed description of the analytical procedure, reporting results, units and significant figures, and analytical precision data, when available. More than 126 methods are given for the determination of 70 inorganic constituents and physical properties of water, suspended sediment, and bottom material.

  16. Controllability analysis as a pre-selection method for sensor placement in water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Diao, Kegong; Rauch, Wolfgang

    2013-10-15

    Detection of contamination events in water distribution systems is a crucial task for maintaining water security. Online monitoring is considered as the most cost-effective technology to protect against the impacts of contaminant intrusions. Optimization methods for sensor placement enable automated sensor layout design based on hydraulic and water quality simulation. However, this approach results in an excessive computational burden. In this paper we outline the application of controllability analysis as preprocessing method for sensor placement. Based on case studies we demonstrate that the method decreases the number of decision variables for subsequent optimization dramatically to app. 30 to 40 percent. PMID:23948563

  17. Cotton (Gossypium Hirsutum L.) response to pendimethalin formulation, timing, and method of application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton growers are constantly seeking ways to reduce inputs. An alternative method to spraying pendimethalin herbicide with water as a method of field application is to coat it on fertilizers and then spread in tandem, reducing application cost by eliminating one trip across the field. Some concer...

  18. Status and applications of echinoid (phylum echinodermata) toxicity test methods

    SciTech Connect

    Bay, S.; Burgess, R.; Nacci, D.

    1993-01-01

    The use of echinoderms for toxicity testing has focused primarily on sea urchins and sand dollars (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, Arbacia punctulata, Lytechinus pictus, and Dendraster excentricus, for example). The status and relative sensitivity of various test methods are described. The most frequently used test methods consist of short-term exposures of sea urchin sperm or embryos; these tests can be easily conducted at all times of the year by using species with complementary spawning cycles or laboratory conditioned populations of a single species. Data from reference toxicant and effluent toxicity tests are summarized. Information on the precision and sensitivity of echinoid test methods are limited and preclude rigorous comparisons with other test methods. The available data indicate that the sensitivity and precision of these methods are comparable to short-term chronic methods for other marine invertebrates and fish. Recent application of the sperm test in toxicity identification evaluations (TIEs) and studies of effluent toxicity decay and sediment toxicity illustrate the versatility of this rapid (10 to 60 min exposure) test method. Embryo tests typically use a 48 to 96 h exposure period and measure the occurrence of embryo malformations. Most recent applications of the embryo test have been for the assessment of sediment elutriate toxicity. Adult echinoderms are not frequently used to assess effluent or receiving water toxicity. Recent studies have had success in using the adult life stage of urchins and sand dollars to assess the effects of contaminated sediment on growth, behavior, and bioaccumulation.

  19. Methods of analysis by the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory; determination of inorganic and organic constituents in water and fluvial sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, M. J., (Edited By)

    1993-01-01

    Methods to be used to analyze samples of water, suspended sediment and bottom material for their content of inorganic and organic constituents are presented. Technology continually changes, and so this laboratory manual includes new and revised methods for determining the concentration of dissolved constituents in water, whole water recoverable constituents in water-suspended sediment samples, and recoverable concentration of constit- uents in bottom material. For each method, the general topics covered are the application, the principle of the method, interferences, the apparatus and reagents required, a detailed description of the analytical procedure, reporting results, units and significant figures, and analytical precision data. Included in this manual are 30 methods.

  20. Application of a revised Water Poverty Index to target the water poor.

    PubMed

    Garriga, R Giné; Foguet, A Pérez

    2011-01-01

    The Water Poverty Index (WPI) has been recognized as a useful tool in policy analysis. The index integrates various physical, social and environmental aspects to enable more holistic assessment of water resources. However, soundness of this tool relies on two complementary aspects: (i) inadequate techniques employed in index construction would produce unreliable results, and (ii) poor dissemination of final outcome would reduce applicability of the index to influence policy-making. From a methodological point of view, a revised alternative to calculate the index was developed in a previous study. This paper is therefore concerned not with the method employed in index construction, but with how the composite can be applied to support decision-making processes. In particular, the paper examines different approaches to exploit the index as a policy tool. A number of alternatives to disseminate achieved results are presented. The implications of applying the composite at different spatial scales are highlighted. Turkana District, in Kenya has been selected as initial case study to test the applicability and validity of the index. The paper concludes that the WPI approach provides a relevant tool for guiding appropriate action and policy-making towards more equitable allocation of water resources. PMID:21436544

