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Sample records for appraisal band ligation

  1. Endoscopic banding ligation can effectively remove the submucosal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Fei-Zhen; Shen, Zhe; Chen, Hong-Tan; Yu, Chao-Hui; Chen, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic band ligation for variceal bleeding in cirrhosis has been proved its safety and efficacy. We tried to treat submucosal tumors the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by endoscopic band ligation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic band ligation in the treatment of submucosal tumors of the GI tract. There are 29 patients (15 men, 14 women, age range: 25-67 years old) with 30 submucosal lesions of the GI tract, including 15 lesions in the esophagus, 14 lesions in the of stomach and 1 lesion in the duodenal bulb. The average maximum diameter of the lesions was 7.78 mm (range: 2.4-23.6 mm). All submucosal lesions were successfully removed by band ligation. There is no bleeding and perforation in all patients. No recurrence was observed for the one month following-up. Endoscopic band ligation promises could be considered as a safe and effective for the treatment submucosal tumors of the GI tract, especially for the diameter of tumor < 25 mm. PMID:25785162

  2. [Blue nevus syndrome: endoscopic treatment by sclerosis and banding ligation].

    PubMed

    Sala Felis, T; Urquijo Ponce, J J; López Viedma, B; Pertejo Pastor, V; Berenguer Lapuerta, J

    1999-03-01

    The blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is a rare entity characterized by the presence of cavernous hemangiomas in the skin and gastrointestinal tract with frequent digestive hemorrhages. Different therapeutic modalities exist: medical treatment, surgical resection; and most recently, endoscopic therapy has been described. We present a patient with blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome treated with combined endoscopic therapy: sclerosis and band ligation. PMID:10228324

  3. Rubber Band Ligation for Hemorrhoids: an Office Experience.

    PubMed

    Aram, Fahmi Omer

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness, safety, quality of life, and the results of the treatment for second- and third-degree hemorrhoids using rubber band ligation (RBL). This is a retrospective study for 890 patients who came to outpatient clinic from August 2007 to March 2013; all underwent rubber band ligation using the Barron applicator on an outpatient basis for second- and third-degree internal symptomatic hemorrhoids. Data were collected from the patients' files. The patients were asked to return to outpatient clinic for follow-up at 2 weeks and 1 and 6 months and by telephone call every 6 months for 2 years. Six hundred seventy-seven patients (76 %) were cured (P = 0.31). Symptomatic recurrence was detected in 178 cases (20 %) after 2 years. Thirty-five patients (4 %) had some complications from RBL, which required no hospitalization. The complications were pain, rectal bleeding, and vasovagal symptoms (2.6, 1, and 0.4 % of patients, respectively). Seven hundred fifty-six (85 %) of the patients are males; the mean age was 45 years (range, 16-86 years). RBL is a simple, safe, and effective method for treating symptomatic second- and third-degree hemorrhoids as an outpatient procedure with significant improvement in quality of life. PMID:27574343

  4. Endoscopic band ligation for bleeding lesions in the small bowel

    PubMed Central

    Ikeya, Takashi; Ishii, Naoki; Shimamura, Yuto; Nakano, Kaoru; Ego, Mai; Nakamura, Kenji; Takagi, Koichi; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic band ligation (EBL) for bleeding lesions in the small bowel. METHODS: This is a retrospective study evaluating EBL in six consecutive patients (three males, three females, 46-86 years of age) treated between May 2009 and February 2014: duodenal vascular ectasia; 1, jejunal bleeding diverticulum; 1, ileal Dieulafoy’s lesion; 1 and ileal bleeding diverticula; 3. The success of the initial hemostasis was evaluated, and patients were observed for early rebleeding (within 30 d after EBL), and complications such as perforation and abscess formation. Follow-up endoscopies were performed in four patients. RESULTS: Initial hemostasis was successfully achieved with EBL in all six patients. Eversion was not sufficient in four diverticular lesions. Early rebleeding occurred three days after EBL in one ileal diverticulum, and a repeat endoscopy revealed dislodgement of the O-band and ulcer formation at the banded site. This rebleeding was managed conservatively. Late rebleeding occurred in this case (13 and 21 mo after initial EBL), and re-EBL was performed. Follow-up endoscopies revealed scar formation and the disappearance of vascular lesions at the banded site in the case with a duodenal bleeding lesion, and unresolved ileal diverticula in three cases. Surgery or transarterial embolization was not required without any complications during the median follow-up period of 45 (range, 2-83) mo. CONCLUSION: EBL is a safe and effective endoscopic treatment for hemostasis of bleeding lesions in the small bowel. PMID:25324920

  5. Rectal ulcers and massive bleeding after hemorrhoidal band ligation while on aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shruti; Shahzad, Ghulamullah; Rizvon, Kaleem; Subramani, Krishnaiyer; Viswanathan, Prakash; Mustacchia, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic hemorrhoidal band ligation is a well-established nonoperative method for treatment of bleeding internal hemorrhoids (grade 1 to 3). It is a safe and effective technique with a high success rate. Complications with this procedure are uncommon. Although rectal ulceration due to band ligation is a rare complication, it can cause life-threatening hemorrhage especially when patients are on medications which impair hemostasis like aspirin or non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We present 2 cases of massive lower gastro-intestinal bleeding in patients who had a band ligation procedure performed 2 wk prior to the presentation and were on aspirin at home. Both the patients were hemodynamically unstable requiring resuscitation. They required platelet and blood transfusions and were found to have rectal ulcers on colonoscopy done subsequently. The rectal ulcers corresponded to the site of band ligation. The use of aspirin by these patients would have caused defects in the hemostasis and may have predisposed them to massive bleeding in the presence of rectal ulcers occurring after the band ligation procedure. Managing aspirin before and after the ligation may be difficult especially since adequate guidelines are unavailable. Stopping aspirin in all the cases might not be safe and the decision should be individualized. PMID:24749117

  6. Variceal Band Ligation in the Prevention of Variceal Bleeding: A Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ouakaa-Kchaou, Asma; Kharrat, Jamel; Mir, Khaoula; Houda, Boussourra; Abdelli, Nabil; Ajmi, Salem; Azzouz, Msaddek; Abdallah, Hatem Ben; Mami, Nabyl Ben; Bouzaidi, Slim; Chouaib, Sofiene; Golli, Lamia; Melki, Wissem; Najjar, Taoufik; Saffar, Hammouda; Belhadj, Najet; Ghorbel, Abdeljabbar

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim: Variceal bleeding is a life-threatening complication of portal hypertension with a high probability of recurrence. Treatment to prevent first bleeding or rebleeding is mandatory. The study has been aimed at investigating the effectiveness of endoscopic band ligation in preventing upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension and to establish the clinical outcome of patients. Patients and Methods: We analyzed in a multicenter trial, the efficacy and side effects of endoscopic band ligation for the primary and secondary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding. We assigned 603 patients with portal hypertension who were hospitalized to receive treatment with endoscopic ligation. Sessions of ligation were repeated every two to three weeks until the varices were eradicated. The primary end point was recurrent bleeding. Results: The median follow-up period was 32 months. A total of 126 patients had recurrent bleeding. All episodes were related to portal hypertension and 79 to recurrent variceal bleeding. There were major complications in 51 patients (30 had bleeding esophageal ulcers). Seventy-eight patients died, 26 deaths were related to variceal bleeding and 1 to bleeding esophageal ulcers. Conclusions: A great improvement in the prevention of variceal bleeding has emerged over the last years. However, further therapeutic options that combine higher efficacy, better tolerance and fewer side effects are needed. PMID:21372346

  7. Cyanoacrylate Injection Versus Band Ligation in the Endoscopic Management of Acute Gastric Variceal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Weiguang; Ren, Yutang; Bai, Yang; Liu, Side; Zhang, Qiang; Zhi, Fachao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The evidence for optimal endoscopic management of bleeding gastric varices is lacking. The clinical outcome is controversial in trials comparing cyanoacrylate injection and band ligation. To help guide endoscopic decisions regarding acute gastric variceal bleeding, a meta-analysis was conducted. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ScienceDirect were searched for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) containing the 2 interventions. The main outcomes evaluated in the meta-analysis were active bleeding control, blood transfusion, rebleeding, recurrence of varices, complications, and survival. Three RCTs were identified, which included 194 patients with active gastric variceal bleeding from Taiwan and Romania. Active bleeding control was achieved in 46 of 49 (93.9%) patients in the cyanoacrylate injection group, compared with 35 of 44 (79.5%) in the band ligation group (P = 0.032), for a pooled odds ratio of 4.44 (95% confidence interval, 1.14–17.30). Rebleeding rate was comparable in type 2 gastroesophageal varices (GOV2) between the 2 interventions (35.7% vs 34.8%, P = 0.895), but cyanoacrylate injection seemed superior for reducing rebleeding rate in type 1 gastroesophageal varices (GOV1, 26.1% vs 47.7%, P = 0.035) and type 1 isolated gastric varices (IGV1, 17.6% vs 85.7%, P = 0.015). Cyanoacrylate injection was also superior in controlling recurrence of gastric varices to band ligation (36.0% vs 66.0%, P = 0.002). There was no difference in complications or mortality between the 2 interventions. The major limitation of this meta-analysis is the small number of studies/patients included. Compared with band ligation, injection cyanocrylate have an advantage in the control of acute gastric variceal bleeding, also with lower recurrence rate and rebleeding (except GOV2). The limited amount of studies included attenuates the strength of this meta-analysis; therefore, more high-quality RCTs are needed. PMID

  8. Implantation of self-expanding metal stent in the treatment of severe bleeding from esophageal ulcer after endoscopic band ligation.

    PubMed

    Mishin, I; Ghidirim, G; Dolghii, A; Bunic, G; Zastavnitsky, G

    2010-09-01

    Endoscopic variceal ligation is superior to sclerotherapy because of its lower rebleeding and complication rates. However, ligation may be associated with life-threatening bleeding from postbanding esophageal ulcer. We report a case of a 49-year-old male with massive hemorrhage from esophageal ulcer on 8th day after successful band ligation of bleeding esophageal varices caused by postviral liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class C). A removable polyurethane membrane-covered self-expanding metal stent (SX-ELLA stent Danis, 135 mm × 25 mm, ELLA-CS, Hradec-Kralove, Czech Republic) was inserted in ICU for preventing fatal hemorrhage. Complete hemostasis was achieved and stent was removed after 8 days without rebleeding or any complications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in English literature regarding life-threatening hemorrhage from postbanding esophageal ulcer successfully treated by self-expanding metal stent in a patient with portal hypertension. PMID:20731698

  9. Endoscopic band ligation with a water-jet scope for the treatment of colonic diverticular hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Naoki; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Uemura, Masayo; Maruyama, Masataka; Horiki, Noriyuki; Setoyama, Takeshi; Matsuda, Michitaka; Suzuki, Shoko; Iizuka, Yusuke; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2010-07-01

    Although lower gastrointestinal bleeding generally has a less severe course and stops spontaneously in most cases without therapeutic intervention, some patients require endoscopic, surgical, or angiographic treatment depending on the nature of the bleeding. We applied endoscopic band ligation (EBL) with a water-jet scope to bleeding colonic diverticula and evaluated the efficacy and safety of EBL retrospectively. Five consecutive patients were diagnosed as having colonic diverticular hemorrhage, and were treated with EBL at St Luke's International Hospital in Tokyo from June 2009 to August 2009. Comorbid diseases, usage of anti-platelet agents, hemoglobin level on admission, procedural time, complications such as perforation and abscess formation, and rebleeding after EBL were retrospectively evaluated. In all cases, EBL achieved successful immediate hemostasis without any procedural complications. In four of five cases, bleeding colonic diverticula were everted after EBL. The mean length of hospital stay after EBL was 5 days (range 4-8 days). No patient exhibited clinical evidence of further bleeding during the mean follow-up period of 3 months (range 2-4 months), and no further intervention was needed after EBL. EBL with a water-jet scope is considered to be a safe and effective endoscopic treatment for colonic diverticular hemorrhage. PMID:20642616

  10. Band ligation vs. N-Butyl-2-cyanoacrylate injection in acute gastric variceal bleeding: a prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tantau, Marcel; Crisan, Dana; Popa, Daniel; Vesa, Stefan; Tantau, Alina

    BACKGROUND. Treatment of gastric varices (GV) implies a number of several difficulties and sometimes entails complications. The best endoscopic success rate was attributed until now to the use of tissue adhesives(N-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate) and band ligation. AIM. To assess the therapeutic efficacy and safety of cyanoacrylate injection compared to band ligation in patients with acute GV hemorrhage. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Thirty-seven patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding from GV were included in the study, treated with cyanoacrylate injection (GVO)-19 patients or band ligations (GVL)-18 patients. They were followed up for overall results, complications and survival rate. RESULTS. The mean age of the study group was 60.22 ± 9.34 years, with a male/female ratio of 21:16. The mean follow-up period was 427.26 ± 214.16 days in the GVO group and 406.21 ± 213.23 days in the GVL group (p = 0.76). Initial hemostasis was achieved in all patients treated with cyanoacrylate and in 88.88% from the GVL group (p = 0.43). Rebleeding occurred in 72.22% of the GVL group and in 31.57% of the GVO patients (p = 0.03). Patients in the GVO group had a significantly larger rebleeding-free period(p = 0.006). No difference was found in survival rates(p = 0.75). The Child Class (p = 0.003 for Class C) and treatment method (p = 0.01) were independently associated with the rate of rebleeding. No differences were found regarding the rate of complications. CONCLUSION. The use of cyanoacrylate in acute GV bleeding had better results when compared with band ligation in terms of controlling the hemorrhage and recurrence of bleeding. The overall survival rate was not influenced by the method used for the treatment of complicated GV. PMID:24378269

  11. MELD score can predict early mortality in patients with rebleeding after band ligation for variceal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Lin, Chun-Yen; Sheen, I-shyan; Huang, Chang-Wen; Lin, Tsung-Nan; Lin, Chun-Jung; Jeng, Wen-Juei; Huang, Chien-Hao; Ho, Yu-Pin; Chiu, Cheng-Tang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the outcomes, as well as risk factors for 6-wk mortality, in patients with early rebleeding after endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL) for esophageal variceal hemorrhage (EVH). METHODS: Among 817 EVL procedures performed for EVH between January 2007 and December 2008, 128 patients with early rebleeding, defined as rebleeding within 6 wk after EVL, were enrolled for analysis. RESULT: The rate of early rebleeding after EVL for acute EVH was 15.6% (128/817). The 5-d, 6-wk, 3-mo, and 6-mo mortality rates were 7.8%, 38.3%, 55.5%, and 58.6%, respectively, in these early rebleeding patients. The use of beta-blockers, occurrence of hypovolemic shock, and higher model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score at the time of rebleeding were independent predictors for 6-wk mortality. A cut-off value of 21.5 for the MELD score was found with an area under ROC curve of 0.862 (P < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 77.6%, 81%, 71.7%, and 85.3%, respectively. As for the 6-mo survival rate, patients with a MELD score ≥ 21.5 had a significantly lower survival rate than patients with a MELD score < 21.5 (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the MELD score is an easy and powerful predictor for 6-wk mortality and outcomes of patients with early rebleeding after EVL for EVH. PMID:21547132

  12. A retrospective comparative study of histoacryl injection and banding ligation in the treatment of acute type 1 gastric variceal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lo, Gin-Ho; Lin, Chih-Wen; Perng, Daw-Shyong; Chang, Chi-Yang; Lee, Ching-Tai; Hsu, Chuan-Yuan; Wang, Huay-Min; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2013-10-01

    BACKGROUND. Esophageal varices extending along lesser curvature side of stomach is classified as GOV1. The optimal therapy for GOV1 bleeding is still undetermined. METHODS. One hundred and sixty-two patients diagnosed as acute hemorrhage from GOV1 were enrolled. At endoscopists' discretion, 118 patients received glue injection (Glue group) and 44 patients received ligation to arrest bleeding [endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) group]. This study aimed to compare hemostasis, rebleeding, complications and mortality within 42 days. RESULTS. Both groups were comparable in baseline data. In 109 patients (92%) in the Glue group and 36 patients (82%) in the EVL group (p = 0.07) 48-h hemostasis was achieved . Hemostasis of active bleeding was achieved in 49 of 55 patients (89%) in the Glue group and 24 of 28 patients (85%) in the EVL group (p = 0.70). Treatment failure was noted in 14% of the Glue group and 23% in the EVL group (p = 0.22). Eight patients in the Glue group and four patients in the EVL group rebled between 5 and 42 days (p = 0.73). A total of 48 and 19 adverse events occurred in the Glue and EVL groups, respectively (p = 0.85). Six patients in the Glue group and seven patients in the EVL group encountered posttreatment gastric ulcer bleeding (p = 0.04). Seventeen patients (14%) in the Glue group and 10 (23%) patients in the EVL group died within 42 days (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS. Banding ligation was similar to glue injection in achieving successful hemostasis of acute bleeding from GOV1. However, a higher incidence of posttreatment ulcer bleeding and mortality may be associated with banding ligation. PMID:24047398

  13. Endoluminal Closure of Colon Perforation with Endoscopic Band Ligation: Technical Feasibility and Safety in an In Vivo Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Han, Joung-Ho; Kim, Myounghwan; Lee, Tae Hoon; Kim, Hyun; Jung, Yunho; Park, Seon Mee; Chae, Heebok; Youn, Seijin; Shin, Ji Yun; Lee, In-Kwang; Lee, Tae Soo; Choi, Seok Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) is an accepted method in the management of variceal bleeding; however, there is little evidence on the safety and feasibility of EBL for the closure of bowel perforation. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the technical feasibility and efficacy of EBL in iatrogenic colon perforation by using a canine model. Methods: We established an iatrogenic colon perforation model by using seven beagle dogs. Longitudinal 1.5- to 1.7-cm colon perforations were created with a needle knife and an insulated-tip knife, and the perforation was subsequently closed with EBL. During a 2-week follow-up period, the animals were carefully monitored and then euthanized for pathologic examination. Results: The EBL of iatrogenic colon perforations was successful in all dogs. The mean procedure time for EBL closure with one to three bands was 191.7 seconds, and there were no immediate complications. One animal was euthanized after 3 days because of peritonitis. There were no clinical and laboratory features of sepsis or peritonitis in the remaining six animals. On necropsy, we did not find any fecal peritonitis, pericolonic abscess formation, or transmural dehiscence at the perforation site. Histopathology demonstrated inflamed granulation tissue and scar lesions replaced by fibrosis. Conclusions: EBL might be a feasible and safe method for the management of iatrogenic colon perforations in an in vivo model. PMID:26668801

  14. Comparison of long-term outcomes between endoscopic band ligation and endoscopic clipping for colonic diverticular hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Kaoru; Ishii, Naoki; Ikeya, Takashi; Ego, Mai; Shimamura, Yuto; Takagi, Koichi; Nakamura, Kenji; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Long-term outcomes of endoscopic band ligation (EBL) for colonic diverticular hemorrhage have not been reported to date. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term outcomes of EBL and to retrospectively compare them with those of endoscopic clipping (EC) in the treatment of colonic diverticular hemorrhage. Patients and methods: The study included patients with colonic diverticular hemorrhage who were treated with EBL or EC from January 2004 to November 2014 and followed up more than 1 year (61 patients in the EBL group and 39 patients in the EC group). Time-to-event analysis of rebleeding was performed with the Kaplan-Meier method. A follow-up colonoscopy was performed to confirm the disappearance of the banded diverticula in the EBL group. Results: Rebleeding occurred in 21 patients in the EBL group and in 26 patients in the EC group. The cumulative incidence of rebleeding at 1, 12, 24, and 36 months after first treatments was 14 %, 23 %, 26 %, and 41 % in the EBL group and 38 %, 49 %, 59 %, and 68 % in the EC group, respectively. Time-to-event analysis revealed statistically significant data (Log-rank test, P = 0.0036). Scar formation with fold convergence at the previously banded site was observed in 11 of 24 patients who underwent follow-up colonoscopy (46 %). However, late rebleeding (rebleeding more than 30 days after EBL) occurred in five of these 11 cases. Conclusions: EBL was superior to EC in the treatment of colonic diverticular hemorrhage. However, the risk of rebleeding was not avoided even after the diverticula had been resolved using EBL. PMID:26528513

  15. The development of Fournier's gangrene following rubber band ligation of haemorrhoids

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Daryl; Hureibi, Khalid; Zia, Khawaja; Uheba, Mokthar

    2013-01-01

    The development of Fournier's gangrene in an 80-year-old male patient with diabetes after a routine outpatient haemorrhoid banding procedure is described. Four days following the procedure, the patient noticed an increasing amount of pain and swelling of the perianal region. When the patient presented to the emergency department 18 days later, immediate radical debridement of ischiorectal necrotic tissue was performed. A defunctioning loop sigmoid colostomy was also formed. Subsequent operations required excision of the scrotum and abdominoperineal excision of the rectum. Histology studies later confirmed the presence of necrotising fasciitis. The case acts as a reminder that clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for high-risk patients still suffering from problems following the procedure. PMID:24287481

  16. The development of Fournier's gangrene following rubber band ligation of haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Daryl; Hureibi, Khalid; Zia, Khawaja; Uheba, Mokthar

    2013-01-01

    The development of Fournier's gangrene in an 80-year-old male patient with diabetes after a routine outpatient haemorrhoid banding procedure is described. Four days following the procedure, the patient noticed an increasing amount of pain and swelling of the perianal region. When the patient presented to the emergency department 18 days later, immediate radical debridement of ischiorectal necrotic tissue was performed. A defunctioning loop sigmoid colostomy was also formed. Subsequent operations required excision of the scrotum and abdominoperineal excision of the rectum. Histology studies later confirmed the presence of necrotising fasciitis. The case acts as a reminder that clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for high-risk patients still suffering from problems following the procedure. PMID:24287481

  17. Endoscopic Resection for Small Rectal Neuroendocrine Tumors: Comparison of Endoscopic Submucosal Resection with Band Ligation and Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Seok; Shin, Yong Woon; Kwon, Kye Sook

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. There is no consensus so far regarding the optimal endoscopic method for treatment of small rectal neuroendocrine tumor (NET). The aim of this study was to compare treatment efficacy, safety, and procedure time between endoscopic submucosal resection with band ligation (ESMR-L) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Methods. We conducted a prospective study of patients who visited Inha University Hospital for endoscopic resection of rectal NET (≦10 mm). Pathological complete resection rate, procedure time, and complications were evaluated. Results. A total of 77 patients were treated by ESMR-L (n = 53) or ESD (n = 24). En bloc resection was achieved in all patients. A significantly higher pathological complete resection rate was observed in the ESMR-L group (53/53, 100%) than in the ESD group (13/24, 54.2%) (P = 0.000). The procedure time of ESD (17.9 ± 9.1 min) was significantly longer compared to that of ESMR-L (5.3 ± 2.8 min) (P = 0.000). Conclusions. Considering the clinical efficacy, technical difficulty, and procedure time, the ESMR-L method should be considered as the first-line therapy for the small rectal NET (≤10 mm). ESD should be left as a second-line treatment for the fibrotic lesion which could not be removed using the ESMR-L method. PMID:27525004

  18. Usefulness of endoscopic resection using the band ligation method for rectal neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju Seung; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Kyoung Oh; Kwon, Kwang An; Park, Dong Kyun; An, Jung Suk

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Rectal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are among the most common of gastrointestinal NETs. Due to recent advances in endoscopy, various methods of complete endoscopic resection have been introduced for small (≤10 mm) rectal NETs. However, there is a debate about the optimal treatment for rectal NETs. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of endoscopic resection using pneumoband and elastic band (ER-BL) for rectal NETs smaller than 10 mm in diameter. Methods A total of 55 patients who were diagnosed with rectal NET from January 2004 to December 2011 at Gil Medical Center were analyzed retrospectively. Sixteen patients underwent ER-BL. For comparison, 39 patients underwent conventional endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Results There was a markedly lower deep margin positive rate for ER-BL than for conventional EMR (6% [1/16] vs. 46% [18/39], P=0.029). Four patients who underwent conventional EMR experienced perforation or bleeding. However, they recovered within a few days. On the other hand, patients whounderwent endoscopic resection using a pneumoband did not experience any complications. In multivariate analysis, ER-BL (P=0.021) was independently associated with complete resection. Conclusions ER-BL is an effective endoscopic treatment with regards to deep margin resection for rectal NET smaller than 10 mm. PMID:27175117

  19. Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy Is Associated With Reduction of Early Bleeding Risk After Prophylactic Endoscopic Variceal Band Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong Hee; Yim, Hyung Joon; Kim, Seung Young; Suh, Sang Jun; Hyun, Jong Jin; Jung, Sung Woo; Jung, Young Kul; Koo, Ja Seol; Lee, Sang Woo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL) is an effective procedure to control and prevent variceal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis, but it can be complicated by bleeding from post-EVL ulcers. Several studies have reported that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) decrease the size of post-EVL ulcers. However, evidence are limited as to whether PPIs actually reduce the risk of bleeding after EVL. This study aimed to analyze the factors associated with bleeding after prophylactic EVL and to assess the effect of PPI therapy. Five hundred and five cirrhotic patients with high risk esophageal varices who received primary prophylactic EVL were included for this retrospective cohort study. Post-EVL bleeding was defined as bleeding after prophylactic EVL within 8 weeks evidenced by the occurrence of melena or hematemesis, or by a decrease of hemoglobin by >2.0 g/dL. If evidence of bleeding from ulceration of the EVL sites was confirmed by endoscopy, we defined it as post-EVL ulcer bleeding. Fourteen patients developed bleeding after prophylactic EVL. Factors associated with post-EVL bleeding included alcohol as etiology, low albumin, high total bilirubin, high Child-Pugh score, high MELD score, coexistence of gastric varices, and not administrating PPI medication by univariate analysis. In multivariate logistic analysis, Co-existing gastric varix (odds ratio [OR] 5.680, P = 0.005] and not administrating PPIs (OR 8.217, P = 0.002) were associated with bleeding after prophylactic EVL. In the subgroup analysis excluding patients whose gastric varices were treated, not administering PPI medication (OR 8.827, P = 0.008) was the sole factor associated with post-EVL bleeding. We suggest that PPI therapy needs to be considered in patients receiving prophylactic EVL to reduce the risk of bleeding after prophylactic EVL. PMID:26937932

  20. Tubal Ligation

    MedlinePlus

    Tubal ligation (getting your "tubes tied") is a type of surgery. It prevents a woman from getting pregnant. ... to most normal activities within a few days. Tubal ligation can sometimes be reversed, but not always.

  1. Cyanoacrylate Injection Versus Band Ligation in the Endoscopic Management of Acute Gastric Variceal Bleeding: Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Studies Based on the PRISMA Statement.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Weiguang; Ren, Yutang; Bai, Yang; Liu, Side; Zhang, Qiang; Zhi, Fachao

    2015-10-01

    The evidence for optimal endoscopic management of bleeding gastric varices is lacking. The clinical outcome is controversial in trials comparing cyanoacrylate injection and band ligation. To help guide endoscopic decisions regarding acute gastric variceal bleeding, a meta-analysis was conducted.Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ScienceDirect were searched for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) containing the 2 interventions. The main outcomes evaluated in the meta-analysis were active bleeding control, blood transfusion, rebleeding, recurrence of varices, complications, and survival.Three RCTs were identified, which included 194 patients with active gastric variceal bleeding from Taiwan and Romania. Active bleeding control was achieved in 46 of 49 (93.9%) patients in the cyanoacrylate injection group, compared with 35 of 44 (79.5%) in the band ligation group (P = 0.032), for a pooled odds ratio of 4.44 (95% confidence interval, 1.14-17.30). Rebleeding rate was comparable in type 2 gastroesophageal varices (GOV2) between the 2 interventions (35.7% vs 34.8%, P = 0.895), but cyanoacrylate injection seemed superior for reducing rebleeding rate in type 1 gastroesophageal varices (GOV1, 26.1% vs 47.7%, P = 0.035) and type 1 isolated gastric varices (IGV1, 17.6% vs 85.7%, P = 0.015). Cyanoacrylate injection was also superior in controlling recurrence of gastric varices to band ligation (36.0% vs 66.0%, P = 0.002). There was no difference in complications or mortality between the 2 interventions. The major limitation of this meta-analysis is the small number of studies/patients included.Compared with band ligation, injection cyanocrylate have an advantage in the control of acute gastric variceal bleeding, also with lower recurrence rate and rebleeding (except GOV2). The limited amount of studies included attenuates the strength of this meta-analysis; therefore, more high-quality RCTs are needed. PMID:26469912

  2. Tubal ligation

    MedlinePlus

    Sterilization surgery - female; Tubal sterilization; Tube tying; Tying the tubes; Hysteroscopic tubal occlusion procedure ... Tubal ligation is done in a hospital or outpatient clinic. You may receive general anesthesia. You will be ...

  3. Cyanoacrylate Injection Compared with Band Ligation for Acute Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials and Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Huai, Jiaping; Chen, Yanping

    2014-01-01

    Background. Cyanoacrylate injection (GVO) and band ligation (GVL) are effective treatments for gastric variceal hemorrhage. However, data on the optimal treatment are still controversial. Methods. For our overall analysis, relevant studies were identified from several databases. For each outcome, data were pooled using a fixed-effect or random-effects model according to the result of a heterogeneity test. Results. Seven studies were included. Compared with GVL, GVO was associated with increased likelihood of hemostasis of active bleeding (odds ratio [OR] = 2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19–4.51) and a longer gastric variceal rebleeding-free period (hazard ratio = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.24–0.56). No significant differences were observed between GVL and GVO for mortality (hazard ratio = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.43–1.02), likelihood of variceal obliteration (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.52–1.54), number of treatment sessions required for complete variceal eradication (weighted mean difference = −0.45; 95% CI = −1.14–0.23), or complications (OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.48–2.19). Conclusion. GVO may be superior to GVL for achieving hemostasis and preventing recurrence of gastric variceal rebleeding but has no advantage over GVL for mortality and complications. Additional studies are warranted to enable definitive conclusions. PMID:24868204

  4. Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy Is Associated With Reduction of Early Bleeding Risk After Prophylactic Endoscopic Variceal Band Ligation: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seong Hee; Yim, Hyung Joon; Kim, Seung Young; Suh, Sang Jun; Hyun, Jong Jin; Jung, Sung Woo; Jung, Young Kul; Koo, Ja Seol; Lee, Sang Woo

    2016-02-01

    Endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL) is an effective procedure to control and prevent variceal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis, but it can be complicated by bleeding from post-EVL ulcers. Several studies have reported that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) decrease the size of post-EVL ulcers. However, evidence are limited as to whether PPIs actually reduce the risk of bleeding after EVL. This study aimed to analyze the factors associated with bleeding after prophylactic EVL and to assess the effect of PPI therapy.Five hundred and five cirrhotic patients with high risk esophageal varices who received primary prophylactic EVL were included for this retrospective cohort study. Post-EVL bleeding was defined as bleeding after prophylactic EVL within 8 weeks evidenced by the occurrence of melena or hematemesis, or by a decrease of hemoglobin by >2.0 g/dL. If evidence of bleeding from ulceration of the EVL sites was confirmed by endoscopy, we defined it as post-EVL ulcer bleeding.Fourteen patients developed bleeding after prophylactic EVL. Factors associated with post-EVL bleeding included alcohol as etiology, low albumin, high total bilirubin, high Child-Pugh score, high MELD score, coexistence of gastric varices, and not administrating PPI medication by univariate analysis. In multivariate logistic analysis, Co-existing gastric varix (odds ratio [OR] 5.680, P = 0.005] and not administrating PPIs (OR 8.217, P = 0.002) were associated with bleeding after prophylactic EVL. In the subgroup analysis excluding patients whose gastric varices were treated, not administering PPI medication (OR 8.827, P = 0.008) was the sole factor associated with post-EVL bleeding.We suggest that PPI therapy needs to be considered in patients receiving prophylactic EVL to reduce the risk of bleeding after prophylactic EVL. PMID:26937932

  5. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2010-02-23

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g. on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  6. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn

    2006-10-17

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  7. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn Ruth

    2011-12-13

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  8. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn Ruth

    2010-11-23

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  9. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn

    2003-05-27

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  10. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2011-05-10

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  11. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2011-04-12

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  12. Randomized controlled study of endoscopic band ligation and argon plasma coagulation in the treatment of gastric antral and fundal vascular ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Mosaad, Samah; Alkhalawany, Walaa; Abo-Ali, Lobna; Enaba, Mohamed; Elsaka, Aymen; Elfert, Asem A

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is characterized by mucosal and submucosal vascular ectasia causing recurrent hemorrhage and thus, chronic anemia, in patients with cirrhosis. Treatment with argon plasma coagulation (APC) is an effective and safe method, but requires multiple sessions of endoscopic therapy. Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) was found to be a good alternative for APC as a treatment for GAVE, especially in refractory cases. The aim of this prospective randomized controlled study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of EBL, as compared to APC, in the treatment of GAVE and gastric fundal vascular ectasia (GFVE). Patients and methods A total of 88 cirrhotic patients with GAVE were prospectively randomized to endoscopic treatment with either EBL or APC, every 2 weeks until complete obliteration was accomplished; then they were followed up endoscopically after 6 months, plus they had monthly measurement of hemoglobin levels during that period. Results We describe the presence of mucosal and submucosal lesions in the gastric fundal area that were similar to those found in GAVE in 13 patients (29.5%) of the EBL group and 9 patients (20.5%) of the APC group; we named this GFVE. In these cases, we treated the fundal lesions with the same techniques we had used for treating GAVE, according to the randomization. We found that EBL significantly decreased the number of sessions required for complete obliteration of the lesions (2.98 sessions compared to 3.48 sessions in the APC group (p < 0.05)). Hemoglobin levels increased significantly after obliteration of the lesions in both groups, compared to pretreatment values (p < 0.05), but with no significant difference between the two groups (p > 0.05); however, the EBL group of patients required a significantly smaller number of units of blood transfusion than the APC group of patients (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in adverse events nor complications between the

  13. Tubal ligation - Series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Tubal ligation is surgery to tie the tubes (fallopian tubes) of a woman which causes permanent sterility by ... transport of the egg (ovum) to the uterus. Tubal ligation may be recommended for adult women who are ...

  14. Unintended Pulmonary Artery Ligation during PDA Ligation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohun; Kim, Si-Wook; Shin, Hong-Ju; Hong, Jong-Myeon; Lee, Ji Hyuk; Han, Heon-Seok

    2016-01-01

    A 10-day-old boy was transferred to our hospital due to tachypnea. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), 4.8 mm in diameter, with small ASD was diagnosed on echocardiography. Surgical ligation of the ductus was performed after failure of three cycles of ibuprofen. However, the ductus remained open on routine postoperative echocardiography on the second postoperative day, and chest CT revealed inadvertent ligation of the left pulmonary artery (LPA) rather than the PDA. Emergent operation successfully reopened the clipped LPA and ligated the ductus on the same (second postoperative) day.Mechanical ventilator support was weaned on postoperative day 21, and the baby was discharged on postoperative day 47 with a normal left lung shadow. PMID:27585199

  15. Tubal ligation (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Surgical sterilization which permanently prevents the transport of the egg to the uterus by means of sealing the fallopian tubes is called tubal ligation, commonly called "having one's tubes tied". This operation ...

  16. Tubal ligation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Sterilization surgery - female - discharge; Tubal sterilization - discharge; Tube tying - discharge; Tying the tubes - discharge ... You had tubal ligation (or tying the tubes) surgery to close your fallopian tubes. These tubes connect the ovaries to the uterus. ...

