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Sample records for appraisal band ligation

  1. Endoscopic banding ligation can effectively remove the submucosal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Fei-Zhen; Shen, Zhe; Chen, Hong-Tan; Yu, Chao-Hui; Chen, Wei-Xing

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic band ligation for variceal bleeding in cirrhosis has been proved its safety and efficacy. We tried to treat submucosal tumors the gastrointestinal (GI) tract by endoscopic band ligation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of endoscopic band ligation in the treatment of submucosal tumors of the GI tract. There are 29 patients (15 men, 14 women, age range: 25-67 years old) with 30 submucosal lesions of the GI tract, including 15 lesions in the esophagus, 14 lesions in the of stomach and 1 lesion in the duodenal bulb. The average maximum diameter of the lesions was 7.78 mm (range: 2.4-23.6 mm). All submucosal lesions were successfully removed by band ligation. There is no bleeding and perforation in all patients. No recurrence was observed for the one month following-up. Endoscopic band ligation promises could be considered as a safe and effective for the treatment submucosal tumors of the GI tract, especially for the diameter of tumor < 25 mm. PMID:25785162

  2. [Blue nevus syndrome: endoscopic treatment by sclerosis and banding ligation].

    PubMed

    Sala Felis, T; Urquijo Ponce, J J; López Viedma, B; Pertejo Pastor, V; Berenguer Lapuerta, J

    1999-03-01

    The blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome is a rare entity characterized by the presence of cavernous hemangiomas in the skin and gastrointestinal tract with frequent digestive hemorrhages. Different therapeutic modalities exist: medical treatment, surgical resection; and most recently, endoscopic therapy has been described. We present a patient with blue rubber bleb nevus syndrome treated with combined endoscopic therapy: sclerosis and band ligation. PMID:10228324

  3. Rubber Band Ligation for Hemorrhoids: an Office Experience.

    PubMed

    Aram, Fahmi Omer

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the effectiveness, safety, quality of life, and the results of the treatment for second- and third-degree hemorrhoids using rubber band ligation (RBL). This is a retrospective study for 890 patients who came to outpatient clinic from August 2007 to March 2013; all underwent rubber band ligation using the Barron applicator on an outpatient basis for second- and third-degree internal symptomatic hemorrhoids. Data were collected from the patients' files. The patients were asked to return to outpatient clinic for follow-up at 2 weeks and 1 and 6 months and by telephone call every 6 months for 2 years. Six hundred seventy-seven patients (76 %) were cured (P = 0.31). Symptomatic recurrence was detected in 178 cases (20 %) after 2 years. Thirty-five patients (4 %) had some complications from RBL, which required no hospitalization. The complications were pain, rectal bleeding, and vasovagal symptoms (2.6, 1, and 0.4 % of patients, respectively). Seven hundred fifty-six (85 %) of the patients are males; the mean age was 45 years (range, 16-86 years). RBL is a simple, safe, and effective method for treating symptomatic second- and third-degree hemorrhoids as an outpatient procedure with significant improvement in quality of life. PMID:27574343

  4. Endoscopic band ligation for bleeding lesions in the small bowel

    PubMed Central

    Ikeya, Takashi; Ishii, Naoki; Shimamura, Yuto; Nakano, Kaoru; Ego, Mai; Nakamura, Kenji; Takagi, Koichi; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety and efficacy of endoscopic band ligation (EBL) for bleeding lesions in the small bowel. METHODS: This is a retrospective study evaluating EBL in six consecutive patients (three males, three females, 46-86 years of age) treated between May 2009 and February 2014: duodenal vascular ectasia; 1, jejunal bleeding diverticulum; 1, ileal Dieulafoy’s lesion; 1 and ileal bleeding diverticula; 3. The success of the initial hemostasis was evaluated, and patients were observed for early rebleeding (within 30 d after EBL), and complications such as perforation and abscess formation. Follow-up endoscopies were performed in four patients. RESULTS: Initial hemostasis was successfully achieved with EBL in all six patients. Eversion was not sufficient in four diverticular lesions. Early rebleeding occurred three days after EBL in one ileal diverticulum, and a repeat endoscopy revealed dislodgement of the O-band and ulcer formation at the banded site. This rebleeding was managed conservatively. Late rebleeding occurred in this case (13 and 21 mo after initial EBL), and re-EBL was performed. Follow-up endoscopies revealed scar formation and the disappearance of vascular lesions at the banded site in the case with a duodenal bleeding lesion, and unresolved ileal diverticula in three cases. Surgery or transarterial embolization was not required without any complications during the median follow-up period of 45 (range, 2-83) mo. CONCLUSION: EBL is a safe and effective endoscopic treatment for hemostasis of bleeding lesions in the small bowel. PMID:25324920

  5. Rectal ulcers and massive bleeding after hemorrhoidal band ligation while on aspirin

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Shruti; Shahzad, Ghulamullah; Rizvon, Kaleem; Subramani, Krishnaiyer; Viswanathan, Prakash; Mustacchia, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic hemorrhoidal band ligation is a well-established nonoperative method for treatment of bleeding internal hemorrhoids (grade 1 to 3). It is a safe and effective technique with a high success rate. Complications with this procedure are uncommon. Although rectal ulceration due to band ligation is a rare complication, it can cause life-threatening hemorrhage especially when patients are on medications which impair hemostasis like aspirin or non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. We present 2 cases of massive lower gastro-intestinal bleeding in patients who had a band ligation procedure performed 2 wk prior to the presentation and were on aspirin at home. Both the patients were hemodynamically unstable requiring resuscitation. They required platelet and blood transfusions and were found to have rectal ulcers on colonoscopy done subsequently. The rectal ulcers corresponded to the site of band ligation. The use of aspirin by these patients would have caused defects in the hemostasis and may have predisposed them to massive bleeding in the presence of rectal ulcers occurring after the band ligation procedure. Managing aspirin before and after the ligation may be difficult especially since adequate guidelines are unavailable. Stopping aspirin in all the cases might not be safe and the decision should be individualized. PMID:24749117

  6. Variceal Band Ligation in the Prevention of Variceal Bleeding: A Multicenter Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ouakaa-Kchaou, Asma; Kharrat, Jamel; Mir, Khaoula; Houda, Boussourra; Abdelli, Nabil; Ajmi, Salem; Azzouz, Msaddek; Abdallah, Hatem Ben; Mami, Nabyl Ben; Bouzaidi, Slim; Chouaib, Sofiene; Golli, Lamia; Melki, Wissem; Najjar, Taoufik; Saffar, Hammouda; Belhadj, Najet; Ghorbel, Abdeljabbar

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim: Variceal bleeding is a life-threatening complication of portal hypertension with a high probability of recurrence. Treatment to prevent first bleeding or rebleeding is mandatory. The study has been aimed at investigating the effectiveness of endoscopic band ligation in preventing upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with portal hypertension and to establish the clinical outcome of patients. Patients and Methods: We analyzed in a multicenter trial, the efficacy and side effects of endoscopic band ligation for the primary and secondary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal bleeding. We assigned 603 patients with portal hypertension who were hospitalized to receive treatment with endoscopic ligation. Sessions of ligation were repeated every two to three weeks until the varices were eradicated. The primary end point was recurrent bleeding. Results: The median follow-up period was 32 months. A total of 126 patients had recurrent bleeding. All episodes were related to portal hypertension and 79 to recurrent variceal bleeding. There were major complications in 51 patients (30 had bleeding esophageal ulcers). Seventy-eight patients died, 26 deaths were related to variceal bleeding and 1 to bleeding esophageal ulcers. Conclusions: A great improvement in the prevention of variceal bleeding has emerged over the last years. However, further therapeutic options that combine higher efficacy, better tolerance and fewer side effects are needed. PMID:21372346

  7. Cyanoacrylate Injection Versus Band Ligation in the Endoscopic Management of Acute Gastric Variceal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Weiguang; Ren, Yutang; Bai, Yang; Liu, Side; Zhang, Qiang; Zhi, Fachao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The evidence for optimal endoscopic management of bleeding gastric varices is lacking. The clinical outcome is controversial in trials comparing cyanoacrylate injection and band ligation. To help guide endoscopic decisions regarding acute gastric variceal bleeding, a meta-analysis was conducted. Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ScienceDirect were searched for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) containing the 2 interventions. The main outcomes evaluated in the meta-analysis were active bleeding control, blood transfusion, rebleeding, recurrence of varices, complications, and survival. Three RCTs were identified, which included 194 patients with active gastric variceal bleeding from Taiwan and Romania. Active bleeding control was achieved in 46 of 49 (93.9%) patients in the cyanoacrylate injection group, compared with 35 of 44 (79.5%) in the band ligation group (P = 0.032), for a pooled odds ratio of 4.44 (95% confidence interval, 1.14–17.30). Rebleeding rate was comparable in type 2 gastroesophageal varices (GOV2) between the 2 interventions (35.7% vs 34.8%, P = 0.895), but cyanoacrylate injection seemed superior for reducing rebleeding rate in type 1 gastroesophageal varices (GOV1, 26.1% vs 47.7%, P = 0.035) and type 1 isolated gastric varices (IGV1, 17.6% vs 85.7%, P = 0.015). Cyanoacrylate injection was also superior in controlling recurrence of gastric varices to band ligation (36.0% vs 66.0%, P = 0.002). There was no difference in complications or mortality between the 2 interventions. The major limitation of this meta-analysis is the small number of studies/patients included. Compared with band ligation, injection cyanocrylate have an advantage in the control of acute gastric variceal bleeding, also with lower recurrence rate and rebleeding (except GOV2). The limited amount of studies included attenuates the strength of this meta-analysis; therefore, more high-quality RCTs are needed. PMID

  8. Implantation of self-expanding metal stent in the treatment of severe bleeding from esophageal ulcer after endoscopic band ligation.

    PubMed

    Mishin, I; Ghidirim, G; Dolghii, A; Bunic, G; Zastavnitsky, G

    2010-09-01

    Endoscopic variceal ligation is superior to sclerotherapy because of its lower rebleeding and complication rates. However, ligation may be associated with life-threatening bleeding from postbanding esophageal ulcer. We report a case of a 49-year-old male with massive hemorrhage from esophageal ulcer on 8th day after successful band ligation of bleeding esophageal varices caused by postviral liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class C). A removable polyurethane membrane-covered self-expanding metal stent (SX-ELLA stent Danis, 135 mm × 25 mm, ELLA-CS, Hradec-Kralove, Czech Republic) was inserted in ICU for preventing fatal hemorrhage. Complete hemostasis was achieved and stent was removed after 8 days without rebleeding or any complications. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in English literature regarding life-threatening hemorrhage from postbanding esophageal ulcer successfully treated by self-expanding metal stent in a patient with portal hypertension. PMID:20731698

  9. Endoscopic band ligation with a water-jet scope for the treatment of colonic diverticular hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Naoki; Itoh, Toshiyuki; Uemura, Masayo; Maruyama, Masataka; Horiki, Noriyuki; Setoyama, Takeshi; Matsuda, Michitaka; Suzuki, Shoko; Iizuka, Yusuke; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2010-07-01

    Although lower gastrointestinal bleeding generally has a less severe course and stops spontaneously in most cases without therapeutic intervention, some patients require endoscopic, surgical, or angiographic treatment depending on the nature of the bleeding. We applied endoscopic band ligation (EBL) with a water-jet scope to bleeding colonic diverticula and evaluated the efficacy and safety of EBL retrospectively. Five consecutive patients were diagnosed as having colonic diverticular hemorrhage, and were treated with EBL at St Luke's International Hospital in Tokyo from June 2009 to August 2009. Comorbid diseases, usage of anti-platelet agents, hemoglobin level on admission, procedural time, complications such as perforation and abscess formation, and rebleeding after EBL were retrospectively evaluated. In all cases, EBL achieved successful immediate hemostasis without any procedural complications. In four of five cases, bleeding colonic diverticula were everted after EBL. The mean length of hospital stay after EBL was 5 days (range 4-8 days). No patient exhibited clinical evidence of further bleeding during the mean follow-up period of 3 months (range 2-4 months), and no further intervention was needed after EBL. EBL with a water-jet scope is considered to be a safe and effective endoscopic treatment for colonic diverticular hemorrhage. PMID:20642616

  10. Band ligation vs. N-Butyl-2-cyanoacrylate injection in acute gastric variceal bleeding: a prospective follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tantau, Marcel; Crisan, Dana; Popa, Daniel; Vesa, Stefan; Tantau, Alina

    BACKGROUND. Treatment of gastric varices (GV) implies a number of several difficulties and sometimes entails complications. The best endoscopic success rate was attributed until now to the use of tissue adhesives(N-Butyl-2-Cyanoacrylate) and band ligation. AIM. To assess the therapeutic efficacy and safety of cyanoacrylate injection compared to band ligation in patients with acute GV hemorrhage. MATERIAL AND METHODS. Thirty-seven patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding from GV were included in the study, treated with cyanoacrylate injection (GVO)-19 patients or band ligations (GVL)-18 patients. They were followed up for overall results, complications and survival rate. RESULTS. The mean age of the study group was 60.22 ± 9.34 years, with a male/female ratio of 21:16. The mean follow-up period was 427.26 ± 214.16 days in the GVO group and 406.21 ± 213.23 days in the GVL group (p = 0.76). Initial hemostasis was achieved in all patients treated with cyanoacrylate and in 88.88% from the GVL group (p = 0.43). Rebleeding occurred in 72.22% of the GVL group and in 31.57% of the GVO patients (p = 0.03). Patients in the GVO group had a significantly larger rebleeding-free period(p = 0.006). No difference was found in survival rates(p = 0.75). The Child Class (p = 0.003 for Class C) and treatment method (p = 0.01) were independently associated with the rate of rebleeding. No differences were found regarding the rate of complications. CONCLUSION. The use of cyanoacrylate in acute GV bleeding had better results when compared with band ligation in terms of controlling the hemorrhage and recurrence of bleeding. The overall survival rate was not influenced by the method used for the treatment of complicated GV. PMID:24378269

  11. MELD score can predict early mortality in patients with rebleeding after band ligation for variceal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Lin, Chun-Yen; Sheen, I-shyan; Huang, Chang-Wen; Lin, Tsung-Nan; Lin, Chun-Jung; Jeng, Wen-Juei; Huang, Chien-Hao; Ho, Yu-Pin; Chiu, Cheng-Tang

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the outcomes, as well as risk factors for 6-wk mortality, in patients with early rebleeding after endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL) for esophageal variceal hemorrhage (EVH). METHODS: Among 817 EVL procedures performed for EVH between January 2007 and December 2008, 128 patients with early rebleeding, defined as rebleeding within 6 wk after EVL, were enrolled for analysis. RESULT: The rate of early rebleeding after EVL for acute EVH was 15.6% (128/817). The 5-d, 6-wk, 3-mo, and 6-mo mortality rates were 7.8%, 38.3%, 55.5%, and 58.6%, respectively, in these early rebleeding patients. The use of beta-blockers, occurrence of hypovolemic shock, and higher model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score at the time of rebleeding were independent predictors for 6-wk mortality. A cut-off value of 21.5 for the MELD score was found with an area under ROC curve of 0.862 (P < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 77.6%, 81%, 71.7%, and 85.3%, respectively. As for the 6-mo survival rate, patients with a MELD score ≥ 21.5 had a significantly lower survival rate than patients with a MELD score < 21.5 (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that the MELD score is an easy and powerful predictor for 6-wk mortality and outcomes of patients with early rebleeding after EVL for EVH. PMID:21547132

  12. A retrospective comparative study of histoacryl injection and banding ligation in the treatment of acute type 1 gastric variceal hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Lo, Gin-Ho; Lin, Chih-Wen; Perng, Daw-Shyong; Chang, Chi-Yang; Lee, Ching-Tai; Hsu, Chuan-Yuan; Wang, Huay-Min; Lin, Hui-Chen

    2013-10-01

    BACKGROUND. Esophageal varices extending along lesser curvature side of stomach is classified as GOV1. The optimal therapy for GOV1 bleeding is still undetermined. METHODS. One hundred and sixty-two patients diagnosed as acute hemorrhage from GOV1 were enrolled. At endoscopists' discretion, 118 patients received glue injection (Glue group) and 44 patients received ligation to arrest bleeding [endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) group]. This study aimed to compare hemostasis, rebleeding, complications and mortality within 42 days. RESULTS. Both groups were comparable in baseline data. In 109 patients (92%) in the Glue group and 36 patients (82%) in the EVL group (p = 0.07) 48-h hemostasis was achieved . Hemostasis of active bleeding was achieved in 49 of 55 patients (89%) in the Glue group and 24 of 28 patients (85%) in the EVL group (p = 0.70). Treatment failure was noted in 14% of the Glue group and 23% in the EVL group (p = 0.22). Eight patients in the Glue group and four patients in the EVL group rebled between 5 and 42 days (p = 0.73). A total of 48 and 19 adverse events occurred in the Glue and EVL groups, respectively (p = 0.85). Six patients in the Glue group and seven patients in the EVL group encountered posttreatment gastric ulcer bleeding (p = 0.04). Seventeen patients (14%) in the Glue group and 10 (23%) patients in the EVL group died within 42 days (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS. Banding ligation was similar to glue injection in achieving successful hemostasis of acute bleeding from GOV1. However, a higher incidence of posttreatment ulcer bleeding and mortality may be associated with banding ligation. PMID:24047398