  1. Global Precipitation Measurement: Methods, Datasets and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapiador, Francisco; Turk, Francis J.; Petersen, Walt; Hou, Arthur Y.; Garcia-Ortega, Eduardo; Machado, Luiz, A. T.; Angelis, Carlos F.; Salio, Paola; Kidd, Chris; Huffman, George J.; De Castro, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the many aspects of precipitation measurement that are relevant to providing an accurate global assessment of this important environmental parameter. Methods discussed include ground data, satellite estimates and numerical models. First, the methods for measuring, estimating, and modeling precipitation are discussed. Then, the most relevant datasets gathering precipitation information from those three sources are presented. The third part of the paper illustrates a number of the many applications of those measurements and databases. The aim of the paper is to organize the many links and feedbacks between precipitation measurement, estimation and modeling, indicating the uncertainties and limitations of each technique in order to identify areas requiring further attention, and to show the limits within which datasets can be used.

  2. Application of multifocusing method for subsurface imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landa, Evgeny; Gurevich, Boris; Keydar, Shemer; Trachtman, Pinchas

    1999-12-01

    The multifocusing method consists of stacking seismic data with arbitrary source-receiver distribution according to a new paraxial moveout correction. This multifocusing moveout correction is based on a local spherical approximation of the reflection wave fronts in the vicinity of an observation surface. The multifocusing method does not require any knowledge of the subsurface model and can produce an accurate zero offset section, even in cases of a complex geological structure and/or low signal-to-noise ratio. The moveout correction parameters are the emergence angle and the wavefront curvatures for the normal wave and normal-incidence-point wave. The estimated sets of these parameters can be looked upon as new wavefield attributes containing important information regarding the subsurface model. Application of the multifocusing algorithm to synthetic and real data examples demonstrates its advantages in comparison with conventional CMP processing.

  3. Comparison of Steady State Method and Transient Methods for Water Permeability Measurement in Low Permeability Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulin, P. F.; Bretonnier, P.; Gland, N.

    2010-12-01

    Very low permeability geomaterials (order of nanoDarcy (10-21 m2)), such as clays rocks, are studied for many industrial applications such as production from unconventional reserves of oil and gas, CO2 geological storage and deep geological disposal of high-level long-lived nuclear wastes. For these last two applications, clay efficiency as barrier relies mainly on their very low permeability. Laboratory measurement of low permeability to water (below 10-19 m2) remains a technical challenge. Some authors argue that steady state methods are irrelevant due to the time required to stabilize water fluxes in such low permeability media. Most of the authors measuring low permeabilities use a transient technique called pulse decay. This study aims to compare objectively these different types of permeability tests performed on a single clay sample. For the steady state method, a high precision pump was used to impose a pressure gradient and to measure the small resulting water flow rate at steady state. We show that with a suitable set-up, the steady state method enables to measure a very low permeability of 8 10-22 m2 in a period of three days. For a comparable duration, the pulse decay test, most commonly used for such low permeability measurements, provides only an average estimate of the permeability. Permeability measurements by pulse decay require to perform simulations to interpret the pressure relaxation signals. Many uncertainties remain such as the determination of the reservoirs storage factor, micro leakage effect, or the determination of the initial pulse pressure. All these uncertainties have a very significant impact on the determination of sample permeability and specific storage. Opposite to the wide-spread idea that transient techniques are required to measure very low permeability, we show that direct steady state measurement of water permeability with suitable equipments can be much faster and more accurate than measurement by pulse decay, especially in

  4. Ground-water applications of remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Gerald K.

    1982-01-01

    Remote sensing can be used as a tool to inventory springs and seeps and to interpret lithology, structure, and ground-water occurrence and quality. Thermograms are the best images for inventory of seeps and springs. The steps in aquifer mapping are image analysis and interpretation and ground-water interpretation. A ground-water interpretation is derived from a conceptual geologic model by inferring aquifer characteristics and water salinity. The image selection process is very important for obtaining maximum geologic and hydrologic information from remotely sensed data. Remote sensing can contribute an image base map or geologic and hydrologic parameters, derived from the image, to the multiple data sets in a hydrologic information system. Various merging and integration techniques may then be used to obtain information from these data sets.

