Science.gov

Sample records for approximate mesoscale information

  1. Using stochastic models calibrated from nanosecond nonequilibrium simulations to approximate mesoscale information

    PubMed Central

    Calderon, Christopher P.; Janosi, Lorant; Kosztin, Ioan

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate how the surrogate process approximation (SPA) method can be used to compute both the potential of mean force along a reaction coordinate and the associated diffusion coefficient using a relatively small number (10–20) of bidirectional nonequilibrium trajectories coming from a complex system. Our method provides confidence bands which take the variability of the initial configuration of the high-dimensional system, continuous nature of the work paths, and thermal fluctuations into account. Maximum-likelihood-type methods are used to estimate a stochastic differential equation (SDE) approximating the dynamics. For each observed time series, we estimate a new SDE resulting in a collection of SPA models. The physical significance of the collection of SPA models is discussed and methods for exploiting information in the population of estimated SPA models are demonstrated and suggested. Molecular dynamics simulations of potassium ion dynamics inside a gramicidin A channel are used to demonstrate the methodology, although SPA-type modeling has also proven useful in analyzing single-molecule experimental time series [J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 118 (2009)]. PMID:19368472

  2. Using stochastic models calibrated from nanosecond nonequilibrium simulations to approximate mesoscale information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, Christopher P.; Janosi, Lorant; Kosztin, Ioan

    2009-04-01

    We demonstrate how the surrogate process approximation (SPA) method can be used to compute both the potential of mean force along a reaction coordinate and the associated diffusion coefficient using a relatively small number (10-20) of bidirectional nonequilibrium trajectories coming from a complex system. Our method provides confidence bands which take the variability of the initial configuration of the high-dimensional system, continuous nature of the work paths, and thermal fluctuations into account. Maximum-likelihood-type methods are used to estimate a stochastic differential equation (SDE) approximating the dynamics. For each observed time series, we estimate a new SDE resulting in a collection of SPA models. The physical significance of the collection of SPA models is discussed and methods for exploiting information in the population of estimated SPA models are demonstrated and suggested. Molecular dynamics simulations of potassium ion dynamics inside a gramicidin A channel are used to demonstrate the methodology, although SPA-type modeling has also proven useful in analyzing single-molecule experimental time series [J. Phys. Chem. B 113, 118 (2009)].

  3. Information geometry of mean-field approximation.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, T

    2000-08-01

    I present a general theory of mean-field approximation based on information geometry and applicable not only to Boltzmann machines but also to wider classes of statistical models. Using perturbation expansion of the Kullback divergence (or Plefka expansion in statistical physics), a formulation of mean-field approximation of general orders is derived. It includes in a natural way the "naive" mean-field approximation and is consistent with the Thouless-Anderson-Palmer (TAP) approach and the linear response theorem in statistical physics. PMID:10953246

  4. Diagnosing the severe thunderstorm environment by mesoscale cloud tracking - A new approach and new information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purdom, J. F. W.; Vonder Haar, T. H.; Stewart, J. K.; Leary, N. E.

    1984-01-01

    A new method for cloud tracking and observing storm development using satellite imagery in a cloud relative mode is presented. This method changes the analyst's function to one of monitoring cloud growth and changes over a finite time period and identifying portions of the cloud that are suitable for use as trackers. It is shown how many problems previously encountered by meteorologists in mesoscale cloud tracking can be overcome by using the cloud relative technique to determine mesoscale flow fields whose heights are determined using stereographic techniques. By separating growth and decay from cloud motion in a cumulus field using the method and accurately defining cloud heights, vertical wind shears within mesoscale domains may be defined. When this information is used to study the relative velocity of flows at different levels with respect to a developing or mature storm, improved insight into storm behavior can be achieved.

  5. Intelligent Information Retrieval Using Rough Set Approximations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Srinivasan, Padmini

    1989-01-01

    Describes rough sets theory and discusses the advantages it offers for information retrieval, including the implicit inclusion of Boolean logic, term weighting, ranked retrieval output, and relevance feedback. Rough set formalism is compared to Boolean, vector, and fuzzy models of information retrieval and a small scale evaluation of rough sets is…

  6. An atomistically informed mesoscale model for growth and coarsening during discharge in lithium-oxygen batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Welland, Michael J.; Lau, Kah Chun; Redfern, Paul C.; Liang, Linyun; Zhai, Denyun; Wolf, Dieter; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2015-12-14

    An atomistically informed mesoscale model is developed for the deposition of a discharge product in a Li-O-2 battery. This mescocale model includes particle growth and coarsening as well as a simplified nucleation model. The model involves LiO2 formation through reaction of O-2(-) and Li+ in the electrolyte, which deposits on the cathode surface when the LiO2 concentration reaches supersaturation in the electrolyte. A reaction-diffusion (rate-equation) model is used to describe the processes occurring in the electrolyte and a phase-field model is used to capture microstructural evolution. This model predicts that coarsening, in which large particles grow and small ones disappear, has a substantial effect on the size distribution of the LiO2 particles during the discharge process. The size evolution during discharge is the result of the interplay between this coarsening process and particle growth. The growth through continued deposition of LiO2 has the effect of causing large particles to grow ever faster while delaying the dissolution of small particles. The predicted size evolution is consistent with experimental results for a previously reported cathode material based on activated carbon during discharge and when it is at rest, although kinetic factors need to be included. The approach described in this paper synergistically combines models on different length scales with experimental observations and should have applications in studying other related discharge processes, such as Li2O2 deposition, in Li-O-2 batteries and nucleation and growth in Li-S batteries.

  7. An atomistically informed mesoscale model for growth and coarsening during discharge in lithium-oxygen batteries.

    PubMed

    Welland, Michael J; Lau, Kah Chun; Redfern, Paul C; Liang, Linyun; Zhai, Denyun; Wolf, Dieter; Curtiss, Larry A

    2015-12-14

    An atomistically informed mesoscale model is developed for the deposition of a discharge product in a Li-O2 battery. This mescocale model includes particle growth and coarsening as well as a simplified nucleation model. The model involves LiO2 formation through reaction of O2(-) and Li(+) in the electrolyte, which deposits on the cathode surface when the LiO2 concentration reaches supersaturation in the electrolyte. A reaction-diffusion (rate-equation) model is used to describe the processes occurring in the electrolyte and a phase-field model is used to capture microstructural evolution. This model predicts that coarsening, in which large particles grow and small ones disappear, has a substantial effect on the size distribution of the LiO2 particles during the discharge process. The size evolution during discharge is the result of the interplay between this coarsening process and particle growth. The growth through continued deposition of LiO2 has the effect of causing large particles to grow ever faster while delaying the dissolution of small particles. The predicted size evolution is consistent with experimental results for a previously reported cathode material based on activated carbon during discharge and when it is at rest, although kinetic factors need to be included. The approach described in this paper synergistically combines models on different length scales with experimental observations and should have applications in studying other related discharge processes, such as Li2O2 deposition, in Li-O2 batteries and nucleation and growth in Li-S batteries. PMID:26671364

  8. An atomistically informed mesoscale model for growth and coarsening during discharge in lithium-oxygen batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welland, Michael J.; Lau, Kah Chun; Redfern, Paul C.; Liang, Linyun; Zhai, Denyun; Wolf, Dieter; Curtiss, Larry A.

    2015-12-01

    An atomistically informed mesoscale model is developed for the deposition of a discharge product in a Li-O2 battery. This mescocale model includes particle growth and coarsening as well as a simplified nucleation model. The model involves LiO2 formation through reaction of O2- and Li+ in the electrolyte, which deposits on the cathode surface when the LiO2 concentration reaches supersaturation in the electrolyte. A reaction-diffusion (rate-equation) model is used to describe the processes occurring in the electrolyte and a phase-field model is used to capture microstructural evolution. This model predicts that coarsening, in which large particles grow and small ones disappear, has a substantial effect on the size distribution of the LiO2 particles during the discharge process. The size evolution during discharge is the result of the interplay between this coarsening process and particle growth. The growth through continued deposition of LiO2 has the effect of causing large particles to grow ever faster while delaying the dissolution of small particles. The predicted size evolution is consistent with experimental results for a previously reported cathode material based on activated carbon during discharge and when it is at rest, although kinetic factors need to be included. The approach described in this paper synergistically combines models on different length scales with experimental observations and should have applications in studying other related discharge processes, such as Li2O2 deposition, in Li-O2 batteries and nucleation and growth in Li-S batteries.

  9. An atomistically informed mesoscale model for growth and coarsening during discharge in lithium-oxygen batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Welland, Michael J.; Lau, Kah Chun; Redfern, Paul C.; Wolf, Dieter; Curtiss, Larry A.; Liang, Linyun; Zhai, Denyun

    2015-12-14

    An atomistically informed mesoscale model is developed for the deposition of a discharge product in a Li-O{sub 2} battery. This mescocale model includes particle growth and coarsening as well as a simplified nucleation model. The model involves LiO{sub 2} formation through reaction of O{sub 2}{sup −} and Li{sup +} in the electrolyte, which deposits on the cathode surface when the LiO{sub 2} concentration reaches supersaturation in the electrolyte. A reaction-diffusion (rate-equation) model is used to describe the processes occurring in the electrolyte and a phase-field model is used to capture microstructural evolution. This model predicts that coarsening, in which large particles grow and small ones disappear, has a substantial effect on the size distribution of the LiO{sub 2} particles during the discharge process. The size evolution during discharge is the result of the interplay between this coarsening process and particle growth. The growth through continued deposition of LiO{sub 2} has the effect of causing large particles to grow ever faster while delaying the dissolution of small particles. The predicted size evolution is consistent with experimental results for a previously reported cathode material based on activated carbon during discharge and when it is at rest, although kinetic factors need to be included. The approach described in this paper synergistically combines models on different length scales with experimental observations and should have applications in studying other related discharge processes, such as Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} deposition, in Li-O{sub 2} batteries and nucleation and growth in Li-S batteries.

  10. A Coupling Methodology for Mesoscale-informed Nuclear Fuel Performance Codes

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Tonks; Derek Gaston; Cody Permann; Paul Millett; Glen Hansen; Dieter Wolf

    2010-10-01

    This study proposes an approach for capturing the effect of microstructural evolution on reactor fuel performance by coupling a mesoscale irradiated microstructure model with a finite element fuel performance code. To achieve this, the macroscale system is solved in a parallel, fully coupled, fully-implicit manner using the preconditioned Jacobian-free Newton Krylov (JFNK) method. Within the JFNK solution algorithm, microstructure-influenced material parameters are calculated by the mesoscale model and passed back to the macroscale calculation. Due to the stochastic nature of the mesoscale model, a dynamic fitting technique is implemented to smooth roughness in the calculated material parameters. The proposed methodology is demonstrated on a simple model of a reactor fuel pellet. In the model, INL’s BISON fuel performance code calculates the steady-state temperature profile in a fuel pellet and the microstructure-influenced thermal conductivity is determined with a phase field model of irradiated microstructures. This simple multiscale model demonstrates good nonlinear convergence and near ideal parallel scalability. By capturing the formation of large mesoscale voids in the pellet interior, the multiscale model predicted the irradiation-induced reduction in the thermal conductivity commonly observed in reactors.

  11. A comparison of approximate reasoning results using information uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, Gregory; Key, Brian; Zerkle, David; Shevitz, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    An Approximate Reasoning (AR) model is a useful alternative to a probabilistic model when there is a need to draw conclusions from information that is qualitative. For certain systems, much of the information available is elicited from subject matter experts (SME). One such example is the risk of attack on a particular facility by a pernicious adversary. In this example there are several avenues of attack, i.e. scenarios, and AR can be used to model the risk of attack associated with each scenario. The qualitative information available and provided by the SME is comprised of linguistic values which are well suited for an AR model but meager for other modeling approaches. AR models can produce many competing results. Associated with each competing AR result is a vector of linguistic values and a respective degree of membership in each value. A suitable means to compare and segregate AR results would be an invaluable tool to analysts and decisions makers. A viable method would be to quantify the information uncertainty present in each AR result then use the measured quantity comparatively. One issue of concern for measuring the infornlation uncertainty involved with fuzzy uncertainty is that previously proposed approaches focus on the information uncertainty involved within the entire fuzzy set. This paper proposes extending measures of information uncertainty to AR results, which involve only one degree of membership for each fuzzy set included in the AR result. An approach to quantify the information uncertainty in the AR result is presented.

  12. Optimal causal inference: Estimating stored information and approximating causal architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Still, Susanne; Crutchfield, James P.; Ellison, Christopher J.

    2010-09-01

    We introduce an approach to inferring the causal architecture of stochastic dynamical systems that extends rate-distortion theory to use causal shielding—a natural principle of learning. We study two distinct cases of causal inference: optimal causal filtering and optimal causal estimation. Filtering corresponds to the ideal case in which the probability distribution of measurement sequences is known, giving a principled method to approximate a system's causal structure at a desired level of representation. We show that in the limit in which a model-complexity constraint is relaxed, filtering finds the exact causal architecture of a stochastic dynamical system, known as the causal-state partition. From this, one can estimate the amount of historical information the process stores. More generally, causal filtering finds a graded model-complexity hierarchy of approximations to the causal architecture. Abrupt changes in the hierarchy, as a function of approximation, capture distinct scales of structural organization. For nonideal cases with finite data, we show how the correct number of the underlying causal states can be found by optimal causal estimation. A previously derived model-complexity control term allows us to correct for the effect of statistical fluctuations in probability estimates and thereby avoid overfitting.

  13. L{sup 2}-approximating Pricing under Restricted Information

    SciTech Connect

    Mania, M. Tevzadze, R. Toronjadze, T.

    2009-08-15

    We consider the mean-variance hedging problem under partial information in the case where the flow of observable events does not contain the full information on the underlying asset price process. We introduce a certain type martingale equation and characterize the optimal strategy in terms of the solution of this equation. We give relations between this equation and backward stochastic differential equations for the value process of the problem.

  14. Mesoscale roughness of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garvin, J. B.; Frawley, James J.

    1994-01-01

    The global distribution of multi-kilometer (approx. 9 km) length scale 'roughness' (hereafter mesoscale roughness or MR) on Venus can be estimated from the Magellan global altimetry dataset (GxDR) and then compared with MR data derived for Earth from 5' ETOP5 data and for Mars (from USGS Mars DTM dataset). The mesoscale roughness parameter (MR) represents the RMS variance in meters of the actual planetary surface topography relative to the best fitting tangent plane defined on the basis of a 3x3 pixel sliding window. The best-fit plane was computed using a least-squares solution which minimizes delta H, the sum of the squares of the differences between the 9 local elevation values (H(sub i)), and the elevation of best-fit plane at the same grid location. Using the best-fit plane and delta H, we have computed the RMS 'roughness' var(delta R), where this parameter is always minimized on the basis of its calculation using least squares. We have called this 'ruggedness' parameter the Mesoscale Roughness (MR) because it is directly related to the high-frequency variance of topography after mesoscale slopes and tilts (i.e., for Venus, the baseline over which MR is computed (dx) is approx. 8.8 km and dx for Earth is approx. 9.3 km) are removed. As such, MR represents the degree to which a planetary surface is more rugged than approximately 10 km scale facets or tilts. It should not be confused with the radar 'RMS Roughness' parameter computed at 0.1 to 10 m length scales on the basis of the Magellan radar altimeter echo. We will use our MR parameter to investigate the global ruggedness properties of Venus as they relate to geological provinces and in comparison with the spatial pattern of MR for Earth and Mars.

  15. Assimilation of scalar versus horizontal gradient information from the VAS into a mesoscale model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diak, George

    1987-01-01

    Comparisons are made between analyses and forecasts which incorporate VAS geopotential data as either scalar or horizontal gradient information for a case study on the AVE/VAS day of Mar. 6, 1982. On this day, incorporating the VAS information in analysis as a variational constraint on horizontal geopotential gradients significantly mitigated the effects of large data biases which made VAS assimilation by standard scalar methods very difficult. A subsequent forecast made from the gradient assimilation was superior to one made from the standard analysis and of comparable quality in geopotentials to a control forecast from synoptic data. Most impact was noted in the forecasts of vertical motion and precipitation in the gradient vs this control simulation.

  16. Information processing in micro and meso-scale neural circuits during normal and disease states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luongo, Francisco

    Neural computation can occur at multiple spatial and temporal timescales. The sum total of all of these processes is to guide optimal behaviors within the context of the constraints imposed by the physical world. How the circuits of the brain achieves this goal represents a central question in systems neuroscience. Here I explore the many ways in which the circuits of the brain can process information at both the micro and meso scale. Understanding the way information is represented and processed in the brain could shed light on the neuropathology underlying complex neuropsychiatric diseases such as autism and schizophrenia. Chapter 2 establishes an experimental paradigm for assaying patterns of microcircuit activity and examines the role of dopaminergic modulation on prefrontal microcircuits. We find that dopamine type 2 (D2) receptor activation results in an increase in spontaneous activity while dopamine type 1 (D1) activation does not. Chapter 3 of this dissertation presents a study that illustrates how cholingergic activation normally produces what has been suggested as a neural substrate of attention; pairwise decorrelation in microcircuit activity. This study also shows that in two etiologicall distinct mouse models of autism, FMR1 knockout mice and Valproic Acid exposed mice, this ability to decorrelate in the presence of cholinergic activation is lost. This represents a putative microcircuit level biomarker of autism. Chapter 4 examines the structure/function relationship within the prefrontal microcircuit. Spontaneous activity in prefrontal microcircuits is shown to be organized according to a small world architecture. Interestingly, this architecture is important for one concrete function of neuronal microcircuits; the ability to produce temporally stereotyped patterns of activation. In the final chapter, we identify subnetworks in chronic intracranial electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings using pairwise electrode coherence and dimensionality reduction

  17. Validation of mesoscale models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuo, Bill; Warner, Tom; Benjamin, Stan; Koch, Steve; Staniforth, Andrew

    1993-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: verification of cloud prediction from the PSU/NCAR mesoscale model; results form MAPS/NGM verification comparisons and MAPS observation sensitivity tests to ACARS and profiler data; systematic errors and mesoscale verification for a mesoscale model; and the COMPARE Project and the CME.

  18. Approximate world models: Incorporating qualitative and linguistic information into vision systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pinhanez, C.S.; Bobick, A.F.