  13. Endoluminal Closure of Colon Perforation with Endoscopic Band Ligation: Technical Feasibility and Safety in an In Vivo Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Han, Joung-Ho; Kim, Myounghwan; Lee, Tae Hoon; Kim, Hyun; Jung, Yunho; Park, Seon Mee; Chae, Heebok; Youn, Seijin; Shin, Ji Yun; Lee, In-Kwang; Lee, Tae Soo; Choi, Seok Hwa

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims: Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) is an accepted method in the management of variceal bleeding; however, there is little evidence on the safety and feasibility of EBL for the closure of bowel perforation. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the technical feasibility and efficacy of EBL in iatrogenic colon perforation by using a canine model. Methods: We established an iatrogenic colon perforation model by using seven beagle dogs. Longitudinal 1.5- to 1.7-cm colon perforations were created with a needle knife and an insulated-tip knife, and the perforation was subsequently closed with EBL. During a 2-week follow-up period, the animals were carefully monitored and then euthanized for pathologic examination. Results: The EBL of iatrogenic colon perforations was successful in all dogs. The mean procedure time for EBL closure with one to three bands was 191.7 seconds, and there were no immediate complications. One animal was euthanized after 3 days because of peritonitis. There were no clinical and laboratory features of sepsis or peritonitis in the remaining six animals. On necropsy, we did not find any fecal peritonitis, pericolonic abscess formation, or transmural dehiscence at the perforation site. Histopathology demonstrated inflamed granulation tissue and scar lesions replaced by fibrosis. Conclusions: EBL might be a feasible and safe method for the management of iatrogenic colon perforations in an in vivo model. PMID:26668801

  14. Comparison of long-term outcomes between endoscopic band ligation and endoscopic clipping for colonic diverticular hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, Kaoru; Ishii, Naoki; Ikeya, Takashi; Ego, Mai; Shimamura, Yuto; Takagi, Koichi; Nakamura, Kenji; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Long-term outcomes of endoscopic band ligation (EBL) for colonic diverticular hemorrhage have not been reported to date. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term outcomes of EBL and to retrospectively compare them with those of endoscopic clipping (EC) in the treatment of colonic diverticular hemorrhage. Patients and methods: The study included patients with colonic diverticular hemorrhage who were treated with EBL or EC from January 2004 to November 2014 and followed up more than 1 year (61 patients in the EBL group and 39 patients in the EC group). Time-to-event analysis of rebleeding was performed with the Kaplan-Meier method. A follow-up colonoscopy was performed to confirm the disappearance of the banded diverticula in the EBL group. Results: Rebleeding occurred in 21 patients in the EBL group and in 26 patients in the EC group. The cumulative incidence of rebleeding at 1, 12, 24, and 36 months after first treatments was 14 %, 23 %, 26 %, and 41 % in the EBL group and 38 %, 49 %, 59 %, and 68 % in the EC group, respectively. Time-to-event analysis revealed statistically significant data (Log-rank test, P = 0.0036). Scar formation with fold convergence at the previously banded site was observed in 11 of 24 patients who underwent follow-up colonoscopy (46 %). However, late rebleeding (rebleeding more than 30 days after EBL) occurred in five of these 11 cases. Conclusions: EBL was superior to EC in the treatment of colonic diverticular hemorrhage. However, the risk of rebleeding was not avoided even after the diverticula had been resolved using EBL. PMID:26528513

  15. The development of Fournier's gangrene following rubber band ligation of haemorrhoids

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Daryl; Hureibi, Khalid; Zia, Khawaja; Uheba, Mokthar

    2013-01-01

    The development of Fournier's gangrene in an 80-year-old male patient with diabetes after a routine outpatient haemorrhoid banding procedure is described. Four days following the procedure, the patient noticed an increasing amount of pain and swelling of the perianal region. When the patient presented to the emergency department 18 days later, immediate radical debridement of ischiorectal necrotic tissue was performed. A defunctioning loop sigmoid colostomy was also formed. Subsequent operations required excision of the scrotum and abdominoperineal excision of the rectum. Histology studies later confirmed the presence of necrotising fasciitis. The case acts as a reminder that clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for high-risk patients still suffering from problems following the procedure. PMID:24287481

  16. The development of Fournier's gangrene following rubber band ligation of haemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Daryl; Hureibi, Khalid; Zia, Khawaja; Uheba, Mokthar

    2013-01-01

    The development of Fournier's gangrene in an 80-year-old male patient with diabetes after a routine outpatient haemorrhoid banding procedure is described. Four days following the procedure, the patient noticed an increasing amount of pain and swelling of the perianal region. When the patient presented to the emergency department 18 days later, immediate radical debridement of ischiorectal necrotic tissue was performed. A defunctioning loop sigmoid colostomy was also formed. Subsequent operations required excision of the scrotum and abdominoperineal excision of the rectum. Histology studies later confirmed the presence of necrotising fasciitis. The case acts as a reminder that clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for high-risk patients still suffering from problems following the procedure. PMID:24287481

  17. Endoscopic Resection for Small Rectal Neuroendocrine Tumors: Comparison of Endoscopic Submucosal Resection with Band Ligation and Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Seok; Shin, Yong Woon; Kwon, Kye Sook

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. There is no consensus so far regarding the optimal endoscopic method for treatment of small rectal neuroendocrine tumor (NET). The aim of this study was to compare treatment efficacy, safety, and procedure time between endoscopic submucosal resection with band ligation (ESMR-L) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD). Methods. We conducted a prospective study of patients who visited Inha University Hospital for endoscopic resection of rectal NET (≦10 mm). Pathological complete resection rate, procedure time, and complications were evaluated. Results. A total of 77 patients were treated by ESMR-L (n = 53) or ESD (n = 24). En bloc resection was achieved in all patients. A significantly higher pathological complete resection rate was observed in the ESMR-L group (53/53, 100%) than in the ESD group (13/24, 54.2%) (P = 0.000). The procedure time of ESD (17.9 ± 9.1 min) was significantly longer compared to that of ESMR-L (5.3 ± 2.8 min) (P = 0.000). Conclusions. Considering the clinical efficacy, technical difficulty, and procedure time, the ESMR-L method should be considered as the first-line therapy for the small rectal NET (≤10 mm). ESD should be left as a second-line treatment for the fibrotic lesion which could not be removed using the ESMR-L method. PMID:27525004

  18. Usefulness of endoscopic resection using the band ligation method for rectal neuroendocrine tumors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju Seung; Kim, Yoon Jae; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Kyoung Oh; Kwon, Kwang An; Park, Dong Kyun; An, Jung Suk

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Rectal neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are among the most common of gastrointestinal NETs. Due to recent advances in endoscopy, various methods of complete endoscopic resection have been introduced for small (≤10 mm) rectal NETs. However, there is a debate about the optimal treatment for rectal NETs. In our study, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of endoscopic resection using pneumoband and elastic band (ER-BL) for rectal NETs smaller than 10 mm in diameter. Methods A total of 55 patients who were diagnosed with rectal NET from January 2004 to December 2011 at Gil Medical Center were analyzed retrospectively. Sixteen patients underwent ER-BL. For comparison, 39 patients underwent conventional endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR). Results There was a markedly lower deep margin positive rate for ER-BL than for conventional EMR (6% [1/16] vs. 46% [18/39], P=0.029). Four patients who underwent conventional EMR experienced perforation or bleeding. However, they recovered within a few days. On the other hand, patients whounderwent endoscopic resection using a pneumoband did not experience any complications. In multivariate analysis, ER-BL (P=0.021) was independently associated with complete resection. Conclusions ER-BL is an effective endoscopic treatment with regards to deep margin resection for rectal NET smaller than 10 mm. PMID:27175117

  19. Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy Is Associated With Reduction of Early Bleeding Risk After Prophylactic Endoscopic Variceal Band Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seong Hee; Yim, Hyung Joon; Kim, Seung Young; Suh, Sang Jun; Hyun, Jong Jin; Jung, Sung Woo; Jung, Young Kul; Koo, Ja Seol; Lee, Sang Woo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL) is an effective procedure to control and prevent variceal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis, but it can be complicated by bleeding from post-EVL ulcers. Several studies have reported that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) decrease the size of post-EVL ulcers. However, evidence are limited as to whether PPIs actually reduce the risk of bleeding after EVL. This study aimed to analyze the factors associated with bleeding after prophylactic EVL and to assess the effect of PPI therapy. Five hundred and five cirrhotic patients with high risk esophageal varices who received primary prophylactic EVL were included for this retrospective cohort study. Post-EVL bleeding was defined as bleeding after prophylactic EVL within 8 weeks evidenced by the occurrence of melena or hematemesis, or by a decrease of hemoglobin by >2.0 g/dL. If evidence of bleeding from ulceration of the EVL sites was confirmed by endoscopy, we defined it as post-EVL ulcer bleeding. Fourteen patients developed bleeding after prophylactic EVL. Factors associated with post-EVL bleeding included alcohol as etiology, low albumin, high total bilirubin, high Child-Pugh score, high MELD score, coexistence of gastric varices, and not administrating PPI medication by univariate analysis. In multivariate logistic analysis, Co-existing gastric varix (odds ratio [OR] 5.680, P = 0.005] and not administrating PPIs (OR 8.217, P = 0.002) were associated with bleeding after prophylactic EVL. In the subgroup analysis excluding patients whose gastric varices were treated, not administering PPI medication (OR 8.827, P = 0.008) was the sole factor associated with post-EVL bleeding. We suggest that PPI therapy needs to be considered in patients receiving prophylactic EVL to reduce the risk of bleeding after prophylactic EVL. PMID:26937932

  20. Tubal Ligation

    MedlinePlus

    Tubal ligation (getting your "tubes tied") is a type of surgery. It prevents a woman from getting pregnant. ... to most normal activities within a few days. Tubal ligation can sometimes be reversed, but not always.

  1. Cyanoacrylate Injection Versus Band Ligation in the Endoscopic Management of Acute Gastric Variceal Bleeding: Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Controlled Studies Based on the PRISMA Statement.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Weiguang; Ren, Yutang; Bai, Yang; Liu, Side; Zhang, Qiang; Zhi, Fachao

    2015-10-01

    The evidence for optimal endoscopic management of bleeding gastric varices is lacking. The clinical outcome is controversial in trials comparing cyanoacrylate injection and band ligation. To help guide endoscopic decisions regarding acute gastric variceal bleeding, a meta-analysis was conducted.Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and ScienceDirect were searched for all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) containing the 2 interventions. The main outcomes evaluated in the meta-analysis were active bleeding control, blood transfusion, rebleeding, recurrence of varices, complications, and survival.Three RCTs were identified, which included 194 patients with active gastric variceal bleeding from Taiwan and Romania. Active bleeding control was achieved in 46 of 49 (93.9%) patients in the cyanoacrylate injection group, compared with 35 of 44 (79.5%) in the band ligation group (P = 0.032), for a pooled odds ratio of 4.44 (95% confidence interval, 1.14-17.30). Rebleeding rate was comparable in type 2 gastroesophageal varices (GOV2) between the 2 interventions (35.7% vs 34.8%, P = 0.895), but cyanoacrylate injection seemed superior for reducing rebleeding rate in type 1 gastroesophageal varices (GOV1, 26.1% vs 47.7%, P = 0.035) and type 1 isolated gastric varices (IGV1, 17.6% vs 85.7%, P = 0.015). Cyanoacrylate injection was also superior in controlling recurrence of gastric varices to band ligation (36.0% vs 66.0%, P = 0.002). There was no difference in complications or mortality between the 2 interventions. The major limitation of this meta-analysis is the small number of studies/patients included.Compared with band ligation, injection cyanocrylate have an advantage in the control of acute gastric variceal bleeding, also with lower recurrence rate and rebleeding (except GOV2). The limited amount of studies included attenuates the strength of this meta-analysis; therefore, more high-quality RCTs are needed. PMID:26469912

  2. Tubal ligation

    MedlinePlus

    Sterilization surgery - female; Tubal sterilization; Tube tying; Tying the tubes; Hysteroscopic tubal occlusion procedure ... Tubal ligation is done in a hospital or outpatient clinic. You may receive general anesthesia. You will be ...

  3. Cyanoacrylate Injection Compared with Band Ligation for Acute Gastric Variceal Hemorrhage: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials and Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Huai, Jiaping; Chen, Yanping

    2014-01-01

    Background. Cyanoacrylate injection (GVO) and band ligation (GVL) are effective treatments for gastric variceal hemorrhage. However, data on the optimal treatment are still controversial. Methods. For our overall analysis, relevant studies were identified from several databases. For each outcome, data were pooled using a fixed-effect or random-effects model according to the result of a heterogeneity test. Results. Seven studies were included. Compared with GVL, GVO was associated with increased likelihood of hemostasis of active bleeding (odds ratio [OR] = 2.32; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.19–4.51) and a longer gastric variceal rebleeding-free period (hazard ratio = 0.37; 95% CI = 0.24–0.56). No significant differences were observed between GVL and GVO for mortality (hazard ratio = 0.66; 95% CI = 0.43–1.02), likelihood of variceal obliteration (OR = 0.89; 95% CI = 0.52–1.54), number of treatment sessions required for complete variceal eradication (weighted mean difference = −0.45; 95% CI = −1.14–0.23), or complications (OR = 1.02; 95% CI = 0.48–2.19). Conclusion. GVO may be superior to GVL for achieving hemostasis and preventing recurrence of gastric variceal rebleeding but has no advantage over GVL for mortality and complications. Additional studies are warranted to enable definitive conclusions. PMID:24868204

  4. Proton Pump Inhibitor Therapy Is Associated With Reduction of Early Bleeding Risk After Prophylactic Endoscopic Variceal Band Ligation: A Retrospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seong Hee; Yim, Hyung Joon; Kim, Seung Young; Suh, Sang Jun; Hyun, Jong Jin; Jung, Sung Woo; Jung, Young Kul; Koo, Ja Seol; Lee, Sang Woo

    2016-02-01

    Endoscopic variceal band ligation (EVL) is an effective procedure to control and prevent variceal bleeding in patients with liver cirrhosis, but it can be complicated by bleeding from post-EVL ulcers. Several studies have reported that proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) decrease the size of post-EVL ulcers. However, evidence are limited as to whether PPIs actually reduce the risk of bleeding after EVL. This study aimed to analyze the factors associated with bleeding after prophylactic EVL and to assess the effect of PPI therapy.Five hundred and five cirrhotic patients with high risk esophageal varices who received primary prophylactic EVL were included for this retrospective cohort study. Post-EVL bleeding was defined as bleeding after prophylactic EVL within 8 weeks evidenced by the occurrence of melena or hematemesis, or by a decrease of hemoglobin by >2.0 g/dL. If evidence of bleeding from ulceration of the EVL sites was confirmed by endoscopy, we defined it as post-EVL ulcer bleeding.Fourteen patients developed bleeding after prophylactic EVL. Factors associated with post-EVL bleeding included alcohol as etiology, low albumin, high total bilirubin, high Child-Pugh score, high MELD score, coexistence of gastric varices, and not administrating PPI medication by univariate analysis. In multivariate logistic analysis, Co-existing gastric varix (odds ratio [OR] 5.680, P = 0.005] and not administrating PPIs (OR 8.217, P = 0.002) were associated with bleeding after prophylactic EVL. In the subgroup analysis excluding patients whose gastric varices were treated, not administering PPI medication (OR 8.827, P = 0.008) was the sole factor associated with post-EVL bleeding.We suggest that PPI therapy needs to be considered in patients receiving prophylactic EVL to reduce the risk of bleeding after prophylactic EVL. PMID:26937932

  5. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2010-02-23

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g. on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  6. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn

    2006-10-17

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  7. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn Ruth

    2011-12-13

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  8. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn Ruth

    2010-11-23

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  9. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn

    2003-05-27

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  10. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2011-05-10

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  11. Chemoselective ligation

    DOEpatents

    Saxon, Eliana; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2011-04-12

    The present invention features a chemoselective ligation reaction that can be carried out under physiological conditions. In general, the invention involves condensation of a specifically engineered phosphine, which can provide for formation of an amide bond between the two reactive partners resulting in a final product comprising a phosphine moiety, or which can be engineered to comprise a cleavable linker so that a substituent of the phosphine is transferred to the azide, releasing an oxidized phosphine byproduct and producing a native amide bond in the final product. The selectivity of the reaction and its compatibility with aqueous environments provides for its application in vivo (e.g., on the cell surface or intracellularly) and in vitro (e.g., synthesis of peptides and other polymers, production of modified (e.g., labeled) amino acids).