  17. Self ligating lingual appliance.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Pankaj; Chopra, S S; Jayan, B K

    2015-12-01

    Adult demand for orthodontics has grown considerably over the past 10 years propelling increased demand for Esthetic Orthodontics. Lingual appliances are a viable option toward providing Esthetic Orthodontics. The lingual surface of the teeth has a unique morphology that makes it difficult to place brackets in ideal positions. Indirect bonding has become the established methods of overcoming these discrepancies, along with the latest designs of self ligating brackets which offer more efficient mechanics and shorter treatment time. PMID:26843757

  18. Ligation errors in DNA computing.

    PubMed

    Aoi, Y; Yoshinobu, T; Tanizawa, K; Kinoshita, K; Iwasaki, H

    1999-10-01

    DNA computing is a novel method of computing proposed by Adleman (1994), in which the data is encoded in the sequences of oligonucleotides. Massively parallel reactions between oligonucleotides are expected to make it possible to solve huge problems. In this study, reliability of the ligation process employed in the DNA computing is tested by estimating the error rate at which wrong oligonucleotides are ligated. Ligation of wrong oligonucleotides would result in a wrong answer in the DNA computing. The dependence of the error rate on the number of mismatches between oligonucleotides and on the combination of bases is investigated. PMID:10636043

  19. 75 FR 36270 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Appraiser Regulation; Privacy Act Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL 12 CFR Part 1102 Appraisal Subcommittee; Appraiser Regulation; Privacy Act Implementation AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination...

  20. Staudinger ligation as a method for bioconjugation.

    PubMed

    van Berkel, Sander S; van Eldijk, Mark B; van Hest, Jan C M

    2011-09-12

    In 1919 the German chemist Hermann Staudinger was the first to describe the reaction between an azide and a phosphine. It was not until recently, however, that Bertozzi and co-workers recognized the potential of this reaction as a method for bioconjugation and transformed it into the so-called Staudinger ligation. The bio-orthogonal character of both the azide and the phosphine functions has resulted in the Staudinger ligation finding numerous applications in various complex biological systems. For example, the Staudinger ligation has been utilized to label glycans, lipids, DNA, and proteins. Moreover, the Staudinger ligation has been used as a synthetic method to construct glycopeptides, microarrays, and functional biopolymers. In the emerging field of bio-orthogonal ligation strategies, the Staudinger ligation has set a high standard to which most of the new techniques are often compared. This Review summarizes recent developments and new applications of the Staudinger ligation. PMID:21887733

  1. Thoracoscopic Pericardial Window Creation and Thoracic Duct Ligation in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Ouzounian, Steven P.; Napoleon, Lori; Permut, Lester C.; Golombek, Sergio G.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: We describe 2 newborn infants with persistent pericardial effusion treated with thoracoscopic pericardial window and thoracic duct ligation. Methods: Patient 1 was a premature female newborn who presented with severe cardiac anomalies, including dextrocardia. She was treated with pulmonary artery banding and pacemaker placement for complete cardiac block. Postoperatively, she developed pericarditis with persistent symptomatic pericardial effusion. She did not improve despite pericardial drain placement. She was treated with a thoracoscopic pericardial window. Patient 2 was a newborn male who presented with cardiac tamponade secondary to congenital chylopericardium. He did not respond to pericardial drain placement or medical management with fasting, total parenteral nutrition, and octreotide. He was treated with thoracoscopic pericardial window and thoracic duct ligation. Results: Patient 1 improved rapidly. The pericardial effusion disappeared. The chest tube was removed 5 days following surgery. She died 6 weeks later of a cardiac arrhythmia secondary to pacemaker failure. The pericardial effusion had resolved. Patient 2 responded to the pericardial window and thoracic duct ligation. He was discharged 10 days following the procedure. Conclusions: Thoracoscopy provides an excellent approach to the pericardium. Pericardial windows and biopsy can be safely performed with this approach. The thoracic duct can be easily identified and ligated even in small babies. Recovery can be fast with minimal postoperative discomfort. Cosmetic results are excellent and length of hospitalization is minimized. PMID:14626403

  2. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  3. Comparative ligational, optical band gap and biological studies on Cr(III) and Fe(III) complexes of hydrazones derived from 2-hydrazinyl-2-oxo-N-phenylacetamide with both vanillin and O-vanillin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, T. A.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.; Attia, M. I.; El-Tabai, M. N.

    2015-09-01

    The Cr(III) and Fe(III) complexes of hydrazones derived from the condensation of 2-hydrazinyl-2-oxo-N-phenylacetamide with both vanillin and o-vanillin synthesized and characterized by different conventional physicochemical techniques. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different decomposition steps were calculated using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger equations. The bond lengths, bond angles, HOMO, LUMO, dipole moment and binding energy calculated by DFT calculations. The optical band gap (Eg) values equal 3.28, 3.03, 3.58 and 3.57 eV for [Cr(HL1)Cl2(H2O)2](0.75H2O), [Cr(HL2)Cl2(H2O)](H2O), [Fe(HL1)Cl2(H2O)2](0.5H2O) and [Fe(HL2)2Cl(H2O)](3H2O) complexes, respectively. The antibacterial activities tested against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli bacteria.

  4. Protein-templated peptide ligation.

    PubMed

    Brauckhoff, Nicolas; Hahne, Gernot; Yeh, Johannes T-H; Grossmann, Tom N

    2014-04-22

    Molecular templates bind particular reactants, thereby increasing their effective concentrations and accelerating the corresponding reaction. This concept has been successfully applied to a number of chemical problems with a strong focus on nucleic acid templated reactions. We present the first protein-templated reaction that allows N-terminal linkage of two peptides. In the presence of a protein template, ligation reactions were accelerated by more than three orders of magnitude. The templated reaction is highly selective and proved its robustness in a protein-labeling reaction that was performed in crude cell lysate. PMID:24644125

  5. 12 CFR 564.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 564.5 Section 564.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must...

  6. The "Floss-Ligature" Ligation Technique.

    PubMed

    Dugdale, Charlotte Anne; Malik, Ovais Humair; Waring, David Trevor

    2015-01-01

    This clinical pearl describes an alternative technique to aid effective ligation of rotated teeth during the aligning stage of fixed appliance treatment. This technique has the potential to improve patient experience and confidence, by reducing the risk of trauma and discomfort and treatment efficiency, by ensuring complete ligation of even severely rotated teeth. PMID:27029094

  7. 21 CFR 876.4400 - Hemorrhoidal ligator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemorrhoidal ligator. 876.4400 Section 876.4400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4400 Hemorrhoidal ligator....

  8. 21 CFR 876.4400 - Hemorrhoidal ligator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hemorrhoidal ligator. 876.4400 Section 876.4400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4400 Hemorrhoidal ligator....

  9. Nylon cable band reactions in ovariohysterectomized bitches.

    PubMed

    Werner, R E; Straughan, A J; Vezin, D

    1992-01-01

    Nylon cable bands used as ligatures caused postsurgical complications in 5 ovariohysterectomized bitches. Clinical signs included fever, stiffness, strangury, draining fistulae, vaginal discharge, and tenesmus. Most signs first appeared several years after surgery, and all signs were resolved after removal of the bands. On the basis of our experience, we suggest that nylon cable bands not be used for ovariohysterectomy ligations. PMID:1537693

  10. Kinetics of ligation of fibrin oligomers.

    PubMed

    Nelb, G W; Kamykowski, G W; Ferry, J D

    1980-07-10

    Human fibrinogen was treated with thrombin in the presence of fibrinoligase and calcium ion at pH 8.5, ionic strength 0.45, and the ensuring polymerization was interrupted at various time intervals (t) both before and after the clotting time (tc) by solubilization with a solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate and urea. Aliquots of the solubilized protein were subjected to gel electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels after disulfide reduction by dithiothreitol and on agarose gels without reduction. The degree of gamma-gamma ligation was determined from the former and the size distribution of ligated oligomers, for degree of polymerization x from 1 to 10, from the latter. The degree of gamma-gamma ligation was calculated independently from the size distribution with the assumption that every junction between two fibrin monomers remaining intact after solubilization is ligated, and this agreed well with the direct determination. The size distribution at t/tc = 1.3 to 1.6 differed somewhat from that calculated by the classical theory of linear polycondensation on the assumption that all reactive sites react with equal probability and rate. Analysis of the difference suggests that ligation of a fibrin digomer is not a random process; the probability of ligation of a given junction between two monomers increases with the oligomer length. The number-average degree of polymerization, xn, of ligated oligomers increases approximately linearly with time up to a value of 1.6. PMID:7391026

  11. Cloning of DNA fragments: ligation reactions in agarose gel.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Agnelo

    2014-01-01

    Ligation reactions to ligate a desired DNA fragment into a vector can be challenging to beginners and especially if the amount of the insert is limiting. Although additives known as crowding agents, such as PEG 8000, added to the ligation mixes can increase the success one has with ligation reactions, in practice the amount of insert used in the ligation can determine the success or the failure of the ligation reaction. The method described here, which uses insert DNA in gel slice added directly into the ligation reaction, has two benefits: (a) using agarose as the crowding agent and (b) reducing steps of insert purification. The use of rapid ligation buffer and incubation of the ligation reaction at room temperature greatly increase the efficiency of the ligation reaction even for blunt-ended ligation. PMID:24243199

  12. 12 CFR 34.45 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 34.45 Section 34.45 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.45 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by...

  13. Small-molecule-dependent split aptamer ligation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashwani K; Heemstra, Jennifer M

    2011-08-17

    Here we describe the first use of small-molecule binding to direct a chemical reaction between two nucleic acid strands. The reported reaction is a ligation between two fragments of a DNA split aptamer using strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition. Utilizing the split aptamer for cocaine, we demonstrate small-molecule-dependent ligation that is dose-dependent over a wide range of cocaine concentrations and is compatible with complex biological fluids such as human blood serum. Moreover, studies of split aptamer ligation at varying salt concentrations and using structurally similar analogues of cocaine have revealed new insight into the assembly and small-molecule binding properties of the cocaine split aptamer. The ability to translate the presence of a small-molecule target into the output of DNA ligation is anticipated to enable the development of new, broadly applicable small-molecule detection assays. PMID:21761903

  14. 24 CFR 200.200 - What is the Appraiser Roster?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... insurable mortgage and to also protect the FHA insurance funds, the inclusion of an appraiser on the... appraisal performed by the listed appraiser. The inclusion of an appraiser on the Appraiser Roster means..., for inclusion on the Appraiser Roster....

  15. A comparative study of conventional ligation and self-ligation bracket systems.

    PubMed

    Shivapuja, P K; Berger, J

    1994-11-01

    The increased use of self-ligating bracket systems frequently raises the question of how they compare with conventional ligation systems. An in vitro and clinical investigation was undertaken to evaluate and compare these distinctly different groups, by using five different brackets. The Activa ("A" Company, Johnson & Johnson, San Diego, Calif.), Edgelok (Ormco, Glendora, Calif.), and SPEED (Strite Industries Ltd., Cambridge, Ontario) self-ligating bracket systems displayed a significantly lower level of frictional resistance, dramatically less chairtime for arch wire removal and insertion, and promoted improved infection control, when compared with polyurethane elastomeric and stainless steel tie wire ligation for ceramic and metal twin brackets. PMID:7977187

  16. Hemodynamics of distal revascularization-interval ligation.

    PubMed

    Illig, Karl A; Surowiec, Scott; Shortell, Cynthia K; Davies, Mark G; Rhodes, Jeffrey M; Green, Richard M

    2005-03-01

    Distal revascularization-interval ligation (DRIL) empirically corrects steal after arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation in most cases, but because there is no topologic alteration in anatomy, it is unclear as to why it is effective. To explore this issue, nine symptomatic patients underwent intravascular pressure and flow measurements before and after DRIL following upper arm autologous AVFs. Mean pre-DRIL systolic pressure (mmHg; mean +/- SD) in the proximal brachial artery (PROX) was 102 +/- 17, while that at the AV anastomosis (AV ANAST) was 47 +/- 38 (p < 0.0006). Flow (mL/min) distal to AV ANAST was retrograde with the fistula open (-21 +/- 64) but became antegrade (58 +/- 29; p < 0.03) with occlusion of the fistula. Following DRIL, pressures at both PROX and AV ANAST sites did not change (104 +/- 24 and 51 +/- 43, respectively). However, pressure at the point at which the blood flow split to supply the hand or the fistula, now PROX, increased from 47 +/- 38 (pre-DRIL AV ANAST) to 104 +/- 24 (p < 0.0001). Pressure in the brachial artery distal to the ligature increased to 104 +/- 27 (p < 0.0001), flow at this point (to the hand) became antegrade (51 +/- 39; p < 0.03), and occlusion of the fistula did not significantly change pressure at this site. We hypothesize that improvement in hand perfusion following DRIL is due to a higher pressure at the point at which the blood flow splits to supply both hand and fistula (pre-DRIL: AV ANAST; post-DRIL: PROX), allowing antegrade flow down the new bypass to the lower pressure forearm. This increased pressure must be due to the increased resistance of the fistula created by interposing the arterial segment between the original AV ANAST and new PROX ANAST. As such, DRIL is schematically equivalent to banding, but resistance is increased in a fashion that is physiologically and empirically acceptable. PMID:15770367

  17. Performance Appraisal and Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    Author, an Associate Professor of Industrial Management Engineering at the University of Oklahoma, has worked with both large and small companies and organizations in many kinds of business and industry. He discusses performance appraisal of employees, merit raises, counseling and interviewing techniques. (Editor/DR)

  18. 12 CFR 323.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 323.5 Section 323.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS § 323.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a...

  19. 36 CFR 254.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.9 Appraisals. The Federal and non-Federal parties to an exchange shall comply... extent appropriate, with the Uniform Appraisal Standards for Federal Land Acquisitions: Interagency Land... appraiser(s) shall provide to the authorized officer appraisals estimating the market value of Federal...

  20. 12 CFR 722.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 722.5 Section 722.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS APPRAISALS § 722.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraiser. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff...

  1. 12 CFR 323.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 323.5 Section 323.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS § 323.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a...

  2. Phosphoramidate Ligation of Oligonucleotides in Nanoscale Structures.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Matthäus; Haug, Rüdiger; Said, Hassan; Piasecka, Sylwia; Kramer, Markus; Richert, Clemens

    2016-06-16

    The folding of long DNA strands into designed nanostructures has evolved into an art. Being based on linear chains only, the resulting nanostructures cannot readily be transformed into covalently linked frameworks. Covalently linking strands in the context of folded DNA structures requires a robust method that avoids sterically demanding reagents or enzymes. Here we report chemical ligation of the 3'-amino termini of oligonucleotides and 5'-phosphorylated partner strands in templated reactions that produce phosphoramidate linkages. These reactions produce inter-nucleotide linkages that are isoelectronic and largely isosteric to phosphodiesters. Ligations were performed at three levels of complexity, including the extension of branched DNA hybrids and the ligation of six scaffold strands in a small origami. PMID:27225865

  3. Rapid oligonucleotide-templated fluorogenic tetrazine ligations

    PubMed Central

    Šečkutė, Jolita; Yang, Jun; Devaraj, Neal K.

    2013-01-01

    Template driven chemical ligation of fluorogenic probes represents a powerful method for DNA and RNA detection and imaging. Unfortunately, previous techniques have been hampered by requiring chemistry with sluggish kinetics and background side reactions. We have developed fluorescent DNA probes containing quenched fluorophore-tetrazine and methyl-cyclopropene groups that rapidly react by bioorthogonal cycloaddition in the presence of complementary DNA or RNA templates. Ligation increases fluorescence with negligible background signal in the absence of hybridization template. Reaction kinetics depend heavily on template length and linker structure. Using this technique, we demonstrate rapid discrimination between single template mismatches both in buffer and cell media. Fluorogenic bioorthogonal ligations offer a promising route towards the fast and robust fluorescent detection of specific DNA or RNA sequences. PMID:23775794

  4. Performance appraisals in the OR: everyone's business.

    PubMed

    Porteous, Joan

    2006-09-01

    Performance appraisals affect everyone. Perioperative nurses often participate in staff orientations and act as preceptors for other learners. Nurses also participate in their own performance appraisal process. This article discusses performance appraisal forms and performance interview processes. Examples of a performance appraisal form design and performance indicators for perioperative nurses are included. Potential problems with performance appraisals are identified and the impact of Canadian law on performance appraisals is discussed. PMID:17044264

  5. Appraisal of Teachers: Who Appraises Whom and Does It Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Alan Ping-yan; Wong, Edwin King-por; Yeung, Alexander Sheesing; Mo, Kim Wan

    Elementary school teachers in Hong Kong (n=527) responded to survey items about formative outcomes, summative outcomes, perceived purposes of appraisal, overall effectiveness of appraisal, and summative purposes such as promotion and dismissal of staff. Principal components analysis and confirmatory analysis yielded the two a priori outcome…

  6. Thoracoscopic Ligation of the Thoracic Duct

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Julio A.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: When nonoperative treatment of chylothorax fails, thoracic duct ligation is usually performed through a thoracotomy. We describe two cases of persistent chylothorax, in a child and an adult, successfully treated with thoracoscopic ligation of the thoracic duct. Methods: A 4-year-old girl developed a right chylothorax following a Fontan procedure. Aggressive nonoperative management failed to eliminate the persistent chyle loss. A 72-year-old insulin-dependent diabetic man was involved in a motor vehicle accident, in which he sustained multiple fractured ribs, a right hemopneumothorax, a right femoral shaft fracture, and a T-11 thoracic vertebral fracture. Subsequently, he developed a right chylothorax, which did not respond to nonoperative management. Both patients were successfully treated with thoracoscopic ligation of the thoracic duct. Results: The child had significant decrease of chyle drainage following surgery. Increased drainage that appeared after the introduction of full feedings five days postoperatively was controlled with the somatostatin analog octreotide. The chest tube was removed two weeks after surgery. After two years' follow-up, she has had no recurrence of chylothorax. The adult had no chyle drainage following surgery. He was maintained on a medium-chain triglyceride diet postoperatively for two weeks. The chest tube was removed four days after surgery. After six months' follow-up, he has had no recurrence of chylothorax. Conclusions: Thoracoscopic ligation of the thoracic duct provides a safe and effective treatment of chylothorax and may avoid thoracotomy and its associated morbidity. PMID:10987402

  7. Performance Appraisal Applied to Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    2010-01-01

    Performance appraisal is a measurement process of how well an individual is doing her or his job. In most organisations, this appraisal is an annual event. Generally, it is done to encourage job performance, to flag areas that need attention, to inform both parties as to expectations. Much of the literature speaks to this process in terms of the…

  8. Improving Performance Appraisal in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincelette, Joyce P.; Pfister, Fred C.

    1984-01-01

    This article identifies problems with current practice in evaluating employee performance and presents currently accepted performance appraisal methods (behaviorally anchored rating scales, management by objectives). A research project designed to improve appraisals for school media specialists which was field-tested in four Florida school…

  9. 32 CFR 644.42 - Appraisal report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Appraisal report. 644.42 Section 644.42 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Appraisal § 644.42 Appraisal report. (a) Preface. The appraisal report is an important document which serves as a material aid in...

  10. 32 CFR 644.42 - Appraisal report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appraisal report. 644.42 Section 644.42 National... HANDBOOK Appraisal § 644.42 Appraisal report. (a) Preface. The appraisal report is an important document... indispensable factor in justifying expenditures of public funds. It is essential that the report...

  11. 12 CFR 225.65 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 225.65 Section 225.65 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... Federally Related Transactions § 225.65 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal...

  12. 30 CFR 882.12 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LAND RECLAMATION RECLAMATION ON PRIVATE LAND § 882.12 Appraisals. (a) A notarized appraisal of private land to be reclaimed which may be subject to a lien under § 882.13 shall be obtained from an independent appraiser. The appraisal shall state— (1) The estimated market value of the property in...

  13. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraising performance. 430.307 Section 430.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.307 Appraising performance. (a) Annual appraisals. Agencies must appraise each...

  14. Ligation of hemorrhoids as an office procedure

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, William W. H.

    1973-01-01

    Hemorrhoidectomy has been done on all our patients in whom operation was indicated, using the ligation method in the office. The patient does not require hospitalization or general anesthesia and rarely has pain or loss of time from work. Many thousands of hospital bed-days have been saved for more serious problems. The results of the treatment of our first 1000 patients have been very satisfactory. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2AFIG. 2B PMID:4682639

  15. Effective analgesia after bilateral tubal ligation.

    PubMed

    Wittels, B; Faure, E A; Chavez, R; Moawad, A; Ismail, M; Hibbard, J; Principe, D; Karl, L; Toledano, A Y

    1998-09-01

    To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of local anesthetic infiltration, 20 parturients scheduled for elective minilaparotomy and bilateral tubal ligation with either spinal or epidural anesthesia participated in this prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. All patients received intravenous (iv) metoclopramide 10 mg and ketorolac 60 mg intraoperatively, as well as preincisional infiltration of the infraumbilical skin incision with 0.5% bupivacaine. Infiltration of bilateral uterine tubes and mesosalpinx was performed either with 0.5% bupivacaine (n = 10) or isotonic sodium chloride solution (n = 10). Intravenous meperidine (25 mg every 3 minutes as needed) was given to treat pain in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). The total amount of meperidine administered in the PACU was significantly larger in the saline group than in the bupivacaine group. Pain scores at 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes postoperatively and on the 7th postoperative day were significantly lower in the bupivacaine group than in the saline group. During tubal ligation, infiltration of uterine tubes and mesosalpinx with 0.5% bupivacaine significantly enhanced analgesia both immediately postoperatively and on the 7th postoperative day compared with infiltration with sodium chloride. In conclusion, this study proved that during bilateral tubal ligation with either spinal or epidural anesthesia, preemptive analgesia using iv ketorolac, iv metoclopramide, and infiltration of the incised skin and uterine tubes with 0.5% bupivacaine can eliminate pain, nausea, vomiting, or cramping and maintain good analgesia for 7 days postoperatively. PMID:9728841

  16. Critical appraisal of clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Netsch, Debra S; Kluesner, Jean A

    2010-01-01

    Utilization of clinical guidelines is gaining in popularity due to their significant impact on clinical practice. While a plethora of guidelines exist, many are lacking in quality, based on current critical appraisal standards. It then becomes necessary for the end users of the guidelines to adopt or develop those that are deemed adequate for implementation. This often requires that users possess critical appraisal skills as they become proficient in discerning between guidelines of varying quality. This article provides direction and tools to support the critical appraisal process in the adoption of clinical guidelines. PMID:20838314

  17. Septic complications of hemorrhoidal banding.

    PubMed

    Quevedo-Bonilla, G; Farkas, A M; Abcarian, H; Hambrick, E; Orsay, C P

    1988-05-01

    Rubber band ligation is an efficacious and cost-effective alternative to conventional hemorrhoidectomy for symptomatic internal hemorrhoids. Even though the well-recognized complications of bleeding and thrombosis occur infrequently, far more serious septic complications have only recently been described, as evidenced in five of our patients: four cases were serious enough to necessitate surgical intervention, and one patient died. Pain followed by urinary dysfunction with or without toxic symptoms should alert the physician to the probability of localized perianal or systemic sepsis. Acute awareness of these rare but potentially life-threatening complications and immediate aggressive treatment is mandatory if death is to be prevented. Rubber band ligation of internal hemorrhoids need not be abandoned; however, the indications should be clear, the technique mastered, and a close patient follow-up maintained. PMID:3358691

  18. Synthetic strategies for polypeptides and proteins by chemical ligation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Heimer, Pascal; Imhof, Diana

    2015-07-01

    This review focuses on chemical ligation methods for the preparation of oligopeptides and proteins. Chemical ligation is a practical and convenient methodology in peptide and protein synthesis. Longer peptides and proteins can be obtained with high yield in aqueous buffer solutions by coupling unprotected peptide segments even without activation by enzymes or further chemical agents. Several methods and protocols were developed in the past. The potential of the most important approaches of the thioester- and imine-ligation techniques is demonstrated by a broad spectrum of applications. In addition, special features and protocols such as the template-directed ligation, ligation with novel additives or solvent media, microwave-assisted ligation, and the achievements obtained with those are also highlighted herein. PMID:25894893

  19. Peptide ligation from alkoxyamine based radical addition.

    PubMed

    Trimaille, Thomas; Autissier, Laurent; Rakotonirina, Mamy Daniel; Guillaneuf, Yohann; Villard, Claude; Bertin, Denis; Gigmes, Didier; Mabrouk, Kamel

    2014-03-14

    Intermolecular radical 1,2-addition (IRA) of N-tert-butyl-N-(1-diethylphosphono-2,2-dimethylpropyl)aminoxyl (SG1) based alkoxyamines onto activated olefins is used as a tool for peptide ligation. This strategy relies on simple peptide pre-derivatization to obtain (i) a SG1 nitroxide functionalized resin peptide at its N-terminus (SG1-peptide alkoxyamine), (ii) a vinyl functionalized peptide (either at its C-terminus or N-terminus), and does not require any coupling agents. PMID:24476638

  20. Differentiation of 13 positive emotions by appraisals.

    PubMed

    Tong, Eddie M W

    2015-01-01

    This research examined how strongly appraisals can differentiate positive emotions and how they differentiate positive emotions. Thirteen positive emotions were examined, namely, amusement, awe, challenge, compassion, contentment, gratitude, hope, interest, joy, pride, relief, romantic love and serenity. Participants from Singapore and the USA recalled an experience of each emotion and thereafter rated their appraisals of the experience. In general, the appraisals accurately classified the positive emotions at rates above chance levels, and the appraisal-emotion relationships conformed to predictions. Also, the appraisals were largely judged by participants as relevant to their positive emotion experiences, and the appraisal-emotion relationships were largely consistent across the two countries. PMID:24911866

  1. 43 CFR 426.13 - Excess land appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the first appraisal. The second appraisal will be prepared by a panel of three qualified appraisers... by the first two. The appraisal made by the panel will fix the maximum value of the excess land...

  2. Outcome Expectancies of People Who Conduct Performance Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Nancy K.; Latham, Gary P.

    1986-01-01

    Examined outcome expectancies of people who conduct appraisals. Interviews with 32 appraisers in the newsprint industry showed that appraisers perceived no consequences to them of conducting appraisals. Questionnaires completed by 39 appraisers in the banking industry provided moderate support for alternate hypothesis that appraisers perceive…

  3. 12 CFR 34.43 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.43 Appraisals required... by a State certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate-related financial transactions except those in which: (1) The transaction value is $250,000 or less; (2) A lien on real...

  4. 12 CFR 34.43 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.43 Appraisals required... by a State certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate-related financial transactions except those in which: (1) The transaction value is $250,000 or less; (2) A lien on real...

  5. 12 CFR 564.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. 564.3 Section 564.3 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a...

  6. 12 CFR 323.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. 323.3 Section 323.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS § 323.3 Appraisals required;...

  7. 12 CFR 323.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. 323.3 Section 323.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS § 323.3 Appraisals required;...

  8. 78 FR 60872 - Appraisal Subcommittee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  9. 78 FR 60873 - Appraisal Subcommittee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  10. Performance Appraisal: A Win/Win Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Beverly; Krantz, Shelley

    1983-01-01

    Training managers fully for the performance appraisal process can transform an appraisal discussion from an administrative exercise to a worthwhile experience that contributes to the organization as a whole. (Author/SSH)

  11. Appraisal and Evaluation: Chimera, Fantasy, or Practicality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marland, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Looks beyond the threatening and remunerative aspects of teacher appraisal in the United Kingdom to the contribution that evaluation can make to professional and school development. Considers five sound reasons for appraisal, the roles and behaviors to be appraised, and some workable approaches and techniques. Effective leadership is the key.…

  12. 48 CFR 1437.7002 - Appraisal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appraisal standards. 1437... standards. (a) All real property appraisals for condemnation purposes shall be consistent with requirements of the Interagency Land Acquisition Conference publication “Uniform Appraisal Standards for...

  13. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.2 Performance appraisal. (a) The... appraisal period on such standards. (4) Recognizing and rewarding employees whose performance so...

  14. Administrators' Perceptions of the Performance Appraisal Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Earl E.

    This study focused on department heads'/ chairs' perceptions of the appraisal interview (a face-to-face interpersonal communication event), assessment of the faculty member's role in the appraisal interview, and assessment of the academic administrator's role in the appraisal interview. The results indicate that approximately 20% of respondents…

  15. 7 CFR 762.127 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of such public sales, reputable publications reflecting market values may be used. Appraisal reports... that the appraiser possesses sufficient experience or training to estimate the market value of... current production year and actual yields can be reasonably estimated. The appraised value of...

  16. 32 CFR 644.43 - Gross appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Appraisal § 644.43 Gross appraisals. (a) Preparation. (1) The gross appraisal sections of real...-type or brief real estate design memoranda on civil works projects are submitted, comparable sales...

  17. Enabling N-to-C Ser/Thr Ligation for Convergent Protein Synthesis via Combining Chemical Ligation Approaches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi Lung; Liu, Han; Wong, Clarence T T; Chow, Hoi Yee; Li, Xuechen

    2016-08-24

    In this article, Ser/Thr ligation(on/off) has been realized to enable N-to-C successive peptide ligations using a salicylaldehyde semicarbazone (SAL(off)) group by in situ activation with pyruvic acid of the peptide SAL(off) ester into the peptide salicylaldehyde (SAL(on)) ester. In addition, a peptide with a C-terminal thioester and N-terminal Ser or Thr as the middle peptide segment can undergo one-pot Ser/Thr ligation and native chemical ligation in the N-to-C direction. The utility of this combined ligation strategy in the N-to-C direction has been showcased through the convergent assembly of a human cytokine protein sequence, GlcNAcylated interleukin-25. PMID:27479006

  18. Principal Appraisals Get a Remake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of school districts--including large ones like those in Chicago, Dallas, Los Angeles, and Hawaii--have become recent converts to new principal-evaluation systems that tie school leaders' appraisals to student test scores. As of this school year, student achievement accounts for 40 percent to 50 percent of principals' evaluations…

  19. Board & Supt. Share Appraisal Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaub, Gerald R.

    1983-01-01

    Although some board members and superintendents may consider superintendent evaluation as potentially disturbing for their working relationships, such evaluations may become more appealing when considered as part of a broader system of school governance and management. What is needed is a performance appraisal system developed jointly by…

  20. Appraisal Psychology, Neurobiology, and Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes that the confluence of stimulus appraisal and social cognition that is effected by the neural system in the brain has important implications for language and learning theories. Describes the anatomy and functions of this neural system and discusses how it may operate in motivation for second language acquisition and how in conjunction…

  1. Efficient Ligation of the Schistosoma Hammerhead Ribozyme †

    PubMed Central

    Canny, Marella D.; Jucker, Fiona M.; Pardi, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    The hammerhead ribozyme from Schistosoma mansoni is the best characterized of the natural hammerhead ribozymes. Biophysical, biochemical, and structural studies have shown that the formation of the loop-loop tertiary interaction between stems I and II alters the global folding, cleavage kinetics, and conformation of the catalytic core of this hammerhead, leading to a ribozyme that is readily cleaved under physiological conditions. This study investigates the ligation kinetics and the internal equilibrium between cleavage and ligation for the Schistosoma hammerhead. Single turnover kinetic studies on a construct where the ribozyme cleaves and ligates substrate(s) in trans showed up to 23% ligation when starting from fully cleaved products. This was achieved by a ~2,000-fold increase in the rate of ligation compared to a minimal hammerhead without the loop-loop tertiary interaction, yielding an internal equilibrium that ranges from 2–3 at physiological Mg2+ ion concentrations (0.1 –1 mM). Thus, the natural Schistosoma hammerhead ribozyme is almost as efficient at ligation as it is at cleavage. The results here are consistent with a model where formation of the loop-loop tertiary interaction leads to a higher population of catalytically active molecules, and where formation of this tertiary interaction has a much larger effect on the ligation than the cleavage activity of the Schistosoma hammerhead ribozyme. PMID:17319693

  2. Recovery of testicular blood flow following ligation of testicular vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Pascual, J.A.; Villanueva-Meyer, J.; Salido, E.; Ehrlich, R.M.; Mena, I.; Rajfer, J.

    1989-08-01

    To determine whether initial ligation of the testicular vessels of the high undescended testis followed by a delayed secondary orchiopexy is a viable alternative to the classical Fowler-Stephens procedure, a series of preliminary experiments were conducted in the rat in which testicular blood flow was measured by the 133-xenon washout technique before, and 1 hour and 30 days after ligation of the vessels. In addition, testicular histology, and testis and sex-accessory tissue weights were measured in 6 control, 6 sham operated and 6 testicular vessel ligated rats 54 days after vessel ligation. The data demonstrate that ligation and division of the testicular blood vessels produce an 80 per cent decrease in testicular blood flow 1 hour after ligation of the vessels. However, 30 days later testis blood flow returns to the control and pre-treatment value. There were no significant changes in testis or sex-accessory tissue weights 54 days after vessel ligation. Histologically, 4 of the surgically operated testes demonstrated necrosis of less than 25 per cent of the seminiferous tubules while 1 testis demonstrated more than 75 per cent necrosis. The rest of the tubules in all 6 testes demonstrated normal spermatogenesis. From this study we conclude that initial testicular vessel ligation produces an immediate decrease in testicular blood flow but with time the collateral vessels are able to compensate and return the testis blood flow to its normal pre-treatment value. These preliminary observations lend support for the concept that initial ligation of the testicular vessels followed by a delayed secondary orchiopexy in patients with a high undescended testis may be a possible alternative to the classical Fowler-Stephens approach.

  3. Convergent synthesis of proteins by kinetically controlled ligation

    DOEpatents

    Kent, Stephen; Pentelute, Brad; Bang, Duhee; Johnson, Erik; Durek, Thomas

    2010-03-09

    The present invention concerns methods and compositions for synthesizing a polypeptide using kinetically controlled reactions involving fragments of the polypeptide for a fully convergent process. In more specific embodiments, a ligation involves reacting a first peptide having a protected cysteyl group at its N-terminal and a phenylthioester at its C-terminal with a second peptide having a cysteine residue at its N-termini and a thioester at its C-termini to form a ligation product. Subsequent reactions may involve deprotecting the cysteyl group of the resulting ligation product and/or converting the thioester into a thiophenylester.

  4. [The decision to undergo tubal ligation].

    PubMed

    Fontaine, J G

    1984-07-01

    Gynecologists frequently seek the opinion of a psychiatrist before performing tubal ligations. The case of a 25-year-old childless divorcee whose gynecologist feared that her request for sterilization was actually a sign of depression is described to illustrate different aspects of psychiatric evaluation of women seeking sterilization. The patient's appearance and comportment during the interview, husband, family, attitude toward children, and dreams appeared normal. A traditional psychiatric evaluation shed little light on her reasons for seeking sterilization. A scale developed in the course of a few years of interviewing sterilization candidates to try to achieve a degree of objectivity was applied to the case. The scale requires assessment of the client's motivation, contraceptive usage, self-image, psychosexual development, the economic value of the ligation, and the consequences for the patient's sexual, social, and professional life. The psychiatrist summarizes his detailed findings and states them in comprehensible and practical terms for the sterilization practitioner. In this case, the client was raised rather coldly in a large family of 13 children where she received little attention from her father or mother. Her family background caused her to enter the work force at a very early age and to seek affection from an older man whom she married at 19 after 2 years of living together. She soon realized that he could not fill her need for affection and decided to leave him as he was demanding a child. Her 2nd partner was an alcoholic whom she left for the same reasons. She could not accept the idea of having a child who would be demanding when her own needs were so pressing. Her position was reinforced by her belief that she could not use oral contraceptives because of recurrent infections and that the IUD is unreliable. Deep psychotherapy could probably lower her resistence to motherhood but the client had no motivation for it. There was little reason not to

  5. Optimising the reward of appraisal drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Gdula, J.

    1996-12-31

    Management of the uncertainties associated with the development of a hydrocarbon resource is essential to minimize economic risk. In many instances these uncertainties can only be reduced by appraisal drilling. This presentation illustrates the efforts being made to manage uncertainty by determining its impact on overall project profitability. The Value of Information (VOI) approach is described. VOI aims at quantifying the benefits of appraisal by determining its economic reward in terms of its contribution to a development plan which is economically robust over the uncertainty range. Appraisal drilling costs can be reduced by combining appraisal and development objectives in one well. The growing use of horizontal drilling technology has resulted in novel approaches to appraisal. As examples, in the Osprey and Brent Fields (UK North Sea) wells were designed to satisfy both appraisal and development objectives. In Osprey, a well was drilled from a central production platform to provide water injection support in a satellite structure while at the same time appraising the saddle area between the two structures. In Brent, horizontal wells are used to appraise and develop the so called slump blocks, characterized by being highly faulted and compartmentalized. Another increasingly common application of horizontal wells is for the flank appraisal of hydrocarbon bearing structure. Examples from the Rabi Field (Gabon) and Batan Field (Nigeria) show how appraisal was achieved by extending the reach of horizontal development wells from the central core of the structures.