    1996-12-31

    Approximate world models are coarse descriptions of the elements of a scene, and are intended to be used in the selection and control of vision routines in a vision system. In this paper we present a control architecture in which the approximate models represent the complex relationships among the objects in the world, allowing the vision routines to be situation or context specific. Moreover, because of their reduced accuracy requirements, approximate world models can employ qualitative information such as those provided by linguistic descriptions of the scene. The concept is demonstrated in the development of automatic cameras for a TV studio-SmartCams. Results are shown where SmartCams use vision processing of real imagery and information written in the script of a TV show to achieve TV-quality framing.

  19. Numerical approximation abilities correlate with and predict informal but not formal mathematics abilities

    PubMed Central

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Feigenson, Lisa; Halberda, Justin

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has found a relationship between individual differences in children’s precision when nonverbally approximating quantities and their school mathematics performance. School mathematics performance emerges from both informal (e.g., counting) and formal (e.g., knowledge of mathematics facts) abilities. It remains unknown whether approximation precision relates to both of these types of mathematics abilities. In the present study we assessed the precision of numerical approximation in 85 3- to 7-year-old children four times over a span of two years. Additionally, at the last time point, we tested children’s informal and formal mathematics abilities using the Test of Early Mathematics Ability (TEMA-3; Ginsburg & Baroody, 2003). We found that children’s numerical approximation precision correlated with and predicted their informal, but not formal, mathematics abilities when controlling for age and IQ. These results add to our growing understanding of the relationship between an unlearned, non-symbolic system of quantity representation and the system of mathematical reasoning that children come to master through instruction. PMID:24076381

  20. Approximate reversibility in the context of entropy gain, information gain, and complete positivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscemi, Francesco; Das, Siddhartha; Wilde, Mark M.

    2016-06-01

    There are several inequalities in physics which limit how well we can process physical systems to achieve some intended goal, including the second law of thermodynamics, entropy bounds in quantum information theory, and the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics. Recent results provide physically meaningful enhancements of these limiting statements, determining how well one can attempt to reverse an irreversible process. In this paper, we apply and extend these results to give strong enhancements to several entropy inequalities, having to do with entropy gain, information gain, entropic disturbance, and complete positivity of open quantum systems dynamics. Our first result is a remainder term for the entropy gain of a quantum channel. This result implies that a small increase in entropy under the action of a subunital channel is a witness to the fact that the channel's adjoint can be used as a recovery map to undo the action of the original channel. We apply this result to pure-loss, quantum-limited amplifier, and phase-insensitive quantum Gaussian channels, showing how a quantum-limited amplifier can serve as a recovery from a pure-loss channel and vice versa. Our second result regards the information gain of a quantum measurement, both without and with quantum side information. We find here that a small information gain implies that it is possible to undo the action of the original measurement if it is efficient. The result also has operational ramifications for the information-theoretic tasks known as measurement compression without and with quantum side information. Our third result shows that the loss of Holevo information caused by the action of a noisy channel on an input ensemble of quantum states is small if and only if the noise can be approximately corrected on average. We finally establish that the reduced dynamics of a system-environment interaction are approximately completely positive and trace preserving if and only if the data processing

  1. Introduction to Mesoscale Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarrao, John; Crabtree, George

    2012-02-01

    BESAC seeks community input for a forthcoming report on Mesoscale Materials and Chemistry, where classical, microscale and nanoscale science meet. The report, to be released in Fall 2012, will identify the most promising research opportunities in two areas: *new mesoscale materials, phenomena and functionality *facilities, instruments and tools needed to make, characterize and describe mesoscale materials, phenomena and functionality. You may contribute to the Town Hall through oral comments or by completing and uploading a Priority Research Direction quad chart through the Meso website, meso2012.com. If you upload a Priority Research Direction quad chart in advance, it can be projected at the Town Hall to illustrate your oral comments. Please see the Mesoscale Materials and Chemistry website for additional background and details: meso2012.com

  2. Multifunctional Mesoscale Observing Networks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabberdt, Walter F.; Schlatter, Thomas W.; Carr, Frederick H.; Friday, Elbert W. Joe; Jorgensen, David; Koch, Steven; Pirone, Maria; Ralph, F. Martin; Sun, Juanzhen; Welsh, Patrick; Wilson, James W.; Zou, Xiaolei

    2005-07-01

    More than 120 scientists, engineers, administrators, and users met on 8 10 December 2003 in a workshop format to discuss the needs for enhanced three-dimensional mesoscale observing networks. Improved networks are seen as being critical to advancing numerical and empirical modeling for a variety of mesoscale applications, including severe weather warnings and forecasts, hydrology, air-quality forecasting, chemical emergency response, transportation safety, energy management, and others. The participants shared a clear and common vision for the observing requirements: existing two-dimensional mesoscale measurement networks do not provide observations of the type, frequency, and density that are required to optimize mesoscale prediction and nowcasts. To be viable, mesoscale observing networks must serve multiple applications, and the public, private, and academic sectors must all actively participate in their design and implementation, as well as in the creation and delivery of value-added products. The mesoscale measurement challenge can best be met by an integrated approach that considers all elements of an end-to-end solution—identifying end users and their needs, designing an optimal mix of observations, defining the balance between static and dynamic (targeted or adaptive) sampling strategies, establishing long-term test beds, and developing effective implementation strategies. Detailed recommendations are provided pertaining to nowcasting, numerical prediction and data assimilation, test beds, and implementation strategies.


  3. Mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films.

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, M.; Darling, S. B.

    2011-06-01

    In the midst of an exciting era of polymer nanoscience, where the development of materials and understanding of properties at the nanoscale remain a major R&D endeavor, there are several exciting phenomena that have been reported at the mesoscale (approximately an order of magnitude larger than the nanoscale). In this review article, we focus on mesoscale morphologies in polymer thin films from the viewpoint of origination of structure formation, structure development and the interaction forces that govern these morphologies. Mesoscale morphologies, including dendrites, holes, spherulites, fractals and honeycomb structures have been observed in thin films of homopolymer, copolymer, blends and composites. Following a largely phenomenological level of description, we review the kinetic and thermodynamic aspects of mesostructure formation outlining some of the key mechanisms at play. We also discuss various strategies to direct, limit, or inhibit the appearance of mesostructures in polymer thin films as well as an outlook toward potential areas of growth in this field of research.

  4. Sparse estimation of Cox proportional hazards models via approximated information criteria.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaogang; Wijayasinghe, Chalani S; Fan, Juanjuan; Zhang, Ying

    2016-09-01

    We propose a new sparse estimation method for Cox (1972) proportional hazards models by optimizing an approximated information criterion. The main idea involves approximation of the ℓ0 norm with a continuous or smooth unit dent function. The proposed method bridges the best subset selection and regularization by borrowing strength from both. It mimics the best subset selection using a penalized likelihood approach yet with no need of a tuning parameter. We further reformulate the problem with a reparameterization step so that it reduces to one unconstrained nonconvex yet smooth programming problem, which can be solved efficiently as in computing the maximum partial likelihood estimator (MPLE). Furthermore, the reparameterization tactic yields an additional advantage in terms of circumventing postselection inference. The oracle property of the proposed method is established. Both simulated experiments and empirical examples are provided for assessment and illustration. PMID:26873398

  5. Spurious correlation as an approximation of the mutual information between redundant outputs and an unknown input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikemoto, Shuhei; DallaLibera, Fabio; Hosoda, Koh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a counterintuitive phenomenon, observed in a wide variety of nonlinear systems, for which the addition of noise of opportune magnitude can improve signal detection. Tuning the noise for maximizing the SR effect is important both for artificial and biological systems. In the case of artificial systems, full exploitation of the SR effect opens the possibility of measuring otherwise unmeasurable signals. In biology, identification of possible SR maximization mechanisms is of great interest for explaining the low-energy high-sensitivity perception capabilities often observed in animals. SR maximization approaches presented in literature use knowledge on the input signal (or stimulus, in the case of living beings), and maximize the mutual information between the input and the output signal. The input signal, however, is unknown in many practical settings. To cope with this problem, this paper introduces an approximation of the input-output mutual information based on the spurious correlation among a set of redundant units. A proof of the approximation, as well as numerical examples of its application are given.

  6. Mesoscale water balance modelling in the Upper Danube watershed using sub-scale land cover information derived from NOAA-AVHRR imagery and GIS-techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ludwig, Ralf; Probeck, Markus; Mauser, Wolfram

    Earth observation from space provides unique data to obtain up-to-date information on the rapidly changing state of the environment. While imagery from high spatial resolution sensors are still inadequate to derive consistent land use information for mesoscale areas, fine spatial resolution of land use information is essential for the description of hydrological processes at the landscape level, such as runoff generation and evapotranspiration. The study presents a procedure to overcome existing limitations by using coarse spatial resolution NOAA-AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data within a framework of combined multitemporal imagery and fuzzy-logic based geospatial data analysis. The spectral unmixing methodology determines fractional land cover data for each raster cell in the watershed. It assumes that the spectrum of a surface is linearly composed of the area-weighted spectra of its known components (endmembers). In extension to existing unmixing approaches, each “spectrum” refers to a multitemporal spectral profile of a pixel, which consists of the temporal development of the pixel’s spectral behaviour over an entire vegetation period. In order to minimise classification errors, geographical expert knowledge is utilised to evaluate the geofactors elevation, slope, soil and precipitation in a fuzzy-logic approach to priorily determine a valid set of possible endmembers for each raster cell. The final unmixing results are validated against both a reference classification from LANDSAT-TM imagery and the CORINE land cover classification. The method is employed for the Upper Danube watershed (76.653 km 2) to provide sub-scale land use information, which is used as an input for the physically based and raster-oriented SVAT model PROMET (J. Hydrol. 212-213 (1998) 250; J. Hydrol. 254 (2001) 199). The model is operated in hourly time steps on a 1-km 2 grid, each raster cell comprising the various land cover classes, to simulate the spatial and

  7. Kinematics and thermodynamics of a midlatitude, continental mesoscale convective system and its mesoscale vortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knievel, Jason Clark

    The author examines a mesoscale convective system (MCS) and the mesoscale convective vortex (MCV) it generated. The MCS, which comprised a leading convective line and trailing stratiform region, traversed Kansas and Oklahoma on 1 August 1996, passing through the NOAA Wind Profiler Network, as well as four sites from which soundings were being taken every three hours during a field project. The unusually rich data set permitted study of the MCS and MCV over nine hours on scales between those of operational rawinsondes and Doppler radars. The author used a spatial bandpass filter to divide observed wind into synoptic and mesoscale components. The environment-relative, mesoscale wind contained an up- and downdraft and divergent outflows in the lower and upper troposphere. The mesoscale wind was asymmetric about the MCS, consistent with studies of gravity waves generated by heating typical of that in many MCSs. According to a scale-discriminating vorticity budget, both the synoptic and mesoscale winds contributed to the prominent resolved sources of vorticity in the MCV: tilting and convergence. Unresolved sources were also large. The author speculates that an abrupt change in the main source of vorticity in an MCV may appear as an abrupt change in its altitude of maximum vorticity. Distributions of temperature and humidity in the MCS were consistent with its mesoscale circulations. In the terminus of the mesoscale downdraft, advection of drier, potentially warmer air exceeded humidifying and cooling from rain, so profiles of temperature and dew point exhibit onion and double-onion patterns. The mesoscale updraft was approximately saturated with a moist adiabatic lapse rate. Mesoscale drafts and convective drafts vertically mixed the troposphere, partially homogenizing equivalent potential temperature. The MCV contained a column of high potential vorticity in the middle troposphere, with a cold core below the freezing level and a warm core above---a pattern

  8. Evaluation of the synoptic and mesoscale predictive capabilities of a mesoscale atmospheric simulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, S. E.; Skillman, W. C.; Kocin, P. J.; Wetzel, P. J.; Brill, K.; Keyser, D. A.; Mccumber, M. C.

    1983-01-01

    The overall performance characteristics of a limited area, hydrostatic, fine (52 km) mesh, primitive equation, numerical weather prediction model are determined in anticipation of satellite data assimilations with the model. The synoptic and mesoscale predictive capabilities of version 2.0 of this model, the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS 2.0), were evaluated. The two part study is based on a sample of approximately thirty 12h and 24h forecasts of atmospheric flow patterns during spring and early summer. The synoptic scale evaluation results benchmark the performance of MASS 2.0 against that of an operational, synoptic scale weather prediction model, the Limited area Fine Mesh (LFM). The large sample allows for the calculation of statistically significant measures of forecast accuracy and the determination of systematic model errors. The synoptic scale benchmark is required before unsmoothed mesoscale forecast fields can be seriously considered.

  9. Amount of Information Needed for Model Choice in Approximate Bayesian Computation

    PubMed Central

    Stocks, Michael; Siol, Mathieu; Lascoux, Martin; De Mita, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) has become a popular technique in evolutionary genetics for elucidating population structure and history due to its flexibility. The statistical inference framework has benefited from significant progress in recent years. In population genetics, however, its outcome depends heavily on the amount of information in the dataset, whether that be the level of genetic variation or the number of samples and loci. Here we look at the power to reject a simple constant population size coalescent model in favor of a bottleneck model in datasets of varying quality. Not only is this power dependent on the number of samples and loci, but it also depends strongly on the level of nucleotide diversity in the observed dataset. Whilst overall model choice in an ABC setting is fairly powerful and quite conservative with regard to false positives, detecting weaker bottlenecks is problematic in smaller or less genetically diverse datasets and limits the inferences possible in non-model organism where the amount of information regarding the two models is often limited. Our results show it is important to consider these limitations when performing an ABC analysis and that studies should perform simulations based on the size and nature of the dataset in order to fully assess the power of the study. PMID:24959900

  10. Mesoscale Diffractive Photonics in Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minin, I. V.; Minin, O. V.

    2016-06-01

    The scattered light by various dielectric particles in atmosphere give information about the type of molecules and particles and their location, which are important to definition of propagation limitations through atmospheric and space weather variations, crisis communications, etc. Although these investigations explain far field properties of disturbed radiations, the solution of the physical problem requires simulations of the interactions in near-field. It has been shown that strongly localized EM field near the surface of single dielectric particle may be form by non-spherical and non-symmetrical mesoscale particles both as in transmitting as in reflection mode. It was also shown that the main lobe is narrower in case of 3 cube chain than single cube in far field, but there are many side-scattering lobes. It was mentioned that unique advantages provided by mesoscale dielectric photonic crystal based particles with three spatial dimensions of arbitrary shape allow developing a new types of micro/nano-probes with subwavelength resolution for ultra compact spectrometer-free sensor for on board a spacecraft or a plane.

  11. Mesoscale ocean dynamics modeling

    SciTech Connect

    mHolm, D.; Alber, M.; Bayly, B.; Camassa, R.; Choi, W.; Cockburn, B.; Jones, D.; Lifschitz, A.; Margolin, L.; Marsden, L.; Nadiga, B.; Poje, A.; Smolarkiewicz, P.; Levermore, D.

    1996-05-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The ocean is a very complex nonlinear system that exhibits turbulence on essentially all scales, multiple equilibria, and significant intrinsic variability. Modeling the ocean`s dynamics at mesoscales is of fundamental importance for long-time-scale climate predictions. A major goal of this project has been to coordinate, strengthen, and focus the efforts of applied mathematicians, computer scientists, computational physicists and engineers (at LANL and a consortium of Universities) in a joint effort addressing the issues in mesoscale ocean dynamics. The project combines expertise in the core competencies of high performance computing and theory of complex systems in a new way that has great potential for improving ocean models now running on the Connection Machines CM-200 and CM-5 and on the Cray T3D.

  12. Acid rain: Mesoscale model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    A mesoscale numerical model of the Florida peninsula was formulated and applied to a dry, neutral atmosphere. The prospective use of the STAR-100 computer for the submesoscale model is discussed. The numerical model presented is tested under synoptically undisturbed conditions. Two cases, differing only in the direction of the prevailing geostrophic wind, are examined: a prevailing southwest wind and a prevailing southeast wind, both 6 m/sec at all levels initially.

  13. Mesoscale hybrid calibration artifact

    DOEpatents

    Tran, Hy D.; Claudet, Andre A.; Oliver, Andrew D.

    2010-09-07

    A mesoscale calibration artifact, also called a hybrid artifact, suitable for hybrid dimensional measurement and the method for make the artifact. The hybrid artifact has structural characteristics that make it suitable for dimensional measurement in both vision-based systems and touch-probe-based systems. The hybrid artifact employs the intersection of bulk-micromachined planes to fabricate edges that are sharp to the nanometer level and intersecting planes with crystal-lattice-defined angles.

  14. Approximate entropy and auto mutual information analysis of the electroencephalogram in Alzheimer's disease patients.

    PubMed

    Abásolo, D; Escudero, J; Hornero, R; Gómez, C; Espino, P

    2008-10-01

    We analysed the electroencephalogram (EEG) from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients with two nonlinear methods: approximate entropy (ApEn) and auto mutual information (AMI). ApEn quantifies regularity in data, while AMI detects linear and nonlinear dependencies in time series. EEGs from 11 AD patients and 11 age-matched controls were analysed. ApEn was significantly lower in AD patients at electrodes O1, O2, P3 and P4 (p < 0.01). The EEG AMI decreased more slowly with time delays in patients than in controls, with significant differences at electrodes T5, T6, O1, O2, P3 and P4 (p < 0.01). The strong correlation between results from both methods shows that the AMI rate of decrease can be used to estimate the regularity in time series. Our work suggests that nonlinear EEG analysis may contribute to increase the insight into brain dysfunction in AD, especially when different time scales are inspected, as is the case with AMI. PMID:18784948

  15. An overview of mesoscale prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.

    1992-01-01

    A development history is presented for techniques used in mesoscale weather prediction over the course of the last 40 years, in which they have undergone a major transition from low-tech to high-tech. Remote sensing satellites and weather radars are now extremely refined tools for mesoscale atmospheric studies. Attention is given to mesocyclones and tornadoes, the statistical prediction of tornadoes, and the status of mesoscale prediction for aviation and space vehicles.

  16. Lightning characteristics of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Mace L.; Franks, John R.; Suranovic, Katelyn R.; Barbachem, Brent; Cannon, Declan; Cooper, Stonie R.

