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Sample records for applications reduce phytophagy

  1. The role of phytophagy by predators in shaping plant interactions with their pests.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Maria L; Steppuhn, Anke; Broufas, George D

    2016-01-01

    Zoophytophagy is common among predacious arthropods, but research on their role in plant-herbivore interactions is generally focused on predation effects whereas their phytophagy is largely neglected. Our recent study revealed the ability of zoophytophagous predators to induce defense related traits and to affect herbivore performance apart from predation through the plant. Additionally, we show here that predator-exposed plants suffer less damage compared to unexposed plants. Thus, zoophytophagous organisms likely shape community structure by both their predation on herbivores and their phytophagy. Here, we consider zoophytophagous predators as plant vaccination factors and outline how their dual role in affecting herbivores may impact their use in biological pest control. Because plant responses to phytophagy and phytopathogens are known to interact, zoophytophagous predators may also affect plant-pathogen interactions. When we consider these indirect interactions with different plant pest organisms, we will likely better understand the ecology of the complex relationships among plants, herbivores and predators. Moreover, a comprehensive knowledge on the effects of the phytophagy of predators in these ecological interactions will potentially allow us to enhance sustainability in pest control. PMID:27195065

  2. The role of phytophagy by predators in shaping plant interactions with their pests

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Maria L.; Steppuhn, Anke; Broufas, George D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Zoophytophagy is common among predacious arthropods, but research on their role in plant-herbivore interactions is generally focused on predation effects whereas their phytophagy is largely neglected. Our recent study revealed the ability of zoophytophagous predators to induce defense related traits and to affect herbivore performance apart from predation through the plant. Additionally, we show here that predator-exposed plants suffer less damage compared to unexposed plants. Thus, zoophytophagous organisms likely shape community structure by both their predation on herbivores and their phytophagy. Here, we consider zoophytophagous predators as plant vaccination factors and outline how their dual role in affecting herbivores may impact their use in biological pest control. Because plant responses to phytophagy and phytopathogens are known to interact, zoophytophagous predators may also affect plant-pathogen interactions. When we consider these indirect interactions with different plant pest organisms, we will likely better understand the ecology of the complex relationships among plants, herbivores and predators. Moreover, a comprehensive knowledge on the effects of the phytophagy of predators in these ecological interactions will potentially allow us to enhance sustainability in pest control. PMID:27195065

  3. Subsurface manure application to reduce ammonia emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Incorporation into soil is generally recommended to reduce ammonia volatilization and nutrient runoff following land application of manures. A range of subsurface applicators are available for manure incorporation with minimal soil disturbance in reduced tillage systems, but none have been widely a...

  4. The Application of Centrifuges 'Reduced Gravity' Research.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Loon, Jack J. W. A.

    It is shown that life has emerged on Earth somewhere in the early Archaean (3800-2500 million years ago). Since then life has evolved from single cell into to multicellular complex organism under unit gravity conditions. Little is known about how life would have been evolved under different gravity conditions. In light of the current quests for Earth-like planets by astronomers; what life forms could be expected on planets with different gravity fields? Also the human endeavors in spaceflight (microgravity) and exploration programs (Moon, Mars) it is interesting and might be even vital to know and understand how gravity acts upon the human body in long duration space flights. Hyper-gravity, any acceleration acceding 9.81 ms-2, can relatively easily be generated on Earth using centrifuges. Long duration hypo-gravity (¡9.81 ms-2) is more cumbersome. For real microgravity we need free falling satellites such as ISS. For simulation on ground one can use clinostats, random positioning machines or levitating magnets. But could centrifuges also be applied to study a reduced gravity environment? What I would explore in this paper are the possibilities how centrifuges could be applied to study the effects of a 'reduced gravity environment' in, especially, life sciences studies.

  5. Microporous polyimide films for reduced dielectric applications

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, R.S.; Aubert, J.H.; McNamara, W.F.

    1996-08-01

    Limiting factor to computer chip speed and size is the dielectric constant of the interlayer insulating materials, which has been reduced going from inorganic to organic type materials. A further reduction, together with better mechanical properties, is still needed. We have developed a spincoating method in conjunction with a thermodynamic process (Non-solvent Induced Phase Separation) to create microporous polyimide films with both lower dielectric constant and better stress reduction properties compared to solid films. In this method, we spincoat a soluble polyimide solution in 1, 3-dimethoxybenzene solvent onto a Si wafer, and then immediately submerse the wet polymer film into a non-solvent bath, typically toluene. Phase separation of the polymer occurs on a micron size scale and the resulting microporous structure becomes locked in by the high glass transition temperature of the polyimide. Factors affecting film morphology, thickness, pore size, and % porosity include polymer concentration, spin speed, and non-solvent type. Morphology is explained in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics of phase separation and diffusion, using an idealized ternary phase diagram. One particular film having 68% porosity, 22 microns thickness, and 1.4 micron pore size had a dielectric constant of 1.88 and loss of 0.002. Stress measurements indicated that the microporous film reduced surface stress on the wafer by more than a factor of 10 compared to analogous solid polyimide film.

  6. Microporous polyimide films for reduced dielectric applications

    SciTech Connect

    Saunders, R.S.; Aubert, J.H.; McNamara, W.F.

    1995-01-01

    With all the advances in the microelectronics industry, a limiting factor to computer chip speed and size is becoming the dielectric constant of the interlayer insulating materials. Dielectric constants of these layers have been reduced in going from inorganic to organic type materials. A further reduction in dielectric constant, coupled with better mechanical properties are still required for these types of materials. The authors have developed a technique involving spincoating in conjunction with a thermodynamic process called {open_quotes}Non-solvent Induced Phase Separation{close_quotes} (NSIPS) to create microporous polyimide films that exhibit both a lower dielectric constant and better stress reduction properties compared to their solid film counterparts. In this technique, the authors spincoat a soluble polyimide solution in 1,3-dimethoxybenzene solvent onto a silicon wafer, and then immediately submerse the {open_quotes}wet{close_quotes} polymer film into a non-solvent bath, typically toluene. Phase separation of the polymer occurs on a micron size scale and the resulting microporous structure becomes locked in by the high glass transition temperature of the polyimide. The authors have determined the factors affecting the film morphology, thickness, pore size, and percent porosity; these factors include the polymer concentration, spin speed, and the type of non-solvent used. The different morphologies obtained for the varying non-solvents are explained in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics of phase separation and diffusion, using an idealized ternary phase diagram. One particular film having a porosity of 68%, thickness of 22 microns and pore size of 1.4 microns had a measured dielectric constant of 1.88 and dielectric loss of 0.002. Stress measurements indicated that the microporous film reduced surface stress on the wafer by more than a factor of 10 when compared to the analogous solid polyimide film.

  7. Reducing decay using pre- and post harvest sanitizer application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of sanitizers to fruit surfaces reduces the microbial populations and therefore reduces contamination by these organisms thus increasing shelf life and increasing the quality of food for consumption. However, the type of fruit, the topography of the peel and other field factors affe...

  8. Application of materials technology to reduce pipeline costs

    SciTech Connect

    Soentvedt, T.; Andersen, T.R.; Knagenhjelm, H.O.; Tystad, M.

    1995-12-01

    Solid pipes made in C-Mn steel, 13% Cr steel, or duplex stainless steels or flexible pipes are possible alternatives for pipelines. Failure modes for pipelines are discussed. Pipeline costs can be reduced by extending the application limits of C-Mn steel or by using new welding methods for stainless steel. A cost comparison between the pipeline alternatives are given.

  9. REDUCING RUNOFF POLLUTION USING VEGETATED BORDERLAND FOR MANURE APPLICATION SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the mechanisms and effectiveness of vegetated buffer zones or borderland areas in reducing pollutional impact on rainfall runoff from sites used for land application of livestock and poultry manure. The effect of grass buffer-zone lengt...

  10. Reducing biosolids disposal costs using land application in forested areas

    SciTech Connect

    Huffines, R.L.

    1995-11-01

    Switching biosolids land application from a reclamation site to a forested site significantly reduced the cost of biosolids disposal at the Savannah River Site. Previous beneficial reuse programs focused on reclamation of existing borrow pits. While extremely beneficial, this program became very costly due to the regulatory requirements for groundwater monitoring, soil monitoring and frequent biosolids analyses. A new program was developed to reuse biosolids in forested areas where the biosolids could be used as a soil conditioner and fertilizer to enhance timber yield. The forested land application site was designed so that groundwater monitoring and soil monitoring could be eliminated while biosolids monitoring and site maintenance were minimized. Monitoring costs alone were reduced by 80%. Capital costs for site preparation were also significantly reduced since there was no longer a need for expensive groundwater monitoring wells.

  11. Evaluation of super-water reducers for highway applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiting, D.

    1981-03-01

    Super-water reducers were characterized and evaluated as potential candidates for production of low water to cement ratio, high strength concretes for highway construction applications. Admixtures were composed of either naphthalene or melamine sulfonated formaldehyde condensates. A mini-slump procedure was used to assess dosage requirements and behavior of workability with time of cement pastes. Required dosage was found to be a function of tricalcium aluminate content, alkali content, and fineness of the cement. Concretes exhibited high rates of slump loss when super-water reducers were used. The most promising area of application of these products appears to be in production of dense, high cement content concrete using mobile concrete mixer/transporters.

  12. Deep Reduced PEDOT Films Support Electrochemical Applications: Biomimetic Color Front

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Jose G.; Berrueco, Beatriz; Otero, Toribio F.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the literature accepts, despite many controversial results, that during oxidation/reduction films of conducting polymers (CPs) move from electronic conductors to insulators. Thus, engineers and device’s designers are forced to use metallic supports to reoxidize the material for reversible device work. Electrochromic front experiments appear as main visual support of the claimed insulating nature of reduced CPs. Here, we present a different design of the biomimetic electrochromic front that corroborates the electronic and ionic conducting nature of deep reduced films. The direct contact PEDOT metal/electrolyte and film/electrolyte was prevented from electrolyte contact until 1 cm far from the metal contact with protecting Parafilm®. The deep reduced PEDOT film supports the flow of high currents promoting reaction induced electrochromic color changes beginning 1 cm far from the metal-polymer electrical contact and advancing, through the reduced film, toward the metal contact. Reverse color changes during oxidation/reduction always are initiated at the film/electrolyte contact advancing, under the protecting film, toward the film/metal contact. Both reduced and oxidized states of the film demonstrate electronic and ionic conductivities high enough to be used for electronic applications or, as self-supported electrodes, for electrochemical devices. The electrochemically stimulated conformational relaxation model explains those results. PMID:25717472

  13. Deep Reduced PEDOT Films Support Electrochemical Applications: Biomimetic Color Front.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Jose G; Berrueco, Beatriz; Otero, Toribio F

    2015-01-01

    Most of the literature accepts, despite many controversial results, that during oxidation/reduction films of conducting polymers (CPs) move from electronic conductors to insulators. Thus, engineers and device's designers are forced to use metallic supports to reoxidize the material for reversible device work. Electrochromic front experiments appear as main visual support of the claimed insulating nature of reduced CPs. Here, we present a different design of the biomimetic electrochromic front that corroborates the electronic and ionic conducting nature of deep reduced films. The direct contact PEDOT metal/electrolyte and film/electrolyte was prevented from electrolyte contact until 1 cm far from the metal contact with protecting Parafilm(®). The deep reduced PEDOT film supports the flow of high currents promoting reaction induced electrochromic color changes beginning 1 cm far from the metal-polymer electrical contact and advancing, through the reduced film, toward the metal contact. Reverse color changes during oxidation/reduction always are initiated at the film/electrolyte contact advancing, under the protecting film, toward the film/metal contact. Both reduced and oxidized states of the film demonstrate electronic and ionic conductivities high enough to be used for electronic applications or, as self-supported electrodes, for electrochemical devices. The electrochemically stimulated conformational relaxation model explains those results. PMID:25717472

  14. A field experiment: reducing interpersonal discrimination toward pregnant job applicants.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Whitney Botsford; Walker, Sarah Singletary; Hebl, Michelle Mikki R; King, Eden B

    2013-09-01

    The current research targets 4 potential stereotypes driving hostile attitudes and discriminatory behaviors toward pregnant women: incompetence, lack of commitment, inflexibility, and need for accommodation. We tested the relative efficacy of reducing concerns related to each of the stereotypes in a field experiment in which female confederates who sometimes wore pregnancy prostheses applied for jobs in a retail setting. As expected, ratings from 3 perspectives (applicants, observers, and independent coders) converged to show that pregnant applicants received more interpersonal hostility than did nonpregnant applicants. However, when hiring managers received (vs. did not receive) counterstereotypic information about certain pregnancy-related stereotypes (particularly lack of commitment and inflexibility), managers displayed significantly less interpersonal discrimination. Explicit comparisons of counterstereotypic information shed light on the fact that certain information may be more effective in reducing discrimination than others. We conclude by discussing how the current research makes novel theoretical contributions and describe some practical organizational implications for understanding and improving the experiences of pregnant workers. PMID:23957687

  15. Reducing Application Runtime Variability on Jaguar XT5

    SciTech Connect

    Oral, H Sarp; Wang, Feiyi; Dillow, David A; Miller, Ross G; Shipman, Galen M; Maxwell, Don E; Becklehimer, Jeffrey L; Larkin, Jeffrey M; Henseler, David

    2010-01-01

    Operating system (OS) noise is defined as interference generated by the OS that prevents a compute core from performing ``useful'' work. Compute node kernel daemons, network interfaces, and other OS related services are major sources of such interference. This interference on individual compute cores can vary in duration and frequency, and can cause de-synchronization (jitter) in collective communication tasks and thus results in variable (degraded) overall parallel application performance. This behavior is more observable in large-scale applications using certain types of collective communication primitives, such as MPI\\_Allreduce. This paper presents our effort towards reducing the overall effect of OS noise on our large-scale parallel applications. Our tests were performed on the quad-core Jaguar, the Cray XT5 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF). At the time of these tests, Jaguar was a 1.4 PFLOPS supercomputer with 149,504 compute cores and 8 cores per node. We aggregated OS noise sources onto a single core for each node. The scientific application was then run on six of the remaining cores in each node. Our results show that we were able to improve the MPI_Allreduce performance by two orders of magnitude. We demonstrated up to a 30% boost in the performance of the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) using this technique.

  16. An Application of Six Sigma to Reduce Supplier Quality Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaikwad, Lokpriya Mohanrao; Teli, Shivagond Nagappa; Majali, Vijay Shashikant; Bhushi, Umesh Mahadevappa

    2016-01-01

    This article presents an application of Six Sigma to reduce supplier quality cost in manufacturing industry. Although there is a wider acceptance of Six Sigma in many organizations today, there is still a lack of in-depth case study of Six Sigma. For the present research the case study methodology was used. The company decided to reduce quality cost and improve selected processes using Six Sigma methodologies. Regarding the fact that there is a lack of case studies dealing with Six Sigma especially in individual manufacturing organization this article could be of great importance also for the practitioners. This paper discusses the quality and productivity improvement in a supplier enterprise through a case study. The paper deals with an application of Six Sigma define-measure-analyze-improve-control methodology in an industry which provides a framework to identify, quantify and eliminate sources of variation in an operational process in question, to optimize the operation variables, improve and sustain performance viz. process yield with well-executed control plans. Six Sigma improves the process performance (process yield) of the critical operational process, leading to better utilization of resources, decreases variations and maintains consistent quality of the process output.

  17. Reduced order constrained optimization (ROCO): Clinical application to lung IMRT

    PubMed Central

    Stabenau, Hans; Rivera, Linda; Yorke, Ellen; Yang, Jie; Lu, Renzhi; Radke, Richard J.; Jackson, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The authors use reduced-order constrained optimization (ROCO) to create clinically acceptable IMRT plans quickly and automatically for advanced lung cancer patients. Their new ROCO implementation works with the treatment planning system and full dose calculation used at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC). The authors have implemented mean dose hard constraints, along with the point-dose and dose-volume constraints that the authors used for our previous work on the prostate.Methods: ROCO consists of three major steps. First, the space of treatment plans is sampled by solving a series of optimization problems using penalty-based quadratic objective functions. Next, an efficient basis for this space is found via principal component analysis (PCA); this reduces the dimensionality of the problem. Finally, a constrained optimization problem is solved over this basis to find a clinically acceptable IMRT plan. Dimensionality reduction makes constrained optimization computationally efficient.Results: The authors apply ROCO to 12 stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cases, generating IMRT plans that meet all clinical constraints and are clinically acceptable, and demonstrate that they are competitive with the clinical treatment plans. The authors also test how many samples and PCA modes are necessary to achieve an adequate lung plan, demonstrate the importance of long-range dose calculation for ROCO, and evaluate the performance of nonspecific normal tissue (“rind”) constraints in ROCO treatment planning for the lung. Finally, authors show that ROCO can save time for planners, and they estimate that in the clinic, planning using their approach would save a median of 105 min for the patients in the study.Conclusions: New challenges arise when applying ROCO to the lung site, which include the lack of a class solution, a larger treatment site, an increased number of parameters and beamlets, a variable number of beams and beam arrangement, and

  18. Effect of reducing system on capacitive behavior of reduced graphene oxide film: Application for supercapacitor

    SciTech Connect

    Akbi, Hamdane; Yu, Lei; Wang, Bin; Liu, Qi; Wang, Jun; Liu, Jingyuan; Song, Dalei; Sun, Yanbo; Liu, Lianhe

    2015-01-15

    To determine the best chemical reduction of graphene oxide film with hydriodic acid that gives maximum energy and power density, we studied the effect of two reducing systems, hydriodic acid/water and hydriodic acid/acetic acid, on the morphology and electrochemical features of reduced graphene oxide film. Using acetic acid as solvent results in high electrical conductivity (5195 S m{sup −1}), excellent specific capacitance (384 F g{sup −1}) and good cyclic stability (about 98% of its initial response after 4000 cycles). Using water as a solvent, results in an ideal capacitive behavior and excellent cyclic stability (about 6% increase of its initial response after 2100 cycles). - Graphical abstract: The choice of reducing system determines the morphology and structure of the chemically reduced graphene film and, as a result, affects largely the capacitive behavior. - Highlights: • The structure of the graphene film has a pronounced effect on capacitive behavior. • The use of water/HI as reducing system results in an ideal capacitive behavior. • The use of acetic acid/HI as reducing system results in a high specific capacitance.

  19. JCMTDR: Applications for reducing JCMT continuum data in GSD format

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lightfoot, John F.; Harrison, Paul A.; Meyerdierks, Horst; Jenness, Tim

    2014-06-01

    JCMTDR reduces continuum on-the-fly mapping data obtained with UKT14 or the heterodyne instruments using the IFD on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. This program reduces archive data and heterodyne beam maps and was distributed as part of the Starlink software collection (ascl:1110.012).

  20. Reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda E.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2012-06-05

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes that include: executing, by each compute node, an application, the application including power consumption directives corresponding to one or more portions of the application; identifying, by each compute node, the power consumption directives included within the application during execution of the portions of the application corresponding to those identified power consumption directives; and reducing power, by each compute node, to one or more components of that compute node according to the identified power consumption directives during execution of the portions of the application corresponding to those identified power consumption directives.

  1. Application of heat in postcook meat chillers reduces Listeria.

    PubMed

    Eglezos, Sofroni; Dykes, Gary A

    2011-06-01

    Electrical air-blowing heaters were used to heat and dry out holding chillers used for postcook commercial processed meats in an attempt to control the presence of Listeria. A baseline study of the prevalence of Listeria in holding chillers in seven facilities was undertaken. Listeria was detected in four of the seven chillers, and swab samples showed Listeria prevalence ranging from 7 (7.8%) of 90 to 6 (20%) of 30, depending on the facility. Two of the facilities with established Listeria contamination (A and E) were chosen for further studies. The heating trials consisted of three individual heating interventions at each of the two facilities, with 2 weeks of postintervention sampling after each treatment. The initial Listeria prevalence in chiller A was 19 (10.6%) of 180, and treatment at 37°C for 36 h reduced prevalence to 3 (1.7%) of 180. The initial Listeria prevalence in chiller E was 7 (7.8%) of 90, and treatment at 50°C for 2 h reduced prevalence to 0 of 90. Both reductions were statistically significant at P < 0.01. The incorporation of these two simple chiller heating protocols into these facilities' good manufacturing practices has effectively reduced prevalence of Listeria in chillers. PMID:21669080

  2. 13 CFR 121.802 - What size standards are applicable to reduced patent fees programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What size standards are applicable to reduced patent fees programs? 121.802 Section 121.802 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS SIZE REGULATIONS Size Eligibility Provisions and Standards Size Eligibility Requirements for Paying Reduced...

  3. Integration of apple rootstock genotype with reduced Brassica seed meal application rates for replant disease control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-plant soil application of Brassica seed meal (SM) formulations can provide fumigant level control of apple replant disease. However, due to high cost of the SM treatment relative to non-tarped soil fumigation, reduced application rates would likely accelerate commercial adoption of this technolo...

  4. Soluble calcium amendment: Co-Application with poultry litter to reduce P loss following surface application

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper will discuss the utilization of gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O) to reduce P losses from surface runoff when poultry litter is used as a fertilizer source in agriculture. Utilization of poultry litter as a fertilizer source is common in regions with intense poultry production. While poultry litter ha...

  5. Reducing aeration energy consumption in a large-scale membrane bioreactor: Process simulation and engineering application.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianyu; Liang, Peng; Yan, Xiaoxu; Zuo, Kuichang; Xiao, Kang; Xia, Junlin; Qiu, Yong; Wu, Qing; Wu, Shijia; Huang, Xia; Qi, Meng; Wen, Xianghua

    2016-04-15

    Reducing the energy consumption of membrane bioreactors (MBRs) is highly important for their wider application in wastewater treatment engineering. Of particular significance is reducing aeration in aerobic tanks to reduce the overall energy consumption. This study proposed an in situ ammonia-N-based feedback control strategy for aeration in aerobic tanks; this was tested via model simulation and through a large-scale (50,000 m(3)/d) engineering application. A full-scale MBR model was developed based on the activated sludge model (ASM) and was calibrated to the actual MBR. The aeration control strategy took the form of a two-step cascaded proportion-integration (PI) feedback algorithm. Algorithmic parameters were optimized via model simulation. The strategy achieved real-time adjustment of aeration amounts based on feedback from effluent quality (i.e., ammonia-N). The effectiveness of the strategy was evaluated through both the model platform and the full-scale engineering application. In the former, the aeration flow rate was reduced by 15-20%. In the engineering application, the aeration flow rate was reduced by 20%, and overall specific energy consumption correspondingly reduced by 4% to 0.45 kWh/m(3)-effluent, using the present practice of regulating the angle of guide vanes of fixed-frequency blowers. Potential energy savings are expected to be higher for MBRs with variable-frequency blowers. This study indicated that the ammonia-N-based aeration control strategy holds promise for application in full-scale MBRs. PMID:26905799

  6. Reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes

    SciTech Connect

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda E.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2013-09-10

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption during execution of an application on a plurality of compute nodes that include: powering up, during compute node initialization, only a portion of computer memory of the compute node, including configuring an operating system for the compute node in the powered up portion of computer memory; receiving, by the operating system, an instruction to load an application for execution; allocating, by the operating system, additional portions of computer memory to the application for use during execution; powering up the additional portions of computer memory allocated for use by the application during execution; and loading, by the operating system, the application into the powered up additional portions of computer memory.

  7. 26 CFR 1.122-1 - Applicable rules relating to certain reduced uniformed services retirement pay.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Applicable rules relating to certain reduced uniformed services retirement pay. 1.122-1 Section 1.122-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Items Specifically Excluded from Gross Income §...

  8. Sugarcane Post-harvest Residue Retention and Certain Ripener Applications Reduce First and Second Ratoon Yields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Retention of sugarcane (interspecific hybrids of Saccharum spp.) post-harvest residue and certain glyphosate ripener application regimes have independently been shown to reduce yields of the subsequent ratoon crop. The objective of this experiment was to determine the combined effects of post-harve...

  9. Growth and characterization of macroscopic reduced graphene oxide paper for device application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajinder; Kumar, Sanjeev; Mahajan, Aman; Bedi, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    A simple and economical method has been used to grow macroscopically reduced graphene oxide (rGO) paper for device application. Synthesized paper has been characterized by different experimental techniques namely SEM, TEM, Raman and UV-Vis spectroscopy respectively. Besides these, temperature dependent electrical studies of rGO paper have also been carried out.

  10. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda E.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2012-04-17

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  11. Reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Charles J.; Blocksome, Michael A.; Peters, Amanda A.; Ratterman, Joseph D.; Smith, Brian E.

    2012-01-10

    Methods, apparatus, and products are disclosed for reducing power consumption while synchronizing a plurality of compute nodes during execution of a parallel application that include: beginning, by each compute node, performance of a blocking operation specified by the parallel application, each compute node beginning the blocking operation asynchronously with respect to the other compute nodes; reducing, for each compute node, power to one or more hardware components of that compute node in response to that compute node beginning the performance of the blocking operation; and restoring, for each compute node, the power to the hardware components having power reduced in response to all of the compute nodes beginning the performance of the blocking operation.

  12. A heuristic re-mapping algorithm reducing inter-level communication in SAMR applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Steensland, Johan; Ray, Jaideep

    2003-07-01

    This paper aims at decreasing execution time for large-scale structured adaptive mesh refinement (SAMR) applications by proposing a new heuristic re-mapping algorithm and experimentally showing its effectiveness in reducing inter-level communication. Tests were done for five different SAMR applications. The overall goal is to engineer a dynamically adaptive meta-partitioner capable of selecting and configuring the most appropriate partitioning strategy at run-time based on current system and application state. Such a metapartitioner can significantly reduce execution times for general SAMR applications. Computer simulations of physical phenomena are becoming increasingly popular as they constitute an important complement to real-life testing. In many cases, such simulations are based on solving partial differential equations by numerical methods. Adaptive methods are crucial to efficiently utilize computer resources such as memory and CPU. But even with adaption, the simulations are computationally demanding and yield huge data sets. Thus parallelization and the efficient partitioning of data become issues of utmost importance. Adaption causes the workload to change dynamically, calling for dynamic (re-) partitioning to maintain efficient resource utilization. The proposed heuristic algorithm reduced inter-level communication substantially. Since the complexity of the proposed algorithm is low, this decrease comes at a relatively low cost. As a consequence, we draw the conclusion that the proposed re-mapping algorithm would be useful to lower overall execution times for many large SAMR applications. Due to its usefulness and its parameterization, the proposed algorithm would constitute a natural and important component of the meta-partitioner.

  13. Green preparation of reduced graphene oxide for sensing and energy storage applications

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Zheng; Shuai, Xiaorui; Mao, Shun; Yang, Huachao; Qian, Jiajing; Chen, Junhong; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2014-01-01

    Preparation of graphene from chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is recognized as one of the most promising methods for large-scale and low-cost production of graphene-based materials. This study reports a new, green, and efficient reducing agent (caffeic acid/CA) for GO reduction. The CA-reduced GO (CA-rGO) shows a high C/O ratio (7.15) that is among the best rGOs prepared with green reducing reagents. Electronic gas sensors and supercapacitors have been fabricated with the CA-rGO and show good performance, which demonstrates the potential of CA-rGO for sensing and energy storage applications. PMID:24732631

  14. Electrophoretic lithium iron phosphate/reduced graphene oxide composite for lithium ion battery cathode application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yuan; Liu, Hao; Lu, Yi-Chun; Hou, Yanglong; Li, Quan

    2015-06-01

    A binder/additive free composite electrode of lithium iron phosphate/reduced graphene oxide with ultrahigh lithium iron phosphate mass ratio (91.5 wt% of lithium iron phosphate) is demonstrated using electrophoresis. The quasi-spherical lithium iron phosphate particles are uniformly connected to and/or wrapped by three-dimensional networks of reduced graphene oxide nanosheets, with intimate contact formed between the two. Enhanced capacity is achieved in the electrophoretic composite cathode, when compared to either the conventional one or composite cathode formed by mechanically mixing lithium iron phosphate and reduced graphene oxide. The present methodology is simple and does not disturb the active material growth process. It can be generally applied to a variety of active material systems for both cathode and anode applications in lithium ion batteries.

  15. Green preparation of reduced graphene oxide for sensing and energy storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bo, Zheng; Shuai, Xiaorui; Mao, Shun; Yang, Huachao; Qian, Jiajing; Chen, Junhong; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa

    2014-04-01

    Preparation of graphene from chemical reduction of graphene oxide (GO) is recognized as one of the most promising methods for large-scale and low-cost production of graphene-based materials. This study reports a new, green, and efficient reducing agent (caffeic acid/CA) for GO reduction. The CA-reduced GO (CA-rGO) shows a high C/O ratio (7.15) that is among the best rGOs prepared with green reducing reagents. Electronic gas sensors and supercapacitors have been fabricated with the CA-rGO and show good performance, which demonstrates the potential of CA-rGO for sensing and energy storage applications.

  16. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    2010-09-17

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which, if improved

  17. Demonstration of methods to reduce E. coli runoff from dairy manure application sites.

    PubMed

    Meals, Donald W; Braun, David C

    2006-01-01

    Contamination by bacteria is a leading cause of impairment in U.S. waters, particularly in areas of livestock agriculture. We evaluated the effectiveness of several practices in reducing Escherichia coli levels in runoff from fields receiving liquid dairy (Bos taurus) manure. Runoff trials were conducted on replicated hay and silage corn (Zea mays L.) plots using simulated rainfall. Levels of E. coli in runoff were approximately 10(4) to 10(6) organisms per 100 mL, representing a significant pollution potential. Practices tested were: manure storage, delay between manure application and rainfall, manure incorporation by tillage, and increased hayland vegetation height. Storage of manure for 30 d or more consistently and dramatically lowered E. coli counts in our experiments, with longer storage providing greater reductions. Manure E. coli declined by > 99% after approximately 90 d of storage. On average, levels of E. coli in runoff were 97% lower from plots receiving 30-d-old and > 99% lower from plots receiving 90-d-old manure than from plots where fresh manure was applied. Runoff from hayland and cornland plots where manure was applied 3 d before rainfall contained approximately 50% fewer E. coli than did runoff from plots that received manure 1 d before rainfall. Hayland vegetation height alone did not significantly affect E. coli levels in runoff, but interactions with rainfall delay and manure age were observed. Manure incorporation alone did not significantly affect E. coli levels in cornland plot runoff, but incorporation could reduce bacteria export by reducing field runoff and interaction with rainfall delay was observed. Extended storage that avoids additions of fresh manure, combined with application several days before runoff, incorporation on tilled land, and higher vegetation on hayland at application could substantially reduce microorganism loading from agricultural land. PMID:16738394

  18. Impurity effects on reduced-activation ferritic steels developed for fusion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klueh, R. L.; Cheng, E. T.; Grossbeck, M. L.; Bloom, E. E.

    2000-08-01

    Reduced-activation steels are being developed for fusion applications by restricting alloying elements that produce long-lived radioactive isotopes when irradiated in the fusion neutron environment. Another source of long-lived isotopes is the impurities in the steel. To examine this, three heats of reduced-activation martensitic steel were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for low-level impurities that compromise the reduced-activation characteristics: a 5-ton heat of modified F82H (F82H-Mod) for which an effort was made during production to reduce detrimental impurities, a 1-ton heat of JLF-1, and an 18-kg heat of ORNL 9Cr-2WVTa. Specimens from commercial heats of modified 9Cr-1Mo and Sandvik HT9 were also analyzed. The objective was to determine the difference in the impurity levels in the F82H-Mod and steels for which less effort was used to ensure purity. Silver, molybdenum, and niobium were found to be the tramp impurities of most importance. The F82H-Mod had the lowest levels, but in some cases the levels were not much different from the other heats. The impurity levels in the F82H-Mod produced with present technology did not achieve the low-activation limits for either shallow land burial or recycling. The results indicate the progress that has been made and what still must be done before the reduced-activation criteria can be achieved.

  19. Fipronil application on rice paddy fields reduces densities of common skimmer and scarlet skimmer.

    PubMed

    Kasai, Atsushi; Hayashi, Takehiko I; Ohnishi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Goka, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Several reports suggested that rice seedling nursery-box application of some systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil) is the cause of the decline in dragonfly species noted since the 1990s in Japan. We conducted paddy mesocosm experiments to investigate the effect of the systemic insecticides clothianidin, fipronil and chlorantraniliprole on rice paddy field biological communities. Concentrations of all insecticides in the paddy water were reduced to the limit of detection within 3 months after application. However, residuals of these insecticides in the paddy soil were detected throughout the experimental period. Plankton species were affected by clothianidin and chlorantraniliprole right after the applications, but they recovered after the concentrations decreased. On the other hand, the effects of fipronil treatment, especially on Odonata, were larger than those of any other treatment. The number of adult dragonflies completing eclosion was severely decreased in the fipronil treatment. These results suggest that the accumulation of these insecticides in paddy soil reduces biodiversity by eliminating dragonfly nymphs, which occupy a high trophic level in paddy fields. PMID:26979488

  20. Fipronil application on rice paddy fields reduces densities of common skimmer and scarlet skimmer

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Atsushi; Hayashi, Takehiko I.; Ohnishi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Goka, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Several reports suggested that rice seedling nursery-box application of some systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil) is the cause of the decline in dragonfly species noted since the 1990s in Japan. We conducted paddy mesocosm experiments to investigate the effect of the systemic insecticides clothianidin, fipronil and chlorantraniliprole on rice paddy field biological communities. Concentrations of all insecticides in the paddy water were reduced to the limit of detection within 3 months after application. However, residuals of these insecticides in the paddy soil were detected throughout the experimental period. Plankton species were affected by clothianidin and chlorantraniliprole right after the applications, but they recovered after the concentrations decreased. On the other hand, the effects of fipronil treatment, especially on Odonata, were larger than those of any other treatment. The number of adult dragonflies completing eclosion was severely decreased in the fipronil treatment. These results suggest that the accumulation of these insecticides in paddy soil reduces biodiversity by eliminating dragonfly nymphs, which occupy a high trophic level in paddy fields. PMID:26979488

  1. Video quality measurement for multimedia applications using reduced-reference signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chulhee; Lee, Sangwook; Lee, Jonghwa; Lee, Kwon; Choi, Hyunsoo; Seo, Guiwon; Park, Jonggeun

    2011-06-01

    As more multimedia services have become increasingly available over networks where bandwidth is not always guaranteed, quality monitoring has become an important issue. For instance, quality of experience and quality monitoring have become important problems in internet protocol television applications, since transmission errors may introduce all kinds of additional video quality degradations. In this paper, we present a reduced-reference objective model for video quality measurements in multimedia applications. The proposed method first measures edge degradations that are critical for perceptual video quality and then considers transmission error effects. We compared the proposed method with some existing methods. Independent verifications confirmed that the proposed method showed good performance and consequently it was included in an International Telecommunication Union recommendation. The proposed method can be used to monitor video quality at receivers while requiring minimum usage of additional bandwidth.