  6. Optimising the reward of appraisal drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Gdula, J.

    1996-01-01

    Management of the uncertainties associated with the development of a hydrocarbon resource is essential to minimize economic risk. In many instances these uncertainties can only be reduced by appraisal drilling. This presentation illustrates the efforts being made to manage uncertainty by determining its impact on overall project profitability. The Value of Information (VOI) approach is described. VOI aims at quantifying the benefits of appraisal by determining its economic reward in terms of its contribution to a development plan which is economically robust over the uncertainty range. Appraisal drilling costs can be reduced by combining appraisal and development objectives in one well. The growing use of horizontal drilling technology has resulted in novel approaches to appraisal. As examples, in the Osprey and Brent Fields (UK North Sea) wells were designed to satisfy both appraisal and development objectives. In Osprey, a well was drilled from a central production platform to provide water injection support in a satellite structure while at the same time appraising the saddle area between the two structures. In Brent, horizontal wells are used to appraise and develop the so called slump blocks, characterized by being highly faulted and compartmentalized. Another increasingly common application of horizontal wells is for the flank appraisal of hydrocarbon bearing structure. Examples from the Rabi Field (Gabon) and Batan Field (Nigeria) show how appraisal was achieved by extending the reach of horizontal development wells from the central core of the structures.

  7. Formatting and ligating biopolymers using adjustable nanoconfinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berard, Daniel J.; Shayegan, Marjan; Michaud, Francois; Henkin, Gil; Scott, Shane; Leslie, Sabrina

    2016-07-01

    Sensitive visualization and conformational control of long, delicate biopolymers present critical challenges to emerging biotechnologies and biophysical studies. Next-generation nanofluidic manipulation platforms strive to maintain the structural integrity of genomic DNA prior to analysis but can face challenges in device clogging, molecular breakage, and single-label detection. We address these challenges by integrating the Convex Lens-induced Confinement (CLiC) technique with a suite of nanotopographies embedded within thin-glass nanofluidic chambers. We gently load DNA polymers into open-face nanogrooves in linear, concentric circular, and ring array formats and perform imaging with single-fluorophore sensitivity. We use ring-shaped nanogrooves to access and visualize confinement-enhanced self-ligation of long DNA polymers. We use concentric circular nanogrooves to enable hour-long observations of polymers at constant confinement in a geometry which eliminates the confinement gradient which causes drift and can alter molecular conformations and interactions. Taken together, this work opens doors to myriad biophysical studies and biotechnologies which operate on the nanoscale.

  8. A Photo-Triggered Traceless Staudinger-Bertozzi Ligation Reaction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng; Feng, Tianshi; Yeung, Chi-Chung; Koo, Chi-Kin; Lau, Kai-Chung; Lam, Michael H W

    2016-08-01

    The use of light to control the course of a chemical/biochemical reaction is an attractive idea because of its ease of administration with high precision and fine spatial resolution. Staudinger ligation is one of the commonly adopted conjugation processes that involve a spontaneous reaction between azides and arylphosphines to form iminophosphoranes, which further hydrolyze to give stable amides. We designed an anthracenylmethyl diphenylphosphinothioester (1) that showed promising Staudinger ligation reactivity upon photo-excitation. Broadband photolysis at 360-400 nm in aqueous organic solvents induced heterolytic cleavage of its anthracenylmethyl-phosphorus bond, releasing a diphenylphosphinothioester (2) as an efficient traceless Staudinger-Bertozzi ligation reagent. The quantum yield of such a photo-induced heterolytic bond-cleavage at the optimal wavelength of photolysis (376 nm) at room temperature is ≥0.07. This work demonstrated the feasibility of photocaging arylphosphines to realize the photo-triggering of the Staudinger ligation reaction. PMID:27123884

  9. Cross-ligation and exchange reactions catalyzed by hairpin ribozymes.

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Y; Koizumi, M; Sekiguchi, A; Ohtsuka, E

    1993-01-01

    The negative strand of the satellite RNA of tobacco ringspot virus (sTobRV(-)) contains a hairpin catalytic domain that shows self-cleavage and self-ligation activities in the presence of magnesium ions. We describe here that the minimal catalytic domain can catalyze a cross-ligation reaction between two kinds of substrates in trans. The cross-ligated product increased when the reaction temperature was decreased during the reaction from 37 degrees C to 4 degrees C. A two-stranded hairpin ribozyme, divided into two fragments between G45 and U46 in a hairpin loop, showed higher ligation activity than the nondivided ribozyme. The two stranded ribozyme also catalyzed an exchange reaction of the 3'-portion of the cleavage site. Images PMID:8441626

  10. Rapamycin delays salivary gland atrophy following ductal ligation

    PubMed Central

    Bozorgi, S S; Proctor, G B; Carpenter, G H

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland atrophy is a frequent consequence of head and neck cancer irradiation therapy but can potentially be regulated through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Excretory duct ligation of the mouse submandibular gland provokes severe glandular atrophy causing activation of mTOR. This study aims to discover the effects of blocking mTOR signaling in ligation-induced atrophic salivary glands. Following 1 week of unilateral submandibular excretory duct ligation: gland weights were significantly reduced, 4E-BP1 and S6rp were activated, and tissue morphology revealed typical signs of atrophy. However, 3 days following ligation with rapamycin treatment, a selective mTOR inhibitor, gland weights were maintained, 4E-BP1 and S6rp phosphorylation was inhibited, and there were morphological signs of recovery from atrophy. However, following 5 and 7 days of ligation and rapamycin treatment, glands expressed active mTOR and showed signs of considerable atrophy. This evidence suggests that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin delays ligation-induced atrophy of salivary glands. PMID:24675464

  11. Covalent ligation studies on the human telomere quadruplex

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jianying; Shafer, Richard H.

    2005-01-01

    Recent X-ray crystallographic studies on the human telomere sequence d[AGGG(TTAGGG)3] revealed a unimolecular, parallel quadruplex structure in the presence of potassium ions, while earlier NMR results in the presence of sodium ions indicated a unimolecular, antiparallel quadruplex. In an effort to identify and isolate the parallel form in solution, we have successfully ligated into circular products the single-stranded human telomere and several modified human telomere sequences in potassium-containing solutions. Using these sequences with one or two terminal phosphates, we have made chemically ligated products via creation of an additional loop. Circular products have been identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, enzymatic digestion with exonuclease VII and electrospray mass spectrometry in negative ion mode. Optimum pH for the ligation reaction of the human telomere sequence ranges from 4.5 to 6.0. Several buffers were also examined, with MES yielding the greatest ligation efficiency. Human telomere sequences with two phosphate groups, one each at the 3′ and 5′ ends, were more efficient at ligation, via pyrophosphate bond formation, than the corresponding sequences with only one phosphate group, at the 5′ end. Circular dichroism spectra showed that the ligation product was derived from an antiparallel, single-stranded guanine quadruplex rather than a parallel single-stranded guanine quadruplex structure. PMID:15933211

  12. Vessel Ligation Training via an Adaptive Simulation Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yinin; Goodrich, Robyn N.; Le, Ivy A.; Brooks, Kendall D.; Sawyer, Robert G.; Smith, Philip W.; Schroen, Anneke T.; Rasmussen, Sara K.

    2015-01-01

    Background A cost-effective model for open vessel ligation is currently lacking. We hypothesized that a novel, inexpensive vessel ligation simulator can efficiently impart transferrable surgical skills to novice trainees. Materials and Methods VesselBox was designed to simulate vessel ligation using surgical gloves as surrogate vessels. Fourth-year medical students performed ligations using VesselBox, and were evaluated by surgical faculty using the Objective Structured Assessments of Technical Skills (OSATS) global rating scale and a task-specific checklist. Subsequently, each student was trained using VesselBox in an adaptive practice session guided by cumulative sum. Post-testing was performed on fresh human cadavers by evaluators blinded to pre-test results. Results Sixteen students completed the study. VesselBox practice sessions averaged 21.8 minutes per participant (IQR 19.5 – 27.7). Blinded post-tests demonstrated increased proficiency, as measured by both OSATS (3.23 vs 2.29, p < 0.001) and checklist metrics (7.33 vs 4.83, p < 0.001). Median speed improved from 128.2 seconds to 97.5 seconds per vessel ligated (p = 0.001). Following this adaptive training protocol, practice volume was not associated with post-test performance. Conclusions VesselBox is a cost-effective, low-fidelity vessel ligation model suitable for graduating medical students and junior residents. Cumulative sum can facilitate an adaptive, individualized curriculum for simulation training. PMID:25796112

  13. Esophageal variceal pressure influence on the effect of ligation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Qun; LingHu, En-Qiang; Hu, Min; Li, Wei-Min; Huang, Qi-Yang; Zhao, Yong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effect of in vitro porcine esophageal variceal pressure on complete ligation degree for polycyclic ligators. METHODS: An in vitro model of experimental porcine venous vessels was used to test various venous pressures. Three treatment groups were designated according to the preset pressure range: P1 = 25-30 cmH2O; P2 = 35-40 cmH2O; P3 = 45-50 cmH2O. The effect of pressure on ligation was assessed and compared among the groups. RESULTS: Complete ligation was achieved at a rate of 56.25% (18/32) in group P1, 37.5% (12/32) in group P2, and 33.33% (11/33) in group P3 (χ2 = 3.6126; P = 0.0573). CONCLUSION: Higher variceal pressures impair the ligation completion rate. Therefore, measuring variceal pressure may help predict the effect of endoscopic ligation and guide treatment choice. PMID:25852273

  14. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a... BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions § 225.63... institution is acting in a fiduciary capacity and is not required to obtain an appraisal under other law;...

  15. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a... BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions § 225.63... institution is acting in a fiduciary capacity and is not required to obtain an appraisal under other law;...

  16. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a... CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions § 225.63... institution is acting in a fiduciary capacity and is not required to obtain an appraisal under other law;...

  17. Test Takers' Performance Appraisals, Appraisal Calibration, and Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phakiti, Aek

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores the nature and relationships among test takers' performance appraisals, appraisal calibration, and reported cognitive and metacognitive strategy use in a language test situation. Performance appraisals are executive processes of strategic competence for judging test performance (e.g., evaluating the correctness or…

  18. Clinical application of a ligation-independent pathway of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for the determination of quinolone susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Uno, Naoki; Araki, Nobuko; Kaku, Norihito; Kosai, Kosuke; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2016-09-01

    We previously uncovered a ligation-independent pathway of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) through which products of MLPA could be amplified without both hybridization and ligation reactions. Here, we utilized this pathway to detect an antibiotic resistance mutation of quinolones in Streptococcus pneumoniae. PMID:27343683

  19. 62 FR 64997 - Real Estate Appraisals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-12-09

    ... 225 Real Estate Appraisals AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Notice of... financial and public policy interests in real estate-related transactions will be protected by requiring that real estate appraisals utilized in connection with federally related transactions are performed...

  20. 12 CFR 34.85 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Other Real Estate Owned § 34.85 Appraisal requirements. (a) General. (1) Upon transfer to OREO, a... develop a prudent real estate collateral evaluation policy that allows the bank to monitor the value...

  1. 12 CFR 34.85 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Other Real Estate Owned § 34.85 Appraisal requirements. (a) General. (1) Upon transfer to OREO, a... develop a prudent real estate collateral evaluation policy that allows the bank to monitor the value...

  2. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within 15 days after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  3. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within 15 days after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  4. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within 15 days after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  5. 12 CFR 225.65 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 225.65 Section 225.65 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards...

  6. 12 CFR 225.65 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 225.65 Section 225.65 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions §...

  7. 12 CFR 225.65 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 225.65 Section 225.65 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal...

  8. Pupil Appraisal Handbook. Bulletin 1508. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    This bulletin serves as a guide for the conduct of pupil appraisal services in Louisiana. It includes procedures, standards, and criteria for identifying children eligible for special education and/or related services. In addition, a general description of pupil appraisal services encompasses personnel, responsibilities, rights of students and…

  9. 5 CFR 9901.411 - Appraisal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.411 Appraisal period. (a) Except as provided in... period, an employee has not met the minimum period of performance, management may extend the appraisal....411 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR...

  10. 5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 301.303 Section 301.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS OVERSEAS....303 Performance appraisal. As soon as practicable, but beginning not later than January 1,...

  11. 36 CFR 223.222 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appraisal. 223.222 Section 223.222 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Appraisal and Pricing § 223.222...

  12. 7 CFR 356.2 - Appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisement. 356.2 Section 356.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FORFEITURE PROCEDURES § 356.2 Appraisement. Promptly following the seizure or...

  13. Philadelphia's Teacher Appraisal System Needs Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal, Camika; Tossman, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inform the community about teacher appraisal methods in the School District of Philadelphia, outline the difficulties of the current system, and suggest approaches that would strengthen the teacher appraisal process. The authors gathered their information over three months in mid-2009 from multiple sources:…

  14. 36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite tracts shall...

  15. 36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite tracts shall...

  16. 36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite tracts shall...

  17. 36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite tracts shall...

  18. 36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite tracts shall...

  19. Self-Appraisal of Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Herbert H.

    1980-01-01

    Research indicates that when self-appraisals are obtained on a "compared to others" basis, the leniency error is very strong. Using forced distributions in rating programs contributes to defensive behaviors and lowers job performance. More research should be conducted on the effects of appraisal on immediate motivation. (Author)

  20. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraising performance. 430.307 Section 430.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.307 Appraising performance. (a) Annual...

  1. Children's Appraisal of Moderately Stressful Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Brianne; Power, Thomas; Hill, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated 2 questions: (1) do children show consistent styles of appraisal across a range of moderately stressful events?, and (2) what are the adjustment and parenting correlates of individual differences in children's appraisal style? Ninety-nine 3rd though 5th grade children and their mothers participated. For each of 6 vignettes…

  2. Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape and Risk Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Doris J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines how men and women judge the presence of risk factors in a scripted acquaintance rape scenario and if alcohol was a significant factor in assessing risk. Significant differences were found in African American and Caucasian participants' attitudes toward rape and risk appraisal. There was a negative correlation between risk appraisal and…

  3. 38 CFR 36.4365 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appraisal requirements. 36.4365 Section 36.4365 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting § 36.4365 Appraisal requirements. (a) Existing...

  4. Teaching Critical Appraisal of Articles on Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Pavel; Hoschl, Cyril; Volavka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatrists and other physicians sometimes read publications superficially, relying excessively on abstracts. The authors addressed this problem by teaching critical appraisal of individual articles. Method: The authors developed a 23-item appraisal instrument to assess articles in the area of psychopharmacology. The results were…

  5. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraising performance. 430.307 Section 430.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.307 Appraising performance. (a) Annual...

  6. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraising performance. 430.307 Section 430.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.307 Appraising performance. (a) Annual...

  7. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraising performance. 430.307 Section 430.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.307 Appraising performance. (a) Annual...

  8. 7 CFR 762.127 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisal requirements. 762.127 Section 762.127 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.127 Appraisal requirements. (a) General. The...

  9. 7 CFR 356.2 - Appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisement. 356.2 Section 356.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FORFEITURE PROCEDURES § 356.2 Appraisement. Promptly following the seizure or...

  10. 19 CFR 162.43 - Appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Appraisement. 162.43 Section 162.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Treatment of Seized Merchandise § 162.43 Appraisement....

  11. Risk Appraisal in Scripted Acquaintance Rape Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Doris J.

    Cognitive appraisals are believed to influence how women judge or appraise risk in acquaintance interactions which lead to sexual assault. Ways in which men and women judge the presence of risk factors in scripted acquaintance rape scenarios, and whether alcohol was a significant factor in assessing risk, are examined in this paper. Participants…

  12. Moral Appraisals Affect Doing/Allowing Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Fiery; Knobe, Joshua; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2008-01-01

    An extensive body of research suggests that the distinction between doing and allowing plays a critical role in shaping moral appraisals. Here, we report evidence from a pair of experiments suggesting that the converse is also true: moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments. Specifically, morally bad behavior is more likely to be construed…

  13. 7 CFR 4279.144 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisals. 4279.144 Section 4279.144 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans § 4279.144 Appraisals. Lenders will be responsible...

  14. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.2 Performance..., promoting, reducing in grade, retaining, and removing employees. (b) Each performance appraisal system...

  15. Social appraisal influences recognition of emotions.

    PubMed

    Mumenthaler, Christian; Sander, David

    2012-06-01

    The notion of social appraisal emphasizes the importance of a social dimension in appraisal theories of emotion by proposing that the way an individual appraises an event is influenced by the way other individuals appraise and feel about the same event. This study directly tested this proposal by asking participants to recognize dynamic facial expressions of emotion (fear, happiness, or anger in Experiment 1; fear, happiness, anger, or neutral in Experiment 2) in a target face presented at the center of a screen while a contextual face, which appeared simultaneously in the periphery of the screen, expressed an emotion (fear, happiness, anger) or not (neutral) and either looked at the target face or not. We manipulated gaze direction to be able to distinguish between a mere contextual effect (gaze away from both the target face and the participant) and a specific social appraisal effect (gaze toward the target face). Results of both experiments provided evidence for a social appraisal effect in emotion recognition, which differed from the mere effect of contextual information: Whereas facial expressions were identical in both conditions, the direction of the gaze of the contextual face influenced emotion recognition. Social appraisal facilitated the recognition of anger, happiness, and fear when the contextual face expressed the same emotion. This facilitation was stronger than the mere contextual effect. Social appraisal also allowed better recognition of fear when the contextual face expressed anger and better recognition of anger when the contextual face expressed fear. PMID:22288528

  16. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.2 Performance..., promoting, reducing in grade, retaining, and removing employees. (b) Each performance appraisal system...

  17. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.2 Performance... appraisal period on such standards. (4) Recognizing and rewarding employees whose performance so...

  18. Performance Appraisal in Academic and Research Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Larry N.

    There is a need for increased efficiency and effectiveness in the employment of the library's human resources. Performance appraisal can serve as a basis for salary and advancement decisions, career development, and performance improvement. Three criteria for performance appraisal can be distinguished: (1) the trait approach, (2) the job…

  19. 50 CFR 12.12 - Appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appraisement. 12.12 Section 12.12 Wildlife... FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Preliminary Requirements § 12.12 Appraisement. The Service shall determine the value of... lawfully be sold in the United States, its domestic value shall be determined in accordance with §......

  20. Collateral Capillary Arterialization following arteriolar ligation in murine skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Mac Gabhann, Feilim; Peirce, Shayn M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Chronic and acute ischemic diseases – peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, stroke – result in tissue damage unless blood flow is maintained or restored in a timely manner. Mice of different strains recover from arteriolar ligation (by increasing collateral blood flow) at different speeds. We quantify the spatio-termporal patterns of microvascular network remodeling following arteriolar ligation in different mouse strains to better understand interindividual variability. METHODS Whole-muscle spinotrapezius microvascular networks of mouse strains C57Bl/6, Balb/c and CD1 were imaged using confocal microscopy following ligation of feeding arterioles. RESULTS Baseline arteriolar structures of C57Bl/6 and Balb/c mice feature heavily ramified arcades and unconnected dendritic trees, respectively. This network angioarchitecture identifies ischemia-protected and ischemia-vulnerable tissues: unlike C57Bl/6, downstream capillary perfusion in Balb/c spinotrapezius is lost following ligation. Perfusion recovery requires arterialization (expansion and investment of mural cells) of a subset of capillaries forming a new low-resistance collateral pathway between arteriolar trees. Outbred CD1 exhibit either Balb/c-like or C57Bl/6-like spinotrapezius angioarchitecture, predictive of response to arteriolar ligation. CONCLUSIONS This collateral capillary arterialization process may explain the reported longer time required for blood flow recovery in Balb/c hindlimb ischemia, as low-resistance blood flow pathways along capillary conduits must be formed (‘arterialization’) before reperfusion. PMID:20618691

  1. Task appraisals, emotions, and performance goal orientation.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Cynthia D; Minbashian, Amirali; Beckmann, Nadin; Wood, Robert E

    2013-03-01

    We predict real-time fluctuations in employees' positive and negative emotions from concurrent appraisals of the immediate task situation and individual differences in performance goal orientation. Task confidence, task importance, positive emotions, and negative emotions were assessed 5 times per day for 3 weeks in an experience sampling study of 135 managers. At the within-person level, appraisals of task confidence, task importance, and their interaction predicted momentary positive and negative emotions as hypothesized. Dispositional performance goal orientation was expected to moderate emotional reactivity to appraisals of task confidence and task importance. The hypothesized relationships were significant in the case of appraisals of task importance. Those high on performance goal orientation reacted to appraisals of task importance with stronger negative and weaker positive emotions than those low on performance goal orientation. PMID:23276116

  2. Template-Directed Ligation of Peptides to Oligonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruick, Richard K.; Dawson, Philip E.; Kent, Stephen BH; Usman, Nassim; Joyce, Gerald F.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic oligonucleotides and peptides have enjoyed a wide range of applications in both biology and chemistry. As a consequence, oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates have received considerable attention, most notably in the development of antisense constructs with improved pharmacological properties. In addition, oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates have been used as molecular tags, in the assembly of supramolecular arrays and in the construction of encoded combinatorial libraries. To make these chimeric molecules more accessible for a broad range of investigations, we sought to develop a facile method for joining fully deprotected oligonucleotides and peptides through a stable amide bond linkage. Furthermore, we wished to make this ligation reaction addressable, enabling one to direct the ligation of specific oligonucleotide and peptide components.To confer specificity and accelerate the rate of the reaction, the ligation process was designed to be dependent on the presence of a complementary oligonucleotide template.

  3. High-throughput determination of RNA structure by proximity ligation.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Vijay; Qiu, Ruolan; Shendure, Jay

    2015-09-01

    We present an unbiased method to globally resolve RNA structures through pairwise contact measurements between interacting regions. RNA proximity ligation (RPL) uses proximity ligation of native RNA followed by deep sequencing to yield chimeric reads with ligation junctions in the vicinity of structurally proximate bases. We apply RPL in both baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human cells and generate contact probability maps for ribosomal and other abundant RNAs, including yeast snoRNAs, the RNA subunit of the signal recognition particle and the yeast U2 spliceosomal RNA homolog. RPL measurements correlate with established secondary structures for these RNA molecules, including stem-loop structures and long-range pseudoknots. We anticipate that RPL will complement the current repertoire of computational and experimental approaches in enabling the high-throughput determination of secondary and tertiary RNA structures. PMID:26237516

  4. Oxidative Deselenization of Selenocysteine: Applications for Programmed Ligation at Serine.

    PubMed

    Malins, Lara R; Mitchell, Nicholas J; McGowan, Sheena; Payne, Richard J

    2015-10-19

    Despite the unique chemical properties of selenocysteine (Sec), ligation at Sec is an under-utilized methodology for protein synthesis. We describe herein an unprecedented protocol for the conversion of Sec to serine (Ser) in a single, high-yielding step. When coupled with ligation at Sec, this transformation provides a new approach to programmed ligations at Ser residues. This new reaction is compatible with a wide range of functionality, including the presence of unprotected amino acid side chains and appended glycans. The utility of the methodology is demonstrated in the rapid synthesis of complex glycopeptide fragments of the epithelial glycoproteins MUC5AC and MUC4 and through the total synthesis of the structured, cysteine (Cys)-free protein eglin C. PMID:26384718

  5. RNA-Catalyzed RNA Ligation on an External RNA Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinness, Kathleen E.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    Variants of the hc ligase ribozyme, which catalyzes ligation of the 3' end of an RNA substrate to the 5' end of the ribozyme, were utilized to evolve a ribozyme that catalyzes ligation reactions on an external RNA template. The evolved ribozyme catalyzes the joining of an oligonucleotide 3'-hydroxyl to the 5'-triphosphate of an RNA hairpin molecule. The ribozyme can also utilize various substrate sequences, demonstrating a largely sequence-independent mechanism for substrate recognition. The ribozyme also carries out the ligation of two oligonucleotides that are bound at adjacent positions on a complementary template. Finally, it catalyzes addition of mononucleoside '5-triphosphates onto the '3 end of an oligonucleotide primer in a template-dependent manner. The development of ribozymes that catalyze polymerase-type reactions contributes to the notion that an RNA world could have existed during the early history of life on Earth.

  6. High-throughput determination of RNA structure by proximity ligation

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, Vijay; Qiu, Ruolan; Shendure, Jay

    2015-01-01

    We present an unbiased method to globally resolve RNA structures through pairwise contact measurements between interacting regions. RNA Proximity Ligation (RPL) uses proximity ligation of native RNA followed by deep sequencing to yield chimeric reads with ligation junctions in the vicinity of structurally proximate bases. We apply RPL in both baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human cells and generate contact probability maps for ribosomal and other abundant RNAs, including yeast snoRNAs, the RNA subunit of the signal recognition particle, and the yeast U2 spliceosomal RNA homolog. RPL measurements correlate with established secondary structures for these RNA molecules, including stem-loop structures and long-range pseudoknots. We anticipate that RPL will complement the current repertoire of computational and experimental approaches in enabling the high-throughput determination of secondary and tertiary RNA structures. PMID:26237516

  7. Development of an Improved Animal Model of Overactive Bladder: Transperineal Ligation versus Transperitoneal Ligation in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo Hyun; Bae, Woong Jin; Park, Jung Woo; Choi, Jin Bong; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Ha, U Syn; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Hwang, Sung Yeoun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We compared a transperineal ligation model and a transperitoneal ligation model in male rats to determine which animal model of overactive bladder (OAB) was more useful based on cystometrography, estimations of oxidative stress, and measurements of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Materials and Methods Male rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=15 in each): the control group, the transperineal ligation group, and the transperitoneal ligation group. Four weeks after the ligation procedure, cystometrography was performed and oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and histologic changes were evaluated. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine and superoxide dismutase, and pro-inflammatory cytokine activity was investigated by measuring levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Results The transperineal model led to results similar to those observed for the transperitoneal model, namely (1) increased voiding frequency and reductions in the non-voiding contraction interval and the maximal vesical pressure, (2) increased levels of oxidative stress markers, (3) increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and (4) fibrotic changes in the bladder tissue. Conclusions We suggest that the transperineal procedure can be used as an alternative OAB model in male rats. PMID:27574597

  8. Tubal ligation, hysterectomy and ovarian cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the strength of the association between gynecologic surgeries, tubal ligation and hysterectomy, and ovarian cancer. Methods We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases for all English-language articles dated between 1969 through March 2011 using the keywords “ovarian cancer” and “tubal ligation” or “tubal sterilization” or “hysterectomy.” We identified 30 studies on tubal ligation and 24 studies on hysterectomy that provided relative risks for ovarian cancer and a p-value or 95% confidence interval (CI) to include in the meta-analysis. Summary RRs and 95% CIs were calculated using a random-effects model. Results The summary RR for women with vs. without tubal ligation was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.64, 0.75). Similarly, the summary RR for women with vs. without hysterectomy was 0.74 (95%CI: 0.65, 0.84). Simple hysterectomy and hysterectomy with unilateral oophorectomy were associated with a similar decrease in risk (summery RR = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.49-0.79 and 0.60, 95%CI: 0.47-0.78, respectively). In secondary analyses, the association between tubal ligation and ovarian cancer risk was stronger for endometrioid tumors (summary RR = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.33, 0.61) compared to serous tumors. Conclusion Observational epidemiologic evidence strongly supports that tubal ligation and hysterectomy are associated with a decrease in the risk of ovarian cancer, by approximately 26-30%. Additional research is needed to determine whether the association between tubal ligation and hysterectomy on ovarian cancer risk differs by individual, surgical, and tumor characteristics. PMID:22587442

  9. Treatment of spontaneous tumours by temporary local ligation

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Frederick M.; Kaplan, Martin M.; Meranze, David R.; Gradess, Morton

    1960-01-01

    Previous work in some human cases and in laboratory animals has indicated that temporary local ligation of spontaneous tumours has a selective destructive effect on these tumours, with only temporary inflammation resulting in normal tissues. In the experiments described in this paper, 49 spontaneous accessible tumours in dogs were treated by this method, with periods of ligation of from 4 to 11 hours. Success, as measured by selective necrosis of tumour tissue as compared with normal tissue, was achieved in 29 out of 41 benign tumours, including lipomas, angiomas, adenomas and mixed mammary tumours. Treatment failures were encountered in two cases each of papillomas and fibromas, six mixed mammary tumours and two testicular tumours. Total necrosis of tumour cells occurred in all eight malignant tumours encountered in this series. The outstanding feature was the specific destruction of tumour tissue by a bodily process without participation of any outside agent. Emphasis was placed on an adequate inflammatory response following temporary anoxia, although a precise definition of this inflammation could not be offered. Post-ligation bacterial multiplication, which may be expected to occur in necrotic tumour tissue, is considered to be a secondary effect rather than a possible primary cause of regression and disappearance of the tumour. If ligation treatment can be shown to be successful for a particular type of tumour, it may be possible to apply it to human patients for the treatment of areas not amenable to surgery. The results reported here warrant new experimental approaches to the study of neoplasms at the cellular level to define more precisely the anoxic and inflammatory processes involved in the selective lethal effect on tumour tissues; and the authors suggest that trials should be undertaken of combinations of chemotherapy or irradiation with ligation to reduce ligation time and extend the possible benefits. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7

  10. Ligation of Glycophorin A Generates Reactive Oxygen Species Leading to Decreased Red Blood Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Khoory, Joseph; Estanislau, Jessica; Elkhal, Abdallah; Lazaar, Asmae; Melhorn, Mark I.; Brodsky, Abigail; Illigens, Ben; Hamachi, Itaru; Kurishita, Yasutaka; Ivanov, Alexander R.; Shevkoplyas, Sergey; Shapiro, Nathan I.; Ghiran, Ionita C.

    2016-01-01

    Acute, inflammatory conditions associated with dysregulated complement activation are characterized by significant increases in blood concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ATP. The mechanisms by which these molecules arise are not fully understood. In this study, using luminometric- and fluorescence-based methods, we show that ligation of glycophorin A (GPA) on human red blood cells (RBCs) results in a 2.1-fold, NADPH-oxidase-dependent increase in intracellular ROS that, in turn, trigger multiple downstream cascades leading to caspase-3 activation, ATP release, and increased band 3 phosphorylation. Functionally, using 2D microchannels to assess membrane deformability, GPS-ligated RBCs travel 33% slower than control RBCs, and lipid mobility was hindered by 10% using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). These outcomes were preventable by pretreating RBCs with cell-permeable ROS scavenger glutathione monoethyl ester (GSH-ME). Our results obtained in vitro using anti-GPA antibodies were validated using complement-altered RBCs isolated from control and septic patients. Our results suggest that during inflammatory conditions, circulating RBCs significantly contribute to capillary flow dysfunctions, and constitute an important but overlooked source of intravascular ROS and ATP, both critical mediators responsible for endothelial cell activation, microcirculation impairment, platelet activation, as well as long-term dysregulated adaptive and innate immune responses. PMID:26784696

  11. Laparoscopic ligation of the thoracic duct in management of chylothorax.

    PubMed

    Icaza, Orlando J; Andrews, Kris; Kuhnke, Mark

    2002-04-01

    Laparoscopic ligation of the cisterna chyli at the level of the aortic hiatus was performed in a 69-year-old woman with post-lobectomy chylothorax refractory to 3 weeks of conservative therapy and one repeat thoracotomy with attempted ligation of a leaking lymphatic channel. This laparoscopic procedure was successful, and resolution of the chylothorax was achieved. We feel that this technique offers surgeons a valid, minimally invasive treatment option for a persistent chylothorax in which conservative management or more direct thoracic procedures have failed to control the chyle leak. PMID:12019574

  12. Protein response to ligation reactions in myoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Causgrove, T.P.; Dyer, R.B.

    1992-12-31

    The protein response to the photodissociation, escape and subsequent rebinding of carbon monoxide in myoglobin is studied using time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy. All phases of these reactions areinvestigated, from ultrafast phenomena (picoseconds) to relatively slow processes (milliseconds). Conformational changes in myoglobin (Mb) are detected by time-resolved absorption changes in the amide I band. On the hundreds of nanoseconds to milliseconds timescale, a ``real-time`` apparatus is used. This apparatus is based on a tunable diode laser operating in the region of 1650 cm{sup {minus}1} . The time course ofchanges in the amide I band are shown to follow the recombination of CO with photolyzed Mb. On the basis of the rise times of the amide I and FE-CO signals, it is concluded that protein motion is complete within 100 n. A time-resolved difference spectrum in the amide I region is generated from single wavelength transients taken throughout the amide I envelope. A static difference spectrum is also generated by subtracting FTIR spectra of carbonmonoxy and deoxy myoglobin. The two difference spectra are compared and are interpreted in terms of the three-dimensional structures of deoxy and carbonmonoxy Mb. Preliminary picosecond TRIR data are also given for the ultrafast response of the protein immediately following photodissociation of CO.

  13. Protein response to ligation reactions in myoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Causgrove, T.P.; Dyer, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The protein response to the photodissociation, escape and subsequent rebinding of carbon monoxide in myoglobin is studied using time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy. All phases of these reactions areinvestigated, from ultrafast phenomena (picoseconds) to relatively slow processes (milliseconds). Conformational changes in myoglobin (Mb) are detected by time-resolved absorption changes in the amide I band. On the hundreds of nanoseconds to milliseconds timescale, a real-time'' apparatus is used. This apparatus is based on a tunable diode laser operating in the region of 1650 cm[sup [minus]1] . The time course ofchanges in the amide I band are shown to follow the recombination of CO with photolyzed Mb. On the basis of the rise times of the amide I and FE-CO signals, it is concluded that protein motion is complete within 100 n. A time-resolved difference spectrum in the amide I region is generated from single wavelength transients taken throughout the amide I envelope. A static difference spectrum is also generated by subtracting FTIR spectra of carbonmonoxy and deoxy myoglobin. The two difference spectra are compared and are interpreted in terms of the three-dimensional structures of deoxy and carbonmonoxy Mb. Preliminary picosecond TRIR data are also given for the ultrafast response of the protein immediately following photodissociation of CO.

  14. Employee Performance Appraisal and the 95/5 Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasch, Lee

    2004-01-01

    Many colleges use some form of an employee performance appraisal process. Yet, despite prevalent use, the performance appraisal process is facing growing criticism. The author reviews the literature regarding the process of performance appraisal in higher education, focusing on articles supportive of the use of the performance appraisal, and those…

  15. Stigma, Reflected Appraisals, and Recovery Outcomes in Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Fred E.; Angell, Beth; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on modified labeling theory and the reflected appraisals process and using longitudinal data from 129 mothers and their adult children with schizophrenia, we estimate models of the effects of mothers' stigmatized identity appraisals of their mentally ill children on reflected and self-appraisals, and how appraisals affect outcomes…

  16. 38 CFR 36.4347 - Lender Appraisal Processing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... acknowledge and represent that by signing the Uniform Residential Appraisal Report (URAR), FHLMC (Federal Home... certifying, in all cases, that I have personally reviewed the appraisal report. In doing so I have considered and utilized recognized professional appraisal techniques, have found the appraisal report to...

  17. 25 CFR 700.117 - Criteria for appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criteria for appraisals. 700.117 Section 700.117 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Acquisition and Disposal of Habitations and/or Improvements § 700.117 Criteria for appraisals. (a) Appraisal standards. The Commission's appraisals...