  12. Randomized controlled study of endoscopic band ligation and argon plasma coagulation in the treatment of gastric antral and fundal vascular ectasia

    PubMed Central

    Mosaad, Samah; Alkhalawany, Walaa; Abo-Ali, Lobna; Enaba, Mohamed; Elsaka, Aymen; Elfert, Asem A

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric antral vascular ectasia (GAVE) is characterized by mucosal and submucosal vascular ectasia causing recurrent hemorrhage and thus, chronic anemia, in patients with cirrhosis. Treatment with argon plasma coagulation (APC) is an effective and safe method, but requires multiple sessions of endoscopic therapy. Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) was found to be a good alternative for APC as a treatment for GAVE, especially in refractory cases. The aim of this prospective randomized controlled study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of EBL, as compared to APC, in the treatment of GAVE and gastric fundal vascular ectasia (GFVE). Patients and methods A total of 88 cirrhotic patients with GAVE were prospectively randomized to endoscopic treatment with either EBL or APC, every 2 weeks until complete obliteration was accomplished; then they were followed up endoscopically after 6 months, plus they had monthly measurement of hemoglobin levels during that period. Results We describe the presence of mucosal and submucosal lesions in the gastric fundal area that were similar to those found in GAVE in 13 patients (29.5%) of the EBL group and 9 patients (20.5%) of the APC group; we named this GFVE. In these cases, we treated the fundal lesions with the same techniques we had used for treating GAVE, according to the randomization. We found that EBL significantly decreased the number of sessions required for complete obliteration of the lesions (2.98 sessions compared to 3.48 sessions in the APC group (p < 0.05)). Hemoglobin levels increased significantly after obliteration of the lesions in both groups, compared to pretreatment values (p < 0.05), but with no significant difference between the two groups (p > 0.05); however, the EBL group of patients required a significantly smaller number of units of blood transfusion than the APC group of patients (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in adverse events nor complications between the

  13. Tubal ligation - Series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Tubal ligation is surgery to tie the tubes (fallopian tubes) of a woman which causes permanent sterility by ... transport of the egg (ovum) to the uterus. Tubal ligation may be recommended for adult women who are ...

  14. Unintended Pulmonary Artery Ligation during PDA Ligation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dohun; Kim, Si-Wook; Shin, Hong-Ju; Hong, Jong-Myeon; Lee, Ji Hyuk; Han, Heon-Seok

    2016-01-01

    A 10-day-old boy was transferred to our hospital due to tachypnea. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), 4.8 mm in diameter, with small ASD was diagnosed on echocardiography. Surgical ligation of the ductus was performed after failure of three cycles of ibuprofen. However, the ductus remained open on routine postoperative echocardiography on the second postoperative day, and chest CT revealed inadvertent ligation of the left pulmonary artery (LPA) rather than the PDA. Emergent operation successfully reopened the clipped LPA and ligated the ductus on the same (second postoperative) day.Mechanical ventilator support was weaned on postoperative day 21, and the baby was discharged on postoperative day 47 with a normal left lung shadow. PMID:27585199

  15. Tubal ligation (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Surgical sterilization which permanently prevents the transport of the egg to the uterus by means of sealing the fallopian tubes is called tubal ligation, commonly called "having one's tubes tied". This operation ...

  16. Tubal ligation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Sterilization surgery - female - discharge; Tubal sterilization - discharge; Tube tying - discharge; Tying the tubes - discharge ... You had tubal ligation (or tying the tubes) surgery to close your fallopian tubes. These tubes connect the ovaries to the uterus. ...

  17. Self ligating lingual appliance.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Pankaj; Chopra, S S; Jayan, B K

    2015-12-01

    Adult demand for orthodontics has grown considerably over the past 10 years propelling increased demand for Esthetic Orthodontics. Lingual appliances are a viable option toward providing Esthetic Orthodontics. The lingual surface of the teeth has a unique morphology that makes it difficult to place brackets in ideal positions. Indirect bonding has become the established methods of overcoming these discrepancies, along with the latest designs of self ligating brackets which offer more efficient mechanics and shorter treatment time. PMID:26843757

  18. Ligation errors in DNA computing.

    PubMed

    Aoi, Y; Yoshinobu, T; Tanizawa, K; Kinoshita, K; Iwasaki, H

    1999-10-01

    DNA computing is a novel method of computing proposed by Adleman (1994), in which the data is encoded in the sequences of oligonucleotides. Massively parallel reactions between oligonucleotides are expected to make it possible to solve huge problems. In this study, reliability of the ligation process employed in the DNA computing is tested by estimating the error rate at which wrong oligonucleotides are ligated. Ligation of wrong oligonucleotides would result in a wrong answer in the DNA computing. The dependence of the error rate on the number of mismatches between oligonucleotides and on the combination of bases is investigated. PMID:10636043

  19. 75 FR 36270 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Appraiser Regulation; Privacy Act Implementation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL 12 CFR Part 1102 Appraisal Subcommittee; Appraiser Regulation; Privacy Act Implementation AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination...

  20. Staudinger ligation as a method for bioconjugation.

    PubMed

    van Berkel, Sander S; van Eldijk, Mark B; van Hest, Jan C M

    2011-09-12

    In 1919 the German chemist Hermann Staudinger was the first to describe the reaction between an azide and a phosphine. It was not until recently, however, that Bertozzi and co-workers recognized the potential of this reaction as a method for bioconjugation and transformed it into the so-called Staudinger ligation. The bio-orthogonal character of both the azide and the phosphine functions has resulted in the Staudinger ligation finding numerous applications in various complex biological systems. For example, the Staudinger ligation has been utilized to label glycans, lipids, DNA, and proteins. Moreover, the Staudinger ligation has been used as a synthetic method to construct glycopeptides, microarrays, and functional biopolymers. In the emerging field of bio-orthogonal ligation strategies, the Staudinger ligation has set a high standard to which most of the new techniques are often compared. This Review summarizes recent developments and new applications of the Staudinger ligation. PMID:21887733

  1. Thoracoscopic Pericardial Window Creation and Thoracic Duct Ligation in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Ouzounian, Steven P.; Napoleon, Lori; Permut, Lester C.; Golombek, Sergio G.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: We describe 2 newborn infants with persistent pericardial effusion treated with thoracoscopic pericardial window and thoracic duct ligation. Methods: Patient 1 was a premature female newborn who presented with severe cardiac anomalies, including dextrocardia. She was treated with pulmonary artery banding and pacemaker placement for complete cardiac block. Postoperatively, she developed pericarditis with persistent symptomatic pericardial effusion. She did not improve despite pericardial drain placement. She was treated with a thoracoscopic pericardial window. Patient 2 was a newborn male who presented with cardiac tamponade secondary to congenital chylopericardium. He did not respond to pericardial drain placement or medical management with fasting, total parenteral nutrition, and octreotide. He was treated with thoracoscopic pericardial window and thoracic duct ligation. Results: Patient 1 improved rapidly. The pericardial effusion disappeared. The chest tube was removed 5 days following surgery. She died 6 weeks later of a cardiac arrhythmia secondary to pacemaker failure. The pericardial effusion had resolved. Patient 2 responded to the pericardial window and thoracic duct ligation. He was discharged 10 days following the procedure. Conclusions: Thoracoscopy provides an excellent approach to the pericardium. Pericardial windows and biopsy can be safely performed with this approach. The thoracic duct can be easily identified and ligated even in small babies. Recovery can be fast with minimal postoperative discomfort. Cosmetic results are excellent and length of hospitalization is minimized. PMID:14626403

  2. Appraising Reading Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ediger, Marlow

    To determine quality sequence in pupil progress, evaluation approaches need to be used which guide the teacher to assist learners to attain optimally. Teachers must use a variety of procedures to appraise student achievement in reading, because no one approach is adequate. Appraisal approaches might include: (1) observation and subsequent…

  3. Comparative ligational, optical band gap and biological studies on Cr(III) and Fe(III) complexes of hydrazones derived from 2-hydrazinyl-2-oxo-N-phenylacetamide with both vanillin and O-vanillin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yousef, T. A.; Abu El-Reash, G. M.; Attia, M. I.; El-Tabai, M. N.

    2015-09-01

    The Cr(III) and Fe(III) complexes of hydrazones derived from the condensation of 2-hydrazinyl-2-oxo-N-phenylacetamide with both vanillin and o-vanillin synthesized and characterized by different conventional physicochemical techniques. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for the different decomposition steps were calculated using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger equations. The bond lengths, bond angles, HOMO, LUMO, dipole moment and binding energy calculated by DFT calculations. The optical band gap (Eg) values equal 3.28, 3.03, 3.58 and 3.57 eV for [Cr(HL1)Cl2(H2O)2](0.75H2O), [Cr(HL2)Cl2(H2O)](H2O), [Fe(HL1)Cl2(H2O)2](0.5H2O) and [Fe(HL2)2Cl(H2O)](3H2O) complexes, respectively. The antibacterial activities tested against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli bacteria.

  4. Protein-templated peptide ligation.

    PubMed

    Brauckhoff, Nicolas; Hahne, Gernot; Yeh, Johannes T-H; Grossmann, Tom N

    2014-04-22

    Molecular templates bind particular reactants, thereby increasing their effective concentrations and accelerating the corresponding reaction. This concept has been successfully applied to a number of chemical problems with a strong focus on nucleic acid templated reactions. We present the first protein-templated reaction that allows N-terminal linkage of two peptides. In the presence of a protein template, ligation reactions were accelerated by more than three orders of magnitude. The templated reaction is highly selective and proved its robustness in a protein-labeling reaction that was performed in crude cell lysate. PMID:24644125

  5. 12 CFR 564.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 564.5 Section 564.5 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff appraiser, that appraiser must...

  6. 21 CFR 876.4400 - Hemorrhoidal ligator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hemorrhoidal ligator. 876.4400 Section 876.4400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4400 Hemorrhoidal ligator....

  7. The "Floss-Ligature" Ligation Technique.

    PubMed

    Dugdale, Charlotte Anne; Malik, Ovais Humair; Waring, David Trevor

    2015-01-01

    This clinical pearl describes an alternative technique to aid effective ligation of rotated teeth during the aligning stage of fixed appliance treatment. This technique has the potential to improve patient experience and confidence, by reducing the risk of trauma and discomfort and treatment efficiency, by ensuring complete ligation of even severely rotated teeth. PMID:27029094

  8. 21 CFR 876.4400 - Hemorrhoidal ligator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hemorrhoidal ligator. 876.4400 Section 876.4400 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Surgical Devices § 876.4400 Hemorrhoidal ligator....

  9. Nylon cable band reactions in ovariohysterectomized bitches.

    PubMed

    Werner, R E; Straughan, A J; Vezin, D

    1992-01-01

    Nylon cable bands used as ligatures caused postsurgical complications in 5 ovariohysterectomized bitches. Clinical signs included fever, stiffness, strangury, draining fistulae, vaginal discharge, and tenesmus. Most signs first appeared several years after surgery, and all signs were resolved after removal of the bands. On the basis of our experience, we suggest that nylon cable bands not be used for ovariohysterectomy ligations. PMID:1537693

  10. Kinetics of ligation of fibrin oligomers.

    PubMed

    Nelb, G W; Kamykowski, G W; Ferry, J D

    1980-07-10

    Human fibrinogen was treated with thrombin in the presence of fibrinoligase and calcium ion at pH 8.5, ionic strength 0.45, and the ensuring polymerization was interrupted at various time intervals (t) both before and after the clotting time (tc) by solubilization with a solution of sodium dodecyl sulfate and urea. Aliquots of the solubilized protein were subjected to gel electrophoresis on polyacrylamide gels after disulfide reduction by dithiothreitol and on agarose gels without reduction. The degree of gamma-gamma ligation was determined from the former and the size distribution of ligated oligomers, for degree of polymerization x from 1 to 10, from the latter. The degree of gamma-gamma ligation was calculated independently from the size distribution with the assumption that every junction between two fibrin monomers remaining intact after solubilization is ligated, and this agreed well with the direct determination. The size distribution at t/tc = 1.3 to 1.6 differed somewhat from that calculated by the classical theory of linear polycondensation on the assumption that all reactive sites react with equal probability and rate. Analysis of the difference suggests that ligation of a fibrin digomer is not a random process; the probability of ligation of a given junction between two monomers increases with the oligomer length. The number-average degree of polymerization, xn, of ligated oligomers increases approximately linearly with time up to a value of 1.6. PMID:7391026

  11. Cloning of DNA fragments: ligation reactions in agarose gel.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Agnelo

    2014-01-01

    Ligation reactions to ligate a desired DNA fragment into a vector can be challenging to beginners and especially if the amount of the insert is limiting. Although additives known as crowding agents, such as PEG 8000, added to the ligation mixes can increase the success one has with ligation reactions, in practice the amount of insert used in the ligation can determine the success or the failure of the ligation reaction. The method described here, which uses insert DNA in gel slice added directly into the ligation reaction, has two benefits: (a) using agarose as the crowding agent and (b) reducing steps of insert purification. The use of rapid ligation buffer and incubation of the ligation reaction at room temperature greatly increase the efficiency of the ligation reaction even for blunt-ended ligation. PMID:24243199

  12. 12 CFR 34.45 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 34.45 Section 34.45 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.45 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by...

  13. Small-molecule-dependent split aptamer ligation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashwani K; Heemstra, Jennifer M

    2011-08-17

    Here we describe the first use of small-molecule binding to direct a chemical reaction between two nucleic acid strands. The reported reaction is a ligation between two fragments of a DNA split aptamer using strain-promoted azide-alkyne cycloaddition. Utilizing the split aptamer for cocaine, we demonstrate small-molecule-dependent ligation that is dose-dependent over a wide range of cocaine concentrations and is compatible with complex biological fluids such as human blood serum. Moreover, studies of split aptamer ligation at varying salt concentrations and using structurally similar analogues of cocaine have revealed new insight into the assembly and small-molecule binding properties of the cocaine split aptamer. The ability to translate the presence of a small-molecule target into the output of DNA ligation is anticipated to enable the development of new, broadly applicable small-molecule detection assays. PMID:21761903

  14. 24 CFR 200.200 - What is the Appraiser Roster?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... insurable mortgage and to also protect the FHA insurance funds, the inclusion of an appraiser on the... appraisal performed by the listed appraiser. The inclusion of an appraiser on the Appraiser Roster means..., for inclusion on the Appraiser Roster....

  15. A comparative study of conventional ligation and self-ligation bracket systems.

    PubMed

    Shivapuja, P K; Berger, J

    1994-11-01

    The increased use of self-ligating bracket systems frequently raises the question of how they compare with conventional ligation systems. An in vitro and clinical investigation was undertaken to evaluate and compare these distinctly different groups, by using five different brackets. The Activa ("A" Company, Johnson & Johnson, San Diego, Calif.), Edgelok (Ormco, Glendora, Calif.), and SPEED (Strite Industries Ltd., Cambridge, Ontario) self-ligating bracket systems displayed a significantly lower level of frictional resistance, dramatically less chairtime for arch wire removal and insertion, and promoted improved infection control, when compared with polyurethane elastomeric and stainless steel tie wire ligation for ceramic and metal twin brackets. PMID:7977187

  16. Hemodynamics of distal revascularization-interval ligation.

    PubMed

    Illig, Karl A; Surowiec, Scott; Shortell, Cynthia K; Davies, Mark G; Rhodes, Jeffrey M; Green, Richard M

    2005-03-01

    Distal revascularization-interval ligation (DRIL) empirically corrects steal after arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation in most cases, but because there is no topologic alteration in anatomy, it is unclear as to why it is effective. To explore this issue, nine symptomatic patients underwent intravascular pressure and flow measurements before and after DRIL following upper arm autologous AVFs. Mean pre-DRIL systolic pressure (mmHg; mean +/- SD) in the proximal brachial artery (PROX) was 102 +/- 17, while that at the AV anastomosis (AV ANAST) was 47 +/- 38 (p < 0.0006). Flow (mL/min) distal to AV ANAST was retrograde with the fistula open (-21 +/- 64) but became antegrade (58 +/- 29; p < 0.03) with occlusion of the fistula. Following DRIL, pressures at both PROX and AV ANAST sites did not change (104 +/- 24 and 51 +/- 43, respectively). However, pressure at the point at which the blood flow split to supply the hand or the fistula, now PROX, increased from 47 +/- 38 (pre-DRIL AV ANAST) to 104 +/- 24 (p < 0.0001). Pressure in the brachial artery distal to the ligature increased to 104 +/- 27 (p < 0.0001), flow at this point (to the hand) became antegrade (51 +/- 39; p < 0.03), and occlusion of the fistula did not significantly change pressure at this site. We hypothesize that improvement in hand perfusion following DRIL is due to a higher pressure at the point at which the blood flow splits to supply both hand and fistula (pre-DRIL: AV ANAST; post-DRIL: PROX), allowing antegrade flow down the new bypass to the lower pressure forearm. This increased pressure must be due to the increased resistance of the fistula created by interposing the arterial segment between the original AV ANAST and new PROX ANAST. As such, DRIL is schematically equivalent to banding, but resistance is increased in a fashion that is physiologically and empirically acceptable. PMID:15770367

  17. Performance Appraisal and Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, M. L.

    1972-01-01

    Author, an Associate Professor of Industrial Management Engineering at the University of Oklahoma, has worked with both large and small companies and organizations in many kinds of business and industry. He discusses performance appraisal of employees, merit raises, counseling and interviewing techniques. (Editor/DR)

  18. 12 CFR 323.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 323.5 Section 323.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS § 323.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a...

  19. 12 CFR 323.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 323.5 Section 323.5 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS § 323.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal is prepared by a...

  20. 36 CFR 254.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ADJUSTMENTS Land Exchanges § 254.9 Appraisals. The Federal and non-Federal parties to an exchange shall comply... extent appropriate, with the Uniform Appraisal Standards for Federal Land Acquisitions: Interagency Land... appraiser(s) shall provide to the authorized officer appraisals estimating the market value of Federal...

  1. 12 CFR 722.5 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 722.5 Section 722.5 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS APPRAISALS § 722.5 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraiser. If an appraisal is prepared by a staff...