  2. Reducing Vibrio load in Artemia nauplii using antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: a promising strategy to reduce antibiotic application in shrimp larviculture

    PubMed Central

    Asok, Aparna; Arshad, Esha; Jasmin, C.; Somnath Pai, S.; Bright Singh, I. S.; Mohandas, A.; Anas, Abdulaziz

    2012-01-01

    Summary We propose antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) as an alternative strategy to reduce the use of antibiotics in shrimp larviculture systems. The growth of a multiple antibiotic resistant Vibrio harveyi strain was effectively controlled by treating the cells with Rose Bengal and photosensitizing for 30 min using a halogen lamp. This resulted in the death of > 50% of the cells within the first 10 min of exposure and the 50% reduction in the cell wall integrity after 30 min could be attributed to the destruction of outer membrane protein of V. harveyi by reactive oxygen intermediates produced during the photosensitization. Further, mesocosm experiments with V. harveyi and Artemia nauplii demonstrated that in 30 min, the aPDT could kill 78.9% and 91.2% of heterotrophic bacterial and Vibrio population respectively. In conclusion, the study demonstrated that aPDT with its rapid action and as yet unreported resistance development possibilities could be a propitious strategy to reduce the use of antibiotics in shrimp larviculture systems and thereby, avoid their hazardous effects on human health and the ecosystem at large. PMID:21951316

  3. Application of Predictive Nursing Reduces Psychiatric Complications in ICU Patients after Neurosurgery

    PubMed Central

    LIU, Qiong; ZHU, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background: Our aim was to investigate the effects of clinical application of perioperative predictive nursing on reducing psychiatric complications in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients after neurosurgery. Methods: A total of 129 patients who underwent neurosurgery and received intensive care were enrolled in our study from February 2013 to February 2014. These patients were divided into two groups: the experimental group (n=68) receiving predictive nursing before and after operation, and the control group (n=61) with general nursing. Clinical data including length of ICU stay, duration of the patients’ psychiatric symptoms, form and incidence of adverse events, and patient satisfaction ratings were recorded, and their differences between the two groups were analyzed. Results: The duration of psychiatric symptoms and the length of ICU stay for patients in the experimental group were significantly shorter than those in the control group (P<0.05). The incidence of adverse events and psychiatric symptoms, such as sensory and intuition disturbance, thought disturbance, emotional disorder, and consciousness disorder, in the experimental group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05). Patient satisfaction ratings were significantly higher in the experimental group than those in the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Application of predictive nursing on ICU patients who undergo neurosurgery could effectively reduce the incidence of psychiatric symptoms as well as other adverse events. Our study provided clinical evidences to encourage predictive nursing in routine settings for patients in critical conditions. PMID:27252916

  4. A mechanism to reduce energy waste in the post-execution of GPU applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carreño, Emmanuell D.; Sarates, Adiel S., Jr.; Navaux, Philippe O. A.

    2015-10-01

    With the increasing demand of GPU accelerators for general purpose in HPC, the impact of energy consumption of these resources cannot be overlooked. To reduce the power consumption some strategies have been applied, but their approaches have been mostly focused on power savings during the application execution. This work focuses on post-execution energy savings. When the post-execution behavior is analyzed in newer GPU cards, it is observed that the power draw does not return to the idle state in an efficient way, creating an unexpected power waste. To overcome this inefficient return to idle and power draw waste in the post-execution, we developed a strategy to reduce the energy consumption considering a minimal impact on global performance. Using this strategy, we achieved energy savings up to 73 percent in the post-execution phase of a single run of a GPU application. In the case of sequential runs, the energy saving percentage depends of the waiting time gap between executions.

  5. Biochar application reduces N2O emission in intensively managed temperate grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, R.; Leifeld, J.; Neftel, A.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar, a pyrolysis product of organic residues, is seen as an amendment for agricultural soils to improve soil fertility, sequester CO2 and reduce N2O emissions. Mainly used in highly weathered tropical soils, the interest of using biochar in intensively managed temperate soils is increasing. Our previous laboratory incubations have shown N2O reduction potentials of between 20 and 100% for temperate soils after biochar application (Felber et al., Biogeosciences Discuss, 2012). To assess the effect of biochar application under field conditions, a plot experiment (3 control vs. 3 biochar amended plots of 3x3 m size at a rate of 15 t ha-1) was set up in a temperate intensively managed grassland soil. N2O and CO2 emissions were quasi-continuously measured by static chambers under standard management practice over 8 months. In parallel soil samples were taken monthly from all plots and their N2O and CO2 productions were measured under controlled conditions in the lab. At the beginning of the field measurements (April 2011) cumulative N2O fluxes from biochar amended plots were above those of control plots, but the pattern reversed towards reduced fluxes from biochar plots after 3 months and the reduction reached about 15% by the end of 2011. The biochar effect on reducing N2O emissions in the laboratory was two times that of the field measurements, indicating that results from laboratory experiments are not directly transferable to field conditions. The experiments indicate a substantial N2O emission reduction potential of biochar in temperate grassland fields.

  6. Application of muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia Michx.) pomace extract to reduce carcinogenic acrylamide.

    PubMed

    Xu, Changmou; Yagiz, Yavuz; Marshall, Sara; Li, Zheng; Simonne, Amarat; Lu, Jiang; Marshall, Maurice R

    2015-09-01

    Acrylamide is a byproduct of the Maillard reaction and is formed in a variety of heat-treated commercial starchy foods. It is known to be toxic and potentially carcinogenic to humans. Muscadine grape polyphenols and standard phenolic compounds were examined on the reduction of acrylamide in an equimolar asparagine/glucose chemical model, a potato chip model, and a simulated physiological system. Polyphenols were found to significantly reduce acrylamide in the chemical model, with reduced rates higher than 90% at 100 μg/ml. In the potato chip model, grape polyphenols reduced the acrylamide level by 60.3% as concentration was increased to 0.1%. However, polyphenols exhibited no acrylamide reduction in the simulated physiological system. Results also indicated no significant correlation between the antioxidant activities of polyphenols and their acrylamide inhibition. This study demonstrated muscadine grape extract can mitigate acrylamide formation in the Maillard reaction, which provides a new value-added application for winery pomace waste. PMID:25842328

  7. Alkaline deoxygenated graphene oxide for supercapacitor applications: An effective green alternative for chemically reduced graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, Sanjaya D.; Mariano, Ruperto G.; Nijem, Nour; Chabal, Yves; Ferraris, John P.; Balkus, Kenneth J.

    2012-10-01

    Graphene is a promising electrode material for energy storage applications. The most successful method for preparing graphene from graphite involves the oxidation of graphite to graphene oxide (GO) and reduction back to graphene. Even though different chemical and thermal methods have been developed to reduce GO to graphene, the use of less toxic materials to generate graphene still remains a challenge. In this study we developed a facile one-pot synthesis of deoxygenated graphene (hGO) via alkaline hydrothermal process, which exhibits similar properties to the graphene obtained via hydrazine reduction (i.e. the same degree of deoxygenation found in hydrazine reduced GO). Moreover, the hGO formed freestanding, binder-free paper electrodes for supercapacitors. Coin cell type (CR2032) symmetric supercapacitors were assembled using the hGO electrodes. Electrochemical characterization of hGO was carried out using lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and ethylmethylimidazolium bis-(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (EMITFSI) electrolytes. The results for the hGO electrodes were compared with the hydrazine reduced GO (rGO) electrode. The hGO electrode exhibits a energy density of 20 W h kg-1 and 50 W h kg-1 in LiTFSI and EMITFSI respectively, while delivering a maximum power density of 11 kW kg-1 and 14.7 kW kg-1 in LiTFSI and EMITFSI, respectively.

  8. Integration of conductive reduced graphene oxide into microstructured optical fibres for optoelectronics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruan, Yinlan; Ding, Liyun; Duan, Jingjing; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Monro, Tanya M.

    2016-02-01

    Integration of conductive materials into optical fibres can largely expand functions of fibre devices including surface plasmon resonator/metamaterial, modulators/detectors, or biosensors. Some early attempts have been made to incorporate metals such as tin into fibres during the fibre drawing process. Due to the restricted range of materials that have compatible melting temperatures with that of silica glass, the methods to incorporate metals along the length of the fibres are very challenging. Moreover, metals are nontransparent with strong light absorption, which causes high fibre loss. This article demonstrates a novel but simple method for creating transparent conductive reduced graphene oxide film onto microstructured silica fibres for potential optoelectronic applications. The strongly confined evanescent field of the suspended core fibres with only 2 μW average power was creatively used to transform graphene oxide into reduced graphene oxide with negligible additional loss. Existence of reduced graphene oxide was confirmed by their characteristic Raman signals, shifting of their fluorescence peaks as well as largely decreased resistance of the bulk GO film after laser beam exposure.

  9. Optical computing for application to reducing the thickness of high-power-composite lenses.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bo-Wen

    2014-10-10

    With the adoption of polycarbonate lens material for injection molding of greater accuracy and at lower costs, polycarbonate has become very suitable for mass production of more economical products, such as diving goggles. However, with increasing requirements for visual quality improvement, lenses need to have not only refractive function but also thickness and spherical aberration, which are gradually being taken more seriously. For a high-power-composite lens, meanwhile, the thickness cannot be substantially reduced, and there is also the issue of severe spherical aberration at the lens edges. In order to increase the added value of the product without changing the material, the present research applied the eye model and Taguchi experiment method, combined with design optimization for hyperbolic-aspherical lens, to significantly reduce the lens thickness by more than 30%, outperforming the average thickness reduction in general aspherical lens. The spherical aberration at the lens edges was also reduced effectively during the optimization process for the nonspherical lens. Prototypes made by super-finishing machines were among the results of the experiment. This new application can be used in making a large amount of injection molds to substantially increase the economic value of the product. PMID:25322434

  10. Flammability limits of hydrated and anhydrous ethanol at reduced pressures in aeronautical applications.

    PubMed

    Coronado, Christian J R; Jr, João A Carvalho; Andrade, José C; Mendiburu, Andrés Z; Cortez, Ely V; Carvalho, Felipe S; Gonçalves, Beatriz; Quintero, Juan C; Velásquez, Elkin I Gutiérrez; Silva, Marcos H; Santos, José C; Nascimento, Marco A R

    2014-09-15

    There is interest in finding the flammability limits of ethanol at reduced pressures for the future use of this biofuel in aeronautical applications taking into account typical commercial aviation altitude (<40,000 ft). The lower and upper flammability limits (LFL and UFL, respectively) for hydrated ethanol and anhydrous ethanol (92.6% and 99.5% p/p, respectively) were determined for a pressure of 101.3 kPa at temperatures between 0 and 200°C. A heating chamber with a spherical 20-l vessel was used. First, LFL and the UFL were determined as functions of temperature and atmospheric pressure to compare results with data published in the scientific literature. Second, after checking the veracity of the data obtained for standard atmospheric pressure, the work proceeded with reduced pressures in the same temperature range. 295 experiments were carried out in total; the first 80 were to calibrate the heating chamber and compare the results with those given in the published scientific literature. 215 experiments were performed both at atmospheric and reduced pressures. The results had a correlation with the values obtained for the LFL, but values for the UFL had some differences. With respect to the water content in ethanol, it was shown that the water vapor contained in the fuel can act as an inert substance, narrowing flammability. PMID:25151240

  11. Integration of conductive reduced graphene oxide into microstructured optical fibres for optoelectronics applications

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Yinlan; Ding, Liyun; Duan, Jingjing; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Monro, Tanya M.

    2016-01-01

    Integration of conductive materials into optical fibres can largely expand functions of fibre devices including surface plasmon resonator/metamaterial, modulators/detectors, or biosensors. Some early attempts have been made to incorporate metals such as tin into fibres during the fibre drawing process. Due to the restricted range of materials that have compatible melting temperatures with that of silica glass, the methods to incorporate metals along the length of the fibres are very challenging. Moreover, metals are nontransparent with strong light absorption, which causes high fibre loss. This article demonstrates a novel but simple method for creating transparent conductive reduced graphene oxide film onto microstructured silica fibres for potential optoelectronic applications. The strongly confined evanescent field of the suspended core fibres with only 2 μW average power was creatively used to transform graphene oxide into reduced graphene oxide with negligible additional loss. Existence of reduced graphene oxide was confirmed by their characteristic Raman signals, shifting of their fluorescence peaks as well as largely decreased resistance of the bulk GO film after laser beam exposure. PMID:26899468

  12. An overview of the Hadoop/MapReduce/HBase framework and its current applications in bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Bioinformatics researchers are now confronted with analysis of ultra large-scale data sets, a problem that will only increase at an alarming rate in coming years. Recent developments in open source software, that is, the Hadoop project and associated software, provide a foundation for scaling to petabyte scale data warehouses on Linux clusters, providing fault-tolerant parallelized analysis on such data using a programming style named MapReduce. Description An overview is given of the current usage within the bioinformatics community of Hadoop, a top-level Apache Software Foundation project, and of associated open source software projects. The concepts behind Hadoop and the associated HBase project are defined, and current bioinformatics software that employ Hadoop is described. The focus is on next-generation sequencing, as the leading application area to date. Conclusions Hadoop and the MapReduce programming paradigm already have a substantial base in the bioinformatics community, especially in the field of next-generation sequencing analysis, and such use is increasing. This is due to the cost-effectiveness of Hadoop-based analysis on commodity Linux clusters, and in the cloud via data upload to cloud vendors who have implemented Hadoop/HBase; and due to the effectiveness and ease-of-use of the MapReduce method in parallelization of many data analysis algorithms. PMID:21210976

  13. Integration of conductive reduced graphene oxide into microstructured optical fibres for optoelectronics applications.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Yinlan; Ding, Liyun; Duan, Jingjing; Ebendorff-Heidepriem, Heike; Monro, Tanya M

    2016-01-01

    Integration of conductive materials into optical fibres can largely expand functions of fibre devices including surface plasmon resonator/metamaterial, modulators/detectors, or biosensors. Some early attempts have been made to incorporate metals such as tin into fibres during the fibre drawing process. Due to the restricted range of materials that have compatible melting temperatures with that of silica glass, the methods to incorporate metals along the length of the fibres are very challenging. Moreover, metals are nontransparent with strong light absorption, which causes high fibre loss. This article demonstrates a novel but simple method for creating transparent conductive reduced graphene oxide film onto microstructured silica fibres for potential optoelectronic applications. The strongly confined evanescent field of the suspended core fibres with only 2 μW average power was creatively used to transform graphene oxide into reduced graphene oxide with negligible additional loss. Existence of reduced graphene oxide was confirmed by their characteristic Raman signals, shifting of their fluorescence peaks as well as largely decreased resistance of the bulk GO film after laser beam exposure. PMID:26899468

  14. An overview of the Hadoop/MapReduce/HBase framework and its current applications in bioinformatics

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Ronald C.

    2010-12-21

    Bioinformatics researchers are increasingly confronted with analysis of ultra large-scale data sets, a problem that will only increase at an alarming rate in coming years. Recent developments in open source software, that is, the Hadoop project and associated software, provide a foundation for scaling to petabyte scale data warehouses on Linux clusters, providing fault-tolerant parallelized analysis on such data using a programming style named MapReduce. An overview is given of the current usage within the bioinformatics community of Hadoop, a top-level Apache Software Foundation project, and of associated open source software projects. The concepts behind Hadoop and the associated HBase project are defined, and current bioinformatics software that employ Hadoop is described. The focus is on next-generation sequencing, as the leading application area to date.

  15. Implementation of a protein reduced point charge model toward molecular dynamics applications.

    PubMed

    Leherte, Laurence; Vercauteren, Daniel P

    2011-11-17

    A reduced point charge model was developed in a previous work from the study of extrema in smoothed charge density distribution functions generated from the Amber99 molecular electrostatic potential. In the present work, such a point charge distribution is coupled with the Amber99 force field and implemented in the program TINKER to allow molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of proteins. First applications to two polypeptides that involve α-helix and β-sheet motifs are analyzed and compared to all-atom MD simulations. Two types of coarse-grained (CG)-based trajectories are generated using, on one hand, harmonic bond stretching terms and, on the other hand, distance restraints. Results show that the use of the unrestrained CG conditions are sufficient to preserve most of the secondary structure characteristics but restraints lead to a better agreement between CG and all-atom simulation results such as rmsd, dipole moment, and time-dependent mean square deviation functions. PMID:21800922

  16. Reduced graphene oxide anodes for potential application in algae biophotovoltaic platforms.

    PubMed

    Ng, Fong-Lee; Jaafar, Muhammad Musoddiq; Phang, Siew-Moi; Chan, Zhijian; Salleh, Nurul Anati; Azmi, Siti Zulfikriyah; Yunus, Kamran; Fisher, Adrian C; Periasamy, Vengadesh

    2014-01-01

    The search for renewable energy sources has become challenging in the current era, as conventional fuel sources are of finite origins. Recent research interest has focused on various biophotovoltaic (BPV) platforms utilizing algae, which are then used to harvest solar energy and generate electrical power. The majority of BPV platforms incorporate indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for the purpose of charge transfer due to its inherent optical and electrical properties. However, other materials such as reduced graphene oxide (RGO) could provide higher efficiency due to their intrinsic electrical properties and biological compatibility. In this work, the performance of algae biofilms grown on RGO and ITO anodes were measured and discussed. Results indicate improved peak power of 0.1481 mWm(-2) using the RGO electrode and an increase in efficiency of 119%, illustrating the potential of RGO as an anode material for applications in biofilm derived devices and systems. PMID:25531093

  17. Combining Differential and Integral Experiments on 239PU for Reducing Uncertainties in Nuclear Data Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawano, T.; Hanson, K. M.; Frankle, S. C.; Talou, P.; Chadwick, M. B.; Little, R. C.

    2006-04-01

    We present an approach to uncertainty quantification for nuclear applications, which combines the covariance evaluation of differential cross-sections data and the error propagation from matching a criticality experiment using a neutron transport calculation. We have studied the effect on Pu-239 fission cross sections of using a one-dimensional neutron transport calculation with the PARTISN code. The evaluation of Pu-239 differential cross-section data is combined with a criticality measurement (Jezebel) using a Bayesian method. To perform the uncertainty quantification for such calculations, we generate a set of random samples of cross sections, which is representative of the covariance matrix, and estimate the distribution of calculated quantities, such as criticality. We show that inclusion of the Jezebel data reduces uncertainties in estimating neutron multiplicity.

  18. Electrodeposited reduced-graphene oxide/cobalt oxide electrodes for charge storage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Gómez, A.; Eugénio, S.; Duarte, R. G.; Silva, T. M.; Carmezim, M. J.; Montemor, M. F.

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, electrochemically reduced-graphene oxide/cobalt oxide composites for charge storage electrodes were prepared by a one-step pulsed electrodeposition route on stainless steel current collectors and after that submitted to a thermal treatment at 200 °C. A detailed physico-chemical characterization was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy. The electrochemical response of the composite electrodes was studied by cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge curves and related to the morphological and phase composition changes induced by the thermal treatment. The results revealed that the composites were promising materials for charge storage electrodes for application in redox supercapacitors, attaining specific capacitances around 430 F g-1 at 1 A g-1 and presenting long-term cycling stability.

  19. Reducing the cost of maintaining valve-regulated lead/acid batteries in telecommunications applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniveton, M. W.

    British Telecommunications has utilized valve-regulated lead/acid (VRLA) technology for 10 years and has considerable experience of varying product performance. A discussion is given of battery applications in telecommunications and includes experiences of typical failure modes such as group-bar corrosion and premature capacity loss, together with the detrimental effects of high temperature on service life. Specific maintenance requirements are also reviewed with particular attention to costs and reliability. Data are presented on the effectiveness of new methods of testing large numbers of VRLA batteries and, in particular, the reliability of conductance testing. An explanation is given of the role of conductance measurements, discharge testing and manufacturers' laboratory analysis in contributing to an effective maintenance programme. Specific requirements for the management of a battery-replacement programme are also included. Finally, BT user experience is described and solutions are provided to reduce the cost of VRLA maintenance while improving reliability.

  20. Reduced Graphene Oxide Anodes for Potential Application in Algae Biophotovoltaic Platforms

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Fong-Lee; Jaafar, Muhammad Musoddiq; Phang, Siew-Moi; Chan, Zhijian; Salleh, Nurul Anati; Azmi, Siti Zulfikriyah; Yunus, Kamran; Fisher, Adrian C.; Periasamy, Vengadesh

    2014-01-01

    The search for renewable energy sources has become challenging in the current era, as conventional fuel sources are of finite origins. Recent research interest has focused on various biophotovoltaic (BPV) platforms utilizing algae, which are then used to harvest solar energy and generate electrical power. The majority of BPV platforms incorporate indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for the purpose of charge transfer due to its inherent optical and electrical properties. However, other materials such as reduced graphene oxide (RGO) could provide higher efficiency due to their intrinsic electrical properties and biological compatibility. In this work, the performance of algae biofilms grown on RGO and ITO anodes were measured and discussed. Results indicate improved peak power of 0.1481 mWm−2 using the RGO electrode and an increase in efficiency of 119%, illustrating the potential of RGO as an anode material for applications in biofilm derived devices and systems. PMID:25531093

  1. Postharvest Exogenous Application of Abscisic Acid Reduces Internal Browning in Pineapple.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Liu, Yulong; He, Congcong; Zhu, Shijiang

    2015-06-10

    Internal browning (IB) is a postharvest physiological disorder causing economic losses in pineapple, but there is no effective control measure. In this study, postharvest application of 380 μM abscisic acid (ABA) reduced IB incidence by 23.4-86.3% and maintained quality in pineapple fruit. ABA reduced phenolic contents and polyphenol oxidase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase activities; increased catalase and peroxidase activities; and decreased O2(·-), H2O2, and malondialdehyde levels. This suggests ABA could control IB through inhibiting phenolics biosynthesis and oxidation and enhancing antioxidant capability. Furthermore, the efficacy of IB control by ABA was not obviously affected by tungstate, ABA biosynthesis inhibitor, nor by diphenylene iodonium, NADPH oxidase inhibitor, nor by lanthanum chloride, calcium channel blocker, suggesting that ABA is sufficient for controlling IB. This process might not involve H2O2 generation, but could involve the Ca(2+) channels activation. These results provide potential for developing effective measures for controlling IB in pineapple. PMID:26007196

  2. Resistive switching behavior of reduced graphene oxide memory cells for low power nonvolatile device application

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Sangram K.; Xiao, Bo; Mishra, Saswat; Killam, Alex; Pradhan, Aswini K.

    2016-01-01

    Graphene Oxide (GO) based low cost flexible electronics and memory cell have recently attracted more attention for the fabrication of emerging electronic devices. As a suitable candidate for resistive random access memory technology, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) can be widely used for non-volatile switching memory applications because of its large surface area, excellent scalability, retention, and endurance properties. We demonstrated that the fabricated metal/RGO/metal memory device exhibited excellent switching characteristics, with on/off ratio of two orders of magnitude and operated threshold switching voltage of less than 1 V. The studies on different cell diameter, thickness, scan voltages and period of time corroborate the reliability of the device as resistive random access memory. The microscopic origin of switching operation is governed by the establishment of conducting filaments due to the interface amorphous layer rupturing and the movement of oxygen in the GO layer. This interesting experimental finding indicates that device made up of thermally reduced GO shows more reliability for its use in next generation electronics devices. PMID:27240537

  3. Application of the Discrimination Inference to Reduce Expected Cost Technique (DIRECT) to a Contaminant Transport Problem.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayley, T. W.; Ferré, T. P. A.

    2014-12-01

    There is growing recognition in the hydrologic community that deterministic hydrologic models are imperfect tools for decision support. Despite this insight, the state of practice for a hydrologic investigation follows this sequence: data collection, conceptual model development, numerical model development, and finally decision making based on model projections. This approach, based on relatively unconsidered design of data collection, may result in uninformative data. As a result, it is commonly repeated several times to resolve critical uncertainties. We present a novel two step multi-model approach to optimizing data collection to aid decision making, risk analysis. Here, we describe the application this approach (Discrimination Inference to Reduce Expected Cost Technique - DIRECT) for a contaminant transport problem. DIRECT has 7 steps. First, outcomes of concern were defined explicitly. Next a probabilistic analysis of the outcomes was conducted that incorporated multiple conceptual and parametric realizations. The likelihood of each model was assessed based on goodness of fit to existing data. A cost function was developed and used to define the projected costs based on the model-predicted outcomes of concern. Data collection was then optimized to identify the data that could test the models of greatest concern (cost) against the other models in the ensemble. Finally a field program was conducted that included gathering lithologic, hydrologic, and chemical data from 22 new wells that were drilled in projected high value locations. The additional data reduced the expected cost of model projections to an acceptable level for defining new site compliance conditions.

  4. Resistive switching behavior of reduced graphene oxide memory cells for low power nonvolatile device application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Sangram K.; Xiao, Bo; Mishra, Saswat; Killam, Alex; Pradhan, Aswini K.

    2016-05-01

    Graphene Oxide (GO) based low cost flexible electronics and memory cell have recently attracted more attention for the fabrication of emerging electronic devices. As a suitable candidate for resistive random access memory technology, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) can be widely used for non-volatile switching memory applications because of its large surface area, excellent scalability, retention, and endurance properties. We demonstrated that the fabricated metal/RGO/metal memory device exhibited excellent switching characteristics, with on/off ratio of two orders of magnitude and operated threshold switching voltage of less than 1 V. The studies on different cell diameter, thickness, scan voltages and period of time corroborate the reliability of the device as resistive random access memory. The microscopic origin of switching operation is governed by the establishment of conducting filaments due to the interface amorphous layer rupturing and the movement of oxygen in the GO layer. This interesting experimental finding indicates that device made up of thermally reduced GO shows more reliability for its use in next generation electronics devices.

  5. Resistive switching behavior of reduced graphene oxide memory cells for low power nonvolatile device application.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Sangram K; Xiao, Bo; Mishra, Saswat; Killam, Alex; Pradhan, Aswini K

    2016-01-01

    Graphene Oxide (GO) based low cost flexible electronics and memory cell have recently attracted more attention for the fabrication of emerging electronic devices. As a suitable candidate for resistive random access memory technology, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) can be widely used for non-volatile switching memory applications because of its large surface area, excellent scalability, retention, and endurance properties. We demonstrated that the fabricated metal/RGO/metal memory device exhibited excellent switching characteristics, with on/off ratio of two orders of magnitude and operated threshold switching voltage of less than 1 V. The studies on different cell diameter, thickness, scan voltages and period of time corroborate the reliability of the device as resistive random access memory. The microscopic origin of switching operation is governed by the establishment of conducting filaments due to the interface amorphous layer rupturing and the movement of oxygen in the GO layer. This interesting experimental finding indicates that device made up of thermally reduced GO shows more reliability for its use in next generation electronics devices. PMID:27240537

  6. Reduced graphene oxide growth on 316L stainless steel for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardenas, L.; MacLeod, J.; Lipton-Duffin, J.; Seifu, D. G.; Popescu, F.; Siaj, M.; Mantovani, D.; Rosei, F.

    2014-07-01

    We report a new method for the growth of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) on the 316L alloy of stainless steel (SS) and its relevance for biomedical applications. We demonstrate that electrochemical etching increases the concentration of metallic species on the surface and enables the growth of rGO. This result is supported through a combination of Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), density functional theory (DFT) calculations and static water contact angle measurements. Raman spectroscopy identifies the G and D bands for oxidized species of graphene at 1595 cm-1 and 1350 cm-1, respectively, and gives an ID/IG ratio of 1.2, indicating a moderate degree of oxidation. XPS shows -OH and -COOH groups in the rGO stoichiometry and static contact angle measurements confirm the wettability of rGO. SEM and AFM measurements were performed on different substrates before and after coronene treatment to confirm rGO growth. Cell viability studies reveal that these rGO coatings do not have toxic effects on mammalian cells, making this material suitable for biomedical and biotechnological applications.

  7. VLSI modified architecture for reduced symmetric fuzzy Singleton set and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-hafeez, Saleh M.; Starks, Scott A.

    1996-06-01

    A general-purpose fuzzy logic inference engine for real time control applications has been designed, the core of which is based on a modified reduced symmetric fuzzy singleton set (MRSFSS) structure combining the advantages of small fuzzy memory for a maximum storing capacity of 730 rule-base. The MRSFSS structure can provide up to three input variables, a maximum of nine membership functions for each input variable, and produces two output values. The innovation of FLC chip is the definition feature of the MRSFSS structure which alleviates the drawbacks of existing fuzzy inference engine and enables the entire FLC chip to be performed on a 1.2 micrometer CMOS VLSI single chip. Although the hardware of FLC engine is simplified, the structure itself can incorporate a wide class of applications since many systematic and heuristic approaches can be cast into the MRSFSS structure with an even more simplified approach and most equal performances. Moreover, a guide tour is provided through the aspects of generating the fuzzy IF-THEN rules, based on a proposed architecture for controlling a wide class of objects whose dynamics are approximated by first- order and second-order transfer functions.

  8. Topical application of silymarin reduces chemical-induced irritant contact dermatitis in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Mi Hwa; Yoon, Won Kee; Lee, Hyunju; Han, Sang-Bae; Lee, Kiho; Park, Song-Kyu; Yang, Kyu-Hwan; Kim, Hwan Mook; Kang, Jong Soon

    2007-12-15

    Irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) is a non-allergic local inflammatory reaction of a skin and one of the most frequent occupational health problems. Silymarin has been clinically used in Europe for a long time to treat liver diseases and also known to have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, we report that topical application of silymarin reduces chemical-induced ICD. Topical application of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) induced an ear swelling in BALB/c mice and silymarin suppressed DNCB-induced increase in ear thickness. Prophylactic and therapeutic application of silymarin showed similar effect on DNCB-induced increase in ear thickness and skin water content. In addition, phobor ester- or croton oil-induced increase in ear thickness was also inhibited by silymarin treatment. Silymarin also blocked neutrophil accumulation into the ear induced by these irritants. Further study demonstrated that DNCB-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression in mouse ear was suppressed by silymarin. DNCB-induced expression of KC, one of the main attractors of neutrophil in mice, and adhesion molecules, including intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and E-selectin in mouse ear were also inhibited by silymarin. Moreover, TNF-alpha-induced expression of cytokines, such as TNF-alpha and IL-1beta, and a chemokine, IL-8, were suppressed by silymarin treatment in human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT. Silymarin also blocked TNF-alpha- and DNCB-induced NF-kappaB activation in HaCaT. Collectively, these results demonstrate that topically applied silymarin inhibits chemical-induced ICD in mice and this might be mediated, at least in part, by blocking NF-kappaB activation and consequently inhibiting the expression of cytokines and adhesion molecules. PMID:17996674

  9. Facile synthesis of cobalt oxide/reduced graphene oxide composites for electrochemical capacitor and sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thi Toan; Nguyen, Van Hoa; Deivasigamani, Ranjith Kumar; Kharismadewi, Dian; Iwai, Yoshio; Shim, Jae-Jin

    2016-03-01

    Reduced graphene oxide sheets decorated with cobalt oxide nanoparticles (Co3O4/rGO) were produced using a hydrothermal method without surfactants. Both the reduction of GO and the formation of Co3O4 nanoparticles occurred simultaneously under this condition. At the same current density of 0.5 A g-1, the Co3O4/rGO nanocomposites exhibited much a higher specific capacitance (545 F g-1) than that of bare Co3O4 (100 F g-1). On the other hand, for the detection of H2O2, the peak current of Co3O4/rGO was 4 times higher than that of Co3O4. Moreover, the resulting composite displayed a low detection limit of 0.62 μM and a high sensitivity of 28,500 μA mM-1cm-2 for the H2O2 sensor. These results suggest that the Co3O4/rGO nanocomposite is a promising material for both supercapacitor and non-enzymatic H2O2 sensor applications.

  10. Molybdenum diselenide/reduced graphene oxide based hybrid nanosheets for supercapacitor applications.

    PubMed

    Balasingam, Suresh Kannan; Lee, Jae Sung; Jun, Yongseok

    2016-06-21

    In the present study, molybdenum diselenide/reduced graphene oxide (MoSe2/rGO) nanosheets were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal process and the electrochemical performance of the nanosheets was evaluated for supercapacitor applications. The MoSe2 nanosheets were uniformly distributed on the surface of the rGO matrix. The MoSe2/rGO nanosheet electrode exhibited an enhanced specific capacitance (211 F g(-1)) with excellent cycling stability, compared with pristine MoSe2. The enhanced electrochemical performance of the MoSe2/rGO nanosheet electrode is mainly attributed to the improved electron and ion transfer mechanism involving the synergistic effects of pseudocapacitance (from the MoSe2 nanosheets) and the electric double layer charge (EDLC, from the rGO nanosheets) storage behavior. These results demonstrate that the enhanced electrochemical performance of MoSe2/rGO nanosheets could be obtained via a facile and scalable approach. PMID:27220807

  11. Use of swelling clays to reduce permeability and its potential application to nuclear waste repository sealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, D. E.; Morrow, C. A.; Byerlee, J. D.