  18. Kinetic framework for ligation by an efficient RNA ligase ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Bergman, N H; Johnston, W K; Bartel, D P

    2000-03-21

    The class I RNA ligase ribozyme, isolated previously from random sequences, performs an efficient RNA ligation reaction. It ligates two substrate RNAs, promoting the attack of the 3'-hydroxyl of one substrate upon the 5'-triphosphate of the other substrate with release of pyrophosphate. This ligation reaction has similarities to the reaction catalyzed by RNA polymerases. Using data from steady-state kinetic measurements and pulse-chase/pH-jump experiments, we have constructed minimal kinetic frameworks for two versions of the class I ligase, named 207t and 210t. For both ligases, as well as for the self-ligating parent ribozyme, the rate constant for the chemical step (k(c)) is log-linear with pH in the range 5.7-8.0. At physiological pH, the k(c) is 100 min(-1), a value similar to those reported for the fastest naturally occurring ribozymes. At higher pH, product release is limiting for both 207t and 210t. The 210t ribozyme, with its faster product release, attains multiple-turnover rates (k(cat) = 360 min(-1), pH 9.0) exceeding those of 207t and other reported ribozyme reactions. The kinetic framework for the 210t ribozyme describes the limits of this catalysis and suggests how key steps can be targeted for improvement using design or combinatorial approaches. PMID:10715133

  19. Protein chemical synthesis by α-ketoacid-hydroxylamine ligation.

    PubMed

    Harmand, Thibault J; Murar, Claudia E; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2016-06-01

    Total chemical synthesis of proteins allows researchers to custom design proteins without the complex molecular biology that is required to insert non-natural amino acids or the biocontamination that arises from methods relying on overexpression in cells. We describe a detailed procedure for the chemical synthesis of proteins with the α-ketoacid-hydroxylamine (KAHA ligation), using (S)-5-oxaproline (Opr) as a key building block. This protocol comprises two main parts: (i) the synthesis of peptide fragments by standard fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) chemistry and (ii) the KAHA ligation between fragments containing Opr and a C-terminal peptide α-ketoacid. This procedure provides an alternative to native chemical ligation (NCL) that could be valuable for the synthesis of proteins, particularly targets that do not contain cysteine residues. The ligation conditions-acidic DMSO/H2O or N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP)/H2O-are ideally suited for solubilizing peptide segments, including many hydrophobic examples. The utility and efficiency of the protocol is demonstrated by the total chemical synthesis of the mature betatrophin (also called ANGPTL8), a 177-residue protein that contains no cysteine residues. With this protocol, the total synthesis of the betatrophin protein has been achieved in around 35 working days on a multimilligram scale. PMID:27227514

  20. The effect of ligation method on friction in sliding mechanics.

    PubMed

    Hain, Max; Dhopatkar, Ashish; Rock, Peter

    2003-04-01

    During orthodontic tooth movement with the preadjusted edgewise system, friction generated at the bracket/archwire interface tends to impede the desired movement. The method of ligation is an important contributor to this frictional force. This in vitro study investigated the effect of ligation method on friction and evaluated the efficacy of the new slick elastomeric modules from TP Orthodontics (La Porte, Ind), which are claimed to reduce friction at the module/wire interface. Slick modules were compared with regular nonslick modules, stainless steel ligatures, and the SPEED self-ligating bracket system (Strite Industries, Cambridge, Ontario, Canada). The effect of using slick modules with metal-reinforced ceramic (Clarity, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) and miniature brackets (Minitwin, 3M Unitek) was also examined. Results showed that, when considering tooth movement along a 0.019 x 0.025-in stainless steel archwire, saliva-lubricated slick modules can reduce static friction at the module/archwire interface by up to 60%, regardless of the bracket system. The SPEED brackets produced the lowest friction compared with the 3 other tested bracket systems when regular modules were used. The use of slick modules, however, with all of the ligated bracket types tested significantly reduced friction to below the values recorded in the SPEED groups. Loosely tied stainless steel ligatures were found to generate the least friction. PMID:12695769

  1. Unusual complication of ligation of rudimentary ulnar digit.

    PubMed

    Heras, L; Barco, J; Cohen, A

    1999-12-01

    We report a case of rudimentary ulnar polydactyly of the hand of a 7-year-old female child. Histological examination revealed a central traumatic neuroma which branched into five digit-like projections covered with hyperkeratotic epidermis. We think this was a result of suture ligation during the postnatal period. PMID:10672820

  2. Corrosion behavior of self-ligating and conventional metal brackets

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Lúcio Henrique Esmeraldo Gurgel; Lopes Filho, Hibernon; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira; Araújo, Mônica Tirre de Souza; Vaitsman, Delmo Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the null hypothesis that the aging process in self-ligating brackets is not higher than in conventional brackets. Methods Twenty-five conventional (GN-3M/Unitek; GE-GAC; VE-Aditek) and 25 self-ligating (SCs-3M/Unitek; INs-GAC; ECs-Aditek) metal brackets from three manufacturers (n = 150) were submitted to aging process in 0.9% NaCl solution at a constant temperature of 37 ± 1ºC for 21 days. The content of nickel, chromium and iron ions in the solution collected at intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days was quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. After the aging process, the brackets were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) under 22X and 1,000X magnifications. Results Comparison of metal release in self-ligating and conventional brackets from the same manufacturer proved that the SCs group released more nickel (p < 0.05) than the GN group after 7 and 14 days, but less chromium (p < 0.05) after 14 days and less iron (p < 0.05) at the three experimental time intervals. The INs group released less iron (p < 0.05) than the GE group after 7 days and less nickel, chromium and iron (p < 0.05) after 14 and 21 days. The ECs group released more nickel, chromium and iron (p < 0.05) than the VE group after 14 days, but released less nickel and chromium (p < 0.05) after 7 days and less chromium and iron (p < 0.05) after 21 days. The SEM analysis revealed alterations on surface topography of conventional and self-ligating brackets. Conclusions The aging process in self-ligating brackets was not greater than in conventional brackets from the same manufacturer. The null hypothesis was accepted. PMID:24945521

  3. Use of appraisals for professional effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Birabi, Bridget

    2006-01-01

    Appraisal is usually linked with performance but it can also apply to intervention programmes. It is a distinct and formal management procedure used in the evaluation of work performance or the impact of a programme based on set objectives which are usually SMART. Every programme requires continual and meaningful feedback that transforms what looks technical into a dynamic and interactive process. This ties outcomes to intervention. Of great importance for a professional is self appraisal. When a professional is passion-driven to meet the needs of a client, the need to build capacity becomes obvious to remain in the market. Facility appraisal is as important as the environment of any service delivery and psychologically impacts on the consumer. Appraisal seems both inevitable and universal. To continually raise the standard of health care delivery, capacity building is at the crux. This will thoroughly equip health professionals for client-patient centered "best practices." PMID:17396754

  4. Health Risk Appraisal Use at Headquarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borcherding, Donald

    1997-01-01

    Specific topics which relate to the NASA Health Risk Appraisal (HRA) include: (1) What is a HRA?; (2) Risk factors; (3) Program use at NASA Headquarters; (4) An alternative approach; (5) Group HRA reports; and (6) Future considerations and conclusion.

  5. Savannah River Site ALARA Program appraisals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    ALARA Program audits are recommended in PNL-6566, Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).'' The Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection For Occupational Workers,'' requires contractors to conduct internal audits of all functional elements of the radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, as often as necessary, but at a minimum every three years. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), these required audits are performed as part of the Health Protection Internal Appraisal Program. This program was established to review the Site radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, on an ongoing basis and to provide recommendations for improvement directly to senior Health Protection management. This paper provides an overview of the SRS Health Protection Internal Appraisal program. In addition, examples of specific performance criteria and detailed appraisal guidelines used ALARA appraisals are provided.

  6. Savannah River Site ALARA Program appraisals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.

    1992-06-01

    ALARA Program audits are recommended in PNL-6566, ``Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).`` The Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11, ``Radiation Protection For Occupational Workers,`` requires contractors to conduct internal audits of all functional elements of the radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, as often as necessary, but at a minimum every three years. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), these required audits are performed as part of the Health Protection Internal Appraisal Program. This program was established to review the Site radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, on an ongoing basis and to provide recommendations for improvement directly to senior Health Protection management. This paper provides an overview of the SRS Health Protection Internal Appraisal program. In addition, examples of specific performance criteria and detailed appraisal guidelines used ALARA appraisals are provided.

  7. Clustering of worry appraisals among college students.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Nicholas G; Cullum, Jerry C; Harton, Helen C

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the potential clustering of worry appraisals within college social networks. Participants living in campus residence buildings responded to online surveys across the course of several months. Worry appraisals were measured 10 weeks into the fall semester and again approximately 6 months later. Analysis of sociometric data suggests that the majority of participants' social interactions occurred within their respective residence building floors, indicating that proximity strongly influenced the development of social network ties and sources of social influence. Further, significant clustering of worry appraisals occurred across time, and more importantly, within residence building floors. The present findings compliment previous work suggesting that several physical and psychological states appear to spread and cluster within social networks. Implications for the study of emotional appraisals and future research are discussed. PMID:26541710

  8. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. 225.63 Section 225.63 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations...

  9. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. 225.63 Section 225.63 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations...

  10. Etiopathogenesis of cataract: An appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Varun B; Rajagopala, Manjusha; Ravishankar, Basavaiah

    2014-01-01

    Natural eye lens is a crystalline substance to produce a clear passage for light. Cataract is opacity within the clear lens of the eye and is the dominant cause of socio-medical problem i.e., blindness worldwide. The only available treatment of cataract is surgery. However, insufficient surgical facilities in poor and developing countries and post-operative complications inspire researchers to find out other modes of treatment for cataract. In this review, an attempt has been made to appraise various etiological factors of cataract to make their perception clear to build up counterpart treatment. Present study is an assortment of various available literatures and electronic information in view of cataract etiopathogenesis. Various risk factors have been identified in development of cataracts. They can be classified in to genetic factors, ageing (systemic diseases, nutritional and trace metals deficiencies, smoking, oxidative stress etc.), traumatic, complicated (inflammatory and degenerative diseases of eye), metabolic (diabetes, galactosemia etc.), toxic substances including drugs abuses, alcohol etc., radiation (ultraviolet, electromagnetic waves etc.) are implicated as significant risk factors in the development of cataract. PMID:24618482

  11. The Fidelity of Template-Directed Oligonucleotide Ligation and the Inevitability of Polymerase Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Kenneth D.; Ellington, Andrew D.

    1999-08-01

    The first living systems may have employed template-directed oligonucleotide ligation for replication. The utility of oligonucleotide ligation as a mechanism for the origin and evolution of life is in part dependent on its fidelity. We have devised a method for evaluating ligation fidelity in which ligation substrates are selected from random sequence libraries. The fidelities of chemical and enzymatic ligation are compared under a variety of conditions. While reaction conditions can be found that promote high fidelity copying, departure from these conditions leads to error-prone copying. In particular, ligation reactions with shorter oligonucleotide substrates are less efficient but more faithful. These results support a model for origins in which there was selective pressure for template-directed oligonucleotide ligation to be gradually supplanted by mononucleotide polymerization.

  12. Ligation module for in vitro selection in DNA computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Noort, Danny; Lee, In-Hee; Landweber, Laura F.; Zhang, Byoung-Tak

    2005-02-01

    In this paper a classical AI problem is proposed to be solved by DNA computing: theorem proving. Since the complexity grows exponentially with the size of the problem, the solving process should be done in parallel. Massive parallelism is one of the advantages of DNA computers. It will be shown that the resolution refutation proof can be readily implemented by DNA hybridisation and ligation. Microreactors lend themselves to a relatively simple implementation of DNA computing. Not only is the design of the DNA critical for the success of the system but also the architecture of the microfluidic structure. Here the DNA performs the computation, while the microfluidics aids the biochemical steps necessary to manipulate the DNA, i.e. hybridisation and ligation.

  13. Anesthetic Management During Emergency Surgical Ligation for Carotid Blowout Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klein Nulent, Casper G A; de Graaff, Henri J D; Ketelaars, Rein; Sewnaik, Aniel; Maissan, Iscander M

    2016-08-15

    A 44-year-old man presented to our emergency department with a pharyngeal hemorrhage, 6 weeks after a total laryngectomy and extensive neck dissection. Immediate surgical intervention was necessary to stop massive arterial hemorrhage from the pharynx. The head and neck surgeon successfully ligated the common carotid artery during this procedure. We describe the anesthetic strategy and the thromboelastometry (ROTEM®)-guided massive transfusion protocol. PMID:27310900

  14. Is ligation the only solution to the pyrophosphate problem?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visscher, J.; Jongbloets, R.; Schwartz, Alan W.

    1993-01-01

    Pyrophosphate linkages are easily formed during the nonenzymatic oligomerization of activated nucleotides. They often form `caps' which terminate an oligonucleotide with a 5'-5' pyrophosphate. Owing to their structural resemblance to the intermediates in enzymatic ligation reactions, it has been suggested that pyrophosphate caps might have been capable of acting as activating groups in chain elongation processes. We argue that an alternative possibility would have been the specific hydrolysis of pyrophosphates.

  15. Gastric Banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastric banding before deciding to have the procedure. Advertisements for a device or procedure may not include ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  16. DNA hybridization and ligation for directed colloidal assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyr, Margaret

    Colloidal assembly using DNA hybridization has been pursued as a means assemble non-conventional ordered colloidal structures. However, to date it is undetermined whether DNA hybridization can be used to achieve non-FCC colloidal crystals. Using microcontact printing techniques, we have fabricated covalently bound single stranded DNA (ssDNA) two-dimensional arrays on glass surfaces, which were used to direct the assembly of complementary DNA functionalized polystyrene colloids. Two of the hallmarks of DNA hybridization, sequence specificity and thermal reversibility, were demonstrated. Due to the periodicity of these arrays, laser diffraction was used to directly monitor these structures during assembly. To demonstrate the versatility of the 2D colloidal array assembled via DNA hybridization, a catalytic DNA sequence or DNAzyme was incorporated into the colloidal array system. By tethering the enzymatic strand to the patterned glass surface and the substrate strand to polystyrene colloids, we showed that the DNAzyme could prevent the assembly of the arrays when the required Pb2+ cofactor was provided. Attempts to assemble the colloid arrays and disassemble via the Pb2+-DNAzyme induced cleavage were unsuccessful, likely due to the incomplete cleavage of the multitude of hybridized linkages between each colloid and the surface. Since DNA is not only capable of catalyzing reactions, but also capable of being reacted upon by a variety of biological enzymes, we examined the use of DNA ligase as a means to control the assembly of DNA-functionalized colloids. A three-sequence linker system was used for the hybridization mediated assembly of colloids: one sequence was tethered to the surface of the glass slide or colloids, one was tethered to another colloid surface, and the linker sequence hybridizes simultaneously to both tethered sequences. Once hybridized, the two tethered fragments can be ligated using DNA ligase, resulting in a continuous sequence tethered on one end

  17. Computer Simulation of Ligated Nanoparticle Assembly from Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Flint; Chakrabarti, Amit; Sorensen, Chris

    2007-03-01

    Nanoparticles are becoming increasingly important for the design of novel materials in a wide range of new applications. Ligation of these particles by chemical species provides a means to stabilize them into useful assemblies. It is essential to have a clear physical picture of the way these particles interact. To this end, we are investigating systems of metal nanoparticles ligated with alkyl chains. Our approach is three-fold. First, we are simulating (Monte Carlo) systems of ligated nanoparticles, including all chain/particle interactions in order to develop a model potential. Second, we are simulating (molecular dynamics) systems of these particles interacting via this model potential, varying the alkyl chain length, solvent, core material, and particle volume fraction. Finally, for comparison we are simulating these systems using theoretically derived potentials found in the literature. Initial results indicate a range of morphologies, from fractal aggregates to crystallites, depending on the temperature and potentials involved. Our goal is to provide a guide to researchers in choosing materials and assembly conditions that will lead to desired assembly properties.

  18. A Pictet-Spengler ligation for protein chemical modification

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Paresh; van der Weijden, Joep; Sletten, Ellen M.; Rabuka, David; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2013-01-01

    Aldehyde- and ketone-functionalized proteins are appealing substrates for the development of chemically modified biotherapeutics and protein-based materials. Their reactive carbonyl groups are typically conjugated with α-effect nucleophiles, such as substituted hydrazines and alkoxyamines, to generate hydrazones and oximes, respectively. However, the resulting C=N linkages are susceptible to hydrolysis under physiologically relevant conditions, which limits the utility of such conjugates in biological systems. Here we introduce a Pictet-Spengler ligation that is based on the classic Pictet-Spengler reaction of aldehydes and tryptamine nucleophiles. The ligation exploits the bioorthogonal reaction of aldehydes and alkoxyamines to form an intermediate oxyiminium ion; this intermediate undergoes intramolecular C–C bond formation with an indole nucleophile to form an oxacarboline product that is hydrolytically stable. We used the reaction for site-specific chemical modification of glyoxyl- and formylglycine-functionalized proteins, including an aldehyde-tagged variant of the therapeutic monoclonal antibody Herceptin. In conjunction with techniques for site-specific introduction of aldehydes into proteins, the Pictet-Spengler ligation offers a means to generate stable bioconjugates for medical and materials applications. PMID:23237853

  19. Internal Activation of Peptidyl Prolyl Thioesters in Native Chemical Ligation.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yue; Qiu, Lingqi; Li, Yaohao; Li, Hongxing; Dong, Suwei

    2016-04-13

    Prolyl thioesters have shown significantly lower reactivities in native chemical ligation (NCL) in comparison to that of the alanyl thioester. This report describes a mild and efficient internal activation protocol of peptidyl prolyl thioesters in NCL without using any thiol-based additives, where the introduction of a 4-mercaptan substituent on the C-terminal proline significantly improves the reactivity of prolyl thioesters via the formation of a bicyclic thiolactone intermediate. The kinetic data indicate that the reaction rate is comparable to that of the reported data of alanyl thioesters, and the mechanistic studies suggest that the ligation of two peptide segments proceeds through an NCL-like pathway instead of a direct aminolysis, which ensures the chemoselectivity and compatibility of various amino acid side chains. This 4-mercaptoprolyl thioester-based protocol also allows an efficient one-pot ligation-desulfurization procedure. The utility of this method has been further demonstrated in the synthesis of a proline-rich region of Wilms tumor protein 1. PMID:26982082

  20. [Tubal ligation in U.S.A. (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Aguillaume, C J; Aubert, J M; Jubell, I

    1981-01-01

    Sterilization is the most popular contraceptive method among U. S. couples who have been married for more than 10 years; there are about 12 million sterilized couples in the U. S. Voluntary sterilization is legal in most U. S. states, and the consent of one's partner is not necessary. Average age of sterilization seekers is 30. Tubal ligation is usually performed through laparotomy or, especially in more recent times, laparoscopy. Hemorrhage is the most common complication, which can be easily corrected; intestinal or peritoneal burns, or ectopic pregnancy are very rare occurrences. Reversibility depends on the sterilization technique used; improved microsurgery techniques have made it possible in many instances. Hospital stay for tubal ligation was 4.2 days in 1975; today, tubal ligation can be done on an outpatient basis, under local anesthesia only. The largest number of sterilizations in performed in the Northern and in the South-West regions of the U. S., and there seems to be a relationship between educational level of the couple, and choosing sterilization as a permanent method of contraception. PMID:12336730

  1. LAD-Ligation: A Murine Model of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kolk, Mandy V.V.; Meyberg, Danja; Deuse, Tobias; Tang-Quan, Karis R.; Robbins, Robert C.; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Schrepfer, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    Research models of infarction and myocardial ischemia are essential to investigate the acute and chronic pathobiological and pathophysiological processes in myocardial ischemia and to develop and optimize future treatment. Two different methods of creating myocardial ischemia are performed in laboratory rodents. The first method is to create cryo infarction, a fast but inaccurate technique, where a cryo-pen is applied on the surface of the heart (1-3). Using this method the scientist can not guarantee that the cryo-scar leads to ischemia, also a vast myocardial injury is created that shows pathophysiological side effects that are not related to myocardial infarction. The second method is the permanent ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Here the LAD is ligated with one single stitch, forming an ischemia that can be seen almost immediately. By closing the LAD, no further blood flow is permitted in that area, while the surrounding myocardial tissue is nearly not affected. This surgical procedure imitates the pathobiological and pathophysiological aspects occurring in infarction-related myocardial ischemia. The method introduced in this video demonstrates the surgical procedure of a mouse infarction model by ligating the LAD. This model is convenient for pathobiological and pathophysiological as well as immunobiological studies on cardiac infarction. The shown technique provides high accuracy and correlates well with histological sections. PMID:19829290

  2. Assessing and appraising nursing students' professional communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diers, Jane E.

    The purpose of this research was to define professional communication in nursing and to develop a prototype to assess and appraise communication at a selected college. The research focused on verbal and nonverbal communication between the nurse and the client using a simulated environment. The first objective was to identify the major characteristics of professional communication in nursing. In this study, the characteristics of professional communication emerged from the constant comparison method of the results of research studies in the fields of healthcare and communication. These characteristics became the elements, representative properties, and descriptive dimensions to assess and appraise verbal and nonverbal communication at the college of study. The second objective was to develop a template to assess verbal and nonverbal communication at a selected college. Using a two-fold process, the researcher used the results from the first objective to begin template construction. First, specialists in the fields of communication and nursing established the content validity of the elements, representative properties, and descriptive dimensions. Second, the course educators determined the relevancy and importance of the elements, properties, and descriptive dimensions to the objectives of two courses at the college of study. The third objective was to develop a rubric to appraise nursing students' verbal and nonverbal communication in a videotaped communication review. An appraisal rubric was constructed from an extension of the template. This rubric was then tested by faculty at the selected college to appraise the communication of five students each in the junior and senior years of the nursing program.

  3. 78 FR 25084 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  4. 76 FR 47182 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  5. 78 FR 47698 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. DESCRIPTION: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  6. 78 FR 2995 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  7. 78 FR 14300 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ] ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  8. 78 FR 2995 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council, FFIEC. ACTION: Notice of meeting. ] Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform,...

  9. 77 FR 45610 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  10. 78 FR 20318 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  11. 77 FR 61404 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  12. 76 FR 16627 - Statutory Provisions Affecting State Appraiser Regulatory Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Statutory Provisions Affecting State Appraiser Regulatory Programs AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of... Dodd-Frank Act amended several sections of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery,...

  13. 77 FR 58140 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  14. 78 FR 14301 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  15. 78 FR 28218 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  16. 76 FR 31961 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  17. 75 FR 74732 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  18. 78 FR 20318 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  19. 77 FR 45610 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  20. 76 FR 13187 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  1. 77 FR 61606 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  2. 76 FR 68187 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  3. 76 FR 42126 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  4. 76 FR 76410 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  5. 77 FR 40051 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  6. 78 FR 47698 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  7. 76 FR 19773 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. ] Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  8. 75 FR 62819 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. ] Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  9. 77 FR 72862 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  10. 78 FR 39729 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  11. 76 FR 71034 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Special Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Special Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council ACTION: Notice of Special Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform,...

  12. 76 FR 68187 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  13. 77 FR 33459 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  14. 75 FR 67968 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the ] Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  15. 76 FR 76410 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  16. 76 FR 61703 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  17. 78 FR 9050 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In...

  18. 78 FR 33419 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In...

  19. 76 FR 57741 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description:...

  20. 78 FR 33419 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In...

  1. 77 FR 40051 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description:...

  2. 76 FR 25690 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In...

  3. 77 FR 14014 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In...

  4. 78 FR 71611 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description:...

  5. 77 FR 5249 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In...

  6. 76 FR 6134 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In...

  7. 76 FR 1165 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In...

  8. 76 FR 47182 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In...

  9. 76 FR 6135 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In...

  10. 76 FR 57741 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In...

  11. 75 FR 57468 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In...

  12. 76 FR 1164 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In...

  13. 78 FR 28218 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description:...

  14. 78 FR 39729 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In...

  15. 12 CFR 528.2a - Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION REQUIREMENTS § 528.2a Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting. (a) Appraisal. No savings... per se or in effect under the Fair Housing Act of 1968 or the Equal Credit Opportunity Act....

  16. 12 CFR 528.2a - Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION REQUIREMENTS § 528.2a Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting. (a) Appraisal. No savings... per se or in effect under the Fair Housing Act of 1968 or the Equal Credit Opportunity Act....

  17. 12 CFR 128.11 - Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION REQUIREMENTS § 128.11 Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting. (a) Appraisal. No savings... per se or in effect under the Fair Housing Act of 1968 or the Equal Credit Opportunity Act....

  18. Characteristics of Appraisal Systems That Promote Job Satisfaction of Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deneire, Alexia; Vanhoof, Jan; Faddar, Jerich; Gijbels, David; Van Petegem, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This article examines if and how characteristics of appraisal systems used for secondary school teachers affect job satisfaction. Using multilevel analyses on data of 3 473 teachers in Flanders (Belgium), we found that appraisals with a developmental purpose and appraisals perceived as being a fair judgement, both have a positive impact on job…

  19. 36 CFR 228.48 - Appraisal and measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appraisal and measurement... MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.48 Appraisal and measurement. (a) Appraisal... weight equivalent. In all cases the units of measurement must correspond to the units used in...

  20. 36 CFR 228.48 - Appraisal and measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appraisal and measurement... MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.48 Appraisal and measurement. (a) Appraisal... weight equivalent. In all cases the units of measurement must correspond to the units used in...

  1. 36 CFR 228.48 - Appraisal and measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appraisal and measurement... MINERALS Disposal of Mineral Materials General Provisions § 228.48 Appraisal and measurement. (a) Appraisal... weight equivalent. In all cases the units of measurement must correspond to the units used in...

  2. 38 CFR 36.4348 - Servicer Appraisal Processing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (ii) Employ one or more Staff Appraisal Reviewers (SAR) acceptable to the Secretary. (2) To qualify as..., the SAR applicant may request that VA expand the geographic area of consideration. VA will accommodate... appraisers, they should have basic familiarity with appraisal theory and techniques and the ability...

  3. 19 CFR 143.11 - Merchandise eligible for appraisement entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Merchandise eligible for appraisement entry. 143.11 Section 143.11 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) SPECIAL ENTRY PROCEDURES Appraisement Entry § 143.11 Merchandise eligible for appraisement entry. (a)...

  4. Peformance Appraisal Behaviors: Supervisor Perceptions and Subordinate Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Peter W.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined supervisor perceptions and subordinate reactions to formal performance-appraisal reviews. There were three dimensions of formal performance appraisals: two developmental (being supportive; emphasizing performance improvement) and one administrative (discussing pay and advancement). Support in appraisal review was associated with higher…

  5. Subjective Appraisal as a Feedback Tool. Technical Report 604.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnside, Billy L.

    This report examines the accuracy of subjective appraisals of several aspects of task performance, including proficiency, difficulty, frequency, and criticality. An introduction discusses current Army use of subjective appraisal, feedback methods, and problems with subjective appraisal. Data pertaining to the accuracy of various types of appraisal…

  6. 12 CFR 323.4 - Minimum appraisal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 323.4 Section 323.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS § 323.4 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally related transactions, all...

  7. 12 CFR 323.4 - Minimum appraisal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 323.4 Section 323.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS § 323.4 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally related transactions, all...

  8. 7 CFR 3550.111 - Appraisals (loans only).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals (loans only). 3550.111 Section 3550.111 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Waste Disposal Grants § 3550.111 Appraisals (loans only). An appraisal is required when the section...

  9. Teacher Appraisal and Its Outcomes in Singapore Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Khim Ong; Ang, Shi Yun Angela; Chong, Wei Ling; Hu, Wei Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the attributes of the performance appraisal system used for primary school teachers in Singapore, and how those attributes affect satisfaction with the appraisal system, stress experienced with the appraisal system, attitudes towards performance bonus, job satisfaction and motivation, and perceived…

  10. Teacher Performance Appraisal in Thailand: Poison or Panacea?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpa, Nattavud

    2005-01-01

    This research focuses on the examination of problems related to the national teacher performance appraisal system by the Thai Ministry of Education. It highlights major problems of the current performance appraisal system by delineating the weaknesses and pitfalls of the current appraisal system. The findings indicate problems to three major…

  11. Performance Appraisal in UK Universities: A Case of Procedural Compliance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryman, Alan; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Research evidence concerning the introduction of performance appraisal in United Kingdom universities is presented. The notion of "procedural compliance" is introduced to draw attention to the largely externally imposed appraisal of universities and to the nature of institutional response. Findings of a study of appraisal in four universities are…

  12. 49 CFR 24.104 - Review of appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... market information in all appraisals to assure that they meet the definition of appraisal found in 49 CFR 24.2(a)(3), appraisal requirements found in 49 CFR 24.103 and other applicable requirements... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL...

  13. 49 CFR 24.104 - Review of appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... market information in all appraisals to assure that they meet the definition of appraisal found in 49 CFR 24.2(a)(3), appraisal requirements found in 49 CFR 24.103 and other applicable requirements... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL...

  14. In Vitro Selection of Optimal DNA Substrates for Ligation by a Water-Soluble Carbodiimide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harada, Kazuo; Orgel, Leslie E.

    1994-01-01

    We have used in vitro selection to investigate the sequence requirements for efficient template-directed ligation of oligonucleotides at 0 deg C using a water-soluble carbodiimide as condensing agent. We find that only 2 bp at each side of the ligation junction are needed. We also studied chemical ligation of substrate ensembles that we have previously selected as optimal by RNA ligase or by DNA ligase. As anticipated, we find that substrates selected with DNA ligase ligate efficiently with a chemical ligating agent, and vice versa. Substrates selected using RNA ligase are not ligated by the chemical condensing agent and vice versa. The implications of these results for prebiotic chemistry are discussed.

  15. 12 CFR 564.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... regulated institution shall be responsible for making the final determination of whether the appraisal is... in the property, form of ownership, or market conditions being considered atypical, then either:...

  16. Band Together!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    After nearly a decade as band director at St. James High School in St. James, Missouri, Derek Limback knows that the key to building a successful program is putting the program itself above everything else. Limback strives to augment not only his students' musical prowess, but also their leadership skills. Key to his philosophy is instilling a…

  17. Menstrual Pattern following Tubal Ligation: A Historical Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Sadatmahalleh, Shahideh Jahanian; Ziaei, Saeideh; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan; Mohamadi, Eesa

    2016-01-01

    Background Tubal ligation (TL) is recommended for women who have completed their family planning. The existence of the menstrual disorders following this procedure has been the subject of debate for decades. This study was conducted to identify the relationship between tubal ligation and menstrual disorders. Materials and Methods A historical cohort study was carried out on 140 women undergoing tubal ligation (TL group) and on 140 women using condom as the main contraceptive method (Non-TL group). They aged between 20 and 40 years and were selected from a health care center in Rudsar, Guilan Province, Iran, during 2013-2014. The two groups were comparable in demographic characteristics, obstetrical features and menstrual bleeding pattern using a routine questionnaire. A validated pictorial blood loss assessment chart (PBLAC) was also used to measure the menstrual blood loss. Results Women with TL had more menstrual irregularity than those without TL (24.3 vs. 10%, P=0.002). Women with TL had more polymenorrhea (9.3 vs. 1.4%, P=0.006), hypermenorrhea (12.1 vs. 2.1%, P=0.002), menorrhagia (62.9 vs. 22.1%, P<0.0001) and menometrorrhagia (15.7 vs. 3.6%, P=0.001) than those without TL. There is a significant difference in the PBLAC score between women with and without TL (P<0.0001). According to logistic regression, age odds ratio [(OR=1.08, con- fidence interval (CI):1.07-1.17, P=0.03)], TL (OR=5.95, CI:3.45-10.26, P<0.0001) and cesarean section (OR=2.72, CI:1.49-4.97, P=0.001) were significantly associated with menorrhagia. Conclusion We found significant differences in menstrual disorders between women with and without TL. Therefore, women should be informed by the health providers regarding the advantages and disadvantages of TL before the procedures. PMID:26985334

  18. Amplification of target-specific, ligation-dependent circular probe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D Y; Brandwein, M; Hsuih, T C; Li, H

    1998-05-12

    We describe a novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based gene amplification method utilizing a circularizable oligodeoxyribonucleotide probe (C-probe). The C-probe contains two target complementary regions located at each terminus and an interposed generic PCR primer binding region. The hybridization of C-probe to a target brings two termini in direct apposition as the complementary regions of C-probe wind around the target to form a double helix. Subsequent ligation of the two termini results in a covalently linked C-probe that becomes 'locked on to' the target. The circular nature of the C-probe allows for the generation of a multimeric single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) via extension of the antisense primer by Taq DNA polymerase along the C-probe and displacement of downstream strand, analogous to 'rolling circle' replication of bacteriophage in vivo. This multimeric ssDNA then serves as a template for multiple sense primers to hybridize, extend, and displace downstream DNA, generating a large ramified (branching) DNA complex. Subsequent thermocycling denatures the dsDNA and initiates the next round of primer extension and ramification. This model results in significantly improved amplification kinetics (super-exponential) as compared to conventional PCR. Our results show that the C-probe was 1000 times more sensitive than the corresponding linear hemiprobes for detecting Epstein-Barr virus early RNA. The C-probe not only increases the power of amplification but also offers a means for decontaminating carryover amplicons. As the ligated C-probes possess no free termini, they are resistant to exonuclease digestion, whereas contaminated linear amplicons are susceptible to digestion. Treatment of the ligation reaction mixture with exonuclease prior to amplification eliminated the amplicon contaminant, which could also have been co-amplified with the same PCR primers; only the ligated C-probes were amplified. The combined advantages of the C-probe and thermocycling have a

  19. Traceless purification and desulfurization of tau protein ligation products.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Oliver; Smet-Nocca, Caroline; Hackenberger, Christian P R

    2015-01-01

    We present a novel strategy for the traceless purification and synthetic modification of peptides and proteins obtained by native chemical ligation. The strategy involves immobilization of a photocleavable semisynthetic biotin-protein conjugate on streptavidin-coated agarose beads, which eliminates the need for tedious rebuffering steps and allows the rapid removal of excess peptides and additives. On-bead desulfurization is followed by delivery of the final tag-free protein product. The strategy is demonstrated in the isolation of a tag-free Alzheimer's disease related human tau protein from a complex EPL mixture as well as a triphosphorylated peptide derived from the C-terminus of tau. PMID:25404175

  20. 7 CFR 4279.144 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisals. 4279.144 Section 4279.144 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans §...

  1. 7 CFR 4279.144 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisals. 4279.144 Section 4279.144 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans §...

  2. 7 CFR 4279.144 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisals. 4279.144 Section 4279.144 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans §...

  3. 32 CFR 644.44 - Fee appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... present fair market value of the (insert estate appraisal) is subject only to all the assumptions and... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE... unrestricted ownership of all the rights to the full use and enjoyment of a parcel of real estate is called...

  4. 36 CFR 254.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....9 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP..., practices, and procedures regulating the activities of appraisers, the Forest Service may establish... contributory value of any interest in land such as water rights, minerals, or timber, to the extent they...

  5. Portfolio Appraisal: In Search of Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillema, Harm; Smith, Kari

    2007-01-01

    Two inherently contradictory forces are pushing for reform in portfolio assessment. On the one hand there is a felt need for creating more rigid standards that operate to promote uniformity of ratings in appraisal practice to certify achievement. However, on the other hand, critical questions are being raised about separating acclaimed portfolio…

  6. 7 CFR 1955.128 - Appraisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... type of properties (such as large farms and business property) requiring valuation. For Farmer Programs... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Appraisers. 1955.128 Section 1955.128 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL...

  7. Guide for School Facility Appraisal. 1986 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Harold L.; Lilley, H. Edward

    This guide provides evaluative criteria for the elementary-secondary administrator to measure the quality of a school's facilities for general condition and suitability for educational programs. Appraisal criteria and instruments are categorized into six major areas of discussion: "The School Site,""Structural and Mechanical Features,""Plant…

  8. Teacher Self-Appraisal Source Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, E. Wayne

    Teacher Self-Appraisal (TAS) is intended to help teachers in evaluating their daily teaching activity by means of a video-tape record. The process involves four phases: 1) determining objectives and appropriate teaching methods; 2) making the video tape; 3) observing the tape and recording the information on a coding card; and 4) analyzing the…

  9. 36 CFR 223.222 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appraisal. 223.222 Section 223.222 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  10. 36 CFR 223.222 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appraisal. 223.222 Section 223.222 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  11. 36 CFR 223.222 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appraisal. 223.222 Section 223.222 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  12. 36 CFR 223.222 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appraisal. 223.222 Section 223.222 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL PRODUCTS...