    2015-11-01

    Derechos, or widespread, convectively induced wind storms, are a common warm season phenomenon in the Central and Eastern United States. These damaging and severe weather events are known to sweep quickly across large spatial regions of more than 400 km and produce wind speeds exceeding 121 km h-1. Although extensive research concerning derechos and their parent mesoscale convective systems already exists, there have been few investigations of the spatial and temporal distribution of associated cloud-to-ground lightning with these events. This study analyzes twenty warm season (May through August) derecho events between 2003 and 2013 in an effort to discern their lightning characteristics. Data used in the study included cloud-to-ground flash data derived from the National Lightning Detection Network, WSR-88D imagery from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, and damaging wind report data obtained from the Storm Prediction Center. A spatial and temporal analysis was conducted by incorporating these data into a geographic information system to determine the distribution and lightning characteristics of the environments of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems. Primary foci of this research include: (1) finding the approximate size of the lightning activity region for individual and combined event(s); (2) determining the intensity of each event by examining the density and polarity of lightning flashes; (3) locating areas of highest lightning flash density; and (4) to provide a lightning spatial analysis that outlines the temporal and spatial distribution of flash activity for particularly strong derecho producing thunderstorm episodes.

  17. Lightning characteristics of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Mace L.; Franks, John R.; Suranovic, Katelyn R.; Barbachem, Brent; Cannon, Declan; Cooper, Stonie R.

    2016-06-01

    Derechos, or widespread, convectively induced wind storms, are a common warm season phenomenon in the Central and Eastern United States. These damaging and severe weather events are known to sweep quickly across large spatial regions of more than 400 km and produce wind speeds exceeding 121 km h-1. Although extensive research concerning derechos and their parent mesoscale convective systems already exists, there have been few investigations of the spatial and temporal distribution of associated cloud-to-ground lightning with these events. This study analyzes twenty warm season (May through August) derecho events between 2003 and 2013 in an effort to discern their lightning characteristics. Data used in the study included cloud-to-ground flash data derived from the National Lightning Detection Network, WSR-88D imagery from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research, and damaging wind report data obtained from the Storm Prediction Center. A spatial and temporal analysis was conducted by incorporating these data into a geographic information system to determine the distribution and lightning characteristics of the environments of derecho producing mesoscale convective systems. Primary foci of this research include: (1) finding the approximate size of the lightning activity region for individual and combined event(s); (2) determining the intensity of each event by examining the density and polarity of lightning flashes; (3) locating areas of highest lightning flash density; and (4) to provide a lightning spatial analysis that outlines the temporal and spatial distribution of flash activity for particularly strong derecho producing thunderstorm episodes.

  18. Mesoscale texture of cement hydrates.

    PubMed

    Ioannidou, Katerina; Krakowiak, Konrad J; Bauchy, Mathieu; Hoover, Christian G; Masoero, Enrico; Yip, Sidney; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Levitz, Pierre; Pellenq, Roland J-M; Del Gado, Emanuela

    2016-02-23

    Strength and other mechanical properties of cement and concrete rely upon the formation of calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H) during cement hydration. Controlling structure and properties of the C-S-H phase is a challenge, due to the complexity of this hydration product and of the mechanisms that drive its precipitation from the ionic solution upon dissolution of cement grains in water. Departing from traditional models mostly focused on length scales above the micrometer, recent research addressed the molecular structure of C-S-H. However, small-angle neutron scattering, electron-microscopy imaging, and nanoindentation experiments suggest that its mesoscale organization, extending over hundreds of nanometers, may be more important. Here we unveil the C-S-H mesoscale texture, a crucial step to connect the fundamental scales to the macroscale of engineering properties. We use simulations that combine information of the nanoscale building units of C-S-H and their effective interactions, obtained from atomistic simulations and experiments, into a statistical physics framework for aggregating nanoparticles. We compute small-angle scattering intensities, pore size distributions, specific surface area, local densities, indentation modulus, and hardness of the material, providing quantitative understanding of different experimental investigations. Our results provide insight into how the heterogeneities developed during the early stages of hydration persist in the structure of C-S-H and impact the mechanical performance of the hardened cement paste. Unraveling such links in cement hydrates can be groundbreaking and controlling them can be the key to smarter mix designs of cementitious materials. PMID:26858450

  19. Mesoscale texture of cement hydrates

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidou, Katerina; Krakowiak, Konrad J.; Bauchy, Mathieu; Hoover, Christian G.; Masoero, Enrico; Yip, Sidney; Ulm, Franz-Josef; Levitz, Pierre; Pellenq, Roland J.-M.; Del Gado, Emanuela

    2016-01-01

    Strength and other mechanical properties of cement and concrete rely upon the formation of calcium–silicate–hydrates (C–S–H) during cement hydration. Controlling structure and properties of the C–S–H phase is a challenge, due to the complexity of this hydration product and of the mechanisms that drive its precipitation from the ionic solution upon dissolution of cement grains in water. Departing from traditional models mostly focused on length scales above the micrometer, recent research addressed the molecular structure of C–S–H. However, small-angle neutron scattering, electron-microscopy imaging, and nanoindentation experiments suggest that its mesoscale organization, extending over hundreds of nanometers, may be more important. Here we unveil the C–S–H mesoscale texture, a crucial step to connect the fundamental scales to the macroscale of engineering properties. We use simulations that combine information of the nanoscale building units of C–S–H and their effective interactions, obtained from atomistic simulations and experiments, into a statistical physics framework for aggregating nanoparticles. We compute small-angle scattering intensities, pore size distributions, specific surface area, local densities, indentation modulus, and hardness of the material, providing quantitative understanding of different experimental investigations. Our results provide insight into how the heterogeneities developed during the early stages of hydration persist in the structure of C–S–H and impact the mechanical performance of the hardened cement paste. Unraveling such links in cement hydrates can be groundbreaking and controlling them can be the key to smarter mix designs of cementitious materials. PMID:26858450

  20. Movements of foraging king penguins through marine mesoscale eddies.

    PubMed

    Cotté, Cédric; Park, Young-Hyang; Guinet, Christophe; Bost, Charles-André

    2007-10-01

    Despite increasing evidence that marine predators associate with mesoscale eddies, how these marine features influence foraging movements is still unclear. This study investigates the relationship of at-sea movements of king penguins to mesoscale eddies using oceanographic remote sensing and movement data from 43 individual trips over 4 years. Simultaneous satellite measurements provided information on gradients of sea surface temperature and currents associated with eddies determined from altimetry. Penguins tended to swim rapidly with currents as they travelled towards foraging zones. Swimming speed indicative of foraging occurred within mesoscale fronts and strong currents associated with eddies at the Polar Front. These results demonstrate the importance of mesoscale eddies in directing foraging efforts to allow predators to rapidly get to rich areas where high concentrations of prey are likely to be encountered. When returning to the colony to relieve the incubating partner or to feed the chick, the birds followed a direct and rapid path, seemingly ignoring currents. PMID:17669726

  1. Movements of foraging king penguins through marine mesoscale eddies

    PubMed Central

    Cotté, Cédric; Park, Young-Hyang; Guinet, Christophe; Bost, Charles-André

    2007-01-01

    Despite increasing evidence that marine predators associate with mesoscale eddies, how these marine features influence foraging movements is still unclear. This study investigates the relationship of at-sea movements of king penguins to mesoscale eddies using oceanographic remote sensing and movement data from 43 individual trips over 4 years. Simultaneous satellite measurements provided information on gradients of sea surface temperature and currents associated with eddies determined from altimetry. Penguins tended to swim rapidly with currents as they travelled towards foraging zones. Swimming speed indicative of foraging occurred within mesoscale fronts and strong currents associated with eddies at the Polar Front. These results demonstrate the importance of mesoscale eddies in directing foraging efforts to allow predators to rapidly get to rich areas where high concentrations of prey are likely to be encountered. When returning to the colony to relieve the incubating partner or to feed the chick, the birds followed a direct and rapid path, seemingly ignoring currents. PMID:17669726

  2. Mesoscale aspects of convective storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.

    1981-01-01

    The structure, evolution and mechanisms of mesoscale convective disturbances are reviewed and observation techniques for "nowcasting" their nature are discussed. A generalized mesometeorological scale is given, classifying both low and high pressure systems. Mesoscale storms are shown often to induce strong winds, but their wind speeds are significantly less than those accompanied by submesoscale disturbances, such as tornadoes, downbursts, and microbursts. Mesoscale convective complexes, severe storm wakes, and flash floods are considered. The understanding of the evolution of supercells is essential for improving nowcasting capabilities and a very accurate combination of radar and satellite measurements is required.

  3. On the feature selection criterion based on an approximation of multidimensional mutual information.

    PubMed

    Balagani, Kiran S; Phoha, Vir V

    2010-07-01

    We derive the feature selection criterion presented in [CHECK END OF SENTENCE] and [CHECK END OF SENTENCE] from the multidimensional mutual information between features and the class. Our derivation: 1) specifies and validates the lower-order dependency assumptions of the criterion and 2) mathematically justifies the utility of the criterion by relating it to Bayes classification error. PMID:20489237

  4. An Assessment of Hermite Function Based Approximations of Mutual Information Applied to Independent Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, Julian

    2008-12-01

    At the heart of many ICA techniques is a nonparametric estimate of an information measure, usually via nonparametric density estimation, for example, kernel density estimation. While not as popular as kernel density estimators, orthogonal functions can be used for nonparametric density estimation (via a truncated series expansion whose coefficients are calculated from the observed data). While such estimators do not necessarily yield a valid density, which kernel density estimators do, they are faster to calculate than kernel density estimators, in particular for a modified version of Renyi's entropy of order 2. In this paper, we compare the performance of ICA using Hermite series based estimates of Shannon's and Renyi's mutual information, to that of Gaussian kernel based estimates. The comparisons also include ICA using the RADICAL estimate of Shannon's entropy and a FastICA estimate of neg-entropy.

  5. Mesoscale simulations of powder compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomov, Ilya; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin

    2009-06-01

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of metal and ceramic powder compaction in shock waves have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating shock compaction of porous well-characterized ductile metal using Steinberg material model. Results of the simulations with handbook values for parameters of solid 2024 aluminum have good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not so well studied as metals, so material model for ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been fitted to shock compression experiments of non-porous samples and further calibrated to experimental match compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powder have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. Numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as measured with VISAR. Numerical results show evidence of hard-to-explain reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line, which have also been observed in the experiments. We found that to receive good quantitative agreement with experiment it is essential to perform 3D simulations, since 2D results tend to underpredict stress levels for high-porosity powders regardless of material properties. We developed a process to extract macroscale information for the simulation which can be directly used in calibration of continuum model for heterogeneous media.

  6. Mesoscale convective complexes in Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Laing, A.G.; Fritsch, J.M. )

    1993-08-01

    Digitized full-disk infrared satellite imagery from the European geostationary satellite (Meteosat) for 1986 and 1987 was used to construct a climatology of mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs) in Africa. One hundred ninety-five systems formed over Africa and its near vicinity during the two-year study period. From this database, characteristics of Africa MCCs were calculated. The results indicate that these MCCs display many of the same characteristics as those found in the Americas, the Indian subcontinent, and the western Pacific region. The systems are predominantly nocturnal and tend to form over or in the immediate vicinity of land. The average lifetime of African MCCs is about 11.5 h. The size distributions of the African systems are also extremely similar to those of the Americas, the Indian subcontinent, and the western Pacific region with most systems exhibiting areas between 2 [times] 10[sup 5] and 3 [times] 10[sup 5] km[sup 2]. The monthly frequency distribution of African systems indicates that peak activity tends to occur during the period of most intense insolation. Like the MCCs in the western Pacific region and the Americas, the African MCCs tend to propagate toward the low-level high-[theta][sub e] air that feeds the convective systems. Systems over northern Africa moved toward the west-southwest, with a few developing into tropical cyclones over the Atlantic. Systems over southeastern Africa generally moved toward the northeast and east. It is concluded that the satellite-observed systems over Africa are essentially the same phenomena as the MCC populations observed over the Americas, the Indian monsoon region, and the western Pacific region. In addition, the large number of MCCs found worldwide (approximately 300-400 per year) indicate that they may be significant contributors to the global tropospheric energy budget and hydrological cycle. 46 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Mesoscale fabrication and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Gregory R.

    A strong link between mechanical engineering design and materials science and engineering fabrication can facilitate an effective and adaptable prototyping process. In this dissertation, new developments in the lost mold-rapid infiltration forming (LM-RIF) process is presented which demonstrates the relationship between these two fields of engineering in the context of two device applications. Within the LM-RIF process, changes in materials processing and mechanical design are updated iteratively, often aided by statistical design of experiments (DOE). The LM-RIF process was originally developed by Antolino and Hayes et al to fabricate mesoscale components. In this dissertation the focus is on advancements in the process and underlying science. The presented advancements to the LM-RIF process include an augmented lithography procedure, the incorporation of engineered aqueous and non-aqueous colloidal suspensions, an assessment of constrained drying forces during LM-RIF processing, mechanical property evaluation, and finally prototype testing and validation. Specifically, the molding procedure within the LM-RIF process is capable of producing molds with thickness upwards of 1mm, as well as multi-layering to create three dimensional structures. Increasing the mold thickness leads to an increase in the smallest feature resolvable; however, the increase in mold thickness and three dimensional capability has expanded the mechanical design space. Tetragonally stabilized zirconia (3Y-TZP) is an ideal material for mesoscale instruments, as it is biocompatible, exhibits high strength, and is chemically stable. In this work, aqueous colloidal suspensions were formulated with two new gel-binder systems, increasing final natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) instrument yield from 0% to upwards of 40% in the best case scenario. The effects of the gel-binder system on the rheological behavior of the suspension along with the thermal characteristics of the gel

  8. Mesoscale variability in marine winds at mid-latitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overland, James E.; Wilson, Judith G.

    1984-11-01

    Wind data were collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration WP-3D aircraft on low-level (50 and 90 m) crosswind and along-mean-wind tracks of approximately 350 km during the Storm Transfer and Response Experiment in November and December 1980. Observed mesoscale variations in the marine wind fields are characterized by the velocity correlation tensor for three atmospheric regimes: cloud streets, open and closed cellular convection, and prefrontal warm air advection. The dominant scale of mesoscale variation in the offshore wind field normal to the mean wind direction in the case of old continental air flowing over a warmer ocean, producing cloud streets, was 27 km. For this case, the standard deviation in momentum transfer, which was calculated from 2-km subsets of the flight track by the bulk aerodynamic method assuming a constant drag coefficient, was 13% of the synoptic scale (330km) mean. The dominant scale of mesoscale variation for open cellular convection was 62km, and the dominant scale for closed cellular convection was 90 km. The standard deviation of mesoscale momentum transfer (scales greater than 2 km; constant drag coefficient) for a 345-km flight track containing both cell types was 26% of the synoptic scale mean. The warm air advection case had no measurable mesoscale variability. For each regime a model of the horizontal velocity correlation tensor, which can be used to estimate a mesoscale variability, is fitted to the observed velocity correlation tensor with velocity component and weather regime dependent coefficients. This general model is consistent with an interpretation of the mesoscale wind field as an ensemble of coherent structures, associated with cloud type, in which the spatial variability of the wind field in each weather regime is associated with physically determined dominant length scales (i.e., cells or rolls), as contrasted with a continuum interpretation of two-dimensional turbulence. To accurately describe

  9. DEVELOPMENT OF A LAND-SURFACE MODEL PART I: APPLICATION IN A MESOSCALE METEOROLOGY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Parameterization of land-surface processes and consideration of surface inhomogeneities are very important to mesoscale meteorological modeling applications, especially those that provide information for air quality modeling. To provide crucial, reliable information on the diurn...

  10. Acoustic Characterization of Mesoscale Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Chinn, D; Huber, R; Chambers, D; Cole, G; Balogun, O; Spicer, J; Murray, T

    2007-03-13

    This report describes the science and engineering performed to provide state-of-the-art acoustic capabilities for nondestructively characterizing mesoscale (millimeter-sized) objects--allowing micrometer resolution over the objects entire volume. Materials and structures used in mesoscale objects necessitate the use of (1) GHz acoustic frequencies and (2) non-contacting laser generation and detection of acoustic waves. This effort demonstrated that acoustic methods at gigahertz frequencies have the necessary penetration depth and spatial resolution to effectively detect density discontinuities, gaps, and delaminations. A prototype laser-based ultrasonic system was designed and built. The system uses a micro-chip laser for excitation of broadband ultrasonic waves with frequency components reaching 1.0 GHz, and a path-stabilized Michelson interferometer for detection. The proof-of-concept for mesoscale characterization is demonstrated by imaging a micro-fabricated etched pattern in a 70 {micro}m thick silicon wafer.

  11. The impact of land-surface wetness heterogeneity on mesoscale heat fluxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Fei; Avissar, Roni

    1994-01-01

    Vertical heat fluxes associated with mesoscale circulations generated by land-surface wetness discontinuities are often stronger than turbulent fluxes, especially in the upper part of the atmospheric planetary boundary layer. As a result, they contribute significantly to the subgrid-scale fluxes in large-scale atmospheric models. Yet they are not considered in these models. To provide some insights into the possible parameterization of these fluxes in large-scale models, a state-of-the-art mesoscale numerical model was used to investigate the relationships between mesoscale heat fluxes and atmospheric and land-surface characteristics that play a key role in the generation of mesoscale circulations. The distribution of land-surface wetness, the wavenumber and the wavelength of the land-surface discontinuities, and the large-scale wind speed have a significant impact on the mesoscale heat fluxes. Empirical functions were derived to characterize the relationships between mesoscale heat fluxes and the spatial distribution of land-surface wetness. The strongest mesoscale heat fluxes were obtained for a wavelength of forcing corresponding approximately to the local Rossby deformation radius. The mesoscale heat fluxes are weakened by large-scale background winds but remain significant even with moderate winds.

  12. Evaluation of simple mesoscale models for use in TESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. J.; Sampson, C. R.

    1991-11-01

    Prediction of wind flow in a complex coastal environment is a challenging task that continues to be of interest to the U.S. Navy, specifically for use in the Tactical Environmental Support System (TESS). TESS is a computer workstation which provides environmental information for the Navy's tactical decision makers and is discussed in detail in Phegley and Crosiar (1991). According to Mass and Dempsey (1986), global and regional models have improved to the point where the adequately predict larger scale synoptic conditions; however, conversion of these forecasts into local and mesoscale weather is still a problem. One solution is to increase the resolution of a global or regional model to that desired for mesoscale prediction. The problem with this is that computational requirements for the model would far exceed the capability of TESS. Another solution is to run simple mesoscale models which use observations or output from the more complex models for initialization. Until recently, computational requirements of simple mesoscale models were beyond the capabilities of TESS. However, the TESS hardware has been upgraded to a system which is now capable of running simple mesoscale models.