  2. Phosphoramidate Ligation of Oligonucleotides in Nanoscale Structures.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Matthäus; Haug, Rüdiger; Said, Hassan; Piasecka, Sylwia; Kramer, Markus; Richert, Clemens

    2016-06-16

    The folding of long DNA strands into designed nanostructures has evolved into an art. Being based on linear chains only, the resulting nanostructures cannot readily be transformed into covalently linked frameworks. Covalently linking strands in the context of folded DNA structures requires a robust method that avoids sterically demanding reagents or enzymes. Here we report chemical ligation of the 3'-amino termini of oligonucleotides and 5'-phosphorylated partner strands in templated reactions that produce phosphoramidate linkages. These reactions produce inter-nucleotide linkages that are isoelectronic and largely isosteric to phosphodiesters. Ligations were performed at three levels of complexity, including the extension of branched DNA hybrids and the ligation of six scaffold strands in a small origami. PMID:27225865

  3. Rapid oligonucleotide-templated fluorogenic tetrazine ligations

    PubMed Central

    Šečkutė, Jolita; Yang, Jun; Devaraj, Neal K.

    2013-01-01

    Template driven chemical ligation of fluorogenic probes represents a powerful method for DNA and RNA detection and imaging. Unfortunately, previous techniques have been hampered by requiring chemistry with sluggish kinetics and background side reactions. We have developed fluorescent DNA probes containing quenched fluorophore-tetrazine and methyl-cyclopropene groups that rapidly react by bioorthogonal cycloaddition in the presence of complementary DNA or RNA templates. Ligation increases fluorescence with negligible background signal in the absence of hybridization template. Reaction kinetics depend heavily on template length and linker structure. Using this technique, we demonstrate rapid discrimination between single template mismatches both in buffer and cell media. Fluorogenic bioorthogonal ligations offer a promising route towards the fast and robust fluorescent detection of specific DNA or RNA sequences. PMID:23775794

  4. Performance appraisals in the OR: everyone's business.

    PubMed

    Porteous, Joan

    2006-09-01

    Performance appraisals affect everyone. Perioperative nurses often participate in staff orientations and act as preceptors for other learners. Nurses also participate in their own performance appraisal process. This article discusses performance appraisal forms and performance interview processes. Examples of a performance appraisal form design and performance indicators for perioperative nurses are included. Potential problems with performance appraisals are identified and the impact of Canadian law on performance appraisals is discussed. PMID:17044264

  5. Appraisal of Teachers: Who Appraises Whom and Does It Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Alan Ping-yan; Wong, Edwin King-por; Yeung, Alexander Sheesing; Mo, Kim Wan

    Elementary school teachers in Hong Kong (n=527) responded to survey items about formative outcomes, summative outcomes, perceived purposes of appraisal, overall effectiveness of appraisal, and summative purposes such as promotion and dismissal of staff. Principal components analysis and confirmatory analysis yielded the two a priori outcome…

  6. Thoracoscopic Ligation of the Thoracic Duct

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Julio A.

    2000-01-01

    Objective: When nonoperative treatment of chylothorax fails, thoracic duct ligation is usually performed through a thoracotomy. We describe two cases of persistent chylothorax, in a child and an adult, successfully treated with thoracoscopic ligation of the thoracic duct. Methods: A 4-year-old girl developed a right chylothorax following a Fontan procedure. Aggressive nonoperative management failed to eliminate the persistent chyle loss. A 72-year-old insulin-dependent diabetic man was involved in a motor vehicle accident, in which he sustained multiple fractured ribs, a right hemopneumothorax, a right femoral shaft fracture, and a T-11 thoracic vertebral fracture. Subsequently, he developed a right chylothorax, which did not respond to nonoperative management. Both patients were successfully treated with thoracoscopic ligation of the thoracic duct. Results: The child had significant decrease of chyle drainage following surgery. Increased drainage that appeared after the introduction of full feedings five days postoperatively was controlled with the somatostatin analog octreotide. The chest tube was removed two weeks after surgery. After two years' follow-up, she has had no recurrence of chylothorax. The adult had no chyle drainage following surgery. He was maintained on a medium-chain triglyceride diet postoperatively for two weeks. The chest tube was removed four days after surgery. After six months' follow-up, he has had no recurrence of chylothorax. Conclusions: Thoracoscopic ligation of the thoracic duct provides a safe and effective treatment of chylothorax and may avoid thoracotomy and its associated morbidity. PMID:10987402

  7. Improving Performance Appraisal in Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincelette, Joyce P.; Pfister, Fred C.

    1984-01-01

    This article identifies problems with current practice in evaluating employee performance and presents currently accepted performance appraisal methods (behaviorally anchored rating scales, management by objectives). A research project designed to improve appraisals for school media specialists which was field-tested in four Florida school…

  8. Performance Appraisal Applied to Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jefferson, Anne L.

    2010-01-01

    Performance appraisal is a measurement process of how well an individual is doing her or his job. In most organisations, this appraisal is an annual event. Generally, it is done to encourage job performance, to flag areas that need attention, to inform both parties as to expectations. Much of the literature speaks to this process in terms of the…

  9. 32 CFR 644.42 - Appraisal report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appraisal report. 644.42 Section 644.42 National... HANDBOOK Appraisal § 644.42 Appraisal report. (a) Preface. The appraisal report is an important document... indispensable factor in justifying expenditures of public funds. It is essential that the report...

  10. 12 CFR 225.65 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 225.65 Section 225.65 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... Federally Related Transactions § 225.65 Appraiser independence. (a) Staff appraisers. If an appraisal...

  11. 32 CFR 644.42 - Appraisal report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Appraisal report. 644.42 Section 644.42 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Appraisal § 644.42 Appraisal report. (a) Preface. The appraisal report is an important document which serves as a material aid in...

  12. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraising performance. 430.307 Section 430.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.307 Appraising performance. (a) Annual appraisals. Agencies must appraise each...

  13. 30 CFR 882.12 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LAND RECLAMATION RECLAMATION ON PRIVATE LAND § 882.12 Appraisals. (a) A notarized appraisal of private land to be reclaimed which may be subject to a lien under § 882.13 shall be obtained from an independent appraiser. The appraisal shall state— (1) The estimated market value of the property in...

  14. Ligation of hemorrhoids as an office procedure

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, William W. H.

    1973-01-01

    Hemorrhoidectomy has been done on all our patients in whom operation was indicated, using the ligation method in the office. The patient does not require hospitalization or general anesthesia and rarely has pain or loss of time from work. Many thousands of hospital bed-days have been saved for more serious problems. The results of the treatment of our first 1000 patients have been very satisfactory. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2AFIG. 2B PMID:4682639

  15. Effective analgesia after bilateral tubal ligation.

    PubMed

    Wittels, B; Faure, E A; Chavez, R; Moawad, A; Ismail, M; Hibbard, J; Principe, D; Karl, L; Toledano, A Y

    1998-09-01

    To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of local anesthetic infiltration, 20 parturients scheduled for elective minilaparotomy and bilateral tubal ligation with either spinal or epidural anesthesia participated in this prospective, randomized, controlled, double-blind trial. All patients received intravenous (iv) metoclopramide 10 mg and ketorolac 60 mg intraoperatively, as well as preincisional infiltration of the infraumbilical skin incision with 0.5% bupivacaine. Infiltration of bilateral uterine tubes and mesosalpinx was performed either with 0.5% bupivacaine (n = 10) or isotonic sodium chloride solution (n = 10). Intravenous meperidine (25 mg every 3 minutes as needed) was given to treat pain in the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). The total amount of meperidine administered in the PACU was significantly larger in the saline group than in the bupivacaine group. Pain scores at 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 minutes postoperatively and on the 7th postoperative day were significantly lower in the bupivacaine group than in the saline group. During tubal ligation, infiltration of uterine tubes and mesosalpinx with 0.5% bupivacaine significantly enhanced analgesia both immediately postoperatively and on the 7th postoperative day compared with infiltration with sodium chloride. In conclusion, this study proved that during bilateral tubal ligation with either spinal or epidural anesthesia, preemptive analgesia using iv ketorolac, iv metoclopramide, and infiltration of the incised skin and uterine tubes with 0.5% bupivacaine can eliminate pain, nausea, vomiting, or cramping and maintain good analgesia for 7 days postoperatively. PMID:9728841

  16. Critical appraisal of clinical guidelines.

    PubMed

    Netsch, Debra S; Kluesner, Jean A

    2010-01-01

    Utilization of clinical guidelines is gaining in popularity due to their significant impact on clinical practice. While a plethora of guidelines exist, many are lacking in quality, based on current critical appraisal standards. It then becomes necessary for the end users of the guidelines to adopt or develop those that are deemed adequate for implementation. This often requires that users possess critical appraisal skills as they become proficient in discerning between guidelines of varying quality. This article provides direction and tools to support the critical appraisal process in the adoption of clinical guidelines. PMID:20838314

  17. Septic complications of hemorrhoidal banding.

    PubMed

    Quevedo-Bonilla, G; Farkas, A M; Abcarian, H; Hambrick, E; Orsay, C P

    1988-05-01

    Rubber band ligation is an efficacious and cost-effective alternative to conventional hemorrhoidectomy for symptomatic internal hemorrhoids. Even though the well-recognized complications of bleeding and thrombosis occur infrequently, far more serious septic complications have only recently been described, as evidenced in five of our patients: four cases were serious enough to necessitate surgical intervention, and one patient died. Pain followed by urinary dysfunction with or without toxic symptoms should alert the physician to the probability of localized perianal or systemic sepsis. Acute awareness of these rare but potentially life-threatening complications and immediate aggressive treatment is mandatory if death is to be prevented. Rubber band ligation of internal hemorrhoids need not be abandoned; however, the indications should be clear, the technique mastered, and a close patient follow-up maintained. PMID:3358691

  18. Synthetic strategies for polypeptides and proteins by chemical ligation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Heimer, Pascal; Imhof, Diana

    2015-07-01

    This review focuses on chemical ligation methods for the preparation of oligopeptides and proteins. Chemical ligation is a practical and convenient methodology in peptide and protein synthesis. Longer peptides and proteins can be obtained with high yield in aqueous buffer solutions by coupling unprotected peptide segments even without activation by enzymes or further chemical agents. Several methods and protocols were developed in the past. The potential of the most important approaches of the thioester- and imine-ligation techniques is demonstrated by a broad spectrum of applications. In addition, special features and protocols such as the template-directed ligation, ligation with novel additives or solvent media, microwave-assisted ligation, and the achievements obtained with those are also highlighted herein. PMID:25894893

  19. Peptide ligation from alkoxyamine based radical addition.

    PubMed

    Trimaille, Thomas; Autissier, Laurent; Rakotonirina, Mamy Daniel; Guillaneuf, Yohann; Villard, Claude; Bertin, Denis; Gigmes, Didier; Mabrouk, Kamel

    2014-03-14

    Intermolecular radical 1,2-addition (IRA) of N-tert-butyl-N-(1-diethylphosphono-2,2-dimethylpropyl)aminoxyl (SG1) based alkoxyamines onto activated olefins is used as a tool for peptide ligation. This strategy relies on simple peptide pre-derivatization to obtain (i) a SG1 nitroxide functionalized resin peptide at its N-terminus (SG1-peptide alkoxyamine), (ii) a vinyl functionalized peptide (either at its C-terminus or N-terminus), and does not require any coupling agents. PMID:24476638

  20. Differentiation of 13 positive emotions by appraisals.

    PubMed

    Tong, Eddie M W

    2015-01-01

    This research examined how strongly appraisals can differentiate positive emotions and how they differentiate positive emotions. Thirteen positive emotions were examined, namely, amusement, awe, challenge, compassion, contentment, gratitude, hope, interest, joy, pride, relief, romantic love and serenity. Participants from Singapore and the USA recalled an experience of each emotion and thereafter rated their appraisals of the experience. In general, the appraisals accurately classified the positive emotions at rates above chance levels, and the appraisal-emotion relationships conformed to predictions. Also, the appraisals were largely judged by participants as relevant to their positive emotion experiences, and the appraisal-emotion relationships were largely consistent across the two countries. PMID:24911866

  1. 43 CFR 426.13 - Excess land appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the first appraisal. The second appraisal will be prepared by a panel of three qualified appraisers... by the first two. The appraisal made by the panel will fix the maximum value of the excess land...

  2. Outcome Expectancies of People Who Conduct Performance Appraisals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Napier, Nancy K.; Latham, Gary P.

    1986-01-01

    Examined outcome expectancies of people who conduct appraisals. Interviews with 32 appraisers in the newsprint industry showed that appraisers perceived no consequences to them of conducting appraisals. Questionnaires completed by 39 appraisers in the banking industry provided moderate support for alternate hypothesis that appraisers perceive…

  3. 12 CFR 323.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. 323.3 Section 323.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS § 323.3 Appraisals required;...

  4. 12 CFR 323.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. 323.3 Section 323.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY APPRAISALS § 323.3 Appraisals required;...

  5. 12 CFR 564.3 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. 564.3 Section 564.3 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.3 Appraisals required; transactions requiring a...

  6. 12 CFR 34.43 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.43 Appraisals required... by a State certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate-related financial transactions except those in which: (1) The transaction value is $250,000 or less; (2) A lien on real...

  7. 12 CFR 34.43 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Appraisals § 34.43 Appraisals required... by a State certified or licensed appraiser is required for all real estate-related financial transactions except those in which: (1) The transaction value is $250,000 or less; (2) A lien on real...

  8. 78 FR 60872 - Appraisal Subcommittee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  9. 78 FR 60873 - Appraisal Subcommittee Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: In accordance with...

  10. Performance Appraisal: A Win/Win Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaye, Beverly; Krantz, Shelley

    1983-01-01

    Training managers fully for the performance appraisal process can transform an appraisal discussion from an administrative exercise to a worthwhile experience that contributes to the organization as a whole. (Author/SSH)

  11. 7 CFR 762.127 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of such public sales, reputable publications reflecting market values may be used. Appraisal reports... that the appraiser possesses sufficient experience or training to estimate the market value of... current production year and actual yields can be reasonably estimated. The appraised value of...

  12. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.2 Performance appraisal. (a) The... appraisal period on such standards. (4) Recognizing and rewarding employees whose performance so...

  13. Administrators' Perceptions of the Performance Appraisal Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Earl E.

    This study focused on department heads'/ chairs' perceptions of the appraisal interview (a face-to-face interpersonal communication event), assessment of the faculty member's role in the appraisal interview, and assessment of the academic administrator's role in the appraisal interview. The results indicate that approximately 20% of respondents…

  14. Appraisal and Evaluation: Chimera, Fantasy, or Practicality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marland, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Looks beyond the threatening and remunerative aspects of teacher appraisal in the United Kingdom to the contribution that evaluation can make to professional and school development. Considers five sound reasons for appraisal, the roles and behaviors to be appraised, and some workable approaches and techniques. Effective leadership is the key.…

  15. 32 CFR 644.43 - Gross appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Appraisal § 644.43 Gross appraisals. (a) Preparation. (1) The gross appraisal sections of real...-type or brief real estate design memoranda on civil works projects are submitted, comparable sales...

  16. 48 CFR 1437.7002 - Appraisal standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appraisal standards. 1437... standards. (a) All real property appraisals for condemnation purposes shall be consistent with requirements of the Interagency Land Acquisition Conference publication “Uniform Appraisal Standards for...

  17. Enabling N-to-C Ser/Thr Ligation for Convergent Protein Synthesis via Combining Chemical Ligation Approaches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi Lung; Liu, Han; Wong, Clarence T T; Chow, Hoi Yee; Li, Xuechen

    2016-08-24

    In this article, Ser/Thr ligation(on/off) has been realized to enable N-to-C successive peptide ligations using a salicylaldehyde semicarbazone (SAL(off)) group by in situ activation with pyruvic acid of the peptide SAL(off) ester into the peptide salicylaldehyde (SAL(on)) ester. In addition, a peptide with a C-terminal thioester and N-terminal Ser or Thr as the middle peptide segment can undergo one-pot Ser/Thr ligation and native chemical ligation in the N-to-C direction. The utility of this combined ligation strategy in the N-to-C direction has been showcased through the convergent assembly of a human cytokine protein sequence, GlcNAcylated interleukin-25. PMID:27479006

  18. Appraisal Psychology, Neurobiology, and Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumann, John H.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes that the confluence of stimulus appraisal and social cognition that is effected by the neural system in the brain has important implications for language and learning theories. Describes the anatomy and functions of this neural system and discusses how it may operate in motivation for second language acquisition and how in conjunction…

  19. Principal Appraisals Get a Remake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zubrzycki, Jaclyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of school districts--including large ones like those in Chicago, Dallas, Los Angeles, and Hawaii--have become recent converts to new principal-evaluation systems that tie school leaders' appraisals to student test scores. As of this school year, student achievement accounts for 40 percent to 50 percent of principals' evaluations…

  20. Board & Supt. Share Appraisal Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaub, Gerald R.

    1983-01-01

    Although some board members and superintendents may consider superintendent evaluation as potentially disturbing for their working relationships, such evaluations may become more appealing when considered as part of a broader system of school governance and management. What is needed is a performance appraisal system developed jointly by…

  1. Efficient Ligation of the Schistosoma Hammerhead Ribozyme †

    PubMed Central

    Canny, Marella D.; Jucker, Fiona M.; Pardi, Arthur

    2011-01-01

    The hammerhead ribozyme from Schistosoma mansoni is the best characterized of the natural hammerhead ribozymes. Biophysical, biochemical, and structural studies have shown that the formation of the loop-loop tertiary interaction between stems I and II alters the global folding, cleavage kinetics, and conformation of the catalytic core of this hammerhead, leading to a ribozyme that is readily cleaved under physiological conditions. This study investigates the ligation kinetics and the internal equilibrium between cleavage and ligation for the Schistosoma hammerhead. Single turnover kinetic studies on a construct where the ribozyme cleaves and ligates substrate(s) in trans showed up to 23% ligation when starting from fully cleaved products. This was achieved by a ~2,000-fold increase in the rate of ligation compared to a minimal hammerhead without the loop-loop tertiary interaction, yielding an internal equilibrium that ranges from 2–3 at physiological Mg2+ ion concentrations (0.1 –1 mM). Thus, the natural Schistosoma hammerhead ribozyme is almost as efficient at ligation as it is at cleavage. The results here are consistent with a model where formation of the loop-loop tertiary interaction leads to a higher population of catalytically active molecules, and where formation of this tertiary interaction has a much larger effect on the ligation than the cleavage activity of the Schistosoma hammerhead ribozyme. PMID:17319693

  2. Recovery of testicular blood flow following ligation of testicular vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Pascual, J.A.; Villanueva-Meyer, J.; Salido, E.; Ehrlich, R.M.; Mena, I.; Rajfer, J.