  13. Energy considerations in real estate appraising

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    Purposes of the seminar on the subject, the basis of this report, include the following: (1) to provide the appraiser an opportunity to learn how to identify and analyze the actual physical consumption of energy as well as the energy-saving improvements in properties under appraisal and in comparable sale and lease properties; (2) to help the appraiser in developing methods to keep meaningful records on the energy consumption of subject and comparable properties so as to observe in an orderly way the behavior of buyers, sellers, tenants, landlords, borrowers, and lenders with respect to energy efficiency; and (3) to assist the appraiser in learning to measure the relative sensitivities of the various segments of the market to energy considerations as indicated by differences in sale prices and rentals. To achieve these goals, the seminar employed two case studies, one for a angle-family residence and one for a multi-family building, both in Topeka, Kansas. The case studies are for illustrative purposes only; in applying the lessons of the seminar to their own daily work, students should be careful to develop information that is pertinent to their subject properties and subject areas and not rely on any of the particulars laid out in the cases.

  14. Intelligence Defined and Undefined: A Relativistic Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, David

    1975-01-01

    Major reasons for the continuing divergency of opinion as regards the nature and meaning of intelligence are examined. An appraisal of intelligence as a relative concept is proposed which advocates the necessity of specifying the reference systems to which a statement about intelligence refers. (EH)

  15. Performance Appraisal of Physical Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahadir, Ziya

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the aim was to determine views of school principals on how performance appraisal of physical education teachers who worked at primary schools should be done. The research was designed in a screening model. The research group composed of 152 school principals and deputy principals who worked at state primary schools located in…

  16. Role of Appraisals in Energy Efficiency Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, V.; Bhargava, A.

    2012-05-01

    This research identifies barriers and challenges and current industry status including several key appraisal industry developments for identifying and valuing energy efficiency, critical obstacles to documenting and assessing the potential added value from energy efficiency improvements, current opportunities to support and standardize reporting on energy efficiency and to ensure proper valuation, and next steps towards enabling energy efficiency financing market transformation.

  17. Validating the Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Karma El; Madhum, Ghida

    2007-01-01

    This study validated the Watson Glaser Critical Thinking Appraisal (WGCTA) on a sample of 273 private university students in Lebanon. For that purpose, evidence for construct validation was investigated through identifying the test's factor structure and subscale total correlations, in addition to differences in scores by gender, different levels,…

  18. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals. 50.9 Section 50.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS...

  19. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisals. 50.9 Section 50.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS...

  20. 24 CFR 266.642 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Appraisals. 266.642 Section 266.642 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  1. 24 CFR 266.642 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Appraisals. 266.642 Section 266.642 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR HOUSING-FEDERAL HOUSING COMMISSIONER, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  2. 78 FR 31924 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Policy Statements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ... Statements on the date set forth below. \\1\\ 77 FR 52721 (Aug. 30, 2012). \\2\\ The 50 States, the District of... distance education courses (e.g., on-line courses), and referred to discussion in proposed Policy Statement..., including general processing of applications for appraiser credentials, qualifying education,...

  3. Persistent Ratee Contaminants in Performance Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Fleet, David D.; Chamberlain, Howard

    The hypothesis that conventional approaches to evaluating contaminants in performance appraisal overlook important individual ratee effects was examined. A rating form was developed that consisted of the following dimensions and behaviors: warmth; guided discourse or indirect teaching methods; control of subject matter; enthusiasm and reinforcing;…

  4. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appraisal procedures. 1160.12 Section 1160.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS...

  5. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appraisal procedures. 1160.12 Section 1160.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS...

  6. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appraisal procedures. 1160.12 Section 1160.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS...

  7. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appraisal procedures. 1160.12 Section 1160.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS...

  8. 45 CFR 1160.12 - Appraisal procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Appraisal procedures. 1160.12 Section 1160.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL FOUNDATION ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES FEDERAL COUNCIL ON THE ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES INDEMNITIES UNDER THE ARTS AND ARTIFACTS...

  9. 7 CFR 4279.244 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisals. 4279.244 Section 4279.244 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Biorefinery Assistance Loans §...

  10. 7 CFR 4279.244 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisals. 4279.244 Section 4279.244 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Biorefinery Assistance Loans §...

  11. 7 CFR 4279.244 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisals. 4279.244 Section 4279.244 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Biorefinery Assistance Loans §...

  12. Employee Perceptions and Value of Performance Appraisals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnell, Rhea

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisals traditionally have been studied quantitatively, from the manager's point of view, without considering their value or lack of value to workers. The absence of this information indicates that workers' perceptions and feelings have not always been considered. Therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological study was…

  13. Effective Performance Appraisal: Viewpoints from Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laird, Angela; Clampitt, Phillip G.

    1985-01-01

    Interviewed 61 managers of Fortune 500 companies who reported the following problems with administering performance appraisals: (1) multiple use of the form; (2) subjectivity and inflated ratings; and (3) difficulties in defining objectives and in disseminating the evaluation to employees. (PD)

  14. 25 CFR 152.24 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Appraisal. 152.24 Section 152.24 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Sales, Exchanges and Conveyances of Trust Or Restricted Lands § 152.24...

  15. Guide for the Appraisal of Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maliszewski, Stan; Luther, Ann

    Appraisal and continued improvement of counselor performance is a significant phase of the guidance program improvement process. School counselors must be able to: (1) deliver guidance curriculum for all students; (2) plan individually for each student; (3) respond to requests by students, parents, and teachers; and (4) plan and coordinate…

  16. 12 CFR 722.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... interest, financial or otherwise, in the property. If the only qualified persons available to perform an... property or the transaction. (2) A credit union also may accept an appraisal that was prepared by an... indirect interest, financial or otherwise, in the property or transaction; and (ii) The credit...

  17. 12 CFR 722.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... interest, financial or otherwise, in the property. If the only qualified persons available to perform an... property or the transaction. (2) A credit union also may accept an appraisal that was prepared by an... indirect interest, financial or otherwise, in the property or transaction; and (ii) The credit...

  18. Guide for School Facility Appraisal. 1998 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Harold L.; Lilley, H. Edward

    This guide provides a comprehensive method for measuring the quality and educational effectiveness of school facilities and may be used to perform a post-occupancy review; to formulate a formal record; to highlight specific appraisal needs; to examine the need for new facilities or renovations; or to serve as an instructional tool. Suggestions are…

  19. Tubal Ligation Induces Quiescence in the Epithelia of the Fallopian Tube Fimbria.

    PubMed

    Tiourin, Ekaterina; Velasco, Victor S; Rosales, Miguel A; Sullivan, Peggy S; Janzen, Deanna M; Memarzadeh, Sanaz

    2015-10-01

    Tubal ligation keeps the fimbriated end of the fallopian tube intact while interrupting the conduit for sperm and egg between the uterus and ovary. Tubal ligation is associated with an approximately 20% decreased risk of high-grade serous ovarian cancers, which mounting evidence suggests arise from the distal fallopian tube epithelium. We postulated that biological changes at the epithelial cellular level of the distal fallopian tube may account for the surgical procedure's observed risk reduction. We compared the histology, presence of epithelial progenitors (basally located CD44-positive cells), and degree of epithelial proliferation (Ki67-positive cells) of distal fallopian tube from 10 patients with previous tubal ligation and 10 age-matched patients with uncut fallopian tubes. A significantly reduced population of proliferating epithelial progenitors (basally located CD44/Ki67 dual-positive cells) was detected in the tubal ligated specimens (P = .0002). To functionally assess the effect of tubal ligation, a murine model was utilized to compare the growth capacity of distal fallopian tube epithelial cells isolated from either ligated or sham-operated tubal epithelia. Murine fallopian tube epithelial cells isolated after tubal ligation showed a significantly reduced capacity to grow organoids in culture compared to sham-operated controls (P = .002). The findings of this study show that tubal ligation is associated with a reduced presence and decreased proliferation of progenitor cells in the distal fallopian tube epithelium. These compositional and functional changes suggest that tubal ligation induces quiescence of distal fallopian tube epithelial cells. PMID:25736327

  20. Proximal disruptor aided ligation (ProDAL) of kilobase-long RNAs.

    PubMed

    Zhovmer, Alexander; Qu, Xiaohui

    2016-07-01

    RNA with site-specific modification is a useful tool for RNA biology studies. However, generating kilobase (kb) -long RNA with internal modification at a site distant from RNA termini remains challenging. Here we report an enhanced splint ligation technique, proximal disruptor aided ligation (ProDAL), which allows adequate efficiency toward this purpose. The key to our approach is using multiple DNA oligonucleotides, 'proximal disruptors', to target the RNA substrate sequence next to the ligation site. The binding of disruptors helps to free the ligation site from intramolecular RNA basepairing, and consequently promotes more efficient formation of the pre-ligation complex and a higher overall ligation yield. We used naturally occurring 1.0 kb renilla and 1.9 kb firefly luciferase mRNA sequences to test the efficacy of our approach. ProDAL yielded 9-14% efficiency for the ligation between two RNA substrates, both of which were between 414 and 1313 nucleotides (nt) long. ProDAL also allowed similarly high efficiency for generating kb-long RNA with site-specific internal modification by a simple three-part ligation between two long RNA substrates and a modification-carrying RNA oligonucleotide. In comparison, classical splint ligation yielded a significantly lower efficiency of 0-2% in all cases. We expect that ProDAL will benefit studies involving kb-long RNAs, including translation, long non-coding RNAs, RNA splicing and modification, and large ribonucleoprotein complexes. PMID:27211284

  1. Zn(2+)-ligation DNAzyme-driven enzymatic and nonenzymatic cascades for the amplified detection of DNA.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chun-Hua; Wang, Fuan; Willner, Itamar

    2012-06-27

    A generic fluorescence sensing platform for analyzing DNA by the Zn(2+)-dependent ligation DNAzyme as amplifying biocatalyst is presented. The platform is based on the target DNA induced ligation of two substrate subunits and the subsequent opening of a beacon hairpin probe by the ligated product. The strand displacement of the ligated product by the beacon hairpin is, however, of limited efficiency. Two strategies are implemented to overcome this limitation. By one method, a "helper" nucleic acid sequence is introduced into the system, and this hybridizes with the DNAzyme components and releases the ligated product for opening of the hairpin. By the second method, a nicking enzyme (Nt.BspQI) is added to the system, and this nicks the duplex between the beacon and ligated product while recycling the free ligation product. By combining the two coadded components ("helper" sequence and nicking enzyme), the sensitive detection of the analyte is demonstrated (detection limit, 20 pM). The enzyme-free amplified fluorescence detection of the target DNA is further presented by the Zn(2+)-dependent ligation DNAzyme-driven activation of the Mg(2+)-dependent DNAzyme. According to this method, the Mg(2+)-dependent DNAzyme subunits displace the ligated product, and the resulting assembled DNAzyme cleaves a fluorophore/quencher-modified substrate to yield fluorescence. The method enabled the detection of the target DNA with a detection limit corresponding to 10 pM. The different sensing platforms are implemented to detect the Tay-Sachs genetic disorder mutant. PMID:22612395

  2. Cognitive and physiological antecedents of threat and challenge appraisal.

    PubMed

    Tomaka, J; Blascovich, J; Kibler, J; Ernst, J M

    1997-07-01

    Cognitive appraisal theories of stress and emotion propose that cognitive appraisals precede physiological responses, whereas peripheralist theories propose that physiological arousal precedes cognitive processes. Three studies examined this issue regarding threat and challenge responses to potential stress. Study 1 supported cognitive appraisal theory by demonstrating that threat and challenge cognitive appraisals and physiological responses could be elicited experimentally by manipulating instructional set. Studies 2 and 3, in contrast, found that manipulations of physiological response patterns consistent with challenge and threat did not result in corresponding changes in cognitive appraisal. Appraisals in Study 3, however, were related to subjective pain independent of the physiological manipulation. These studies suggest a central role for cognitive appraisal processes in elicitation of threat and challenge responses to potentially stressful situations. PMID:9216079

  3. TLR9 ligation in pancreatic stellate cells promotes tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Zambirinis, Constantinos P; Levie, Elliot; Nguy, Susanna; Avanzi, Antonina; Barilla, Rocky; Xu, Yijie; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Greco, Stephanie H; Deutsch, Michael; Jonnadula, Saikiran; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Tippens, Daniel; Pushalkar, Smruti; Eisenthal, Andrew; Saxena, Deepak; Ahn, Jiyoung; Hajdu, Cristina; Engle, Dannielle D; Tuveson, David; Miller, George

    2015-11-16

    Modulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling can have protective or protumorigenic effects on oncogenesis depending on the cancer subtype and on specific inflammatory elements within the tumor milieu. We found that TLR9 is widely expressed early during the course of pancreatic transformation and that TLR9 ligands are ubiquitous within the tumor microenvironment. TLR9 ligation markedly accelerates oncogenesis, whereas TLR9 deletion is protective. We show that TLR9 activation has distinct effects on the epithelial, inflammatory, and fibrogenic cellular subsets in pancreatic carcinoma and plays a central role in cross talk between these compartments. Specifically, TLR9 activation can induce proinflammatory signaling in transformed epithelial cells, but does not elicit oncogene expression or cancer cell proliferation. Conversely, TLR9 ligation induces pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) to become fibrogenic and secrete chemokines that promote epithelial cell proliferation. TLR9-activated PSCs mediate their protumorigenic effects on the epithelial compartment via CCL11. Additionally, TLR9 has immune-suppressive effects in the tumor microenvironment (TME) via induction of regulatory T cell recruitment and myeloid-derived suppressor cell proliferation. Collectively, our work shows that TLR9 has protumorigenic effects in pancreatic carcinoma which are distinct from its influence in extrapancreatic malignancies and from the mechanistic effects of other TLRs on pancreatic oncogenesis. PMID:26481685

  4. Prebiotically plausible oligoribonucleotide ligation facilitated by chemoselective acetylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Frank R.; Chan, Christopher K. W.; Duffy, Colm D.; Gerland, Béatrice; Islam, Saidul; Powner, Matthew W.; Sutherland, John D.; Xu, Jianfeng

    2013-05-01

    The recent synthesis of pyrimidine ribonucleoside-2‧,3‧-cyclic phosphates under prebiotically plausible conditions has strengthened the case for the involvement of ribonucleic acid (RNA) at an early stage in the origin of life. However, a prebiotic conversion of these weakly activated monomers, and their purine counterparts, to the 3‧,5‧-linked RNA polymers of extant biochemistry has been lacking (previous attempts led only to short oligomers with mixed linkages). Here we show that the 2‧-hydroxyl group of oligoribonucleotide-3‧-phosphates can be chemoselectively acetylated in water under prebiotically credible conditions, which allows rapid and efficient template-directed ligation. The 2‧-O-acetyl group at the ligation junction of the product RNA strand can be removed under conditions that leave the internucleotide bonds intact. Remarkably, acetylation of mixed oligomers that possess either 2‧- or 3‧-terminal phosphates is selective for the 2‧-hydroxyl group of the latter. This newly discovered chemistry thus suggests a prebiotic route from ribonucleoside-2‧,3‧-cyclic phosphates to predominantly 3‧,5‧-linked RNA via partially 2‧-O-acetylated RNA.

  5. PECAM-1 ligation negatively regulates TLR4 signaling in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rui, Yuxiang; Liu, Xingguang; Li, Nan; Jiang, Yingming; Chen, Guoyou; Cao, Xuetao; Wang, Jianli

    2007-12-01

    Uncontrolled TLR4 signaling may induce excessive production of proinflammatory cytokines and lead to harmful inflammation; therefore, negative regulation of TLR4 signaling attracts much attention now. PECAM-1, a member of Ig-ITIM family, can mediate inhibitory signals in T cells and B cells. However, the role and the mechanisms of PECAM-1 in the regulation of TLR4-mediated LPS response in macrophages remain unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that PECAM-1 ligation with CD38-Fc fusion protein negatively regulates LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IFN-beta production by inhibiting JNK, NF-kappaB, and IFN regulatory factor 3 activation in macrophages. In addition, PECAM-1 ligation-recruited Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) and Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase 2 (SHP-2) may be involved in the inhibitory effect of PECAM-1 on TLR4 signaling. Consistently, silencing of PECAM-1 enhances the macrophage response to LPS stimulation. Taken together with the data that PECAM-1 is constitutively expressed in macrophages and its expression is up-regulated by LPS stimulation, PECAM-1 might function as a feedback negative regulator of LPS inflammatory response in macrophages. This study may provide a potential target for intervention of inflammatory diseases. PMID:18025177

  6. General Chemoselective and Redox-Responsive Ligation and Release Strategy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report a switchable redox click and cleave reaction strategy for conjugating and releasing a range of molecules on demand. This chemoselective redox-responsive ligation (CRRL) and release strategy is based on a redox switchable oxime linkage that is controlled by mild chemical or electrochemical redox signals and can be performed at physiological conditions without the use of a catalyst. Both conjugation and release reactions are kinetically well behaved and quantitative. The CRRL strategy is synthetically modular and easily monitored and characterized by routine analytical techniques. We demonstrate how the CRRL strategy can be used for the dynamic generation of cyclic peptides and the ligation of two different peptides that are stable but can be selectively cleaved upon changes in the redox environment. We also demonstrate a new redox based delivery of cargoes to live cells strategy via the CRRL methodology by synthesizing a FRET redox-responsive probe that is selectively activated within a cellular environment. We believe the ease of the CRRL strategy should find wide use in a range of applications in biology, tissue engineering, nanoscience, synthetic chemistry, and material science and will expand the suite of current conjugation and release strategies. PMID:24559434

  7. General chemoselective and redox-responsive ligation and release strategy.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungjin; Westcott, Nathan P; Luo, Wei; Dutta, Debjit; Yousaf, Muhammad N

    2014-03-19

    We report a switchable redox click and cleave reaction strategy for conjugating and releasing a range of molecules on demand. This chemoselective redox-responsive ligation (CRRL) and release strategy is based on a redox switchable oxime linkage that is controlled by mild chemical or electrochemical redox signals and can be performed at physiological conditions without the use of a catalyst. Both conjugation and release reactions are kinetically well behaved and quantitative. The CRRL strategy is synthetically modular and easily monitored and characterized by routine analytical techniques. We demonstrate how the CRRL strategy can be used for the dynamic generation of cyclic peptides and the ligation of two different peptides that are stable but can be selectively cleaved upon changes in the redox environment. We also demonstrate a new redox based delivery of cargoes to live cells strategy via the CRRL methodology by synthesizing a FRET redox-responsive probe that is selectively activated within a cellular environment. We believe the ease of the CRRL strategy should find wide use in a range of applications in biology, tissue engineering, nanoscience, synthetic chemistry, and material science and will expand the suite of current conjugation and release strategies. PMID:24559434

  8. Alternatively spliced tissue factor induces angiogenesis through integrin ligation

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Y. W.; van den Hengel, L. G.; Myers, H. R.; Ayachi, O.; Jordanova, E.; Ruf, W.; Spek, C. A.; Reitsma, P. H.; Bogdanov, V. Y.; Versteeg, H. H.

    2009-01-01

    The initiator of coagulation, full-length tissue factor (flTF), in complex with factor VIIa, influences angiogenesis through PAR-2. Recently, an alternatively spliced variant of TF (asTF) was discovered, in which part of the TF extracellular domain, the transmembrane, and cytoplasmic domains are replaced by a unique C terminus. Subcutaneous tumors produced by asTF-secreting cells revealed increased angiogenesis, but it remained unclear if and how angiogenesis is regulated by asTF. Here, we show that asTF enhances angiogenesis in matrigel plugs in mice, whereas a soluble form of flTF only modestly enhances angiogenesis. asTF dose-dependently upregulates angiogenesis ex vivo independent of either PAR-2 or VIIa. Rather, asTF was found to ligate integrins, resulting in downstream signaling. asTF-αVβ3 integrin interaction induces endothelial cell migration, whereas asTF-dependent formation of capillaries in vitro is dependent on α6β1 integrin. Finally, asTF-dependent aortic sprouting is sensitive to β1 and β3 integrin blockade and a TF-antibody that disrupts asTF-integrin interaction. We conclude that asTF, unlike flTF, does not affect angiogenesis via PAR-dependent pathways but relies on integrin ligation. These findings indicate that asTF may serve as a target to prevent pathological angiogenesis. PMID:19875693

  9. Periodontal effects with self ligating appliances and laser biostimulation

    PubMed Central

    Caccianiga, Gianluigi; Cordasco, Giancarlo; Leonida, Alessandro; Zorzella, Paolo; Squarzoni, Nadia; Carinci, Francesco; Crestale, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Recently, various biostimulation's effects of low energy laser irradiation have been reported. The present study was designed to examine the effects of low-energy laser irradiation on alveolar bone remodelling during orthodontic tooth movement and finally on formation of new keratinized gingiva. Materials and Methods: 22 patients and 27 teeth in vestibular mucosal without keratinized gingiva were selected. Every patient was treated with self ligating appliances. In every orthodontic session the patient was treated with Diode laser biostimulation. At the moment of debonding, 27 teeth involved in the research were evaluated in terms of quality and quantity of attached gingiva. BOP and CAL loss were investigated. Results: Every tooth considered at the end of orthodontic treatment showed an attached gingiva around the crown: The average of keratinized gingiva at the end of the study was 3.10 mm and the mean increasing at each month was 0,49 mm. Conclusions: The combination between self ligating appliances and laser's biostimulation could improve the differentiation of periodontal ligaments stem cells in fibroblasts, able to promote attached gingiva around the crown of the teeth erupted in oral vestibular mucosa. PMID:23814581

  10. TLR9 ligation in pancreatic stellate cells promotes tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zambirinis, Constantinos P.; Levie, Elliot; Nguy, Susanna; Avanzi, Antonina; Barilla, Rocky; Xu, Yijie; Seifert, Lena; Daley, Donnele; Greco, Stephanie H.; Deutsch, Michael; Jonnadula, Saikiran; Torres-Hernandez, Alejandro; Tippens, Daniel; Pushalkar, Smruti; Eisenthal, Andrew; Saxena, Deepak; Ahn, Jiyoung; Hajdu, Cristina; Engle, Dannielle D.; Tuveson, David

    2015-01-01

    Modulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling can have protective or protumorigenic effects on oncogenesis depending on the cancer subtype and on specific inflammatory elements within the tumor milieu. We found that TLR9 is widely expressed early during the course of pancreatic transformation and that TLR9 ligands are ubiquitous within the tumor microenvironment. TLR9 ligation markedly accelerates oncogenesis, whereas TLR9 deletion is protective. We show that TLR9 activation has distinct effects on the epithelial, inflammatory, and fibrogenic cellular subsets in pancreatic carcinoma and plays a central role in cross talk between these compartments. Specifically, TLR9 activation can induce proinflammatory signaling in transformed epithelial cells, but does not elicit oncogene expression or cancer cell proliferation. Conversely, TLR9 ligation induces pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) to become fibrogenic and secrete chemokines that promote epithelial cell proliferation. TLR9-activated PSCs mediate their protumorigenic effects on the epithelial compartment via CCL11. Additionally, TLR9 has immune-suppressive effects in the tumor microenvironment (TME) via induction of regulatory T cell recruitment and myeloid-derived suppressor cell proliferation. Collectively, our work shows that TLR9 has protumorigenic effects in pancreatic carcinoma which are distinct from its influence in extrapancreatic malignancies and from the mechanistic effects of other TLRs on pancreatic oncogenesis. PMID:26481685

  11. Binding-regulated click ligation for selective detection of proteins.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ya; Han, Peng; Wang, Zhuxin; Chen, Weiwei; Shu, Yongqian; Xiang, Yang

    2016-04-15

    Herein, a binding-regulated click ligation (BRCL) strategy for endowing selective detection of proteins is developed with the incorporation of small-molecule ligand and clickable DNA probes. The fundamental principle underlying the strategy is the regulating capability of specific protein-ligand binding against the ligation between clickable DNA probes, which could efficiently combine the detection of particular protein with enormous DNA-based sensing technologies. In this work, the feasibly of the BRCL strategy is first verified through agarose gel electrophoresis and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, and then confirmed by transferring it to a nanomaterial-assisted fluorescence assay. Significantly, the BRCL strategy-based assay is able to respond to target protein with desirable selectivity, attributing to the specific recognition between small-molecule ligand and its target. Further experiments validate the general applicability of the sensing method by tailoring the ligand toward different proteins (i.e., avidin and folate receptor), and demonstrate its usability in complex biological samples. To our knowledge, this work pioneers the practice of click chemistry in probing specific small-molecule ligand-protein binding, and therefore may pave a new way for selective detection of proteins. PMID:26599478

  12. Effects of aspirin and prostacyclin on arrhythmias resulting from coronary artery ligation and on infarct size

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Kathleen M.; MacLeod, B.A.; Walker, M.J.A.

    1983-01-01

    1 The effects of pretreatment with aspirin, and of prostacyclin (PGI2) infusions, on responses to myocardial ischaemia and infarction produced by ligation of a coronary artery were investigated in conscious rats. 2 Surgical preparation, under halothane anaesthesia, consisted of implanting exteriorized aortic and jugular cannulae, ECG leads and a polypropylene/polyethylene occluder for the left anterior descending coronary artery. Ligation of the coronary artery was performed six to nine days after surgery. 3 Aspirin pretreatment consisted of 100 mg/kg given intravenously 1 or 36 h before ligation. PGI2 infusions (10-400 ng kg-1 min-1, i.v.) were begun 2 min before ligation and continued for 4 h afterwards. 4 ECG, blood pressure, heart rate and arrhythmias were recorded starting 30 min before, and continuing for 4 h after, ligation. Twenty-four hours after ligation, in surviving animals, the heart was removed for estimation of occluded and infarcted zones. 5 Some treatments provided antiarrhythmic and other protection in the first 30 min post-ligation. By 4 and 24 h post-ligation, protective effects were lost. 6 Both aspirin pretreatment and low doses of prostacyclin reduced arrhythmias occurring within 30 min of ligation. The highest dose of prostacylin (400 ng kg-1 min-1) was arrhythmogenic. 7 None of the treatments influenced the amount of cardiac tissue occluded or infarcted by ligation. 8 The conclusions from this study in conscious rats were that acute aspirin pretreatment and low doses of infused prostacyclin have limited beneficial actions which are mainly confined to the earliest post-ligation period. PMID:6337660

  13. Ligation of the hairpin ribozyme in cis induced by freezing and dehydration

    PubMed Central

    KAZAKOV, SERGEI A.; BALATSKAYA, SVETLANA V.; JOHNSTON, BRIAN H.

    2006-01-01

    Although reducing the temperature slows most chemical reactions, freezing can stimulate some reactions by mechanisms that are only partially understood. Here we show that freezing stimulates the self-ligation (circularization) of linear forms of the hairpin ribozyme (HPR) containing 2′,3′-cyclic phosphate and 5′-OH termini. Divalent metal ions (M2+) are not required, but monovalent cations and anions at millimolar concentrations can have various effects on this reaction depending on the specific ion. Under optimal conditions, the observed rate of M2+-independent self-ligation reaches a peak (0.04 min−1) at −10°C with a yield of −60% after 1 h. In contrast, no ligation occurs either at above 0°C or in solutions that remain unfrozen when supercooled to subzero temperatures. Under freezing conditions, the cleavage–ligation equilibrium strongly favors ligation. Besides freezing, evaporation of the aqueous solvent as well as the presence of ethanol at levels of 40% or above can also induce M2+-independent HPR ligation at 25°C. We argue that partial RNA dehydration, which is a common feature of freezing, evaporation, and the presence of ethanol, is a key factor supporting HPR ligation activity at both above- and below-freezing temperatures. In the context of the RNA world hypothesis, freezing-induced ligation is an attractive mechanism by which complex RNAs could have evolved under conditions in which RNA was relatively protected against degradation. PMID:16495237

  14. XLF-Cernunnos promotes DNA ligase IV-XRCC4 re-adenylation following ligation.

    PubMed

    Riballo, Enriqueta; Woodbine, Lisa; Stiff, Thomas; Walker, Sarah A; Goodarzi, Aaron A; Jeggo, Penny A

    2009-02-01

    XLF-Cernunnos (XLF) is a component of the DNA ligase IV-XRCC4 (LX) complex, which functions during DNA non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Here, we use biochemical and cellular approaches to probe the impact of XLF on LX activities. We show that XLF stimulates adenylation of LX complexes de-adenylated by pyrophosphate or following LX decharging during ligation. XLF enhances LX ligation activity in an ATP-independent and dependent manner. ATP-independent stimulation can be attributed to enhanced end-bridging. Whilst ATP alone fails to stimulate LX ligation activity, addition of XLF and ATP promotes ligation in a manner consistent with XLF-stimulated readenylation linked to ligation. We show that XLF is a weakly bound partner of the tightly associated LX complex and, unlike XRCC4, is dispensable for LX stability. 2BN cells, which have little, if any, residual XLF activity, show a 3-fold decreased ability to repair DNA double strand breaks covering a range of complexity. These findings strongly suggest that XLF is not essential for NHEJ but promotes LX adenylation and hence ligation. We propose a model in which XLF, by in situ recharging DNA ligase IV after the first ligation event, promotes double stranded ligation by a single LX complex. PMID:19056826

  15. [Laparoscopic ligation of the internal iliac artery in bleeding cervix carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Skret, A; Obrzut, B; Stachurski, J

    1995-01-01

    Laparoscopic ligation of internal iliac artery was performed in two patients with bleeding from stage II cervical cancer. The hemostatic effect, shortening of convalescence and early initiation of radiotherapy was obtained. Additionally, during procedure the lymph node sampling was performed. Laparoscopy appeared to be an alternative procedure to abdominal or extraperitoneal ligation of internal iliac artery. PMID:7483884

  16. Long-term outcomes of endoscopic variceal ligation to prevent rebleeding in children with esophageal varices.

    PubMed

    Kang, Ki Soo; Yang, Hye Ran; Ko, Jae Sung; Seo, Jeong Kee

    2013-11-01

    After an episode of acute bleeding from esophageal varices, patients are at a high risk for recurrent bleeding and death. However, there are few reports regarding the long-term results of secondary prophylaxis using endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) against variceal rebleeding in pediatrics. Thirty-seven, who were followed for over 3 yr post-eradication, were included in the study. The mean duration of follow up after esophageal variceal eradication was 6.4±1.9 yr. The mean time required to achieve the eradication of varices was 3.25 months. The mean number of sessions and O-bands needed to eradicate varices was 1.9±1.2 and 3.8±1.5, respectively. During the period before the first EVL treatment, 145 episodes of bleedings developed in 37 children. Over the 3 yr of follow-up after variceal eradication, only 4 episodes of rebleeding developed in 4 of 37 patients. The four rebleeding episodes consisted of an esophageal variceal bleed, a gastric variceal bleed, a duodenal ulcer bleed, and a bleed caused by hemorrhagic gastritis. There was no mortality during long-term follow up after variceal eradication. During long-term follow up after esophageal variceal eradication using solely EVL in children with esophageal variceal bleeds, rebleeding episodes and recurrence of esophageal varices were rare. EVL is a safe and highly effective method for the long-term prophylaxis of variceal rebleeding in children with portal hypertension. PMID:24265531

  17. Religious Dissociation and Economic Appraisal in Brazil.

    PubMed

    François Dengah, H J

    2016-04-01

    Research on the association between religion and health often neglects to provide an explicit theoretical mechanism of influence between faith and well-being. This research posits that dissociative behaviors, such as glossolalia, may provide a biological pathway that influences both physiological and psychological health. This paper argues that religious dissociation acts as a moderator between economic stressors and psychobiological appraisal. Brazil, with its economic inequality and preponderance of religious dissociative rituals, provides an ideal context to examine religious dissociation as a moderator of stress. Utilizing data from a cross section of Brazilian faiths, this paper examines: (1) Whether individuals with low socioeconomic status preferentially participate and experience religious dissociative states and (2) whether dissociative states are correlated with greater psychological appraisal of status. PMID:25687180

  18. An Appraisal of Coupled Climate Model Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Sperber, K; Gleckler, P; Covey, C; Taylor, K; Bader, D; Phillips, T; Fiorino, M; Achutarao, K

    2004-02-24

    In 2002, the Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison (PCMDI) proposed the concept for a state-of-the-science appraisal of climate models to be performed approximately every two years. Motivation for this idea arose from the perceived needs of the international modeling groups and the broader climate research community to document progress more frequently than provided by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Assessment Reports. A committee of external reviewers, which included senior researchers from four leading international modeling centers, supported the concept by stating in its review: ''The panel enthusiastically endorses the suggestion that PCMDI develop an independent appraisal of coupled model performance every 2-3 years. This would provide a useful 'mid-course' evaluation of modeling progress in the context of larger IPCC and national assessment activities, and should include both coupled and single-component model evaluations.''

  19. Promotional literature: how do we critically appraise?

    PubMed

    Shetty, V V; Karve, A V

    2008-01-01

    There has been a tremendous increase in the number of new and generic drugs coming into the market. The busy practitioner obtains the information from various sources, of which promotional literature forms an important source. The promotional literature provided by the pharmaceutical companies cannot be entirely relied upon; moreover, very few physicians are equipped with the skills of critically appraising it. The new drug should be relevant to the clinician's practice in terms of population studied, the disease and the need for new treatment. The methodology of the study should be carefully judged to determine the authenticity of the evidence. The new drug should be preferred over the existing one if it offers clear advantages in terms of safety, tolerability, efficacy and price. Critical appraisal of promotional literature can provide valuable information to the busy physician to practice evidence-based medicine. PMID:18626173

  20. Positive appraisal style: The mental immune system?

    PubMed

    Luyten, Laura; Boddez, Yannick; Hermans, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Instead of converging to one, all-embracing resilience mechanism - that is, positive appraisal style - we encourage complementary research strategies, exploring both vulnerabilities and resilience factors, much like the biomedical sciences combine insights from pathophysiology and immunology. Furthermore, we argue that research with a strong focus on one central resilience mechanism may overlook or undervalue other processes that can aid in maintaining mental health. PMID:26787100

  1. Sustainability appraisal and flood risk management

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Jeremy G. White, Iain Richards, Juliet

    2009-01-15

    This research establishes that sustainability appraisal (SA) has a role to play in strengthening spatial plans in the context of flooding issues. Indeed, evidence has been gathered to indicate that tentative steps are being taken in this direction during the SA of English regional spatial plans, which are used as an illustrative case study. In England as in many other countries, appraisal procedures including SA and strategic environmental assessment (SEA) are enshrined in planning law. An opportunity therefore exists to utilise existing and familiar planning tools to embed flooding considerations within spatial plans at an early stage in the planning process. SA (and similar appraisal tools such as SEA) can therefore usefully aid in the implementation of decision making principles and government policy relating to flooding. Moreover, with the threats associated with climate change becoming increasingly apparent, of which increased flood risk is a particular concern in many countries, there is a need develop appropriate adaptation responses. This article emphasizes the role that SA can play in managing future flood risk in this context.

  2. Degradation profile and preliminary clinical testing of a resorbable device for ligation of blood vessels.

    PubMed

    Aminlashgari, Nina; Höglund, Odd V; Borg, Niklas; Hakkarainen, Minna

    2013-06-01

    A resorbable device for ligation of blood vessels was developed and tested in vitro to reveal the degradation profile of the device and to predict the clinical performance in terms of adequate mechanical support during a healing period of 1week. In addition, preliminary clinical testing was performed that showed complete hemostasis and good tissue grip of renal arteries in five pigs. The device was made by injection molding of poly(glycolide-co-trimethylene carbonate) triblock copolymer, and it consisted of a case with a locking mechanism connected to a partly perforated flexible band. A hydrolytic degradation study was carried out for 7, 30 and 60days in water and buffer medium, following the changes in mass, water absorption, pH and mechanical properties. A new rapid matrix-free laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) method was developed for direct screening of degradation products released into the degradation medium. The combination of LDI-MS and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry analyses enabled the comparison of the degradation product patterns in water and buffer medium. The identified degradation products were rich in trimethylene carbonate units, indicating preferential hydrolysis of amorphous regions where trimethylene units are located. The crystallinity of the material was doubled after 60days of hydrolysis, additionally confirming the preferential hydrolysis of trimethylene carbonate units and the enrichment of glycolide units in the remaining solid matrix. The mechanical performance of the perforated band was followed for the first week of hydrolysis and the results suggest that sufficient strength is retained during the healing time of the blood vessels. PMID:23438863

  3. Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract (SLiCE) cloning method.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongwei; Werling, Uwe; Edelmann, Winfried

    2014-01-01

    SLiCE (Seamless Ligation Cloning Extract) is a novel cloning method that utilizes easy to generate bacterial cell extracts to assemble multiple DNA fragments into recombinant DNA molecules in a single in vitro recombination reaction. SLiCE overcomes the sequence limitations of traditional cloning methods, facilitates seamless cloning by recombining short end homologies (15-52 bp) with or without flanking heterologous sequences and provides an effective strategy for directional subcloning of DNA fragments from bacterial artificial chromosomes or other sources. SLiCE is highly cost-effective and demonstrates the versatility as a number of standard laboratory bacterial strains can serve as sources for SLiCE extract. We established a DH10B-derived E. coli strain expressing an optimized λ prophage Red recombination system, termed PPY, which facilitates SLiCE with very high efficiencies. PMID:24395368

  4. Confinement-induced Molecular Templating and Controlled Ligation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berard, Daniel; Shayegan, Marjan; Michaud, François; Henkin, Gil; Scott, Shane; Leith, Jason; Leslie, Sabrina; Leslie Lab Team

    Loading and manipulating long DNA molecules within sub-50 nm cross-section nanostructures for genomic and biochemical analyses, while retaining their structural integrity, present key technological challenges to the biotechnology sector, such as device clogging and molecular breakage. We overcome these challenges by using Convex Lens-induced Confinement (CLiC) technology to gently load DNA into nanogrooves from above. Here, we demonstrate single-fluorophore visualization of custom DNA barcodes as well as efficient top-loading of DNA into sub-50 nm nanogrooves of variable topographies. We study confinement-enhanced self-ligation of polymers loaded in circular nanogrooves. Further, we use concentric, circular nanogrooves to eliminate confinement gradient-induced drift of stretched DNA.