  13. Mesoscale modeling of solute precipitation and radiation damage

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yongfeng; Schwen, Daniel; Ke, Huibin; Bai, Xianming; Hales, Jason

    2015-09-01

    This report summarizes the low length scale effort during FY 2014 in developing mesoscale capabilities for microstructure evolution in reactor pressure vessels. During operation, reactor pressure vessels are subject to hardening and embrittlement caused by irradiation-induced defect accumulation and irradiation-enhanced solute precipitation. Both defect production and solute precipitation start from the atomic scale, and manifest their eventual effects as degradation in engineering-scale properties. To predict the property degradation, multiscale modeling and simulation are needed to deal with the microstructure evolution, and to link the microstructure feature to material properties. In this report, the development of mesoscale capabilities for defect accumulation and solute precipitation are summarized. Atomic-scale efforts that supply information for the mesoscale capabilities are also included.

  14. Mesoscale Ocean Large Eddy Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Brodie; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Bachman, Scott; Bryan, Frank

    2015-11-01

    The highest resolution global climate models (GCMs) can now resolve the largest scales of mesoscale dynamics in the ocean. This has the potential to increase the fidelity of GCMs. However, the effects of the smallest, unresolved, scales of mesoscale dynamics must still be parametrized. One such family of parametrizations are mesoscale ocean large eddy simulations (MOLES), but the effects of including MOLES in a GCM are not well understood. In this presentation, several MOLES schemes are implemented in a mesoscale-resolving GCM (CESM), and the resulting flow is compared with that produced by more traditional sub-grid parametrizations. Large eddy simulation (LES) is used to simulate flows where the largest scales of turbulent motion are resolved, but the smallest scales are not resolved. LES has traditionally been used to study 3D turbulence, but recently it has also been applied to idealized 2D and quasi-geostrophic (QG) turbulence. The MOLES presented here are based on 2D and QG LES schemes.

  15. Estimating the expected value of partial perfect information in health economic evaluations using integrated nested Laplace approximation.

    PubMed

    Heath, Anna; Manolopoulou, Ioanna; Baio, Gianluca

    2016-10-15

    The Expected Value of Perfect Partial Information (EVPPI) is a decision-theoretic measure of the 'cost' of parametric uncertainty in decision making used principally in health economic decision making. Despite this decision-theoretic grounding, the uptake of EVPPI calculations in practice has been slow. This is in part due to the prohibitive computational time required to estimate the EVPPI via Monte Carlo simulations. However, recent developments have demonstrated that the EVPPI can be estimated by non-parametric regression methods, which have significantly decreased the computation time required to approximate the EVPPI. Under certain circumstances, high-dimensional Gaussian Process (GP) regression is suggested, but this can still be prohibitively expensive. Applying fast computation methods developed in spatial statistics using Integrated Nested Laplace Approximations (INLA) and projecting from a high-dimensional into a low-dimensional input space allows us to decrease the computation time for fitting these high-dimensional GP, often substantially. We demonstrate that the EVPPI calculated using our method for GP regression is in line with the standard GP regression method and that despite the apparent methodological complexity of this new method, R functions are available in the package BCEA to implement it simply and efficiently. © 2016 The Authors. Statistics in Medicine Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27189534

  16. Combining qualitative and quantitative spatial and temporal information in a hierarchical structure: Approximate reasoning for plan execution monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoebel, Louis J.

    1993-01-01

    The problem of plan generation (PG) and the problem of plan execution monitoring (PEM), including updating, queries, and resource-bounded replanning, have different reasoning and representation requirements. PEM requires the integration of qualitative and quantitative information. PEM is the receiving of data about the world in which a plan or agent is executing. The problem is to quickly determine the relevance of the data, the consistency of the data with respect to the expected effects, and if execution should continue. Only spatial and temporal aspects of the plan are addressed for relevance in this work. Current temporal reasoning systems are deficient in computational aspects or expressiveness. This work presents a hybrid qualitative and quantitative system that is fully expressive in its assertion language while offering certain computational efficiencies. In order to proceed, methods incorporating approximate reasoning using hierarchies, notions of locality, constraint expansion, and absolute parameters need be used and are shown to be useful for the anytime nature of PEM.

  17. Meso-scale imaging of composite materials

    SciTech Connect

    Grandin, R.; Gray, J.

    2015-03-31

    The performance of composite materials is controlled by the interaction between the individual components as well as the mechanical characteristics of the components themselves. Geometric structure on the meso-scale, where the length-scales are of the same order as the material granularity, plays a key role in controlling material performance and having a quantitative means of characterizing this structure is crucial in developing our understanding of NDE technique signatures of early damage states. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) provides an imaging capability which can resolve these structures for many composite materials. Coupling HRCT with three-dimensional physics-based image processing enables quantitative characterization of the meso-scale structure. Taking sequences of these damage states provides a means to structurally observe the damages evolution. We will discuss the limits of present 3DCT capability and challenges for improving this means to rapidly generate structural information of a composite and of the damage. In this presentation we will demonstrate the imaging capability of HRCT.

  18. Meso-scale machining capabilities and issues

    SciTech Connect

    BENAVIDES,GILBERT L.; ADAMS,DAVID P.; YANG,PIN

    2000-05-15

    Meso-scale manufacturing processes are bridging the gap between silicon-based MEMS processes and conventional miniature machining. These processes can fabricate two and three-dimensional parts having micron size features in traditional materials such as stainless steels, rare earth magnets, ceramics, and glass. Meso-scale processes that are currently available include, focused ion beam sputtering, micro-milling, micro-turning, excimer laser ablation, femto-second laser ablation, and micro electro discharge machining. These meso-scale processes employ subtractive machining technologies (i.e., material removal), unlike LIGA, which is an additive meso-scale process. Meso-scale processes have different material capabilities and machining performance specifications. Machining performance specifications of interest include minimum feature size, feature tolerance, feature location accuracy, surface finish, and material removal rate. Sandia National Laboratories is developing meso-scale electro-mechanical components, which require meso-scale parts that move relative to one another. The meso-scale parts fabricated by subtractive meso-scale manufacturing processes have unique tribology issues because of the variety of materials and the surface conditions produced by the different meso-scale manufacturing processes.

  19. Mesoscale flows and climate variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ólafsson, Haraldur; Pálmason, Bolli; Vary, Anne; Schettino, Camille; Thomas, Aurelien; Nína Petersen, Guðrún; Ágústsson, Hálfdán

    2016-04-01

    Thermally driven mesoscale flows, in particular the sea breeze, and their importance for the climate of a mid-latitude island is assessed by observations from Iceland and numerical simulations over idealized and real topography. Subsequently, an extended summertime period is simulated with surface conditions that correspond to current climate as well as surface conditions that are plausible in a future warmer climate with increased vegetation. A change in the albedo and the Bowen ratio results in changes in the sea breeze, leading to mean temperature changes whose magnitude is more than half the predicted temperature increase in the 21st Century by some GCMs.

  20. Probabilistic, meso-scale flood loss modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Botto, Anna; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno

    2016-04-01

    Flood risk analyses are an important basis for decisions on flood risk management and adaptation. However, such analyses are associated with significant uncertainty, even more if changes in risk due to global change are expected. Although uncertainty analysis and probabilistic approaches have received increased attention during the last years, they are still not standard practice for flood risk assessments and even more for flood loss modelling. State of the art in flood loss modelling is still the use of simple, deterministic approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel probabilistic, multi-variate flood loss models have been developed and validated on the micro-scale using a data-mining approach, namely bagging decision trees (Merz et al. 2013). In this presentation we demonstrate and evaluate the upscaling of the approach to the meso-scale, namely on the basis of land-use units. The model is applied in 19 municipalities which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany (Botto et al. submitted). The application of bagging decision tree based loss models provide a probability distribution of estimated loss per municipality. Validation is undertaken on the one hand via a comparison with eight deterministic loss models including stage-damage functions as well as multi-variate models. On the other hand the results are compared with official loss data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB). The results show, that uncertainties of loss estimation remain high. Thus, the significant advantage of this probabilistic flood loss estimation approach is that it inherently provides quantitative information about the uncertainty of the prediction. References: Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Lall, U. (2013): Multi-variate flood damage assessment: a tree-based data-mining approach. NHESS, 13(1), 53-64. Botto A, Kreibich H, Merz B, Schröter K (submitted) Probabilistic, multi-variable flood loss modelling on the meso-scale with BT-FLEMO. Risk Analysis.

  1. An approach for parameterizing mesoscale precipitating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Weissbluth, M.J.; Cotton, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    A cumulus parameterization laboratory has been described which uses a reference numerical model to fabricate, calibrate and verify a cumulus parameterization scheme suitable for use in mesoscale models. Key features of this scheme include resolution independence and the ability to provide hydrometeor source functions to the host model. Thus far, only convective scale drafts have been parameterized, limiting the use of the scheme to those models which can resolve the mesoscale circulations. As it stands, the scheme could probably be incorporated into models having a grid resolution greater than 50 km with results comparable to the existing schemes for the large-scale models. We propose, however, to quantify the mesoscale circulations through the use of the cumulus parameterization laboratory. The inclusion of these mesoscale drafts in the existing scheme will hopefully allow the correct parameterization of the organized mesoscale precipitating systems.

  2. An approach for parameterizing mesoscale precipitating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Weissbluth, M.J.; Cotton, W.R.

    1991-12-31

    A cumulus parameterization laboratory has been described which uses a reference numerical model to fabricate, calibrate and verify a cumulus parameterization scheme suitable for use in mesoscale models. Key features of this scheme include resolution independence and the ability to provide hydrometeor source functions to the host model. Thus far, only convective scale drafts have been parameterized, limiting the use of the scheme to those models which can resolve the mesoscale circulations. As it stands, the scheme could probably be incorporated into models having a grid resolution greater than 50 km with results comparable to the existing schemes for the large-scale models. We propose, however, to quantify the mesoscale circulations through the use of the cumulus parameterization laboratory. The inclusion of these mesoscale drafts in the existing scheme will hopefully allow the correct parameterization of the organized mesoscale precipitating systems.

  3. Variational mesoscale satellite data assimilation and initialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sasaki, Y. K.; Goerss, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    The problems of mesoscale satellite data assimilation were examined. Assimilation of satellite data to improve the forecasts made by mesoscale forecast models was undertaken. Assimilation of high resolution satellite derived temperature data into a mesoscale model with horizontal resolution of 50 to 60 km is reported. Unlike global assimilation, in which a small portion of the forecast model domain is subject to data insertion at virtually every time step, the mesoscale assimilation virtually all of the forecast model domain is subject to data insertion at one time step. The mesoscale problem lends itself naturally to intermittent data assimilation and the forecast model is reinitialized whenever a new satellite pass covers its domain with data. The satellite data assimilation as an initialization problem are discussed.

  4. Approximate spatial reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Soumitra

    1988-01-01

    A model for approximate spatial reasoning using fuzzy logic to represent the uncertainty in the environment is presented. Algorithms are developed which can be used to reason about spatial information expressed in the form of approximate linguistic descriptions similar to the kind of spatial information processed by humans. Particular attention is given to static spatial reasoning.

  5. Anisotropic Mesoscale Eddy Transport in Ocean General Circulation Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckinger, S. J.; Fox-Kemper, B.; Bachman, S.; Bryan, F.; Dennis, J.; Danabasoglu, G.

    2014-12-01

    Modern climate models are limited to coarse-resolution representations of large-scale ocean circulation that rely on parameterizations for mesoscale eddies. The effects of eddies are typically introduced by relating subgrid eddy fluxes to the resolved gradients of buoyancy or other tracers, where the proportionality is, in general, governed by an eddy transport tensor. The symmetric part of the tensor, which represents the diffusive effects of mesoscale eddies, is universally treated isotropically in general circulation models. Thus, only a single parameter, namely the eddy diffusivity, is used at each spatial and temporal location to impart the influence of mesoscale eddies on the resolved flow. However, the diffusive processes that the parameterization approximates, such as shear dispersion, potential vorticity barriers, oceanic turbulence, and instabilities, typically have strongly anisotropic characteristics. Generalizing the eddy diffusivity tensor for anisotropy extends the number of parameters to three: a major diffusivity, a minor diffusivity, and the principal axis of alignment. The Community Earth System Model (CESM) with the anisotropic eddy parameterization is used to test various choices for the newly introduced parameters, which are motivated by observations and the eddy transport tensor diagnosed from high resolution simulations. Simply setting the ratio of major to minor diffusivities to a value of five globally, while aligning the major axis along the flow direction, improves biogeochemical tracer ventilation and reduces global temperature and salinity biases. These effects can be improved even further by parameterizing the anisotropic transport mechanisms in the ocean.

  6. Mesoscale simulations of hydrodynamic squirmer interactions.

    PubMed

    Götze, Ingo O; Gompper, Gerhard

    2010-10-01

    The swimming behavior of self-propelled microorganisms is studied by particle-based mesoscale simulations. The simulation technique includes both hydrodynamics and thermal fluctuations that are both essential for the dynamics of microswimmers. The swimmers are modeled as squirmers, i.e., spherical objects with a prescribed tangential surface velocity, where the focus of thrust generation can be tuned from pushers to pullers. For passive squirmers (colloids), we show that the velocity autocorrelation function agrees quantitatively with the Boussinesq approximation. Single active squirmers show a persistent random-walk behavior, determined by forward motion, lateral diffusion, and orientational fluctuations, in agreement with theoretical predictions. For pairs of squirmers, which are initially swimming in parallel, we find an attraction for pushers and a repulsion for pullers, as expected. The hydrodynamic force between squirmer pairs is calculated as a function of the center-to-center distances d(cm) and is found to be consistent with a logarithmic distance dependence for d(cm) less than about two sphere diameters; here, the force is considerably stronger than expected from the far-field expansion. The dependence of the force strength on the asymmetry of the polar surface velocity is obtained. During the collision process, thermal fluctuations turn out to be very important and to strongly affect the postcollision velocity directions of both squirmers. PMID:21230327

  7. MESOSCALE SIMULATIONS OF POWDER COMPACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Lomov, Ilya; Fujino, Don; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin

    2009-12-28

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

  8. Mesoscale Simulations of Powder Compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomov, Ilya.; Fujino, Don; Antoun, Tarabay; Liu, Benjamin

    2009-12-01

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of shock compaction of metal and ceramic powders have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating a well-characterized shock compaction experiment of a porous ductile metal. Simulation results using the Steinberg material model and handbook values for solid 2024 aluminum showed good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not as well studied as metals, so a simple material model for solid ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powders have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. The numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as that measured experimentally using VISAR. The numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line as observed in experiments. We found that for good quantitative agreement with experiments 3D simulations are essential.

  9. Mesoscale poroelasticity of heterogeneous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monfared, Siavash; Laubie, Hadrien; Radjai, Farhang; Pellenq, Roland; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    Poroelastic behavior of heterogeneous media is revisited. Lattice Element Method (LEM) is used to model interaction between solid constituents due to a pressurized pore space. Exploring beyond mean-field based theories in continuum microporomechanics, local textural variations and its contribution to the global anisotropic poroelastic behavior of real multiphase porous media are captured. To this end, statistical distributions of mesoscale poroelastic coefficients from numerical simulations on X-ray microscopy scans of two different organic-rich shales with different microtextures are presented. The results are compared with predictions using mean-field based tools of continuum micromechanics. The textural dependency of strain localization and stress chain formation captured in this framework promises a powerful tool for modeling poroelastic response of complex porous composites and a path to incorporate local textural and elastic variations into a continuum description. Visiting Scientist, CNRS-MIT, MIT.

  10. a Mesoscale Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling System for Simulations of Topographically Induced Atmospheric Flow and Air Pollution Dispersion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boybeyi, Zafer

    A mesoscale atmospheric dispersion modeling system has been developed to investigate mesoscale circulations and associated air pollution dispersion, including effects of terrain topography, large water bodies and urban areas. The system is based on a three-dimensional mesoscale meteorological model coupled with two dispersion models (an Eulerian dispersion model and a Lagrangian particle dispersion model). The mesoscale model is hydrostatic and based on primitive equations formulated in a terrain-following coordinate system with a E-varepsilon turbulence closure scheme. The Eulerian dispersion model is based on numerical solution of the advection-diffusion equation to allow one to simulate releases of non-buoyant pollutants (especially from area and volume sources). The Lagrangian particle dispersion model allows one to simulate releases of buoyant pollutants from arbitrary sources (particularly from point and line sources). The air pollution dispersion models included in the system are driven by the meteorological information provided by the mesoscale model. Mesoscale atmospheric circulations associated with sea and lake breezes have been examined using the mesoscale model. A series of model sensitivity studies were performed to investigate the effects of different environmental parameters on these circulations. It was found that the spatial and temporal variation of the sea and lake breeze convergence zones and the associated convective activities depend to a large extent on the direction and the magnitude of the ambient wind. Dispersion of methyl isocyanate gas from the Bhopal accident was investigated using the mesoscale atmospheric dispersion modeling system. A series of numerical experiments were performed to investigate the possible role of the mesoscale circulations on this industrial gas episode. The temporal and spatial variations of the wind and turbulence fields were simulated with the mesoscale model. The dispersion characteristics of the accidental

  11. Simulation of elevated long-range plume transport using a mesoscale meteorological model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boybeyi, Zafer; Raman, Sethu

    A three-dimensional mesoscale meteorological model was used to construct a modeling system in order to investigate atmospheric dispersion in mesoscale flow fields. The mesoscale model was first coupled to a three-dimensional Monte Carlo (Lagrangian particle) dispersion model, and then an Eulerian dispersion model was embedded into the mesoscale model. Both the Eulerian model and the Monte Carlo model are based on the wind and turbulence fields simulated by the mesoscale model. The modeling system was then applied to the Tennessee Plume Study field experiments on 23 August 1978. The field experiments were basically designed to provide information on the dynamics of plume transport over long distances, and primarily targeted the plume from the Cumberland steam plant. Wind and turbulence fields were first simulated by the mesoscale model. The transport and diffusion of pollutants from the Cumberland steam plant were then simulated by the dispersion models, using these wind and turbulence fields. The results demonstrated that the modeling system generally performed satisfactorily, reproducing the trajectory and spread of the Cumberland plume.