    1982-09-01

    The injection of swelling-clay slurries into joints or faults at a deep-burial nuclear waste disposal site may result in significant permeability reductions for the effective containment of radioactive wastes. In an experiment conducted to illustrate the permeability change accompanying clay swelling, a coarse stone with interconnected pore spaces was injected with a clay-electrolyte slurry, modelling the pressure-grouting of a fractured repository rock. Subsequently, solutions with lower electrolyte concentrations were driven through the clay-filled stone, corresponding to migration of lower salinity ground-waters through the clay-grouted fracture. The initial injection procedure reduced the permeability of the stone from 1-10 darcies to 700 nanodarcies; the changes in solution composition decreased permeability by more than 2 additional orders of magnitude to 3 nanodarcies. For application at a nuclear waste repository, the electrolyte concentration of the injected clay slurry should be made higher than that of the ground-water in the host rock. Subsequent interaction of the ground-water with the clays would initiate swelling and create the additional, post-injection permeability reductions that may be important in preventing the escape of buried radioactive wastes. The measured permeability of the clay filling is considerably lower than that of cement tested for borehole plugging. Clays also have the advantage over cement and chemical grouts in that they are geologically stable at relatively low temperatures and have a high capacity for radionuclide adsorption.

  12. A reduced-order, single-bubble cavitation model with applications to therapeutic ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Kreider, Wayne; Crum, Lawrence A.; Bailey, Michael R.; Sapozhnikov, Oleg A.

    2011-01-01

    Cavitation often occurs in therapeutic applications of medical ultrasound such as shock-wave lithotripsy (SWL) and high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU). Because cavitation bubbles can affect an intended treatment, it is important to understand the dynamics of bubbles in this context. The relevant context includes very high acoustic pressures and frequencies as well as elevated temperatures. Relative to much of the prior research on cavitation and bubble dynamics, such conditions are unique. To address the relevant physics, a reduced-order model of a single, spherical bubble is proposed that incorporates phase change at the liquid-gas interface as well as heat and mass transport in both phases. Based on the energy lost during the inertial collapse and rebound of a millimeter-sized bubble, experimental observations were used to tune and test model predictions. In addition, benchmarks from the published literature were used to assess various aspects of model performance. Benchmark comparisons demonstrate that the model captures the basic physics of phase change and diffusive transport, while it is quantitatively sensitive to specific model assumptions and implementation details. Given its performance and numerical stability, the model can be used to explore bubble behaviors across a broad parameter space relevant to therapeutic ultrasound. PMID:22088026

  13. Application of a novel colour imaging technique to thermal convection under reduced gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heiland, H. G.; Wozniak, G.

    2010-12-01

    The quantitative measurement performance and the robustness of a novel high-speed imaging system using a liquid crystal tunable filter have been verified by a fluid dynamic experiment in a reduced gravity environment. This new type of diagnostic tool is a combination of a monochrome high-speed CCD camera with fast ferroelectric liquid crystal control. The filter can be tuned to red, green and blue colour planes (RGB filter), which provides real colour images without loss of resolution. The scientific application was the investigation of the influence of buoyancy on the surface tension-driven flow around a bubble on heated wall. The flow velocity and temperature patterns were observed in gravity and microgravity environments. The measuring technique is based on particle image velocimetry and thermometry (PIV/T). The principle of this optical full-field technique relies on seeded thermochromic liquid crystals (TLCs) as signal particles, which change colour depending on their temperature. The experimental results of the flow investigations under 1-g and μ-g conditions are discussed and compared with one another.

  14. Applications of monsoon research: Opportunities to inform decisionmaking and reduce regional vulnerability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, A. J.; Garfin, G. M.; Wilder, M.; Lenart, M.; Vásquez-León, M.; Comrie, A. C.

    2007-05-01

    This presentation will describe ongoing efforts to understand interactions between the North American Monsoon and society, in order to develop applications for monsoon research in a highly complex, multicultural and binational region. The North American Monsoon is an annual precipitation regime that begins in early June in Mexico and progresses northward to the southwestern United States. The region includes stakeholders in large urban complexes, productive agricultural areas, and sparsely populated arid and semi-arid ecosystems. The political, cultural, and socioeconomic divisions between the U.S. and Mexico create a broad range of sensitivities to climate variability as well as capacities to use forecasts and other information to cope with climate. We will highlight methodologies to link climate science with society and analyze opportunities for monsoon science to benefit society in four sectors: natural hazards management, agriculture, public health, and water management. We present a synthesized list of stakeholder needs and a calendar of decisions to help scientists link user needs to potential forecasts and products. To ensure usability of forecasts and other research products, we recommend iterative scientist-stakeholder interactions, through integrated assessments. These knowledge- exchange interactions can improve the capacity for stakeholders to use forecasts thoughtfully and inform the development of research, and for the research community to obtain feedback on climate-related products and receive insights to guide research direction. We expect that integrated assessments can capitalize on the opportunities for monsoon science to inform decisionmaking, in the best instances, reduce regional climate vulnerabilities and enhance regional sustainability

  15. Enhanced monolithic diffraction gratings with high efficiency and reduced polarization sensitivity for remote sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triebel, Peter; Diehl, Torsten; Moeller, Tobias; Gatto, Alexandre; Pesch, Alexander; Erdmann, Lars H.; Burkhardt, Matthias; Kalies, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    Spectral imaging systems lead to enhanced sensing properties when the sensing system provides sufficient spectral resolution to identify materials from its spectral reflectance signature. The performance of diffraction gratings provides an initial way to improve instrumental resolution. Thus, subsequent manufacturing techniques of high quality gratings are essential to significantly improve the spectral performance. The ZEISS unique technology of manufacturing real-blazed profiles and as well as lamellar profiles comprising transparent substrates is well suited for the production of transmission gratings. In order to reduce high order aberrations, aspherical and free-form surfaces can be alternatively processed to allow more degrees of freedom in the optical design of spectroscopic instruments with less optical elements and therefore size and weight advantages. Prism substrates were used to manufacture monolithic GRISM elements for UV to IR spectral range. Many years of expertise in the research and development of optical coatings enable high transmission anti-reflection coatings from the DUV to the NIR. ZEISS has developed specially adapted coating processes (Ion beam sputtering, ion-assisted deposition and so on) for maintaining the micro-structure of blazed gratings in particular. Besides of transmission gratings, numerous spectrometer setups (e.g. Offner, Rowland circle, Czerny-Turner system layout) working on the optical design principles of reflection gratings. This technology steps can be applied to manufacture high quality reflection gratings from the EUV to the IR applications with an outstanding level of low stray light and ghost diffraction order by employing a combination of holography and reactive ion beam etching together with the in-house coating capabilities. We report on results of transmission gratings on plane and curved substrates and GRISM elements with enhanced efficiency of the grating itself combined with low scattered light in the angular

  16. Application of the effects of ionic strength reducing agents in the purification and crystallization of chitinase A.

    PubMed

    Papanikolau, Yannis; Petratos, Kyriacos

    2002-10-01

    The effects of ionic strength reducing agents may find a large number of applications. Based on these effects, we have redesigned the purification scheme of Chitinase A (ChiA) from Serratia marcescen. This scheme led to reproducibly crystallizable enzyme in both salting-in and salting-out conditions, which are presented here. Herein, we demonstrate some experimental applications of the ionic strength reducing agents theory and, in parallel, provide further evidence of the theory's correctness. Finally, we report a new crystal form produced recently in salting-in crystallization experiments. This form may allow the co-crystallization of ChiA mutants with longer substrates. PMID:12351868

  17. [Effect of reduced N application on soil N residue and N loss in maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao-Ming; Yong, Tai-Wen; Liu, Wen-Yu; Su, Ben-Ying; Song, Chun; Yang, Feng; Wang, Xiao-Chun; Yang, Wen-Yu

    2014-08-01

    A field experiment was conducted in 2012, including three planting pattern (maize-soybean relay strip intercropping, mono-cultured maize and soybean) and three nitrogen application level [0 kg N x hm(-2), 180 kg N x hm(-2) (reduced N) and 240 kg N x hm(-2) (normal N)]. Fields were assigned to different treatments in a randomized block design with three replicates. The objective of this work was to analyze the effects of planting patterns and nitrogen application rates on plant N uptake, soil N residue and N loss. After fertilization applications, NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N levels increased in the soil of intercropped maize but decreased in the soil of intercropped soybean. Compared with mono-crops, the soil N residue and loss of intercropped soybean were reduced, while those of intercropped maize were increased and decreased, respectively. With the reduced rate of N application, N residue rate, N loss rate and ammonia volatilization loss rate of the maize-soybean intercropping relay strip system were decreased by 17.7%, 21.5% and 0.4% compared to mono-cultured maize, but increased by 2.0%, 19.8% and 0.1% compared to mono-cultured soybean, respectively. Likewise, the reduced N application resulted in reductions in N residue, N loss, and the N loss via ammonia volatilization in the maize-soybean relay strip intercropping system compared with the conventional rate of N application adopted by local farmers, and the N residue rate, N loss rate and ammonia volatilization loss rate reduced by 12.0%, 15.4% and 1.2%, respectively. PMID:25509077

  18. Application of aziridine reactive rinses in a post-development process to reduce photoresist pattern collapse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Wei-Ming; Lawson, Richard A.; Tolbert, Laren M.; Henderson, Clifford L.

    2012-03-01

    One of the problems for lithographic processes at very small feature scales is pattern collapse caused by unbalanced capillary forces experienced by the photoresist patterns during the final deionized water rinse and drying process. The use of surfactants or super critical fluids to reduce collapse problems has been proposed and studied by many research groups. However, the patterns rinsed with low surface tension fluids appear in many cases to shrink or such treatments cause other feature deformations. Super critical fluid processing requires major changes to the ways in which current track systems operate and can result in swelling and deformation of the resist features as well. Instead of utilizing super critical fluids or adding surfactants to the rinse liquid, one general methodology we have pursued for alleviating such pattern collapse problems involves the actual strengthening of the resist feature itself during wet processing in the development and rinse cycle. One method we have investigated extensively is the use of post-development resist surface crosslinking reactions while the resist structures are still in their wet state, a process we term "reactive rinsing". Such reactive rinse processes have shown significant impact on improving resist pattern collapse. However, previous chemistries used for such reactive rinse processes have either: (1) been complex mixtures that potentially have long term stability problems (i.e. thus making their application in a fab environment more difficult) or (2) been specific to a certain resist types in that the chemistries react with only certain resist functional groups that may not be present in all resists of interest (e.g. some chemistries only work with phenolic resins such as those found in DUV or EUV resists). Therefore, the goal of this work has been to investigate other novel reactive rinse chemistries that are both more robust and which can function with different families of resist materials. Poly

  19. Direct green waste land application: How to reduce its impacts on greenhouse gas and volatile organic compound emissions?

    PubMed

    Zhu-Barker, Xia; Burger, Martin; Horwath, William R; Green, Peter G

    2016-06-01

    Direct land application as an alternative to green waste (GW) disposal in landfills or composting requires an understanding of its impacts on greenhouse gas (GHG) and volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions. We investigated the effects of two approaches of GW direct land application, surface application and soil incorporation, on carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4), and VOC emissions for a 12month period. Five treatments were applied in fall 2013 on fallow land under a Mediterranean climate in California: 30cm height GW on surface; 15cm height GW on surface; 15cm height GW tilled into soil; control+till; control+no till. In addition, a laboratory experiment was conducted to develop a mechanistic understanding of the influence of GW application on soil O2 consumption and GHG emission. The annual cumulative N2O, CO2 and VOC emissions ranged from 1.6 to 5.5kgN2O-Nha(-1), 5.3 to 40.6MgCO2-Cha(-1) and 0.6 to 9.9kgVOCha(-1), respectively, and were greatly reduced by GW soil incorporation compared to surface application. Application of GW quickly consumed soil O2 within one day in the lab incubation. These results indicate that to reduce GHG and VOC emissions of GW direct land application, GW incorporation into soil is recommended. PMID:27033991

  20. Foliar Applications of GA4+7 Reduce Flowering in Highbush Blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Precocious varieties of highbush blueberry may over-crop during the first few seasons in the fruiting field, adversely affecting plant establishment. Reducing or preventing bloom in the nursery and during establishment would be beneficial in preventing early cropping and reducing the risk of infect...

  1. Plant Growth-promoting Rhizobacteria Allow Reduced Application Rates of Chemical Fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts to reduce fertilizer rates while increasing nutrient uptake to maintain high yields are very important due to the increasing cost of fertilizers and their potential negative environmental impacts. The objectives of this study were to determine (i) if reduced rates of inorganic fertilizer cou...

  2. EVALUATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE SOLVENT IN SPRAY COATING APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation, part of the Pollution Prevention Clean Technology Demonstration (CTD) Program, addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues of spray paint application using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2). Anion Carbide has developed this technology and...

  3. EVALUATION OF SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE SOLVENT IN SPRAY COATING APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation, part of the Pollution Prevention Clean Technology Demonstration (CTD) Program, addresses the product quality, waste reduction, and economic issues of spray paint application using supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2). nion Carbide has developed this technology and ...

  4. Application of Feedforward Adaptive Active-Noise Control for Reducing Blade Passing Noise in Centrifugal Fans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WU, J.-D.; BAI, M. R.

    2001-02-01

    This paper describes two configurations of feedforward adaptive active-noise control (ANC) technique for reducing blade passing noise in centrifugal fans. In one configuration, the control speaker is installed at the cut-off region of the fan, while in the other configuration at the exit duct. The proposed ANC system is based on the filtered-x least-mean-squares (FXLMS) algorithm with multi-sine synthesized reference signal and frequency counting and is implemented by using a digital signal processor (DSP). Experiments are carried out to evaluate the proposed system for reducing the noise at the blade passing frequency (BPF) and its harmonics at various flow speeds. The results of the experiment indicated that the ANC technique is effective in reducing the blade passing noise for two configurations by using the feedforward adaptive control.

  5. Reduced-Order Aerodynamic Model and Its Application to a Nonlinear Aeroelastic System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, Deman; Conner, Mark D.; Dowell, Earl H.

    1998-01-01

    Starting from a finite state model for a two-dimensional aerodynamic flow over an airfoil, the eigenmodes of the aerodynamic flow are determined. Using a small number of these aerodynamic eigenmodes, ie., a reduced-order model, the aeroelastic model is formed by coupling them to a typical section structural model with a trailing-edge flap. A free-play nonlinearity is modeled. Results are shown from the finite state model, the reduced-order model, and previous theoretical and experimental work. All results are in good agreement.

  6. APPLICATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM ENGINEERED WOOD PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an investigation of pollution prevention options to reduce indoor emissions from a type of finished engineered wood. Emissions were screened from four types of finished engineered wood: oak-veneered particleboard coated and cured with a heat-curable, a...

  7. APPLICATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TECHNIQUES TO REDUCE INDOOR AIR EMISSONS FROM AEROSOL CONSUMER PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a research project to develop tools and methodologies to measure aerosol chemical and particle dispersion through space. These tools can be used to devise pollution prevention strategies that could reduce occupant chemical exposures and guide manufactu...

  8. A highly reducing metal-free photoredox catalyst: design and application in radical dehalogenations.

    PubMed

    Discekici, Emre H; Treat, Nicolas J; Poelma, Saemi O; Mattson, Kaila M; Hudson, Zachary M; Luo, Yingdong; Hawker, Craig J; Read de Alaniz, Javier

    2015-07-25

    Here we report the use of 10-phenylphenothiazine (PTH) as an inexpensive, highly reducing metal-free photocatalyst for the reduction of carbon-halogen bonds via the trapping of carbon-centered radical intermediates with a mild hydrogen atom donor. Dehalogenations were carried out on various substrates with excellent yields at room temperature in the presence of air. PMID:26104847

  9. Application of microbial inoculants as tools for reducing nitrous oxide emissions from different nitrogen fertilizers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) are increasing due to several factors, including increased use of nitrogen fertilizers. New management tools are needed to reduce N2O emissions from production agriculture. One potential such tool is the use of microbial inoculants, which are increasingly being used ...

  10. Application of digital terrain data to quantify and reduce the topographic effect on LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, C. O.; Wharton, S. W.; Holben, B. N. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    Integration of LANDSAT multispectral scanner (MSS) data with 30 m U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) digital terrain data was undertaken to quantify and reduce the topographic effect on imagery of a forested mountain ridge test site in central Pennsylvania. High Sun angle imagery revealed variation of as much as 21 pixel values in data for slopes of different angles and aspects with uniform surface cover. Large topographic effects were apparent in MSS 4 and 5 was due to a combination of high absorption by the forest cover and the MSS quantization. Four methods for reducing the topographic effect were compared. Band ratioing of MSS 6/5 and MSS 7/5 did not eliminate the topographic effect because of the lack of variation in MSS 4 and 5 radiances. The three radiance models examined to reduce the topographic effect required integration of the digital terrain data. Two Lambertian models increased the variation in the LANDSAT radiances. The nonLambertian model considerably reduced (86 per cent) the topographic effect in the LANDSAT data. The study demonstrates that high quality digital terrain data, as provided by the USGS digital elevation model data, can be used to enhance the utility of multispectral satellite data.

  11. 76 FR 69595 - Application of Third Party Testing Requirements; Reducing Third Party Testing Burdens

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... applicable consumer product safety rule, ban, standard, or regulation. Third party testing requirements apply... May 20, 2010 (75 FR 28336), we published a proposed rule titled, ``Testing and Labeling Pertaining to... Consumer Products'' (75 FR 28208); the proposed rule would establish requirements regarding the testing...

  12. Reducing pesticide drift by considering propeller rotation effects from aerial application and near buffer zones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Off-target drift of chemical from agricultural spraying can damage sensitive crops, destroy beneficial insects, and intrude on human and domestic animal habitats, threatening environmental quality. Reduction of drift from aerial application can be facilitated at the edge of a field by offsetting spr...

  13. Application of Polyacrylamide to Reduce Phosphorus Losses from Chinese Purple Soil: A Laboratory and Field Investigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The application of anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) for the control of phosphorus (P) losses from a steeply sloping Chinese purple soil was studied in both a laboratory soil column experiment and a field experiment. The results showed that PAM has an important inhibitory impact on vertical P transport i...

  14. Case Study: On-Farm Evaluation of Liquid Dairy Manure Application Methods to Reduce Ammonia Losses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intensification of the dairy industry in southern Idaho has led to greater land application of manures. The volatilization of ammonia from land applied manure is not only a loss of valuable nitrogen but also an air quality concern as ammonia plays a role in the formation of PM-2.5 and PM-10 airborn...

  15. Reduced order modelling of an unstructured mesh air pollution model and application in 2D/3D urban street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, F.; Zhang, T.; Pavlidis, D.; Pain, C. C.; Buchan, A. G.; Navon, I. M.

    2014-10-01

    A novel reduced order model (ROM) based on proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) has been developed for a finite-element (FE) adaptive mesh air pollution model. A quadratic expansion of the non-linear terms is employed to ensure the method remained efficient. This is the first time such an approach has been applied to air pollution LES turbulent simulation through three dimensional landscapes. The novelty of this work also includes POD's application within a FE-LES turbulence model that uses adaptive resolution. The accuracy of the reduced order model is assessed and validated for a range of 2D and 3D urban street canyon flow problems. By comparing the POD solutions against the fine detail solutions obtained from the full FE model it is shown that the accuracy is maintained, where fine details of the air flows are captured, whilst the computational requirements are reduced. In the examples presented below the size of the reduced order models is reduced by factors up to 2400 in comparison to the full FE model while the CPU time is reduced by up to 98% of that required by the full model.

  16. Application of centrifugal fields in fused salt electrowinning with a view to reducing electrolytic energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, A.; Fray, D.J.

    1996-12-01

    A high-temperature, laboratory scale electrochemical cell was designed, constructed, and commissioned to investigate the use of centrifugal fields in fused salt electrolysis production of light metals. Fused salt electrowinning of zinc was initially investigated due to the simpler physical and chemical nature of the Zn{sub l}{vert_bar}ZnCl{sub 2(l)}:KCl{sub l}{vert_bar}Cl{sub 2(g)} system. Current efficiencies of 93 pct were obtained for an electrode spacing of 8 mm using 70-mm-diameter plane disc electrodes rotating at 100 rpm, significantly reducing the resistive contribution to the cell voltage. By reducing the immersion depth of the electrodes from 25 to 10 mm, current efficiencies of 88 pct were obtained for an electrode spacing of only 4 mm for the same operating conditions, further decreasing the resistive contribution to the cell voltage.

  17. Application of centrifugal fields in fused salt electrowinning with a view to reducing electrolytic energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Antony; Fray, Derek J.

    1996-12-01

    A high-temperature, laboratory scale electrochemical cell was designed, constructed, and commissioned to investigate the use of centrifugal fields in fused salt electrolysis production of light metals. Fused salt electrowinning of zinc was initially investigated due to the simpler physical and chemical nature of the Zn( l)‖ZnCl2( l):KCl( l)‖Cl2( g) system. Current efficiencies of 93 pct were obtained for an electrode spacing of 8 mm using 70-mm-diameter plane disc electrodes rotating at 100 rpm, significantly reducing the resistive contribution to the cell voltage. By reducing the immersion depth of the electrodes from 25 to 10 mm, current efficiencies of 88 pct were obtained for an electrode spacing of only 4 mm for the same operating conditions, further decreasing the resistive contribution to the cell voltage.

  18. Application of digital terrain data to quantify and reduce the topographic effect on Landsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Justice, C. O.; Wharton, S. W.; Holben, B. N.

    1981-01-01

    Landsat multispectral scanner (MSS) data are integrated with 30 m US Geological Survey digital terrain data to quantify and reduce topographic effects on imagery of a forested mountain ridge in central Pennsylvania. Spectral band ratioing slightly decreased variation of Landsat data for 50% of the transects and could not eliminate direct-light topographic effects. A Lambertian model increased topographic effect, and a modified Lambertian model decreased variation produced by the original model, but gave higher variances than found in the raw Landsat data. A non-Lambertian model, however, decreased variation by 86%, reducing topographic effects. The study demonstrated that high quality digital terrain data can be used to develop and test improved radiative transfer models, and enhance the utility of MSS data.

  19. Novel Applications of Modified Ultrafiltration and Autologous Priming Techniques to Reduce Blood Product Exposure on ECMO

    PubMed Central

    Neal, James R.; Blau, Caitlin L.; Cornelius, Amanda M.; Pike, Roxann B.; Dearani, Joseph A.; Mora, Bassem N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Patients needing the assistance of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are at risk of hemodilution and, in some instances, may require exposure to large amounts of allogeneic blood products. Patient outcomes can be improved by taking steps to reduce transfusions and hemodilution. Currently, modified ultrafiltration (MUF) is used across the world to reduce hemodilution after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Another common technique during bypass initiation is autologous priming. By applying modified versions of these techniques, ECMO patients may potentially benefit. Usually, patients requiring immediate transition from CPB to ECMO are not stable enough to tolerate MUF. Through alterations of the CPB and ECMO circuit tubing, MUF can be performed once on ECMO. Another technique to potentially lower the transfusion requirements for ECMO patients is a complete circuit blood transfer during an ECMO circuit exchange. While selective component changes are preferred if possible, occasionally a complete circuit change must be done. To minimize hemodilution or prevent priming with blood products, the original ECMO circuit's blood can be transferred to the new ECMO circuit before connecting to the patient. Both of these techniques, in our opinion, helped to reduce the number of transfusions that our ECMO patients have seen during these critical time periods. PMID:27134305

  20. A novel SOI MESFET by reducing the electric field crowding for high voltage applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orouji, Ali A.; Jam, Moein Eslami; Nejaty, Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, a novel silicon-on-insulator (SOI) metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET) is presented by reducing the electric field crowding. The charge distribution in channel modifies by reducing the electric field crowding and results in the breakdown voltage (VBR) improves. To reduce the electric field crowding, a buried field plate (BFP) is employed in the buried oxide of the SOI MESFET and connected to source. DC and frequency response characteristics of the SOI MESFET with BFP (BFP-SOI MESFET) are analyzed via a 2-D numerical simulation and the results are compared with characteristics of a conventional SOI MESFET (C-SOI MESFET) structure. The BFP has outstanding effect on the VBR of the device. The VBR of the proposed BFP-SOI MESFET improves by 84% compared with that of the C-SOI MESFET. Although the saturation drain current of the proposed structure has decreased to a small extent, 37% increase in maximum power density is obtained. In addition, the proposed structure showed an approximately 70% decrease in the gate-drain capacitance (Cgd), which in-turn resulted in 5 dB maximum available gain (MAG) improvement at 2 GHz. As a result of employing the buried field plate, the BFP SOI-MESFET has an outstanding DC and frequency response performance compared with the C-SOI MESFET.

  1. A reduced mechanism for biodiesel surrogates with low temperature chemistry for compression ignition engine applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhaoyu; Plomer, Max; Lu, Tianfeng; Som, Sibendu; Longman, Douglas E.

    2012-04-01

    Biodiesel is a promising alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. It is a renewable energy source that can be used in these engines without significant alteration in design. The detailed chemical kinetics of biodiesel is however highly complex. In the present study, a skeletal mechanism with 123 species and 394 reactions for a tri-component biodiesel surrogate, which consists of methyl decanoate, methyl 9-decanoate and n-heptane was developed for simulations of 3-D turbulent spray combustion under engine-like conditions. The reduction was based on an improved directed relation graph (DRG) method that is particularly suitable for mechanisms with many isomers, followed by isomer lumping and DRG-aided sensitivity analysis (DRGASA). The reduction was performed for pressures from 1 to 100 atm and equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 2 for both extinction and ignition applications. The initial temperatures for ignition were from 700 to 1800 K. The wide parameter range ensures the applicability of the skeletal mechanism under engine-like conditions. As such the skeletal mechanism is applicable for ignition at both low and high temperatures. Compared with the detailed mechanism that consists of 3299 species and 10806 reactions, the skeletal mechanism features a significant reduction in size while still retaining good accuracy and comprehensiveness. The validations of ignition delay time, flame lift-off length and important species profiles were also performed in 3-D engine simulations and compared with the experimental data from Sandia National Laboratories under CI engine conditions.

  2. Using architecture information and real-time resource state to reduce power consumption and communication costs in parallel applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, James M.; Devine, Karen Dragon; Gentile, Ann C.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Olivier, Stephen Lecler; Pedretti, Kevin; Rajamanickam, Sivasankaran; Bunde, David P.; Deveci, Mehmet; Catalyurek, Umit V.

    2014-09-01

    As computer systems grow in both size and complexity, the need for applications and run-time systems to adjust to their dynamic environment also grows. The goal of the RAAMP LDRD was to combine static architecture information and real-time system state with algorithms to conserve power, reduce communication costs, and avoid network contention. We devel- oped new data collection and aggregation tools to extract static hardware information (e.g., node/core hierarchy, network routing) as well as real-time performance data (e.g., CPU uti- lization, power consumption, memory bandwidth saturation, percentage of used bandwidth, number of network stalls). We created application interfaces that allowed this data to be used easily by algorithms. Finally, we demonstrated the benefit of integrating system and application information for two use cases. The first used real-time power consumption and memory bandwidth saturation data to throttle concurrency to save power without increasing application execution time. The second used static or real-time network traffic information to reduce or avoid network congestion by remapping MPI tasks to allocated processors. Results from our work are summarized in this report; more details are available in our publications [2, 6, 14, 16, 22, 29, 38, 44, 51, 54].

  3. Application Of Immobilized Sulfate Reducing Bacteria For Permeable Reactive Barriers In Abandoned Coal Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Hur, W.; Choi, S.; Min, K.; Baek, H.

    2006-05-01

    The decline of the Korean coal industry has been drastic in production and consumption. This has been resulted mainly from the environmental concern and the collapse of commercial viability, which has eventually necessitated the government to implement the coal industry rationalization policies to reduce coal production and close down uneconomical mines. The overall drainage rates from abandoned coal mines reaches up to 80,000 ton/day. As a measure of controlling the acid mine drainage from abandoned coal mines, reactive materials in the pathways of drainage, designed to intercept and to transform the contaminants into environmentally acceptable forms can be applied at mines with small drainage rates. The main objective of this study is to design a permeable reactive barrier(PRB) to treat low flow and/or low contaminant loads of acid mine drainage. The PRB is comprised of immobilized sulfate reducing bacteria in hard beads and limestone to remove heavy metals and to raise the pH of AMD. A laboratory reactor was used to prepare a mixed culture of sulfate reducing bacteria. The microbes were separated and mixed with biodegradable matrix to form spherical beads. In order to maintain the viability of micro-organisms for a prolonged period, substrates such as saw dust, polysaccharide or glycerol was supplemented for the beads preparation. The strength of beads fortified by powered limestone to control the permeability of PRB. Different mixtures of limestone and the immobilized beads were tested to determine hydraulic conductivity and AMD treatment capacities. The characteristics of the spherical beads at various pH of AMD was investigated.

  4. -A practical application of reduced-copper antifouling paint in marine biological research.

    PubMed

    Jerabek, Andrea S; Wall, Kara R; Stallings, Christopher D

    2016-01-01

    Biofouling of experimental cages and other field apparatuses can be problematic for scientists and has traditionally been addressed using frequent manual removal (e.g., scraping, scrubbing). Recent environmental restrictions and legislative changes have driven the development of less hazardous antifouling products, making antifouling paint a potential alternative option to manual removal. Consequently, the viability of using these newly developed products as a replacement for the manual cleaning of exclusion cages was experimentally investigated. There were six treatments tested, comprising three with settlement tiles in experimental cages coated with antifouling paint, two with settlement tiles in unpainted experimental cages, and one cage-free suspended tile. The three antifouling treatments comprised two reduced-copper paints (21% Cu2O and 40% Cu2O) and one copper-free, Econea (™)-based paint (labeled "ecofriendly"). Antifouling paints were assessed for performance of preventing fouling of the cages and whether they elicited local effects on settlement tiles contained within them. All three paints performed well to reduce fouling of the cages during the initial six weeks of the experiment, but the efficacy of "ecofriendly" paint began to decrease during an extended deployment that lasted 14 weeks. The macro-community composition, biomass, and percent cover of settled organism on tiles within cages treated with copper-based paints (21% and 40% concentrations) were indistinguishable from tiles within the manually scrubbed cages. In contrast, settlement to tiles from the "ecofriendly" treatment was different in composition of macro-community and lower in biomass, suggesting the presence of local effects and therefore rendering it unsuitable for use in settlement experiments. The results of this study suggest that reduced-copper paints have the potential to serve as an alternative to manual maintenance, which may be useful for deployments in locations that are

  5. ­A practical application of reduced-copper antifouling paint in marine biological research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Biofouling of experimental cages and other field apparatuses can be problematic for scientists and has traditionally been addressed using frequent manual removal (e.g., scraping, scrubbing). Recent environmental restrictions and legislative changes have driven the development of less hazardous antifouling products, making antifouling paint a potential alternative option to manual removal. Consequently, the viability of using these newly developed products as a replacement for the manual cleaning of exclusion cages was experimentally investigated. There were six treatments tested, comprising three with settlement tiles in experimental cages coated with antifouling paint, two with settlement tiles in unpainted experimental cages, and one cage-free suspended tile. The three antifouling treatments comprised two reduced-copper paints (21% Cu2O and 40% Cu2O) and one copper-free, Econea™-based paint (labeled “ecofriendly”). Antifouling paints were assessed for performance of preventing fouling of the cages and whether they elicited local effects on settlement tiles contained within them. All three paints performed well to reduce fouling of the cages during the initial six weeks of the experiment, but the efficacy of “ecofriendly” paint began to decrease during an extended deployment that lasted 14 weeks. The macro-community composition, biomass, and percent cover of settled organism on tiles within cages treated with copper-based paints (21% and 40% concentrations) were indistinguishable from tiles within the manually scrubbed cages. In contrast, settlement to tiles from the “ecofriendly” treatment was different in composition of macro-community and lower in biomass, suggesting the presence of local effects and therefore rendering it unsuitable for use in settlement experiments. The results of this study suggest that reduced-copper paints have the potential to serve as an alternative to manual maintenance, which may be useful for deployments in locations

  6. Application of Reduced Order Transonic Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient Matrix for Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pak, Chan-gi; Li, Wesley W.

    2009-01-01

    Supporting the Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate guidelines, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA] Dryden Flight Research Center is developing a multidisciplinary design, analysis, and optimization [MDAO] tool. This tool will leverage existing tools and practices, and allow the easy integration and adoption of new state-of-the-art software. Today s modern aircraft designs in transonic speed are a challenging task due to the computation time required for the unsteady aeroelastic analysis using a Computational Fluid Dynamics [CFD] code. Design approaches in this speed regime are mainly based on the manual trial and error. Because of the time required for unsteady CFD computations in time-domain, this will considerably slow down the whole design process. These analyses are usually performed repeatedly to optimize the final design. As a result, there is considerable motivation to be able to perform aeroelastic calculations more quickly and inexpensively. This paper will describe the development of unsteady transonic aeroelastic design methodology for design optimization using reduced modeling method and unsteady aerodynamic approximation. The method requires the unsteady transonic aerodynamics be represented in the frequency or Laplace domain. Dynamically linear assumption is used for creating Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient [AIC] matrices in transonic speed regime. Unsteady CFD computations are needed for the important columns of an AIC matrix which corresponded to the primary modes for the flutter. Order reduction techniques, such as Guyan reduction and improved reduction system, are used to reduce the size of problem transonic flutter can be found by the classic methods, such as Rational function approximation, p-k, p, root-locus etc. Such a methodology could be incorporated into MDAO tool for design optimization at a reasonable computational cost. The proposed technique is verified using the Aerostructures Test Wing 2 actually designed

  7. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; A. May

    2000-04-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

  8. Application of Chemically Accelerated Biotreatment to Reduce Risk in Oil-Impacted Soils

    SciTech Connect

    Paterek, J.R.; Bogan, W.W.; Lahner, L.M.; Trbovic, V.