    1989-08-01

    To determine whether initial ligation of the testicular vessels of the high undescended testis followed by a delayed secondary orchiopexy is a viable alternative to the classical Fowler-Stephens procedure, a series of preliminary experiments were conducted in the rat in which testicular blood flow was measured by the 133-xenon washout technique before, and 1 hour and 30 days after ligation of the vessels. In addition, testicular histology, and testis and sex-accessory tissue weights were measured in 6 control, 6 sham operated and 6 testicular vessel ligated rats 54 days after vessel ligation. The data demonstrate that ligation and division of the testicular blood vessels produce an 80 per cent decrease in testicular blood flow 1 hour after ligation of the vessels. However, 30 days later testis blood flow returns to the control and pre-treatment value. There were no significant changes in testis or sex-accessory tissue weights 54 days after vessel ligation. Histologically, 4 of the surgically operated testes demonstrated necrosis of less than 25 per cent of the seminiferous tubules while 1 testis demonstrated more than 75 per cent necrosis. The rest of the tubules in all 6 testes demonstrated normal spermatogenesis. From this study we conclude that initial testicular vessel ligation produces an immediate decrease in testicular blood flow but with time the collateral vessels are able to compensate and return the testis blood flow to its normal pre-treatment value. These preliminary observations lend support for the concept that initial ligation of the testicular vessels followed by a delayed secondary orchiopexy in patients with a high undescended testis may be a possible alternative to the classical Fowler-Stephens approach.

  3. Convergent synthesis of proteins by kinetically controlled ligation

    DOEpatents

    Kent, Stephen; Pentelute, Brad; Bang, Duhee; Johnson, Erik; Durek, Thomas

    2010-03-09

    The present invention concerns methods and compositions for synthesizing a polypeptide using kinetically controlled reactions involving fragments of the polypeptide for a fully convergent process. In more specific embodiments, a ligation involves reacting a first peptide having a protected cysteyl group at its N-terminal and a phenylthioester at its C-terminal with a second peptide having a cysteine residue at its N-termini and a thioester at its C-termini to form a ligation product. Subsequent reactions may involve deprotecting the cysteyl group of the resulting ligation product and/or converting the thioester into a thiophenylester.

  4. [The decision to undergo tubal ligation].

    PubMed

    Fontaine, J G

    1984-07-01

    Gynecologists frequently seek the opinion of a psychiatrist before performing tubal ligations. The case of a 25-year-old childless divorcee whose gynecologist feared that her request for sterilization was actually a sign of depression is described to illustrate different aspects of psychiatric evaluation of women seeking sterilization. The patient's appearance and comportment during the interview, husband, family, attitude toward children, and dreams appeared normal. A traditional psychiatric evaluation shed little light on her reasons for seeking sterilization. A scale developed in the course of a few years of interviewing sterilization candidates to try to achieve a degree of objectivity was applied to the case. The scale requires assessment of the client's motivation, contraceptive usage, self-image, psychosexual development, the economic value of the ligation, and the consequences for the patient's sexual, social, and professional life. The psychiatrist summarizes his detailed findings and states them in comprehensible and practical terms for the sterilization practitioner. In this case, the client was raised rather coldly in a large family of 13 children where she received little attention from her father or mother. Her family background caused her to enter the work force at a very early age and to seek affection from an older man whom she married at 19 after 2 years of living together. She soon realized that he could not fill her need for affection and decided to leave him as he was demanding a child. Her 2nd partner was an alcoholic whom she left for the same reasons. She could not accept the idea of having a child who would be demanding when her own needs were so pressing. Her position was reinforced by her belief that she could not use oral contraceptives because of recurrent infections and that the IUD is unreliable. Deep psychotherapy could probably lower her resistence to motherhood but the client had no motivation for it. There was little reason not to

  5. Optimising the reward of appraisal drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Gdula, J.

    1996-12-31

    Management of the uncertainties associated with the development of a hydrocarbon resource is essential to minimize economic risk. In many instances these uncertainties can only be reduced by appraisal drilling. This presentation illustrates the efforts being made to manage uncertainty by determining its impact on overall project profitability. The Value of Information (VOI) approach is described. VOI aims at quantifying the benefits of appraisal by determining its economic reward in terms of its contribution to a development plan which is economically robust over the uncertainty range. Appraisal drilling costs can be reduced by combining appraisal and development objectives in one well. The growing use of horizontal drilling technology has resulted in novel approaches to appraisal. As examples, in the Osprey and Brent Fields (UK North Sea) wells were designed to satisfy both appraisal and development objectives. In Osprey, a well was drilled from a central production platform to provide water injection support in a satellite structure while at the same time appraising the saddle area between the two structures. In Brent, horizontal wells are used to appraise and develop the so called slump blocks, characterized by being highly faulted and compartmentalized. Another increasingly common application of horizontal wells is for the flank appraisal of hydrocarbon bearing structure. Examples from the Rabi Field (Gabon) and Batan Field (Nigeria) show how appraisal was achieved by extending the reach of horizontal development wells from the central core of the structures.

  6. Optimising the reward of appraisal drilling

    SciTech Connect

    Gdula, J.

    1996-01-01

    Management of the uncertainties associated with the development of a hydrocarbon resource is essential to minimize economic risk. In many instances these uncertainties can only be reduced by appraisal drilling. This presentation illustrates the efforts being made to manage uncertainty by determining its impact on overall project profitability. The Value of Information (VOI) approach is described. VOI aims at quantifying the benefits of appraisal by determining its economic reward in terms of its contribution to a development plan which is economically robust over the uncertainty range. Appraisal drilling costs can be reduced by combining appraisal and development objectives in one well. The growing use of horizontal drilling technology has resulted in novel approaches to appraisal. As examples, in the Osprey and Brent Fields (UK North Sea) wells were designed to satisfy both appraisal and development objectives. In Osprey, a well was drilled from a central production platform to provide water injection support in a satellite structure while at the same time appraising the saddle area between the two structures. In Brent, horizontal wells are used to appraise and develop the so called slump blocks, characterized by being highly faulted and compartmentalized. Another increasingly common application of horizontal wells is for the flank appraisal of hydrocarbon bearing structure. Examples from the Rabi Field (Gabon) and Batan Field (Nigeria) show how appraisal was achieved by extending the reach of horizontal development wells from the central core of the structures.

  7. Formatting and ligating biopolymers using adjustable nanoconfinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berard, Daniel J.; Shayegan, Marjan; Michaud, Francois; Henkin, Gil; Scott, Shane; Leslie, Sabrina

    2016-07-01

    Sensitive visualization and conformational control of long, delicate biopolymers present critical challenges to emerging biotechnologies and biophysical studies. Next-generation nanofluidic manipulation platforms strive to maintain the structural integrity of genomic DNA prior to analysis but can face challenges in device clogging, molecular breakage, and single-label detection. We address these challenges by integrating the Convex Lens-induced Confinement (CLiC) technique with a suite of nanotopographies embedded within thin-glass nanofluidic chambers. We gently load DNA polymers into open-face nanogrooves in linear, concentric circular, and ring array formats and perform imaging with single-fluorophore sensitivity. We use ring-shaped nanogrooves to access and visualize confinement-enhanced self-ligation of long DNA polymers. We use concentric circular nanogrooves to enable hour-long observations of polymers at constant confinement in a geometry which eliminates the confinement gradient which causes drift and can alter molecular conformations and interactions. Taken together, this work opens doors to myriad biophysical studies and biotechnologies which operate on the nanoscale.

  8. A Photo-Triggered Traceless Staudinger-Bertozzi Ligation Reaction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng; Feng, Tianshi; Yeung, Chi-Chung; Koo, Chi-Kin; Lau, Kai-Chung; Lam, Michael H W

    2016-08-01

    The use of light to control the course of a chemical/biochemical reaction is an attractive idea because of its ease of administration with high precision and fine spatial resolution. Staudinger ligation is one of the commonly adopted conjugation processes that involve a spontaneous reaction between azides and arylphosphines to form iminophosphoranes, which further hydrolyze to give stable amides. We designed an anthracenylmethyl diphenylphosphinothioester (1) that showed promising Staudinger ligation reactivity upon photo-excitation. Broadband photolysis at 360-400 nm in aqueous organic solvents induced heterolytic cleavage of its anthracenylmethyl-phosphorus bond, releasing a diphenylphosphinothioester (2) as an efficient traceless Staudinger-Bertozzi ligation reagent. The quantum yield of such a photo-induced heterolytic bond-cleavage at the optimal wavelength of photolysis (376 nm) at room temperature is ≥0.07. This work demonstrated the feasibility of photocaging arylphosphines to realize the photo-triggering of the Staudinger ligation reaction. PMID:27123884

  9. Cross-ligation and exchange reactions catalyzed by hairpin ribozymes.

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Y; Koizumi, M; Sekiguchi, A; Ohtsuka, E

    1993-01-01

    The negative strand of the satellite RNA of tobacco ringspot virus (sTobRV(-)) contains a hairpin catalytic domain that shows self-cleavage and self-ligation activities in the presence of magnesium ions. We describe here that the minimal catalytic domain can catalyze a cross-ligation reaction between two kinds of substrates in trans. The cross-ligated product increased when the reaction temperature was decreased during the reaction from 37 degrees C to 4 degrees C. A two-stranded hairpin ribozyme, divided into two fragments between G45 and U46 in a hairpin loop, showed higher ligation activity than the nondivided ribozyme. The two stranded ribozyme also catalyzed an exchange reaction of the 3'-portion of the cleavage site. Images PMID:8441626

  10. Vessel Ligation Training via an Adaptive Simulation Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yinin; Goodrich, Robyn N.; Le, Ivy A.; Brooks, Kendall D.; Sawyer, Robert G.; Smith, Philip W.; Schroen, Anneke T.; Rasmussen, Sara K.

    2015-01-01

    Background A cost-effective model for open vessel ligation is currently lacking. We hypothesized that a novel, inexpensive vessel ligation simulator can efficiently impart transferrable surgical skills to novice trainees. Materials and Methods VesselBox was designed to simulate vessel ligation using surgical gloves as surrogate vessels. Fourth-year medical students performed ligations using VesselBox, and were evaluated by surgical faculty using the Objective Structured Assessments of Technical Skills (OSATS) global rating scale and a task-specific checklist. Subsequently, each student was trained using VesselBox in an adaptive practice session guided by cumulative sum. Post-testing was performed on fresh human cadavers by evaluators blinded to pre-test results. Results Sixteen students completed the study. VesselBox practice sessions averaged 21.8 minutes per participant (IQR 19.5 – 27.7). Blinded post-tests demonstrated increased proficiency, as measured by both OSATS (3.23 vs 2.29, p < 0.001) and checklist metrics (7.33 vs 4.83, p < 0.001). Median speed improved from 128.2 seconds to 97.5 seconds per vessel ligated (p = 0.001). Following this adaptive training protocol, practice volume was not associated with post-test performance. Conclusions VesselBox is a cost-effective, low-fidelity vessel ligation model suitable for graduating medical students and junior residents. Cumulative sum can facilitate an adaptive, individualized curriculum for simulation training. PMID:25796112

  11. Esophageal variceal pressure influence on the effect of ligation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Qun; LingHu, En-Qiang; Hu, Min; Li, Wei-Min; Huang, Qi-Yang; Zhao, Yong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effect of in vitro porcine esophageal variceal pressure on complete ligation degree for polycyclic ligators. METHODS: An in vitro model of experimental porcine venous vessels was used to test various venous pressures. Three treatment groups were designated according to the preset pressure range: P1 = 25-30 cmH2O; P2 = 35-40 cmH2O; P3 = 45-50 cmH2O. The effect of pressure on ligation was assessed and compared among the groups. RESULTS: Complete ligation was achieved at a rate of 56.25% (18/32) in group P1, 37.5% (12/32) in group P2, and 33.33% (11/33) in group P3 (χ2 = 3.6126; P = 0.0573). CONCLUSION: Higher variceal pressures impair the ligation completion rate. Therefore, measuring variceal pressure may help predict the effect of endoscopic ligation and guide treatment choice. PMID:25852273

  12. Rapamycin delays salivary gland atrophy following ductal ligation

    PubMed Central

    Bozorgi, S S; Proctor, G B; Carpenter, G H

    2014-01-01

    Salivary gland atrophy is a frequent consequence of head and neck cancer irradiation therapy but can potentially be regulated through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Excretory duct ligation of the mouse submandibular gland provokes severe glandular atrophy causing activation of mTOR. This study aims to discover the effects of blocking mTOR signaling in ligation-induced atrophic salivary glands. Following 1 week of unilateral submandibular excretory duct ligation: gland weights were significantly reduced, 4E-BP1 and S6rp were activated, and tissue morphology revealed typical signs of atrophy. However, 3 days following ligation with rapamycin treatment, a selective mTOR inhibitor, gland weights were maintained, 4E-BP1 and S6rp phosphorylation was inhibited, and there were morphological signs of recovery from atrophy. However, following 5 and 7 days of ligation and rapamycin treatment, glands expressed active mTOR and showed signs of considerable atrophy. This evidence suggests that inhibition of mTOR by rapamycin delays ligation-induced atrophy of salivary glands. PMID:24675464

  13. Covalent ligation studies on the human telomere quadruplex

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jianying; Shafer, Richard H.

    2005-01-01

    Recent X-ray crystallographic studies on the human telomere sequence d[AGGG(TTAGGG)3] revealed a unimolecular, parallel quadruplex structure in the presence of potassium ions, while earlier NMR results in the presence of sodium ions indicated a unimolecular, antiparallel quadruplex. In an effort to identify and isolate the parallel form in solution, we have successfully ligated into circular products the single-stranded human telomere and several modified human telomere sequences in potassium-containing solutions. Using these sequences with one or two terminal phosphates, we have made chemically ligated products via creation of an additional loop. Circular products have been identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, enzymatic digestion with exonuclease VII and electrospray mass spectrometry in negative ion mode. Optimum pH for the ligation reaction of the human telomere sequence ranges from 4.5 to 6.0. Several buffers were also examined, with MES yielding the greatest ligation efficiency. Human telomere sequences with two phosphate groups, one each at the 3′ and 5′ ends, were more efficient at ligation, via pyrophosphate bond formation, than the corresponding sequences with only one phosphate group, at the 5′ end. Circular dichroism spectra showed that the ligation product was derived from an antiparallel, single-stranded guanine quadruplex rather than a parallel single-stranded guanine quadruplex structure. PMID:15933211

  14. Test Takers' Performance Appraisals, Appraisal Calibration, and Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategy Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phakiti, Aek

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores the nature and relationships among test takers' performance appraisals, appraisal calibration, and reported cognitive and metacognitive strategy use in a language test situation. Performance appraisals are executive processes of strategic competence for judging test performance (e.g., evaluating the correctness or…

  15. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a... BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions § 225.63... institution is acting in a fiduciary capacity and is not required to obtain an appraisal under other law;...

  16. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a... BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions § 225.63... institution is acting in a fiduciary capacity and is not required to obtain an appraisal under other law;...

  17. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a... CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions § 225.63... institution is acting in a fiduciary capacity and is not required to obtain an appraisal under other law;...

  18. Clinical application of a ligation-independent pathway of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification for the determination of quinolone susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Uno, Naoki; Araki, Nobuko; Kaku, Norihito; Kosai, Kosuke; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2016-09-01

    We previously uncovered a ligation-independent pathway of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) through which products of MLPA could be amplified without both hybridization and ligation reactions. Here, we utilized this pathway to detect an antibiotic resistance mutation of quinolones in Streptococcus pneumoniae. PMID:27343683

  19. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.2 Performance..., promoting, reducing in grade, retaining, and removing employees. (b) Each performance appraisal system...

  20. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.2 Performance... appraisal period on such standards. (4) Recognizing and rewarding employees whose performance so...

  1. Philadelphia's Teacher Appraisal System Needs Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Royal, Camika; Tossman, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inform the community about teacher appraisal methods in the School District of Philadelphia, outline the difficulties of the current system, and suggest approaches that would strengthen the teacher appraisal process. The authors gathered their information over three months in mid-2009 from multiple sources:…

  2. 36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite tracts shall...