  5. Detection of coliform organisms in drinking water by radiometric method.

    PubMed

    Khurshid, S J; Bibi, S

    1991-07-01

    The radiometric method has been used for detection of coliform bacteria in water. The method is based on measuring the released metabolic 14CO2 from 14C-lactose in growth media containing coliform organisms incubated at 37 degrees C under continuous shaking. This rapid and sensitive radiometric method permits the detection of even single coliform organisms within 6 hours of incubation. Using this automated method, a total of 102 samples (in duplicate) collected from different areas in and around Rawalpindi and Islamabad were assessed for coliform bacteria. Of these 102 samples, 50 were tap water samples, 40 from wells and 6 each were from Rawal and Simly dams. About 47% and 67% tap water samples, while 62% and 74% well water samples were found unsatisfactory from around Islamabad and Rawalpindi areas, respectively. About 83% and 66% water samples from Rawal dam and Simly dam respectively were found to be unsatisfactory. PMID:1920760

  6. Purifying contaminated water. [DOE patent application

    DOEpatents

    Daughton, C.G.

    1981-10-27

    Process is presented for removing biorefactory compounds from contaminated water (e.g., oil shale retort waste-water) by contacting same with fragmented raw oil shale. Biorefractory removal is enhanced by preactivating the oil shale with at least one member of the group of carboxylic acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, ethers, amines, amides, sulfoxides, mixed ether-esters and nitriles. Further purification is obtained by stripping, followed by biodegradation and removal of the cells.

  7. Compositions and methods for removing arsenic in water

    DOEpatents

    Gadgil, Ashok Jagannth

    2011-02-22

    Compositions and methods and for contaminants from water are provided. The compositions comprise ferric hydroxide and ferric oxyhydride coated substrates for use in removing the contaminant from the water. Contacting water bearing the contaminant with the substrates can substantially reduce contaminant levels therein. Methods of oxidizing the contaminants in water to facilitate their removal by the ferric hydroxide and ferric oxyhydride coated substrates are also provided. The contaminants include, but are not limited to, arsenic, selenium, uranium, lead, cadmium, nickel, copper, zinc, chromium and vanadium, their oxides and soluble salts thereof.

  8. Novel applications of fast neutron interrogation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gozani, Tsahi

    1994-12-01

    The development of non-intrusive inspection methods for contraband consisting primarily of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen requires the use of fast neutrons. While most elements can be sufficiently well detected by the thermal neutron capture process, some important ones, e.g., carbon and in particular oxygen, cannot be detected by this process. Fortunately, fast neutrons, with energies above the threshold for inelastic scattering, stimulate relatively strong and specific gamma ray lines from these elements. The main lines are: 6.13 for O, 4.43 for C, and 5.11, 2.31 and 1.64 MeV for N. Accelerator-generated neutrons in the energy range of 7 to 15 MeV are being considered as interrogating radiations in a variety of non-intrusive inspection systems for contraband, from explosives to drugs and from coal to smuggled, dutiable goods. In some applications, mostly for inspection of small items such as luggage, the decision process involves a rudimentary imaging, akin to emission tomography, to obtain the localized concentration of various elements. This technique is called FNA — Fast Neutron Analysis. While this approach offers improvements over the TNA (Thermal Neutron Analysis), it is not applicable to large objects such as shipping containers and trucks. For these challenging applications, a collimated beam of neutrons is rastered along the height of the moving object. In addition, the neutrons are generated in very narrow nanosecond pulses. The point of their interaction inside the object is determined by the time of flight (TOF) method, that is measuring the time elapsed from the neutron generation to the time of detection of the stimulated gamma rays. This technique, called PFNA (Pulsed Fast Neutron Analysis), thus directly provides the elemental, and by inference, the chemical composition of the material at every volume element (voxel) of the object. The various neutron-based techniques are briefly described below.