    2003-03-06

    Conducted research in the following major focus areas: (1) Development of mild extraction approaches to estimate bioavailable fraction of crude oil residues in contaminated soils; (2) Application of these methods to understand decreases in toxicity and increases in sequestration of hydrocarbons over time, as well as the influence of soil properties on these processes; (3) Measurements of the abilities of various bacteria (PAH-degraders and others more representative of typical soil bacteria) to withstand oxidative treatments (i.e. Fenton's reaction) which would occur in CBT; and (4) Experiments into the biochemical/genetic inducibility of PAH degradation by compounds formed by the chemical oxidation of PAH.

  9. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISK IN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; W.W. Bogan; L.M. Lahner; V. Trbovic; E. Korach

    2001-05-01

    The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.

  10. New application of wavelets in magnetotelluric data processing: reducing impedance bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larnier, Hugo; Sailhac, Pascal; Chambodut, Aude

    2016-04-01

    Magnetotelluric (MT) data consist of the sum of several types of natural sources including transient and quasiperiodic signals and noise sources (instrumental, anthropogenic) whose nature has to be taken into account in MT data processing. Most processing techniques are based on a Fourier transform of MT time series, and robust statistics at a fixed frequency are used to compute the MT response functions, but only a few take into account the nature of the sources. Moreover, to reduce the influence of noise in the inversion of the response functions, one often sets up another MT station called a remote station. However, even careful setup of this remote station cannot prevent its failure in some cases. Here, we propose the use of the continuous wavelet transform on magnetotelluric time series to reduce the influence of noise even for single site processing. We use two different types of wavelets, Cauchy and Morlet, according to the shape of observed geomagnetic events. We show that by using wavelet coefficients at clearly identified geomagnetic events, we are able to recover the unbiased response function obtained through robust remote processing algorithms. This makes it possible to process even single station sites and increase the confidence in data interpretation.

  11. Reducing sojourn points from recurrence plots to improve transition detection: Application to fetal heart rate transitions.

    PubMed

    Zaylaa, Amira; Charara, Jamal; Girault, Jean-Marc

    2015-08-01

    The analysis of biomedical signals demonstrating complexity through recurrence plots is challenging. Quantification of recurrences is often biased by sojourn points that hide dynamic transitions. To overcome this problem, time series have previously been embedded at high dimensions. However, no one has quantified the elimination of sojourn points and rate of detection, nor the enhancement of transition detection has been investigated. This paper reports our on-going efforts to improve the detection of dynamic transitions from logistic maps and fetal hearts by reducing sojourn points. Three signal-based recurrence plots were developed, i.e. embedded with specific settings, derivative-based and m-time pattern. Determinism, cross-determinism and percentage of reduced sojourn points were computed to detect transitions. For logistic maps, an increase of 50% and 34.3% in sensitivity of detection over alternatives was achieved by m-time pattern and embedded recurrence plots with specific settings, respectively, and with a 100% specificity. For fetal heart rates, embedded recurrence plots with specific settings provided the best performance, followed by derivative-based recurrence plot, then unembedded recurrence plot using the determinism parameter. The relative errors between healthy and distressed fetuses were 153%, 95% and 91%. More than 50% of sojourn points were eliminated, allowing better detection of heart transitions triggered by gaseous exchange factors. This could be significant in improving the diagnosis of fetal state. PMID:25308517

  12. Reducing bioaerosol dispersion from wastewater treatment and its land application: a review and analysis.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Richard E; Rubin, Robert

    2005-09-01

    Wastewater treatment systems and spray irrigation of treated water may spread microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses through dispersion of aerosol particles. A recent review (Brooks, Josephson, Gerba, & Pepper, 2004) identifies appropriate reports. Teltsch and co-authors report findings that suggest effective management controls involve providing buffer zones, irrigating in the daytime and in times of low humidity, reducing microorganism levels in water used for spraying, and testing for multiple types of viruses and bacteria (Teltsch & Katzenelson, 1978; Teltsch, Shuval, & Tadmor, 1980; Teltsch, Kedmi, Bonnet, Borenzstajn-Rotem, & Katzenelson, 1980). Camann, Moore, Harding, and Sorber support these findings. They also note that fecal streptococci are hardier than fecal coliform and appear frequently in background samples, suggesting that this bacterium is a better indicator of background and downwind conditions than are fecal coliform bacteria. In their study, storage prior to spray irrigation reduced microorganism concentrations by 99 percent. Downwind concentrations of sprayed reservoir water were often comparable to background values (Camann, Moore, Harding, & Sorber, 1988). Italian researchers (Brandi, Sisti, & Amagliani, 2000; Carducci, Gemelli, Cantiani, Casini, & Rovini, 1999; Carducci et al., 2000) confirm variable die-away rates of microorganisms, observe a positive association between fecal streptococci and the presence of viruses, and recommend consideration of submerged aeration for sludge digestion at sewage treatment plants. No reports are available that measure dispersion of bioaerosols from wastewater consistently treated to meet contemporary disinfection standards. PMID:16220719

  13. Modeling an aquatic ecosystem: application of an evolutionary algorithm with genetic doping to reduce prediction uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedel, Michael; Buscema, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Aquatic ecosystem models can potentially be used to understand the influence of stresses on catchment resource quality. Given that catchment responses are functions of natural and anthropogenic stresses reflected in sparse and spatiotemporal biological, physical, and chemical measurements, an ecosystem is difficult to model using statistical or numerical methods. We propose an artificial adaptive systems approach to model ecosystems. First, an unsupervised machine-learning (ML) network is trained using the set of available sparse and disparate data variables. Second, an evolutionary algorithm with genetic doping is applied to reduce the number of ecosystem variables to an optimal set. Third, the optimal set of ecosystem variables is used to retrain the ML network. Fourth, a stochastic cross-validation approach is applied to quantify and compare the nonlinear uncertainty in selected predictions of the original and reduced models. Results are presented for aquatic ecosystems (tens of thousands of square kilometers) undergoing landscape change in the USA: Upper Illinois River Basin and Central Colorado Assessment Project Area, and Southland region, NZ.

  14. Application of 1-methylcyclopropene reduces wound responses and maintains quality in fresh-cut apple.

    PubMed

    Mao, Linchun; Lu, Fujun; Wang, Guoze

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment before cutting on respiration rate, ethylene production, electrolyte leakage, firmness, and color in fresh-cut apple fruit. Fresh-cut apple without 1-MCP treatment had a shelf life of 10 days at 2 degrees C and became browning and decay after pro-long storage. However, fresh-cut apple remained fresh-looking even after 14 days at 2 degrees C when fruit were exposed to 1-MCP before cutting. 1-MCP treatment significantly reduced wound-activated respiration rate and ethylene production, maintained firmness during storage. Visible changes in apple skin color do not occur, however, .L and whiteness index (WI) of flesh in intact and fresh-cut apple applied with 1-MCP were higher than those without 1-MCP treatment. Fresh-cut and intact fruit had little changes in electrolyte leakage after 2 days of storage when 1-MCP was pre-applied. The present study indicated that treatment with 1 microL/L 1-MCP for 10 h at 20 degrees C prior to cutting can significantly reduce wound-active responses in fresh-cut apple. PMID:17392087

  15. Methodology for Constructing Reduced-Order Power Block Performance Models for CSP Applications: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M.

    2010-10-01

    The inherent variability of the solar resource presents a unique challenge for CSP systems. Incident solar irradiation can fluctuate widely over a short time scale, but plant performance must be assessed for long time periods. As a result, annual simulations with hourly (or sub-hourly) timesteps are the norm in CSP analysis. A highly detailed power cycle model provides accuracy but tends to suffer from prohibitively long run-times; alternatively, simplified empirical models can run quickly but don?t always provide enough information, accuracy, or flexibility for the modeler. The ideal model for feasibility-level analysis incorporates both the detail and accuracy of a first-principle model with the low computational load of a regression model. The work presented in this paper proposes a methodology for organizing and extracting information from the performance output of a detailed model, then using it to develop a flexible reduced-order regression model in a systematic and structured way. A similar but less generalized approach for characterizing power cycle performance and a reduced-order modeling methodology for CFD analysis of heat transfer from electronic devices have been presented. This paper builds on these publications and the non-dimensional approach originally described.

  16. Lipid-lipid interactions in aminated reduced graphene oxide interface for biosensing application.

    PubMed

    Ali, Md Azahar; Kamil Reza, K; Srivastava, Saurabh; Agrawal, Ved Varun; John, Renu; Malhotra, Bansi Dhar

    2014-04-15

    A label-free biosensor based on antiapolipoprotein B 100 functionalized-aminated reduced graphene oxide interface has been fabricated for detection of low density lipoprotein (LDL or lipid) cholesterol. The aminated reduced graphene oxide (NH2-rGO) based electrode surface is covalently functionalized with antiapolipoprotein B 100 (AAB or lipid) using EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. The lipid-lipid interactions at the NH2-rGO electrode surface have been investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopic technique. The structural and morphological investigations of NH2-rGO based immunosensor have been accomplished via transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV-visible, and electrochemical techniques. The impedimetric response of the proposed immunosensor shows excellent sensitivity (612 Ω mg(-1) dL cm(-2)), a response time of 250 s, and a low detection limit of 5 mg/dL of LDL molecules. The association, dissociation, and equilibrium rate constants for this immunoelectrode are found to be 1.66 M(-1) s(-1), 0.6 s(-1), and 2.77 M(-1), respectively. The long-term stability and excellent reproducibility of the proposed immunosensor indicates a suitable platform for detection of LDL or lipid molecules. This immunosensor provides an efficient platform for analysis of the antigen-antibody interactions of lipid molecules. PMID:24673363

  17. Reducing depth uncertainty in large surgical workspaces, with applications to veterinary medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audette, Michel A.; Kolahi, Ahmad; Enquobahrie, Andinet; Gatti, Claudio; Cleary, Kevin

    2010-02-01

    This paper presents on-going research that addresses uncertainty along the Z-axis in image-guided surgery, for applications to large surgical workspaces, including those found in veterinary medicine. Veterinary medicine lags human medicine in using image guidance, despite MR and CT data scanning of animals. The positional uncertainty of a surgical tracking device can be modeled as an octahedron with one long axis coinciding with the depth axis of the sensor, where the short axes are determined by pixel resolution and workspace dimensions. The further a 3D point is from this device, the more elongated is this long axis, and the greater the uncertainty along Z of this point's position, in relation to its components along X and Y. Moreover, for a triangulation-based tracker, its position error degrades with the square of distance. Our approach is to use two or more Micron Trackers to communicate with each other, and combine this feature with flexible positioning. Prior knowledge of the type of surgical procedure, and if applicable, the species of animal that determines the scale of the workspace, would allow the surgeon to pre-operatively configure the trackers in the OR for optimal accuracy. Our research also leverages the open-source Image-guided Surgery Toolkit (IGSTK).

  18. Tensile and creep properties of reduced activation ferritic-martensitic steel for fusion energy application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, M. D.; Vanaja, J.; Laha, K.; Varaprasad Reddy, G.; Chandravathi, K. S.; Bhanu Sankara Rao, K.

    2011-10-01

    Tensile and creep properties of a reduced activation ferritic-martensitic (RAFM) steel for Indian Test Blanket Module (TBM) to be tested in ITER have been evaluated. The tensile strength was found to decrease with temperature; the rate of decrease being slower in the intermediate temperature range of 450-650 K. Tensile ductility of the steel decreased with increase in temperature up to 650 K, followed by a rapid increase beyond 650 K. Creep studies have been carried out at 773, 823 and 873 K over a stress range of 100-300 MPa. The variation of minimum creep rate with applied stress followed a power law, ɛ = Aσ n. The ' n' value decreased with increase in temperature. The creep rupture life was found to relate inversely with minimum creep rate through the Monkman-Grant relation, t r · ɛ = constant. The tensile and creep properties of the steel were comparable with those of Eurofer 97.

  19. Renormalization group analysis of reduced magnetohydrodynamics with application to subgrid modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longcope, D. W.; Sudan, R. N.

    1991-01-01

    The technique for obtaining a subgrid model for Navier-Stokes turbulence, based on renormalization group analysis (RNG), is extended to the reduced magnetohydrodynamic (RMND) equations. It is shown that a RNG treatment of the Alfven turbulence supported by the RMHD equations leads to effective values of the viscosity and resistivity at large scales, k yields 0, dependent on the amplitude of turbulence. The effective viscosity and resistivity become independent of the molecular quantities when the RNG analysis is augmented by the Kolmogorov argument for energy cascade. A self-contained system of equations is derived for the range of scales, k = 0-K, where K = pi/Delta is the maximum wave number for a grid size Delta. Differential operators, whose coefficients depend upon the amplitudes of the large-scale quantities, represent in this system the resistive and viscous dissipation.

  20. Functionalization of reduced graphene oxide by electroactive polymer for biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Le Huy; Dzung Nguyen, Tuan; Hoang Tran, Vinh; Thu Huyen Dang, Thi; Tran, Dai Lam

    2014-09-01

    A novel biosensing platform was designed by the functionalizing reduced graphene oxide sheets (rGO) with electroactive copolymer juglone. The composite film showed well-defined, stable electroactivity in a biocompatible buffer medium. Square wave voltammetry is used to record the redox signal for DNA hybridization. Current increase upon hybridization (signal-on) evidenced that short DNA target as well as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), so called ‘real sample’ products, related to different lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain. The signal-on reached ∼40% with 1 nM of short DNA (25 mer) target, while PCR product (Africanum, EAI and Beijing strains) produced a current change of ∼20%.

  1. Facile synthesis of Ag-reduced graphene oxide hybrids and their application in electromagnetic interference shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Tao; Hu, Li; Dai, HongXia; Tang, YuXia

    2014-07-01

    A fast and environmentally friendly method was proposed toward one-pot synthesis of Ag-reduced graphene oxide (Ag-RGO) hybrids by a chemical reduction method assisted by microwave irradiation treatment with the use of sodium citrate as green reductant. The as-synthesized samples were characterized systematically, and the results indicated the successful synthesis of Ag-RGO. Ag-RGO was further applied as filler in polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) matrix polymer composites, and their electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding performance was investigated. The prepared Ag-RGO/PMMA composites with 3.0 vol% Ag-RGO exhibited an excellent EMI shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) of average 26.8 dB in the 8-12 GHz X-band range, which outperformed the RGO/PMMA composites (18.4 dB) with bare RGO as fillers.

  2. High operating temperature IR-modules with reduced pitch for SWaP sensitive applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, R.; Wendler, J.; Lutz, H.; Rutzinger, S.; Ihle, T.; Ziegler, J.; Rühlich, I.

    2011-06-01

    Low size, weight and power (SWaP) are the most critical requirements for portable thermal imagers like weapon sights or handheld observations devices. On the other hand due to current asymmetrical conflicts there are high requirements for the e/o performance of these devices providing the ability to distinguish between combatants and non-combatants in adequate ranges. Despite of all the success with uncooled technology, such requirements usually still require cooled detectors. AIM has developed a family of thermal weapon sights called HuntIR and RangIR based on high performance cooled IR-modules which are used e.g. in the infantryman of the future program of the German army (IdZ). The specific capability of these devices is a high ID range >1500m for tank targets being suitable in use as thermal sights for .50 cal rifles like the G82, targeting units for the 40mm AGL or for night observation. While such ranges sound far beyond the operational needs in urban operations, the a.m. specific needs of asymmetric warfare require sometimes even more range performance. High operating temperature (HOT) is introduced in the AIM MCT 640x512/15μm MWIR or LWIR modules for further reduction of cooler power consumption, shorter cooldown times and higher MTTF. As a key component to keep performance while further reducing SWaP AIM is developing a new cooled MCT IR-module with reduced pitch of 12 μm operating at a temperature >120 K. The module will provide full TV format with 640x480 elements sensitive in the MWIR spectral band. The paper will show recent results of AIM IR-modules with high operating temperature and the impact of design regarding the IR-module itself and thermal sights making use of it.

  3. Pressure-constrained, reduced-DOF, interconnected parallel manipulators with applications to space suit design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, Shane Earl

    This dissertation presents the concept of a Morphing Upper Torso, an innovative pressure suit design that incorporates robotic elements to enable a resizable, highly mobile and easy to don/doff spacesuit. The torso is modeled as a system of interconnected, pressure-constrained, reduced-DOF, wire-actuated parallel manipulators, that enable the dimensions of the suit to be reconfigured to match the wearer. The kinematics, dynamics and control of wire-actuated manipulators are derived and simulated, along with the Jacobian transforms, which relate the total twist vector of the system to the vector of actuator velocities. Tools are developed that allow calculation of the workspace for both single and interconnected reduced-DOF robots of this type, using knowledge of the link lengths. The forward kinematics and statics equations are combined and solved to produce the pose of the platforms along with the link tensions. These tools allow analysis of the full Morphing Upper Torso design, in which the back hatch of a rear-entry torso is interconnected with the waist ring, helmet ring and two scye bearings. Half-scale and full-scale experimental models are used along with analytical models to examine the feasibility of this novel space suit concept. The analytical and experimental results demonstrate that the torso could be expanded to facilitate donning and doffng, and then contracted to match different wearer's body dimensions. Using the system of interconnected parallel manipulators, suit components can be accurately repositioned to different desired configurations. The demonstrated feasibility of the Morphing Upper Torso concept makes it an exciting candidate for inclusion in a future planetary suit architecture.

  4. Noncovalently-functionalized reduced graphene oxide sheets by water-soluble methyl green for supercapacitor application

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Xiaoying; Hu, Zhongai Hu, Haixiong; Qiang, Ruibin; Li, Li; Li, Zhimin; Yang, Yuying; Zhang, Ziyu; Wu, Hongying

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Electroactive methyl green (MG) is selected to functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) through non-covalent modification and the composite achieves high specific capacitance, good rate capability and excellent long life cycle. - Highlights: • MG–RGO composites were firstly prepared through non-covalent modification. • The mass ratio in composites is a key for achieving high specific capacitance. • MG–RGO 5:4 exhibits the highest specific capacitance of 341 F g{sup −1}. • MG–RGO 5:4 shows excellent rate capability and long life cycle. - Abstract: In the present work, water-soluble electroactive methyl green (MG) has been used to non-covalently functionalize reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for enhancing supercapacitive performance. The microstructure, composition and morphology of MG–RGO composites are systematically characterized by UV–vis absorption, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The electrochemical performances are investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV), galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The fast redox reactions from MG could generate additional pseudocapacitance, which endows RGO higher capacitances. As a result, the MG–RGO composite (with the 5:4 mass ratio of MG:RGO) achieve a maximum value of 341 F g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1} within the potential range from −0.25 to 0.75 V and provide a 180% enhancement in specific capacitance in comparison with pure RGO. Furthermore, excellent rate capability (72% capacitance retention from 1 A g{sup −1} to 20 A g{sup −1}) and long life cycle (12% capacitance decay after 5000 cycles) are achieved for the MG–RGO composite electrode.

  5. A Distributed Look-up Architecture for Text Mining Applications using MapReduce.

    PubMed

    Balkir, Atilla Soner; Foster, Ian; Rzhetsky, Andrey

    2011-11-01

    Text mining applications typically involve statistical models that require accessing and updating model parameters in an iterative fashion. With the growing size of the data, such models become extremely parameter rich, and naive parallel implementations fail to address the scalability problem of maintaining a distributed look-up table that maps model parameters to their values. We evaluate several existing alternatives to provide coordination among worker nodes in Hadoop [11] clusters, and suggest a new multi-layered look-up architecture that is specifically optimized for certain problem domains. Our solution exploits the power-law distribution characteristics of the phrase or n-gram counts in large corpora while utilizing a Bloom Filter [2], in-memory cache, and an HBase [12] cluster at varying levels of abstraction. PMID:25356441

  6. An application of active surface heating for augmenting lift and reducing drag of an airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maestrello, Lucio; Badavi, Forooz F.; Noonan, Kevin W.

    1988-01-01

    Application of active control to separated flow on the RC(6)-08 airfoil at high angle of attack by localized surface heating is numerically simulated by integrating the compressible 2-D nonlinear Navier-Stokes equation solver. Active control is simulated by local modification of the temperature boundary condition over a narrow strip of the upper surface of the airfoil. Both mean and perturbed profiles are favorably altered when excited with the same natural frequency of the shear layer by moderate surface heating for both laminar and turbulent separation. The shear layer is found to be very sensitive to localized surface heating in the vicinity of the separation point. The excitation field at the surface sufficiently altered both the local as well as the global circulation to cause a significant increase in lift and reduction in drag.

  7. Facile hydrothermal preparation of niobium pentaoxide decorated reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for supercapacitor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murugan, M.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Alsalme, Ali; Alghamdi, Abdulaziz; Jayavel, R.

    2016-04-01

    Facile synthesis of graphene-Nb2O5 composite has been reported. Graphene oxide was prepared by the modified Hummer's method. The metal oxide (Nb2O5) was introduced to the graphene to form the composite by the hydrothermal method. The prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). SEM and TEM results revealed that the metal oxide particles are uniformly dispersed on the surface of thin sheets of well-defined multilayered graphene structure. Thermal stability of the graphene metal oxide nanocomposites was also investigated. The CV measurements reveal a significant enhancement in the specific capacitance reaching 321 Fg-1 at a scan rate of 10 mV s-1. With promising electrochemical characteristics, Nb2O5 decorated graphene nanocomposite are explored as potential electrode material for supercapacitor applications.

  8. A Distributed Look-up Architecture for Text Mining Applications using MapReduce

    PubMed Central

    Balkir, Atilla Soner; Foster, Ian; Rzhetsky, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    Text mining applications typically involve statistical models that require accessing and updating model parameters in an iterative fashion. With the growing size of the data, such models become extremely parameter rich, and naive parallel implementations fail to address the scalability problem of maintaining a distributed look-up table that maps model parameters to their values. We evaluate several existing alternatives to provide coordination among worker nodes in Hadoop [11] clusters, and suggest a new multi-layered look-up architecture that is specifically optimized for certain problem domains. Our solution exploits the power-law distribution characteristics of the phrase or n-gram counts in large corpora while utilizing a Bloom Filter [2], in-memory cache, and an HBase [12] cluster at varying levels of abstraction. PMID:25356441

  9. Application of poly (p-phenylene oxide) as blocking layer to reduce self-discharge in supercapacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tevi, Tete; Yaghoubi, Houman; Wang, Jing; Takshi, Arash

    2013-11-01

    Supercapacitors are electrochemical energy storage devices with high power density. However, application of supercapacitors is limited mainly due to their high leakage current. In this work, application of an ultra-thin layer of electrodeposited poly (p-phenylene oxide) (PPO) has been investigated as a blocking layer to reduce the leakage current. The polymer was first deposited on a glassy carbon electrode. The morphology of the film was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the film thickness was estimated to be ˜1.5 nm by using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. The same deposition method was applied to coat the surface of the activated carbon electrodes of a supercapacitor with PPO. The specific capacitance, the leakage current, and the series resistance were measured in two devices with and without the blocking layer. The results demonstrate that the application of the PPO layer reduced the leakage current by ˜78%. However, the specific capacitance was decreased by ˜56%, when the blocking layer was applied. Due to the lower rate of self-discharge, the suggested approach can be applied to fabricate devices with longer charge storage time.

  10. Application of remote sensing in crop growth simulation and an ensembles approach to reduce model uncertainties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setiyono, T. D.; Nelson, A.; Ravis, J.; Maunahan, A.; Villano, L.; Li, T.; Bouman, B.

    2012-12-01

    A semi-empirical model derived from the water-cloud model was used to convert synthetic- aperture radar (SAR) backscattering data into LAI. The SAR-based LAI at early rice growth stages were in a close agreement (90%) with LAI derived from MODIS data for the same study location in Nueva Ecija, Philippines. ORYZA2000 simulated rice yield of 4.5 Mg ha-1 for the 2008 wet season in Nueva Ejica, Philippines when using LAI inputs derived from SAR data, which is closer to the observed yield of 3.9 Mg ha-1, whereas simulated yield without SAR-derived LAI inputs was 5.4 Mg ha-1. The dynamic water and nitrogen balances were accounted in these simulations based on site-specific soil properties and actual fertilizer N and water management. The use of remote sensing data was promising for model application to approximate actual growth conditions and to compensate for limitations in the model due to relevant underlining processes absent in model formulations such as detailed tillering, leaf shading effect, etc., and also limiting factors not accounted in the model such as biotic factors and abiotic factors other than water and N shortages. This study also demonstrated the use an ensembles approach for provincial level rice yield estimation in the Philippines. Such ensembles approach involved statistical classifications of agronomic management settings into 25% percentile, median, and 75% levels followed by generation of factorial combinations. For irrigated lowland system, 4 factors were considered that include transplanting date, plant density, fertilizer N rate, and amount of irrigation water. For rainfed lowland system, there were 3 agronomic management factors (transplanting date, plant density, fertilizer N) and 1 soil parameter (depth of ground water table). These 4 management/soil factors and 3 statistical levels resulted in 81 total factorial combinations representing simulation scenarios for each area of interest (province in the Philippines) and water environments

  11. Assessment of Reduced-Kinetics Mechanisms for Combustion of Jet Fuel in CFD Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajmani, Kumud; Kundu, Krihna P.; Yungster, Shaye J.

    2014-01-01

    A computational effort was undertaken to analyze the details of fluid flow in Lean-Direct Injection (LDI) combustors for next-generation LDI design. The National Combustor Code (NCC) was used to perform reacting flow computations on single-element LDI injector configurations. The feasibility of using a reduced chemical-kinetics approach, which optimizes the reaction rates and species to model the emissions characteristics typical of lean-burning gas-turbine combustors, was assessed. The assessments were performed with Reynolds- Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and Time-Filtered Navier Stokes (TFNS) time-integration, with a Lagrangian spray model with the NCC code. The NCC predictions for EINOx and combustor exit temperature were compared with experimental data for two different single-element LDI injector configurations, with 60deg and 45deg axially swept swirler vanes. The effects of turbulence-chemistry interaction on the predicted flow in a typical LDI combustor were studied with detailed comparisons of NCC TFNS with experimental data.

  12. Application of chrysophanol in zebrafish to reduce dietary introduced lipid and its possible mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kan; Wang, Chang-Qian; Fan, Yu-Qi; Xie, Yu-Shui; Yin, Zhao-Fang; Xu, Zuo-Jun; Zhang, Hui-Li; Cao, Jia-Tian; Wang, Yue

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the therapeutic potential and mechanism of chrysophanol on lipid-lowering function. Methods: Zebrafish or larvae were employed to evaluate the effect of chrysophanol on lipid-lowering. Zebrafish of 5 day post fertilization (dpf, larva) and 13-week old were fed with high-cholesterol diet or high-fat to investigate the influence of chrysophanol comparing with atorvastain and co-administration of chrysophanol and atorvastain on subsistent blood lipid using the fluorescence microscope and lipid panel screen. Thereafter, we enrolled zebrafish of 7 dpf fed with high-fat diet to explore the lipid-lowering mechanism of chrysophanol basing on the frequency of peristalsis and the residual on the digestive wall. Results: Chrysophanol could significantly lower cholesterol both in zebrafish and larvae (P < 0.05), and the co-administration of chrysophanol and atorvastatin had the best performance in reducing cholesterol (P < 0.05). Chrysophanol and atorvastain could also significantly lower triglyceride. Moreover, we found that chrysophanol attached on the digestive wall for a long time and enhanced the frequency of peristalsis. Conclusions: Chrysophanol has lipid-lowering effect both in zebrafish and larvae which may be attributed to the effect on the frequency of peristalsis and fat absorption, and co-administration with atorvastain performs better lipid-lowering effect in zebrafish. PMID:26379845

  13. Synthesis and characterization of Y2O3-reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for photocatalytic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, T.; Anandan, P.; Azhagurajan, M.; Arivanandhan, M.; Pazhanivel, K.; Hayakawa, Y.; Jayavel, R.

    2016-07-01

    Yittrium oxide (Y2O3)-reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanocomposite was prepared by a low temperature solution process by mixing different weight ratios of chemically derived rGO and Y2O3. The structural properties of nanocomposite materials have been analyzed by x-ray diffraction. Laser Raman spectroscopic study further confirmed the formation of the nanocomposite materials. The morphology of the nanocomposite has been analyzed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. From the FE-SEM and TEM images, it was found that the nanocrystals of Y2O3 were interpolated in the graphene sheets. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed that the rGO has a reasonable amount of C-O groups as the doublet was observed in the C 1s spectrum. Moreover, the O 1s peak illustrates the doublet peaks which confirms the presence of OH and other functional groups at the surfaces of rGO. Electrochemical behavior of the nanocomposite was studied by cyclic voltammetric studies. The nanocomposite with higher weight percent of rGO shows better photocatalytic performance compared to the samples with low weight percent of rGO. The photocatalytic characteristics of the nanocomposite have been discussed based on the XPS results. The presence of hydroxyl group in the rGO of nanocomposites increases the OH radical formation and suppresses the recombination of excitons, which is responsible for the rapid decomposition of dye molecules.

  14. Cancer prevention: Application of chemicals in treatment therapy to reduce risk in secondary tumor induction

    SciTech Connect

    Grdina, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    We have investigated WR2721 and similar aminothiol compounds to determine their role in modulating the mutagenic and carcinogenic action of radiation and selected chemotherapeutic agents. We have found that 2-((aminopropyl)amino) ethanethiol (WR1065), a free-thiol of WR2721, effectively protected against the mutagenic effects of radiation at the HGPRT locus in V79 cells even if administered up to 3 h following irradiation, a reduction in mutation frequencies of about 0.55. Under the conditions tested, the radioprotector protected against cell killing only if it was present during irradiation. In contrast, protection against mutagenesis occurred regardless of whether the protector was present during or following irradiation. These preliminary studies were expanded to determine the effects of WR1065 on cis-diamminedichloroplatinum-(cis-DDP) and bleomycin-induced cytotoxicity and mutagenicity even when administered following chemotherapy treatment. Thus, the V79 cell system used was found to be extremely effective in monitoring, in a rapid and cost-effective manner, the antimutagenic effects of radioprotectors on radiation and chemotherapy agents. Cell transformation was assayed using C3H 10T1/2 cells. The presence of a radioprotector significantly reduced the formation of radiation-induced transformed cells. Neonatal rats were also used to assess the induction of preneoplastic-lesions. 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Multifunctional magnetic reduced graphene oxide dendrites: synthesis, characterization and their applications.

    PubMed

    Roy, Ekta; Patra, Santanu; Kumar, Deepak; Madhuri, Rashmi; Sharma, Prashant K

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, for the first time, we have reported the novel synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (r-GO) dendrite kind of nanomaterial. The proposed r-GO dendrite possesses multifunctional properties in various fields of sensing and separation. The dendrite was synthesized by chemical reaction in different steps. Initially, the r-GO sheet was conjugated with silane group modified magnetic nanoparticle, resulting in nanoparticle decorated r-GO. The above r-GO sheet was further reacted with a new r-GO sheet, resulting in the formation of r-GO dendrite type of structure. Multifunctional behavior of this r-GO dendrite structure was studied by different methods. First, magnetic properties were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) and it was found that dendrite structure shows good magnetic susceptibility (180.2 emu/g). The proposed r-GO dendrite also shows a very good antibacterial behavior for Escherichia coli and excellent electrochemical behavior towards ferrocyanide probe molecule. Along with these, it also acts as a substrate for the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymer for europium metal ion, a lanthanide. The proposed imprinted sensor shows a very high selectivity and sensitivity for europium metal ion (limit of detection= 0.019 μg L(-1)) in aqueous as well as real samples. PMID:25682500

  16. Exopeptidases and their application to reduce bitterness in food: a review.

    PubMed

    Raksakulthai, Rocharake; Haard, Norman F

    2003-01-01

    When exopeptidases catalyze hydrolysis of peptide bonds, the product(s) may have a less bitter taste, and the free amino acids or small peptides formed may function in food as pleasant-tasting flavor compounds or as flavor precursors. There are several classes of exopeptidase based on specificity for hydrolysis of synthetic substrates. Exopeptidases in food-stuff may be of natural origin or may be extrinsic, that is, produced by microorganisms or parasites. Exopeptidases used to modify foods are also becoming increasingly available in the industrial enzyme market. Exopeptidases contribute to a variety of quality changes in postharvest fruit, meats, and food fermentations. Foodstuff impacted by these enzymes during processing include cocoa, beer, aged and cured meat products, koji, fish sauce, ripened cheeses, and protein hydrolysates. An important role of exopeptidases in food is the hydrolysis of hydrophobic, bitter peptides. The relationship between peptide structure and sensory transduction/receptor models is discussed. Research on the use of exopeptidases to reduce bitterness is reviewed. PMID:12940418

  17. [Application of Microbial Fuel Cells in Reducing Methane Emission from Rice Paddy].