  3. 36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite tracts shall...

  4. 36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite tracts shall...

  5. 36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite tracts shall...

  6. 36 CFR 254.26 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Appraisal. 254.26 Section 254.26 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LANDOWNERSHIP ADJUSTMENTS National Forest Townsites § 254.26 Appraisal. Fair market value of townsite tracts shall...

  7. Self-Appraisal of Job Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Herbert H.

    1980-01-01

    Research indicates that when self-appraisals are obtained on a "compared to others" basis, the leniency error is very strong. Using forced distributions in rating programs contributes to defensive behaviors and lowers job performance. More research should be conducted on the effects of appraisal on immediate motivation. (Author)

  8. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraising performance. 430.307 Section 430.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.307 Appraising performance. (a) Annual...

  9. Children's Appraisal of Moderately Stressful Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, Brianne; Power, Thomas; Hill, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated 2 questions: (1) do children show consistent styles of appraisal across a range of moderately stressful events?, and (2) what are the adjustment and parenting correlates of individual differences in children's appraisal style? Ninety-nine 3rd though 5th grade children and their mothers participated. For each of 6 vignettes…

  10. Attitudes toward Acquaintance Rape and Risk Appraisal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Doris J.

    1999-01-01

    Examines how men and women judge the presence of risk factors in a scripted acquaintance rape scenario and if alcohol was a significant factor in assessing risk. Significant differences were found in African American and Caucasian participants' attitudes toward rape and risk appraisal. There was a negative correlation between risk appraisal and…

  11. 38 CFR 36.4365 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appraisal requirements. 36.4365 Section 36.4365 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting § 36.4365 Appraisal requirements. (a) Existing...

  12. Teaching Critical Appraisal of Articles on Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohr, Pavel; Hoschl, Cyril; Volavka, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Psychiatrists and other physicians sometimes read publications superficially, relying excessively on abstracts. The authors addressed this problem by teaching critical appraisal of individual articles. Method: The authors developed a 23-item appraisal instrument to assess articles in the area of psychopharmacology. The results were…

  13. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraising performance. 430.307 Section 430.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.307 Appraising performance. (a) Annual...

  14. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraising performance. 430.307 Section 430.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.307 Appraising performance. (a) Annual...

  15. 5 CFR 430.307 - Appraising performance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraising performance. 430.307 Section 430.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT Managing Senior Executive Performance § 430.307 Appraising performance. (a) Annual...

  16. 7 CFR 762.127 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Appraisal requirements. 762.127 Section 762.127 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED FARM LOANS § 762.127 Appraisal requirements. (a) General. The...

  17. 7 CFR 356.2 - Appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraisement. 356.2 Section 356.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FORFEITURE PROCEDURES § 356.2 Appraisement. Promptly following the seizure or...

  18. Performance Appraisal in Academic and Research Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Larry N.

    There is a need for increased efficiency and effectiveness in the employment of the library's human resources. Performance appraisal can serve as a basis for salary and advancement decisions, career development, and performance improvement. Three criteria for performance appraisal can be distinguished: (1) the trait approach, (2) the job…

  19. 50 CFR 12.12 - Appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Appraisement. 12.12 Section 12.12 Wildlife... FORFEITURE PROCEDURES Preliminary Requirements § 12.12 Appraisement. The Service shall determine the value of... lawfully be sold in the United States, its domestic value shall be determined in accordance with §......

  20. 62 FR 64997 - Real Estate Appraisals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-12-09

    ... 225 Real Estate Appraisals AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. ACTION: Notice of... financial and public policy interests in real estate-related transactions will be protected by requiring that real estate appraisals utilized in connection with federally related transactions are performed...

  1. 12 CFR 34.85 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Other Real Estate Owned § 34.85 Appraisal requirements. (a) General. (1) Upon transfer to OREO, a... develop a prudent real estate collateral evaluation policy that allows the bank to monitor the value...

  2. 12 CFR 34.85 - Appraisal requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY REAL ESTATE LENDING AND APPRAISALS Other Real Estate Owned § 34.85 Appraisal requirements. (a) General. (1) Upon transfer to OREO, a... develop a prudent real estate collateral evaluation policy that allows the bank to monitor the value...

  3. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within 15 days after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  4. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within 15 days after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  5. 9 CFR 50.9 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF TUBERCULOSIS General Indemnity § 50.9 Appraisals. (a) Livestock to be destroyed because of tuberculosis under § 50.3 must be appraised within 15 days after being classified as infected with tuberculosis, except that the...

  6. 12 CFR 225.65 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 225.65 Section 225.65 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards...

  7. 12 CFR 225.65 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 225.65 Section 225.65 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal Standards for Federally Related Transactions §...

  8. 12 CFR 225.65 - Appraiser independence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Appraiser independence. 225.65 Section 225.65 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations Appraisal...

  9. Pupil Appraisal Handbook. Bulletin 1508. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Dept. of Education, Baton Rouge.

    This bulletin serves as a guide for the conduct of pupil appraisal services in Louisiana. It includes procedures, standards, and criteria for identifying children eligible for special education and/or related services. In addition, a general description of pupil appraisal services encompasses personnel, responsibilities, rights of students and…

  10. 5 CFR 9901.411 - Appraisal period.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... PERSONNEL SYSTEM (NSPS) Performance Management § 9901.411 Appraisal period. (a) Except as provided in... period, an employee has not met the minimum period of performance, management may extend the appraisal....411 Administrative Personnel DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT AND LABOR...

  11. 5 CFR 301.303 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 301.303 Section 301.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS OVERSEAS....303 Performance appraisal. As soon as practicable, but beginning not later than January 1,...

  12. 36 CFR 223.222 - Appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Appraisal. 223.222 Section 223.222 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products Appraisal and Pricing § 223.222...

  13. 7 CFR 356.2 - Appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisement. 356.2 Section 356.2 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FORFEITURE PROCEDURES § 356.2 Appraisement. Promptly following the seizure or...

  14. Social appraisal influences recognition of emotions.

    PubMed

    Mumenthaler, Christian; Sander, David

    2012-06-01

    The notion of social appraisal emphasizes the importance of a social dimension in appraisal theories of emotion by proposing that the way an individual appraises an event is influenced by the way other individuals appraise and feel about the same event. This study directly tested this proposal by asking participants to recognize dynamic facial expressions of emotion (fear, happiness, or anger in Experiment 1; fear, happiness, anger, or neutral in Experiment 2) in a target face presented at the center of a screen while a contextual face, which appeared simultaneously in the periphery of the screen, expressed an emotion (fear, happiness, anger) or not (neutral) and either looked at the target face or not. We manipulated gaze direction to be able to distinguish between a mere contextual effect (gaze away from both the target face and the participant) and a specific social appraisal effect (gaze toward the target face). Results of both experiments provided evidence for a social appraisal effect in emotion recognition, which differed from the mere effect of contextual information: Whereas facial expressions were identical in both conditions, the direction of the gaze of the contextual face influenced emotion recognition. Social appraisal facilitated the recognition of anger, happiness, and fear when the contextual face expressed the same emotion. This facilitation was stronger than the mere contextual effect. Social appraisal also allowed better recognition of fear when the contextual face expressed anger and better recognition of anger when the contextual face expressed fear. PMID:22288528

  15. Risk Appraisal in Scripted Acquaintance Rape Scenarios.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Doris J.

    Cognitive appraisals are believed to influence how women judge or appraise risk in acquaintance interactions which lead to sexual assault. Ways in which men and women judge the presence of risk factors in scripted acquaintance rape scenarios, and whether alcohol was a significant factor in assessing risk, are examined in this paper. Participants…

  16. 4 CFR 4.2 - Performance appraisal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 4 Accounts 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Performance appraisal. 4.2 Section 4.2 Accounts GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE PERSONNEL SYSTEM EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE AND UTILIZATION § 4.2 Performance..., promoting, reducing in grade, retaining, and removing employees. (b) Each performance appraisal system...

  17. 19 CFR 162.43 - Appraisement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Appraisement. 162.43 Section 162.43 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INSPECTION, SEARCH, AND SEIZURE Treatment of Seized Merchandise § 162.43 Appraisement....

  18. Moral Appraisals Affect Doing/Allowing Judgments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Fiery; Knobe, Joshua; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter

    2008-01-01

    An extensive body of research suggests that the distinction between doing and allowing plays a critical role in shaping moral appraisals. Here, we report evidence from a pair of experiments suggesting that the converse is also true: moral appraisals affect doing/allowing judgments. Specifically, morally bad behavior is more likely to be construed…

  19. 7 CFR 4279.144 - Appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisals. 4279.144 Section 4279.144 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL BUSINESS-COOPERATIVE SERVICE AND RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUARANTEED LOANMAKING Business and Industry Loans § 4279.144 Appraisals. Lenders will be responsible...

  20. Collateral Capillary Arterialization following arteriolar ligation in murine skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Mac Gabhann, Feilim; Peirce, Shayn M.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Chronic and acute ischemic diseases – peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, stroke – result in tissue damage unless blood flow is maintained or restored in a timely manner. Mice of different strains recover from arteriolar ligation (by increasing collateral blood flow) at different speeds. We quantify the spatio-termporal patterns of microvascular network remodeling following arteriolar ligation in different mouse strains to better understand interindividual variability. METHODS Whole-muscle spinotrapezius microvascular networks of mouse strains C57Bl/6, Balb/c and CD1 were imaged using confocal microscopy following ligation of feeding arterioles. RESULTS Baseline arteriolar structures of C57Bl/6 and Balb/c mice feature heavily ramified arcades and unconnected dendritic trees, respectively. This network angioarchitecture identifies ischemia-protected and ischemia-vulnerable tissues: unlike C57Bl/6, downstream capillary perfusion in Balb/c spinotrapezius is lost following ligation. Perfusion recovery requires arterialization (expansion and investment of mural cells) of a subset of capillaries forming a new low-resistance collateral pathway between arteriolar trees. Outbred CD1 exhibit either Balb/c-like or C57Bl/6-like spinotrapezius angioarchitecture, predictive of response to arteriolar ligation. CONCLUSIONS This collateral capillary arterialization process may explain the reported longer time required for blood flow recovery in Balb/c hindlimb ischemia, as low-resistance blood flow pathways along capillary conduits must be formed (‘arterialization’) before reperfusion. PMID:20618691

  1. Task appraisals, emotions, and performance goal orientation.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Cynthia D; Minbashian, Amirali; Beckmann, Nadin; Wood, Robert E

    2013-03-01

    We predict real-time fluctuations in employees' positive and negative emotions from concurrent appraisals of the immediate task situation and individual differences in performance goal orientation. Task confidence, task importance, positive emotions, and negative emotions were assessed 5 times per day for 3 weeks in an experience sampling study of 135 managers. At the within-person level, appraisals of task confidence, task importance, and their interaction predicted momentary positive and negative emotions as hypothesized. Dispositional performance goal orientation was expected to moderate emotional reactivity to appraisals of task confidence and task importance. The hypothesized relationships were significant in the case of appraisals of task importance. Those high on performance goal orientation reacted to appraisals of task importance with stronger negative and weaker positive emotions than those low on performance goal orientation. PMID:23276116

  2. Template-Directed Ligation of Peptides to Oligonucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruick, Richard K.; Dawson, Philip E.; Kent, Stephen BH; Usman, Nassim; Joyce, Gerald F.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic oligonucleotides and peptides have enjoyed a wide range of applications in both biology and chemistry. As a consequence, oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates have received considerable attention, most notably in the development of antisense constructs with improved pharmacological properties. In addition, oligonucleotide-peptide conjugates have been used as molecular tags, in the assembly of supramolecular arrays and in the construction of encoded combinatorial libraries. To make these chimeric molecules more accessible for a broad range of investigations, we sought to develop a facile method for joining fully deprotected oligonucleotides and peptides through a stable amide bond linkage. Furthermore, we wished to make this ligation reaction addressable, enabling one to direct the ligation of specific oligonucleotide and peptide components.To confer specificity and accelerate the rate of the reaction, the ligation process was designed to be dependent on the presence of a complementary oligonucleotide template.

  3. Oxidative Deselenization of Selenocysteine: Applications for Programmed Ligation at Serine.

    PubMed

    Malins, Lara R; Mitchell, Nicholas J; McGowan, Sheena; Payne, Richard J

    2015-10-19

    Despite the unique chemical properties of selenocysteine (Sec), ligation at Sec is an under-utilized methodology for protein synthesis. We describe herein an unprecedented protocol for the conversion of Sec to serine (Ser) in a single, high-yielding step. When coupled with ligation at Sec, this transformation provides a new approach to programmed ligations at Ser residues. This new reaction is compatible with a wide range of functionality, including the presence of unprotected amino acid side chains and appended glycans. The utility of the methodology is demonstrated in the rapid synthesis of complex glycopeptide fragments of the epithelial glycoproteins MUC5AC and MUC4 and through the total synthesis of the structured, cysteine (Cys)-free protein eglin C. PMID:26384718

  4. RNA-Catalyzed RNA Ligation on an External RNA Template

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGinness, Kathleen E.; Joyce, Gerald F.

    2002-01-01

    Variants of the hc ligase ribozyme, which catalyzes ligation of the 3' end of an RNA substrate to the 5' end of the ribozyme, were utilized to evolve a ribozyme that catalyzes ligation reactions on an external RNA template. The evolved ribozyme catalyzes the joining of an oligonucleotide 3'-hydroxyl to the 5'-triphosphate of an RNA hairpin molecule. The ribozyme can also utilize various substrate sequences, demonstrating a largely sequence-independent mechanism for substrate recognition. The ribozyme also carries out the ligation of two oligonucleotides that are bound at adjacent positions on a complementary template. Finally, it catalyzes addition of mononucleoside '5-triphosphates onto the '3 end of an oligonucleotide primer in a template-dependent manner. The development of ribozymes that catalyze polymerase-type reactions contributes to the notion that an RNA world could have existed during the early history of life on Earth.

  5. High-throughput determination of RNA structure by proximity ligation.

    PubMed

    Ramani, Vijay; Qiu, Ruolan; Shendure, Jay

    2015-09-01

    We present an unbiased method to globally resolve RNA structures through pairwise contact measurements between interacting regions. RNA proximity ligation (RPL) uses proximity ligation of native RNA followed by deep sequencing to yield chimeric reads with ligation junctions in the vicinity of structurally proximate bases. We apply RPL in both baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human cells and generate contact probability maps for ribosomal and other abundant RNAs, including yeast snoRNAs, the RNA subunit of the signal recognition particle and the yeast U2 spliceosomal RNA homolog. RPL measurements correlate with established secondary structures for these RNA molecules, including stem-loop structures and long-range pseudoknots. We anticipate that RPL will complement the current repertoire of computational and experimental approaches in enabling the high-throughput determination of secondary and tertiary RNA structures. PMID:26237516

  6. High-throughput determination of RNA structure by proximity ligation

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, Vijay; Qiu, Ruolan; Shendure, Jay

    2015-01-01

    We present an unbiased method to globally resolve RNA structures through pairwise contact measurements between interacting regions. RNA Proximity Ligation (RPL) uses proximity ligation of native RNA followed by deep sequencing to yield chimeric reads with ligation junctions in the vicinity of structurally proximate bases. We apply RPL in both baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and human cells and generate contact probability maps for ribosomal and other abundant RNAs, including yeast snoRNAs, the RNA subunit of the signal recognition particle, and the yeast U2 spliceosomal RNA homolog. RPL measurements correlate with established secondary structures for these RNA molecules, including stem-loop structures and long-range pseudoknots. We anticipate that RPL will complement the current repertoire of computational and experimental approaches in enabling the high-throughput determination of secondary and tertiary RNA structures. PMID:26237516

  7. Development of an Improved Animal Model of Overactive Bladder: Transperineal Ligation versus Transperitoneal Ligation in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Woo Hyun; Bae, Woong Jin; Park, Jung Woo; Choi, Jin Bong; Kim, Su Jin; Cho, Hyuk Jin; Ha, U Syn; Hong, Sung Hoo; Lee, Ji Youl; Hwang, Sung Yeoun

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We compared a transperineal ligation model and a transperitoneal ligation model in male rats to determine which animal model of overactive bladder (OAB) was more useful based on cystometrography, estimations of oxidative stress, and measurements of pro-inflammatory cytokine levels. Materials and Methods Male rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=15 in each): the control group, the transperineal ligation group, and the transperitoneal ligation group. Four weeks after the ligation procedure, cystometrography was performed and oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and histologic changes were evaluated. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine and superoxide dismutase, and pro-inflammatory cytokine activity was investigated by measuring levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Results The transperineal model led to results similar to those observed for the transperitoneal model, namely (1) increased voiding frequency and reductions in the non-voiding contraction interval and the maximal vesical pressure, (2) increased levels of oxidative stress markers, (3) increased pro-inflammatory cytokine levels, and (4) fibrotic changes in the bladder tissue. Conclusions We suggest that the transperineal procedure can be used as an alternative OAB model in male rats. PMID:27574597