  9. Application of the organic on water reactions to prebiotic chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Vera M.

    2012-10-01

    The old view that prebiotic reactions in water are hampered by the low solubility of the organic compounds in water is now being revised due to the discoveries of the reactions "on water". These reactions occur in the heterogeneous system comprising of the organic compounds and water. Unexpectedly, such reactions are extremely efficient; they often give quantitative yields, and are accelerated in the presence of water as compared to the organic solvents. These "on water" reactions are not the same as the "in water" reactions, which occur in solution, and are thus homogenous. Examples of the "on water" reactions include Diels-Alder, Claisen, Passerini and Ugi reactions, among many others. Some of these reactions are multicomponent, but give a single product. We survey a selected number of the "on water" reactions, which have a potential prebiotic applications.

  10. Calibration of the DRASTIC ground water vulnerability mapping method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rupert, M.G.

    2001-01-01

    Ground water vulnerability maps developed using the DRASTIC method have been produced in many parts of the world. Comparisons of those maps with actual ground water quality data have shown that the DRASTIC method is typically a poor predictor of ground water contamination. This study significantly improved the effectiveness of a modified DRASTIC ground water vulnerability map by calibrating the point rating schemes to actual ground water quality data by using nonparametric statistical techniques and a geographic information system. Calibration was performed by comparing data on nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen (NO2 + NO3-N) concentrations in ground water to land-use, soils, and depth to first-encountered ground water data. These comparisons showed clear statistical differences between NO2 + NO3-N concentrations and the various categories. Ground water probability point ratings for NO2 + NO3-N contamination were developed from the results of these comparisons, and a probability map was produced. This ground water probability map was then correlated with an independent set of NO2 + NO3-N data to demonstrate its effectiveness in predicting elevated NO2 + NO3-N concentrations in ground water. This correlation demonstrated that the probability map was effective, but a vulnerability map produced with the uncalibrated DRASTIC method in the same area and using the same data layers was not effective. Considerable time and expense have been outlaid to develop ground water vulnerability maps with the DRASTIC method. This study demonstrates a cost-effective method to improve and verify the effectiveness of ground water vulnerability maps.

  11. Waste Water Treatment Apparatus and Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Howard (Inventor); Plawsky, Joel L. (Inventor); Paccione, John D. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An improved draft tube spout fluid bed (DTSFB) mixing, handling, conveying, and treating apparatus and systems, and methods for operating are provided. The apparatus and systems can accept particulate material and pneumatically or hydraulically conveying the material to mix and/or treat the material. In addition to conveying apparatus, a collection and separation apparatus adapted to receive the conveyed particulate material is also provided. The collection apparatus may include an impaction plate against which the conveyed material is directed to improve mixing and/or treatment. The improved apparatus are characterized by means of controlling the operation of the pneumatic or hydraulic transfer to enhance the mixing and/or reacting by controlling the flow of fluids, for example, air, into and out of the apparatus. The disclosed apparatus may be used to mix particulate material, for example, mortar; react fluids with particulate material; coat particulate material, or simply convey particulate material.

  12. Improved Correction Method for Water-Refracted Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data Acquired in the Mountain Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, N.; Asano, Y.; Moribe, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Detailed information of underwater topography is required for better understanding and prediction of water and sediment transport in a mountain channel. Recent research showed promising utility of green-wavelength Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) for measuring submerged stream-bed structure in fluvial environment. However, difficulty in acquiring reliable underwater data has been remained in the part of mountain channel where water surface has some gradient. Since horizontal water surface was a major premise for the existing water refraction correction method, significant error was resulted in such area. Therefore, this paper presents a modified method to correct water-refracted TLS data acquired over mountain channel with complex water-surface slope. Applicability of the modified method was validated using the field data and compared with the existing correction method and non-corrected data. The results showed that the modified method has much smaller error with RMSE value of 3 mm than the existing method (RMSE = 10 mm) and non-corrected data (RMSE = 23 mm). Presented method successfully corrected water-refracted TLS data acquired over sloped channel. This would enable us to quantitatively measure whole units of complex mountain channels, and help us to understand water dynamics better in the area.