  5. A ligation-independent cloning method using nicking DNA endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Zhang, Zhihong; Zhang, Xin A; Luo, Qingming

    2010-11-01

    Using nicking DNA endonuclease (NiDE), we developed a novel technique to clone DNA fragments into plasmids. We created a NiDE cassette consisting of two inverted NiDE substrate sites sandwiching an asymmetric four-base sequence, and NiDE cleavage resulted in 14-base single-stranded termini at both ends of the vector and insert. This method can therefore be used as a ligation-independent cloning strategy to generate recombinant constructs rapidly. In addition, we designed and constructed a simple and specific vector from an Escherichia coli plasmid back-bone to complement this cloning method. By cloning cDNAs into this modified vector, we confirmed the predicted feasibility and applicability of this cloning method. PMID:21091446

  6. Occurrence of infective endocarditis following endoscopic variceal ligation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Xiaoli; Yang, Meifang; Dong, Huihui; Xv, Lichen; Li, Lanjuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) is the endoscopic treatment of acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage, however, prophylaxis antibiotic during EVL is controversial. Methods: We reported a 60-year-old man with diabetes, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma who received EVL for esophageal variceal haemorrhage. Results: On the second day after EVL, the patient developed fever and chills. A week after EVL, the blood cultures were viridans streptococcus positive, and echocardiogram showed a vegetation on the cardiac valve. The patient was therefore diagnosed with infective endocarditis (IE). The patient was cured after 7 weeks of intravenous piperacillin sulbactam sodium. No complications were observed during the 3-month follow-up after discharge. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first documented case to report IE caused by viridans streptococcus after EVL. Therefore, whether prophylaxis antibiotic should be administered to cirrhotic patients receiving EVL is worth further research. PMID:27583858

  7. Left Atrial Appendage Ligation and Exclusion Technology in the Incubator

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Faisal F.; Noheria, Amit; DeSimone, Christopher V.; Asirvatham, Samuel J.

    2016-01-01

    Stroke is the most feared complication of atrial fibrillation (AF). Targeting the left atrial appendage (LAA) mechanically is attractive as a means to simultaneously reduce stroke risk, the need for anticoagulation, and hemorrhagic complications in patients with non-valvular AF. The results of the PROTECT-AF and PREVAIL randomized clinical trials support this approach as a viable therapeutic alternative to warfarin in selected patients and add to accumulating evidence regarding the importance of the LAA in thromboembolism in AF. A number of devices for percutaneous LAA closure are under investigation or development. In this article, key design features of these ligation and exclusion technologies will be discussed, with a focus on aspects of LAA morphology, relational anatomy, thrombosis, and thromboembolism relevant for successful device development and deployment. PMID:27087888

  8. Cryosurgery and ligation (Cryo-plication) of symptomatic hemorrhoids - "an ideal procedure". Initial experience and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Batra, R K

    2008-06-01

    Haemorrhoidal disease has been in limelight again due to emerging newer modalities of treatment over the last decade. The range varies from simple rubber band ligation to stapled rectopexy. But a rational and ideal approach is still unclear. This study aims to analyze the ideal modality in today's scenario of managing haemorrhoidal disease. A prospective study on 12 patients, was carried out over 24 months in a surgical unit of a tertiary care hospital. The pain, bleeding, rectal discharge, anal stenosis were observed. Results show that the Cryoplication procedure had no anal stenosis, minimal bleeding, less pain and cost was effective. When compared with other contemporary modalities it has lesser complications and short and easy learning curve. PMID:23133040

  9. Outcomes of Early Ligation of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Preterms, Multicenter Experience

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed H.; Azab, Ahmed A.; Kamal, Naglaa M.; Salama, Mostafa A.; Elshorbagy, Hatem H.; Abdallah, Enas A.A.; Hammad, Abdulrahman; Sherief, Laila M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Persistent ductal patency may have serious effects in preterm infants. Analysis of the results of different trials were inconclusive in determining whether medical or surgical closure of the ductus is preferable and what is the best timing for surgical intervention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of timing of surgical closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on ventilatory, hemodynamic, and nutritional status of preterm infants. The authors retrospectively looked at the outcomes of surgical ligation of PDA from January 2010 to June 2014 at 2 Saudi neonatal intensive units at 2 tertiary care centers and the authors compared the results of early ligation (before 3 weeks) to the late ligation (after 3 weeks) regarding different hemodynamic, ventilatory, and nutritional parameters. A total of 120 preemies were included (75 preemies with early ligation and 45 with late ligation of PDA). The early ligation group had shorter duration of assisted ventilation of 10 (8–37) days as compared with 37 (26–90) days in the late ligation group (P < 0.05). The median fraction of inspired oxygen, needed to maintain good oxygen saturation in patients, was higher in the late ligation group [0.29 (0.21–0.70)] than in the early group [0.23 (0.21–0.55)] at 24 hours postoperatively. Full oral feeding was achieved earlier in the early ligation group than in the late group, 29 (15–73) days of life versus 53 (34–118) days of life, respectively (P < 0.05). Body weight at 36 weeks postconceptional age was higher in the early group—2100 (1350–2800) g—than in the late group—1790 (1270–2300) g—(P < 0.05). Our study demonstrated that earlier surgical ligation of the PDA in preterm infants has a more favorable nutritional and ventilatory outcome. PMID:26107681

  10. The Alcohol Relapse Situation Appraisal Questionnaire: Development and Validation

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Rosemarie A.; MacKinnon, Selene M.; Johnson, Jennifer E.; Myers, Mark G.; Cook, Travis A. R.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2011-01-01

    Background The role of cognitive appraisal of the threat of alcohol relapse has received little attention. A previous instrument, the Relapse Situation Appraisal Questionnaire (RSAQ), was developed to assess cocaine users’ primary appraisal of the threat of situations posing a high risk for cocaine relapse. The purpose of the present study was to modify the RSAQ in order to measure primary appraisal in situations involving a high risk for alcohol relapse. Methods The development and psychometric properties of this instrument, the Alcohol Relapse Situation Appraisal Questionnaire (A-RSAQ), were examined with two samples of abstinent adults with alcohol abuse or dependence. Factor structure and validity were examined in Study 1 (N=104). Confirmation of the factor structure and predictive validity were assessed in Study 2 (N=161). Results Results demonstrated construct, discriminant and predictive validity and reliability of the A-RSAQ. Discussion Results support the important role of primary appraisal of degree of risk in alcohol relapse situations. PMID:21237586

  11. Modified technique for coronary artery ligation in mice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yangzhen; Redfors, Björn; Omerovic, Elmir

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the most important causes of mortality in humans(1-3). In order to improve morbidity and mortality in patients with MI we need better knowledge about pathophysiology of myocardial ischemia. This knowledge may be valuable to define new therapeutic targets for innovative cardiovascular therapies(4). Experimental MI model in mice is an increasingly popular small-animal model in preclinical research in which MI is induced by means of permanent or temporary ligation of left coronary artery (LCA)(5). In this video, we describe the step-by-step method of how to induce experimental MI in mice. The animal is first anesthetized with 2% isoflurane. The unconscious mouse is then intubated and connected to a ventilator for artificial ventilation. The left chest is shaved and 1.5 cm incision along mid-axillary line is made in the skin. The left pectoralis major muscle is bluntly dissociated until the ribs are exposed. The muscle layers are pulled aside and fixed with an eyelid-retractor. After these preparations, left thoracotomy is performed between the third and fourth ribs in order to visualize the anterior surface of the heart and left lung. The proximal segment of LCA artery is then ligated with a 7-0 ethilon suture which typically induces an infarct size ~40% of left ventricle. At the end, the chest is closed and the animals receive postoperative analgesia (Temgesic, 0.3 mg/50 ml, ip). The animals are kept in a warm cage until spontaneous recovery. PMID:23567879

  12. Appraising the performance of medical technologists in a clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Ghorpade, J; Chen, M M

    1997-01-01

    Medical technologists and their coworkers serve as a critical link in the delivery of health care, yet their performance typically is appraised in a traditional way, causing stress for both managers and workers. Drawing on Total Quality Management concepts, this article proposes a framework for appraising performance in a clinical laboratory context and shows how it can be used to address the problems that managers face in providing constructive appraisals to laboratory personnel. PMID:10166906

  13. Evaluation of Micro-organism in Ligated Metal and Self-ligating Brackets using Scanning Electron Microscopy: An In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Sunil, P C; Michael, Tony; Raju, Aravind S; Paul, Renji K; Mamatha, J; Ebin, T M

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of the study was to determine the sites of plaque accumulation and to compare the plaque accumulated with metal and self-ligating orthodontic brackets in order to know which bracket type had a higher plaque retaining capacity. Materials and Methods: The study was done on 20 subjects who were scheduled for orthodontic treatment including extraction of four premolars and fixed orthodontic appliances. Mesh-backed edgewise metal brackets ligated with steel ligatures and self-ligating brackets were bonded to the premolars to be extracted using composite (Transbond XT, 3M). The subjects were told to continue their normal oral hygiene regimen. Teeth were extracted at 1, 2, and 3 weeks after bracket bonding. Plaque attached to the buccal surfaces was stained using plaque disclosing agent. The teeth were then immersed in fixative containing 4% formaldehyde and 1% glutaraldehyde in phosphate buffer for 24 h, followed by 0.1 M phosphate buffer for 12 h. The specimens were then mounted on aluminum stubs, and sputter coated with gold prior to Scanning electron microscopy examination. Results: The results showed that increased retention of plaque in metal brackets ligated with steel ligatures and comparatively less in self-ligating brackets at the base of the brackets. Conclusions: This study highlights that higher retention of plaque in metal brackets ligated with steel ligatures and comparatively less plaque retention in self-ligating brackets. Excess composite around the bracket base is the critical site of plaque accumulation associated with fixed appliances due to its rough surface texture. PMID:26229372

  14. Protein synthesis by native chemical ligation: expanded scope by using straightforward methodology.

    PubMed

    Hackeng, T M; Griffin, J H; Dawson, P E

    1999-08-31

    The total chemical synthesis of proteins has great potential for increasing our understanding of the molecular basis of protein function. The introduction of native chemical ligation techniques to join unprotected peptides next to a cysteine residue has greatly facilitated the synthesis of proteins of moderate size. Here, we describe a straightforward methodology that has enabled us to rapidly analyze the compatibility of the native chemical ligation strategy for X-Cys ligation sites, where X is any of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids. The simplified methodology avoids the necessity of specific amino acid thioester linkers or alkylation of C-terminal thioacid peptides. Experiments using matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization MS analysis of combinatorial ligations of LYRAX-C-terminal thioester peptides to the peptide CRANK show that all 20 amino acids are suitable for ligation, with Val, Ile, and Pro representing less favorable choices because of slow ligation rates. To illustrate the method's utility, two 124-aa proteins were manually synthesized by using a three-step, four-piece ligation to yield a fully active human secretory phospholipase A(2) and a catalytically inactive analog. The combination of flexibility in design with general access because of simplified methodology broadens the applicability and versatility of chemical protein synthesis. PMID:10468563

  15. Kinetic and mechanistic analysis of nonenzymatic, template-directed oligoribonucleotide ligation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, R.; Bartel, D. P.; Szostak, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    The role of divalent cations in the mechanism of pyrophosphate-activated, template-directed oligoribonucleotide ligation has been investigated. The dependence of the reaction rate on Mg2+ concentration suggests a kinetic scheme in which a Mg2+ ion must bind before ligation can proceed. Mn2+, Ca2+, Sr2+, and Ba2+ can also catalyze the reaction. Although Pb2+ and Zn2+ do not catalyze the reaction in the absence of other divalent ions, they significantly modulate the reaction rate when added in the presence of Mg2+, with Pb2+ stimulating the reaction (up to 65-fold) and Zn2+ inhibiting the reaction. The logarithm of the ligation rate increases linearly, with slope of 0.95, as a function of pH, indicating that the reaction involves a single critical deprotonation step. The ligation rates observed with the different divalent metal ion catalysts (Mn2+ > Mg2+ > Ca2+ > Sr2+ = Ba2+) vary inversely with the pKa values of their bound water molecules. The pH profile and these relative ligation rates suggest a mechanism in which a metal-bound hydroxide ion located near the ligation junction promotes catalysis, most likely by deprotonation of the hydroxl nucleophile. The effects of changing either the leaving group or the attacking hydroxyl, together with the large delta S(++) value for oligonucleotide ligation (about -20 eu), are consistent with an associative transition state.

  16. Recursive directional ligation by plasmid reconstruction allows rapid and seamless cloning of oligomeric genes.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Jonathan R; Mackay, J Andrew; Quiroz, Felipe García; Chilkoti, Ashutosh

    2010-04-12

    This paper reports a new strategy, recursive directional ligation by plasmid reconstruction (PRe-RDL), to rapidly clone highly repetitive polypeptides of any sequence and specified length over a large range of molecular weights. In a single cycle of PRe-RDL, two halves of a parent plasmid, each containing a copy of an oligomer, are ligated together, thereby dimerizing the oligomer and reconstituting a functional plasmid. This process is carried out recursively to assemble an oligomeric gene with the desired number of repeats. PRe-RDL has several unique features that stem from the use of type IIs restriction endonucleases: first, PRe-RDL is a seamless cloning method that leaves no extraneous nucleotides at the ligation junction. Because it uses type IIs endonucleases to ligate the two halves of the plasmid, PRe-RDL also addresses the major limitation of RDL in that it abolishes any restriction on the gene sequence that can be oligomerized. The reconstitution of a functional plasmid only upon successful ligation in PRe-RDL also addresses two other limitations of RDL: the significant background from self-ligation of the vector observed in RDL, and the decreased efficiency of ligation due to nonproductive circularization of the insert. PRe-RDL can also be used to assemble genes that encode different sequences in a predetermined order to encode block copolymers or append leader and trailer peptide sequences to the oligomerized gene. PMID:20184309

  17. Effects of Cholestasis on Learning and Locomotor Activity in Bile Duct Ligated Rats

    PubMed Central

    HOSSEINI, Nasrin; ALAEI, Hojjatallah; NASEHI, Mohammad; RADAHMADI, Maryam; Mohammad Reza, ZARRINDAST

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cognitive functions are impaired in patients with liver disease. Bile duct ligation causes cholestasis that impairs liver function. This study investigated the impact of cholestasis progression on the acquisition and retention times in the passive avoidance test and on the locomotor activity of rats. Methods: Cholestasis was induced in male Wistar rats by ligating the main bile duct. Locomotor activity, learning and memory were assessed by the passive avoidance learning test at day 7, day 14, and day 21 post-bile duct ligation. The serum levels of bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were measured. Results: The results showed that acquisition time and locomotor activity were not affected at day 7 and day 14, but they were significantly (P < 0.05) impaired at day 21 post-bile duct ligation compared with the results for the control group. Additionally, memory was significantly impaired on day 7 (P < 0.01), day 14, and day 21 (P < 0.001) compared with the control groups. The levels of total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were significantly higher at day 7, day 14, and day 21 post-bile duct ligation compared with the levels in the sham group. Conclusion: Based on these findings, both liver and memory function were affected in the early stage of cholestasis (7 days after bile duct ligation), while learning and locomotor activity were impaired at 21 days after bile duct ligation following the progression of cholestasis. PMID:24639608

  18. Isolation and characterization of portal branch ligation-stimulated Hmga2-positive bipotent hepatic progenitor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sakai, Hiroshi; Tagawa, Yoh-ichi; Tamai, Miho; Motoyama, Hiroaki; Ogawa, Shinichiro; Soeda, Junpei; Nakata, Takenari; Miyagawa, Shinichi

    2010-12-17

    Research highlights: {yields} Hepatic progenitor cells were isolated from the portal branch-ligated liver of mice. {yields} Portal branch ligation-stimulated hepatic progenitor cells (PBLHCs) express Hmga2. {yields} PBLHCs have bidirectional differentiation capability in vitro. -- Abstract: Hepatic stem/progenitor cells are one of several cell sources that show promise for restoration of liver mass and function. Although hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs), including oval cells, are induced by administration of certain hepatotoxins in experimental animals, such a strategy would be inappropriate in a clinical setting. Here, we investigated the possibility of isolating HPCs in a portal branch-ligated liver model without administration of any chemical agents. A non-parenchymal cell fraction was prepared from the portal branch-ligated or non-ligated lobe, and seeded onto plates coated with laminin. Most of the cells died, but a small number were able to proliferate. These proliferating cells were cloned as portal branch ligation-stimulated hepatic cells (PBLHCs) by the limiting dilution method. The PBLHCs expressed cytokeratin19, albumin, and Hmga2. The PBLHCs exhibited metabolic functions such as detoxification of ammonium ions and synthesis of urea on Matrigel-coated plates in the presence of oncostatin M. In Matrigel mixed with type I collagen, the PBLHCs became rearranged into cystic and tubular structures. Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated the presence of Hmga2-positive cells around the interlobular bile ducts in the portal branch-ligated liver lobes. In conclusion, successful isolation of bipotent hepatic progenitor cell clones, PBLHCs, from the portal branch-ligated liver lobes of mice provides the possibility of future clinical application of portal vein ligation to induce hepatic progenitor cells.

  19. 76 FR 72306 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Appraiser Roster: Appraiser Qualifications for Placement on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-23

    ... published a proposed rule in the Federal Register (76 FR 41441) designed to make FHA's Appraiser Roster... are referred to the preamble of the July 14, 2011, proposed rule, found at 76 FR 41441, for additional... obsolete references to the Credit Alert Interactive Voice Response System (CAIVRS) with references to...

  20. 76 FR 41441 - Federal Housing Administration (FHA) Appraiser Roster: Appraiser Qualifications for Placement on...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Alert Interactive Voice Response System with references to its successor, the online-based Credit Alert...'s Limited Denial of Participation list, or in HUD's Credit Alert Interactive Voice Response System... recognized professional appraisal organizations. D. Credit Alert Interactive Voice Response System...

  1. Measuring Appraisal During Advanced Cancer: Psychometric Testing of the Appraisal of Caregiving Scale

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Sylvie D.; Yoon, Hyojin; Ellis, Katrina R.; Northouse, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Examine the psychometric properties of the Appraisal of Caregiving Scale (ACS). Methods Data were collected as part of the FOCUS Program trial in Michigan (N = 484 caregivers). Results Exploratory factor analysis found the ACS measured Threat, General Stress, and Benefit appraisals. Cronbach’s alphas for all subscales exceeded 0.70. Construct validity analyses indicated the Threat subscale correlated significantly with concepts of avoidant coping, burden, and dyadic support (r > 0.30). General Stress correlated significantly with burden (r = 0.348) and dyadic support (r = −0.373), and the Benefit subscale correlated significantly with active coping (r = 0.444). Known group analyses indicated that depressed caregivers had higher Threat and General Stress scores than non-depressed caregivers. Also, younger caregivers reported significantly higher scores on the General Stress subscale than older caregivers. Predictive validity analyses found appraisal scores at baseline accounted for 33.3% of the variance in hopelessness and 27.8% of the variance in depression at Time 2. Conclusion and practice implications The ACS is a reliable measure of Threat, General Stress, and Benefit appraisals, with some support for its validity. Health professionals may find the ACS useful for guiding intervention development. Future research should continue to examine the ACS’ validity. PMID:25648280

  2. Bilateral external carotid artery ligation: A life saving procedure in severe maxillofacial trauma

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Mohamed Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bilateral external carotid arteries ligation is a rare practice in cases of extensive maxilla-facial injuries. Defining indication criteria in the management of such cases is highly demanded in emergency surgery. Case presentation Reported case presents a male patient 67 years old man with a gunshot to the face. The whole face was macerated. Patient was operated surgically performing bilateral external carotid artery ligation, tracheostomy, pharyngostomy, gastrostomy and pressure dressing to face and head. Conclusion The procedure of bilateral external carotid artery ligation has no defined role in the management of maxillofacial trauma. The current status of such procedure in maxillofacial trauma needs revision. PMID:25644554

  3. Alteration of the Microbiota and Virulence Gene Expression in E. coli O157:H7 in Pig Ligated Intestine with and without AE Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hai; Feng, Yanni; Ying, Xin; Gong, Joshua; Gyles, Carlton L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previously we found that E. coli O157:H7 inoculated into ligated pig intestine formed attaching and effacing (AE) lesions in some pigs but not in others. The present study evaluated changes in the microbial community and in virulence gene expression in E. coli O157:H7 in ligated pig intestine in which the bacteria formed AE lesions or failed to form AE lesions. Methodology/Principal Findings The intestinal microbiota was assessed by RNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The DGGE banding patterns showed distinct differences involving two bands which had increased intensity specifically in AE-negative pigs (AE- bands) and several bands which were more abundant in AE-positive pigs. Sequence analysis revealed that the two AE- bands belonged to Veillonella caviae, a species with probiotic properties, and Bacteroides sp. Concurrent with the differences in microbiota, gene expression analysis by quantitative PCR showed that, compared with AE negative pigs, E. coli O157:H7 in AE positive pigs had upregulated genes for putative adhesins, non-LEE encoded nleA and quorum sensing qseF, acid resistance gene ureD, and genes from the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE). Conclusions/Significance The present study demonstrated that AE-positive pigs had reduced activities or populations of Veillonella caviae and Bacterioides sp. compared with AE-negative pigs. Further studies are required to understand how the microbiota was changed and the role of these organisms in the control of E. coli O157:H7. PMID:26090813

  4. Performance appraisal & promotion process: A measured approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Jitendra

    2012-06-01

    Most of the companies have yearly performance appraisal process for their employees. This process involves rating of employees by their manager. And Companies rely purely on managerís state of thinking and perception. Humans have tendency to become biased, corrupt, give favor to some employees whom they like. This favor is due to some other reasons e.g. personal reason, social reason, political reason, flattering. All these reasons are not related to the work that the employee is doing for the organization.

  5. Shell appraising deepwater discovery off Philippines

    SciTech Connect

    Scherer, M. ); Lambers, E.J.T.; Steffens, G.S. )

    1993-05-10

    Shell International Petroleum Co. Ltd. negotiated a farmout in 1990 from Occidental International Exploration and Production Co. for Block SC-38 in the South China Sea off Palawan, Philippines, following Oxy's discovery of gas in 1989 in a Miocene Nido limestone buildup. Under the terms of the farmout agreement, Shell became operator with a 50% share. Following the disappointing well North Iloc 1, Shell was successful in finding oil and gas in Malampaya 1. Water 700-1,000 m deep, remoteness, and adverse weather conditions have imposed major challenges for offshore operations. The paper describes the tectonic setting; the Nido limestone play; the Malampaya discovery; and Shell's appraisal studies.

  6. Effect of Ligation Method on Maxillary Arch Force/Moment Systems for a Simulated Lingual Incisor Malalignment

    PubMed Central

    Seru, Surbhi; Romanyk, Dan L; Toogood, Roger W; Carey, Jason P; Major, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The objectives of this study were to determine whether there is a difference in the magnitude of forces and moments produced by elastic ligation when compared to passive ligation, and whether these forces and moments propagate differently along the arch for the two ligation types. A lingual incisor malalignment was used in this study. Methods: The Orthodontic Simulator (OSIM) was used to quantify the three-dimensional forces and moments applied on the teeth given a lingually displaced incisor. A repeated measures MANOVA was performed to statistically analyze the data. Results: The interaction factor illustrated convincing evidence that there is a difference in maximum force and moment values for all outcome variables between ligation types considering all tooth positions along the arch. The mean differences for FX and FY between ligation types were found to be clinically significant, with values for elastic ligation consistently higher than passive ligation. Conclusion: It was found that the maximum forces and moments produced by elastic ligation are greater than those produced by passive ligation and that the magnitude of this difference for the mesiodistal and buccolingual forces is clinically relevant. Additionally, it was determined that elastic ligation causes forces and moments to propagate further along the arch than passive ligation for all outcome variables. PMID:25400715

  7. 24 CFR 200.200 - What is the Appraiser Roster?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What is the Appraiser Roster? 200.200 Section 200.200 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT GENERAL INTRODUCTION TO FHA PROGRAMS Appraiser Roster § 200.200 What is...

  8. 59 FR- Real Estate Appraisals; Rule DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1994-06-07

    ... meanings. See 55 FR 27762 (July 5, 1990). The Board used ``real property'' and ``real estate... Part 323 Real Estate Appraisals; Rule DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of the Comptroller of the... 12 CFR Parts 545, 563, 564 RIN 1550-AA64 Real Estate Appraisals AGENCIES: Office of the...

  9. 19 CFR 152.108 - Unacceptable bases of appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Unacceptable bases of appraisement. 152.108 Section 152.108 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Merchandise § 152.108 Unacceptable bases of appraisement. For the purposes of this subpart,...

  10. 12 CFR 202.14 - Rules on providing appraisal reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rules on providing appraisal reports. 202.14 Section 202.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... or cooperative unit, and a mobile or other manufactured home. The term appraisal report means...

  11. 12 CFR 202.14 - Rules on providing appraisal reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rules on providing appraisal reports. 202.14 Section 202.14 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... or cooperative unit, and a mobile or other manufactured home. The term appraisal report means...

  12. 78 FR 25084 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act...

  13. 77 FR 14014 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act...

  14. 77 FR 20633 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council ACTION: Notice of Meeting Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act...

  15. 77 FR 20633 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act...

  16. 77 FR 58140 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act...

  17. 77 FR 66840 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act...

  18. 76 FR 13188 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act...

  19. 76 FR 19773 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act...

  20. 76 FR 42126 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act...

  1. 77 FR 26280 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act...

  2. 75 FR 74732 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act...

  3. 76 FR 61704 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act...

  4. 77 FR 72862 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act...

  5. 75 FR 67969 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act...

  6. 77 FR 26279 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-03

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act...

  7. 75 FR 62819 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act...

  8. 77 FR 33458 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act...

  9. 76 FR 31962 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement Act...

  10. 50 CFR 34.6 - Schedule of appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Schedule of appraisals. 34.6 Section 34.6 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) THE NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM REFUGE REVENUE SHARING WITH COUNTIES § 34.6 Schedule of appraisals....

  11. Critical appraisal in clinical practice: sometimes irrelevant, occasionally invalid.

    PubMed

    Coomarasamy, A; Latthe, P; Papaioannou, S; Publicover, M; Gee, H; Khan, K S

    2001-11-01

    A core activity of evidence-based practice is the search for and appraisal of evidence on specific clinical issues. Clinicians vary in their competence in this process; we therefore developed a 16-item checklist for quality of content (relevance and validity) and presentation (useability, attribution, currency and contact details). This was applied to a set of 55 consecutive appraisals conducted by clinicians and posted at a web-based medical journal club site. Questions were well formulated in 51/55 (92%) of the appraisals. However, 22% of appraisals missed the most relevant articles to answer the clinical question. Validity of articles was well appraised, with methodological information and data accurately extracted in 84% and accurate conversion to clinically meaningful summary statistics in 87%. The appraisals were presented in a useable way with appropriate and clear bottom-lines stated in 95%. The weakest link in production of good-quality critical appraisals was identification of relevant articles. This should be a focus for evidence-based medicine and critical appraisal skills. PMID:11691894

  12. Real Estate Appraising. A Suggested Adult Education Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    Developed to assist teachers of classes in real estate appraisal and to help students prepare for professional qualification, this guide presents 12 lessons which may be taught in 15 two-hour sessions. The twelve lessons are (1) The Appraisal of Real Estate, (2) Real Property Value, (3) Basic Principles of Real Property Value, (4) The Appraisal…

  13. 42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Performance appraisal system. 24.7 Section 24.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the Service shall be subject to...

  14. Cognitive Appraisal of Dissertation Stress among Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devonport, Tracey J.; Lane, Andrew M.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined changes in primary and secondary appraisal, and coping strategies utilized in the final weeks leading to dissertation submission. Sixty volunteer Sports Studies dissertation students (male: n = 29; female: n = 31) completed an adapted Cognitive Appraisal of Health Scale (CAHS: Kessler, 1998), and Brief COPE (Carver,…

  15. Simulation Methods for Teaching the Performance Appraisal Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krayer, Karl J.

    1987-01-01

    Details the steps and some of the rubrics involved in teaching skills for performance appraisal interviewing through classroom simulations. Describes an effective method that maintains interest and enthusiasm among students while exposing them to communication behaviors that are essential for a successful appraisal interview. (NKA)

  16. 7 CFR 3560.753 - Agency appraisal standards and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... concluded by each approach. (f) Real estate history. Appraisals must contain a 5-year ownership and sales... estate, which is the land and improvements, and the real property, or property rights, being appraised... accepted industry standards, comply with USPAP, and have been approved by the Agency. (2)...

  17. Teacher Performance Appraisal: More about Performance or Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    Given that "teacher appraisal can be a key lever for increasing the focus on teaching quality" (OECD, 2013b, p.9) and that many reforms in the past have failed (Kleinhenz & Ingvarson, 2004), an understanding of the various aspects of successful performance appraisal is essential. The literature has begun to refer to a number of…

  18. 42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance appraisal system. 24.7 Section 24.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the Service shall be subject to...

  19. 42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance appraisal system. 24.7 Section 24.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the Service shall be subject to...

  20. Critical appraisal in clinical practice: sometimes irrelevant, occasionally invalid

    PubMed Central

    Coomarasamy, Aravinthan; Latthe, Pallavi; Papaioannou, Spyros; Publicover, Mary; Gee, Harry; Khan, Khalid S

    2001-01-01

    A core activity of evidence-based practice is the search for and appraisal of evidence on specific clinical issues. Clinicians vary in their competence in this process; we therefore developed a 16-item checklist for quality of content (relevance and validity) and presentation (useability, attribution, currency and contact details). This was applied to a set of 55 consecutive appraisals conducted by clinicians and posted at a web-based medical journal club site. Questions were well formulated in 51/55 (92%) of the appraisals. However, 22% of appraisals missed the most relevant articles to answer the clinical question. Validity of articles was well appraised, with methodological information and data accurately extracted in 84% and accurate conversion to clinically meaningful summary statistics in 87%. The appraisals were presented in a useable way with appropriate and clear bottom-lines stated in 95%. The weakest link in production of good-quality critical appraisals was identification of relevant articles. This should be a focus for evidence-based medicine and critical appraisal skills. PMID:11691894

  1. 12 CFR 950.10 - Collateral valuation; appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Collateral valuation; appraisals. 950.10...-BALANCE SHEET ITEMS ADVANCES Advances to Members § 950.10 Collateral valuation; appraisals. (a) Collateral valuation. Each Bank shall determine the value of collateral securing the Bank's advances in accordance...

  2. 12 CFR 225.64 - Minimum appraisal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 225.64 Section 225.64 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE... for Federally Related Transactions § 225.64 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally...

  3. 42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Performance appraisal system. 24.7 Section 24.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the Service shall be subject to...

  4. 42 CFR 24.7 - Performance appraisal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Performance appraisal system. 24.7 Section 24.7 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL SENIOR BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SERVICE § 24.7 Performance appraisal system. The members of the Service shall be subject to...

  5. 43 CFR 426.13 - Excess land appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Excess land appraisals. 426.13 Section 426.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.13 Excess land appraisals. (a) When...

  6. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  7. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  8. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  9. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  10. 9 CFR 52.3 - Appraisal of swine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisal of swine. 52.3 Section 52.3... COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES SWINE DESTROYED BECAUSE OF PSEUDORABIES § 52.3 Appraisal of swine. (a) Herds of swine and individual breeding sows to be destroyed because...

  11. 42 CFR 35.32 - Board of appraisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Disposition of Articles Produced by Patients § 35.32 Board of appraisers. The officer in charge shall appoint, from the personnel of the station or hospital, a board of three... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Board of appraisers. 35.32 Section 35.32...

  12. 43 CFR 426.13 - Excess land appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Excess land appraisals. 426.13 Section 426.13 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.13 Excess land appraisals. (a) When...

  13. 77 FR 66840 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of...

  14. Tennessee Extension Agents' Perceptions of Performance Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Joseph L.; French, Russell L.

    2013-01-01

    Performance appraisal is necessary for summative decisions about employees, such as merit pay and promotion. The research reported here describes Extension agent perceptions of their performance appraisal system. The population studied consisted of all Tennessee Extension agents (N = 312). Surveys were completed by 218 respondents, for a completed…

  15. Administrators' and Faculty Members' Perceptions of the Performance Appraisal Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Earl E.

    An exploratory study examined how administrators (department heads/chairs) perceive faculty members, as well as themselves, in the performance appraisal interview. Subjects, 450 faculty members and 200 administrators at a midwestern university, answered an Appraisal Interview Questionnaire in which they rated administrator performance, content and…

  16. International Review of Staff Appraisal Practices: Current Trends and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Richard; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Describes the purposes, form, and content of staff appraisal schemes in ten countries' public administrations and discusses a number of related trends and issues. Examines the effects of these trends in light of the organizations' experiences and draws attention to the inadequate monitoring and evaluation of staff appraisal schemes. (Author/JG)

  17. 77 FR 52721 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Proposed Policy Statements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... the approval of distance education courses (e.g., on-line courses), and refers to discussion in.... Summary of Requirements Policy Statement 6 Education A. Course Approval B. Distance Education C. Summary... general processing of applications for an appraiser credential; (2) An appraiser's qualifying...

  18. PROPERTY APPRAISAL PROVIDES CONTROL, INSURANCE BASIS, AND VALUE ESTIMATE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    THOMSON, JACK

    A COMPLETE PROPERTY APPRAISAL SERVES AS A BASIS FOR CONTROL, INSURANCE AND VALUE ESTIMATE. A PROFESSIONAL APPRAISAL FIRM SHOULD PERFORM THIS FUNCTION BECAUSE (1) IT IS FAMILIAR WITH PROPER METHODS, (2) IT CAN PREPARE THE REPORT WITH MINIMUM CONFUSION AND INTERRRUPTION OF THE COLLEGE OPERATION, (3) USE OF ITS PRICING LIBRARY REDUCES TIME NEEDED AND…

  19. 28 CFR 345.41 - Performance appraisal for inmate workers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... from the industrial work assignment. Copies shall be sent to the unit team. Inmate workers should... FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Inmate Worker Standards and Performance Appraisal § 345.41 Performance appraisal for inmate workers. Work supervisors should complete a...

  20. 76 FR 5161 - Determination Regarding National Appraisal Complaint Hotline

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (Act), the Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) has... was made on January 12, 2011, during the ASC's open meeting. In making this determination, the ASC... national appraisal complaint hotline exists. In making the determination, the ASC must consider whether...