    PubMed

    Deng, Huan; Cai, Lü-cheng; Jiang, Yun-bin; Zhong, Wen-hui

    2016-01-15

    We aimed to study whether the methane emission from rice paddy with straw return can be alleviated in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In our study, the soil mixed with 0. 5% ( mass fraction) rice straw was packed into MFCs reactors, then flooded with excess of sterilized water and transplanted with rice seedlings followed by the operation of MFCs. The MFCs were operated for 98 days covering five stages of seeding, tillering, mid-season aeration, rice filling, and ripening. The voltage data were recorded continuously and in real time during the MFCs operation and the methane emitted was collected once a week using the static chamber method and the methane emission flux was determined by gas chromatography. The results showed that the MFCs current increased and reached the peak value in the seeding and tillering stages and the operation of MFCs significantly reduced the accumulative methane emission in these two stages. The possible reason could be that the electrogens competed with methanogens for organic substrates. The height, the above and below ground biomass, and the productivity of rice plants were not significantly affected by the 98-day operation of MFCs. Our study provides a potential green and sustainable technology for the reduction of CH, emission from rice paddy fields. PMID:27078978

  18. Application of N-Doped Three-Dimensional Reduced Graphene Oxide Aerogel to Thin Film Loudspeaker.

    PubMed

    Kim, Choong Sun; Lee, Kyung Eun; Lee, Jung-Min; Kim, Sang Ouk; Cho, Byung Jin; Choi, Jung-Woo

    2016-08-31

    We built a thermoacoustic loudspeaker employing N-doped three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide aerogel (N-rGOA) based on a simple template-free fabrication method. A two-step fabrication process, which includes freeze-drying and reduction/doping, was used to realize a three-dimensional, freestanding, and porous graphene-based loudspeaker, whose macroscopic structure can be easily modulated. The simplified fabrication process also allows the control of structural properties of the N-rGOAs, including density and area. Taking advantage of the facile fabrication process, we fabricated and analyzed thermoacoustic loudspeakers with different structural properties. The anlayses showed that a N-rGOA with lower density and larger area can produce a higher sound pressure level (SPL). Furthermore, the resistance of the proposed loudspeaker can be easily controlled through heteroatom doping, thereby helping to generate higher SPL per unit driving voltage. Our success in constructing an array of optimized N-rGOAs able to withstand input power as high as 40 W demonstrates that a practical thermoacoustic loudspeaker can be fabricated using the proposed mass-producible solution-based process. PMID:27532328

  19. Preliminary investigation of force-reduced superconducting magnet configurations for advanced technology applications

    SciTech Connect

    Bouillard, J.X.

    1992-12-01

    The feasibility of new high-field low specific weight superconducting magnet designs using force-free fields is being explored analytically and numerically. This report attempts to assess the technical viability of force-free field concepts to produce high-field, low specific weight and large bore volume magnets, which could promote the use of high temperature superconductors. Several force-free/force-reduced magnet configurations are first reviewed, then discussed and assessed. Force-free magnetic fields, fields for which the current flows parallel to the field, have well-known mathematical solutions extending upon infinite domains. These solutions, however, are no longer force-free everywhere for finite geometries. In this preliminary study, force-free solutions such as the Lundquist solutions truncated to a size where the internal field of the coil matches an externally cylindrical magnetic field (also called a Lundquist coil) are numerically modeled and explored. Significant force-reduction for such coils was calculated, which may have some importance for the design of lighter toroidal magnets used in thermonuclear fusion power generation, superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES), and mobile MHD power generation and propulsion.

  20. Application of electrochemically reduced graphene oxide on screen-printed ion-selective electrode.

    PubMed

    Ping, Jianfeng; Wang, Yixian; Ying, Yibin; Wu, Jian

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a novel disposable all-solid-state ion-selective electrode using graphene as the ion-to-electron transducer was developed. The graphene film was prepared on screen-printed electrode directly from the graphene oxide dispersion by a one-step electrodeposition technique. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were employed to demonstrate the large double layer capacitance and fast charge transfer of the graphene film modified electrode. On the basis of these excellent properties, an all-solid-state calcium ion-selective electrode as the model was constructed using the calcium ion-selective membrane and graphene film modified electrode. The mechanism about the graphene promoting the ion-to-electron transformation was investigated in detail. The disposable electrode exhibited a Nernstian slope (29.1 mV/decade), low detection limit (10(-5.8) M), and fast response time (less than 10 s). With the high hydrophobic character of graphene materials, no water film was formed between the ion-selective membrane and the underlying graphene layer. Further studies revealed that the developed electrode was insensitive to light, oxygen, and redox species. The use of the disposable electrode for real sample analysis obtained satisfactory results, which made it a promising alternative in routine sensing applications. PMID:22380625

  1. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lili; Yu, Xinxin; Hu, Hongrui; Li, Yang; Wu, Mingzai; Wang, Zhongzhu; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Chen, Changle

    2015-03-01

    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4.7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via γ-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide sheets and H2 gas generated during the annealing of graphene oxide are believed to play an important role during these phase transformations. These samples showed good electromagnetic wave absorption performance due to their electromagnetic complementary effect. These samples possess much better electromagnetic wave absorption properties than the mixture of separately prepared Fe3O4 with rGO, suggesting the crucial role of synthetic method in determining the product properties. Also, these samples perform much better than commercial absorbers. Most importantly, the great stability of these composites is highly advantageous for applications as electromagnetic wave absorption materials at high temperatures.

  2. Facile synthesis of iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites: application for electromagnetic wave absorption at high temperature

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lili; Yu, Xinxin; Hu, Hongrui; Li, Yang; Wu, Mingzai; Wang, Zhongzhu; Li, Guang; Sun, Zhaoqi; Chen, Changle

    2015-01-01

    Iron oxides/reduced graphene oxide composites were synthesized by facile thermochemical reactions of graphite oxide and FeSO4·7H2O. By adjusting reaction temperature, α-Fe2O3/reduced graphene oxide and Fe3O4/reduced graphene oxide composites can be obtained conveniently. Graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide sheets were demonstrated to regulate the phase transition from α-Fe2O3 to Fe3O4 via γ-Fe2O3, which was reported for the first time. The hydroxyl groups attached on the graphene oxide sheets and H2 gas generated during the annealing of graphene oxide are believed to play an important role during these phase transformations. These samples showed good electromagnetic wave absorption performance due to their electromagnetic complementary effect. These samples possess much better electromagnetic wave absorption properties than the mixture of separately prepared Fe3O4 with rGO, suggesting the crucial role of synthetic method in determining the product properties. Also, these samples perform much better than commercial absorbers. Most importantly, the great stability of these composites is highly advantageous for applications as electromagnetic wave absorption materials at high temperatures. PMID:25788158

  3. Research on reducing radiation exposure for clinical applications of X-ray attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Min-Cheol; Han, Man-Seok; So, Woon-Young; Lee, Hyeon-Guck; Kim, Yong-Kyun; Lee, Seung-Yeol

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed at identifing areas with low radiation exposure where workers could be taken in the examination room in case that they had to hold the patients by estimating the attenuation of primary radiation and measuring the spatial distribution of scattered radiation. The laboratory equipment included on the X-ray generator, a phantom (human phantom), and a dosimeter. The experiment measured the performance of the examination system (dose reproducibility), the dose of primary radiation (X-rays), and the dose of scattered radiation (secondary radiation). Both the primary and the scattered radiation were attenuated by a factor of tube in vacuum experimental tests of the inverse square law. In this study, the attenuation was 2 ˜ 2.246 for primary radiation and 2 ˜ 2.105 for secondary radiation. Natural attenuation occurred as the X-rays passed through air, and an attenuation equation was established in this study. The equation for primary radiation (1st dose) was y = A1* exp(- x/t1)+ y0. The high-intensity contour of the direction for the cathode was wider than that of the direction for the anode, showing a wide range on the rear side of the cathode and on the rear side of the anode. We tried to find the positions where the workers' radiation exposure could be reduced. When the medical radiation workers have to hold the patient for an abdominal examination, they should be placed towards the tube anode and on the left side of the patient. For a lumbar-spine lateral examination, they should be placed towards the tube anode and behind the patient, and for a femur AP (anterior-posterior) examination, they should be placed towards the tube anode and on the right side of the patient.

  4. APPLICATION OF CHEMICALLY ACCELERATED BIOTREATMENT TO REDUCE RISKIN OIL-IMPACTED SOILS

    SciTech Connect

    J.R. Paterek; W.W.Bogan; V. Trbovic; W. Sullivan

    2003-01-07

    The drilling and operation of gas/petroleum exploratory wells and the operations of natural gas and petroleum production wells generate a number of waste materials that are usually stored and/or processed at the drilling/operations site. Contaminated soils result from drilling operations, production operations, and pipeline breaks or leaks where crude oil and petroleum products are released into the surrounding soil or sediments. In many cases, intrinsic biochemical remediation of these contaminated soils is either not effective or is too slow to be an acceptable approach. This project targeted petroleum-impacted soil and other wastes, such as soil contaminated by: accidental release of petroleum and natural gas-associated organic wastes from pipelines or during transport of crude oil or natural gas; production wastes (such as produced waters, and/or fuels or product gas). Our research evaluated the process designated Chemically-Accelerated Biotreatment (CAB) that can be applied to remediate contaminated matrices, either on-site or in situ. The Gas Technology Institute (GTI) had previously developed a form of CAB for the remediation of hydrocarbons and metals at Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) sites and this research project expanded its application into Exploration and Production (E&P) sites. The CAB treatment was developed in this project using risk-based endpoints, a.k.a. environmentally acceptable endpoints (EAE) as the treatment goal. This goal was evaluated, compared, and correlated to traditional analytical methods (Gas Chromatography (GC), High Precision Liquid Chromatography (HPLC), or Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (CGMS)). This project proved that CAB can be applied to remediate E&P contaminated soils to EAE, i.e. those concentrations of chemical contaminants in soil below which there is no adverse affect to human health or the environment. Conventional approaches to risk assessment to determine ''how clean is clean'' for soils undergoing remediation

  5. Efficacy of hand-broadcast application of baits containing 0.005% diphacinone in reducing rat populations in Hawaiian forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foote, David; Lindsey, Gerald D.; Perry, Charlotte F.; Spurr, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Introduced black rats (Rattus rattus), Polynesian rats (R. exulans/i>), and Norway rats (R. norvegicus) impact insular bird, plant, and invertebrate populations worldwide. We investigated the efficacy of hand-broadcast application of Ramik® Green containing 0.005% diphacinone for rodent control in paired 4-ha treatment and non-treatment plots in both wet and mesic forest in Hawaiʽi. Radio telemetry of black rats, the predominant species, indicated 100% mortality in both treatment plots within about one week of bait application. Live trapping and non-toxic census bait block monitoring two to four weeks after each of 12 repeat bait applications in the wet forest, and three repeat bait applications in the mesic forest, indicated rat abundance was reduced on average by 84–88%. However, reinvasion could have occurred within this time. Rat populations in the treatment plots usually recovered to pre-poison levels within two to five months. House mice (Mus musculus), Indian mongooses (Herpestes auropunctatus), and feral cats (Felis catus) also ate bait or other animals that had eaten bait. This study demonstrates the efficacy of ground-based broadcast toxicant baits for the control of rats in Hawaiian montane wet forests.

  6. Expancel Foams: Fabrication and Characterization of a New Reduced Density Cellular Material for Structural Applications

    SciTech Connect

    L. Whinnery; S. Goods; B. Even

    2000-08-01

    higher density unexpanded powder (approximately 0.5 g/cm{sup 3}) can be produced using this technique. The extremely wide range of accessible densities, ease of processing, relatively inexpensive materials, uniformity of the density, scaleable nature of the process should make this technology highly competitive for a variety of Defense Programs and commercial applications.

  7. Application of bacteriophages to reduce biofilms formed by hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria on surfaces in a rendering plant.

    PubMed

    Gong, Chao; Jiang, Xiuping

    2015-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide producing bacteria (SPB) in raw animal by-products are likely to grow and form biofilms in the rendering processing environments, resulting in the release of harmful hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. The objective of this study was to reduce SPB biofilms formed on different surfaces typically found in rendering plants by applying a bacteriophage cocktail. Using a 96-well microplate method, we determined that 3 SPB strains of Citrobacter freundii and Hafnia alvei are strong biofilm formers. Application of 9 bacteriophages (10(7) PFU/mL) from families of Siphoviridae and Myoviridae resulted in a 33%-70% reduction of biofilm formation by each SPB strain. On stainless steel and plastic templates, phage treatment (10(8) PFU/mL) reduced the attached cells of a mixed SPB culture (no biofilm) by 2.3 and 2.7 log CFU/cm(2) within 6 h at 30 °C, respectively, as compared with 2 and 1.5 log CFU/cm(2) reductions of SPB biofilms within 6 h at 30 °C. Phage treatment was also applied to indigenous SPB biofilms formed on the environmental surface, stainless steel, high-density polyethylene plastic, and rubber templates in a rendering plant. With phage treatment (10(9) PFU/mL), SPB biofilms were reduced by 0.7-1.4, 0.3-0.6, and 0.2-0.6 log CFU/cm(2) in spring, summer, and fall trials, respectively. Our study demonstrated that bacteriophages could effectively reduce the selected SPB strains either attached to or in formed biofilms on various surfaces and could to some extent reduce the indigenous SPB biofilms on the surfaces in the rendering environment. PMID:26102989

  8. Does a meditation protocol supported by a mobile application help people reduce stress? Suggestions from a controlled pragmatic trial.

    PubMed

    Carissoli, Claudia; Villani, Daniela; Riva, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a 3 week mindfulness inspired protocol, delivered by an Android application for smartphones, in reducing stress in the adult population. By using a controlled pragmatic trial, a self-help intervention group of meditators was compared with a typical control group listening to relaxing music and a waiting list group. The final sample included 56 Italian workers as participants, block randomized to the three conditions. The self-reported level of perceived stress was assessed at the beginning and at the end of the protocol. Participants were also instructed to track their heart rate before and after each session. The results did not show any significant differences between groups, but both self-help intervention groups demonstrated an improvement in coping with stress. Nevertheless, meditators and music listeners reported a significant decrease in average heartbeats per minute after each session. Furthermore, both groups perceived a moderate but significant change in stress reduction perceptions, even if with some peculiarities. Limitations and opportunities related to the meditation protocol supported by the mobile application to reduce stress are discussed. PMID:25584730

  9. Applications of the MapReduce programming framework to clinical big data analysis: current landscape and future trends

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of massive datasets in a clinical setting presents both challenges and opportunities in data storage and analysis. This so called “big data” challenges traditional analytic tools and will increasingly require novel solutions adapted from other fields. Advances in information and communication technology present the most viable solutions to big data analysis in terms of efficiency and scalability. It is vital those big data solutions are multithreaded and that data access approaches be precisely tailored to large volumes of semi-structured/unstructured data. The MapReduce programming framework uses two tasks common in functional programming: Map and Reduce. MapReduce is a new parallel processing framework and Hadoop is its open-source implementation on a single computing node or on clusters. Compared with existing parallel processing paradigms (e.g. grid computing and graphical processing unit (GPU)), MapReduce and Hadoop have two advantages: 1) fault-tolerant storage resulting in reliable data processing by replicating the computing tasks, and cloning the data chunks on different computing nodes across the computing cluster; 2) high-throughput data processing via a batch processing framework and the Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS). Data are stored in the HDFS and made available to the slave nodes for computation. In this paper, we review the existing applications of the MapReduce programming framework and its implementation platform Hadoop in clinical big data and related medical health informatics fields. The usage of MapReduce and Hadoop on a distributed system represents a significant advance in clinical big data processing and utilization, and opens up new opportunities in the emerging era of big data analytics. The objective of this paper is to summarize the state-of-the-art efforts in clinical big data analytics and highlight what might be needed to enhance the outcomes of clinical big data analytics tools. This paper is concluded by

  10. Biochar application to a contaminated soil reduces the availability and plant uptake of zinc, lead and cadmium.

    PubMed

    Puga, A P; Abreu, C A; Melo, L C A; Beesley, L

    2015-08-15

    Heavy metals in soil are naturally occurring but may be enhanced by anthropogenic activities such as mining. Bio-accumulation of heavy metals in the food chain, following their uptake to plants can increase the ecotoxicological risks associated with remediation of contaminated soils using plants. In the current experiment sugar cane straw-derived biochar (BC), produced at 700 °C, was applied to a heavy metal contaminated mine soil at 1.5%, 3.0% and 5.0% (w/w). Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) and Mucuna aterrima were grown in pots containing soil and biochar mixtures, and control pots without biochar. Pore water was sampled from each pot to confirm the effects of biochar on metal solubility, whilst soils were analyzed by DTPA extraction to confirm available metal concentrations. Leaves were sampled for SEM analysis to detect possible morphological and anatomical changes. The application of BC decreased the available concentrations of Cd, Pb and Zn in 56, 50 and 54% respectively, in the mine contaminated soil leading to a consistent reduction in the concentration of Zn in the pore water (1st collect: 99 to 39 μg L(-1), 2nd: 97 to 57 μg L(-1) and 3rd: 71 to 12 μg L(-1)). The application of BC reduced the uptake of Cd, Pb and Zn by plants with the jack bean translocating high proportions of metals (especially Cd) to shoots. Metals were also taken up by Mucuna aterrima but translocation to shoot was more limited than for jack bean. There were no differences in the internal structures of leaves observed by scanning electron microscopy. This study indicates that biochar application during mine soil remediation reduce plant concentrations of potential toxic metals. PMID:26048395

  11. Applications of the MapReduce programming framework to clinical big data analysis: current landscape and future trends.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Emad A; Far, Behrouz H; Naugler, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of massive datasets in a clinical setting presents both challenges and opportunities in data storage and analysis. This so called "big data" challenges traditional analytic tools and will increasingly require novel solutions adapted from other fields. Advances in information and communication technology present the most viable solutions to big data analysis in terms of efficiency and scalability. It is vital those big data solutions are multithreaded and that data access approaches be precisely tailored to large volumes of semi-structured/unstructured data. THE MAPREDUCE PROGRAMMING FRAMEWORK USES TWO TASKS COMMON IN FUNCTIONAL PROGRAMMING: Map and Reduce. MapReduce is a new parallel processing framework and Hadoop is its open-source implementation on a single computing node or on clusters. Compared with existing parallel processing paradigms (e.g. grid computing and graphical processing unit (GPU)), MapReduce and Hadoop have two advantages: 1) fault-tolerant storage resulting in reliable data processing by replicating the computing tasks, and cloning the data chunks on different computing nodes across the computing cluster; 2) high-throughput data processing via a batch processing framework and the Hadoop distributed file system (HDFS). Data are stored in the HDFS and made available to the slave nodes for computation. In this paper, we review the existing applications of the MapReduce programming framework and its implementation platform Hadoop in clinical big data and related medical health informatics fields. The usage of MapReduce and Hadoop on a distributed system represents a significant advance in clinical big data processing and utilization, and opens up new opportunities in the emerging era of big data analytics. The objective of this paper is to summarize the state-of-the-art efforts in clinical big data analytics and highlight what might be needed to enhance the outcomes of clinical big data analytics tools. This paper is concluded by

  12. Centimeter-long and large-scale micropatterns of reduced graphene oxide films: fabrication and sensing applications.

    PubMed

    He, Qiyuan; Sudibya, Herry Gunadi; Yin, Zongyou; Wu, Shixin; Li, Hai; Boey, Freddy; Huang, Wei; Chen, Peng; Zhang, Hua

    2010-06-22

    Recently, the field-effect transistors (FETs) with graphene as the conducting channels have been used as a promising chemical and biological sensors. However, the lack of low cost and reliable and large-scale preparation of graphene films limits their applications. In this contribution, we report the fabrication of centimeter-long, ultrathin (1-3 nm), and electrically continuous micropatterns of highly uniform parallel arrays of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) films on various substrates including the flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films by using the micromolding in capillary method. Compared to other methods for the fabrication of graphene patterns, our method is fast, facile, and substrate independent. In addition, we demonstrate that the nanoelectronic FETs based on our rGO patterns are able to label-freely detect the hormonal catecholamine molecules and their dynamic secretion from living cells. PMID:20441213

  13. Can local application of Tranexamic acid reduce post-coronary bypass surgery blood loss? A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Fawzy, Hosam; Elmistekawy, Elsayed; Bonneau, Daniel; Latter, David; Errett, Lee

    2009-01-01

    Background Diffuse microvascular bleeding remains a common problem after cardiac procedures. Systemic use of antifibrinolytic reduces the postoperative blood loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of local application of tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Methods Thirty eight patients scheduled for primary isolated coronary artery bypass grafting were included in this double blind, prospective, randomized, placebo controlled study. Tranexamic acid (TA) group (19 patients) received 1 gram of TA diluted in 100 ml normal saline. Placebo group (19 patients) received 100 ml of normal saline only. The solution was purred in the pericardial and mediastinal cavities. Results Both groups were comparable in their baseline demographic and surgical characteristics. During the first 24 hours post-operatively, cumulative blood loss was significantly less in TA group (median of 626 ml) compared to Placebo group (median of 1040 ml) (P = 0.04). There was no significant difference in the post-op Packed RBCs transfusion between both groups (median of one unit in each) (P = 0.82). Significant less platelets transfusion required in TA group (median zero unit) than in placebo group (median 2 units) (P = 0.03). Apart from re-exploration for excessive surgical bleeding in one patient in TA group, no difference was found in morbidity or mortality between both groups. Conclusion Topical application of tranexamic acid in patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting led to a significant reduction in postoperative blood loss without adding extra risk to the patient. PMID:19538741

  14. Smartphone applications to reduce alcohol consumption and help patients with alcohol use disorder: a state-of-the-art review

    PubMed Central

    Meredith, Steven E; Alessi, Sheila M; Petry, Nancy M

    2016-01-01

    Hazardous drinking and alcohol use disorder (AUD) are substantial contributors to USA and global morbidity and mortality. Patient self-management and continuing care are needed to combat these public health threats. However, services are rarely provided to patients outside of clinic settings or following brief intervention. Smartphone applications (“apps”) may help narrow the divide between traditional health care and patient needs. The purpose of this review is to identify and summarize smartphone apps to reduce alcohol consumption or treat AUD that have been evaluated for feasibility, acceptability, and/or efficacy. We searched two research databases for peer-reviewed journal articles published in English that evaluated smartphone apps to decrease alcohol consumption or treat AUD. We identified six apps. Two of these apps (A-CHESS and LBMI-A) promoted self-reported reductions in alcohol use, two (Promillekoll and PartyPlanner) failed to promote self-reported reductions in alcohol use, and two (HealthCall-S and Chimpshop) require further evaluation and testing before any conclusions regarding efficacy can be made. In summary, few evaluations of smartphone apps to reduce alcohol consumption or treat AUD have been reported in the scientific literature. Although advances in smartphone technology hold promise for disseminating interventions among hazardous drinkers and individuals with AUD, more systematic evaluations are necessary to ensure that smartphone apps are clinically useful. PMID:27478863

  15. Reduced-Dimensionality Semiclassical Transition State Theory: Application to Hydrogen Atom Abstraction and Exchange Reactions of Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Greene, Samuel M; Shan, Xiao; Clary, David C

    2015-12-17

    Quantum mechanical methods for calculating rate constants are often intractable for reactions involving many atoms. Semiclassical transition state theory (SCTST) offers computational advantages over these methods but nonetheless scales exponentially with the number of degrees of freedom (DOFs) of the system. Here we present a method with more favorable scaling, reduced-dimensionality SCTST (RD SCTST), that treats only a subset of DOFs of the system explicitly. We apply it to three H abstraction and exchange reactions for which two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) have previously been constructed and evaluated using RD quantum scattering calculations. We differentiated these PESs to calculate harmonic frequencies and anharmonic constants, which were then used to calculate cumulative reaction probabilities and rate constants by RD SCTST. This method yielded rate constants in good agreement with quantum scattering results. Notably, it performed well for a heavy-light-heavy reaction, even though it does not explicitly account for corner-cutting effects. Recent extensions to SCTST that improve its treatment of deep tunneling were also evaluated within the reduced-dimensionality framework. The success of RD SCTST in this study suggests its potential applicability to larger systems. PMID:26090556

  16. Synthesis of Ultrastable Ag Nanoplates/Polyethylenimine-Reduced Graphene Oxide and Its Application as a Versatile Electrochemical Sensor.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jindi; Zhang, Guoxin; Sun, Wanxia; Sun, Jingsong; Luo, Liang; Chang, Zheng; Sun, Xiaoming

    2016-07-25

    Investigations on Ag nanostructures/reduced graphene oxide composites have been frequently reported, yet the morphology control of those loaded Ag nanocrystals is still challenging. We herein develop a facile method to grow triangular Ag nanoplates (AgP) on polyethylenimine-modified reduced graphene oxide (AgP/PEI-rGO). The AgP/PEI-rGO hybrids show unexpected high stability against chloride ions (Cl(-) ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), which is possibly due to the strong interaction between surface Ag atoms with the amine groups of PEI. In the chronoamperometry measurements for detecting H2 O2 , N2 H4 , and NaNO2 , the AgP/PEI-rGO hybrid shows very wide linear ranges (usually 10(-6) -10(-2)  mol L(-1) for H2 O2 , N2 H4 , and NaNO2 ) and low detection limits (down to ≈1×10(-7)  mol L(-1) ), which demonstrate the promising electrochemical sensor applications of these metal/graphene hybrids with well-defined morphologies and facets. In addition, this strategy could be extended to the deposition of other noble metals on rGO with controlled morphologies. PMID:27362916

  17. Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice, can reduce the thickness of subcutaneous thigh fat through topical application.

    PubMed

    Armanini, Decio; Nacamulli, Davide; Francini-Pesenti, Francesco; Battagin, Giuliana; Ragazzi, Eugenio; Fiore, Cristina

    2005-07-01

    Cortisol is involved in the distribution and deposition of fat, and its action is regulated by the activity of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. Glycyrrhetinic acid, the active principle of licorice root, blocks 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, thus reducing the availability of cortisol at the level of adipocytes. We evaluated the effect of topical application of a cream containing glycyrrhetinic acid in the thickness of fat at the level of the thigh. Eighteen healthy women (age range 20-33 years) with normal BMI were randomly allocated to treatment, at the level of the dominant thigh, with a cream containing 2.5% glycyrrhetinic acid (n=9) or with a placebo cream containing the excipients alone (n=9). Before and after 1 month of treatment both the circumference and the thickness of the superficial fat layer of the thighs (by ultrasound analysis) were measured. The circumference and the thickness of the superficial fat layer were significantly reduced in comparison to the controlateral untreated thigh and to control subjects treated with the placebo cream. No changes were observed in blood pressure, plasma renin activity, plasma aldosterone or cortisol. The effect of glycyrrhetinic acid on the thickness of subcutaneous fat was likely related to a block of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 at the level of fat cells; therefore, glycyrrhetinic acid could be effectively used in the reduction of unwanted local fat accumulation. PMID:15894038

  18. Platinum-decorated reduced graphene oxide/polyaniline:poly(4-styrenesulfonate) hybrid paste for flexible dipole tag-antenna applications.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Seop; Kim, Minkyu; Lee, Choonghyeon; Cho, Sunghun; Oh, Jungkyun; Jang, Jyongsik

    2015-02-28

    With recent developments in technology, tremendous effort has been devoted to producing materials for flexible device systems. As a promising approach, solution-processed conducting polymers (CPs) have been extensively studied owing to their facile synthesis, high electrical conductivity, and various morphologies with diverse substrates. Here, we report the demonstration of platinum decorated reduced graphene oxide intercalated polyanililne:poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (Pt_rGO/PANI:PSS) hybrid paste for flexible electric devices. First, platinum decorated reduced graphene oxide (Pt_rGO) was fabricated through the chemical reduction of platinum cations and subsequent heat reduction of GO sheets. Then, the Pt_rGO was mixed with PANI:PSS solution dispersed in diethylene glycol (DEG) using sonication to form a hybrid PANI-based paste (Pt_rGO/PANI:PSS). The Pt_rGO/PANI:PSS was printed as a micropattern and exhibited high electrical conductivity (245.3 S cm(-1)) with flexible stability. Moreover, it was used in a dipole tag antenna application, where it displayed 0.15 GHz bandwidth and high transmitted power efficiency (99.6%). PMID:25640610

  19. The application of the reduced order model Kalman filter to motion estimation of degraded image sequences. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Elizabeth C.

    1989-01-01

    Motion estimation is a field of great interest because of its many applications in areas such as robotics and image coding. The optic flow method is one such scheme which, although fairly accurate, is prone to error in the presence of noise. This thesis describes the use of the reduced order model Kalman filter (ROMKF) in reducing errors in displacement estimation due to degradation of the sequence. The implementation of filtering and motion estimation algorithms on the SUN workstation is also discussed. Results from preliminary testing were used to determine the degrees of freedom available for the ROMKF in the SUN software. The tests indicated that increasing the state to the left leads to slight improvement over the minimum state case. Therefore, the software uses the minimum model, with the option of adding states to the left only. The ROMKF was then used in conjunction with a hierarchical pel recursive motion estimation algorithm. Applying the ROMKF to the degraded displacements themselves generally yielded slight improvements in cases with noise degradation and noise plus blur. Filtering the images of the degraded sequence prior to motion estimation was less effective in these cases. Both methods performed badly in the case of blur alone, resulting in increased displacement errors. This is thought to be due in part to filter artifacts. Some improvements were obtained by varying the filter parameters when filtering the displacements directly. This result suggests that further study in varying filter parameters may lead to better results. The results of this thesis indicate that the ROMKF can play a part in reducing motion estimation errors from degraded sequences. However, more work needs to be done before the use of the ROMKF can be a practical solution.

  20. Application of the Karhunen-Loeve transform temporal image filter to reduce noise in real-time cardiac cine MRI.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yu; Chung, Yiu-Cho; Raman, Subha V; Simonetti, Orlando P

    2009-06-21

    Real-time dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically sacrifices the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) to achieve higher spatial and temporal resolution. Spatial and/or temporal filtering (e.g., low-pass filtering or averaging) of dynamic images improves the SNR at the expense of edge sharpness. We describe the application of a temporal filter for dynamic MR image series based on the Karhunen-Loeve transform (KLT) to remove random noise without blurring stationary or moving edges and requiring no training data. In this paper, we present several properties of this filter and their effects on filter performance, and propose an automatic way to find the filter cutoff based on the autocorrelation of the eigenimages. Numerical simulation and in vivo real-time cardiac cine MR image series spanning multiple cardiac cycles acquired using multi-channel sensitivity-encoded MRI, i.e., parallel imaging, are used to validate and demonstrate these properties. We found that in this application, the noise standard deviation was reduced to 42% of the original with no apparent image blurring by using the proposed filter cutoff. Greater noise reduction can be achieved by increasing the length of the image series. This advantage of KLT filtering provides flexibility in the form of another scan parameter to trade for SNR. PMID:19491455

  1. Application of the structured history taking of medication use tool to optimise prescribing for older patients and reduce adverse events.

    PubMed

    Cullinan, Shane; O'Mahony, Denis; Byrne, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Background Older patients, due to polypharmacy, co-morbidities and often multiple prescribing doctors are particularly susceptible to medication history errors, leading to adverse drug events, patient harm and increased costs. Medication reconciliation at the point of admission to hospital can reduce medication discrepancies and adverse events. The Structured HIstory taking of Medication use (SHiM) tool was developed to provide a structure to the medication reconciliation process. There has been very little research with regards to SHiM, it's application to older patients and it's potential to reduce adverse events. Objective To determine whether application of SHiM could optimise older patients' prescriptions on admission to hospital, and in-turn reduce adverse events, compared to standard care. Setting A sub-study of a large clinical trial involving hospital inpatients over the age of 65 in five hospitals across Europe. Method A modified version of SHiM was used to obtain accurate drug histories for patients after the attending physician had obtained a medication list via standard methods. Discrepancies between the two lists were recorded and classified, and the clinical relevance of the discrepancies was determined. Whether discrepancies in patients' medication histories, as revealed by SHiM, resulted in actual clinical consequences was then investigated. As this study was carried out during the observation phase of the clinical trial, results were not communicated to the medical teams. Main outcome measure Discrepancies between medication lists and whether these resulted in clinical consequences. Results SHiM was applied to 123 patients. The mean age of the participants was 78 (±6). 200 discrepancies were identified. 90 patients (73 %) had at least one discrepancy with a median of 1.0 discrepancies per patient (IQR 0.00-2.25). 53 (26.5 %) were classified as 'unlikely to cause patient discomfort or clinical deterioration', 145 (72.5 %) as 'having potential

  2. An Evaluation of the Consequences of the Inclusion of Parental Waivers in the Application for Free and Reduced Price School Meals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puzzuoli, David A.

    As a designated service integration state, West Virginia is developing and implementing enhanced services to children in need. One state effort is the development and use of "Multi-Use Application for Free and Reduced Price School Meals." The application includes a parental waiver statement, which, when signed, allows income information to be…

  3. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

    2013-08-01

    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  4. Modification of reduced-charge montmorillonites by a series of Gemini surfactants: Characterization and application in methyl orange removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Zhongxin; Gao, Manglai; Ye, Yage; Yang, Senfeng

    2015-01-01

    The influences that the spacer chain length of Gemini surfactants and clay layer charge have on the structures and sorption characteristics of organoclays have been investigated. Organoclays were obtained by modifying a series of reduced charge montmorillonites (RCMs) using three Gemini surfactants with different spacer length. And their structures and sorption characteristics for methyl orange (MO) were examined. It was suggested that the amount, spacer length of Gemini surfactant and clay layer charge had significant effects on the microstructure of the organoclays. The adsorption experiments results claimed that the uptake of MO onto organoclays was in the order: 16-4-16-Mt > 16-8-16-Mt > 16-6-16-Mt, while it increased with increasing clay layer charge. The adsorption isotherms of MO onto the organoclays could be best described by Langmuir equation, and the adsorption kinetic was in good agreement with the pseudo-second-order model. Thermodynamic parameters demonstrated that the sorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature. This work will provide a deep insight into the interaction of Gemini-modified clays and MO, which pave the way for their practical applications in anionic dye adsorption.