  13. Extending electromagnetic methods to map coastal pore water salinities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, Wm. J.; Kruse, S.; Swarzenski, P.

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping pore water salinity based on surface electromagnetic (EM) methods over land and shallow marine water is examined in a coastal wetland on Tampa Bay, Florida. Forward models predict that useful information on seabed conductivity can be obtained through <1.5 m of saline water, using floating EM-31 and EM-34 instruments from Geonics Ltd. The EM-31 functioned as predicted when compared against resistivity soundings and pore water samples and proved valuable for profiling in otherwise inaccessible terrain due to its relatively small size. Experiments with the EM-34 in marine water, however, did not reproduce the theoretical instrument response. The most effective technique for predicting pore water conductivities based on EM data entailed (1) computing formation factors from resistivity surveys and pore water samples at representative sites and (2) combining these formation factors with onshore and offshore EM-31 readings for broader spatial coverage. This method proved successful for imaging zones of elevated pore water conductivities/ salinities associated with mangrove forests, presumably caused by salt water exclusion by mangrove roots. These zones extend 5 to 10 m seaward from mangrove trunks fringing Tampa Bay. Modeling indicates that EM-31 measurements lack the resolution necessary to image the subtle pore water conductivity variations expected in association with diffuse submarine ground water discharge of fresher water in the marine water of Tampa Bay. The technique has potential for locating high-contrast zones and other pore water salinity anomalies in areas not accessible to conventional marine- or land-based resistivity arrays and hence may be useful for studies of coastal-wetland ecosystems. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  14. Visualizing Water Molecules in Transmembrane Proteins Using Radiolytic Labeling Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Orban, T.; Gupta, S; Palczewski, K; Chance, M

    2010-01-01

    Essential to cells and their organelles, water is both shuttled to where it is needed and trapped within cellular compartments and structures. Moreover, ordered waters within protein structures often colocalize with strategically placed polar or charged groups critical for protein function, yet it is unclear if these ordered water molecules provide structural stabilization, mediate conformational changes in signaling, neutralize charged residues, or carry out a combination of all these functions. Structures of many integral membrane proteins, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), reveal the presence of ordered water molecules that may act like prosthetic groups in a manner quite unlike bulk water. Identification of 'ordered' waters within a crystalline protein structure requires sufficient occupancy of water to enable its detection in the protein's X-ray diffraction pattern, and thus, the observed waters likely represent a subset of tightly bound functional waters. In this review, we highlight recent studies that suggest the structures of ordered waters within GPCRs are as conserved (and thus as important) as conserved side chains. In addition, methods of radiolysis, coupled to structural mass spectrometry (protein footprinting), reveal dynamic changes in water structure that mediate transmembrane signaling. The idea of water as a prosthetic group mediating chemical reaction dynamics is not new in fields such as catalysis. However, the concept of water as a mediator of conformational dynamics in signaling is just emerging, because of advances in both crystallographic structure determination and new methods of protein footprinting. Although oil and water do not mix, understanding the roles of water is essential to understanding the function of membrane proteins.

  15. Methods of geodiversity assessment and theirs application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwoliński, Zbigniew; Najwer, Alicja; Giardino, Marco