  8. Tubal ligation, hysterectomy and ovarian cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the strength of the association between gynecologic surgeries, tubal ligation and hysterectomy, and ovarian cancer. Methods We searched the PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases for all English-language articles dated between 1969 through March 2011 using the keywords “ovarian cancer” and “tubal ligation” or “tubal sterilization” or “hysterectomy.” We identified 30 studies on tubal ligation and 24 studies on hysterectomy that provided relative risks for ovarian cancer and a p-value or 95% confidence interval (CI) to include in the meta-analysis. Summary RRs and 95% CIs were calculated using a random-effects model. Results The summary RR for women with vs. without tubal ligation was 0.70 (95%CI: 0.64, 0.75). Similarly, the summary RR for women with vs. without hysterectomy was 0.74 (95%CI: 0.65, 0.84). Simple hysterectomy and hysterectomy with unilateral oophorectomy were associated with a similar decrease in risk (summery RR = 0.62, 95%CI: 0.49-0.79 and 0.60, 95%CI: 0.47-0.78, respectively). In secondary analyses, the association between tubal ligation and ovarian cancer risk was stronger for endometrioid tumors (summary RR = 0.45, 95%CI: 0.33, 0.61) compared to serous tumors. Conclusion Observational epidemiologic evidence strongly supports that tubal ligation and hysterectomy are associated with a decrease in the risk of ovarian cancer, by approximately 26-30%. Additional research is needed to determine whether the association between tubal ligation and hysterectomy on ovarian cancer risk differs by individual, surgical, and tumor characteristics. PMID:22587442

  9. Treatment of spontaneous tumours by temporary local ligation

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Frederick M.; Kaplan, Martin M.; Meranze, David R.; Gradess, Morton

    1960-01-01

    Previous work in some human cases and in laboratory animals has indicated that temporary local ligation of spontaneous tumours has a selective destructive effect on these tumours, with only temporary inflammation resulting in normal tissues. In the experiments described in this paper, 49 spontaneous accessible tumours in dogs were treated by this method, with periods of ligation of from 4 to 11 hours. Success, as measured by selective necrosis of tumour tissue as compared with normal tissue, was achieved in 29 out of 41 benign tumours, including lipomas, angiomas, adenomas and mixed mammary tumours. Treatment failures were encountered in two cases each of papillomas and fibromas, six mixed mammary tumours and two testicular tumours. Total necrosis of tumour cells occurred in all eight malignant tumours encountered in this series. The outstanding feature was the specific destruction of tumour tissue by a bodily process without participation of any outside agent. Emphasis was placed on an adequate inflammatory response following temporary anoxia, although a precise definition of this inflammation could not be offered. Post-ligation bacterial multiplication, which may be expected to occur in necrotic tumour tissue, is considered to be a secondary effect rather than a possible primary cause of regression and disappearance of the tumour. If ligation treatment can be shown to be successful for a particular type of tumour, it may be possible to apply it to human patients for the treatment of areas not amenable to surgery. The results reported here warrant new experimental approaches to the study of neoplasms at the cellular level to define more precisely the anoxic and inflammatory processes involved in the selective lethal effect on tumour tissues; and the authors suggest that trials should be undertaken of combinations of chemotherapy or irradiation with ligation to reduce ligation time and extend the possible benefits. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3FIG. 4FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7

  10. Ligation of Glycophorin A Generates Reactive Oxygen Species Leading to Decreased Red Blood Cell Function

    PubMed Central

    Khoory, Joseph; Estanislau, Jessica; Elkhal, Abdallah; Lazaar, Asmae; Melhorn, Mark I.; Brodsky, Abigail; Illigens, Ben; Hamachi, Itaru; Kurishita, Yasutaka; Ivanov, Alexander R.; Shevkoplyas, Sergey; Shapiro, Nathan I.; Ghiran, Ionita C.

    2016-01-01

    Acute, inflammatory conditions associated with dysregulated complement activation are characterized by significant increases in blood concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ATP. The mechanisms by which these molecules arise are not fully understood. In this study, using luminometric- and fluorescence-based methods, we show that ligation of glycophorin A (GPA) on human red blood cells (RBCs) results in a 2.1-fold, NADPH-oxidase-dependent increase in intracellular ROS that, in turn, trigger multiple downstream cascades leading to caspase-3 activation, ATP release, and increased band 3 phosphorylation. Functionally, using 2D microchannels to assess membrane deformability, GPS-ligated RBCs travel 33% slower than control RBCs, and lipid mobility was hindered by 10% using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP). These outcomes were preventable by pretreating RBCs with cell-permeable ROS scavenger glutathione monoethyl ester (GSH-ME). Our results obtained in vitro using anti-GPA antibodies were validated using complement-altered RBCs isolated from control and septic patients. Our results suggest that during inflammatory conditions, circulating RBCs significantly contribute to capillary flow dysfunctions, and constitute an important but overlooked source of intravascular ROS and ATP, both critical mediators responsible for endothelial cell activation, microcirculation impairment, platelet activation, as well as long-term dysregulated adaptive and innate immune responses. PMID:26784696

  11. Laparoscopic ligation of the thoracic duct in management of chylothorax.

    PubMed

    Icaza, Orlando J; Andrews, Kris; Kuhnke, Mark

    2002-04-01

    Laparoscopic ligation of the cisterna chyli at the level of the aortic hiatus was performed in a 69-year-old woman with post-lobectomy chylothorax refractory to 3 weeks of conservative therapy and one repeat thoracotomy with attempted ligation of a leaking lymphatic channel. This laparoscopic procedure was successful, and resolution of the chylothorax was achieved. We feel that this technique offers surgeons a valid, minimally invasive treatment option for a persistent chylothorax in which conservative management or more direct thoracic procedures have failed to control the chyle leak. PMID:12019574

  12. Protein response to ligation reactions in myoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Causgrove, T.P.; Dyer, R.B.

    1992-12-31

    The protein response to the photodissociation, escape and subsequent rebinding of carbon monoxide in myoglobin is studied using time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy. All phases of these reactions areinvestigated, from ultrafast phenomena (picoseconds) to relatively slow processes (milliseconds). Conformational changes in myoglobin (Mb) are detected by time-resolved absorption changes in the amide I band. On the hundreds of nanoseconds to milliseconds timescale, a ``real-time`` apparatus is used. This apparatus is based on a tunable diode laser operating in the region of 1650 cm{sup {minus}1} . The time course ofchanges in the amide I band are shown to follow the recombination of CO with photolyzed Mb. On the basis of the rise times of the amide I and FE-CO signals, it is concluded that protein motion is complete within 100 n. A time-resolved difference spectrum in the amide I region is generated from single wavelength transients taken throughout the amide I envelope. A static difference spectrum is also generated by subtracting FTIR spectra of carbonmonoxy and deoxy myoglobin. The two difference spectra are compared and are interpreted in terms of the three-dimensional structures of deoxy and carbonmonoxy Mb. Preliminary picosecond TRIR data are also given for the ultrafast response of the protein immediately following photodissociation of CO.

  13. Protein response to ligation reactions in myoglobin

    SciTech Connect

    Causgrove, T.P.; Dyer, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    The protein response to the photodissociation, escape and subsequent rebinding of carbon monoxide in myoglobin is studied using time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy. All phases of these reactions areinvestigated, from ultrafast phenomena (picoseconds) to relatively slow processes (milliseconds). Conformational changes in myoglobin (Mb) are detected by time-resolved absorption changes in the amide I band. On the hundreds of nanoseconds to milliseconds timescale, a real-time'' apparatus is used. This apparatus is based on a tunable diode laser operating in the region of 1650 cm[sup [minus]1] . The time course ofchanges in the amide I band are shown to follow the recombination of CO with photolyzed Mb. On the basis of the rise times of the amide I and FE-CO signals, it is concluded that protein motion is complete within 100 n. A time-resolved difference spectrum in the amide I region is generated from single wavelength transients taken throughout the amide I envelope. A static difference spectrum is also generated by subtracting FTIR spectra of carbonmonoxy and deoxy myoglobin. The two difference spectra are compared and are interpreted in terms of the three-dimensional structures of deoxy and carbonmonoxy Mb. Preliminary picosecond TRIR data are also given for the ultrafast response of the protein immediately following photodissociation of CO.

  14. 25 CFR 700.117 - Criteria for appraisals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Criteria for appraisals. 700.117 Section 700.117 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES Acquisition and Disposal of Habitations and/or Improvements § 700.117 Criteria for appraisals. (a) Appraisal standards. The Commission's appraisals...

  15. Stigma, Reflected Appraisals, and Recovery Outcomes in Mental Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Fred E.; Angell, Beth; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on modified labeling theory and the reflected appraisals process and using longitudinal data from 129 mothers and their adult children with schizophrenia, we estimate models of the effects of mothers' stigmatized identity appraisals of their mentally ill children on reflected and self-appraisals, and how appraisals affect outcomes…

  16. Employee Performance Appraisal and the 95/5 Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasch, Lee

    2004-01-01

    Many colleges use some form of an employee performance appraisal process. Yet, despite prevalent use, the performance appraisal process is facing growing criticism. The author reviews the literature regarding the process of performance appraisal in higher education, focusing on articles supportive of the use of the performance appraisal, and those…

  17. 38 CFR 36.4347 - Lender Appraisal Processing Program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... acknowledge and represent that by signing the Uniform Residential Appraisal Report (URAR), FHLMC (Federal Home... certifying, in all cases, that I have personally reviewed the appraisal report. In doing so I have considered and utilized recognized professional appraisal techniques, have found the appraisal report to...

  18. Kinetic framework for ligation by an efficient RNA ligase ribozyme.

    PubMed

    Bergman, N H; Johnston, W K; Bartel, D P

    2000-03-21

    The class I RNA ligase ribozyme, isolated previously from random sequences, performs an efficient RNA ligation reaction. It ligates two substrate RNAs, promoting the attack of the 3'-hydroxyl of one substrate upon the 5'-triphosphate of the other substrate with release of pyrophosphate. This ligation reaction has similarities to the reaction catalyzed by RNA polymerases. Using data from steady-state kinetic measurements and pulse-chase/pH-jump experiments, we have constructed minimal kinetic frameworks for two versions of the class I ligase, named 207t and 210t. For both ligases, as well as for the self-ligating parent ribozyme, the rate constant for the chemical step (k(c)) is log-linear with pH in the range 5.7-8.0. At physiological pH, the k(c) is 100 min(-1), a value similar to those reported for the fastest naturally occurring ribozymes. At higher pH, product release is limiting for both 207t and 210t. The 210t ribozyme, with its faster product release, attains multiple-turnover rates (k(cat) = 360 min(-1), pH 9.0) exceeding those of 207t and other reported ribozyme reactions. The kinetic framework for the 210t ribozyme describes the limits of this catalysis and suggests how key steps can be targeted for improvement using design or combinatorial approaches. PMID:10715133

  19. Protein chemical synthesis by α-ketoacid-hydroxylamine ligation.

    PubMed

    Harmand, Thibault J; Murar, Claudia E; Bode, Jeffrey W

    2016-06-01

    Total chemical synthesis of proteins allows researchers to custom design proteins without the complex molecular biology that is required to insert non-natural amino acids or the biocontamination that arises from methods relying on overexpression in cells. We describe a detailed procedure for the chemical synthesis of proteins with the α-ketoacid-hydroxylamine (KAHA ligation), using (S)-5-oxaproline (Opr) as a key building block. This protocol comprises two main parts: (i) the synthesis of peptide fragments by standard fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl (Fmoc) chemistry and (ii) the KAHA ligation between fragments containing Opr and a C-terminal peptide α-ketoacid. This procedure provides an alternative to native chemical ligation (NCL) that could be valuable for the synthesis of proteins, particularly targets that do not contain cysteine residues. The ligation conditions-acidic DMSO/H2O or N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP)/H2O-are ideally suited for solubilizing peptide segments, including many hydrophobic examples. The utility and efficiency of the protocol is demonstrated by the total chemical synthesis of the mature betatrophin (also called ANGPTL8), a 177-residue protein that contains no cysteine residues. With this protocol, the total synthesis of the betatrophin protein has been achieved in around 35 working days on a multimilligram scale. PMID:27227514

  20. The effect of ligation method on friction in sliding mechanics.

    PubMed

    Hain, Max; Dhopatkar, Ashish; Rock, Peter

    2003-04-01

    During orthodontic tooth movement with the preadjusted edgewise system, friction generated at the bracket/archwire interface tends to impede the desired movement. The method of ligation is an important contributor to this frictional force. This in vitro study investigated the effect of ligation method on friction and evaluated the efficacy of the new slick elastomeric modules from TP Orthodontics (La Porte, Ind), which are claimed to reduce friction at the module/wire interface. Slick modules were compared with regular nonslick modules, stainless steel ligatures, and the SPEED self-ligating bracket system (Strite Industries, Cambridge, Ontario, Canada). The effect of using slick modules with metal-reinforced ceramic (Clarity, 3M Unitek, Monrovia, Calif) and miniature brackets (Minitwin, 3M Unitek) was also examined. Results showed that, when considering tooth movement along a 0.019 x 0.025-in stainless steel archwire, saliva-lubricated slick modules can reduce static friction at the module/archwire interface by up to 60%, regardless of the bracket system. The SPEED brackets produced the lowest friction compared with the 3 other tested bracket systems when regular modules were used. The use of slick modules, however, with all of the ligated bracket types tested significantly reduced friction to below the values recorded in the SPEED groups. Loosely tied stainless steel ligatures were found to generate the least friction. PMID:12695769

  1. Unusual complication of ligation of rudimentary ulnar digit.

    PubMed

    Heras, L; Barco, J; Cohen, A

    1999-12-01

    We report a case of rudimentary ulnar polydactyly of the hand of a 7-year-old female child. Histological examination revealed a central traumatic neuroma which branched into five digit-like projections covered with hyperkeratotic epidermis. We think this was a result of suture ligation during the postnatal period. PMID:10672820

  2. Corrosion behavior of self-ligating and conventional metal brackets

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Lúcio Henrique Esmeraldo Gurgel; Lopes Filho, Hibernon; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira; Araújo, Mônica Tirre de Souza; Vaitsman, Delmo Santiago

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the null hypothesis that the aging process in self-ligating brackets is not higher than in conventional brackets. Methods Twenty-five conventional (GN-3M/Unitek; GE-GAC; VE-Aditek) and 25 self-ligating (SCs-3M/Unitek; INs-GAC; ECs-Aditek) metal brackets from three manufacturers (n = 150) were submitted to aging process in 0.9% NaCl solution at a constant temperature of 37 ± 1ºC for 21 days. The content of nickel, chromium and iron ions in the solution collected at intervals of 7, 14 and 21 days was quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. After the aging process, the brackets were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) under 22X and 1,000X magnifications. Results Comparison of metal release in self-ligating and conventional brackets from the same manufacturer proved that the SCs group released more nickel (p < 0.05) than the GN group after 7 and 14 days, but less chromium (p < 0.05) after 14 days and less iron (p < 0.05) at the three experimental time intervals. The INs group released less iron (p < 0.05) than the GE group after 7 days and less nickel, chromium and iron (p < 0.05) after 14 and 21 days. The ECs group released more nickel, chromium and iron (p < 0.05) than the VE group after 14 days, but released less nickel and chromium (p < 0.05) after 7 days and less chromium and iron (p < 0.05) after 21 days. The SEM analysis revealed alterations on surface topography of conventional and self-ligating brackets. Conclusions The aging process in self-ligating brackets was not greater than in conventional brackets from the same manufacturer. The null hypothesis was accepted. PMID:24945521

  3. Health Risk Appraisal Use at Headquarters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borcherding, Donald

    1997-01-01

    Specific topics which relate to the NASA Health Risk Appraisal (HRA) include: (1) What is a HRA?; (2) Risk factors; (3) Program use at NASA Headquarters; (4) An alternative approach; (5) Group HRA reports; and (6) Future considerations and conclusion.

  4. Savannah River Site ALARA Program appraisals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    ALARA Program audits are recommended in PNL-6566, Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).'' The Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11, Radiation Protection For Occupational Workers,'' requires contractors to conduct internal audits of all functional elements of the radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, as often as necessary, but at a minimum every three years. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), these required audits are performed as part of the Health Protection Internal Appraisal Program. This program was established to review the Site radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, on an ongoing basis and to provide recommendations for improvement directly to senior Health Protection management. This paper provides an overview of the SRS Health Protection Internal Appraisal program. In addition, examples of specific performance criteria and detailed appraisal guidelines used ALARA appraisals are provided.

  5. Savannah River Site ALARA Program appraisals

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, J.R.

    1992-06-01

    ALARA Program audits are recommended in PNL-6566, ``Health Physics Manual of Good Practices for Reducing Radiation Exposure to Levels that are As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA).`` The Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.11, ``Radiation Protection For Occupational Workers,`` requires contractors to conduct internal audits of all functional elements of the radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, as often as necessary, but at a minimum every three years. At the Savannah River Site (SRS), these required audits are performed as part of the Health Protection Internal Appraisal Program. This program was established to review the Site radiological protection program, which includes the ALARA program, on an ongoing basis and to provide recommendations for improvement directly to senior Health Protection management. This paper provides an overview of the SRS Health Protection Internal Appraisal program. In addition, examples of specific performance criteria and detailed appraisal guidelines used ALARA appraisals are provided.