  5. Application of the Prunus spp. Cyanide Seed Defense System onto Wheat: Reduced Insect Feeding and Field Growth Tests.

    PubMed

    Mora, Carlos A; Halter, Jonas G; Adler, Cornel; Hund, Andreas; Anders, Heidrun; Yu, Kang; Stark, Wendelin J

    2016-05-11

    Many crops are ill-protected against insect pests during storage. To protect cereal grains from herbivores during storage, pesticides are often applied. While pesticides have an undoubtable functionality, increasing concerns are arising about their application. In the present study, we investigated a bioinspired cyanogenic grain coating with amygdalin as cyanogenic precursor mimicking the feeding-triggered release of hydrogen cyanide (HCN) found for example in bitter almonds. The multilayer coating consisted of biodegradable polylactic acid with individual layers containing amygdalin or β-glucosidase which is capable of degrading amygdalin to HCN. This reaction occurred only when the layers were ruptured, e.g., by a herbivore attack. Upon feeding coated cyanogenic wheat grains to Tenebrio molitor (mealworm beetle), Rhizopertha dominica (lesser grain borer), and Plodia interpunctella (Indianmeal moth), their reproduction as well as consumption rate were significantly reduced, whereas germination ability increased compared to noncoated grains. In field experiments, we observed an initial growth delay compared to uncoated grains which became negligible at later growth stages. The here shown strategy to artificially apply a naturally occurring defense mechanisms could be expanded to other crops than wheat and has the potential to replace certain pesticides with the benefit of complete biodegradability and increased safety during storage. PMID:27119432

  6. Application of fungistatics in soil reduces N uptake by an arctic ericoid shrub (Vaccinium vitis-idaea)

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, J.F.; Johnson, L.; Simpson, N.B.; Bill, M.; Jumpponen, A.

    2009-11-01

    In arctic tundra soil N is highly limiting, N mineralization is slow and organic N greatly exceeds inorganic N. We studied the effects of fungistatics (azoxystrobin [Quadris{reg_sign}] or propiconazole [Tilt{reg_sign}]) on the fungi isolated from ericaceous plant roots in vitro. In addition to testing the phytotoxicity of the two fungistatics we also tested their effects on growth and nitrogen uptake of an ericaceous plant (Vaccinium uliginosum) in a closed Petri plate system without root-associated fungi. Finally, to evaluate the fungistatic effects in an in vivo experiment we applied fungistatics and nitrogen isotopes to intact tundra soil cores from Toolik Lake, Alaska, and examined the ammonium-N and glycine-N use by Vaccinium vitis-idaea with and without fungistatics. The experiments on fungal pure cultures showed that Tilt{reg_sign} was more effective in reducing fungal colony growth in vitro than Quadris{reg_sign}, which was highly variable among the fungal strains. Laboratory experiments aiming to test the fungistatic effects on plant performance in vitro showed that neither Quadris{reg_sign} nor Tilt{reg_sign} affected V. uliginosum growth or N uptake. In this experiment V. uliginosum assimilated more than an order of magnitude more ammonium-N than glycine-N. The intact tundra core experiment provided contrasting results. After 10 wk of fungistatic application in the growth chamber V. vitis-idaea leaf %N was 10% lower and the amount of leaf {sup 15}N acquired was reduced from labeled ammonium (33%) and glycine (40%) during the 4 d isotope treatment. In contrast to the in vitro experiment leaf {sup 15}N assimilation from glycine was three times higher than from {sup 15}NH{sub 4} in the treatments that received no-fungistatics. We conclude that the function of the fungal communities is essential to the acquisition of N from organic sources and speculate that N acquisition from inorganic sources is mainly inhibited by competition with complex soil microbial

  7. A universally calibrated microplate ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay for foods and applications to Manuka honey.

    PubMed

    Bolanos de la Torre, Amparo Angelica S; Henderson, Terence; Nigam, Poonam Singh; Owusu-Apenten, Richard K

    2015-05-01

    The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay was recently adapted to a microplate format. However, microplate-based FRAP (mFRAP) assays are affected by sample volume and composition. This work describes a calibration process for mFRAP assays which yields data free of volume effects. From the results, the molar absorptivity (ε) for the mFRAP assay was 141,698 M(-1) cm(-1) for gallic acid, 49,328 M(-1) cm(-1) for ascorbic acid, and 21,606 M(-1) cm(-1) for ammonium ferrous sulphate. The significance of ε (M(-1) cm(-1)) is discussed in relation to mFRAP assay sensitivity, minimum detectable concentration, and the dimensionless FRAP-value. Gallic acid showed 6.6 mol of Fe(2+) equivalents compared to 2.3 mol of Fe(+2) equivalents for ascorbic acid. Application of the mFRAP assay to Manuka honey samples (rated 5+, 10+, 15+, and 18+ Unique Manuka Factor; UMF) showed that FRAP values (0.54-0.76 mmol Fe(2+) per 100g honey) were strongly correlated with UMF ratings (R(2)=0.977) and total phenols content (R(2) = 0.982)whilst the UMF rating was correlated with the total phenols (R(2) = 0.999). In conclusion, mFRAP assay results were successfully standardised to yield data corresponding to 1-cm spectrophotometer which is useful for quality assurance purposes. The antioxidant capacity of Manuka honey was found to be directly related to the UMF rating. PMID:25529660

  8. Development and Implementation of a Smartphone Application to Promote Physical Activity and Reduce Screen-Time in Adolescent Boys

    PubMed Central

    Lubans, David R.; Smith, Jordan J.; Skinner, Geoff; Morgan, Philip J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the development and implementation of a smartphone application (app) designed to promote physical activity and reduce screen-time in adolescent boys considered “at-risk” of obesity. Methods: An app was developed to support the delivery of a face-to-face school-based obesity prevention program known as the “Active Teen Leaders Avoiding Screen-time” (ATLAS) program. ATLAS was guided by self-determination theory and social cognitive theory and evaluated using a cluster randomized controlled trial with 361 boys (12.7 ± 0.5 years) in 14 secondary schools. Following the completion of the study, participants in the intervention group completed a process evaluation questionnaire and focus groups were conducted with 42 students to explore their general perceptions of the ATLAS program and their experience with the smartphone app. Barriers and challenges encountered in the development, implementation, and evaluation of the app are also described. Results: Participation in the study was not contingent on ownership of a smartphone, but 70% of participants in the intervention group reported having access to a smartphone or tablet device. Focus group participants reported an enjoyment of the program, and felt that it had provided them with new skills, techniques, and routines for the future. However, their engagement with the smartphone app was limited, due to a variety of reasons. Barriers to the implementation and evaluation of the app included limited access to smartphone devices, technical problems with the push notifications, lack of access to usage data, and the challenges of maintaining participants’ interest in using the app. Conclusion: Although participants reported high levels of satisfaction with the ATLAS program in general, the smartphone app was not used extensively. Additional strategies and features may be needed to enhance engagement in adolescent boys. PMID:24904909

  9. Application of Denaturing High-Performance Liquid Chromatography for Monitoring Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria in Oil Fields

    PubMed Central

    Nyyssönen, Mari; Bomberg, Malin; Laitila, Arja; Simell, Jaakko; Kapanen, Anu; Juvonen, Riikka

    2013-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) participate in microbially induced corrosion (MIC) of equipment and H2S-driven reservoir souring in oil field sites. Successful management of industrial processes requires methods that allow robust monitoring of microbial communities. This study investigated the applicability of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) targeting the dissimilatory sulfite reductase ß-subunit (dsrB) gene for monitoring SRB communities in oil field samples from the North Sea, the United States, and Brazil. Fifteen of the 28 screened samples gave a positive result in real-time PCR assays, containing 9 × 101 to 6 × 105 dsrB gene copies ml−1. DHPLC and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) community profiles of the PCR-positive samples shared an overall similarity; both methods revealed the same samples to have the lowest and highest diversity. The SRB communities were diverse, and different dsrB compositions were detected at different geographical locations. The identified dsrB gene sequences belonged to several phylogenetic groups, such as Desulfovibrio, Desulfococcus, Desulfomicrobium, Desulfobulbus, Desulfotignum, Desulfonatronovibrio, and Desulfonauticus. DHPLC showed an advantage over DGGE in that the community profiles were very reproducible from run to run, and the resolved gene fragments could be collected using an automated fraction collector and sequenced without a further purification step. DGGE, on the other hand, included casting of gradient gels, and several rounds of rerunning, excising, and reamplification of bands were needed for successful sequencing. In summary, DHPLC proved to be a suitable tool for routine monitoring of the diversity of SRB communities in oil field samples. PMID:23793633

  10. Synthesis, characterization, and electrochemiluminescence of luminol-reduced gold nanoparticles and their application in a hydrogen peroxide sensor.

    PubMed

    Cui, Hua; Wang, Wei; Duan, Chun-Feng; Dong, Yong-Ping; Guo, Ji-Zhao

    2007-01-01

    It was found that chloroauric acid (HAuCl(4)) could be directly reduced by the luminescent reagent luminol in aqueous solution to form gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), the size of which depended on the amount of luminol. The morphology and surface state of as-prepared AuNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, UV/visible spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. All results indicated that residual luminol and its oxidation product 3-aminophthalate coexisted on the surface of AuNPs through the weak covalent interaction between gold and nitrogen atoms in their amino groups. Subsequently, a luminol-capped AuNP-modified electrode was fabricated by the immobilization of AuNPs on a gold electrode by virtue of cysteine molecules and then immersion in a luminol solution. The modified electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The as-prepared modified electrode exhibited an electrochemiluminescence (ECL) response in alkaline aqueous solution under a double-step potential. H2O2 was found to enhance the ECL. On this basis, an ECL sensor for the detection of H2O2 was developed. The method is simple, fast, and reagent free. It is applicable to the determination of H2O2 in the range of 3x10(-7)-1x10(-3) mol L(-1) with a detection limit of 1x10(-7) mol L(-1) (S/N=3). PMID:17539034

  11. 7 CFR 245.6 - Application, eligibility and certification of children for free and reduced price meals and free...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....C. 1758)) Editorial Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 245.6, see the List of CFR... for free and reduced price meals and free milk. 245.6 Section 245.6 Agriculture Regulations of the... PROGRAMS DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR FREE AND REDUCED PRICE MEALS AND FREE MILK IN SCHOOLS §...

  12. 7 CFR 245.6 - Application, eligibility and certification of children for free and reduced price meals and free...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Note: For Federal Register citations affecting § 245.6, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which... for free and reduced price meals and free milk. 245.6 Section 245.6 Agriculture Regulations of the... PROGRAMS DETERMINING ELIGIBILITY FOR FREE AND REDUCED PRICE MEALS AND FREE MILK IN SCHOOLS §...

  13. GREEN APPROACH TO BULK AND TEMPLATE-FREE SYNTHESIS OF THERMALLY STABLE REDUCED POLYANILINE NANOFIBERS FOR CAPACITOR APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An extremely simple green approach is described that generates bulk quantities of nanofibers of the electronic polymer polyaniline in fully reduced state (leucoemeraldine form) in one step without using any reducing agent, surfactants, and/or large amounts of insoluble templates....

  14. Large-scale field application of RNAi technology reducing Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus Disease in honey bees (Apis mellifera, Hymenoptera; Apidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We present the first successful use of RNAi under a large-scale real-world application for disease control. Israeli acute paralysis virus, IAPV, has been linked as a contributing factor in coolly collapse, CCD, of honey bees. IAPV specific homologous dsRNA were designed to reduce impacts from IAPV i...

  15. Application of herbicides is likely to reduce greenhouse gas (N2O and CH4) emissions from rice-wheat cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jingyan; Chen, Linmei; Sun, Qing; Sang, Mengmeng; Huang, Yao

    2015-04-01

    Herbicides have been widely used to control weeds in croplands; however, their effects on greenhouse gas emissions remain unclear. The effects of three wheat herbicides (acetochlor, AC; tribenuron-methyl, TBM; fenoxaprop-p-ethyl, FE) and two rice herbicides (butachlor, BC; bensulfuron-methyl, BSM) on N2O and CH4 emissions were investigated in this study. In the wheat growing season, applications of AC and FE + TBM significantly reduced N2O emissions by 31% compared with no herbicide use (p = 0.001). In the rice growing season, the application of BC significantly reduced CH4 emissions by 58% (p = 0.022), and BSM significantly reduced N2O emissions by 27% (p = 0.040); however, no significant difference among treatments with regard to the aggregate emissions of N2O and CH4 in the CO2 equivalent for the 100-year horizon was observed (p > 0.05). Relative to control plots, which were not treated with herbicides, the combined application of the herbicides FE and TBM in the wheat season led to a significant decrease in greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) by ∼41% (p = 0.002), and the application of BC together with BSM reduced GHGI by 22% in the rice season, although this reduction was not statistically significant (p = 0.158). Further investigation suggested that the inhibitory effect of herbicides on N2O emissions in the wheat field could be ascribed to low soil ammonium nitrogen and less abundance of denitrifying bacteria. The inhibitory effects of separate applications of BC on CH4 emissions in rice fields, in contrast, were linked to high soil nitrate nitrogen and urease activity.

  16. Time-dependent occupation numbers in reduced-density-matrix-functional theory: Application to an interacting Landau-Zener model

    SciTech Connect

    Requist, Ryan; Pankratov, Oleg

    2011-05-15

    We prove that if the two-body terms in the equation of motion for the one-body reduced density matrix are approximated by ground-state functionals, the eigenvalues of the one-body reduced density matrix (occupation numbers) remain constant in time. This deficiency is related to the inability of such an approximation to account for relative phases in the two-body reduced density matrix. We derive an exact differential equation giving the functional dependence of these phases in an interacting Landau-Zener model and study their behavior in short- and long-time regimes. The phases undergo resonances whenever the occupation numbers approach the boundaries of the interval [0,1]. In the long-time regime, the occupation numbers display correlation-induced oscillations and the memory dependence of the functionals assumes a simple form.

  17. Caffeic acid: potential applications in nanotechnology as a green reducing agent for sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yu Seon; Cha, Song-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-Ran; Kang, Young-Hwa; Park, Youmie

    2015-04-01

    The sustainable synthesis of gold nanoparticles from gold ions was conducted with caffeic acid as a green reducing agent. The formation of gold nanoparticles was confirmed by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. Spherical nanoparticles with an average diameter of 29.99 ± 7.43 nm were observed in high- resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images. The newly prepared gold nanoparticles exhibited catalytic activity toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol to 4-aminophenol in the presence of sodium borohydride. This system enables the preparation of green catalysts using plant natural products as reducing agents, which fulfills the growing need for sustainability initiatives. PMID:25973494

  18. New municipal solid waste processing technology reduces volume and provides beneficial reuse applications for soil improvement and dust control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A garbage-processing technology has been developed that shreds, sterilizes, and separates inorganic and organic components of municipal solid waste. The technology not only greatly reduces waste volume, but the non-composted byproduct of this process, Fluff®, has the potential to be utilized as a s...

  19. The application of high-pressure treatment in the reduction of salt levels in reduced-phosphate breakfast sausages.

    PubMed

    O'Flynn, Claire C; Cruz-Romero, Malco C; Troy, Declan; Mullen, Anne M; Kerry, Joe P

    2014-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of high pressure (HP) treatment of pork meat before manufacturing sausages with reduced salt levels and compared them to sausages manufactured with untreated meat (control sausages). A 2×5 factorial design was set up incorporating two pressure levels (0 or 150 MPa) and five salt levels (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5%). Most quality attributes were affected when salt levels were reduced below 1.5%. Fat loss (FL) was (P<0.05) affected by salt level; samples with <1.5% salt had the highest FL. HP treatment increased emulsion stability and reduced cook loss (CL) compared to control sausages. Increased CL was observed when salt was reduced below 2.0%. Salt reduction below 1.5% adversely affected colour, sensory and texture attributes. Independent of salt, HP treatment affected adversely juiciness and cohesiveness while adhesiveness was improved. Overall, there is potential to manufacture sausages maintaining organoleptic and functional properties traditionally associated with sausages using HP treated meat. PMID:24334049

  20. Surface application of soybean peroxidase and calcium peroxide for reducing odorous VOC emissions from swine manure slurry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A laboratory experiment was conducted to evaluate and compare topical and fully mixed treatments of soybean peroxidase and calcium peroxide (SBP/CaO2) for reducing odorous volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions from swine manure slurry. The five treatments consisted of a control, the fully mixed ...

  1. Field Efficacy and application timing of methoxyfenozide, a reduced risk treatment for control of navel orangeworm (Lepidpotera: Pyralidae) in almonds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large-scale field efficacy trials of methoxyfenozide (Intrepid®), a reduced-risk molting agonist insecticide, were conducted in 2004 and 2005 in an orchard containing ‘Nonpareil’ and ‘Sonora’ variety almonds located in Kern County, California. Methoxyfenozide applied one to three times, and the orga...

  2. Maintaining Instrument Quality while Reducing Items: Application of Rasch Analysis to a Self-Report of Visual Function.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velozzo, Craig A.; Lai, Jin-Shei; Mallinson, Trudy; Hauselman, Ellyn

    2001-01-01

    Studied how Rasch analysis could be used to reduce the number of items in an instrument while maintaining credible psychometric properties. Applied the approach to the Visual Function-14 developed to measure the need for and outcomes of cataract surgery. Results show how Rasch analysis can be useful in designing modifications of instruments. (SLD)

  3. Speciation of C-O-H volatiles in reduced magmas applicable to early terrestrial and planetary deep volatile cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Lora; Hirschmann, Marc

    2014-05-01

    The speciation and solubility of C-O-H volatiles in reduced magmas are of great importance for volatile behavior in the early Earth and other planets determining partitioning between Earth's earliest atmospheres, mantle, and cores, as well as influencing volcanogenic degassing on reduced planetary bodies such as Mars and the Moon. In mafic and ultramafic magmas, C is soluble chiefly as carbonate under oxidizing conditions, but when fO2 is below that required for graphite (or diamond) saturation, carbonate solubility diminishes severely. This has left the question as to what, if any, species may host dissolved C in magmas under reducing conditions. Initial results suggested that the principle species may be CH4 (Mysen et al. 2009), but experiments at well-defined thermodynamic conditions have shown that CH4 solubility is very small except under conditions of very high H2 fugacity (Ardia et al. 2012). More recent experiments (Wetzel et al. 2013; Stanley et al. 2014) have identified Fe-carbonyl-like species as possibly the most stable. To clarify the relative stability of these species, we have conducted additional high pressure experiments at 1.2 GPa and 1400°C with graphite-saturated martian and terrestrial (MORB) basalt compositions, over a range of oxygen fugacities, paying careful attention to the availability of H2O. FTIR and Raman analyses reveal a range of distinct species that predominate as a function of fO2 and availability of H2O. At comparatively oxidizing conditions, carbonate is the most abundant species but within 1 log unit of iron wustite (IW), carbonyl-like species predominate, provided that conditions are comparatively dry. At yet more reducing conditions, carbonyl is absent and instead N-H associated species (perhaps amides?) are more important. Methane is observed only when quenched glasses have appreciable H2O (approaching ~ 1 wt.%). In all cases, solubilities are small when conditions are reduced, with <100 ppm C at IW or below.

  4. Swine manure injection with a low-disturbance applicator and cover crops reduce phosphorus losses in runoff

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Injection of liquid swine manure disturbs surface soil, so that runoff from treated lands can transport sediment and nutrients to surface waters. With a field study we determined the effect of two swine manure application methods on phosphorus (P) fate in a corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max L....

  5. Ascochyta blight of chickpea reduced 38% by application of Aureobasidium pullulans (anamorphic Dothioraceae, Dothideales) to post harvest debris.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2004-2005, early winter application of suspensions of Aureobasidium pullulans (AuP) conidia to post-harvest chickpea debris resulted in significantly fewer spring-time Ascochyta blight lesions on chickpea test plants relative to controls. Survival of plants adjacent to treated debris was higher t...

  6. Biochar reduces DOC but not NO3- leaching in relation to vinasse application in a tropical sugarcane soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eykelbosh, A. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Santos de Queiroz, E.; Couto, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    Objectives: Sugarcane cultivation for bioethanol production is associated with impacts on water quality, particularly those related to the application of vinasse, a corrosive, nutrient-dense effluent with high eutrophication potential (Martinelli et al. 2008 Ecol. Appl. 18:885-98). Vinasse is typically disposed of via soil application, which also recaptures waste nutrients and water (i.e., fertigation). However, vinasse constituents, including dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrate (NO3-), are highly mobile in the soil and their presence can be observed at the catchment scale after vinasse application (Ometo et al. 2000 Freshwater Biol. 44:327-37). Biochar (charcoal produced from waste biomass via pyrolysis) has been investigated as a soil amendment to improve water and nutrient retention. Here, we evaluate the potential for biochar to mitigate carbon and nutrient leaching in a cultivated Oxisol in relation to vinasse application. Methods: Biochar was produced from dried filtercake (a solid organic waste obtained from cane juice filtration) via slow pyrolysis at 550°C for 3 h under N2. Sieved soil was packed into 12 PVC tubes (10 cm diameter, 50 cm tall) representing four treatments: soil alone as a control (S), soil with vinasse (S+V), soil with vinasse and 5% (w/w) biochar (S+V+B), and soil with 5% biochar (S+B). Columns were flushed with water, treated with 250 mL of water or vinasse (32 mm, equivalent to a moderate field application rate of ~300 m3 ha-1), and flushed again with water. Samples collected via vacuum filtration were analyzed for pH, ORP, conductivity and examined via UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy. Soil samples were collected before and after leaching for residual soil nutrient analysis. Results: Biochar strongly attenuated the leaching of vinasse-derived DOC (p < 0.001). This was also related to a change in DOC composition as determined by fluorescence spectroscopy. Vinasse application greatly increased total NO3- flux (p < 0

  7. Porous reduced graphene oxide sheet wrapped silicon composite fabricated by steam etching for lithium-ion battery application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y. J.; Xiong, Q. Q.; Tong, Y. Y.; Li, Y.; Wang, X. L.; Gu, C. D.; Tu, J. P.

    2015-07-01

    A novel of Si/porous reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite is fabricated by steam etching of Si/rGO aerogel. The rGO sheets with nano-holes build a unique three-dimensional porous network and can encapsulate the Si nanoparticles. The porous structure of Si/rGO composite can reduce the transfer distance of Li ions and restrain the aggregation and destruction of Si particles. The in-situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation demonstrates that the porous rGO sheets help the entire electrode to maintain highly conductive and facilitate the lithiation of Si nanoparticles. The composite electrode presents high specific capacity and good cycling stability (1004 mAh g-1 at 50 mA g-1 up to 100 cycles).

  8. A reduced order model for fluid-structure interaction of thin shell structures conveying fluid for physiological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Gary Han; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a reduced-order model (ROM) is constructed to study fluid-structure interaction of thin shell structures conveying fluid. The method of snapshot Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) is used to construct the reduced-order bases based on a series of CFD results, which then are improved using a QR-factorization technique to satisfy the various boundary conditions in physiological flow problems. In the process, two sets of POD modes are extracted: those due to the shell wall's motion and those due to the pulsatile flow. The Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) technique is used for selecting the final POD modes used in the reduced-order model. The structure model is solved by Galerkin's method and the FSI coupling is done by adapting a coupled momentum method. The results show that the dynamic behavior of thin shells conveying fluid is closely related to the distribution of the shell's Gaussian curvature, the existence of imperfections and the physiological flow conditions. This method can effectively construct a computationally efficient FSI model, which allows us to examine a wide range of parameters which exist in real-life physiological problems.

  9. Application of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanoparticles containing atrazine herbicide as an alternative technique to control weeds and reduce damage to the environment.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Anderson E S; Grillo, Renato; Mello, Nathalie F S; Rosa, Andre H; Fraceto, Leonardo F

    2014-03-15

    Nanoparticles of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) containing the herbicide atrazine were prepared, characterized, and evaluated in terms of their herbicidal activity and genotoxicity. The stability of the nanoparticles was evaluated over a period of three months, considering the variables: size, polydispersion index, pH, and encapsulation efficiency. Tests on plants were performed with target (Brassica sp.) and non-target (Zea mays) organisms, and the nanoparticle formulations were shown to be effective for the control of the target species. Experiments using soil columns revealed that the use of nanoparticles reduced the mobility of atrazine in the soil. Application of the Allium cepa chromosome aberration assay demonstrated that the nanoparticle systems were able to reduce the genotoxicity of the herbicide. The formulations developed offer a useful means of controlling agricultural weeds, while at the same time reducing the risk of harm to the environment and human health. PMID:24508945

  10. Application of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 reduces the development of Ganoderma basal stem rot disease in oil palm seedlings.

    PubMed

    Sundram, Shamala; Meon, Sariah; Seman, Idris Abu; Othman, Radziah

    2015-07-01

    The effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in combination with endophytic bacteria (EB) in reducing development of basal stem rot (BSR) disease in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) was investigated. BSR caused by Ganoderma boninense leads to devastating economic loss and the oil palm industry is struggling to control the disease. The application of two AMF with two EB as biocontrol agents was assessed in the nursery and subsequently, repeated in the field using bait seedlings. Seedlings pre-inoculated with a combination of Glomus intraradices UT126, Glomus clarum BR152B and Pseudomonas aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly reduced disease development measured as the area under disease progression curve (AUDPC) and the epidemic rate (R L) of disease in the nursery. A 20-month field trial using similar treatments evaluated disease development in bait seedlings based on the rotting area/advancement assessed in cross-sections of the seedling base. Data show that application of Glomus intraradices UT126 singly reduced disease development of BSR, but that combination of the two AMF with P. aeruginosa UPMP3 significantly improved biocontrol efficacy in both nursery and fields reducing BSR disease to 57 and 80%, respectively. The successful use of bait seedlings in the natural environment to study BSR development represents a promising alternative to nursery trial testing in the field with shorter temporal assessment. PMID:25492807

  11. Generalized rule application in bluestreak cleaner wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus): using predator species as social tools to reduce punishment.

    PubMed

    Wismer, Sharon; Grutter, Alexandra; Bshary, Redouan

    2016-07-01

    Generalized rule application promotes flexible behavior by allowing individuals to adjust quickly to environmental changes through generalization of previous learning. Here, we show that bluestreak 'cleaner' wrasse (Labroides dimidiatus) uses generalized rule application in their use of predators as social tools against punishing reef fish clients. Punishment occurs as cleaners do not only remove ectoparasites from clients, but prefer to feed on client mucus (constituting cheating). We tested for generalized rule application in a series of experiments, starting by training cleaners to approach one of two fish models in order to evade punishment (by chasing) from a 'cheated' client model. Cleaners learned this task only if the safe haven was a predator model. During consecutive exposure to pairs of novel species, including exotic models, cleaners demonstrated generalization of the 'predators-are-safe-havens' rule by rapidly satisfying learning criteria. However, cleaners were not able to generalize to a 'one-of-two-stimuli-presents-a-safe-haven' rule, as they failed to solve the task when confronted with either two harmless fish models or two predator models. Our results emphasize the importance of ecologically relevant experiments to uncover complex cognitive processes in non-human animals, like generalized rule learning in the context of social tool use in a fish. PMID:27016339

  12. Application of reduced order modeling techniques to problems in heat conduction, isoelectric focusing and differential algebraic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathai, Pramod P.

    This thesis focuses on applying and augmenting 'Reduced Order Modeling' (ROM) techniques to large scale problems. ROM refers to the set of mathematical techniques that are used to reduce the computational expense of conventional modeling techniques, like finite element and finite difference methods, while minimizing the loss of accuracy that typically accompanies such a reduction. The first problem that we address pertains to the prediction of the level of heat dissipation in electronic and MEMS devices. With the ever decreasing feature sizes in electronic devices, and the accompanied rise in Joule heating, the electronics industry has, since the 1990s, identified a clear need for computationally cheap heat transfer modeling techniques that can be incorporated along with the electronic design process. We demonstrate how one can create reduced order models for simulating heat conduction in individual components that constitute an idealized electronic device. The reduced order models are created using Krylov Subspace Techniques (KST). We introduce a novel 'plug and play' approach, based on the small gain theorem in control theory, to interconnect these component reduced order models (according to the device architecture) to reliably and cheaply replicate whole device behavior. The final aim is to have this technique available commercially as a computationally cheap and reliable option that enables a designer to optimize for heat dissipation among competing VLSI architectures. Another place where model reduction is crucial to better design is Isoelectric Focusing (IEF) - the second problem in this thesis - which is a popular technique that is used to separate minute amounts of proteins from the other constituents that are present in a typical biological tissue sample. Fundamental questions about how to design IEF experiments still remain because of the high dimensional and highly nonlinear nature of the differential equations that describe the IEF process as well as

  13. A new reduced-order observer for the synchronization of nonlinear chaotic systems: An application to secure communications

    SciTech Connect

    Castro-Ramírez, Joel; Martínez-Guerra, Rafael; Cruz-Victoria, Juan Crescenciano

    2015-10-15

    This paper deals with the master-slave synchronization scheme for partially known nonlinear chaotic systems, where the unknown dynamics is considered as the master system and we propose the slave system structure which estimates the unknown states. It introduced a new reduced order observer, using the concept of Algebraic Observability; we applied the results to a Sundarapandian chaotic system, and by means of some numerical simulations we show the effectiveness of the suggested approach. Finally, the proposed observer is utilized for encryption, where encryption key is the master system and decryption key is the slave system.

  14. Novel MSVPWM to Reduce the Inductor Current Ripple for Z-Source Inverter in Electric Vehicle Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qianfan; Dong, Shuai; Xue, Ping; Zhou, Chaowei; Cheng, ShuKang

    2014-01-01

    A novel modified space vector pulse width modulation (MSVPWM) strategy for Z-Source inverter is presented. By rearranging the position of shoot-through states, the frequency of inductor current ripple is kept constant. Compared with existing MSVPWM strategies, the proposed approach can reduce the maximum inductor current ripple. So the volume of Z-source network inductor can be designed smaller, which brings the beneficial effect on the miniaturization of the electric vehicle controller. Theoretical findings in the novel MSVPWM for Z-Source inverter have been verified by experiment results. PMID:24883412

  15. Novel MSVPWM to reduce the inductor current ripple for Z-source inverter in electric vehicle applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qianfan; Dong, Shuai; Xue, Ping; Zhou, Chaowei; Cheng, ShuKang

    2014-01-01

    A novel modified space vector pulse width modulation (MSVPWM) strategy for Z-Source inverter is presented. By rearranging the position of shoot-through states, the frequency of inductor current ripple is kept constant. Compared with existing MSVPWM strategies, the proposed approach can reduce the maximum inductor current ripple. So the volume of Z-source network inductor can be designed smaller, which brings the beneficial effect on the miniaturization of the electric vehicle controller. Theoretical findings in the novel MSVPWM for Z-Source inverter have been verified by experiment results. PMID:24883412

  16. A new reduced-order observer for the synchronization of nonlinear chaotic systems: An application to secure communications.

    PubMed

    Castro-Ramírez, Joel; Martínez-Guerra, Rafael; Cruz-Victoria, Juan Crescenciano

    2015-10-01

    This paper deals with the master-slave synchronization scheme for partially known nonlinear chaotic systems, where the unknown dynamics is considered as the master system and we propose the slave system structure which estimates the unknown states. It introduced a new reduced order observer, using the concept of Algebraic Observability; we applied the results to a Sundarapandian chaotic system, and by means of some numerical simulations we show the effectiveness of the suggested approach. Finally, the proposed observer is utilized for encryption, where encryption key is the master system and decryption key is the slave system. PMID:26520094

  17. A new reduced-order observer for the synchronization of nonlinear chaotic systems: An application to secure communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro-Ramírez, Joel; Martínez-Guerra, Rafael; Cruz-Victoria, Juan Crescenciano

    2015-10-01

    This paper deals with the master-slave synchronization scheme for partially known nonlinear chaotic systems, where the unknown dynamics is considered as the master system and we propose the slave system structure which estimates the unknown states. It introduced a new reduced order observer, using the concept of Algebraic Observability; we applied the results to a Sundarapandian chaotic system, and by means of some numerical simulations we show the effectiveness of the suggested approach. Finally, the proposed observer is utilized for encryption, where encryption key is the master system and decryption key is the slave system.

  18. Application of stochastic optimal reduced state feedback gain computation procedures to the design of aircraft gust alleviation controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sobel, K.; Kaufman, H.

    1979-01-01

    A stochastic linear model that accounts for process parameter and initial uncertainty, measurement noise, and a restricted number of measurable outputs was used to determine feedback gains useful for reducing the vertical acceleration which results from the presence of a vertical wind gust. Considered in the study were the influence of various feedback configurations, the effects of sensor noise, flight condition changes, and initialization procedures. Results showed that for sixth order linearized longitudinal motion, a controller with feedback on three states could be designed for effective gust alleviation taking into account both sensor noise and flight condition variation.

  19. Sparse energetically dominant frequencies in direct numerical simulation of turbulent pipe flow: origin and application to reduced-order models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Francisco; Blackburn, Hugh M.; Rudman, Murray; McKeon, Beverley J.; Luhar, Mitul; Moarref, Rashad; Sharma, Ati S.