    2016-04-01

    The concept of geodiversity has rapidly gained the approval of scientists around the world (Wiedenbein 1993, Sharples 1993, Kiernan 1995, 1996, Dixon 1996, Eberhard 1997, Kostrzewski 1998, 2011, Gray 2004, 2008, 2013, Zwoliński 2004, Serrano, Ruiz- Flano 2007, Gordon et al. 2012). However, the problem recognition is still at an early stage, and in effect not explicitly understood and defined (Najwer, Zwoliński 2014). Nevertheless, despite widespread use of the concept, little progress has been made in its assessment and mapping. Less than the last decade can be observing investigation of methods for geodiversity assessment and its visualisation. Though, many have acknowledged the importance of geodiversity evaluation (Kozłowski 2004, Gray 2004, Reynard, Panizza 2005, Zouros 2007, Pereira et al. 2007, Hjort et al. 2015). Hitherto, only a few authors have undertaken that kind of methodological issues. Geodiversity maps are being created for a variety of purposes and therefore their methods are quite manifold. In the literature exists some examples of the geodiversity maps applications for the geotourism purpose, basing mainly on the geological diversity, in order to point the scale of the area's tourist attractiveness (Zwoliński 2010, Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Zwoliński and Stachowiak 2012). In some studies, geodiversity maps were created and applied to investigate the spatial or genetic relationships with the richness of particular natural environmental components (Burnett et al. 1998, Silva 2004, Jačková, Romportl 2008, Hjort et al. 2012, 2015, Mazurek et al. 2015, Najwer et al. 2014). There are also a few examples of geodiversity assessment in order to geoconservation and efficient management and planning of the natural protected areas (Serrano and Gonzalez Trueba 2011, Pellitero et al. 2011, 2014, Jaskulska et al. 2013, Melelli 2014, Martinez-Grana et al. 2015). The most popular method of assessing the diversity of abiotic components of the natural

  16. Remote sensing retrieval of water constituents in shallow coastal waters with applications to the Venice lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, X.; Marani, M.; Albertson, J. D.; Silvestri, S.

    2013-12-01

    Lagoons and estuaries worldwide are experiencing accelerated ecosystem degradation due to increased direct and indirect anthropogenic pressure. Monitoring the environmental state and trends in such environment would benefit from the use of remote sensing techniques, which can access a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. However, most remote sensors are not suitable for monitoring shallow and optically-complex waters, because of their low spatial and spectral-resolution and of the uncertainties associated with the contribution of the bottom sediment to the observed remote sensing signal. We apply here a remote sensing-based approach to mapping suspended sediment and chlorophyll concentrations in the shallow Venice lagoon, which integrates hyperspectral remote sensing data, a simplified radiative transfer model, and in-situ water quality measurements. First, we calibrate and validate the key parameters of the model, such as bottom albedo and absorption/backscattering coefficients of sediment, by comparing remote sensing derived water constituent concentrations with in-situ data. We then determine the statistics of those parameters, and the associated estimation uncertainty, by applying a bootstrapping technique. Finally, the lagoon-wide distribution of water constituent concentrations, and of the estimation uncertainty, is derived by inverting the model. The estimates are consistent with measured concentrations and their known optical properties, particularly for the suspended sediment concentrations, while chlorophyll concentration estimates remain more uncertain. Our analyses show that remote sensing methods can provide reliable water constituent concentrations at the system scale and that uncertainties become overwhelming only in particularly shallow areas (water depths indicatively lower than 1 m in the present application). Importantly, the joint use of radiative transfer models, in situ observations, and statistical techniques allows the production of

  17. Future Directions of Electromagnetic Methods for Hydrocarbon Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strack, K. M.

    2014-01-01

    For hydrocarbon applications, seismic exploration is the workhorse of the industry. Only in the borehole, electromagnetic (EM) methods play a dominant role, as they are mostly used to determine oil reserves and to distinguish water from oil-bearing zones. Throughout the past 60 years, we had several periods with an increased interest in EM. This increased with the success of the marine EM industry and now electromagnetics in general is considered for many new applications. The classic electromagnetic methods are borehole, onshore and offshore, and airborne EM methods. Airborne is covered elsewhere (see Smith, this issue). Marine EM material is readily available from the service company Web sites, and here I will only mention some future technical directions that are visible. The marine EM success is being carried back to the onshore market, fueled by geothermal and unconventional hydrocarbon applications. Oil companies are listening to pro-EM arguments, but still are hesitant to go through the learning exercises as early adopters. In particular, the huge business drivers of shale hydrocarbons and reservoir monitoring will bring markets many times bigger than the entire marine EM market. Additional applications include support for seismic operations, sub-salt, and sub-basalt, all areas where seismic exploration is costly and inefficient. Integration with EM will allow novel seismic methods to be applied. In the borehole, anisotropy measurements, now possible, form the missing link between surface measurements and ground truth. Three-dimensional (3D) induction measurements are readily available from several logging contractors. The trend to logging-while-drilling measurements will continue with many more EM technologies, and the effort of controlling the drill bit while drilling including look-ahead-and-around the drill bit is going on. Overall, the market for electromagnetics is increasing, and a demand for EM capable professionals will continue. The emphasis will