  1. The Performance-Appraisal Interview: An Alternative to Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michal-Johnson, Paula

    Offering instruction in performance appraisal (PA) skills as well as in selection interviewing contributes to business communication students' potential for finding the most appropriate job and keeping it. Students and faculty can benefit from the recognition that in appraisals of performance effective communication behavior is a key indicator of…

  2. Performance Appraisal: An Evaluation of Cambridgeshire Libraries' System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Describes the design, implementation, and practice of a personnel evaluation method (performance appraisal) at the Cambridgeshire Libraries. Findings reported include staff attitudes and perceptions of the method, and the overall effectiveness of the evaluation scheme. Various theoretical models of appraisal and practical applications in…

  3. 78 FR 9050 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of...

  4. 78 FR 71611 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of...

  5. 77 FR 5249 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of...

  6. 75 FR 57468 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of...

  7. 76 FR 25690 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of...

  8. Cognitive Appraisals in Young People with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Libby, Sarah; Reynolds, Shirley; Derisley, Jo; Clark, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Background: A number of cognitive appraisals have been identified as important in the manifestation of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in adults. There have, however, been few attempts to explore these cognitive appraisals in clinical groups of young people. Method: This study compared young people aged between 11 and 18 years with OCD (N =…

  9. Appraising Judaica and Hebraica Books: The Treasures on Your Shelves.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuchman, Maurice S.

    1994-01-01

    Defines purposes for a book appraisal and notes the following criteria for determining if an appraisal should be done: age, content, illustrations, place of publication, publisher, condition, marginal notes, and previous owners. Discusses items that may be donated to a synagogue or center library, including English-language Judaica, Hebrew and…

  10. A Composite Model for Employees' Performance Appraisal and Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manoharan, T. R.; Muralidharan, C.; Deshmukh, S. G.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to develop an innovative method of performance appraisal that will be useful for designing a structured training programme. Design/methodology/approach: Employees' performance appraisals are conducted using new approaches, namely data envelopment analysis and an integrated fuzzy model. Interpretive structural…

  11. 77 FR 59398 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Proposed Policy Statements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Proposed Policy Statements AGENCY: Appraisal... Institutions Examination Council issued a proposal to revise ASC Policy Statements. The ASC has received a... August 30, 2012, the ASC issued a proposal to revise the ASC Policy Statements. The proposed...

  12. Improving Performance Appraisals: Confronting Subjective Factors That Influence Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruger, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    Explores implications of subjective factors that influence rating processes upon which formal performance appraisal systems are based and presents a strategy for addressing this problem which utilizes the critical incident method to focus objectively on employee behavior. A performance feedback worksheet to be utilized with this appraisal method…

  13. Psychometric Properties of Self-Appraisals of Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, George C., III

    The research literature on the psychometric properties of self-appraisals of work performance summarizes many results in terms of leniency, variability, halo, and construct validity. Comparisons with appraisals tend to show more leniency, less variability, more bias, and less discriminant validity. Different factor structures are found among self-…

  14. The Writing of Performance Appraisals: A Survey of Personnel Directors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stine, Donna

    1982-01-01

    Reports the results of a survey of personnel directors from a variety of businesses on the factors of job performance appraisals and their common weaknesses. Offers recommendations for appraisal writing, including goals, content, audience analysis, style, and potential legal problems. (HTH)

  15. Appraisal Systems in L2 vs. L3 Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabrys-Barker, Danuta

    2011-01-01

    This article offers a comment on the ways multilingual language users perceive their L2 and L3 learning experiences at the level of appraisals, that is, variables that "assign value to current stimuli based on past experience". In the theoretical part of the article the concept of appraisals is introduced and briefly outlined from the different…

  16. Teacher Emotion Management in the Classroom: Appraisal, Regulation, and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Mei-Lin

    2009-01-01

    Compared with other professions, teachers in P-12 schools seem to experience the highest level of emotional exhaustion. The purpose of this study was to examine teacher emotions within the context of teachers' appraisals and the ways they regulate and cope with their emotions. This was done by exploring novice teachers' appraisals of classroom…

  17. 49 CFR 24.103 - Criteria for appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Real Property Acquisition § 24.103 Criteria for appraisals. (a) Appraisal requirements. This section sets forth the requirements for real...

  18. 49 CFR 24.103 - Criteria for appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Real Property Acquisition § 24.103 Criteria for appraisals. (a) Appraisal requirements. This section sets forth the requirements for real...

  19. A systematic review of the content of critical appraisal tools

    PubMed Central

    Katrak, Persis; Bialocerkowski, Andrea E; Massy-Westropp, Nicola; Kumar, VS Saravana; Grimmer, Karen A

    2004-01-01

    Background Consumers of research (researchers, administrators, educators and clinicians) frequently use standard critical appraisal tools to evaluate the quality of published research reports. However, there is no consensus regarding the most appropriate critical appraisal tool for allied health research. We summarized the content, intent, construction and psychometric properties of published, currently available critical appraisal tools to identify common elements and their relevance to allied health research. Methods A systematic review was undertaken of 121 published critical appraisal tools sourced from 108 papers located on electronic databases and the Internet. The tools were classified according to the study design for which they were intended. Their items were then classified into one of 12 criteria based on their intent. Commonly occurring items were identified. The empirical basis for construction of the tool, the method by which overall quality of the study was established, the psychometric properties of the critical appraisal tools and whether guidelines were provided for their use were also recorded. Results Eighty-seven percent of critical appraisal tools were specific to a research design, with most tools having been developed for experimental studies. There was considerable variability in items contained in the critical appraisal tools. Twelve percent of available tools were developed using specified empirical research. Forty-nine percent of the critical appraisal tools summarized the quality appraisal into a numeric summary score. Few critical appraisal tools had documented evidence of validity of their items, or reliability of use. Guidelines regarding administration of the tools were provided in 43% of cases. Conclusions There was considerable variability in intent, components, construction and psychometric properties of published critical appraisal tools for research reports. There is no "gold standard' critical appraisal tool for any study

  20. Using emotional intelligence to facilitate strengthened appraiser development.

    PubMed

    Tavabie, Abdol; Koczwara, Anna; Patterson, Fiona

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to developing strengthened medical appraiser skills prior to the introduction of medical revalidation. We describe how we extended previous skills-based models and competency checklists to produce a behavioural model of effective appraiser performance. Development centre (DC) methods were used to produce a one-day workshop to encourage appraisers to reflect on their current level of ability and to identify and address additional required skills through observation, practice and feedback. In describing the DC, we discuss the impact of using the concept of emotional intelligence (EI) to develop appraiser skills and improve self-awareness. This aimed to support appraisers to effectively influence appraisees' continual professional development (CPD) and review appraisee practice through audit, significant events and patient and colleague feedback, with the ultimate aim of improving patient care. Finally, we provide initial evaluation data for our DC approach. PMID:20202316

  1. Melatonin Alleviates Liver Apoptosis in Bile Duct Ligation Young Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Hsu, Mei-Hsin; Tain, You-Lin; Huang, Ying-Hsien; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Li, Shih-Wen; Huang, Li-Tung

    2016-01-01

    Bile duct ligation (BDL)-treated rats display cholestasis and liver damages. The potential protective activity of melatonin in young BDL rats in terms of apoptosis, mitochondrial function, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis has not yet been evaluated. Three groups of young male Sprague-Dawley rats were used: one group received laparotomy (Sham), a second group received BDL for two weeks (BDL), and a third group received BDL and intraperitoneal melatonin (100 mg/day) for two weeks (BDL + M). BDL group rats showed liver apoptosis, increased pro-inflamamtory mediators, caspases alterations, anti-apoptotic factors changes, and dysfunction of ER homeostasis. Melatonin effectively reversed apoptosis, mainly through intrinsic pathway and reversed ER stress. In addition, in vitro study showed melatonin exerted its effect mainly through the melatonin 2 receptor (MT2) in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, BDL in young rats caused liver apoptosis. Melatonin rescued the apoptotic changes via the intrinsic pathway, and possibly through the MT2 receptor. Melatonin also reversed ER stress induced by BDL. PMID:27556445

  2. Ligation-independent cloning of PCR products (LIC-PCR).

    PubMed Central

    Aslanidis, C; de Jong, P J

    1990-01-01

    A new procedure has been developed for the efficient cloning of complex PCR mixtures, resulting in libraries exclusively consisting of recombinant clones. Recombinants are generated between PCR products and a PCR-amplified plasmid vector. The procedure does not require the use of restriction enzymes, T4 DNA ligase or alkaline phosphatase. The 5'-ends of the primers used to generate the cloneable PCR fragments contain an additional 12 nucleotide (nt) sequence lacking dCMP. As a result, the amplification products include 12-nt sequences lacking dGMP at their 3'-ends. The 3'-terminal sequence can be removed by the action of the (3'----5') exonuclease activity of T4 DNA polymerase in the presence of dGTP, leading to fragments with 5'-extending single-stranded (ss) tails of a defined sequence and length. Similarly, the entire plasmid vector is amplified with primers homologous to sequences in the multiple cloning site. The vector oligos have additional 12-nt tails complementary to the tails used for fragment amplification, permitting the creation of ss-ends with T4 DNA polymerase in the presence of dCTP. Circularization can occur between vector molecules and PCR fragments as mediated by the 12-nt cohesive ends, but not in mixtures lacking insert fragments. The resulting circular recombinant molecules do not require in vitro ligation for efficient bacterial transformation. We have applied the procedure for the cloning of inter-ALU fragments from hybrid cell-lines and human cosmid clones. Images PMID:2235490

  3. Characterizing seamless ligation cloning extract for synthetic biological applications.

    PubMed

    Messerschmidt, Katrin; Hochrein, Lena; Dehm, Daniel; Schulz, Karina; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd

    2016-09-15

    Synthetic biology aims at designing and engineering organisms. The engineering process typically requires the establishment of suitable DNA constructs generated through fusion of multiple protein coding and regulatory sequences. Conventional cloning techniques, including those involving restriction enzymes and ligases, are often of limited scope, in particular when many DNA fragments must be joined or scar-free fusions are mandatory. Overlap-based-cloning methods have the potential to overcome such limitations. One such method uses seamless ligation cloning extract (SLiCE) prepared from Escherichia coli cells for straightforward and efficient in vitro fusion of DNA fragments. Here, we systematically characterized extracts prepared from the unmodified E. coli strain DH10B for SLiCE-mediated cloning and determined DNA sequence-associated parameters that affect cloning efficiency. Our data revealed the virtual absence of length restrictions for vector backbone (up to 13.5 kbp) and insert (90 bp to 1.6 kbp). Furthermore, differences in GC content in homology regions are easily tolerated and the deletion of unwanted vector sequences concomitant with targeted fragment insertion is straightforward. Thus, SLiCE represents a highly versatile DNA fusion method suitable for cloning projects in virtually all molecular and synthetic biology projects. PMID:27311554

  4. 2′,2′-Ligation Demonstrates the Thermal Dependence of DNA-Directed Positional Control

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu; Sha, Ruojie; Wang, Risheng; Ding, Liang; Canary, James W.; Seeman, Nadrian C.

    2008-01-01

    An oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) containing a 2′-aminoalkylmercaptouridine was ligated chemically with another ODN containing a 2′-carboxyalkylmercaptouridine to produce a 2′,2′-amide linked conjugate. Templation by a DNA hairpin resulted in ligation yields of > 95%. At room temperature, similar yields were obtained for amide ligations between pendent nucleotides located adjacent to each other or separated by three nucleotides. However, at 4 °C, ligation was vastly favored for the case where the pendent amine and carboxylate were attached to adjacent residues (i.e., at the 3′- and 5′-termini of the two ODNs). No reaction was observed to occur either at 4 °C or at room temperature between pendent nucleotides separated by 9 nucleotides. Denaturing gel electrophoresis, MALDI-TOF MS and full nuclease digestion coupled with LC-MS were used to characterize the reaction products. PMID:19122844

  5. Robotic-assisted left atrial ligation for stroke reduction in chronic atrial fibrillation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kiaii, Bob; McClure, R Scott; Skanes, Alan C; Ross, Ian G; Spouge, Alison R; Swinamer, Stuart; Rayman, Reiza; Bainbridge, Daniel T; Iglesias, Ivan; Novick, Richard J

    2006-01-01

    Patients with atrial fibrillation are at significant risk for sustaining a thromboembolic stroke. More than 90% of thromboemboli form in the left atrial appendage. Ligation of the left atrial appendage to reduce the risk of stroke is often performed in connection with other cardiac surgical procedures. As a stand-alone procedure, however, left atrial ligation has generally been deemed too invasive and has gained little support as an alternative therapeutic option. We report a case of port-access robotic-assisted left atrial ligation as a stand-alone procedure in a patient with chronic atrial fibrillation in whom anticoagulation was a contraindication. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of stand-alone robotic-assisted left atrial ligation in the literature. PMID:16387671

  6. Chemoselective modifications for the traceless ligation of thioamide-containing peptides and proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanxin J; Szantai-Kis, D Miklos; Petersson, E James

    2016-07-14

    Thioamides are single-atom substitutions of canonical amide bonds, and have been proven to be versatile and minimally perturbing probes in protein folding studies. Previously, our group showed that thioamides can be incorporated into proteins by native chemical ligation (NCL) with Cys as a ligation handle. In this study, we report the expansion of this strategy into non-Cys ligation sites, utilizing radical initiated desulfurization to "erase" the side chain thiol after ligation. The reaction exhibited high chemoselectivity against thioamides, which can be further enhanced with thioacetamide as a sacrificial scavenger. As a proof-of-concept example, we demonstrated the incorporation of a thioamide probe into a 56 amino acid protein, the B1 domain of Protein G (GB1). Finally, we showed that the method can be extended to β-thiol amino acid analogs and selenocysteine. PMID:27264841

  7. 24 CFR 200.206 - What are my responsibilities as an appraiser listed on the Appraiser Roster?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What are my responsibilities as an appraiser listed on the Appraiser Roster? 200.206 Section 200.206 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR...

  8. Teacher Assessment: A Review of the Performance Appraisal Literature with Special Reference to the Implications for Teacher Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyte, Judith Byrne

    1986-01-01

    An examination of teacher performance appraisal methods revealed some problems and abuses. Effective evaluation schemes were built upon observation usually mutually agreed, objective criteria for classroom observation, mutual goal seeting, self-appraisal, and support in the form of inservice training and available resources. (JD)

  9. Reflected appraisals and perceived importance of significant others' appraisals as predictors of college athletes' self-perceptions of competence.

    PubMed

    Amorose, Anthony J

    2003-03-01

    This study examined the reflected appraisal process with college athletes (N = 325). Specifically, the study tested (a) the relative influence of the reflected appraisals of mothers, fathers, coaches, and teammates (i.e., how athletes perceive these others view their ability) on athletes' self-perceptions of competence, and (b) whether the importance placed on these significant others as sources of competence information moderated the relationship. Based on a factor analysis, composite variables were formed representing the reflected appraisals of the athletes' parents (i.e., father, mother) and the reflected appraisals of sport-others (i.e., coach, teammates). Regression analyses revealed that the reflected appraisals of parents (beta = .21) and sport-others (beta = .55) predicted self-perceptions of competence (p < .05, R2 = .45). Follow-up analyses determined that the reflected appraisal of sport-others was a significantly stronger predictor. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the interaction of reflected appraisals and the importance of significant others did not significantly add to the prediction of self-perceptions of competence (p > .05, deltaR2 = .01) beyond the independent effects of these constructs. Results are discussed in terms of the reflected appraisal process and the influence of significant others on athletes' self-perceptions. PMID:12659477

  10. Comparison of frictional resistance of esthetic and semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, M. S.; Murali, R. V.; Kishorekumar, S.; Gnanashanmugam, K.; Jayanth, V.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The frictional resistance encountered during sliding mechanics has been well established in the orthodontic literature, and it consists of complex interactions between the bracket, archwire, and method of ligation the claim of reduced friction with self-ligating brackets is often cited as a primary advantage over conventional brackets. This study was done to compare and evaluate the frictional forces generated between fully esthetic brackets and semi-aesthetic self-ligating brackets, which are of passive form and SEM (scanning electron microscope) study of the Brackets after Frictional evaluation. Materials and Methods: Two types of self-ligating esthetic brackets, Damon clear (Ormco) made of fully ceramic and Opal (Ultradent Products, USA) and, Two types of self-ligating semi-esthetic brackets, Clarity SL (3M Unitek) and Damon 3 (Ormco) both of which are made of ceramic with metal slot. Arch wires with different dimensions and quality 17 × 25, 19 × 25 Titanium Molybdenum Alloy (TMA) and 17 × 25, 19 × 25 stainless steel that came from plain strands of wire were used for frictional comparison test. The brackets used in this study had 0.022 × 0.028 inch slot. Results: The statistical tests showed significantly smaller amount of kinetic frictional forces is generated by Damon 3 (semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets). For each wire used, Damon 3 displayed significantly lower frictional forces (P ≤ 0.05) than any of the self-ligating system, followed by Opal (fully esthetic self-ligating brackets) which generated smaller amount of frictional forces but relatively on the higher side when compared with Damon 3. Damon clear (fully esthetic self-ligating brackets) generated the maximum amount of kinetic forces with all types of wire dimensions and properties when compared to the other three types of self-ligating system. Clarity SL (semi-esthetic self-ligating brackets) generated smaller amount of frictional forces when compared with Damon clear and relatively

  11. Catalyst free visible light induced cycloaddition as an avenue for polymer ligation.

    PubMed

    Lederhose, Paul; Wüst, Kilian N R; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher; Blinco, James P

    2016-05-21

    The current study introduces a tetrazole species able to perform a rapid, visible light induced nitrile imine-mediated tetrazole-ene cycloaddition (NITEC). Full conversion of the tetrazole species under mild, catalyst free conditions is reported. Importantly, the visible light ligation technology is applied as a method for the modification and ligation of polymers featuring the rapid, clean and exclusive formation of the desired cycloadduct. PMID:27004740

  12. Ligation of RNA Oligomers by the Schistosoma mansoni Hammerhead Ribozyme in Frozen Solution.

    PubMed

    Lie, Lively; Biliya, Shweta; Vannberg, Fredrik; Wartell, Roger M

    2016-03-01

    The interstitial liquid phase within frozen aqueous solutions is an environment that minimizes RNA degradation and facilitates reactions that may have relevance to the RNA World hypothesis. Previous work has shown that frozen solutions support condensation of activated nucleotides into RNA oligomers, RNA ligation by the hairpin ribozyme, and RNA synthesis by a RNA polymerase ribozyme. In the current study, we examined the activity of a hammerhead ribozyme (HHR) in frozen solution. The Schistosoma mansoni hammerhead ribozyme, which predominantly cleaves RNA, can ligate its cleaved products (P1 and P2) with yields up to ~23 % in single turnover experiments at 25 °C in the presence of Mg(2+). Our studies show that this HHR ligates RNA oligomers in frozen solution in the absence of divalent cations. Citrate and other anions that exhibit strong ion-water affinity enhanced ligation. Yields up to 43 % were observed in one freeze-thaw cycle and a maximum of 60 % was obtained after several freeze-thaw cycles using wild-type P1 and P2. Truncated and mutated P1 substrates were ligated to P2 with yields of 14-24 % in one freeze-thaw cycle. A pool of P2 substrates with mixtures of all four bases at five positions were ligated with P1 in frozen solution. High-throughput sequencing indicated that 70 of the 1024 possible P2 sequences were represented in ligated products at 1000 or more read counts per million reads. The results indicate that the HHR can ligate a range of short RNA oligomers into an ensemble of diverse sequences in ice. PMID:26897022

  13. Force loss in archwire-guided tooth movement of conventional and self-ligating brackets.

    PubMed

    Montasser, Mona A; El-Bialy, Tarek; Keilig, Ludger; Reimann, Susanne; Jäger, Andreas; Bourauel, Christoph

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the differences in the force loss during simulated archwire-guided canine retraction between various conventional and self-ligating brackets. Three types of orthodontic brackets have been investigated experimentally using a biomechanical set-up: 1. conventional ligating brackets (Victory Series and Mini-Taurus), 2. self-ligating brackets (SmartClip: passive self-ligating bracket, and Time3 and SPEED: active self-ligating brackets), and 3. a conventional low-friction bracket (Synergy). All brackets had a nominal 0.022″ slot size. The brackets were combined with three rectangular 0.019×0.025″ archwires: 1. Remanium (stainless steel), 2. Nitinol SE (nickel-titanium alloy, NiTi), and 3. Beta III Titanium (titanium-molybdenum alloy). Stainless steel ligatures were used with the conventional brackets. Archwire-guided tooth movement was simulated over a retraction path of up to 4mm using a superelastic NiTi coil spring (force: 1 N). Force loss was lowest for the Victory Series and SmartClip brackets in combination with the steel guiding archwire (35 and 37.6 per cent, respectively) and highest for the SPEED and Mini-Taurus brackets in combination with the titanium wire (73.7 and 64.4 per cent, respectively). Force loss gradually increased by 10 per cent for each bracket type in combination with the different wires in the following sequence: stainless steel, Nitinol, and beta-titanium. Self-ligating brackets did not show improved performance compared with conventional brackets. There was no consistent pattern of force loss when comparing conventional and self-ligating brackets or passive and active self-ligating brackets. PMID:23382468

  14. Thoracoscopic Thoracic Duct Ligation for Persistent Cervical Chyle Leak: Utility of Immediate Pathologic Confirmation

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Alexander T.; Benharash, Peyman; French, Samuel W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Chylous fistulas can occur after neck surgery. Both nonoperative measures and direct fistula ligation may lead to fistula resolution. However, a refractory fistula requires upstream thoracic duct ligation. This can be accomplished minimally invasively. Success depends on lymphatic flow interruption where the duct enters the thorax. We report on the utility of frozen section confirmation in achieving this goal. Methods: Persistent chylous fistulas occurred in 2 patients after left cervical operations. In the first patient, attempted direct fistula ligation and sclerosant application failed. Fasting, parenteral nutrition, and somatostatin-analog provided no benefit. For the second patient, nonoperative treatment was also ineffective. Prior radiation therapy and multiple cervical operations militated against attempted direct fistula ligation. Both patients underwent thoracoscopic thoracic duct interruption. Results: In both cases, a duct candidate was identified between the aorta and azygos vein. Frozen section analysis of tissue resected between endoclips verified it as thoracic duct. Fistula resolution ensued promptly in both instances. Conclusions: This report lends further credence to the efficacy of minimally invasive thoracic duct ligation in treating postoperative cervical chylous fistulas. Frozen section confirmation of thoracic duct tissue is useful. It allows one facile with thoracoscopy, but less familiar with thoracic duct ligation, to confidently terminate the operation. PMID:19793489

  15. Blood flow changes after unilateral carotid artery ligation monitored by optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yushu; Liang, Chengbo; Suo, Yanyan; Zhao, Yuqian; Wang, Yi; Xu, Tao; Wang, Ruikang; Ma, Zhenhe

    2016-03-01

    Unilateral carotid artery ligation which could induce adaptive improvement is a classic model that has been widely used to study pathology of ischemic disease. In those studies, blood flow is an important parameter to characterize the ischemia. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful imaging modality which can provide depth resolved images in biological tissue with high spatial and temporal resolution. SPF rats was anesthetized with isoflurane and divided into two groups. In first group, bilateral carotid artery was surgically exposed, and then left carotid artery was ligated. Blood flow changes of the contralateral carotid artery was monitored using high speed spectral domain optical coherence tomography, including the absolute flow velocity and the flow volume. In the other group, skull window was opened at the ipsilateral cerebral cortex of ligation and blood supply of small artery was measured before and after the ligation. The measured results demonstrate the blood supply compensation process after unilateral carotid artery ligation. With the superiority of high resolution, OCT is an effective technology in monitoring results of carotid artery after ligation.

  16. Formation of oligonucleotide-PNA-chimeras by template-directed ligation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koppitz, M.; Nielsen, P. E.; Orgel, L. E.; Bada, J. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    DNA sequences have previously been reported to act as templates for the synthesis of PNA, and vice versa. A continuous evolutionary transition from an informational replicating system based on one polymer to a system based on the other would be facilitated if it were possible to form chimeras, that is molecules that contain monomers of both types. Here we show that ligation to form chimeras proceeds efficiently both on PNA and on DNA templates. The efficiency of ligation is primarily determined by the number of backbone bonds at the ligation site and the relative orientation of template and substrate strands. The most efficient reactions result in the formation of chimeras with ligation junctions resembling the structures of the backbones of PNA and DNA and with antiparallel alignment of both components of the chimera with the template, that is, ligations involving formation of 3'-phosphoramidate and 5'-ester bonds. However, double helices involving PNA are stable both with antiparallel and parallel orientation of the two strands. Ligation on PNA but not on DNA templates is, therefore, sometimes possible on templates with reversed orientation. The relevance of these findings to discussions of possible transitions between genetic systems is discussed.

  17. Prospective comparison of ligation and bipolar cautery technique in non-scalpel vasectomy

    PubMed Central

    Altok, Muammer; Şahin, Ali Feyzullah; Divrik, Rauf Taner; Yildirim, Ümit; Zorlu, Ferruh

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: There is no trial comparing bipolar cautery and ligation for occlusion of vas in non-scalpel vasectomy. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of these vasectomy occlusion techniques. Materials and Methods: Between January 2002-June 2009, patients were allocated in alternate order. We recruited 100 cases in cautery group and 100 cases in ligation group. Non-scalpel approach was performed during vasectomy and fascial interposition was performed in all cases. First semen analysis was done 3 months after vasectomy. Vasectomy success was defined as azoospermia or non-motile sperm lower than 100.000/mL. Results: Four patients from the cautery group were switched to the ligation group due to technical problem of cautery device. Thus, data of 96 patients as cautery group and 104 patients as ligation group were evaluated. After vasectomy, semen analyses were obtained from 59 of 96 (61.5%) patients in cautery group and to 66 of 104 (63.5%) patients in ligation group. There was no statistical significant difference between the two groups in terms of the success of vasectomy (p=0.863). Conclusion: Although bipolar cautery technique is safe, effective and feasible in non-scalpel vasectomy, it has no superiority to ligation. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of the success and complications between the two groups. PMID:26742977

  18. A novel, one-step amplification and oligonucleotide ligation procedure for multiplex genetic typing

    SciTech Connect

    Eggerding, F.A.

    1994-09-01

    A new technique, coupled amplification and oligonucleotide ligation (CAL), has been developed for simultaneous multiplex amplification and genotyping of DNA. CAL is a biphasic method which combines in one assay DNA amplification by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with DNA genotyping by the oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA). By virtue of a difference in the melting temperatures of PCR primer-target DNA and OLA probe-target DNA hybrids, the method allows preferential amplification of DNA during stage I and oligonucleotide ligation during stage II of the reaction. In stage I target DNA is amplified using high-melting primers in a two-step PCR cycle that employs a 72{degrees}C anneal-elongation step. In stage II genotyping of PCR products by competitive oligonucleotide ligation with oligonucleotide probes located between PCR primers is accomplished by several cycles of denaturation at 94{degrees}C followed by anneal-ligation at 55{degrees}C. Ligation products are fluorochrome-labeled at their 3{prime}-ends and analyzed electrophoretically on a fluorescent DNA sequencer. The CAL procedure has been used for multiplex detection of 30 cystic fibrosis mutations and for analysis of ras gene point mutations. Because mutation detection occurs concurrently with target amplification, the technique is rapid, highly sensitive and specific, easily automatable, and requires minimal sample processing.

  19. Treatment of glioblastoma multiforme cells with temozolomide-BioShuttle ligated by the inverse Diels-Alder ligation chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Klaus; Wiessler, Manfred; Ehemann, Volker; Pipkorn, Ruediger; Spring, Herbert; Debus, Juergen; Didinger, Bernd; Koch, Mario; Muller, Gabriele; Waldeck, Waldemar

    2008-01-01

    Recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), insensitive against most therapeutic interventions, has low response and survival rates. Temozolomide (TMZ) was approved for second-line therapy of recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma. However, TMZ therapy in GBM patients reveals properties such as reduced tolerability and inauspicious hemogram. The solution addressed here concerning GBM therapy consolidates and uses the potential of organic and peptide chemistry with molecular medicine. We enhanced the pharmacologic potency with simultaneous reduction of unwanted adverse reactions of the highly efficient chemotherapeutic TMZ. The TMZ connection to transporter molecules (TMZ-BioShuttle) was investigated, resulting in a much higher pharmacological effect in glioma cell lines and also with reduced dose rate. From this result we can conclude that a suitable chemistry could realize the ligation of pharmacologically active, but sensitive and highly unstable pharmaceutical ingredients without functional deprivation. The TMZ-BioShuttle dramatically enhanced the potential of TMZ for the treatment of brain tumors and is an attractive drug for combination chemotherapy. PMID:19920915

  20. An Investigation into Appraisal Bias: The Role of Decision Support Tools in Debiasing Valuation Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tidwell, Owen Alan

    2011-01-01

    Given the nature of the valuation task environment appraisers are often made aware of previous value opinions rendered by appraisers, commonly in the form of an historic appraisal. And, because an appraisal task involves the rendering of market value, a hypothetical, unobservable construct based on probabilities, direct feedback against this…

  1. 26 CFR 403.45 - Re-appraisal of property involved in an allowed petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Re-appraisal of property involved in an allowed... Forfeitures § 403.45 Re-appraisal of property involved in an allowed petition. In determining the nature and... appraisal thereof made pursuant to § 403.26(a)(2) but if the petitioner desires re-appraisal of the...

  2. 26 CFR 403.45 - Re-appraisal of property involved in an allowed petition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Re-appraisal of property involved in an allowed... Forfeitures § 403.45 Re-appraisal of property involved in an allowed petition. In determining the nature and... appraisal thereof made pursuant to § 403.26(a)(2) but if the petitioner desires re-appraisal of the...

  3. Total laparoscopic hysterectomy via suture and ligation technique

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hye Won; Lee, Ji Won; Kim, Ho Yeon; Kim, Bo Wook

    2016-01-01

    Objective The term 'total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) with classical suture method' refers to a surgical procedure performed using only sutures and ligations with intracorporeal or extracorporeal ties, without using any laser or electronic cauterization devices during laparoscopic surgery as in total abdominal hysterectomy. However, the method is not as widely used as electric coagulation equipment for TLH because further advances in technology and surgical technique are required and operative time can take longer. In the current study, we evaluated the benefits of the classical suture method for TLH. Methods This study retrospectively reviewed patients who received TLH using the classical suture method from August 2005 to April 2014. The patients' baseline characteristics were analyzed, including age, parity, cause of operation, medical and surgical history. Surgical outcomes analyzed included the weight of the uterus, operative time, complications, changes in hemoglobin level, blood transfusion requirements, and postoperative hospital stay. Results Of 746 patients who underwent TLH with the classical suture method, mean operation time was 96.9 minutes. Mean average decline in hemoglobin was 1.6 g/dL and transfusion rate was 6.2%. Urinary tract injuries were reported in 8 patients. Urinary tract injuries comprised 6 cases of bladder injury and 3 cases of ureter injury. There were no cases of vaginal stump infection, hematoma, bowel injury or abdominal wound complication. All cases involving complications occurred before 2010. Conclusion The classical suture method for TLH presents tolerable levels of complications and blood loss. Advanced surgical skill is expected to decrease operation time and complications. PMID:26866034

  4. Integrin Ligation Results in Nephrin Tyrosine Phosphorylation In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rakesh; Venkatareddy, Madhusudan; Kalinowski, Anne; Patel, Sanjeevkumar R.; Garg, Puneet

    2016-01-01

    Nephrin is expressed at the basolateral aspect of podocytes and is an important signaling protein at the glomerular slit diaphragm. In vitro studies have demonstrated that Nephrin phosphorylation-dependent signaling is able to assemble a protein complex that is able to polymerize actin. However, proximal signaling events that result in nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation are not well understood. Nephrin deletion in mice and human nephrin mutations result in developmental failure of the podocyte intercellular junction resutling in proteinuria. This has been presumed to be due to a failure to respond to an external polarized cue in the absence of nephrin or a failure to transduce an outside-in signal in patients with nephrin mutations. The nephrin extracellular domain binds to itself or neph1 across the foot process intercellular junction. Nephrin is tyrosine phosphorylation-silent in healthy glomeruli when presumably the nephrin extracellular domain is in an engaged state. These observations raise the possibility of an alternate proximal signaling mechanism that might be responsible for nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation. Here we present data showing that integrin engagement at the basal aspect of cultured podocytes results in nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation. This is abrogated by incubating podocytes with an antibody that prevents integrin β1 ligation and activation in response to binding to extracellular matrix. Furthermore, nephrin tyrosine phosphorylation was observed in podocytes expressing a membrane-targeted nephrin construct that lacks the extracellular domain. We propose, integrin-activation based signaling might be responsible for nephrin phosphorylation rather than engagment of the nephrin extracellular domain by a ligand. PMID:26848974

  5. A Simple Band for Gastric Banding.

    PubMed

    Broadbent

    1993-08-01

    The author has noted that flexible gastric bands have occasionally stenosed the gastric stoma or allowed it to dilate. A band was developed using a soft outer silicone rubber tube over a holding mechanism made out of a nylon cable tie passed within the silicone tube. This simple, easily applied band is rigid, resisting scar contracture and dilatation. PMID:10757939

  6. The effects of conscientiousness on the appraisals of daily stressors.

    PubMed

    Gartland, Nicola; O'Connor, Daryl B; Lawton, Rebecca

    2012-02-01

    Conscientiousness (C) is positively associated with health and longevity although the mechanisms underlying this relationship are not fully understood. Stress may play a role in explaining the C-longevity relationship. This study investigated whether C predicted the cognitive appraisals of daily stressors/hassles. Participants (N=102) completed measures of C and cognitive appraisal in relation to the most stressful hassle they had experienced in the last 7 days. Correlational analysis revealed that Total C, Order and Industriousness were positively correlated with primary appraisals, and Responsibility was positively correlated with secondary appraisals. The facets of C were then entered into hierarchical regression models, controlling for age and gender. This demonstrated that Order (β=0.27, p<0.05) and Industriousness (β=0.28, p<0.05) significantly predicted primary appraisals, accounting for 15.8% of the variance. Responsibility significantly predicted secondary appraisals (β=0.44, p<0.01), accounting for 16.3% of the variance. These findings indicate that higher Order and Industriousness are related to having a greater stake in daily stressors, whereas higher Responsibility is related to greater confidence in one's ability to deal with daily stressors. These results are the first demonstration that C is related to the appraisals of daily hassles and suggest that C may moderate the experience of stress in daily life. PMID:22259161

  7. Negative Trauma Appraisals and PTSD Symptoms in Sri Lankan Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ponnamperuma, Thyagi; Nicolson, Nancy A

    2016-02-01

    The cognitive model posits that negative appraisals play an important role in posttraumatic stress disorder, in children as well as in adults. This study examined correlates of negative appraisals in relation to trauma exposure and their relationship to posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in 414 Sri Lankan adolescents, aged 12 to 16, living in areas impacted in varying degrees by the 2004 tsunami. In 2008, participants completed measures of negative appraisals, lifetime traumatic events, posttraumatic stress symptoms, internalizing symptoms, ongoing adversity, and social support. The majority (70 %) of the participants reported multiple traumatic events; 25 % met DSM-IV criteria for full or partial PTSD. Adolescents who had experienced more severe events, abusive events, greater cumulative trauma, or greater current adversity reported more negative appraisals. In regression analyses controlling for known risk factors such as female gender, cumulative trauma, ongoing adversity, and low social support, negative appraisals were the best predictor of PTSS, explaining 22 % of the variance. This relationship appeared specific to PTSS, as negative appraisals did not predict internalizing symptoms. Findings confirm the link between negative cognitions concerning traumatic events and persistent PTSS in adolescents, but longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether appraisals contribute to symptom maintenance over time. PMID:25691386

  8. Simultaneous bile duct and portal vein ligation induces faster atrophy/hypertrophy complex than portal vein ligation: role of bile acids

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Weizheng; Chen, Geng; Wang, Xiaofeng; Zhang, Aiqun; Li, Chonghui; Lv, Wenping; Pan, Ke; Dong, Jia-hong