  12. Mesoscale and synoptic scale transport of aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, G.T.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is presented of mesoscale and synoptic-scale (macroscale) aerosol transport as observed in recent air pollution field studies. Examples of mesoscale transport systems are discussed, including urban plumes, sea breezes, the mountain-valley wind cycle, and the urban-heat-island circulation. The synoptic-scale systems considered are migrating high- and low-pressure systems. Documented cases are reviewed of aerosol transport in the various mesoscale systems, aerosol accumulation and transport in high-pressure systems, and acid precipitation in low-pressure systems. The characteristics of the transported aerosols are identified, along with the chemical species that occur primarily in aerosols in the accumulation mode (particle diameters of 0.1-3 microns). It is shown that aerosol particles in the accumulation mode are the most important in terms of synoptic-scale and mesoscale transport and that such particles are primarily responsible for visible haze.

  13. Numerical Modelling of Mesoscale Atmospheric Dispersion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Michael D.

    Mesoscale atmospheric dispersion is more complicated than smaller-scale dispersion because the mean wind field can no longer be considered steady or horizontally homogeneous over mesoscale time and space scales. Wind shear also plays a more important role on the mesoscale, and horizontal dispersion can be enhanced and even dominated by vertical wind shear through either the simultaneous or delayed interaction of horizontal differential advection and vertical mixing over one or two diurnal periods. The CSU mesoscale atmospheric dispersion modelling system has been used in this study to simulate the transport and diffusion of a perfluorocarbon gas for episodic releases made during two North American mesoscale dispersion field experiments, the 1980 Great Plains tracer experiment and the 1983 Cross-Appalachian Tracer Experiment (CAPTEX). Ground -level and elevated tracer concentrations were measured out to distances of 600 km from the source in the first experiment and 1100 km in the second. The physiography of the two experimental domains was quite different, permitting isolation and examination of the roles of terrain forcing and differential advection in mesoscale atmospheric dispersion. Suites of numerical experiments of increasing complexity were carried out for both case studies. The experiments differed in the realism of their representation of both the synoptic-scale flow and the underlying terrain. The Great Plains nocturnal low-level jet played an important role in the first case while temporal changes in the synoptic -scale flow were very significant in the second case. The contributions of differential advection and mesoscale deformation to mesoscale dispersion dominated those of small-scale turbulent diffusion for both cases, and Pasquill's (1962) delayed-shear-enhancement mechanism for lateral dispersion was found to be particularly important. This study was also the first quantitative evaluation of the CSU mesoscale dispersion modelling system with

  14. Scalable posterior approximations for large-scale Bayesian inverse problems via likelihood-informed parameter and state reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Tiangang; Marzouk, Youssef; Willcox, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Two major bottlenecks to the solution of large-scale Bayesian inverse problems are the scaling of posterior sampling algorithms to high-dimensional parameter spaces and the computational cost of forward model evaluations. Yet incomplete or noisy data, the state variation and parameter dependence of the forward model, and correlations in the prior collectively provide useful structure that can be exploited for dimension reduction in this setting-both in the parameter space of the inverse problem and in the state space of the forward model. To this end, we show how to jointly construct low-dimensional subspaces of the parameter space and the state space in order to accelerate the Bayesian solution of the inverse problem. As a byproduct of state dimension reduction, we also show how to identify low-dimensional subspaces of the data in problems with high-dimensional observations. These subspaces enable approximation of the posterior as a product of two factors: (i) a projection of the posterior onto a low-dimensional parameter subspace, wherein the original likelihood is replaced by an approximation involving a reduced model; and (ii) the marginal prior distribution on the high-dimensional complement of the parameter subspace. We present and compare several strategies for constructing these subspaces using only a limited number of forward and adjoint model simulations. The resulting posterior approximations can rapidly be characterized using standard sampling techniques, e.g., Markov chain Monte Carlo. Two numerical examples demonstrate the accuracy and efficiency of our approach: inversion of an integral equation in atmospheric remote sensing, where the data dimension is very high; and the inference of a heterogeneous transmissivity field in a groundwater system, which involves a partial differential equation forward model with high dimensional state and parameters.

  15. Computational Modeling of Heterogeneous Reactive Materials at the Mesoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, Mel R.

    1999-06-01

    Nearly all energetic materials, including explosives, pyrotechnics, propellants and intermetallics are heterogeneous and typically consist of a mixture of crystalline constituents and binders. These materials exhibit distinctly different thermal/mechanical/chemical behavior than pure materials because microstructure introduces internal boundary effects at the mesoscale. For example, the threshold to reaction is known to be greatly influenced by changes in crystal morphology, size, defect content and particle distribution. Much of current work in computational modeling describes macroscale behavior based on continuum theory or microscopic/atomistic behavior using molecular dynamics methods. The mesoscale has not been as extensively studied yet it is the level that bridges continuum and atomistic scales. Shock physics analysis can now take advantage of new parallel computing machines to provide improved resolution of shock processes at the mesoscale. This presentation discusses three-dimensional numerical simulations of shock impact on a realistic ensemble of crystalline grains. Detailed wave fields are resolved including the effects of material strength, thermal dissipation and reaction. Numerical simulations demonstrate that rapid material distortion occurs at crystal boundaries and the localization of energy produces hot-spots due to the effects of shock focusing and plastic work as material flows into interstitial regions. These studies provide new insights into the micromechanical behavior of heterogeneous energetic materials strongly suggesting that initiation and reaction of shocked heterogeneous materials involve states distinctly different from single jump states. The recent enhancements in numerical modeling due to massively-parallel computing pose new challenges for the development of novel experimental capabilities that can provide the detailed information of appropriate material descriptions and interface conditions at the mesoscale.

  16. Experiments with the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) using the synthetic relative humidity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, Chia-Bo

    1994-01-01

    This study is intended to examine the impact of the synthetic relative humidity on the model simulation of mesoscale convective storm environment. The synthetic relative humidity is derived from the National Weather Services surface observations, and non-conventional sources including aircraft, radar, and satellite observations. The latter sources provide the mesoscale data of very high spatial and temporal resolution. The synthetic humidity data is used to complement the National Weather Services rawinsonde observations. It is believed that a realistic representation of initial moisture field in a mesoscale model is critical for the model simulation of thunderstorm development, and the formation of non-convective clouds as well as their effects on the surface energy budget. The impact will be investigated based on a real-data case study using the mesoscale atmospheric simulation system developed by Mesoscale Environmental Simulations Operations, Inc. The mesoscale atmospheric simulation system consists of objective analysis and initialization codes, and the coarse-mesh and fine-mesh dynamic prediction models. Both models are a three dimensional, primitive equation model containing the essential moist physics for simulating and forecasting mesoscale convective processes in the atmosphere. The modeling system is currently implemented at the Applied Meteorology Unit, Kennedy Space Center. Two procedures involving the synthetic relative humidity to define the model initial moisture fields are considered. It is proposed to perform several short-range (approximately 6 hours) comparative coarse-mesh simulation experiments with and without the synthetic data. They are aimed at revealing the model sensitivities should allow us both to refine the specification of the observational requirements, and to develop more accurate and efficient objective analysis schemes. The goal is to advance the MASS (Mesoscal Atmospheric Simulation System) modeling expertise so that the model

  17. A mesoscale connectome of the mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seung Wook; Harris, Julie A; Ng, Lydia; Winslow, Brent; Cain, Nicholas; Mihalas, Stefan; Wang, Quanxin; Lau, Chris; Kuan, Leonard; Henry, Alex M; Mortrud, Marty T; Ouellette, Benjamin; Nguyen, Thuc Nghi; Sorensen, Staci A; Slaughterbeck, Clifford R; Wakeman, Wayne; Li, Yang; Feng, David; Ho, Anh; Nicholas, Eric; Hirokawa, Karla E; Bohn, Phillip; Joines, Kevin M; Peng, Hanchuan; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Phillips, John W; Hohmann, John G; Wohnoutka, Paul; Gerfen, Charles R; Koch, Christof; Bernard, Amy; Dang, Chinh; Jones, Allan R; Zeng, Hongkui

    2014-04-10

    Comprehensive knowledge of the brain's wiring diagram is fundamental for understanding how the nervous system processes information at both local and global scales. However, with the singular exception of the C. elegans microscale connectome, there are no complete connectivity data sets in other species. Here we report a brain-wide, cellular-level, mesoscale connectome for the mouse. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas uses enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-expressing adeno-associated viral vectors to trace axonal projections from defined regions and cell types, and high-throughput serial two-photon tomography to image the EGFP-labelled axons throughout the brain. This systematic and standardized approach allows spatial registration of individual experiments into a common three dimensional (3D) reference space, resulting in a whole-brain connectivity matrix. A computational model yields insights into connectional strength distribution, symmetry and other network properties. Virtual tractography illustrates 3D topography among interconnected regions. Cortico-thalamic pathway analysis demonstrates segregation and integration of parallel pathways. The Allen Mouse Brain Connectivity Atlas is a freely available, foundational resource for structural and functional investigations into the neural circuits that support behavioural and cognitive processes in health and disease. PMID:24695228

  18. Mesoscale Variations of Tropospheric Aerosols(.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Theodore L.; Charlson, Robert J.; Winker, David M.; Ogren, John A.; Holmén, Kim

    2003-01-01

    Tropospheric aerosols are calculated to cause global-scale changes in the earth's heat balance, but these forcings are space/time integrals over highly variable quantities. Accurate quantification of these forcings will require an unprecedented synergy among satellite, airborne, and surface-based observations, as well as models. This study considers one aspect of achieving this synergy-the need to treat aerosol variability in a consistent and realistic way. This need creates a requirement to rationalize the differences in spatiotemporal resolution and coverage among the various observational and modeling approaches. It is shown, based on aerosol optical data from diverse regions, that mesoscale variability (specifically, for horizontal scales of 40-400 km and temporal scales of 2-48 h) is a common and perhaps universal feature of lower-tropospheric aerosol light extinction. Such variation is below the traditional synoptic or `airmass' scale (where the aerosol is often assumed to be essentially homogeneous except for plumes from point sources) and below the scales that are readily resolved by chemical transport models. The present study focuses on documenting this variability. Possible physical causes and practical implications for coordinated observational strategies are also discussed.

  19. Mesoscale acid deposition modeling studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Proctor, F. H.; Zack, John W.; Karyampudi, V. Mohan; Price, P. E.; Bousquet, M. D.; Coats, G. D.

    1989-01-01

    The work performed in support of the EPA/DOE MADS (Mesoscale Acid Deposition) Project included the development of meteorological data bases for the initialization of chemistry models, the testing and implementation of new planetary boundary layer parameterization schemes in the MASS model, the simulation of transport and precipitation for MADS case studies employing the MASS model, and the use of the TASS model in the simulation of cloud statistics and the complex transport of conservative tracers within simulated cumuloform clouds. The work performed in support of the NASA/FAA Wind Shear Program included the use of the TASS model in the simulation of the dynamical processes within convective cloud systems, the analyses of the sensitivity of microburst intensity and general characteristics as a function of the atmospheric environment within which they are formed, comparisons of TASS model microburst simulation results to observed data sets, and the generation of simulated wind shear data bases for use by the aviation meteorological community in the evaluation of flight hazards caused by microbursts.

  20. Mesoscale Simulations of Power Compaction

    SciTech Connect

    Lomov, I; Fujino, D; Antoun, T; Liu, B

    2009-08-06

    Mesoscale 3D simulations of metal and ceramic powder compaction in shock waves have been performed with an Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The approach was validated by simulating shock compaction of porous well-characterized ductile metal using Steinberg material model. Results of the simulations with handbook values for parameters of solid 2024 aluminum have good agreement with experimental compaction curves and wave profiles. Brittle ceramic materials are not so well studied as metals, so material model for ceramic (tungsten carbide) has been fitted to shock compression experiments of non-porous samples and further calibrated to match experimental compaction curves. Direct simulations of gas gun experiments with ceramic powder have been performed and showed good agreement with experimental data. Numerical shock wave profile has same character and thickness as measured with VISAR. Numerical results show reshock states above the single-shock Hugoniot line also observed in experiments. They found that to receive good quantitative agreement with experiment it is essential to perform 3D simulations.

  1. Investigating an Automated Method to Explore Mesoscale Convective Complexes in West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitehall, Kim Dionne

    Mesoscale convective complexes are convectively driven, high impact weather systems with durations of approximately 10-12 hours, and are large contributors to daily and monthly rainfall totals. In West Africa, approximately 40 mesoscale convective complexes contribute an estimated one-quarter of the total rainfall amounts between July and September annually. As such, an understanding of the lifecycle, characteristics, frequency, and seasonality of these weather features is important for climate studies, agricultural and hydrological studies, and disaster management. Identification criteria of mesoscale convective complexes exist for infrared satellite data, but the spatial expanse and the spatio-temporal variability of the convective characteristics of these mesoscale convective complexes make rainfall characterization difficult, even in dense networks of radars and / or surface gauges. Hence, fully automated methods are required to explore mesoscale convective complexes in long-term infrared satellite data, and to determine their characteristics from other datasets, such as precipitation rate satellite datasets. Automated identification methods of mesoscale convective complexes are based on forward- and / or backward-in-time spatial-temporal analyses of infrared satellite data, and usually incorporate a manual component to verify the features and / or characterize the associated precipitation. These existing identification and precipitation characterization methods are not readily transferable to voluminous data or other satellite-derived datasets, thus hindering comprehensive studies of these features, both at weather and climate timescales. In recognizing these limitations and the growing volume of satellite data, this study explores the applicability of graph theory to creating a fully automated method for identifying mesoscale convective systems in satellite datasets. The framework for such a method is provided in this work. The results indicate that applying

  2. Active micromachines: Microfluidics powered by mesoscale turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Thampi, Sumesh P.; Doostmohammadi, Amin; Shendruk, Tyler N.; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Dense active matter, from bacterial suspensions and microtubule bundles driven by motor proteins to cellular monolayers and synthetic Janus particles, is characterized by mesoscale turbulence, which is the emergence of chaotic flow structures. By immersing an ordered array of symmetric rotors in an active fluid, we introduce a microfluidic system that exploits spontaneous symmetry breaking in mesoscale turbulence to generate work. The lattice of rotors self-organizes into a spin state where neighboring discs continuously rotate in permanent alternating directions due to combined hydrodynamic and elastic effects. Our virtual prototype demonstrates a new research direction for the design of micromachines powered by the nematohydrodynamic properties of active turbulence. PMID:27419229

  3. Active micromachines: Microfluidics powered by mesoscale turbulence.

    PubMed

    Thampi, Sumesh P; Doostmohammadi, Amin; Shendruk, Tyler N; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M

    2016-07-01

    Dense active matter, from bacterial suspensions and microtubule bundles driven by motor proteins to cellular monolayers and synthetic Janus particles, is characterized by mesoscale turbulence, which is the emergence of chaotic flow structures. By immersing an ordered array of symmetric rotors in an active fluid, we introduce a microfluidic system that exploits spontaneous symmetry breaking in mesoscale turbulence to generate work. The lattice of rotors self-organizes into a spin state where neighboring discs continuously rotate in permanent alternating directions due to combined hydrodynamic and elastic effects. Our virtual prototype demonstrates a new research direction for the design of micromachines powered by the nematohydrodynamic properties of active turbulence. PMID:27419229

  4. Chemistry on the mesoscale: Modeling and measurement issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Anne; Pleim, John; Walcek, Christopher; Ching, Jason; Binkowski, Frank; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Dickerson, Russell; Pickering, Kenneth

    1993-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM) -- a coupled chemistry/mesoscale model; convection in RADM; unresolved issues for mesoscale modeling with chemistry -- nonprecipitating clouds; unresolved issues for mesoscale modeling with chemistry -- aerosols; tracer studies with Goddard Cumulus Ensemble Model (GCEM); field observations of trace gas transport in convection; and photochemical consequences of convection.

  5. Anisotropic mesoscale eddy transport in ocean general circulation models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reckinger, Scott; Fox-Kemper, Baylor; Bachman, Scott; Bryan, Frank; Dennis, John; Danabasoglu, Gokhan

    2014-11-01

    In modern climate models, the effects of oceanic mesoscale eddies are introduced by relating subgrid eddy fluxes to the resolved gradients of buoyancy or other tracers, where the proportionality is, in general, governed by an eddy transport tensor. The symmetric part of the tensor, which represents the diffusive effects of mesoscale eddies, is universally treated isotropically. However, the diffusive processes that the parameterization approximates, such as shear dispersion and potential vorticity barriers, typically have strongly anisotropic characteristics. Generalizing the eddy diffusivity tensor for anisotropy extends the number of parameters from one to three: major diffusivity, minor diffusivity, and alignment. The Community Earth System Model (CESM) with the anisotropic eddy parameterization is used to test various choices for the parameters, which are motivated by observations and the eddy transport tensor diagnosed from high resolution simulations. Simply setting the ratio of major to minor diffusivities to a value of five globally, while aligning the major axis along the flow direction, improves biogeochemical tracer ventilation and reduces temperature and salinity biases. These effects can be improved by parameterizing the oceanic anisotropic transport mechanisms.