    2014-11-01

    The idea of constructing reduced-order models for canonical wall-bounded turbulent flows based on exploiting the sparse energetically dominant frequencies observed in direct numerical simulation of pipe flow by Bourguignon et al. (2013, Phys. Fluids) is examined. The resolvent analysis of a pipe flow is extended in order to consider the influence of finite domain length on the flow dynamics, which restricts the possible wavespeeds in the flow. This analysis shows that large sparse amplifications take place when one of the allowable wavespeeds is equal to the local wavespeed via the critical layer mechanism. A connection between amplification and energy is presented through the similar features displayed by the most energetically relevant flow structures, emerging from a dynamic mode decomposition of direct numerical simulation data, and the resolvent modes associated with the most amplified sparse frequencies. These findings support the viability of reduced-order models based on the selection of the most amplified modes arising from the resolvent model, with the potential to drastically decrease the computational costs required to represent turbulent flows. This work was supported by ARC Grant DP130103103 and AFOSR Grant FA9550- 09-1-0701 (ML, RM, BJM).

  20. Applications of light-induced electron-transfer and hydrogen-abstraction processes: photoelectrochemical production of hydrogen from reducing radicals

    SciTech Connect

    Chandrasekaran, K.; Whitten, D.G.

    1980-07-16

    A study of several photoprocesses which generate reducing radicals in similar photoelectrochemical cells was reported. Coupling of a light-induced reaction to produce a photocurrent concurrent with hydrogen generation in a second compartment can occur for a number of electron transfers and hydrogen abstractions in what appears to be a fairly general process. Irradiation of the RuL/sub 3//sup +2//Et/sub 3/N: photoanode compartment leads to production of a photocurrent together with generation of hydrogen at the cathode. A rather different type of reaction that also results in formation of two reducing radicals as primary photoproducts if the photoreduction of ketones and H-heteroaromatics by alcohols and other hydrogen atom donors. Irradiation of benzophenone/2-propanol/MV/sup +2/ solutions in the photoanode compartment (intensity 1.4 x 10/sup -8/ einstein/s) leads to a buildup of moderate levels of MV/sup +/ and to a steady photocurrent of 320 ..mu..A. The MV/sup +/ is oxidized at the anode of the photolyzed compartment with concomitant reduction of H/sup +/ in the cathode compartment. There was no decrease in benzophenone concentration over moderate periods of irradiation, and a steady production of hydrogen in the cathode compartment was observed. The photocurrent produced was linear with the square of absorbed light intensity. The quantum efficiency at the above-indicated intensity is 22%; quantitative analysis of the hydrogen produced gives good agreement with this value. 1 figure, 1 table. (DP)

  1. Combining in situ chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to reduce contaminant mass and leachability in soil.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, Daniel P; Srivastava, Vipul J; Dombrowski, Frank J; Lingle, James W

    2015-10-30

    Laboratory batch reactors were maintained for 32 weeks to test the potential for an in situ remedy that combines chemical oxidation, stabilization, and anaerobic bioremediation in a single application to treat soil from a manufactured gas plant, contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX). Portland cement and slaked lime were used to activate the persulfate and to stabilize/encapsulate the contaminants that were not chemically oxidized. Native sulfate-reducing bacteria degraded residual contaminants using the sulfate left after persulfate activation. The ability of the combined remedy to reduce contaminant mass and leachability was compared with NaOH-activated persulfate, stabilization, and sulfate-reducing bioremediation as stand-alone technologies. The stabilization amendments increased pH and temperature sufficiently to activate the persulfate within 1 week. Activation with both stabilization amendments and NaOH removed between 55% and 70% of PAH and BTEX. However, combined persulfate and stabilization significantly reduced the leachability of residual BTEX and PAH compared with NaOH activation. Sulfide, 2-naphthoic acid, and the abundance of subunit A of the dissimilatory sulfite reductase gene (dsrA) were used to monitor native sulfate-reducing bacteria, which were negatively impacted by activated persulfate, but recovered completely within weeks. PMID:26093352

  2. Nickel cobalt oxide nanowire-reduced graphite oxide composite material and its application for high performance supercapacitor electrode material.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Yan, Chaoyi; Sumboja, Afriyanti; Lee, Pooi See

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we report a facile synthesis method of mesoporous nickel cobalt oxide (NiCo2O4) nanowire-reduced graphite oxide (rGO) composite material by urea induced hydrolysis reaction, followed by sintering at 300 degrees C. P123 was used to stabilize the GO during synthesis, which resulted in a uniform coating of NiCo2O4 nanowire on rGO sheet. The growth mechanism of the composite material is discussed in detail. The NiCo2O4-rGO composite material showed an outstanding electrochemical performance of 873 F g(-1) at 0.5 A g(-1) and 512 F g(-1) at 40 A g(-1). This method provides a promising approach towards low cost and large scale production of supercapacitor electrode material. PMID:25924377

  3. A MEMS hardness sensor with reduced contact force dependence based on the reference plane concept aimed for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Yusaku; Terao, Kyohei; Shimokawa, Fusao; Takao, Hidekuni

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the stable detection principle of a MEMS hardness sensor with “reference plane” structure is theoretically analyzed and demonstrated with experimental results. Hardness measurement independent of contact force instability is realized by the optimum design of the reference plane. The fabricated devices were evaluated, and a “shore A” hardness scale (JIS K 6301 A) was obtained as the reference in the range from A1 to A54 under a stable contact force. The contact force dependence on hardness sensor signals was effectively reduced by 96.6% using our reference plane design. Below 5 N contact force, the maximal signal error of hardness is suppressed to A8. This result corresponds to the detection capability for fat hardness, even when the contact force is unstable. Through experiments, stable detection of human body hardness has been demonstrated without any control of contact force.

  4. An Approach to Quantum Transport Based on Reduced Hierarchy Equations of Motion: Application to a Resonant Tunneling Diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Atsunori; Tanimura, Yoshitaka

    2013-03-01

    The quantum dissipative dynamics of a tunneling process through double barrier structures is investigated on the basis of a rigorous treatment for the first time. We employ a Caldeira--Leggett Hamiltonian with an effective potential calculated self-consistently, accounting for the electron distribution. With this Hamiltonian, we use the reduced hierarchy equations of motion in the Wigner space representation to study the effects of non-Markovian thermal fluctuations and dissipation at finite temperature in a rigorous manner. Hysteresis, double plateau-like behavior, and self-excited current oscillation are observed in a negative differential resistance (NDR) region of the current--voltage curve. We find that while most of the current oscillations decay in time in the NDR region, there is a steady oscillation characterized by a tornado-like rotation in the Wigner space in the upper plateau of the NDR region.

  5. Approximation of skewed interfaces with tensor-based model reduction procedures: Application to the reduced basis hierarchical model reduction approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohlberger, Mario; Smetana, Kathrin

    2016-09-01

    In this article we introduce a procedure, which allows to recover the potentially very good approximation properties of tensor-based model reduction procedures for the solution of partial differential equations in the presence of interfaces or strong gradients in the solution which are skewed with respect to the coordinate axes. The two key ideas are the location of the interface either by solving a lower-dimensional partial differential equation or by using data functions and the subsequent removal of the interface of the solution by choosing the determined interface as the lifting function of the Dirichlet boundary conditions. We demonstrate in numerical experiments for linear elliptic equations and the reduced basis-hierarchical model reduction approach that the proposed procedure locates the interface well and yields a significantly improved convergence behavior even in the case when we only consider an approximation of the interface.

  6. New Electrospinning Nozzle to Reduce Jet Instability and Its Application to Manufacture of Multi-layered Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byoung-Sun; Jeon, Seung-Yeol; Park, Haedong; Lee, Geunsung; Yang, Ho-Sung; Yu, Woong-Ryeol

    2014-01-01

    A new nozzle system for the efficient production of multi-layered nanofibers through electrospinning is reported. Developed a decade ago, the commonly used coaxial nozzle system consisting of two concentric cylindrical needles has remained unchanged, despite recent advances in multi-layered, multi-functional nanofibers. Here, we demonstrate a core-cut nozzle system, in which the exit pipe of the core nozzle is removed such that the core fluid can form an envelope inside the shell solution. This configuration effectively improves the coaxial electrospinning behavior of two fluids and significantly reduces the jet instability, which was proved by finite element simulation. The proposed electrospinning nozzle system was then used to fabricate bi- and tri-layered carbon nanofibers. PMID:25342096

  7. Enhanced strength in reduced graphene oxide/nickel composites prepared by molecular-level mixing for structural applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chao

    2015-02-01

    An effective molecular-level mixing approach was used to prepare reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/Ni powders, which were directly consolidated into rGO/Ni composites by spark plasma sintering. The rGO/Ni composites were found to exhibit a homogeneous dispersion of rGO and a strong interfacial bonding between the rGO and the Ni matrix. The enhanced interfacial bonding was attributed to the oxygen-mediated bonding generated from the interactions between the residue functional groups of rGO and the Ni atoms. Tensile test revealed that 1.5 wt% rGO/Ni composites demonstrated a 95.2 % increase in tensile strength and a 327.6 % increase in yield strength, while simultaneously retained a 12.1 % of elongation. This study thus proposed an effective way to fabricate rGO/Ni composites with enhanced tensile properties.

  8. Control system to reduce the effects of friction in drive trains of continuous-path-positioning systems. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Green, W.L.

    1980-12-01

    An improved continuous-path-positioning servo-control system is provided for reducing the effects of friction arising at very low cutting speeds in the drive trains of numerically controlled cutting machines, and the like. The improvement comprises a feed forward network for altering the gain of the servo-control loop at low positioning velocities to prevent stick-slip movement of the cutting tool holder being positioned by the control system. The feed forward network shunts conventional lag-compensators in the control loop, or loops, so that the error signal used for positioning varies linearly when the value is small, but being limited for larger values. Thus, at higher positioning speeds there is little effect of the added component upon the control being achieved.

  9. New Electrospinning Nozzle to Reduce Jet Instability and Its Application to Manufacture of Multi-layered Nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoung-Sun; Jeon, Seung-Yeol; Park, Haedong; Lee, Geunsung; Yang, Ho-Sung; Yu, Woong-Ryeol

    2014-10-01

    A new nozzle system for the efficient production of multi-layered nanofibers through electrospinning is reported. Developed a decade ago, the commonly used coaxial nozzle system consisting of two concentric cylindrical needles has remained unchanged, despite recent advances in multi-layered, multi-functional nanofibers. Here, we demonstrate a core-cut nozzle system, in which the exit pipe of the core nozzle is removed such that the core fluid can form an envelope inside the shell solution. This configuration effectively improves the coaxial electrospinning behavior of two fluids and significantly reduces the jet instability, which was proved by finite element simulation. The proposed electrospinning nozzle system was then used to fabricate bi- and tri-layered carbon nanofibers.

  10. Practical applications of sulfate-reducing bacteria to control acid mine drainage at the Lilly/Orphan Boy Mine near Elliston, Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Canty, M.

    1994-12-31

    The overall purpose of this document is to provide a detailed technical description of a technology, biological sulfate reduction, which is being demonstrated under the Mine Waste Technology Pilot Program, and provide the technology evaluation process undertaken to select this technology for demonstration. In addition, this document will link the use of the selected technology to an application at a specific site. The purpose of this project is to develop technical information on the ability of biological sulfate reduction to slow the process of acid generation and, thus, improve water quality at a remote mine site. Several technologies are screened for their potential to treat acid mine water and to function as a source control for a specific acid-generating situation: a mine shaft and associated underground workings flooded with acid mine water and discharging a small flow from a mine opening. The preferred technology is the use of biological sulfate reduction. Sulfate-reducing bacteria are capable of reducing sulfate to sulfide, as well as increasing the pH and alkalinity of water affected by acid generation. Soluble sulfide reacts with the soluble metals in solution to form insoluble metal sulfides. The environment needed for efficient sulfate-reducing bacteria growth decreases acid production by reducing the dissolved oxygen in water and increasing pH. A detailed technical description of the sulfate-reducing bacteria technology, based on an extensive review of the technical literature, is presented. The field demonstration of this technology to be performed at the Lilly/Orphan Boy Mine is also described. Finally, additional in situ applications of biological sulfate reduction are presented.

  11. Reducing Motor Vehicle-Related Injuries at an Arizona Indian Reservation: Ten Years of Application of Evidence-Based Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Piontkowski, Stephen R; Peabody, Jon S; Reede, Christine; Velascosoltero, José; Tsatoke, Gordon; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hicks, Kenny R

    2015-01-01

    Unintentional injury is a significant public health burden for American Indians and Alaska Natives and was the leading cause of death among those aged 1 to 44 years between 1999 and 2004. Of those deaths, motor vehicle-related deaths cause the most mortality, justifying the need for intervention at an American Indian Reservation in Arizona (United States). We describe motor vehicle injury prevention program operations from 2004 through 2013. This community-based approach led by a multidisciplinary team primarily comprised of environmental public health and law enforcement personnel implemented evidence-based strategies to reduce the impact of motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths, focusing on reducing impaired driving and increasing occupant restraint use. Strategies included: mass media campaigns to enhance awareness and outreach; high-visibility sobriety checkpoints; passing and enforcing 0.08% blood alcohol concentration limits for drivers and primary occupant restraint laws; and child car seat distribution and education. Routine monitoring and evaluation data showed a significant 5% to 7% annual reduction of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), nighttime MVCs, MVCs with injuries/fatalities, and nighttime MVCs with injuries/fatalities between 2004 and 2013, but the annual percent change in arrests for driving under the influence (DUI) was not significant. There was also a 144% increase in driver/front seat passenger seat belt use, from 19% in 2011 before the primary occupant restraint law was enacted to 47% during the first full year of enforcement (2013). Car seat checkpoint data also suggested a 160% increase in car seat use, from less than 20% to 52% in 2013. Implementation of evidence-based strategies in injury prevention, along with employment of key program approaches such as strong partnership building, community engagement, and consistent staffing and funding, can narrow the public health disparity gap experienced among American Indian and Alaska Native

  12. Reducing Motor Vehicle-Related Injuries at an Arizona Indian Reservation: Ten Years of Application of Evidence-Based Strategies.

    PubMed

    Piontkowski, Stephen R; Peabody, Jon S; Reede, Christine; Velascosoltero, José; Tsatoke, Gordon; Shelhamer, Timothy; Hicks, Kenny R

    2015-12-01

    Unintentional injury is a significant public health burden for American Indians and Alaska Natives and was the leading cause of death among those aged 1 to 44 years between 1999 and 2004. Of those deaths, motor vehicle-related deaths cause the most mortality, justifying the need for intervention at an American Indian Reservation in Arizona (United States). We describe motor vehicle injury prevention program operations from 2004 through 2013. This community-based approach led by a multidisciplinary team primarily comprised of environmental public health and law enforcement personnel implemented evidence-based strategies to reduce the impact of motor vehicle-related injuries and deaths, focusing on reducing impaired driving and increasing occupant restraint use. Strategies included: mass media campaigns to enhance awareness and outreach; high-visibility sobriety checkpoints; passing and enforcing 0.08% blood alcohol concentration limits for drivers and primary occupant restraint laws; and child car seat distribution and education. Routine monitoring and evaluation data showed a significant 5% to 7% annual reduction of motor vehicle crashes (MVCs), nighttime MVCs, MVCs with injuries/fatalities, and nighttime MVCs with injuries/fatalities between 2004 and 2013, but the annual percent change in arrests for driving under the influence (DUI) was not significant. There was also a 144% increase in driver/front seat passenger seat belt use, from 19% in 2011 before the primary occupant restraint law was enacted to 47% during the first full year of enforcement (2013). Car seat checkpoint data also suggested a 160% increase in car seat use, from less than 20% to 52% in 2013. Implementation of evidence-based strategies in injury prevention, along with employment of key program approaches such as strong partnership building, community engagement, and consistent staffing and funding, can narrow the public health disparity gap experienced among American Indian and Alaska Native

  13. Using the intervention mapping protocol to reduce European preschoolers’ sedentary behavior, an application to the ToyBox-Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High levels of sedentary behavior are often measured in preschoolers, but only a few interventions have been developed to counteract this. Furthermore, detailed descriptions of interventions in preschoolers targeting different forms of sedentary behavior could not be located in the literature. The aim of the present paper was to describe the different steps of the Intervention Mapping Protocol used towards the development of an intervention component of the ToyBox-study focusing on decreasing preschoolers’ sedentary behavior. The ToyBox-study focuses on the prevention of overweight in 4- to 6-year-old children by implementing a multi-component kindergarten-based intervention with family involvement in six different European countries. Methods Applying the Intervention Mapping Protocol, six different steps were systematically completed for the structured planning and development of the intervention. A literature search and results from focus groups with parents/caregivers and kindergarten teachers were used as a guide during the development of the intervention and the intervention materials. Results The application of the different steps in the Intervention Mapping Protocol resulted in the creation of matrices of change objectives, followed by the selection of practical applications for five different intervention tools that could be used at the individual level of the preschool child, at the interpersonal level (i.e., parents/caregivers) and at the organizational level (i.e., kindergarten teachers). No cultural differences regarding preschoolers’ sedentary behavior were identified between the participating countries during the focus groups, so cultural and local adaptations of the intervention materials were not necessary to improve the adoption and implementation of the intervention. Conclusions A systematic and evidence-based approach was used for the development of this kindergarten-based family-involved intervention targeting preschoolers, with

  14. Reduced erbium-doped ceria nanoparticles: one nano-host applicable for simultaneous optical down- and up-conversions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a new synthesis procedure to form erbium-doped ceria nanoparticles (EDC NPs) that can act as an optical medium for both up-conversion and down-conversion in the same time. This synthesis process results qualitatively in a high concentration of Ce3+ ions required to obtain high fluorescence efficiency in the down-conversion process. Simultaneously, the synthesized nanoparticles contain the molecular energy levels of erbium that are required for up-conversion. Therefore, the synthesized EDC NPs can emit visible light when excited with either UV or IR photons. This opens new opportunities for applications where emission of light via both up- and down-conversions from a single nanomaterial is desired such as solar cells and bio-imaging. PMID:24940173

  15. Reduced burning and stinging associated with topical application of lactic acid 10% with strontium versus ammonium lactate 12%.

    PubMed

    Haddican, Madelaine; Gagliotti, Matthew; Lebwohl, Mark

    2013-05-01

    Burning and/or stinging is one of the most common concerns expressed by patients using topical therapies for treatment of dermatologic disorders. Topical lactic acid preparations often are used to treat dry scaly skin. In this study, we compared the level of burning/stinging reported by participants with application of lactic acid cream 10% containing strontium versus ammonium lactate lotion 12% and cetearyl alcohol lotion. The mean rating of burning/stinging reported for lactic acid cream 10% with strontium and cetearyl alcohol lotion was lower than ammonium lactate lotion 12% (P<.0001). Based on the study results, lactic acid cream 10% with strontium causes less burning/stinging than ammonium lactate lotion 12%. PMID:23772434

  16. Design of Flow Systems for Improved Networking and Reduced Noise in Biomolecular Signal Processing in Biocomputing and Biosensing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Arjun; Fratto, Brian E.; Privman, Vladimir; Katz, Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    We consider flow systems that have been utilized for small-scale biomolecular computing and digital signal processing in binary-operating biosensors. Signal measurement is optimized by designing a flow-reversal cuvette and analyzing the experimental data to theoretically extract the pulse shape, as well as reveal the level of noise it possesses. Noise reduction is then carried out numerically. We conclude that this can be accomplished physically via the addition of properly designed well-mixing flow-reversal cell(s) as an integral part of the flow system. This approach should enable improved networking capabilities and potentially not only digital but analog signal-processing in such systems. Possible applications in complex biocomputing networks and various sense-and-act systems are discussed. PMID:27399702

  17. Design of Flow Systems for Improved Networking and Reduced Noise in Biomolecular Signal Processing in Biocomputing and Biosensing Applications.

    PubMed

    Verma, Arjun; Fratto, Brian E; Privman, Vladimir; Katz, Evgeny

    2016-01-01

    We consider flow systems that have been utilized for small-scale biomolecular computing and digital signal processing in binary-operating biosensors. Signal measurement is optimized by designing a flow-reversal cuvette and analyzing the experimental data to theoretically extract the pulse shape, as well as reveal the level of noise it possesses. Noise reduction is then carried out numerically. We conclude that this can be accomplished physically via the addition of properly designed well-mixing flow-reversal cell(s) as an integral part of the flow system. This approach should enable improved networking capabilities and potentially not only digital but analog signal-processing in such systems. Possible applications in complex biocomputing networks and various sense-and-act systems are discussed. PMID:27399702

  18. Colonization on Root Surface by a Phenanthrene-Degrading Endophytic Bacterium and Its Application for Reducing Plant Phenanthrene Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Liu, Shuang; Sun, Kai; Sheng, Yuehui; Gu, Yujun; Gao, Yanzheng

    2014-01-01

    A phenanthrene-degrading endophytic bacterium, Pn2, was isolated from Alopecurus aequalis Sobol grown in soils contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Based on morphology, physiological characteristics and the 16S rRNA gene sequence, it was identified as Massilia sp. Strain Pn2 could degrade more than 95% of the phenanthrene (150 mg·L−1) in a minimal salts medium (MSM) within 48 hours at an initial pH of 7.0 and a temperature of 30°C. Pn2 could grow well on the MSM plates with a series of other PAHs, including naphthalene, acenaphthene, anthracene and pyrene, and degrade them to different degrees. Pn2 could also colonize the root surface of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam), invade its internal root tissues and translocate into the plant shoot. When treated with the endophyte Pn2 under hydroponic growth conditions with 2 mg·L−1 of phenanthrene in the Hoagland solution, the phenanthrene concentrations in ryegrass roots and shoots were reduced by 54% and 57%, respectively, compared with the endophyte-free treatment. Strain Pn2 could be a novel and useful bacterial resource for eliminating plant PAH contamination in polluted environments by degrading the PAHs inside plants. Furthermore, we provide new perspectives on the control of the plant uptake of PAHs via endophytic bacteria. PMID:25247301

  19. Application of Sleeper Cab Thermal Management Technologies to Reduce Idle Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Lustbader, J. A.; Venson, T.; Adelman, S.; Dehart, C.; Yeakel, S.; Castillo, M. S.

    2012-10-01

    Each intercity long-haul truck in the U.S. idles approximately 1,800 hrs per year, primarily for sleeper cab hotel loads. Including workday idling, over 2 billion gallons of fuel are used annually for truck idling. NREL's CoolCab project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling and fuel use. The impact of thermal load reduction technologies on idle reduction systems were characterized by conducting thermal soak tests, overall heat transfer tests, and 10-hour rest period A/C tests. Technologies evaluated include advanced insulation packages, a solar reflective film applied to the vehicle's opaque exterior surfaces, a truck featuring both film and insulation, and a battery-powered A/C system. Opportunities were identified to reduce heating and cooling loads for long-haul truck idling by 36% and 34%, respectively, which yielded a 23% reduction in battery pack capacity of the idle-reduction system. Data were also collected for development and validation of a CoolCalc HVAC truck cab model. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, has flexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches.

  20. Low temperature synthesis of RGO-Au nanocomposite with apparently reduced time and its application as a chemical sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuz Johra, Fatima; Jung, Woo-Gwang

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, a reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-Au nanocomposites (NC) is synthesized at a low temperature by refluxing without a surfactant. Transmission electron microscopy suggests that Au nanoparticles (NPs) 10-20 nm in size are dispersed on the RGO thin film. X-ray diffraction study, UV-vis spectrometry, and Raman spectroscopy confirmed the reduction of graphene oxide (GO). This RGO-Au NC shows an excellent ability to detect Cr(VI) by electrochemical sensing, with good responses to both current and voltage. A glassy carbon electrode modified with the NC shows a significant voltammetric reduction peak. The voltammetric detection ability is highly dependent on the pH of the electrolyte. The large surface area of RGO's porous structure and the electroactive Au NPs both allow free exchange of reaction intermediates, resulting in significantly enhanced Cr(VI) reduction activity. The RGO-Au electrode shows a good linear response in a range of Cr(VI) concentrations from 10 to 800 μM and a high sensitivity of 0.0146 μA μM-1 with a 2.10 μM detection limit.

  1. Application of strategies for sanitation management in wastewater treatment plants in order to control/reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Préndez, Margarita; Lara-González, Scarlette

    2008-09-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHG), basically methane (CH(4)), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O), occur at atmospheric concentrations of ppbv to ppmv under natural conditions. GHG have long mean lifetimes and are an important factor for the mean temperature of the Earth. However, increasing anthropogenic emissions could produce a scenario of progressive and cumulative effects over time, causing a potential "global climate change". Biological degradation of the organic matter present in wastewater is considered one of the anthropogenic sources of GHG. In this study, GHG emissions for the period 1990-2027 were estimated considering the sanitation process and the official domestic wastewater treatment startup schedule approved for the Metropolitan Region (MR) of Santiago, Chile. The methodology considers selected models proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and some others published by different authors; these were modified according to national conditions and different sanitation and temporal scenarios. For the end of the modeled period (2027), results show emissions of about 65 Tg CO(2) equiv./year (as global warming potential), which represent around 50% of national emissions. These values could be reduced if certain sanitation management strategies were introduced in the environmental management by the sanitation company in charge of wastewater treatment. PMID:17548144

  2. [Application of photodynamic therapy to reduce the amount of resection for non-small cell lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Akopov, A L; Rusanov, A A; Chistiakov, I V; Urtenova, M A; Kazakov, N V; Gerasin, A V; Papaian, G V

    2013-01-01

    A prospective analysis of results of combined treatment of 22 patients with central stage II-III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was performed (the defeat of the main bronchi or lower parts of the trachea), which initially had been regarded as unresectable or inoperable (12 patients for functional reasons could not pass pneumonectomy, and in 10 patients a contraindication to primary surgery was the involvement of the distal trachea in tumor), but underwent surgery after preoperative treatment.Combination therapy included preoperative endobronchial photodynamic therapy (PDT) and chemotherapy followed by surgery and intraoperative PDT resection margins. PDT was carried out with the use of chlorine E6 (Radachlorin) and light wavelength of 662 nm. Overall response rate after neoadjuvant treatment was 82 %, endoscopic remission was observed in 21 of 22 patients (95%). 10 patients underwent pneumonectomy, 12--lobectomy. 19 surgical interventions were regarded as radical (R0--86%), 3--as microscopically non-radical (R1--14%). Degree of lymphatic metastasis spreading pN0 was detected in 6 patients (27 %), pN1--in 14 (64%) and pN2--in 2 patients (9%). Surgical lethality was 5%. In the late time of the whole observation period none of the patients developed local recurrence. One-year survival was 95%, 3-year--91%. PDT can play an important role in combination with surgical treatment for NSCLC and reduces the amount of resection in part of initially unresectable or inoperable patients. PMID:24624784

  3. Multiple pollution biomarker application on tissues of Eobania vermiculata during two periods characterized by augmented and reduced snail activity.

    PubMed

    Itziou, A; Dimitriadis, V K

    2012-12-01

    In the present study a package of biomarkers was applied on land snails E. vermiculata collected from polluted areas, as well as from an unpolluted reference one. Snail collection was performed during two different sampling periods characterized by reduced and augmented organism activity, October and May, respectively. The biomarkers applied were lysosomal membrane stability on digestive cells (LMS), neutral red lysosomal retention assay on haemocytes (NRR), morphometric changes of the lysosomal system (VDL, NDL), morphometric alterations of the neutral lipids (VDLP, NDLP), acetylcholinesterase activity on digestive gland and hemolymph (AChE), metallothionein content on digestive gland (MTs) and cyclic AMP content on digestive gland (cAMP). The results revealed significant differences in biomarker values between the two sampling periods. Significant differences were also detected among the sampling groups. The fluctuation of the parameters applied indicated that spring is a more suitable period for sampling conduction compared to autumn and that biomonitoring studies should be performed with special attention during the last mentioned period. PMID:23020987

  4. Zinc Treatment to Under-five Children: Applications to Improve Child Survival and Reduce Burden of Disease

    PubMed Central

    Larson, Charles P.; Roy, S.K.; Khan, Azharul Islam; Rahman, Ahmed Shafiqur; Qadri, Firdausi

    2008-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient associated with over 300 biological functions. Marginal zinc deficiency states are common among children living in poverty and exposed to diets either low in zinc or high in phytates that compromise zinc uptake. These children are at increased risk of morbidity due to infectious diseases, including diarrhoea and respiratory infection. Children aged less than five years (under-five children) and those exposed to zinc-deficient diets will benefit from either daily supplementation of zinc or a 10 to 14-day course of zinc treatment for an episode of acute diarrhoea. This includes less severe illness and a reduced likelihood of repeat episodes of diarrhoea. Given these findings, the World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund now recommend that all children with an acute diarrhoeal illness be treated with zinc, regardless of aetiology. ICDDR.B scientists have led the way in identifying the benefits of zinc. Now, in partnership with the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of Bangladesh and the private sector, the first national scaling up of zinc treatment has been carried out. Important challenges remain in terms of reaching the poorest families and those living in remote areas of Bangladesh. PMID:18831230

  5. Spectroscopic, colorimetric and theoretical investigation of Salicylidene hydrazine based reduced Schiff base and its application towards biologically important anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Sankar; Dalapati, Sasanka; Alam, Md. Akhtarul; Guchhait, Nikhil

    A reduced Schiff base anionic receptor 1 [N,N'-bis-(2-hydroxy-5-nitro-benzyl)hydrazine] has been synthesized, characterized and reported as a selective chromogenic receptor for fluoride, acetate and phosphate anions over the other tested anions such as chloride, bromide, iodide and hydrogensulphite. Colorimetric naked-eye detection and UV-vis absorption spectroscopic techniques were used to distinguish the recognition behaviours towards various anions. The receptor-anion complexation mainly occurs via hydrogen bonding interactions which facile to generate the charge transfer band in the UV-vis spectra and cause large bathochromic shift as well as naked-eye colour change. Complexation stoichiometry, binding constant and free energy change due to complex formation were determined from Benesi-Hildebrand plot. The binding constant and the free energy change values are well interactive for spontaneous complexation. The experimental results have been correlated with the theoretical calculations using B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-311++G(d,p) basis set for both the receptor and complex by Density Functional Theory (DFT) method.

  6. Development of Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic Surfaces to Reduce Accumulation of Reactive Oxygen Species for Neural Interfacing Applications

    PubMed Central

    Potter-Baker, Kelsey A.; Nguyen, Jessica K.; Kovach, Kyle M.; Gitomer, Martin M.; Srail, Tyler W.; Stewart, Wade G.; Skousen, John L.; Capadona, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Despite successful initial recording, neuroinflammatory-mediated oxidative stress products can contribute to microelectrode failure by a variety of mechanisms including: inducing microelectrode corrosion, degrading insulating/passivating materials, promoting blood-brain barrier breakdown, and directly damaging surrounding neurons. We have shown that a variety of anti-oxidant treatments can reduce intracortical microelectrode-mediated oxidative stress, and preserve neuronal viability. Unfortunately, short-term soluble delivery of anti-oxidant therapies may be unable to provide sustained therapeutic benefits due to low bio-availability and fast clearance rates. In order to develop a system to provide sustained neuroprotection, we investigated modifying the microelectrode surface with an anti-oxidative coating. For initial proof of concept, we chose the superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic Mn(III)tetrakis(4-benzoic acid)porphyrin (MnTBAP). Our system utilizes a composite coating of adsorbed and immobilized MnTBAP designed to provide an initial release followed by continued presentation of an immobilized layer of the antioxidant. Surface modification was confirmed by XPS and QCMB-D analysis. Antioxidant activity of composite surfaces was determined using a Riboflavin/NitroBlue Tetrazolium (RF/NBT) assay. Our results indicate that the hybrid modified surfaces provide several days of anti-oxidative activity. Additionally, in vitro studies with BV-2 microglia cells indicated a significant reduction of intracellular and extracellular reactive oxygen species when cultured on composite MnTBAP surfaces. PMID:25132966

  7. Switchable Faraday shielding with application to reducing the pain of internal cardiac defibrillation while permitting external defibrillation.