    2015-01-01

    Portal vein ligation (PVL) induces atrophy/hypertrophy complex (AHC). We hypothesised that simultaneous bile duct and portal vein ligation (BPL) might induce proper bile acid (BA) retention to enhance AHC by activating BA-mediated FXR signalling in the intact liver and promoting apoptosis in the ligated liver. We established rat models of 90% BPL and 90% PVL and found that BPL was well-tolerated and significantly accelerated AHC. The enhanced BA retention in the intact liver promoted hepatocyte proliferation by promoting the activation of FXR signalling, while that in the ligated liver intensified caspase3-mediated apoptosis. Decreasing the BA pools in the rats that underwent BPL could compromise these effects, whereas increasing the bile acid pools of rats that underwent PVL could induce similar effects. Second-stage resection of posterior-caudate-lobe-spearing hepatectomy was performed 5 days after BPL (B-Hx), PVL (V-Hx) or sham (S-SHx), as well as whole-caudate-lobe-spearing hepatectomy 5 days after sham (S-Hx). The B-Hx group had the most favourable survival rate (93.3%, the S-SHx group 0%, the S-Hx group 26.7%, the V-Hx group 56.7%, P < 0.01) and the most sustained regeneration. We conclude that BPL is a safe and effective method, and the acceleration of AHC was bile acid-dependent. PMID:25678050

  9. Appraisal of cognitive intrusions and response style: replication and extension.

    PubMed

    Freeston, M H; Ladouceur, R

    1993-02-01

    In a replication and extension of an earlier study of cognitive intrusions, appraisal and response strategies (Freeston, Ladouceur, Thibodeau & Gagnon, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 29, 585-597, 1991a), cognitive intrusions were studied among 534 outpatients and escorts recruited in waiting rooms of two large urban hospitals. Appraisals of high probability and low disapproval were associated with greater use of continued attention strategies whereas appraisals of low probability and high disapproval were associated with greater use of escape/avoidance strategies. These results support the distinction between the ego-dystonic nature of obsessional intrusive thoughts and ego-syntonic concerns about subjectively probable events found in worry. PMID:8442743

  10. Bronchial ligation enhances murine fetal lung development in whole-organ culture.

    PubMed

    Blewett, C J; Zgleszewski, S E; Chinoy, M R; Krummel, T M; Cilley, R E

    1996-07-01

    Evidence exists from both congenital anomalies and animal models that normal fetal lung development is dependent on maintenance of fluid pressure within the developing "airways." Fetal tracheostomy, allowing free egress of airway fluids, results in lung hypoplasia, indicating that some airway distending pressure is required for normal lung development to occur. In contrast, fetal tracheal ligation, which increases fetal airway pressure, reverses lung hypoplasia in animal models. The authors' experiments test the hypothesis that large airway obstruction accelerates the development of murine lungs in vitro in whole-organ culture. Fetuses from time-dated pregnant CD-1 mice at day 14 of gestation were removed (term, 20 days), and the lungs were excised. The left bronchus of each lung was ligated (n = 26), after which the left lung was isolated and cultured at 37 degrees C (95% air, 5% CO2) in BGJb media supplemented with vitamin C and antibiotics. Some fetal lungs were cultured under similar conditions without bronchial ligation (n = 11). After 7 days in culture, the lungs were taken for various analyses. The lungs were fixed in either formaldehyde and processed for paraffin embedding for light microscopic evaluation and morphometric data collection, or were freshly minced and aliquots taken for total protein and DNA content. Several more ligated and unligated lungs were processed for ultrastructural analysis. Morphometric analysis on transverse sections of lungs showed significant differences in the lung tissue size, thickness, epithelial cell height, luminal areas, perimeters, and total number of airspaces (airway + primordial alveolar airspaces). It was evident that bronchial ligation promoted lung development. The ligated lungs displayed thinning of the primordial alveolar walls with cuboidal epithelial cells. The total number of airspaces per field was lower for better developed ligated lungs because of the increased area of airspaces compared with that of the

  11. Nailfold capillaroscopy microscopy - an interdisciplinary appraisal.

    PubMed

    Klein-Weigel, Peter Franz; Sunderkötter, Cord; Sander, Oliver

    2016-09-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy is a method of great diagnostic value in the differential diagnosis of primary versus secondary Raynaud´s phenomenon, of systemic sclerosis versus other so called connective tissue diseases and of additional diagnostic value in other entities. Rheumatologists, dermatologists, and angiologists in Germany have convened in an interdisciplinary working group in which they synergistically combined their expertise to develop a common nomenclature and standards for the technical performance of nailfold capillary microscopy. The article gives an overview of historical and technical aspects of capillaroscopy, morphologic findings, and disease-specific patterns. It also provides a critical appraisal of its significance in the diagnosis and sequelae of these interdisciplinarily-managed diseases including its performance in children and gives an excursion in the potential perspectives of capillaroscopy in less common indications. PMID:27594391

  12. Critic appraisal. Postoperative sensitivity with indirect restorations.

    PubMed

    Farias, David; Walter, Ricardo; Swift, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative sensitivity is characterized by short and sharp pain, and often experienced after cementation of indirect restorations. Factors associated with the occurrence of post-cementation sensitivity include type of cement, removal of smear layer by acid-etching, aggressive tooth preparation, inadequate provisional restorations, and patient's age. Its prevention is based on either interfering with mechanoreceptor activity or occluding the dentinal tubules. Regarding the latter, application of dentin desensitizers may be effective for blocking the tubules and significantly reducing dentin permeability and consequently postoperative sensitivity. This Critical Appraisal will present available clinical data where traditional materials such as zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements (GIC) as well as self-adhesive resin-based cements were used. PMID:24761824

  13. Effect of palonosetron (5HT-3 antagonist) and pantoprazole (proton pump inhibitor) against surgical esophagitis induced by forestomach and pylorus ligation in albino rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A; Gautam, S; Rawat, J K; Singh, M; Saraf, S A; Kaithwas, G

    2016-01-01

    This study was embarked upon to evaluate the effects of pantoprazole and palonosetron on experimental esophagitis in albino wistar rats. Groups of rats, fasted for 36 h, were subjected to pylorus and forestomach ligation, supervened by treatment with normal saline (3 ml/kg, po, sham control), esophagitis control (3 ml/kg, po), pantoprazole (30 mg/kg, po), palonosetron (0.5 mg/kg, po), and their combination. Animals were sacrificed after 12 h and appraised for the volume of gastric juices, total acidity, free acidity, and esophagitis index. Esophageal tissues were further figured out biochemically for markers of oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators. The combination therapy comparably inhibited the esophagitis index (52.86%), gastric volume (66.04%), free acidity (43.76%), and total acidity (42.60%) in comparison with toxic control. The combination therapy also subsidized the biochemical and inflammatory markers to the purview less than toxic control. The morphological changes were scrutinized by scanning electron microscopy and were observed to demonstrate momentous protection by the amalgamation therapy. Combination therapy with pantoprazole and palonosetron flaunted sententious protection against experimental esophagitis. PMID:25743726

  14. Does heightening risk appraisals change people's intentions and behavior? A meta-analysis of experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Sheeran, Paschal; Harris, Peter R; Epton, Tracy

    2014-03-01

    Several theories construe risk appraisals as key determinants of decisions and actions, and this idea has been supported in correlational studies. However, correlational data cannot answer the question, "Does heightening risk appraisals change people's intentions and behavior?" The present review meta-analyzed experimental evidence in order to address this issue. We identified 4 elements of risk appraisal-risk perception, anticipatory emotion, anticipated emotion, and perceived severity-and located experiments that (a) engendered a statistically significant increase in risk appraisal among treatment compared to control participants and (b) measured subsequent intention or behavior. Heightening risk appraisals had effects of d+ = .31 (k = 217) and d+ = .23 (k = 93) on intention and behavior, respectively. There was evidence that the elements of risk appraisal combined to influence outcomes. For instance, heightening risk perceptions had larger effects on outcomes when anticipatory emotions or perceived severity was also increased. Crucially, risk appraisal effects were augmented by coping appraisals: Risk appraisals had larger effects on outcomes when response efficacy and self-efficacy were enhanced or when response costs were reduced. The largest effect sizes were observed when risk appraisals, response efficacy, and self-efficacy were simultaneously heightened (d+ = .98 and .45, for intention and behavior, respectively). These findings indicate that heightening risk appraisals changes intentions and behavior. However, the direct effects of risk appraisals were generally small. Exploiting synergies among the elements of risk appraisal, and between risk appraisals and coping appraisals, should make for more effective behavior change interventions. PMID:23731175

  15. Critical appraisal: dental amalgam update--part II: biological effects.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Michael J; Swift, Edward J

    2013-12-01

    Dental amalgam restorations have been controversial for over 150 years. In Part I of this Critical Appraisal, the clinical efficacy of dental amalgam was updated. Here in Part II, the biological effects of dental amalgam are addressed. PMID:24320063

  16. Sex differences in the neural bases of social appraisals.

    PubMed

    Veroude, Kim; Jolles, Jelle; Croiset, Gerda; Krabbendam, Lydia

    2014-04-01

    Behavioral research has demonstrated an advantage for females compared with males in social information processing. However, little is known about sex-related differences in brain activation during understanding of self and others. In the current functional magnetic resonance imaging study, this was assessed in late adolescents (aged 18-19) and young adults (aged 23-25) when making appraisals of self and other as well as reflected self-appraisals. Across all groups and for all appraisal conditions, activation was observed in the medial prefrontal cortex, medial posterior parietal cortex, left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left posterior parietal cortex. Males activated the medial posterior parietal cortex and bilateral temporoparietal junction more than females. The precuneus showed stronger activation in males compared with females specifically during appraisals of others. No differences between late adolescents and young adults were found. These results indicate that sex differences exist in the neural bases of social understanding. PMID:23386740

  17. 38 CFR 36.4342 - Qualification for designated fee appraisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... appraiser, an applicant must show to the satisfaction of the Secretary that his or her character, experience, and the type of work in which he or she has had experience for at least 5 years qualifies...

  18. 38 CFR 36.4342 - Qualification for designated fee appraisers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... appraiser, an applicant must show to the satisfaction of the Secretary that his or her character, experience, and the type of work in which he or she has had experience for at least 5 years qualifies...

  19. Managerial Competencies and the Managerial Performance Appraisal Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Steven E.; Karns, Lanny A.; Shaw, Kenneth; Mena, Manuel A.

    2001-01-01

    Human resource managers (n=277) identified six management competencies as critical: leadership, customer focus, results orientation, problem solving, communication skills, and teamwork. However, many companies do not assess these competencies in the management performance appraisal process. (Contains 22 references.) (SK)

  20. Comparison and transfer testing of multiplex ligation detection methods for GM plants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background With the increasing number of GMOs on the global market the maintenance of European GMO regulations is becoming more complex. For the analysis of a single food or feed sample it is necessary to assess the sample for the presence of many GMO-targets simultaneously at a sensitive level. Several methods have been published regarding DNA-based multidetection. Multiplex ligation detection methods have been described that use the same basic approach: i) hybridisation and ligation of specific probes, ii) amplification of the ligated probes and iii) detection and identification of the amplified products. Despite they all have this same basis, the published ligation methods differ radically. The present study investigated with real-time PCR whether these different ligation methods have any influence on the performance of the probes. Sensitivity and the specificity of the padlock probes (PLPs) with the ligation protocol with the best performance were also tested and the selected method was initially validated in a laboratory exchange study. Results Of the ligation protocols tested in this study, the best results were obtained with the PPLMD I and PPLMD II protocols and no consistent differences between these two protocols were observed. Both protocols are based on padlock probe ligation combined with microarray detection. Twenty PLPs were tested for specificity and the best probes were subjected to further evaluation. Up to 13 targets were detected specifically and simultaneously. During the interlaboratory exchange study similar results were achieved by the two participating institutes (NIB, Slovenia, and RIKILT, the Netherlands). Conclusions From the comparison of ligation protocols it can be concluded that two protocols perform equally well on the basis of the selected set of PLPs. Using the most ideal parameters the multiplicity of one of the methods was tested and 13 targets were successfully and specifically detected. In the interlaboratory exchange study it

  1. Effects of double ligation of Stensen's duct on the rabbit parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Maria, O M; Maria, S M; Redman, R S; Maria, A M; Saad El-Din, T A; Soussa, E F; Tran, S D

    2014-04-01

    Salivary gland duct ligation is an alternative to gland excision for treating sialorrhea or reducing salivary gland size prior to tumor excision. Duct ligation also is used as an approach to study salivary gland aging, regeneration, radiotherapy, sialolithiasis and sialadenitis. Reports conflict about the contribution of each salivary cell population to gland size reduction after ductal ligation. Certain cell populations, especially acini, reportedly undergo atrophy, apoptosis and proliferation during reduction of gland size. Acini also have been reported to de-differentiate into ducts. These contradictory results have been attributed to different animal or salivary gland models, or to methods of ligation. We report here a bilateral double ligature technique for rabbit parotid glands with histologic observations at 1, 7, 14, 30, 60 days after ligation. A large battery of special stains and immunohistochemical procedures was employed to define the cell populations. Four stages with overlapping features were observed that led to progressive shutdown of gland activities: 1) marked atrophy of the acinar cells occurred by 14 days, 2) response to and removal of the secretory material trapped in the acinar and ductal lumens mainly between 30 and 60 days, 3) reduction in the number of parenchymal (mostly acinar) cells by apoptosis that occurred mainly between 14-30 days, and 4) maintenance of steady-state at 60 days with a low rate of fluid, protein, and glycoprotein secretion, which greatly decreased the number of leukocytes engaged in the removal of the luminal contents. The main post- ligation characteristics were dilation of ductal and acinar lumens, massive transient infiltration of mostly heterophils (rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes), acinar atrophy, and apoptosis of both acinar and ductal cells. Proliferation was uncommon except in the larger ducts. By 30 days, the distribution of myoepithelial cells had spread from exclusively investing the intercalated ducts

  2. Controllable Mismatched Ligation for Bioluminescence Screening of Known and Unknown Mutations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qinfeng; Huang, Si-Qiang; Ma, Fei; Tang, Bo; Zhang, Chun-Yang

    2016-02-16

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are closely related to human diseases and individual drug responses, and the accurate detection of SNPs is crucial to both clinical diagnosis and development of personalized medicine. Among various SNPs detection methods, ligase detection reaction (LDR) has shown great potential due to its low detection limit and excellent specificity. However, frequent involvement of expensive labels increases the experimental cost and compromises the assay efficiency, and the requirement of careful predesigned probes limits it to only known SNPs assays. In this research, we develop a controllable mismatched ligation for bioluminescence screening of both known and unknown mutations. Especially, the ligation specificity of E. coli ligase is tunable under different experimental conditions. The mismatches locating on the 3'-side of the nick cannot be ligated efficiently by E. coli ligase, whereas all mismatches locating on the 5'-side of the nick can be ligated efficiently by E. coli ligase. We design a 3'-discriminating probe (3'-probe) for the discrimination of known mutation and introduce a T7 Endo I for the detection of unknown mutation. With the integration of bioluminescence monitoring of ligation byproduct adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), both known and unknown SNPs can be easily detected without the involvement of any expensive labels and labor-intensive separation. This method is simple, homogeneous, label-free, and cost-effective and may provide a valuable complement to current sequencing technologies for disease diagnostics, personalized medicine, and biomedical research. PMID:26754165

  3. Effects of vascular pedicle ligation on blood flow in canine semitendinosus muscle.

    PubMed

    Solano, M; Purinton, P T; Chambers, J N; Munnell, J F

    1995-06-01

    Blood flow to the semitendinosus muscle was studied in 12 dogs after ligation of either the proximal or distal vascular pedicle and elevation of the muscle from its normal position. Using 15-micron-diameter radioactive microspheres, flow was measured at rest, 6 and 18 days after muscle elevation and pedicle ligation. Mean blood flow in the proximal region of the muscle 6 and 18 days after ligation of the caudal gluteal (proximal) pedicle was not significantly different from mean blood flow calculated in the middle and distal regions of the muscle. There was also no significant difference in mean blood flow among proximal, middle, and distal regions of the muscle, 6 and 18 days after ligation of the distal caudal femoral (distal) pedicle. There was significantly (P < 0.05) increased blood flow between group-A (ligation of caudal gluteal artery) and group-C (operated-control) muscles, 6 and 18 days after surgery. There was no loss of muscle fiber striations or nuclei, or presence of fibrous tissue that might have indicated ischemic necrosis in any of the experimental groups. These results indicate that the entire semitendinosus muscle can be sustained by the blood flow from either of its 2 vascular pedicles, which reinforces its potential as a muscle flap. PMID:7653880

  4. A comparison of self-ligating and conventional orthodontic bracket systems.

    PubMed

    Read-Ward, G E; Jones, S P; Davies, E H

    1997-11-01

    This ex-vivo study compared the static frictional resistance of three self-ligating brackets with a conventional steel-ligated Ultratrimm bracket. The effects of archwire size (0.020, 0.019 x 0.025 and 0.021 x 0.025-inch), bracket/archwire angulation (0, 5 and 10 degrees) and the presence of unstimulated human saliva were investigated. The study demonstrated that both increases in wire size and bracket/archwire angulation resulted in increased static frictional resistance for all bracket types tested, with the presence of saliva having an inconsistent effect. Mobil-Lock Variable-Slot had the least friction for all wires for 0 degree angulation. However, with the introduction of angulation, the values were comparable to those of the other brackets. Activa brackets had the second lowest frictional resistance, although high values were found with 0.019 x 0.025-inch wires. SPEED brackets demonstrated low forces with round wires, although with rectangular wires or in the presence of angulation, friction was greatly increased. Ultratrimm brackets produced large individual variation, confirming the difficulty in standardizing ligation force, although under certain conditions, significantly larger frictional forces were observed. In conclusion, self-ligating brackets showed reduced frictional resistance in comparison to steel ligated brackets only under certain conditions. PMID:9459030

  5. Repair of Chromosomal Double-Strand Breaks by Precise Ligation in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lin, William Y.; Wilson, John H.; Lin, Yunfu

    2013-01-01

    Double-strand breaks (DSBs), a common type of DNA lesion, occur daily in human cells as a result of both endogenous and exogenous damaging agents. DSBs are repaired in two general ways: by the homology-dependent, error-free pathways of homologous recombination (HR) and by the homology-independent, error-prone pathways of nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ), with NHEJ predominating in most cells. DSBs with compatible ends can be re-joined in vitro with DNA ligase alone, which raises the question of whether such DSBs require the more elaborate machinery of NHEJ to be repaired in cells. Here we report that chromosomal DSBs with compatible ends introduced by the rare-cutting endonuclease, ISceI, are repaired by precise ligation nearly 100% of the time in human cells. Precise ligation depends on the classical NHEJ components Ku70, XRCC4, and DNA ligase IV, since siRNA knockdowns of these factors significantly reduced the efficiency of precise ligation. Interestingly, knockdown of the tumor suppressors p53 or BRCA1 showed similar effects as the knockdowns of NHEJ factors. In contrast, knockdown of components involved in alternative NHEJ, mismatch repair, nucleotide excision repair, and single-strand break repair did not reduce precise ligation. In summary, our results demonstrate that DSBs in human cells are efficiently repaired by precise ligation, which requires classical NHEJ components and is enhanced by p53 and BRCA1. PMID:23707303

  6. A Relaxed Active Site After Exon Ligation by the Group I Intron

    SciTech Connect

    Lipchock,S.; Strobel, S.

    2008-01-01

    During RNA maturation, the group I intron promotes two sequential phosphorotransfer reactions resulting in exon ligation and intron release. Here, we report the crystal structure of the intron in complex with spliced exons and two additional structures that examine the role of active-site metal ions during the second step of RNA splicing. These structures reveal a relaxed active site, in which direct metal coordination by the exons is lost after ligation, while other tertiary interactions are retained between the exon and the intron. Consistent with these structural observations, kinetic and thermodynamic measurements show that the scissile phosphate makes direct contact with metals in the ground state before exon ligation and in the transition state, but not after exon ligation. Despite no direct exonic interactions and even in the absence of the scissile phosphate, two metal ions remain bound within the active site. Together, these data suggest that release of the ligated exons from the intron is preceded by a change in substrate-metal coordination before tertiary hydrogen bonding contacts to the exons are broken.

  7. Vitamin K1 attenuates bile duct ligation-induced liver fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Kun; Sun, Quan; Chen, Baian; Li, Shengli; Lu, Jing

    2014-06-01

    Vitamin K1 is used as a liver protection drug for cholestasis-induced liver fibrosis in China, but the mechanism of vitamin K1's action in liver fibrosis is unclear. In this study, a model of liver fibrosis was achieved via bile duct ligation in rats. The rats were then injected with vitamin K1, and the levels of serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, total bilirubin and the fibrotic grade score, collagen content, the expressions of α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and cytokeratin 19 (CK19) were measured on day 28 after ligation. The levels of the biochemical parameters, fibrotic score and collagen content were significantly reduced by treatment with vitamin K1 in bile duct-ligated rats. In addition, α-SMA and CK19 expression was significantly reduced by vitamin K1 treatment in bile duct-ligated rats. These results suggested that vitamin K1 may attenuate liver fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic stellate cell activation in bile duct-ligated rats. PMID:24742111

  8. Sugar-Assisted Glycopeptide Ligation with Complex Oligosaccharides: Scope and Limitations

    PubMed Central

    Bennett, Clay S.; Dean, Stephen M.; Payne, Richard J.; Ficht, Simon; Brik, Ashraf

    2008-01-01

    We have previously shown sugar-assisted ligation (SAL) to be a useful method for the convergent construction of glycopeptides. However to date SAL has only been carried out on systems where the thiol auxiliary is attached to a monosaccharide. For SAL to be truly applicable to the construction of fully elaborated glycopeptides and glycoproteins it must be possible to carry out the reaction when the thiol auxiliary is attached to more elaborate sugars, as these are frequently what are observed in nature. Here we examine the effects of glycosylation at C-3, C-4 and C-6 of the C-2 auxiliary-containing glycan. Model glycopeptides where synthesized chemoenzymatically and reacted with peptide thioesters used in our previous work. These studies reveal that SAL is sensitive to extended glycosylation on the auxiliary-containing sugar. While it is possible to carry out SAL with extended glycosylation at C-4 and C-6, the presence of glycosylation at C-3 prevents the ligation from occurring. Additionally, with glycosylation at C-4 the ligation efficiency is affected by the identity of the N-terminal AA, while the nature of the C-terminal residue of the peptide thioester does not appear affect ligation efficiency. These studies provide useful guidelines in deciding when it is appropriate to use SAL in the synthesis of complex glycopeptides and glycoproteins, and how to design ligation junctions for optimal yield. PMID:18698778

  9. No Scalpel Vasectomy (NSV) with Ligation and Excision: A Single Centre Experience.

    PubMed

    Bhuyan, K; Ali, I; Sarma, G; Das, U

    2015-12-01

    No scalpel vasectomy (NSV) has proved to be a safe and simple procedure for permanent sterilization for men. Ligation and excision of the vas deferens followed by fascial interposition is the procedure of choice. It is believed that vas excision without fascial interposition has a risk of failure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the technique of NSV with ligation and excision only. No scalpel vasectomy performed in an urban centre was taken for this prospective study. Only ligation and excision procedure was applied in its execution. It was demonstrated and performed under the supervision of an expert. Information regarding early and late complications including failure was gathered. A total number of 3,392 NSVs were performed in an urban training centre between Apr' 2009 to Mar' 2013. The procedure applied was only excision and ligation of the vas deferens. The fascial interposition was not included in the procedure. Haematoma (1), bleeding (3), foreign body granuloma (1), scrotal pain (3), epididymitis (1) and sinus formations (1) were encountered. There was only one failure in the whole group of acceptors. NSV with ligation and excision is a simple and easy procedure to learn and perform. Complications and failures are negligible. The additional fascial interposition needs more surgical skill and is time-consuming, hence can be avoided where a large number of acceptors need to undergo NSV in a rural camp. PMID:27011506

  10. Come Join the Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Cathy Applefeld

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of students in Blue Springs, Missouri, are joining the band, drawn by a band director who emphasizes caring and inclusiveness. In the four years since Melissia Goff arrived at Blue Springs High School, the school's extensive band program has swelled. The marching band alone has gone from 100 to 185 participants. Also under Goff's…

  11. Alienation appraisals distinguish adults diagnosed with DID from PTSD.

    PubMed

    DePrince, Anne P; Huntjens, Rafaële J C; Dorahy, Martin J

    2015-11-01

    Studies are beginning to show the importance of appraisals to different types and severities of psychiatric disorders. Yet, little work in this area has assessed whether trauma-related appraisals can differentiate complex trauma-related disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative identity disorder (DID). The current study evaluated whether any of 6 trauma-related appraisals distinguished adults diagnosed with DID from those diagnosed with PTSD. To accomplish this, we first examined the basic psychometric properties of a Dutch-translated short-form of the Trauma Appraisals Questionnaire (TAQ) in healthy control (n = 57), PTSD (n = 27) and DID (n = 12) samples. The short-form Dutch translation of the TAQ showed good internal reliability and criterion-related validity for all 6 subscales (betrayal, self-blame, fear, alienation, shame, anger). Of the 6 subscales, the alienation appraisal subscale specifically differentiated DID from PTSD, with the former group reporting more alienation. Abuse-related appraisals that emphasize disconnection from self and others may contribute to reported problems of memory and identity common in DID. The current findings suggest that addressing experiences of alienation may be particularly important in treatment for clients diagnosed with DID. PMID:26168348

  12. Green Jobs: Definition and Method of Appraisal of Chemical and Biological Risks.

    PubMed

    Cheneval, Erwan; Busque, Marc-Antoine; Ostiguy, Claude; Lavoie, Jacques; Bourbonnais, Robert; Labrèche, France; Bakhiyi, Bouchra; Zayed, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    In the wake of sustainable development, green jobs are developing rapidly, changing the work environment. However a green job is not automatically a safe job. The aim of the study was to define green jobs, and to establish a preliminary risk assessment of chemical substances and biological agents for workers in Quebec. An operational definition was developed, along with criteria and sustainable development principles to discriminate green jobs from regular jobs. The potential toxicity or hazard associated with their chemical and biological exposures was assessed, and the workers' exposure appraised using an expert assessment method. A control banding approach was then used to assess risks for workers in selected green jobs. A double entry model allowed us to set priorities in terms of chemical or biological risk. Among jobs that present the highest risk potential, several are related to waste management. The developed method is flexible and could be adapted to better appraise the risks that workers are facing or to propose control measures. PMID:26718400

  13. The fidelity of the ligation step determines how ends are resolved during Nonhomologous end joining

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Crystal A.; Strande, Natasha T.; Pryor, John M.; Strom, Christina; Mieczkowski, Piotr; Burkhalter, Martin D.; Oh, Sehyun; Qaqish, Bahjat F.; Moore, Dominic T.; Hendrickson, Eric A.; Ramsden, Dale A.

    2014-01-01

    Nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) can effectively resolve chromosome breaks despite diverse end structures, but it is unclear how the steps employed for resolution are determined. We sought to address this question by analyzing cellular NHEJ of ends with systematically mispaired and damaged termini. We show NHEJ is uniquely proficient at bypassing subtle terminal mispairs and radiomimetic damage by direct ligation. Nevertheless, bypass ability varies widely, with increases in mispair severity gradually reducing bypass products from 85% to 6%. End-processing by nucleases and polymerases is increased to compensate, though paths with the fewest number of steps to generate a substrate suitable for ligation are favored. Thus, both the frequency and nature of end processing are tailored to meet the needs of the ligation step. We propose a model where the ligase organizes all steps during NHEJ within the stable paired-end complex to limit end processing and associated errors. PMID:24989324

  14. Self-Expandable Metal Stents for Persisting Esophageal Variceal Bleeding after Band Ligation or Injection-Therapy: A Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Martin; Seufferlein, Thomas; Perkhofer, Lukas; Wagner, Martin; Kleger, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Background and Study Aims Despite a pronounced reduction of lethality rates due to upper gastrointestinal bleeding, esophageal variceal bleeding remains a challenge for the endoscopist and still accounts for a mortality rate of up to 40% within the first 6 weeks. A relevant proportion of patients with esophageal variceal bleeding remains refractory to standard therapy, thus making a call for additional tools to achieve hemostasis. Self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) incorporate such a tool. Methods We evaluated a total number of 582 patients admitted to our endoscopy unit with the diagnosis “gastrointestinal bleeding” according to our documentation software between 2011 and 2014. 82 patients suffered from esophageal variceal bleeding, out of which 11 cases were refractory to standard therapy leading to SEMS application. Patients with esophageal malignancy, fistula, or stricture and a non-esophageal variceal bleeding source were excluded from the analysis. A retrospective analysis reporting a series of clinically relevant parameters in combination with bleeding control rates and adverse events was performed. Results The initial bleeding control rate after SEMS application was 100%. Despite this success, we observed a 27% mortality rate within the first 42 days. All of these patients died due to non-directly hemorrhage-associated reasons. The majority of patients exhibited an extensive demand of medical care with prolonged hospital stay. Common complications were hepatic decompensation, pulmonary infection and decline of renal function. Interestingly, we found in 7 out of 11 patients (63.6%) stent dislocation at time of control endoscopy 24 h after hemostasis or at time of stent removal. The presence of hiatal hernia did not affect obviously stent dislocation rates. Refractory patients had significantly longer hospitalization times compared to non-refractory patients. Conclusions Self-expandable metal stents for esophageal variceal bleeding seem to be safe and efficient after failed standard therapy. Stent migration appeared to be a common incident that did not lead to reactivation of bleeding in any of our patients. SEMS should be considered a reasonable treatment option for refractory esophageal variceal bleeding after treatment failure of ligature and sclerotherapy and non-availability of or contraindication for other measures (e.g. TIPS). PMID:26098635

  15. Frictional resistance of self-ligating versus conventional brackets in different bracket-archwire-angle combinations

    PubMed Central

    MONTEIRO, Maria Regina Guerra; da SILVA, Licinio Esmeraldo; ELIAS, Carlos Nelson; VILELLA, Oswaldo de Vasconcellos

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the influence of archwire material (NiTi, beta-Ti and stainless steel) and brackets design (self-ligating and conventional) on the frictional force resistance. Material and Methods Two types of brackets (self-ligating brackets - Smartclip, 3M/Unitek - and conventional brackets - Gemini, 3M/Unitek) with three (0, 5, and 10 degrees) slot angulation attached with elastomeric ligatures (TP Orthodontics) were tested. All brackets were tested with archwire 0.019"x0.025" nickel-titanium, beta-titanium, and stainless steel (Unitek/3M). The mechanical testing was performed with a universal testing machine eMIC DL 10000 (eMIC Co, Brazil). The wires were pulled from the bracket slots at a cross-head speed of 3 mm/min until 2 mm displacement. Results Self-ligating brackets produced significantly lower friction values compared with those of conventional brackets. Frictional force resistance values were directly proportional to the increase in the bracket/ wire angulation. With regard to conventional brackets, stainless steel wires had the lowest friction force values, followed by nickel-titanium and beta-titanium ones. With regard to self-ligating brackets, the nickel-titanium wires had the lowest friction values, significantly lower than those of other materials. Conclusion even at different angulations, the self-ligating brackets showed significantly lower friction force values than the conventional brackets. Combined with nickel-titanium wires, the self-ligating brackets exhibit much lower friction, possibly due to the contact between nickel-titanium clips and wires of the same material. PMID:25025564

  16. The effect of ligation of the distal vein in snuff-box arteriovenous fistula.

    PubMed

    Beigi, Ali Akbar; Masoudpour, Hassan; Alavi, Maryam

    2009-11-01

    Arterio-venous fistula (AVF) in the snuff-box region is one of the current techniques used for creating a vascular access in patients undergoing dialysis. The aim of this study is to find out whether ligating the distal vein in AVF in the snuff-box will bring about any change in the efficiency and complications of the fistula. Sixty patients (30 males, 30 females) suffering from chronic renal failure, who had been admitted for creating an AVF, were randomly divided into two groups after having filled out consent forms. After the AVF was made, the distal vein was ligated in the first group, but not in the second group. The patients were discharged after being given the necessary advice on how to take care of their fistula. They were examined on post-surgical days 1, 30 and 90. Early efficiency in the ligated and non-ligated groups was 100% and 96.7% respectively while late efficiency in the two groups was 90% and 83.4%, respectively (P > 0.05). The most common complication in both groups was thrombosis (11.7%). Venous hypertension and edema were observed in two patients (both from the non-ligated group) and infection of the surgical site was observed in only one patient. Our study suggests that, considering the high efficiency level and low complication rate, AVF at the snuff-box region constitutes one of the best possible vascular accesses for patients undergoing hemodialysis. Ligation of the distal vein prevents the development of venous hypertension in the fistula. PMID:19861886

  17. Isolation of novel ribozymes that ligate AMP-activated RNA substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hager, A. J.; Szostak, J. W.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The protein enzymes RNA ligase and DNA ligase catalyze the ligation of nucleic acids via an adenosine-5'-5'-pyrophosphate 'capped' RNA or DNA intermediate. The activation of nucleic acid substrates by adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) may be a vestige of 'RNA world' catalysis. AMP-activated ligation seems ideally suited for catalysis by ribozymes (RNA enzymes), because an RNA motif capable of tightly and specifically binding AMP has previously been isolated. RESULTS: We used in vitro selection and directed evolution to explore the ability of ribozymes to catalyze the template-directed ligation of AMP-activated RNAs. We subjected a pool of 10(15) RNA molecules, each consisting of long random sequences flanking a mutagenized adenosine triphosphate (ATP) aptamer, to ten rounds of in vitro selection, including three rounds involving mutagenic polymerase chain reaction. Selection was for the ligation of an oligonucleotide to the 5'-capped active pool RNA species. Many different ligase ribozymes were isolated; these ribozymes had rates of reaction up to 0.4 ligations per hour, corresponding to rate accelerations of approximately 5 x10(5) over the templated, but otherwise uncatalyzed, background reaction rate. Three characterized ribozymes catalyzed the formation of 3'-5'-phosphodiester bonds and were highly specific for activation by AMP at the ligation site. CONCLUSIONS: The existence of a new class of ligase ribozymes is consistent with the hypothesis that the unusual mechanism of the biological ligases resulted from a conservation of mechanism during an evolutionary replacement of a primordial ribozyme ligase by a more modern protein enzyme. The newly isolated ligase ribozymes may also provide a starting point for the isolation of ribozymes that catalyze the polymerization of AMP-activated oligonucleotides or mononucleotides, which might have been the prebiotic analogs of nucleoside triphosphates.

  18. X-Band/Ka-Band Dichroic Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Jacqueline C.

    1993-01-01

    Dichroic plate designed nearly transparent to circularly polarized microwaves at frequencies between 31.8 and 34.7 GHz (in and near Ka band) and reflective at frequencies between 8.4 and 8.5 GHz (in the X band). Made of electrically conductive material and contains rectangular holes in staggered pattern.

  19. Enzymatic Ligation Creates Discrete Multi-Nanoparticle Building Blocks for Self-Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Claridge, Shelley A.; Mastroianni, Alexander J.; Au, Yeung B.; Liang, Huiyang W.; Micheel, Christine M.; Frechet, Jean M.J.; Alivisatos, A. Paul

    2008-05-27

    Enzymatic ligation of discrete nanoparticle?DNA conjugates creates nanoparticle dimer and trimer structures in which the nanoparticles are linked by single-stranded DNA, rather than double-stranded DNA as in previous experiments. Ligation is verified by agarose gel and small-angle X-ray scattering. This capability is utilized in two ways: first to create a new class of multiparticle building blocks for nanoscale self-assembly; second to develop a system which can amplify a population of discrete nanoparticle assemblies.

  20. Proline-based Phosphoramidite Reagents for the Reductive Ligation of S-Nitrosothiols

    PubMed Central

    Xian, Ming

    2015-01-01

    S-Nitrosothiols have many biological implications but are rarely used in organic synthesis. In this work we report the development of proline-based phosphoramidite substrates that can effectively convert S-nitrosothiols to proline-based sulfenamides through a reductive ligation process. A unique property of this method is that the phosphine oxide moiety on the ligation products can be readily removed under acidic conditions. In conjugation with the facile preparation of S-nitrosothiols (RSNO) from the corresponding thiols (RSH), this method provides a new way to prepare proline-based sulfenamides from simple thiol starting materials. PMID:26758493