  6. The Role of Mesoscale Variability on Plankton Dynamics in the North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcon, Veronique C.; Oschlies, Andreas; Doney, Scott C.; McGillicuddy, Dennis J., Jr.; Waniek, Joanna

    2001-01-01

    The intensive field observational phase of JGOFS in the North Atlantic Ocean has shown the importance of oceanic mesoscale variability on biogeochemical cycles and on the strength of the ocean biological pump. Mesoscale physical dynamics govern the major time/space scales of bulk biological variability (biomass, production, and export). Mesoscale eddies seem to have a strong impact on the ecosystem structure and functioning, but observational evidence is rather limited. For the signature of the mesoscale features to exist in the ecosystem, the comparison of temporal scales of formation and evolution of mesoscale features and reaction of the ecosystem is a key factor. Biological patterns are driven by active changes in biological source and sink terms rather than simply by passive turbulent mixing. A first modelling assessment of the regional balances between horizontal and vertical eddy-induced nutrient supplies in the euphotic zone shows that the horizontal transport predominates over the vertical route in the subtropical gyre, whereas the reverse holds true for the other biogeochemical provinces of the North Atlantic. Presently, despite some difference in numbers, the net impact of modelled eddies yields an enhancement of the biological productivity in most provinces of the North Atlantic Ocean. Key issues remaining include variation on the mesoscale of subsurface particle and dissolved organic matter remineralization, improved knowledge of the ecological response to patterns of variability, synopticity in mesoscale surveys along with refining measures of biogeochemical time/space variability. Eventual success of assimilation of in situ and satellite data, still in its infancy in coupled physical/biogeochemical models, will be crucial to achieve JGOFS synthesis in answering which data are most informative, standing stocks or rates, and which ones are relevant. Depending on which end of the spectrum quantification of the effect of mesoscale features on production

  7. The Role of Mesoscale Variability on Plankton Dynamics in the North Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcon, Veronique, C.; Oschlies, Andreas; Doney, Scott C.; Mcgillicuddy, Dennis

    2002-01-01

    The intensive field observational phase of JGOFS in the North Atlantic Ocean has shown the importance of oceanic mesoscale variability on biogeochemical cycles and on the strength of the ocean biological pump. Mesoscale physical dynamics govern the major time/space scales of bulk biological variability (biomass, production and export). Mesoscale eddies seem to have a strong impact on the ecosystem structure and functioning, but observational evidence is rather limited. For the signature of the mesoscale features to exist in the ecosystem, the comparison of temporal scales of formation and evolution of mesoscale features and reaction of the ecosystem is a key factor. Biological patterns are driven by active changes in biological source and sink terms rather than simply by passive turbulent mixing. A first modelling assessment of the regional balances between horizontal and vertical eddy-induced nutrient supplies in the euphotic zone shows that the horizontal transport predominates over the vertical route in the subtropical gyre, whereas the reverse holds true for the other biogeochemical provinces of the North Atlantic. Presently. despite some difference in numbers, the net impact of modelled eddies yields an enhancement of the biological productivity in most provinces of the North Atlantic Ocean. Key issues remaining include variation on the mesoscale of subsurface particle and dissolved organic matter remineralization, improved knowledge of the ecological response to patterns of variability, synopticity in mesoscale surveys along with refining measures of biogeochemical time/space variability. Eventual success of assimilation of in situ and satellite data, still in its infancy in coupled physical/biogeochemical models, will be crucial to achieve JGOFS synthesis in answering which data are most informative, standing stocks or rates, and which ones are relevant. Depending on which end of the spectrum quantification of the effect of mesoscale features on production

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF MESOSCALE AIR QUALITY SIMULATION MODELS. VOLUME 6. USER'S GUIDE TO MESOPAC (MESOSCALE METEOROLOGY PACKAGE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    MESOPAC is a mesoscale meteorological preprocessor program; it is designed to provide meteorological data to regional-scale air quality simulation models. Radiosonde data routinely available from National Weather Service (NWS) radiosonde ('upper air') and surface stations are use...

  9. Evaluation of Mesoscale Model Phenomenological Verification Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Winifred

    2006-01-01

    Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group, 45th Weather Squadron, and National Weather Service in Melbourne, FL use mesoscale numerical weather prediction model output in creating their operational forecasts. These models aid in forecasting weather phenomena that could compromise the safety of launch, landing, and daily ground operations and must produce reasonable weather forecasts in order for their output to be useful in operations. Considering the importance of model forecasts to operations, their accuracy in forecasting critical weather phenomena must be verified to determine their usefulness. The currently-used traditional verification techniques involve an objective point-by-point comparison of model output and observations valid at the same time and location. The resulting statistics can unfairly penalize high-resolution models that make realistic forecasts of a certain phenomena, but are offset from the observations in small time and/or space increments. Manual subjective verification can provide a more valid representation of model performance, but is time-consuming and prone to personal biases. An objective technique that verifies specific meteorological phenomena, much in the way a human would in a subjective evaluation, would likely produce a more realistic assessment of model performance. Such techniques are being developed in the research community. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) was tasked to conduct a literature search to identify phenomenological verification techniques being developed, determine if any are ready to use operationally, and outline the steps needed to implement any operationally-ready techniques into the Advanced Weather Information Processing System (AWIPS). The AMU conducted a search of all literature on the topic of phenomenological-based mesoscale model verification techniques and found 10 different techniques in various stages of development. Six of the techniques were developed to verify precipitation forecasts, one

  10. NESTED GRID MESOSCALE ATMOSPHERIC CHEMISTRY MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nested grid version of the Regional Acid Deposition Model (RADM) has been developed. he horizontal grid interval size of the nested model is 3 times smaller than that of RADM (80/3 km 26.7 km). herefore the nested model is better able to simulate mesoscale atmospheric processes...

  11. Mesoscale eddies transport deep-sea sediments

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanwei; Liu, Zhifei; Zhao, Yulong; Wang, Wenguang; Li, Jianru; Xu, Jingping

    2014-01-01

    Mesoscale eddies, which contribute to long-distance water mass transport and biogeochemical budget in the upper ocean, have recently been taken into assessment of the deep-sea hydrodynamic variability. However, how such eddies influence sediment movement in the deepwater environment has not been explored. Here for the first time we observed deep-sea sediment transport processes driven by mesoscale eddies in the northern South China Sea via a full-water column mooring system located at 2100 m water depth. Two southwestward propagating, deep-reaching anticyclonic eddies passed by the study site during January to March 2012 and November 2012 to January 2013, respectively. Our multiple moored instruments recorded simultaneous or lagging enhancement of suspended sediment concentration with full-water column velocity and temperature anomalies. We interpret these suspended sediments to have been trapped and transported from the southwest of Taiwan by the mesoscale eddies. The net near-bottom southwestward sediment transport by the two events is estimated up to one million tons. Our study highlights the significance of surface-generated mesoscale eddies on the deepwater sedimentary dynamic process. PMID:25089558

  12. Modelling granite migration by mesoscale pervasive flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitch, A. M.; Weinberg, R. F.

    2002-06-01

    Mesoscale pervasive magma migration leads to granite injection complexes, common in hot crustal terranes. Pervasive migration is limited by magma freezing when intruding cold country rock. Here, we explore numerically the feedback mechanism between magma intrusion and heating of the country rock, which allows younger intrusive batches to reach increasingly shallower/cooler levels. This process relies on the higher solidus temperature of a rock compared to that of its melt, once melt is segregated. We define the 'free-ride layer' as the region above the melt source, where magma may freely migrate because rock temperature is above melt solidus. The top of the free-ride layer, which corresponds to the melt solidus ( TS) isotherm, is at the 'limiting depth', zS. After magma passes through the free-ride layer, the magma 'front' is always at the limiting depth. We modeled the thickening and heating of the crust above the source as melt at its liquidus ( TL) intrudes it pervasively from below. We found that: (a) magma quickly warms crust below zS to about TL, forming a step in temperature at zS; (b) the front ( zS) moves up through the crust as more magma is intruded; (c) as magma is emplaced at the front, a mingled layer of about half magma half crust forms below it, so that the total rise of the front corresponds approximately to half of the thickness of magma added to the free-ride layer; (d) the rate of rise of the front depends on the temperature difference between crust and TL, and slows down as the magma front rises; (e) for most reasonable intrusion rates and volumes, the crust above zS feels little influence of the intrusion, because the diffusion time scale is much smaller than the rise rate of the front. In summary, pervasive migration is an efficient way of heating the lower to middle crust, and can result in an injection complex several kilometers thick, consisting of about half magma and half original crust.

  13. Mesoscale constitutive modeling of non-crystallizing filled elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harish, Ajay B.; Wriggers, Peter; Jungk, Juliane; Hojdis, Nils; Recker, Carla

    2016-04-01

    Elastomers are exceptional materials owing to their ability to undergo large deformations before failure. However, due to their very low stiffness, they are not always suitable for industrial applications. Addition of filler particles provides reinforcing effects and thus enhances the material properties that render them more versatile for applications like tyres etc. However, deformation behavior of filled polymers is accompanied by several nonlinear effects like Mullins and Payne effect. To this day, the physical and chemical changes resulting in such nonlinear effect remain an active area of research. In this work, we develop a heterogeneous (or multiphase) constitutive model at the mesoscale explicitly considering filler particle aggregates, elastomeric matrix and their mechanical interaction through an approximate interface layer. The developed constitutive model is used to demonstrate cluster breakage, also, as one of the possible sources for Mullins effect observed in non-crystallizing filled elastomers.

  14. Mesoscale crystallization of calcium phosphate nanostructures in protein (casein) micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thachepan, Surachai; Li, Mei; Mann, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    the casein micelles, as well as a possible synergistic effect associated with the multi-protein nature of the native aggregates, could account for the marked inhibition in mesoscale crystallization observed in the casein micelles compared with the single-component β-casein constructs. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Particle size histograms, TEM, EDX and electron diffraction data. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00158a

  15. EXPERIMENTAL AND MODEL-COMPUTED AREA AVERAGED VERTICAL PROFILES OF WIND SPEED FOR EVALUATION OF MESOSCALE URBAN CANOPY SCHEMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous urban canopy schemes have recently been developed for mesoscale models in order to approximate the drag and turbulent production effects of a city on the air flow. However, little data exists by which to evaluate the efficacy of the schemes since "area-averaged&quo...

  16. Technique for information retrieval using enhanced latent semantic analysis generating rank approximation matrix by factorizing the weighted morpheme-by-document matrix

    DOEpatents

    Chew, Peter A; Bader, Brett W

    2012-10-16

    A technique for information retrieval includes parsing a corpus to identify a number of wordform instances within each document of the corpus. A weighted morpheme-by-document matrix is generated based at least in part on the number of wordform instances within each document of the corpus and based at least in part on a weighting function. The weighted morpheme-by-document matrix separately enumerates instances of stems and affixes. Additionally or alternatively, a term-by-term alignment matrix may be generated based at least in part on the number of wordform instances within each document of the corpus. At least one lower rank approximation matrix is generated by factorizing the weighted morpheme-by-document matrix and/or the term-by-term alignment matrix.

  17. Influence of Mesoscale Eddies on New Production in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGillicuddy , Dennis J., Jr.; Robinson, A. R.; Siegel, D. A.; Jannasch, H. W.; Johnson, R.; Dickey, T. D.; McNeil, J.; Michaels, A. F.; Knap, A. H.

    1998-01-01

    It is problematic that geochemical estimates of new production - that fraction of total primary production in surface waters fueled by externally supplied nutrients - in oligotrophic waters of the open ocean surpass that which can be sustained by the traditionally accepted mechanisms of nutrient supply. In the case of the Sargasso Sea, for example, these mechanisms account for less than half of the annual nutrient requirement indicated by new production estimates based on three independent transient-tracer techniques. Specifically, approximately one-quarter to one-third of the annual nutrient requirement can be supplied by entrainment into the mixed layer during wintertime convection, with minor contributions from mixing in the thermocline and wind-driven transport (the potentially important role of nitrogen fixation - for which estimates vary by an order of magnitude in this region - is excluded from this budget). Here we present four lines of evidence - eddy-resolving model simulations, high-resolution observations from moored instrumentation, shipboard surveys, and satellite data - which suggest that the vertical flux of nutrients induced by the dynamics of mesoscale eddies is sufficient to balance the nutrient budget in the Sargasso Sea. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Modeling mesoscale circulation of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korotenko, K. A.

    2015-11-01

    An eddy-resolving (1/30)° version of the DieCAST low-dissipative model, adapted to the Black Sea circulation, is presented. Under mean climatological forcing, the model realistically reproduces major dominant large-scale and mesoscale structures of seasonal sea circulation, including the Rim Current, coastal anticyclonic eddies, mushroom currents, etc. Due to its extremely low dissipation and high resolution, the model makes it possible to trace the development of the baroclinic instability along the Turkish and Caucasian coasts, reproduce mesoscale structures generated by this mechanism, and assess the scales of these structures. The model also realistically reproduces short-term effects of bora winds on the evolution of subsurface layer structures.

  19. Mesoscale cloud phenomena observed by LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ormsby, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Examples of certain mesoscale cloud features - jet cirrus, eddies/vortices, cloud banding, and wave clouds - were collected from LANDSAT imagery and placed into Mason's four groups of causes of cloud formation based on the mechanism of vertical motion which produces condensation. These groups are as follows: (1) layer clouds formed by widespread regular ascent; (2) layer clouds caused by irregular stirring motions; (3) convective clouds; and (4) clouds formed by orographic disturbances. These mechanisms explain general cloud formation. Once formed, other forces may play a role in the deformation of a cloud or cloud mass into unusual and unique meso- and microscale patterns. Each example presented is followed by a brief discussion describing the synoptic situation, and some inference into the formation and occurrence of the more salient features. No major attempt was made to discuss in detail the meteorological and topographic interplay producing these mesoscale features.

  20. Mesoscale wake clouds in Skylab pictures.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujita, T. T.; Tecson, J. J.

    1974-01-01

    The recognition of cloud patterns formed in the wake of orographic obstacles was investigated using pictures from Skylab, for the purpose of estimating atmospheric motions. The existence of ship-wake-type wave clouds in contrast to vortex sheets were revealed during examination of the pictures, and an attempt was made to characterize the pattern of waves as well as the transition between waves and vortices. Examples of mesoscale cloud patterns which were analyzed photogrammetrically and meteorologically are presented.

  1. The mesoscale and regional freshwater flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, A. L.; Giulivi, C. F.

    2012-12-01

    The closer we look at the ocean, with improved instrumentation and models, the less it looks like the familiar 'textbook' view of overly smoothed maps of SST and SSS, with ocean scale circulation gyres, and more of a jumble of a westward parade of mesoscale features. The question arises: what role does the mesoscale play in compensating the air-sea flux of heat and freshwater? Here we focus on the freshwater balance within the salty North Atlantic subtropics regime, where the annual evaporation minus precipitation (E-P) is over 1 m/year. A traditional view is that the required quasi-steady state ocean freshwater inflow is derived from the wind-driven circulation and the associated shallow meridional overturning circulation. Here we evaluate if the mesoscale 'eddy' field, may stir into the subtropical regime a significant share of the needed freshwater. The Voluntary Observing Ships (VOS) data provide an overview of the SSS seasonal cycle of the Atlantic subtropical regime. While E-P is always positive, greater in January-July, minimum in October, the SSS displays a maximum in October, minimum occurs in April. It is hypothesized that the lower SSS of the winter/spring period marks increased winter freshwater flux by meso-scale activity. While the eddy freshwater flux can be estimated from the Rapid thermohaline and velocity data sections near 24.5°N, it is the meridional convergence of the eddy freshwater flux that compensates the regional E-P. We use the SODA output, which assimilates the VOS and Rapid data, to estimate the eddy freshwater flux convergence. Our preliminary assessment is that the eddy flux convergence does play a major role in closing the seasonal freshwater cycle of the North Atlantic surface layer.

  2. A history of mesoscale model development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudhia, Jimy

    2014-01-01

    The development of atmospheric mesoscale models from their early origins in the 1970's until the present day is described. Evolution has occurred in dynamical and physics representations in these models. The dynamics has had to change from hydrostatic to fully nonhydrostatic equations to handle the finer scales that have become possible in the last few decades with advancing computer power, which has enabled real-time forecasting to go to finer grid sizes. Meanwhile the physics has also become more sophisticated than the initial representations of the major processes associated with the surface, boundary layer, radiation, clouds and convection. As resolutions have become finer, mesoscale models have had to change paradigms associated with assumptions related to what is considered sub-grid scale needing parameterization, and what is resolved well enough to be explicitly handled by the dynamics. This first occurred with cumulus parameterization as real-time forecast models became able to represent individual updrafts, and is now starting to occur in the boundary layer as future forecast models may be able resolve individual thermals. Beyond that, scientific research has provided a greater understanding of detailed microphysical and land-surface processes that are important to aspects of weather prediction, and these parameterizations have been developing complexity at a steady rate. This paper can just give a perspective of these developments in the broad field of research associated with mesoscale atmospheric model development.

  3. Southern Hemisphere strong polar mesoscale cyclones in high-resolution datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezza, Alexandre; Sadler, Katherine; Uotila, Petteri; Vihma, Timo; Mesquita, Michel D. S.; Reid, Phil

    2015-12-01

    Mesoscale cyclones are small low-pressure systems (usually <500 km in radius) that often appear embedded in synoptic structures. These events can be weak and short lived or vigorous and destructive. Here we use an automatic tracking scheme to investigate two subsets of Southern Hemisphere mesoscale cyclones that are strong and have the potential to cause damage, namely "polar lows" (i.e., strong and short lived) and "explosive cyclones" (i.e., rapid intensification but not necessarily short lived). A short climatology (2009-2012) is obtained by using high resolution (0.5°) Antarctic Mesoscale Prediction System (AMPS) mean sea level pressure. The results show a significant improvement of spatial detail compared to the 0.75° resolution ERA-interim dataset, with a total count approximately 46 % higher in AMPS. The subset of mesoscale cyclones that are explosive is small, with a total genesis number of about 13 % that of polar lows. In addition, only about 1 % of the polar lows are explosive, suggesting that cyclones that undergo rapid intensification tend to become larger longer lived (and hence are no longer regarded as polar lows). Mesoscale cyclones are more frequent in winter, with a maximum concentration around the Antarctic but also occurring as far north as Tasmania and New Zealand. Analysis of sensible heat flux and sea ice extent anomalies during the genesis days shows that there is a large spread of genesis points over both positive and negative flux anomalies in winter, with a somewhat random pattern in the other seasons.

  4. Relaxation processes for internal waves in mesoscale flow

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Kenneth M.