    PubMed

    Kolandaivelu, Aravindan; Jayanti, Venku; Halperin, Henry R; Berger, Ronald D

    2012-02-01

    Switchable Faraday shielding is desirable in situations where electric field shielding is required at certain times and undesirable at other times. In this study, electrostatic finite element modeling was used to assess the effect of different shield geometries on the leakage of an internally applied field and penetration of an externally applied field. "Switching OFF" the shield by electrically disconnecting shield faces from each other was shown to significantly increase external field penetration. Applying this model to defibrillation, we looked at the effect of spacing and size of shield panels to maximize the ability to deliver an external defibrillation shock to the heart when shield panels are disconnected while providing acceptably low leakage of internal defibrillation shocks to avoid painful skeletal muscle capture when shield panels are connected. This analysis may be useful for designing internal defibrillator electrodes that preserve the efficacy of internal and external defibrillation while avoiding the significant morbidity associated with painful defibrillator shocks. Similar analysis could also guide optimizing the switchable Faraday shielding concept for other applications. PMID:22042127

  8. Intrathecal application of the antimicrobial peptide CRAMP reduced mortality and neuroinflammation in an experimental model of pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Dörr, Arndt; Kress, Eugenia; Podschun, Rainer; Pufe, Thomas; Tauber, Simone C; Brandenburg, Lars-Ove

    2015-08-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AP) are important components of the innate immune system. Our previous work revealed a higher mortality rate and up-regulation of proinflammatory gene expression as well as glial cell activation in cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP)-deficient mice after bacterial meningitis. However, the influence of CRAMP application on the progression of inflammation and its impact on mortality after bacterial meningitis remains unknown. To assess the effects of continuous CRAMP exposure in the brain, C57BL/6 wildtype mice were given intracerebroventricular infusion of CRAMP to investigate the effects on mortality, glial cell activation and inflammation in a mouse model of pneumococcal meningitis using immunohistochemistry and realtime RT-PCR. Our results revealed a decrease of mortality after CRAMP infusion. The intrathecal CRAMP infusion after pneumococcal meningitis resulted in a decreased mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, whereas the immune responses including the expression of pattern recognition receptors and chemokines were increased in bacterial meningitis. Taken together, the results support the important role of CRAMP as part of the innate immune response against pathogens in bacterial CNS infections. The APs may be a promising approach for the development of an adjuvant therapy for bacterial meningitis. PMID:25896094

  9. On-site application of air cleaner emitting plasma ion to reduce airborne contaminants in pig building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Man Su; Ko, Han Jong; Kim, Daekeun; Kim, Ki Youn

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this field study is to evaluate temporal reduction efficiency of air cleaner emitting plasma ion on airborne pollutants emitted from pig building. The operation principle of air cleaner based on plasma ion is that hydrogen atoms and oxygen ions combine to form hydroperoxyl radicals (HOO-), which surround and attach to surface of airborne microorganisms and eliminate them by breaking the hydrogen bond in their protein structure. In gaseous pollutants, it was found that there is no reduction effect of the air cleaner on ammonia and hydrogen sulfide (p > 0.05). In particulate pollutants, the air cleaner showed mean 79%(±6.1) and 78%(±3.0) of reduction efficiency for PM2.5. and PM1, respectively, compared to the control without air cleaner (p < 0.05). However, there is no significant difference in TSP and PM10 between the treatment with air cleaner and the control without air cleaner (p > 0.05). In biological pollutants, the mean reduction efficiencies for airborne bacteria and fungi by application of air cleaner were 22%(±6.6) and 25%(±8.7), respectively (p < 0.05). Based on the results obtained from this study, it was concluded that the air cleaner had a positive reduction effect on PM2.5, PM1, airborne bacteria and airborne fungi among airborne pollutants distributed in pig building while it did not lead to significant reduction of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  10. Topical Application of a Bioadhesive Black Raspberry Gel Modulates Gene Expression and Reduces Cyclooxygenase 2 Protein in Human Premalignant Oral Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Mallery, Susan R.; Zwick, Jared C.; Pei, Ping; Tong, Meng; Larsen, Peter E.; Shumway, Brian S.; Lu, Bo; Fields, Henry W.; Mumper, Russell J.; Stoner, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    Reduced expression of proapoptotic and terminal differentiation genes in conjunction with increased levels of the proinflammatory and angiogenesis-inducing enzymes, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), correlate with malignant transformation of oral intraepithelial neoplasia (IEN). Accordingly, this study investigated the effects of a 10% (w/w) freeze-dried black raspberry gel on oral IEN histopathology, gene expression profiles, intraepithelial COX-2 and iNOS proteins, and microvascular densities. Our laboratories have shown that freeze-dried black raspberries possess antioxidant properties and also induce keratinocyte apoptosis and terminal differentiation. Oral IEN tissues were hemisected to provide samples for pretreatment diagnoses and establish baseline biochemical and molecular variables. Treatment of the remaining lesional tissue (0.5 g gel applied four times daily for 6 weeks) began 1 week after the initial biopsy. RNA was isolated from snap-frozen IEN lesions for microarray analyses, followed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR validation. Additional epithelial gene-specific quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analyses facilitated the assessment of target tissue treatment effects. Surface epithelial COX-2 and iNOS protein levels and microvascular densities were determined by image analysis quantified immunohistochemistry. Topical berry gel application uniformly suppressed genes associated with RNA processing, growth factor recycling, and inhibition of apoptosis. Although the majority of participants showed posttreatment decreases in epithelial iNOS and COX-2 proteins, only COX-2 reductions were statistically significant. These data show that berry gel application modulated oral IEN gene expression profiles, ultimately reducing epithelial COX-2 protein. In a patient subset, berry gel application also reduced vascular densities in the superficial connective tissues and induced genes associated with keratinocyte

  11. Effect of Low Level Laser Application at the End of Surgery to Reduce Pain after Tonsillectomy in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Aghamohammadi, Dawood; Eidi, Mohammad; Lotfi, Alireza; Hosseinzadeh, Hamzeh; Movasaghi, Reza; Motighini, Negar; Ayoub Bouraima, Stephane

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Tonsillectomy is among commonest otorhinolaryngologic surgeries. Many methods have been used to control post surgical pain, but despite it, pain is still one of the problems related to this operation. Recently, due to the non invasiveness of low level lasers, this modality has attracted attention. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of low level laser irradiation at the end of surgery on reduction of pain after tonsillectomy in adults. Methods: In a clinical trial, 60 adult patients, candidates for tonsillectomy were randomly assigned to two groups, A and B, and both groups were anesthetized similarly by the same technique. At the end of surgery, in the case group, the tonsils’ bed were irradiated by infrared laser with 980nm wavelength, 100Hz, 4J/cm2 from the infra mandibular angle. In the control group, the tonsils’ bed had laser therapy with a turned off probe. Following laser treatment, the patients were reversed and extubated and consciousness achieved, pain and odynophagia were assessed at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12 and 24h post surgery based on visual analog scale for pain (VAS) and analgesic consumption. Results: In the laser group frequency of patients with pain sensation in each evaluated hour was lower than in the control group. The amount of pain decrease and analgesic consumption reduction was significantly higher in patients who received laser (P=0.01). Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, use of low level lasers is effective in reducing tonsillectomy post surgical pain in adults. PMID:25606312

  12. Weighted calibration with reduced number of signals by weighing factor modelling: application to the identification of explosives by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Brasil, Beatriz; Bettencourt da Silva, Ricardo J N; Camões, M Filomena G F C; Salgueiro, Pedro A S

    2013-12-01

    The linear weighted regression model (LW) can be used to calibrate analytical instrumentation in a range of quantities (e.g. concentration or mass) wider than possible by the linear unweighted regression model, LuW (i.e. the least squares regression model), since this model can be applied when signals are not equally precise through the calibration range. If precision of signals varies within the calibration range, the regression line should be defined taking into account that more precise signals are more reliable and should count more to define regression parameters. Nevertheless, the LW requires the determination of the variation of signals precision through the calibration range. Typically, this information is collected experimentally for each calibration, requiring a large number of replicate collection of signals of calibrators. This work proposes reducing the number of signals needed to perform LW calibrations by developing models of weighing factors robust to daily variations of instrument sensibility. These models were applied to the determination of the ionic composition of the water soluble fraction of explosives. The adequacy of the developed models was tested through the analysis of control standards, certified reference materials and the ion balance of anions and cations in aqueous extracts of explosives, considering the measurement uncertainty estimated by detailed metrological models. The high success rate of the comparisons between estimated and known quantity values of reference solutions, considering results uncertainty, proves the validity of developed metrological models. The relative expanded measurement uncertainty of single determinations ranged from 1.93% to 35.7% for calibrations performed along 4 months. PMID:24267095

  13. Precipitation sensitivity to alloy composition in Fe-Cr-Mn austenitic steels developed for reduced activation for fusion application

    SciTech Connect

    Maziasz, P.J.; Klueh, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Special austenitic steels are being designed in which alloying elements like Mo, Nb, and Ni are replaced with Mn, W, V, Ti, and/or Ta to reduce the long-term radioactivity induced by fusion reactor irradiation. However, the new steels still need to have properties otherwise similar to commercial steels like type 316. Precipitation strongly affects strength and radiation-resistance in austenitic steels during irradiation at 400--600/degree/C, and precipitation is also usually quite sensitive to alloy composition. The initial stage of development was to define a base Fe-Cr-Mn-C composition that formed stable austenite after annealing and cold-working, and resisted recovery or excessive formation of coarse carbide and intermetallic phases during elevated temperature annealing. These studies produced a Fe-12Cr-20Mn-0.25C base alloy. The next stage was to add the minor alloying elements W, Ti, V, P, and B for more strength and radiation-resistance. One of the goals was to produce fine MC precipitation behavior similar to the Ti-modified Fe-Cr-Ni prime candidate alloy (PCA). Additions of Ti+V+P+B produced fine MC precipitation along network dislocations and recovery/recrystallization resistance in 20% cold worked material aged at 800/degree/C for 166h, whereas W, Ti, W+Ti, or Ti+P+B additions did not. Addition of W+Ti+V+P+B also produced fine MC, but caused some sigma phase formation and more recrystallization as well. 29 refs., 14 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Fabrication of ultralong hybrid microfibers from nanosheets of reduced graphene oxide and transition-metal dichalcogenides and their application as supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gengzhi; Liu, Juqing; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Xuewan; Li, Hai; Yu, Yang; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Peng

    2014-11-10

    Two-dimensional materials have attracted increasing research interest owing to their unique electronic, physical, optical, and mechanical properties. We thus developed a general strategy for the fabrication of ultralong hybrid microfibers from a mixture of reduced graphene oxide and transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), including MoS2 , TiS2 , TaS2 , and NbSe2 . Furthermore, we prepared fiber-based solid-state supercapacitors as a proof-of-concept application. The performance of thus-prepared supercapacitors was greatly improved by the introduction of the TMDs. PMID:25130600

  15. Improved properties of phosphor-filled luminescent down-shifting layers: reduced scattering, optical model, and optimization for PV application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solodovnyk, Anastasiia; Lipovšek, Benjamin; Forberich, Karen; Stern, Edda; Krč, Janez; Batentschuk, Miroslaw; Topič, Marko; Brabec, Christoph J.

    2015-12-01

    We studied the optical properties of polymer layers filled with phosphor particles in two aspects. First, we used two different polymer binders with refractive indices n = 1.46 and n = 1.61 (λ = 600 nm) to decrease Δn with the phosphor particles (n = 1.81). Second, we prepared two particle size distributions D50 = 12 μm and D50 = 19 μm. The particles were dispersed in both polymer binders in several volume concentrations and coated onto glass with thicknesses of 150 - 600 μm. We present further a newly developed optical model for simulation and optimization of such luminescent down-shifting (LDS) layers. The model is developed within the ray tracing framework of the existing optical simulator CROWM (Combined Ray Optics / Wave Optics Model), which enables simulation of standalone LDS layers as well as complete solar cells (including thick and thin layers) enhanced by the LDS layers for an improved solar spectrum harvesting. Experimental results and numerical simulations show that the layers of the higher refractive index binder with larger particles result in the highest optical transmittance in the visible light spectrum. Finally we proved that scattering of the phosphor particles in the LDS layers may increase the overall light harvesting in the solar cell. We used numerical simulations to determine optimal layer composition for application in realistic thin-film photovoltaic devices. Surprisingly LDS layers with lower measured optical transmittance are more efficient when applied onto the solar cells due to graded refractive index and efficient light scattering. Therefore, our phosphor-filled LDS layers could possibly complement other light-coupling techniques in photovoltaics.

  16. Reducing Salmonella on cantaloupes and honeydew melons using wash practices applicable to postharvest handling, foodservice, and consumer preparation.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Tracy L; Harris, Linda J; Suslow, Trevor V

    2005-03-01

    Washing conditions that included a soak or brush scrub were evaluated for removal of Salmonella from the surface of smooth (honeydew) or complex (cantaloupe) melon rinds. Melon rinds were spot-inoculated onto a 2.5 cm2 area of rind (squares) with approximately 6.0 log(10) CFU/square of an avirulent nalidixic acid-resistant strain of Salmonella typhimurium. Melons were washed by immersion in 1500 ml of water or 200 ppm total chlorine and allowed to soak or were scrubbed over the entire melon surface with a sterile vegetable brush for 60 s. Inoculated sites, uninoculated sites ("next to" sites) that were adjacent to inoculated sites, and sites on the side of the melon opposite (remote sites) the inoculated site were excised and pummeled in a stomacher for 2 min prior to plating onto tryptic soy or bismuth sulfite agar supplemented with 50 microg/ml nalidixic acid. S. typhimurium was reduced on the rind of cantaloupe by 1.8 log CFU/melon after soaking for 60 s in 200 ppm total chlorine, which was significantly better than the 0.7 log CFU/melon achieved with soaking in water. For both water and 200 ppm total chlorine, scrubbing with a vegetable brush was shown to be significantly (0.9 log CFU/cantaloupe) more effective than soaking alone. When honeydew melons were soaked or scrubbed in water, reductions of 2.8 log CFU/melon or >4.6 log CFU/melon (four of five samples), respectively, were observed. However, when water treatments were used, the presence of Salmonella-positive "next to" and remote sites indicated that bacteria were spread from inoculated site on the rind to uninoculated sites either through the rinse water (40-70 CFU/ml of Salmonella) or scrub brush (400-500 CFU/brush). Transfer to other sites occurred more often with cantaloupe than honeydew melons. This transfer was eliminated when 200 ppm total chlorine was used. When 200 ppm total chlorine was used, Salmonella could not be detected in the water or on the scrub brush. For optimal microbial removal in

  17. The use of ionospheric tomography and elevation masks to reduce the overall error in single-frequency GPS timing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Julian A. R.; Tong, Jenna R.; Allain, Damien J.; Mitchell, Cathryn N.

    2011-01-01

    Signals from Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites at the horizon or at low elevations are often excluded from a GPS solution because they experience considerable ionospheric delays and multipath effects. Their exclusion can degrade the overall satellite geometry for the calculations, resulting in greater errors; an effect known as the Dilution of Precision (DOP). In contrast, signals from high elevation satellites experience less ionospheric delays and multipath effects. The aim is to find a balance in the choice of elevation mask, to reduce the propagation delays and multipath whilst maintaining good satellite geometry, and to use tomography to correct for the ionosphere and thus improve single-frequency GPS timing accuracy. GPS data, collected from a global network of dual-frequency GPS receivers, have been used to produce four GPS timing solutions, each with a different ionospheric compensation technique. One solution uses a 4D tomographic algorithm, Multi-Instrument Data Analysis System (MIDAS), to compensate for the ionospheric delay. Maps of ionospheric electron density are produced and used to correct the single-frequency pseudorange observations. This method is compared to a dual-frequency solution and two other single-frequency solutions: one does not include any ionospheric compensation and the other uses the broadcast Klobuchar model. Data from the solar maximum year 2002 and October 2003 have been investigated to display results when the ionospheric delays are large and variable. The study focuses on Europe and results are produced for the chosen test site, VILL (Villafranca, Spain). The effects of excluding all of the GPS satellites below various elevation masks, ranging from 5° to 40°, on timing solutions for fixed (static) and mobile (moving) situations are presented. The greatest timing accuracies when using the fixed GPS receiver technique are obtained by using a 40° mask, rather than a 5° mask. The mobile GPS timing solutions are most

  18. Subcutaneous Bortezomib in Multiple Myeloma Patients Induces Similar Therapeutic Response Rates as Intravenous Application But It Does Not Reduce the Incidence of Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Minarik, Jiri; Pavlicek, Petr; Pour, Ludek; Pika, Tomas; Maisnar, Vladimir; Spicka, Ivan; Jarkovsky, Jiri; Krejci, Marta; Bacovsky, Jaroslav; Radocha, Jakub; Straub, Jan; Kessler, Petr; Wrobel, Marek; Walterova, Lenka; Sykora, Michal; Obernauerova, Jarmila; Brozova, Lucie; Gregora, Evzen; Adamova, Dagmar; Gumulec, Jaromir; Adam, Zdenek; Scudla, Vlastimil; Hajek, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Objective Subcutaneous (SC) application of bortezomib has been recently introduced as a new application route in multiple myeloma (MM) patients. We performed an analysis to compare the outcomes of bortezomib-based therapy in multiple myeloma (MM) patients treated using either intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) route of administration. Patients and methods During January 2012 through December 2013, we performed a retrospective analysis of 446 patients with MM treated with bortezomib-based regimens (either once weekly – 63% or twice weekly – 27%) in both, the first line setting, and in relapse, with separate analysis of patients undergoing autologous stem cell transplantation. We assessed the response rates and toxicity profiles in both, IV and SC route of bortezomib administration. Results The response rates in both IV and SC arm were similar with overall response rate 71.7% vs 70.7%, complete remissions in 13.9% vs 8.6%, very good partial remissions in 30.8% vs 34.5% and partial remissions in 27% vs 27.6%. The most frequent grade ≥3 toxicities were anemia, thrombocytopenia and neutropenia, with no significant differences between IV and SC group. There were no significant differences in the rate of peripheral neuropathy (PN). PN of any grade was present in 48% in the IV arm and in 41% in the SC arm. PN grade ≥2 was present in 20% vs 18% and PN grade ≥3 was present in 6% vs 4%. Conclusions We conclude that subcutaneous application of bortezomib has similar therapeutic outcomes and toxicity profile as intravenous route of application. In our cohort there was no difference in the incidence of PN, suggesting that PN is dose dependent and might be reduced by lower intensity schemes rather than by the route of administration. PMID:25875484

  19. Biocomposite based on reduced graphene oxide film modified with phenothiazone and flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase for glucose sensing and biofuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Ravenna, Yehonatan; Xia, Lin; Gun, Jenny; Mikhaylov, Alexey A; Medvedev, Alexander G; Lev, Ovadia; Alfonta, Lital

    2015-10-01

    A novel composite material for the encapsulation of redox enzymes was prepared. Reduced graphene oxide film with adsorbed phenothiazone was used as a highly efficient composite for electron transfer between flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase and electrodes. Measured redox potential for glucose oxidation was lower than 0 V vs Ag/AgCl electrode. The fabricated biosensor showed high sensitivity of 42 mA M(-1) cm(-2), a linear range of glucose detection of 0.5-12 mM, and good reproducibility and stability as well as high selectivity for different interfering compounds. In a semibiofuel cell configuration, the hybrid film generated high power output of 345 μW cm(-2). These results demonstrate a promising potential for this composition in various bioelectronic applications. PMID:26334692

  20. Application of a Reduced Order Kalman Filter to Initialize a Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Model: Impact on the Prediction of El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballabrera-Poy, J.; Busalacchi, A.; Murtugudde, R.

    2000-01-01

    A reduced order Kalman Filter, based on a simplification of the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter equations, is used to assimilate observed fields of the surface wind stress, sea surface temperature and sea level into the nonlinear coupled ocean-atmosphere model of Zebiak and Cane. The SEEK filter projects the Kalman Filter equations onto a subspace defined by the eigenvalue decomposition of the error forecast matrix, allowing its application to high dimensional systems. The Zebiak and Cane model couples a linear reduced gravity ocean model with a single vertical mode atmospheric model of Zebiak. The compatibility between the simplified physics of the model and each observed variable is studied separately and together. The results show the ability of the model to represent the simultaneous value of the wind stress, SST and sea level, when the fields are limited to the latitude band 10 deg S - 10 deg N In this first application of the Kalman Filter to a coupled ocean-atmosphere prediction model, the sea level fields are assimilated in terms of the Kelvin and Rossby modes of the thermocline depth anomaly. An estimation of the error of these modes is derived from the projection of an estimation of the sea level error over such modes. This method gives a value of 12 for the error of the Kelvin amplitude, and 6 m of error for the Rossby component of the thermocline depth. The ability of the method to reconstruct the state of the equatorial Pacific and predict its time evolution is demonstrated. The method is shown to be quite robust for predictions up to six months, and able to predict the onset of the 1997 warm event fifteen months before its occurrence.

  1. Application of a Reduced Order Kalman Filter to Initialize a Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Model: Impact on the Prediction of El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; Busalacchi, Antonio J.; Murtugudde, Ragu

    2000-01-01

    A reduced order Kalman Filter, based on a simplification of the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter equations, is used to assimilate observed fields of the surface wind stress, sea surface temperature and sea level into the nonlinear coupled ocean-atmosphere model. The SEEK filter projects the Kalman Filter equations onto a subspace defined by the eigenvalue decomposition of the error forecast matrix, allowing its application to high dimensional systems. The Zebiak and Cane model couples a linear reduced gravity ocean model with a single vertical mode atmospheric model of Zebiak. The compatibility between the simplified physics of the model and each observed variable is studied separately and together. The results show the ability of the model to represent the simultaneous value of the wind stress, SST and sea level, when the fields are limited to the latitude band 10 deg S - 10 deg N. In this first application of the Kalman Filter to a coupled ocean-atmosphere prediction model, the sea level fields are assimilated in terms of the Kelvin and Rossby modes of the thermocline depth anomaly. An estimation of the error of these modes is derived from the projection of an estimation of the sea level error over such modes. This method gives a value of 12 for the error of the Kelvin amplitude, and 6 m of error for the Rossby component of the thermocline depth. The ability of the method to reconstruct the state of the equatorial Pacific and predict its time evolution is demonstrated. The method is shown to be quite robust for predictions I up to six months, and able to predict the onset of the 1997 warm event fifteen months before its occurrence.

  2. Highly reduced current collapse in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors by combined application of oxygen plasma treatment and field plate structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asubar, Joel T.; Yoshida, Satoshi; Tokuda, Hirokuni; Kuzuhara, Masaaki

    2016-04-01

    We report on the highly reduced current collapse in AlGaN/GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) by combined application of pre-passivation oxygen (O2) plasma treatment and gate field plate (FP) structures schemes. Four different devices were fabricated in this work: (1) conventional HEMT as reference device, (2) field-plated HEMT, (3) O2 plasma-treated HEMT, (4) both field-plated and O2 plasma-treated HEMT. Analysis of dependence of normalized dynamic R on (NDR) on gate pulse on-time (t on) revealed that gate-FP reduces the emission time constant (τ i ) of trapped electrons while O2-plasma treatment decreases the density of traps. For all measurement conditions, the device with both FP and O2 plasma treatment exhibited the least NDR compared to devices with either FP or O2 plasma treatment only, demonstrating for the first time the compatibility of both O2 plasma treatment and FP schemes in mitigating current collapse.

  3. Production of a microcapsule agent of chromate-reducing Lysinibacillus fusiformis ZC1 and its application in remediation of chromate-spiked soil.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jun; Li, Jingxin; Wang, Gejiao

    2016-01-01

    Lysinibacillus fusiformis ZC1 is an efficient Cr(VI)-reducing bacterium that can transform the toxic and soluble chromate [Cr(VI)] form to the less toxic and precipitated chromite form [Cr(III)]. As such, this strain might be applicable for bioremediation of Cr(VI) in soil by reducing its bioavailability. The study objective was to prepare a microcapsule agent of strain ZC1 for bioremediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. Using a single-factor orthogonal array design, the optimal fermentation medium was obtained and consisted of 6 g/L corn flour, 12 g/L soybean flour, 8 g/L NH4Cl and 6 g/L CaCl2. After enlarged fermentation, the cell and spore densities were 5.9 × 10(9) and 1.7 × 10(8) cfu/mL, respectively. The fermentation products were collected and embedded with 1 % gum arabic and 1 % sorbitol as the microcapsule carriers and were subsequently spray-dried. Strain ZC1 exhibited viable cell counts of (3.6 ± 0.44) × 10(10) cfu/g dw after 50-day storage at room temperature. In simulated soil bioremediation experiments, 67 % of Cr(VI) was reduced in 5 days with the inoculation of this microcapsule agent, and the Cr(VI) concentration was below the soil Cr(VI) standard level. The results demonstrated that the microcapsule agent of strain ZC1 is efficient for bioremediation of Cr(VI)-contaminated soil. PMID:27218011

  4. Reduced graphene oxide wrapped ZnS-Ag2S ternary composites synthesized via hydrothermal method: Applications in photocatalyst degradation of organic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaranatha Reddy, D.; Ma, Rory; Choi, Myong Yong; Kim, Tae Kyu

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have successfully synthesized ternary nanohybrid composite, ZnS-Ag2S wrapped with reduced graphene oxide (RGO) using hydrothermal method without any surfactant. We have accessed the photocatalytic ability of ZnS-Ag2S-RGO nanocomposite using the oxidation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under simulated sunlight irradiation. The superior photocatalytic ability of ZnS-Ag2S-RGO compared to bare ZnS, was ascribed to an efficient charge transfer from ZnS to Ag2S and graphene sheets. The recyclability results also demonstrated the excellent stability and reliability of the ZnS-Ag2S-RGO. In addition to the excellent photocatalytic degradation properties, the synthesized ZnS-Ag2S-RGO nanocomposite exhibited near white light emission, which implies that careful design and control of the composition could be lead to find application in near UV-white LEDs. The present work provides new insights into the synthesis and characterizations of ternary ZnS-Ag2S-RGO nanocomposites and its wide applications in the environmental protection issues.

  5. Platinum-TM (TM = Fe, Co) alloy nanoparticles dispersed nitrogen doped (reduced graphene oxide-multiwalled carbon nanotube) hybrid structure cathode electrocatalysts for high performance PEMFC applications.

    PubMed

    Vinayan, B P; Ramaprabhu, S

    2013-06-01

    The efforts to push proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) for commercial applications are being undertaken globally. In PEMFC, the sluggish kinetics of oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) at the cathode can be improved by the alloying of platinum with 3d-transition metals (TM = Fe, Co, etc.) and with nitrogen doping, and in the present work we have combined both of these aspects. We describe a facile method for the synthesis of a nitrogen doped (reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs)) hybrid structure (N-(G-MWNTs)) by the uniform coating of a nitrogen containing polymer over the surface of the hybrid structure (positively surface charged rGO-negatively surface charged MWNTs) followed by the pyrolysis of these (rGO-MWNTs) hybrid structure-polymer composites. The N-(G-MWNTs) hybrid structure is used as a catalyst support for the dispersion of platinum (Pt), platinum-iron (Pt3Fe) and platinum-cobalt (Pt3Co) alloy nanoparticles. The PEMFC performances of Pt-TM alloy nanoparticle dispersed N-(G-MWNTs) hybrid structure electrocatalysts are 5.0 times higher than that of commercial Pt-C electrocatalysts along with very good stability under acidic environment conditions. This work demonstrates a considerable improvement in performance compared to existing cathode electrocatalysts being used in PEMFC and can be extended to the synthesis of metal, metal oxides or metal alloy nanoparticle decorated nitrogen doped carbon nanostructures for various electrochemical energy applications. PMID:23644681

  6. Reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils and improving cucumber growth by Caragana microphylla-straw compost application in long-term continuous cropping systems.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongqiang; Wang, Qing; Zhang, Weihua; Gao, Lihong

    2016-02-15

    Continuous cropping is a common agricultural practice in the word. In China, farmers often apply excessive fertilizers to fields in an attempt to maintain yields in continuous cropping systems. However, this practice often results in high nutrient concentrations in soils, nutrient pollution in leaching water and more crop disease. Here, we investigated 8 different soils from continuously cropped cucumbers in Northern China that grouped into those with extremely high nutrient levels (EHNL) and those with lower nutrient levels (LNL). All soils were treated with Caragana microphylla-straw (CMS) compost addition, and then were used to measure soil physiochemical and microbial properties, leaching water quality, plant root growth and cucumber fruit yield. In general, the EHNL-soil showed higher nitrate, phosphorus and potassium concentrations in the leaching water compared to the LNL-soil. However, the CMS compost application increased soil nutrient and water holding capacities, total microbial biomass (bacteria and fungi), root length, plant biomass and fruit yields, but decreased nutrient concentrations in the leaching water from the EHNL-soil. In addition, the CMS compost decreased the number of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum in soils with very high concentration of mineral nitrogen. Our results infer that CMS compost application was an effective method for reducing environmental risk of excessively fertilized soils. PMID:26657371

  7. The application of evidence-based measures to reduce surgical site infections during orthopedic surgery - report of a single-center experience in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Current knowledge suggests that, by applying evidence-based measures relating to the correct use of prophylactic antibiotics, perioperative normothermia, urinary tract catheterization and hand hygiene, important contributions can be made to reducing the risk of postoperative infections and device-related infections. The aim of this study was to explore and describe the application of intraoperative evidence-based measures, designed to reduce the risk of infection. In addition, we aimed to investigate whether the type of surgery, i.e. total joint arthroplasty compared with tibia and femur/hip fracture surgery, affected the use of protective measures. Method Data on the clinical application of evidence-based measures were collected structurally on site during 69 consecutively included operations involving fracture surgery (n = 35) and total joint arthroplasties (n = 34) using a pre-tested observation form. For observations in relation to hand disinfection, a modified version of the World Health Organization hand hygiene observation method was used. Results In all, only 29 patients (49%) of 59 received prophylaxis within the recommended time span. The differences in the timing of prophylactic antibiotics between total joint arthroplasty and fracture surgery were significant, i.e. a more accurate timing was implemented in patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (p = 0.02). Eighteen (53%) of the patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty were actively treated with a forced-air warming system. The corresponding number for fracture surgery was 12 (34%) (p = 0.04). Observations of 254 opportunities for hand hygiene revealed an overall adherence rate of 10.3% to hand disinfection guidelines. Conclusions The results showed that the utilization of evidence-based measures to reduce infections in clinical practice is not sufficient and there are unjustifiable differences in care depending on the type of surgery. The poor adherence to hand

  8. Dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) application in acidic sandy soil in reducing leaching of phosphorus and heavy metals-a column leaching study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuangen; He, Zhenli; Yang, Xiaoe; Stoffella, Peter J

    2013-06-01

    A column leaching study was designed to investigate the leaching potential of phosphorus (P) and heavy metals from acidic sandy soils applied with dolomite phosphate rock (DPR) fertilizers containing varying amounts of DPR material and N-Viro soils. DPR fertilizers were made from DPR materials mixing with N-Viro soils at the ratios of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 %, and applied in acidic sandy soils at the level of 100 mg available P per kilogram soil. A control and a soluble P chemical fertilizer were also included. The amended soils were incubated at room temperature with 70 % field water holding capacity for 21 days before packed into a soil column and subjected to leaching. Seven leaching events were conducted at days 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 56, and 70, respectively, and 258.9 mL of deionized water was applied at each leaching events. The leachate was collected for the analyses of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), major elements, and heavy metals. DPR fertilizer application resulted in elevations up to 1 unit in pH, 7-10 times in EC, and 20-40 times in K and Ca concentrations, but 3-10 times reduction in P concentration in the leachate as compared with the chemical fertilizer or the control. After seven leaching events, DPR fertilizers with adequate DPR materials significantly reduced cumulative leaching losses of Fe, P, Mn, Cu, and Zn by 20, 55, 3.7, 2.7, and 2.5 times than chemical fertilizer or control. Even though higher cumulative losses of Pb, Co, and Ni were observed after DPR fertilizer application, the loss of Pb, Co, and Ni in leachate was <0.10 mg (in total 1,812 mL leachate). Significant correlations of pH (negative) and DOC (positive) with Cu, Pb, and Zn (P<0.01) in leachate were observed. The results indicated that DPR fertilizers had a great advantage over the soluble chemical fertilizer in reducing P loss from the acidic sandy soil with minimal likelihood of heavy metal risk to the water environment. pH elevation and high

  9. Parametrization of the two-electron reduced density matrix for its direct calculation without the many-electron wave function: Generalizations and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Mazziotti, David A.

    2010-06-15

    An improved parametrization of the two-electron reduced density matrix (2-RDM) [D. A. Mazziotti, Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 253002 (2008)] was recently shown to yield energies and properties that are markedly better than those calculated by traditional ab initio methods of similar computational scaling. In this paper a family of such energy functionals, generalizing the ones obtained previously, is derived through the use of (i) p-particle contraction relations based on the contraction of the cumulant expansions of p-particle RDMs and (ii) Cauchy-Schwarz relations that arise from an important set of N-representability constraints known as the two-positivity conditions. The 2-RDMs are explicitly parameterized in terms of the first-order part of the cumulant 2-RDM and, for the inclusion of single excitations, a second-order part of the 1-RDM. In contrast to earlier formulations based on the coefficients from configuration interaction with single and double excitations (CISD), the cumulant-based parametric 2-RDM methods, from the properties of cumulants, are rigorously size extensive. We also show that writing the energy functionals in terms of correlated 1-RDMs and cumulant 2-RDMs reduces the computational cost of the parametric 2-RDM methods to that of CISD. Applications are made to ground-state energies of several molecules, equilibrium bond distances, and frequencies of HF, F{sub 2}, and CO, the relative energy of the cis and trans isomers of HO{sub 3}{sup -}, and the HCN-HNC isomerization reaction. For bond breaking in hydrogen fluoride the improved and more efficient parametric 2-RDM methods yield energies with similar accuracies at both equilibrium and nonequilibrium geometries in 6-31G** and polarized valence quadruple-{zeta} basis sets. Computed 2-RDMs very nearly satisfy well-known N-representability conditions.

  10. Design and application of rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes for the dissimilatory iron- and manganese-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens.

    PubMed Central

    DiChristina, T J; DeLong, E F

    1993-01-01

    A 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probe specific for the iron (Fe3+)- and manganese (Mn4+)-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens was constructed and tested in both laboratory- and field-based hybridization experiments. The radioactively labeled probe was used to detect S. putrefaciens in field samples collected from the water column and sediments of Oneida Lake in New York and its major southern tributary, Chittenango Creek. S. putrefaciens was quantified by (i) hybridization of the probe to bulk RNA extracted from field samples and normalization of the S. putrefaciens-specific rRNA to total eubacterial rRNA, (ii) a colony-based probe hybridization assay, and (iii) a colony-based biochemical assay which detected the formation of iron sulfide precipitates on triple-sugar iron agar. The results of field applications indicated that the three detection methods were comparable in sensitivity for detecting S. putrefaciens in water column and sediment samples. S. putrefaciens rRNA was detected in the surficial layers of the lake and creek sediments, but the levels of S. putrefaciens rRNA were below the detection limits in the lake and creek water samples. The highest concentrations of S. putrefaciens rRNA, corresponding to approximately 2% of the total eubacterial rRNA, were detected in the surficial sediments of Chittenango Creek and at a midlake site where the Oneida Lake floor is covered by a high concentration of ferromanganese nodules. This finding supports the hypothesis that metal-reducing bacteria such as S. putrefaciens are important components in the overall biogeochemical cycling of iron, manganese and other elements in seasonally anoxic freshwater basins. Images PMID:7506899