  18. Applications of remote sensing to water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Analyses were made of selected long-term (1985 and beyond) objectives, with the intent of determining if significant data-related problems would be encountered and to develop alternative solutions to any potential problems. One long-term objective selected for analysis was Water Availability Forecasting. A brief overview was scheduled in FY-77 of the objective -- primarily a fact-finding study to allow Data Management personnel to gain adequate background information to perform subsequent data system analyses. This report, includes discussions on some of the larger problems currently encountered in water measurement, the potential users of water availability forecasts, projected demands of users, current sensing accuracies, required parameter monitoring, status of forecasting modeling, and some measurement accuracies likely to be achievable by 1980 and 1990.

  19. Formal methods demonstration project for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divito, Ben L.

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle program is cooperating in a pilot project to apply formal methods to live requirements analysis activities. As one of the larger ongoing shuttle Change Requests (CR's), the Global Positioning System (GPS) CR involves a significant upgrade to the Shuttle's navigation capability. Shuttles are to be outfitted with GPS receivers and the primary avionics software will be enhanced to accept GPS-provided positions and integrate them into navigation calculations. Prior to implementing the CR, requirements analysts at Loral Space Information Systems, the Shuttle software contractor, must scrutinize the CR to identify and resolve any requirements issues. We describe an ongoing task of the Formal Methods Demonstration Project for Space Applications whose goal is to find an effective way to use formal methods in the GPS CR requirements analysis phase. This phase is currently under way and a small team from NASA Langley, ViGYAN Inc. and Loral is now engaged in this task. Background on the GPS CR is provided and an overview of the hardware/software architecture is presented. We outline the approach being taken to formalize the requirements, only a subset of which is being attempted. The approach features the use of the PVS specification language to model 'principal functions', which are major units of Shuttle software. Conventional state machine techniques form the basis of our approach. Given this background, we present interim results based on a snapshot of work in progress. Samples of requirements specifications rendered in PVS are offered to illustration. We walk through a specification sketch for the principal function known as GPS Receiver State processing. Results to date are summarized and feedback from Loral requirements analysts is highlighted. Preliminary data is shown comparing issues detected by the formal methods team versus those detected using existing requirements analysis methods. We conclude by discussing our plan to complete the remaining

  20. Biological Treatment of Drinking Water: Applications, Advantages and Disadvantages

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fundamentals of biological treatment are presented to an audience of state drinking water regulators. The presentation covers definitions, applications, the basics of bacterial metabolism, a discussion of treatment options, and the impact that implementation of these options...

  1. The Doubly Labeled Water Method for Measuring Human Energy Expenditure: Adaptations for Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schulz, Leslie O.

    1991-01-01

    It is essential to determine human energy requirements in space, and the doubly labeled water method has been identified as the most appropriate means of indirect calorimetry to meet this need. The method employs naturally occurring, stable isotopes of hydrogen (H-2, deuterium) and oxygen (O-18) which, after dosing, mix with body water. The deuterium is lost from the body as water while the O-18 is eliminated as both water and CO2. The difference between the two isotope elimination rates is therefore a measure of CO2 production and hence energy expenditure. Spaceflight will present a unique challenge to the application of the doubly labeled water method. Specifically, interpretation of doubly labeled water results assumes that the natural abundance or 'background' levels of the isotopes remain constant during the measurement interval. To address this issue, an equilibration model will be developed in an ongoing ground-based study. As energy requirements of women matched to counterparts in the Astronauts Corps are being determined by doubly labeled water, the baseline isotope concentration will be changed by consumption of 'simulated Shuttle water' which is artificially enriched. One group of subjects will be equilibrated on simulated Shuttle water prior to energy determinations by doubly labeled water while the others will consume simulated Shuttle water after dosing. This process will allow us to derive a prediction equation to mathematically model the effect of changing background isotope concentrations.