    1983-01-01

    A dynamical “test-wave” model has been developed to study transport phenomena within oceanic internal wave fields. This model is extended here to describe effects of a mesoscale flow field on internal wave transport. Previous work with weak-interaction perturbation theory has suggested a substantial enhancement due to mesoscale currents. Extension to the strong-interaction regime in the present paper suggests a relatively small effect due to mesoscale interactions. PMID:16593278

  5. On the interactions between planetary geostrophy and mesoscale eddies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grooms, Ian; Julien, Keith; Fox-Kemper, Baylor

    2011-04-01

    Multiscale asymptotics are used to derive three systems of equations connecting the planetary geostrophic (PG) equations for gyre-scale flow to a quasigeostrophic (QG) equation set for mesoscale eddies. Pedlosky (1984), following similar analysis, found eddy buoyancy fluxes to have only a small effect on the large-scale flow; however, numerical simulations disagree. While the impact of eddies is relatively small in most regions, in keeping with Pedlosky's result, eddies have a significant effect on the mean flow in the vicinity of strong, narrow currents. First, the multiple-scales analysis of Pedlosky is reviewed and amplified. Novel results of this analysis include new multiple-scales models connecting large-scale PG equations to sets of QG eddy equations. However, only introducing anisotropic scaling of the large-scale coordinates allows us to derive a model with strong two-way coupling between the QG eddies and the PG mean flow. This finding reconciles the analysis with simulations, viz. that strong two-way coupling is observed in the vicinity of anisotropic features of the mean flow like boundary currents and jets. The relevant coupling terms are shown to be eddy buoyancy fluxes. Using the Gent-McWilliams parameterization to approximate these fluxes allows solution of the PG equations with closed tracer fluxes in a closed domain, which is not possible without mesoscale eddy (or other small-scale) effects. The boundary layer width is comparable to an eddy mixing length when the typical eddy velocity is taken to be the long Rossby wave phase speed, which is the same result found by Fox-Kemper and Ferrari (2009) in a reduced gravity layer.

  6. Individual nodeʼs contribution to the mesoscale of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimm, Florian; Borge-Holthoefer, Javier; Wessel, Niels; Kurths, Jürgen; Zamora-López, Gorka

    2014-12-01

    The analysis of complex networks is devoted to the statistical characterization of the topology of graphs at different scales of organization in order to understand their functionality. While the modular structure of networks has become an essential element to better apprehend their complexity, the efforts to characterize the mesoscale of networks have focused on the identification of the modules rather than describing the mesoscale in an informative manner. Here we propose a framework to characterize the position every node takes within the modular configuration of complex networks and to evaluate their function accordingly. For illustration, we apply this framework to a set of synthetic networks, empirical neural networks, and to the transcriptional regulatory network of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We find that the architecture of both neuronal and transcriptional networks are optimized for the processing of multisensory information with the coexistence of well-defined modules of specialized components and the presence of hubs conveying information from and to the distinct functional domains.

  7. Mesoscale Simulations of CRYSTAL-FACE 23 July 2002 Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starr, David; Lin, Ruei-Fong; Lare, Andrew; Demoz, Belay; Rickenbach, Thomas; Wang, Dong-Hai; Li, Li-Hua; Arnold, G. Thomas; Wang, Yan-Sen

    2004-01-01

    A key objective of the Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) is to understand the relationships between properties of tropical convective cloud systems and the lifecycle of the extended cirrus anvils they produce. We report here on a case study of 23 July 2002 where a line of land-based convective storms was generated between Lake Okeechobee and the Florida east coast as a result of complex interactions between lake and sea breeze fronts and outflow boundaries. A central goal of this study is to develop a description of convective input to the anvil system and to quantify the ongoing dynamical forcing of anvil processes by mesoscale and large-scale dynamics. This information is then used to force high-resolution cloud simulations with a model that explicitly resolves cloud microphysical processes (bin model) for study of cirrus anvil microphysical development.

  8. Mesoscale polycrystal calculations of damage in spallation in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Tonks, Davis L; Bingert, John F; Livescu, Veronica; Luo, Shengnian; Bronkhorst, C A

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this project is to produce a damage model for spallation in metals informed by the polycrystalline grain structure at the mesoscale. Earlier damage models addressed the continuwn macroscale in which these effects were averaged out. In this work we focus on cross sections from recovered samples examined with EBSD (electron backscattered diffraction), which reveal crystal grain orientations and voids. We seek to understand the loading histories of specific sample regions by meshing up the crystal grain structure of these regions and simulating the stress, strain, and damage histories in our hydro code, FLAG. The stresses and strain histories are the fundamental drivers of damage and must be calculated. The calculated final damage structures are compared with those from the recovered samples to validate the simulations.

  9. Toward an extended-geostrophic Euler-Poincare model for mesoscale oceanographic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.S.; Newberger, P.A.; Holm, D.D.

    1998-07-01

    The authors consider the motion of a rotating, continuously stratified fluid governed by the hydrostatic primitive equations (PE). An approximate Hamiltonian (L1) model for small Rossby number {var_epsilon} is derived for application to mesoscale oceanographic flow problems. Numerical experiments involving a baroclinically unstable oceanic jet are utilized to assess the accuracy of the L1 model compared to the PE and to other approximate models, such as the quasigeostrophic (QG) and the geostrophic momentum (GM) equations. The results of the numerical experiments for moderate Rossby number flow show that the L1 model gives accurate solutions with errors substantially smaller than QG or GM.

  10. Study of horizontal multipaths and ray chaos due to ocean mesoscale structure

    PubMed

    Wolfson; Tappert

    2000-01-01

    Long-range ocean acoustic propagation in the presence of idealized mesoscale structure is studied by first deriving a two-dimensional horizontal-plane parabolic wave equation that follows from the adiabatic mode approximation. In the geometric limit, a nonautonomous Hamiltonian dynamical system having one degree of freedom is derived. A stochastic formalism is developed to analyze this nonintegrable dynamical system. The main result is that on average two rays that are initially separated by an infinitesimal amount diverge exponentially at a rate given by the Lyapunov exponent that has been calculated theoretically and compared to numerical experiments with agreement to two decimal places. The practical implication of this result is that tomographic inversions based on assumed pointwise accurate ray predictions might not be possible beyond the "predictability horizon" of many thousands of kilometers, due to horizontal-plane multipaths induced by naturally occurring mesoscale activity. PMID:10641628

  11. An investigation of the temporal character of mesoscale perturbations in the troposphere and stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, W. W.

    1977-01-01

    The effectiveness of mesoscale models in explaining perturbations observed in vertical detailed wind profile measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere is assessed. The structure and persistence of the data were analyzed and interpreted in terms of several physical models with the goal of establishing explanations for the observed persistent features of the mesoscale flow patterns. The experimental data used in the investigation were obtained by a unique detailed wind profile measurement system. This system is capable of providing resolution of 50 to 100 m wavelengths for the altitude region from approximately 200 m to 18 km. The system consists of a high-resolution tracking radar and special super-pressure balloon configuration known as a Jimsphere.

  12. Numerical modelling of mesoscale atmospheric dispersion. (Volumes I and II)

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    Mesoscale atmospheric dispersion is more complicated than smaller-scale dispersion because the mean wind field can no longer be considered steady or horizontally homogeneous over mesoscale time and space scales. Wind shear also plays an important role on the mesoscale, and horizontal dispersion can be enhanced and even dominated by vertical wind shear through either the simultaneous or delayed interaction of horizontal differential advection and vertical mixing. The CSU mesoscale atmospheric dispersion modelling system has been used in this study to simulate the transport and diffusion of a perfluorocarbon gas for episodic releases made during two mesoscale dispersion field experiments. The physiography of the two experimental domains was quite different, permitting isolation and examination of the roles of terrain forcing and differential advection in mesoscale atmospheric dispersion. Suites of numerical experiments of increasing complexity were carried out for both case studies. The experiments differed in the realism of their representation of both the synoptic-scale flow and the underlying terrain. The contributions of differential advection and mesoscale deformation to mesoscale dispersion dominated those of small-scale turbulent diffusion for both cases, and Pasquill's (1962) delayed-shear-enhancement mechanism for lateral dispersion was found to be particularly important. This study was also the first quantitative evaluation of the CSU mesoscale dispersion modelling system with episodic mesoscale dispersion field data. The modelling system showed considerable skill in predicting quantitative tracer-cloud characteristics such as peak concentration, maximum cloud width, arrival time, transit time, and crosswind integrated exposure. Model predictions also compared favorably with predictions made by a number of other mesoscale dispersion models for the same two case studies.

  13. Intense mesoscale variability in the Sardinia Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Aniello; Borrione, Ines; Falchetti, Silvia; Knoll, Michaela; Fiekas, Heinz-Volker; Heywood, Karen; Oddo, Paolo; Onken, Reiner

    2015-04-01

    From the 6 to 25 June 2014, the REP14-MED sea trial was conducted by CMRE, supported by 20 partners from six different nations. The at-sea activities were carried out onboard the research vessels Alliance (NATO) and Planet (German Ministry of Defense), comprising a marine area of about 110 x 110 km2 to the west of the Sardinian coast. More than 300 CTD casts typically spaced at 10 km were collected; both ships continuously recorded vertical profiles of currents by means of their ADCPs, and a ScanFish® and a CTD chain were towed for almost three days by Alliance and Planet, respectively, following parallel routes. Twelve gliders from different manufacturers (Slocum, SeaGliderTM and SeaExplorer) were continuously sampling the study area following zonal tracks spaced at 10 km. In addition, six moorings, 17 surface drifters and one ARVOR float were deployed. From a first analysis of the observations, several mesoscale features were identified in the survey area, in particular: (i) a warm-core anticyclonic eddy in the southern part of the domain, about 50 km in diameter and with the strongest signal at about 50-m depth (ii) another warm-core anticyclonic eddy of comparable dimensions in the central part of the domain, but extending to greater depth than the former one, and (iii) a small (less than 15 km in diameter) cold-core cyclonic eddy of Winter Intermediate Water in the depth range between 170 m and 370 m. All three eddies showed intensified currents, up to 50 cm s-1. The huge high-resolution observational data set and the variety of observation techniques enabled the mesoscale features and their variability to be tracked for almost three weeks. In order to obtain a deeper understanding of the mesoscale dynamic behaviour and their interactions, assimilation studies with an ocean circulation model are underway.

  14. Detection of mesoscale zones of atmospheric instabilities using remote sensing and weather forecasting model data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winnicki, I.; Jasinski, J.; Kroszczynski, K.; Pietrek, S.

    2009-04-01

    The paper presents elements of research conducted in the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy of the Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland, concerning application of mesoscale models and remote sensing data to determining meteorological conditions of aircraft flight directly related with atmospheric instabilities. The quality of meteorological support of aviation depends on prompt and effective forecasting of weather conditions changes. The paper presents a computer module for detecting and monitoring zones of cloud cover, precipitation and turbulence along the aircraft flight route. It consists of programs and scripts for managing, processing and visualizing meteorological and remote sensing databases. The application was developed in Matlab® for Windows®. The module uses products of COAMPS (Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System) mesoscale non-hydrostatic model of the atmosphere developed by the US Naval Research Laboratory, satellite images acquisition system from the MSG-2 (Meteosat Second Generation) of the European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) and meteorological radars data acquired from the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (IMGW), Warsaw, Poland. The satellite images acquisition system and the COAMPS model are run operationally in the Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy. The mesoscale model is run on an IA64 Feniks multiprocessor 64-bit computer cluster. The basic task of the module is to enable a complex analysis of data sets of miscellaneous information structure and to verify COAMPS results using satellite and radar data. The research is conducted using uniform cartographic projection of all elements of the database. Satellite and radar images are transformed into the Lambert Conformal projection of COAMPS. This facilitates simultaneous interpretation and supports decision making process for safe execution of flights. Forecasts are based on horizontal

  15. Influence of mesoscale eddies on spatial structuring of top predators’ communities in the Mozambique Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tew Kai, Emilie; Marsac, Francis

    2010-07-01

    Mesoscale physical features as fronts and eddies appear to play a key role in the dynamics of marine communities. In the Indian Ocean, the Mozambique Channel (MC) is a natural laboratory to investigate mesoscale eddies (100-300 km in diameter); indeed, four to seven eddies per year are know to transit through the Channel, from North to South. We studied the structuring role of the mesoscale eddies on spatial dynamics and foraging strategy of top predators using seabirds and tuna as examples. Emphasis was on the central part of the MC (16-24°S) where eddy activity is most developed. We integrated three main categories of information: (i) satellite altimetry for sea-level anomaly (SLA) and geostrophic current, remotely-sensed surface temperature (SST) and SeaWiFS data for chlorophyll concentration (CC); (ii) individual tracking of Great Frigatebirds ( Fregata minor) to characterize foraging areas; and (iii) detailed catch statistics from purse-seine fisheries to describe distribution of tuna schools. Generalized Additive Models were applied to quantify the relative influence of mesoscale descriptors, SST and CC on foraging behaviour of Great Frigatebirds and location of purse-seine sets. Our results show that seabirds are more closely tied to mesoscale eddies compared to tuna. We underline the role of eddy boundaries on the response of frigatebirds and tuna. Good foraging conditions are promoted along the edge of eddies as a result of the interplay of the maturation process from cyclonic eddies and the concentration process by eddy interactions. A decrease in the number or intensity of eddies in the MC, as observed during strong El Niño events, could potentially affect the eddy-related ecosystem with putative negative repercussions on central-place foragers such as Great Frigatebirds. We discuss the importance of a better understanding of the “eddy system”, in marine conservation and tuna fisheries management in the Mozambique Channel.

  16. Waves and mesoscale features in the marginal ice zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Antony K.; Peng, Chih Y.

    1993-01-01

    Ocean-ice interaction processes in the Marginal Ice Zone (MIZ) by waves and mesoscale features, such as upwelling and eddies, are studied using ERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imagery and wave-ice interaction models. Satellite observations of mesoscale features can play a crucial role in ocean-ice interaction study.

  17. Modeling Mesoscale Eddies in the North Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Yi

    1999-01-01

    Ocean modeling plays an important role in understanding the current climatic conditions and predicting the future climate change. Modeling the ocean at eddy-permitting and/or eddy resolving resolutions (1/3 degree or higher) has a two-fold objective. One part is to represent the ocean as realistically as possible, because mesoscale eddies have an impact on the large-scale circulation. The second objective is to learn how to represent effects of mesoscale eddies without explicitly resolving them. This is particularly important for climate models which cannot be run at eddy-resolving resolutions because of the computational constraints. At JPL, a 1/6 degree latitude by 1/6 degree longitude with 37 vertical levels Atlantic Ocean model has been developed. The model is based on the Parallel Ocean Program (POP) developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Using the 256-processor Cray T3D, we have conducted a 40-year integration of this Atlantic eddy-resolving ocean model. A regional analysis demonstrate that many observed features associated with the Caribbean Sea eddies can be realistically simulated by this model. Analysis of this Atlantic eddy-resolving ocean model further suggests that these Caribbean Sea eddies are connected with eddies formed outside the Caribbean Sea at the confluence of the North Brazil Current (NBC) and the North Equatorial Countercurrent. The diagram of the model simulated surface current shows that the Caribbean eddies ultimately originate in the NBC retroflection region, traveling more than a year from the North Brazil coast through the Lesser Antilles into the Caribbean Sea and eventually into the Gulf of Mexico. Additional information is contained in the original.

  18. Imaging meso-scale ionospheric structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burston, Robert

    2012-06-01

    The accuracy and capacity to resolve meso-scale structures of a four dimensional ionospheric imaging algorithm in the circumstance of data from dense networks of permanent GNSS ground receiver stations were investigated. Simulation studies were conducted in order to be able to assess the performance of the algorithm over the entire imaged region. The Multi-instrument Data Assimilation Software (MIDAS) algorithm was used for this purpose. Simulated input data in Receiver Independent Exchange Format (RINEX) were produced by calculating slant Total Electron Content (sTEC) values for satellite to receiver raypaths through an artificially generated ionosphere. Modeling these signals including Differential Code Biases (DCBs) and noise had negligible impact on the output from the imaging algorithm when compared with modeled signals that included neither. Comparing the output from MIDAS using a range of grid definitions show that finer grids have improved capacity to resolve meso-scale structures in the input model but over all are less accurate than coarser grids. The greatest errors occur in low-data regions of the grid and where structures in the input have the greatest gradients in vertical Total Electron Content (vTEC). A good compromise between the conflicting needs of resolution and accuracy is given by a grid defined with 2° × 2° latitude by longitude local horizontal grid divisions.

  19. Coast-ocean-atmosphere-ocean mesoscale interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atlas, D.; Chou, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    In the case of cold air outbreaks, the combination of the coastal shape and the sea surface temperature (SST) pattern have a profound effect in establishing a low level mesoscale atmospheric circulation as a result of differential heating due to both variations in overwater path length and the SST. A convergence (or divergence) line then forms along a line exactly downwind of the major bend in the coastline. All this is consistent with the structure of the cloud patterns seen in a high resolution Landsat picture of the cloud streets and the major features are simulated well with a boundary layer model. The dominant convergence line is marked by notably larger clouds. To its east the convective roll clouds grow downstream in accord with the deepening of the boundary layer. To its west (i.e., coastal side) where the induced pressure field forces a strong westerly component in the boundary layer, the wind shear across the inversion gives rise to Kelvin-Helmholtz waves and billow clouds whose orientation is perpendicular to the shear vector and to the major convergence line. The induced mesoscale circulation will feedback on the ocean by intensifying the wind generated ocean wave growth and altering their orientation. Coastal cyclogenesis is due in large part not only to the fluxes of heat and moisture from the ocean, but particularly to the differential heating and moistening of the boundary layer air when the air trajectories pass over a well defined pattern of SST.

  20. Deep convection in mesoscale convective systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the evolution of radar echoes and lightning attending the convective storms in mesoscale convective systems (MCS) and the relationships between the spatial and temporal evolution of deep convection and the storm environment, precipitation, severe weather, and lightning. The total number of ground discharges ranges from 10,000 to 30,000 over the life cycle of the MCS with peak sustained rates (for up to 10 consecutive hours) in excess of 2000 per hour. The peak lightning activity occurs from 5 to 20 hours after the first storms and anywhere from 7 hours prior to 7 hours after the time of the maximum areal extent of the MCS for very similar synoptic environments. Thus, it appears that mesoscale and sub-synoptic scale mechanisms are responsible for these large temporal variation in lightning activity. In addition, we have found that the lightning rates in MCS's are not related to either the size or the duration of the MCS. Preliminary results suggest that the MCA's with embedded squall lines produce the greatest flash rates.