  6. Clustering of worry appraisals among college students.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Nicholas G; Cullum, Jerry C; Harton, Helen C

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the potential clustering of worry appraisals within college social networks. Participants living in campus residence buildings responded to online surveys across the course of several months. Worry appraisals were measured 10 weeks into the fall semester and again approximately 6 months later. Analysis of sociometric data suggests that the majority of participants' social interactions occurred within their respective residence building floors, indicating that proximity strongly influenced the development of social network ties and sources of social influence. Further, significant clustering of worry appraisals occurred across time, and more importantly, within residence building floors. The present findings compliment previous work suggesting that several physical and psychological states appear to spread and cluster within social networks. Implications for the study of emotional appraisals and future research are discussed. PMID:26541710

  7. Use of appraisals for professional effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Birabi, Bridget

    2006-01-01

    Appraisal is usually linked with performance but it can also apply to intervention programmes. It is a distinct and formal management procedure used in the evaluation of work performance or the impact of a programme based on set objectives which are usually SMART. Every programme requires continual and meaningful feedback that transforms what looks technical into a dynamic and interactive process. This ties outcomes to intervention. Of great importance for a professional is self appraisal. When a professional is passion-driven to meet the needs of a client, the need to build capacity becomes obvious to remain in the market. Facility appraisal is as important as the environment of any service delivery and psychologically impacts on the consumer. Appraisal seems both inevitable and universal. To continually raise the standard of health care delivery, capacity building is at the crux. This will thoroughly equip health professionals for client-patient centered "best practices." PMID:17396754

  8. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. 225.63 Section 225.63 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations...

  9. 12 CFR 225.63 - Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appraisals required; transactions requiring a State certified or licensed appraiser. 225.63 Section 225.63 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BANK HOLDING COMPANIES AND CHANGE IN BANK CONTROL (REGULATION Y) Regulations...

  10. Etiopathogenesis of cataract: An appraisal

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Varun B; Rajagopala, Manjusha; Ravishankar, Basavaiah

    2014-01-01

    Natural eye lens is a crystalline substance to produce a clear passage for light. Cataract is opacity within the clear lens of the eye and is the dominant cause of socio-medical problem i.e., blindness worldwide. The only available treatment of cataract is surgery. However, insufficient surgical facilities in poor and developing countries and post-operative complications inspire researchers to find out other modes of treatment for cataract. In this review, an attempt has been made to appraise various etiological factors of cataract to make their perception clear to build up counterpart treatment. Present study is an assortment of various available literatures and electronic information in view of cataract etiopathogenesis. Various risk factors have been identified in development of cataracts. They can be classified in to genetic factors, ageing (systemic diseases, nutritional and trace metals deficiencies, smoking, oxidative stress etc.), traumatic, complicated (inflammatory and degenerative diseases of eye), metabolic (diabetes, galactosemia etc.), toxic substances including drugs abuses, alcohol etc., radiation (ultraviolet, electromagnetic waves etc.) are implicated as significant risk factors in the development of cataract. PMID:24618482

  11. The Fidelity of Template-Directed Oligonucleotide Ligation and the Inevitability of Polymerase Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Kenneth D.; Ellington, Andrew D.

    1999-08-01

    The first living systems may have employed template-directed oligonucleotide ligation for replication. The utility of oligonucleotide ligation as a mechanism for the origin and evolution of life is in part dependent on its fidelity. We have devised a method for evaluating ligation fidelity in which ligation substrates are selected from random sequence libraries. The fidelities of chemical and enzymatic ligation are compared under a variety of conditions. While reaction conditions can be found that promote high fidelity copying, departure from these conditions leads to error-prone copying. In particular, ligation reactions with shorter oligonucleotide substrates are less efficient but more faithful. These results support a model for origins in which there was selective pressure for template-directed oligonucleotide ligation to be gradually supplanted by mononucleotide polymerization.

  12. Ligation module for in vitro selection in DNA computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Noort, Danny; Lee, In-Hee; Landweber, Laura F.; Zhang, Byoung-Tak

    2005-02-01

    In this paper a classical AI problem is proposed to be solved by DNA computing: theorem proving. Since the complexity grows exponentially with the size of the problem, the solving process should be done in parallel. Massive parallelism is one of the advantages of DNA computers. It will be shown that the resolution refutation proof can be readily implemented by DNA hybridisation and ligation. Microreactors lend themselves to a relatively simple implementation of DNA computing. Not only is the design of the DNA critical for the success of the system but also the architecture of the microfluidic structure. Here the DNA performs the computation, while the microfluidics aids the biochemical steps necessary to manipulate the DNA, i.e. hybridisation and ligation.

  13. Is ligation the only solution to the pyrophosphate problem?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visscher, J.; Jongbloets, R.; Schwartz, Alan W.

    1993-01-01

    Pyrophosphate linkages are easily formed during the nonenzymatic oligomerization of activated nucleotides. They often form `caps' which terminate an oligonucleotide with a 5'-5' pyrophosphate. Owing to their structural resemblance to the intermediates in enzymatic ligation reactions, it has been suggested that pyrophosphate caps might have been capable of acting as activating groups in chain elongation processes. We argue that an alternative possibility would have been the specific hydrolysis of pyrophosphates.

  14. Anesthetic Management During Emergency Surgical Ligation for Carotid Blowout Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klein Nulent, Casper G A; de Graaff, Henri J D; Ketelaars, Rein; Sewnaik, Aniel; Maissan, Iscander M

    2016-08-15

    A 44-year-old man presented to our emergency department with a pharyngeal hemorrhage, 6 weeks after a total laryngectomy and extensive neck dissection. Immediate surgical intervention was necessary to stop massive arterial hemorrhage from the pharynx. The head and neck surgeon successfully ligated the common carotid artery during this procedure. We describe the anesthetic strategy and the thromboelastometry (ROTEM®)-guided massive transfusion protocol. PMID:27310900

  15. Gastric Banding

    MedlinePlus

    ... gastric banding before deciding to have the procedure. Advertisements for a device or procedure may not include ... feeds Follow FDA on Twitter Follow FDA on Facebook View FDA videos on YouTube View FDA photos ...

  16. A Pictet-Spengler ligation for protein chemical modification

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Paresh; van der Weijden, Joep; Sletten, Ellen M.; Rabuka, David; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.

    2013-01-01

    Aldehyde- and ketone-functionalized proteins are appealing substrates for the development of chemically modified biotherapeutics and protein-based materials. Their reactive carbonyl groups are typically conjugated with α-effect nucleophiles, such as substituted hydrazines and alkoxyamines, to generate hydrazones and oximes, respectively. However, the resulting C=N linkages are susceptible to hydrolysis under physiologically relevant conditions, which limits the utility of such conjugates in biological systems. Here we introduce a Pictet-Spengler ligation that is based on the classic Pictet-Spengler reaction of aldehydes and tryptamine nucleophiles. The ligation exploits the bioorthogonal reaction of aldehydes and alkoxyamines to form an intermediate oxyiminium ion; this intermediate undergoes intramolecular C–C bond formation with an indole nucleophile to form an oxacarboline product that is hydrolytically stable. We used the reaction for site-specific chemical modification of glyoxyl- and formylglycine-functionalized proteins, including an aldehyde-tagged variant of the therapeutic monoclonal antibody Herceptin. In conjunction with techniques for site-specific introduction of aldehydes into proteins, the Pictet-Spengler ligation offers a means to generate stable bioconjugates for medical and materials applications. PMID:23237853

  17. [Tubal ligation in U.S.A. (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Aguillaume, C J; Aubert, J M; Jubell, I

    1981-01-01

    Sterilization is the most popular contraceptive method among U. S. couples who have been married for more than 10 years; there are about 12 million sterilized couples in the U. S. Voluntary sterilization is legal in most U. S. states, and the consent of one's partner is not necessary. Average age of sterilization seekers is 30. Tubal ligation is usually performed through laparotomy or, especially in more recent times, laparoscopy. Hemorrhage is the most common complication, which can be easily corrected; intestinal or peritoneal burns, or ectopic pregnancy are very rare occurrences. Reversibility depends on the sterilization technique used; improved microsurgery techniques have made it possible in many instances. Hospital stay for tubal ligation was 4.2 days in 1975; today, tubal ligation can be done on an outpatient basis, under local anesthesia only. The largest number of sterilizations in performed in the Northern and in the South-West regions of the U. S., and there seems to be a relationship between educational level of the couple, and choosing sterilization as a permanent method of contraception. PMID:12336730

  18. DNA hybridization and ligation for directed colloidal assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyr, Margaret

    Colloidal assembly using DNA hybridization has been pursued as a means assemble non-conventional ordered colloidal structures. However, to date it is undetermined whether DNA hybridization can be used to achieve non-FCC colloidal crystals. Using microcontact printing techniques, we have fabricated covalently bound single stranded DNA (ssDNA) two-dimensional arrays on glass surfaces, which were used to direct the assembly of complementary DNA functionalized polystyrene colloids. Two of the hallmarks of DNA hybridization, sequence specificity and thermal reversibility, were demonstrated. Due to the periodicity of these arrays, laser diffraction was used to directly monitor these structures during assembly. To demonstrate the versatility of the 2D colloidal array assembled via DNA hybridization, a catalytic DNA sequence or DNAzyme was incorporated into the colloidal array system. By tethering the enzymatic strand to the patterned glass surface and the substrate strand to polystyrene colloids, we showed that the DNAzyme could prevent the assembly of the arrays when the required Pb2+ cofactor was provided. Attempts to assemble the colloid arrays and disassemble via the Pb2+-DNAzyme induced cleavage were unsuccessful, likely due to the incomplete cleavage of the multitude of hybridized linkages between each colloid and the surface. Since DNA is not only capable of catalyzing reactions, but also capable of being reacted upon by a variety of biological enzymes, we examined the use of DNA ligase as a means to control the assembly of DNA-functionalized colloids. A three-sequence linker system was used for the hybridization mediated assembly of colloids: one sequence was tethered to the surface of the glass slide or colloids, one was tethered to another colloid surface, and the linker sequence hybridizes simultaneously to both tethered sequences. Once hybridized, the two tethered fragments can be ligated using DNA ligase, resulting in a continuous sequence tethered on one end

  19. Computer Simulation of Ligated Nanoparticle Assembly from Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierce, Flint; Chakrabarti, Amit; Sorensen, Chris

    2007-03-01

    Nanoparticles are becoming increasingly important for the design of novel materials in a wide range of new applications. Ligation of these particles by chemical species provides a means to stabilize them into useful assemblies. It is essential to have a clear physical picture of the way these particles interact. To this end, we are investigating systems of metal nanoparticles ligated with alkyl chains. Our approach is three-fold. First, we are simulating (Monte Carlo) systems of ligated nanoparticles, including all chain/particle interactions in order to develop a model potential. Second, we are simulating (molecular dynamics) systems of these particles interacting via this model potential, varying the alkyl chain length, solvent, core material, and particle volume fraction. Finally, for comparison we are simulating these systems using theoretically derived potentials found in the literature. Initial results indicate a range of morphologies, from fractal aggregates to crystallites, depending on the temperature and potentials involved. Our goal is to provide a guide to researchers in choosing materials and assembly conditions that will lead to desired assembly properties.

  20. Internal Activation of Peptidyl Prolyl Thioesters in Native Chemical Ligation.

    PubMed

    Gui, Yue; Qiu, Lingqi; Li, Yaohao; Li, Hongxing; Dong, Suwei

    2016-04-13

    Prolyl thioesters have shown significantly lower reactivities in native chemical ligation (NCL) in comparison to that of the alanyl thioester. This report describes a mild and efficient internal activation protocol of peptidyl prolyl thioesters in NCL without using any thiol-based additives, where the introduction of a 4-mercaptan substituent on the C-terminal proline significantly improves the reactivity of prolyl thioesters via the formation of a bicyclic thiolactone intermediate. The kinetic data indicate that the reaction rate is comparable to that of the reported data of alanyl thioesters, and the mechanistic studies suggest that the ligation of two peptide segments proceeds through an NCL-like pathway instead of a direct aminolysis, which ensures the chemoselectivity and compatibility of various amino acid side chains. This 4-mercaptoprolyl thioester-based protocol also allows an efficient one-pot ligation-desulfurization procedure. The utility of this method has been further demonstrated in the synthesis of a proline-rich region of Wilms tumor protein 1. PMID:26982082

  1. LAD-Ligation: A Murine Model of Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Kolk, Mandy V.V.; Meyberg, Danja; Deuse, Tobias; Tang-Quan, Karis R.; Robbins, Robert C.; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Schrepfer, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    Research models of infarction and myocardial ischemia are essential to investigate the acute and chronic pathobiological and pathophysiological processes in myocardial ischemia and to develop and optimize future treatment. Two different methods of creating myocardial ischemia are performed in laboratory rodents. The first method is to create cryo infarction, a fast but inaccurate technique, where a cryo-pen is applied on the surface of the heart (1-3). Using this method the scientist can not guarantee that the cryo-scar leads to ischemia, also a vast myocardial injury is created that shows pathophysiological side effects that are not related to myocardial infarction. The second method is the permanent ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD). Here the LAD is ligated with one single stitch, forming an ischemia that can be seen almost immediately. By closing the LAD, no further blood flow is permitted in that area, while the surrounding myocardial tissue is nearly not affected. This surgical procedure imitates the pathobiological and pathophysiological aspects occurring in infarction-related myocardial ischemia. The method introduced in this video demonstrates the surgical procedure of a mouse infarction model by ligating the LAD. This model is convenient for pathobiological and pathophysiological as well as immunobiological studies on cardiac infarction. The shown technique provides high accuracy and correlates well with histological sections. PMID:19829290

  2. Assessing and appraising nursing students' professional communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diers, Jane E.

    The purpose of this research was to define professional communication in nursing and to develop a prototype to assess and appraise communication at a selected college. The research focused on verbal and nonverbal communication between the nurse and the client using a simulated environment. The first objective was to identify the major characteristics of professional communication in nursing. In this study, the characteristics of professional communication emerged from the constant comparison method of the results of research studies in the fields of healthcare and communication. These characteristics became the elements, representative properties, and descriptive dimensions to assess and appraise verbal and nonverbal communication at the college of study. The second objective was to develop a template to assess verbal and nonverbal communication at a selected college. Using a two-fold process, the researcher used the results from the first objective to begin template construction. First, specialists in the fields of communication and nursing established the content validity of the elements, representative properties, and descriptive dimensions. Second, the course educators determined the relevancy and importance of the elements, properties, and descriptive dimensions to the objectives of two courses at the college of study. The third objective was to develop a rubric to appraise nursing students' verbal and nonverbal communication in a videotaped communication review. An appraisal rubric was constructed from an extension of the template. This rubric was then tested by faculty at the selected college to appraise the communication of five students each in the junior and senior years of the nursing program.

  3. 12 CFR 528.2a - Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION REQUIREMENTS § 528.2a Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting. (a) Appraisal. No savings... per se or in effect under the Fair Housing Act of 1968 or the Equal Credit Opportunity Act....

  4. 12 CFR 528.2a - Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION REQUIREMENTS § 528.2a Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting. (a) Appraisal. No savings... per se or in effect under the Fair Housing Act of 1968 or the Equal Credit Opportunity Act....

  5. 12 CFR 128.11 - Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION REQUIREMENTS § 128.11 Nondiscriminatory appraisal and underwriting. (a) Appraisal. No savings... per se or in effect under the Fair Housing Act of 1968 or the Equal Credit Opportunity Act....

  6. 78 FR 9050 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In...

  7. 78 FR 33419 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In...

  8. 76 FR 57741 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description:...

  9. 78 FR 33419 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In...

  10. 77 FR 40051 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description:...

  11. 76 FR 25690 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In...

  12. 77 FR 14014 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In...

  13. 78 FR 71611 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description:...

  14. 77 FR 5249 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In...

  15. 76 FR 6134 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In...

  16. 76 FR 1165 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In...

  17. 76 FR 47182 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In...

  18. 76 FR 6135 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In...

  19. 76 FR 57741 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In...

  20. 75 FR 57468 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In...

  1. 76 FR 1164 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In...

  2. 78 FR 28218 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description:...

  3. 78 FR 39729 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In...

  4. 78 FR 25084 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  5. 76 FR 47182 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  6. 78 FR 47698 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. DESCRIPTION: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  7. 78 FR 2995 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  8. 78 FR 14300 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ] ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  9. 78 FR 2995 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council, FFIEC. ACTION: Notice of meeting. ] Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform,...

  10. 77 FR 45610 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  11. 78 FR 20318 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  12. 77 FR 61404 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  13. 76 FR 16627 - Statutory Provisions Affecting State Appraiser Regulatory Programs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Statutory Provisions Affecting State Appraiser Regulatory Programs AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee (ASC) of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of... Dodd-Frank Act amended several sections of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery,...

  14. 77 FR 58140 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  15. 78 FR 14301 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  16. 78 FR 28218 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  17. 76 FR 31961 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  18. 75 FR 74732 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  19. 78 FR 20318 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  20. 77 FR 45610 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  1. 76 FR 13187 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  2. 77 FR 61606 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  3. 76 FR 68187 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-03

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  4. 76 FR 42126 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  5. 76 FR 76410 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  6. 77 FR 40051 - Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  7. 78 FR 47698 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...

  8. 76 FR 19773 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-08

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of meeting. ] Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  9. 75 FR 62819 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. ] Description: In accordance with Section 1104(b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and...

  10. 77 FR 72862 - Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... INSTITUTIONS EXAMINATION COUNCIL Appraisal Subcommittee Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Appraisal Subcommittee of the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. ACTION: Notice of Meeting. Description: In accordance with Section 1104 (b) of Title XI of the Financial Institutions Reform, Recovery, and Enforcement...