  2. METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirteen analytical methods for the identification and measurement of organic compounds in drinking water are described in detail. ix of the methods are for volatile organic compounds (VOC's) and certain disinfection byproducts and these methods were cited in the Federal Register...

  3. Method of immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds on a capillary-porous carrier

    DOEpatents

    Ershov, Gennady Moiseevich; Timofeev, Eduard Nikolaevich; Ivanov, Igor Borisovich; Florentiev, Vladimir Leonidovich; Mirzabekov, Andrei Darievich

    1998-01-01

    The method for immobilizing water-soluble bioorganic compounds to capillary-porous carrier comprises application of solutions of water-soluble bioorganic compounds onto a capillary-porous carrier, setting the carrier temperature equal to or below the dew point of the ambient air, keeping the carrier till appearance of water condensate and complete swelling of the carrier, whereupon the carrier surface is coated with a layer of water-immiscible nonluminescent inert oil and is allowed to stand till completion of the chemical reaction of bonding the bioorganic compounds with the carrier.

  4. Delineation of recharge rate from a hybrid water table fluctuation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eungyu

    2012-07-01

    The concept of the hybrid water table fluctuation (WTF) method for recharge rate estimation was revisited. To estimate the recharge rate, a physically based WTF equation was established. The concept of transient fillable porosity was proposed and computed with unsaturated hydraulics models. The developed model is tested by applying to the water table fluctuation data from Hongcheon, Korea. In the applications, the recharge and fillable porosity estimates were found to be most sensitive to nonlinearity in the unsaturated water content profile and permeability. Also, the water table level drift, which does not originate from precipitation, serves as a major source of estimation error.

  5. Lattice Boltzmann method for the age concentration equation in shallow water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Haifei; Ding, Yu; Wang, Hongda; Zhang, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Water age is a critical parameter in reflecting the extent of water exchange. It represents the time that water parcels or contaminants are transported from source to current positions. In this study, an equilibrium distribution function for water age concentration is proposed within the Eulerian framework based on the existing theory of water age, and it can recover the age concentration equation. In addition, the lattice Boltzmann method for water age in the Lagrangian procedures is developed. This method also enables the Lagrangian age to be fundamentally simulated under computationally expensive conditions. In numerical tests, cubic and circular reservoirs with narrow inflow-outflow boundaries are used to verify the applicability of the model. Finally, the proposed approaches are applied to the Baiyangdian Lake, the biggest freshwater lake in northern China. The result is compared with that acquired by the Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code (EFDC) as well.

  6. Applications of spectroscopy to remote determination of water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, M. C.; Weiner, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    The use of remote laser Raman and molecular spectroscopic techniques to measure water quality is examined. Measurements cover biological, chemical, and physical properties of the water. Experimental results show chemical properties are harder to obtain remotely than biological or physical properties and that molecular spectroscopy seems to be the best method for obtaining water quality data.

  7. River Pollution: Part II. Biological Methods for Assessing Water Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Openshaw, Peter

    1984-01-01

    Discusses methods used in the biological assessment of river quality and such indicators of clean and polluted waters as the Trent Biotic Index, Chandler Score System, and species diversity indexes. Includes a summary of a river classification scheme based on quality criteria related to water use. (JN)

  8. Improved methods for national water assessment, water resources contract: WR15249270

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Harold A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of our research is to develop methods to make National Water Assessment more useful in estimating water availability for economic growth and more helpful in determining the effect of water resource development upon the environmental quality of related land resources. There are serious questions pertaining to the 1975 Water Assessment and these amplify the significance of decisions made as to the planning and scheduling of the next assessment.

  9. EPOC WATER INC. MICROFILTRATION TECHNOLOGY - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the EPOC Water, Inc. Microfiltration Technology and its applicability as a treatment technique for water contaminated with metals. oth the technical aspects arid the economics of this technology were examined. Operational data ...

  10. EPOC WATER INC. MICROFILTRATION TECHNOLOGY - APPLICATIONS ANALYSIS REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an evaluation of the performance of the EPOC Water, Inc. Microfiltration Technology and its applicability as a treatment technique for water contaminated with metals. oth the technical aspects arid the economics of this technology were examined. perational data a...