  1. Mesoscale Eddies in the Solomon Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristova, H. G.; Kessler, W. S.; McWilliams, J. C.; Molemaker, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Water mass transformation in the strong equatorward flows through the Solomon Sea influences the properties of the Equatorial Undercurrent and subsequent cold tongue upwelling. High eddy activity in the interior Solomon Sea seen in altimetric sea surface height (SSH) and in several models may provide a mechanism for these transformations. We investigate these effects using a mesoscale (4-km resolution) sigma-coordinate (ROMS) model of the Solomon Sea nested in a basin solution, forced by a repeating seasonal cycle, and evaluated against observational data. The model generates a vigorous upper layer eddy field; some of these are apparently shed as the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent threads through the complex topography of the region, others are independent of the strong western boundary current. We diagnose the scales and vertical structure of the eddies in different parts of the Solomon Sea to illuminate their generation processes and propagation characteristics, and compare these to observed eddy statistics. Hypotheses tested are that the Solomon Sea mesoscale eddies are generated locally by baroclinic instability, that the eddies are shed as the South Equatorial Current passes around and through the Solomon Island chain, that eddies are generated by the New Guinea Coastal Undercurrent, or that eddies occurring outside of the Solomon Sea propagate into the Solomon Sea. These different mechanisms have different implications for the resulting mixing and property fluxes. They also provide different interpretations for SSH signals observed from satellites (e.g., that will be observed by the upcoming SWOT satellite).

  2. Mesoscale modelling of PBX. Binder effects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Alec; Dunnett, Jim; Bourne, Neil

    2007-06-01

    In earlier work we have studied aspects of shock to detonation transition and detonation structure in polymer bonded explosives on the scale of the largest grains (the mesoscale) to augment continuum models for these processes. Building blocks have been unreacted Hugoniots of mixtures, mapping from experiment (2D micrographs and 3D tomography) for accurate initial conditions and details of cavity collapse mechanisms as hot spots for ignition. Recently we have applied continuum mixture theory (multi-phase modelling) to dirty binder (the mixture of explosive crystal fines and binder that surrounds the large grains) and validated it for the unreacted Hugoniot of a range of UK explosives. In this paper we build on all of this work and report our progress in using continuum mixture theory to model the reactive behaviour of dirty binder. We begin by considering the binder on its own and then use this continuum mixture mode in conjunction with mesoscale representations of PBX. We consider PBX9501 and a UK PBX as examples. We identify the numerical modelling issues that have arisen, our current approaches and our plans for further development and testing.

  3. Urban morphological analysis for mesoscale meteorological and dispersion modeling applications : current issues

    SciTech Connect

    Burian, S. J.; Brown, M. J.; Ching, J.; Cheuk, M. L.; Yuan, M.; McKinnon, A. T.; Han, W. S.

    2004-01-01

    Accurate predictions of air quality and atmospheric dispersion at high spatial resolution rely on high fidelity predictions of mesoscale meteorological fields that govern transport and turbulence in urban areas. However, mesoscale meteorological models do not have the spatial resolution to directly simulate the fluid dynamics and thermodynamics in and around buildings and other urban structures that have been shown to modify micro- and mesoscale flow fields (e.g., see review by Bornstein 1987). Mesoscale models therefore have been adapted using numerous approaches to incorporate urban effects into the simulations (e.g., see reviews by Brown 2000 and Bornstein and Craig 2002). One approach is to introduce urban canopy parameterizations to approximate the drag, turbulence production, heating, and radiation attenuation induced by sub-grid scale buildings and urban surface covers (Brown 2000). Preliminary results of mesoscale meteorological and air quality simulations for Houston (Dupont et al. 2004) demonstrated the importance of introducing urban canopy parameterizations to produce results with high spatial resolution that accentuates variability, highlights important differences, and identifies critical areas. Although urban canopy parameterizations may not be applicable to all meteorological and dispersion models, they have been successfully introduced and demonstrated in many of the current operational and research mode mesoscale models, e.g., COAMPS (Holt et al. 2002), HOTMAC (Brown and Williams 1998), MM5 (e.g., Otte and Lacser 2001; Lacser and Otte 2002; Dupont et al. 2004), and RAMS (Rozoff et al. 2003). The primary consequence of implementing an urban parameterization in a mesoscale meteorological model is the need to characterize the urban terrain in greater detail. In general, urban terrain characterization for mesoscale modeling may be described as the process of collecting datasets of urban surface cover physical properties (e.g., albedo, emissivity) and

  4. Mesoscale Tank Experiments for Investigating Carbon Tetrachloride Biodegradation

    SciTech Connect

    Brady D. Lee; Robert J. Lenhard

    2005-06-01

    Mesoscale tank experiments were performed to simulate bioremediation of saturated zone carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) originating from a vadose zone carbon tetrachloride source. The mesoscale tank is 2-m wide by 2-m high by 3-m long and was constructed of stainless steel, yielding a total volume of 12 m3. Simulated geology within the tank consisted of two unconsolidated sand layers separated by a clay layer containing variable-sized stainless steel tubes that represented fractures within a consolidated porous medium. The thickness of the upper sand layer was approximately 55 cm, the thickness of the virtual fracture layer was 25 cm, and the thickness of the lower sand layer was approximately 98 cm. The water table was located at an elevation of approximately 54 cm from the bottom of the tank. CCl4 was added to the sealed tank by pouring 500 ml of neat CCl4 into a beaker buried approximately 10 cm below the upper sand surface through a stainless steel tube. The CCl4 was then allowed to partition through the reactor over time, eventually coming to equilibrium. Once CCl4 equilibrium had occurred in the saturated zone (~500 ppb); the reactor was bioaugmented with a CCl4 degrading culture enriched from the Subsurface Disposal Area at the INEEL. The culture was grown to a cell density of ~ 1.0 x 108 cells/ml and injected into the simulated aquifer through a center sampling port. Following injection of the culture, an initial aliquot of lactate (1,000 g/L), nitrogen, and phosphorus were added to the reactor. Lactate was injected every 3 – 5 days for one month. After 1 month of operation, a continuous supply of lactate (1,000 g/L) was pumped into the reactor at an average rate of 50 mL/min. CCl4 concentrations in the unsaturated zone were measured using hollow fiber membrane samplers, while liquid samples were analyzed to monitor levels in the simulated aquifer zone. Samples were also taken for analysis of volatile organic acids and cell density. As would be expected

  5. The impact of mesoscale data on the simulation of a mesoscale convective weather system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritsch, J. M.; Zhang, D.-L.

    1985-01-01

    The objectives are: (1) to demonstrate the sensitivity of a numerical simulation of a mesoscale convective weather system to the initial conditions; and (2) to provide further evidence of the need for a high resolution observing system that is compatible with numerical-model initial data requirements. To this end, a series of nine numerical-model sensitivity experiments were conducted in which one or more variables from one or more observations (soundings) were omitted and/or adjusted in the model initialization. Two types of surroundings were available for manipulation in the sensitivity experiments. Specifically, for the particular event being simulated (the 1977 Johnstown flash flood), an independent mesoanalysis was available from Bosart and Sanders (1981). In his analysis, Bosart produced a fine-resolution three-dimensional array of data from which soundings that helped to define mesoscale features could be extracted. These 'nonconventional' soundings were added to the conventional sounding data routinely available for model initialization.

  6. The Impact of TRMM Data on Mesoscale Numerical Simulation of Super Typhoon Paka

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pu, Zhao-Xia; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Jia, Yiqin; Simpson, Joanne; Braun, Scott A.; Halverson, Jeffrey; Hou, Arthur; Olson, William; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper assesses the impact of TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) derived surface rainfall data on the numerical simulation of Super Typhoon Paka (1997). A series of mesoscale numerical simulations is conducted for simulating Super Typhoon Paka during its mature stage by using the Penn State/NCAR MM5 model with initial conditions derived from the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) global analyses with and without assimilation of the TMI surface rainfall data. Simulation results clearly demonstrate that the GEOS analysis with TMI rainfall data leads to a improved MM5 simulation of Typhoon Paka in terms of its intensity and kinematical and precipitation structures, since inclusion of the rainfall data into initial and boundary condition improves the storm environmental conditions (e.g., moisture and circulation). Further improvement can also be obtained by incorporating TMI data with mesoscale bogus vortex information into the initial conditions.

  7. Convective cell development and propagation in a mesoscale convective complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahn, Yoo-Shin; Brundidge, Kenneth C.

    1987-01-01

    A case study was made of the mesoscale convective complex (MCC) which occurred over southern Oklahoma and northern Texas on 27 May 1981. This storm moved in an eastsoutheasterly direction and during much of its lifetime was observable by radars at Oklahoma City, Ok. and Stephenville, Tx. It was found that the direction of cell (VIP level 3 or more reflectivity) propagation was somewhat erratic but approximately the same as the system (VIP level 1 reflectivity) movement and the ambient wind. New cells developed along and behind the gust front make it appear that once the MCC is initiated, a synergistic relationship exists between the gust front and the MCC. The relationship between rainfall patterns and amounts and the infrared (IR) temperature field in the satellite imagery were examined. The 210 K isotherm of GOES IR imagery was found to encompass the rain area of the storm. The heaviest rainfall was in the vicinity of the VIP level 3 cells and mostly contained within the 205 K isotherm of GOES IR imagery.

  8. Mesoscale numerical modeling of plastic bonded explosives under shock loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Hailin; Zhao, Feng; Ji, Guangfu; Fu, Hua

    2015-09-01

    Mesoscale responses of plastic bonded explosives under shock loading are investigated using material point method as implemented in the Uintah Computational Framework. The two-dimensional geometrical model which can approximately reflect the mesoscopic structure of plastic bonded explosives was created based on the Voronoi tessellation. Shock loading for the explosive was performed by a piston moving at a constant velocity. For the purpose of investigating the influence of shock strength on the responses of explosives, two different velocities for the piston were used, 200 m/s and 400 m/s, respectively. The simulation results indicate that under shock loading there forms some stress localizations on the grain boundary of explosive. These stress localizations lead to large plastic deformations, and the plastic strain energy transforms to thermal energy immediately, causing temperature to rise rapidly and form some hot spots on grain boundary areas. The comparison between two different piston velocities shows that with increasing shock strength, the distribution of plastic strain and temperature does not have significant change, but their values increase obviously. Namely, the higher the shock strength is, the higher the hot spot temperature will be.

  9. Oceanic mass transport by mesoscale eddies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhengguang; Wang, Wei; Qiu, Bo

    2014-07-18

    Oceanic transports of heat, salt, fresh water, dissolved CO2, and other tracers regulate global climate change and the distribution of natural marine resources. The time-mean ocean circulation transports fluid as a conveyor belt, but fluid parcels can also be trapped and transported discretely by migrating mesoscale eddies. By combining available satellite altimetry and Argo profiling float data, we showed that the eddy-induced zonal mass transport can reach a total meridionally integrated value of up to 30 to 40 sverdrups (Sv) (1 Sv = 10(6) cubic meters per second), and it occurs mainly in subtropical regions, where the background flows are weak. This transport is comparable in magnitude to that of the large-scale wind- and thermohaline-driven circulation. PMID:25035491

  10. Mesoscale Magnetic Structures in Spiral Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukurov, Anvar

    Virtually all spiral galaxies host magnetic fields ordered at scales comparable to the galactic size (Beck et al., 1996; Beck, 2000, 2001). Observations of polarized radio emission at improved resolution and sensitivity have revealed details of the global magnetic structures that can shed new light on the problem of their origin. Reversals of the regular magnetic field along radius and/or azimuth and magnetic arms are such features, whose scale exceeds significantly the correlation scale of interstellar turbulence but remains smaller than the overall galactic dimension. Despite a few decades of debate, there remains doubt as to what features of the observed field could have been inherited from the pre-galactic past, and which have been formed and maintained more recently in a relatively mature galaxy. In what follows, we briefly review the current understanding of the origin of the mesoscale magnetic structures and their implications for the origin of galactic magnetic fields.

  11. From Quanta to the Continuum: Opportunities for Mesoscale Science

    SciTech Connect

    Crabtree, George; Sarrao, John; Alivisatos, Paul; Barletta, William; Bates, Frank; Brown, Gordon; French, Roger; Greene, Laura; Hemminger, John; Kastner, Marc; Kay, Bruce; Lewis, Jennifer; Ratner, Mark; Anthony, Rollett; Rubloff, Gary; Spence, John; Tobias, Douglas; Tranquada, John

    2012-09-01

    This report explores the opportunity and defines the research agenda for mesoscale science—discovering, understanding, and controlling interactions among disparate systems and phenomena to reach the full potential of materials complexity and functionality. The ability to predict and control mesoscale phenomena and architectures is essential if atomic and molecular knowledge is to blossom into a next generation of technology opportunities, societal benefits, and scientific advances.. The body of this report outlines the need, the opportunities, the challenges, and the benefits of mastering mesoscale science.

  12. Multicloud parametrization of mesoscale convective systems for the ITCZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khouider, B.; Moncrieff, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCS), aligned approximately parallel to the background low-level wind shear, are ubiquitous in the Eastern Pacific intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). They are believed to control the local Hadley circulation and have a nontrivial momentum feedback on the ambient shear. They also play a central role in the two-way interactions between convection and the synoptic and planetary scale waves. They do so by serving as both the building block for organized convection, which involves congestus cloud decks that moisten and precondition the environment for deep convection which in turn is lagged by stratiform anvils, and as a conveyer belt for convective momentum transport (CMT). Here, we propose an extension of the multicloud model of Khouider and Majda (2006) to make the stratiform anvils more sensitive to the background wind shear profile. We do so by invoking two layers of moisture in the free troposphere instead of one, in addition to the boundary layer. Linear stability, in a wind shear background consisting of both mid-level and low-level easterly jets, representing, simultaneously, the Tropical Easterly and African Easterly jets, features the usual synoptic scale instability of the multicloud model plus two new instability bands at the meso-alpha and meso-beta scales, respectively. The meso-alpha and meso-beta modes constitute a paradigm for the dynamics of shear parallel convective systems with the meso-alpha waves being the quasi-stationary systems. In this talk we will present limited domain 3D simulations, without rotation, of realistic shear parallel lines of convection with parallel stratifrom anvils moving eastward, with a steering level in the upper troposphere, as a mesoscale envelope of the individual convective cells moving inwards, with a steering level in the lower troposphere. This provides, among other things, an excellent example of nontrivial CMT effect on the background low-level wind. It results in a narrow channel

  13. Numerical study of terrain-induced mesoscale motions in a mixed layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Y.-J.; Ueyoshi, K.; Deardorff, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical integrations using a potential enstrophy-conserving scheme are presented for the flow within a mixed layer over hilly terrain using the hydrostatic shallow-water equations with a quadratic drag law. The mesoscale area treated is 150 km on a side; cyclic lateral boundary conditions are used. It is found that for the idealized conditions treated (no surface heating, no entrainment and no pressure adjustments aloft), the topography quickly induces a steady state flow pattern by means of surface friction. Unsteadiness does not occur unless a surface-friction Reynolds number is greater than approximately 100. Effects of varying the Rossby number, Froude number and terrain-height parameter are examined.

  14. How mesoscale lasers can answer fundamental questions related to nanolasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Puccioni, G. P.; Lippi, G. L.

    2016-04-01

    Nanolasers have steadily gained interest in the past years thanks to considerable technological advances. Interest in very small lasers dates back to the early 1980's and considerable effort was placed throughout the 1990's on understanding the threshold and coherence properties of the so-called thresholdless laser. Little progress has been made on this front, mostly due to the scant amount of information coming from experiments, limited by the current detection technology. Very small-sized lasers, thanks to their extremely reduced cavity (and active medium) volumes, offer very low thresholds, but also an accompanying exiguous photon flux, which renders detection extremely challenging. Coupled to very fast internal constants, this requirement renders most kinds of measurements currently impossible: only statistical information, based on photon counting, has been gathered from nanolasers. The problem is aggravated from a fundamental understanding viewpoint, by the fact that most of these devices are optically pumped - i.e., they suffer from poor stability and reproducibility in operating parameters - and emit very short light pulses. This paper gives a brief overview of these problems and discusses the potential for using somewhat larger devices (mesolasers), for which full detection capabilities (barely) exist. As shown with the help of a new modeling approach compared to experimental results, lasers in the mesoscale display emerging properties which can be expected to exist in nanolasers, but are unknown at the macroscopic scale.

  15. Phase Effects on Mesoscale Object X-ray Absorption Images

    SciTech Connect

    Martz, Jr., H E; Aufderheide, M B; Barty, A; Lehman, S K; Kozioziemski, B J; Schneberk, D J

    2004-09-24

    At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory particular emphasis is being placed on the nondestructive characterization (NDC) of 'mesoscale' objects.[Martz and Albrecht 2003] We define mesoscale objects as objects that have mm extent with {micro}m features. Here we confine our discussions to x-ray imaging methods applicable to mesoscale object characterization. The goal is object recovery algorithms including phase to enable emerging high-spatial resolution x-ray imaging methods to ''see'' inside or image mesoscale-size materials and objects. To be successful our imaging characterization effort must be able to recover the object function to one micrometer or better spatial resolution over a few millimeters field-of-view with very high contrast.

  16. Numerical modelling of mesoscale atmospheric dispersion, volumes 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Michael D.

    Mesoscale atmospheric dispersion is more complicated than smaller scale dispersion because the mean wind field can no longer be considered steady or horizontally homogeneous over mesoscale time and space scales. Wind shear also plays a more important role on the mesoscale and horizontal dispersion can be enhanced and even dominated by vertical wind shear through either the simultaneous or delayed interaction of horizontal differential advection and vertical mixing over one or two diurnal periods. The CSU mesoscale atmospheric dispersion modeling system was used to simulate the transport and diffusion of a perfluorocarbon gas for episodic releases made during two North American mesoscale dispersion field experiments, the 1980 Great Plains tracer experiment and the 1983 Cross-Appalachian Tracer Experiment (CAPTEX). Ground-level and elevated tracer concentrations were measured out to distances of 600 km from the source in the first experiment and 1100 km in the second. The physiography of the two experimental domains was quite different, permitting isolation and examination of the roles of terrain forcing and differential advection in mesoscale atmospheric dispersion. Suites of numerical experiments of increasing complexity were carried out for both case studies. The experiments differed in the realism of their representation of both the synoptic-scale flow and the underlying terrain. The Great Plains nocturnal low-level jet played an important role in the first case while temporal changes in the synoptic-scale flow were very significant in the second case. The contributions of differential advection and mesoscale deformation to mesoscale dispersion dominated those of small-scale turbulent diffusion for both cases, and Pasquills delayed-shear-enhancement mechanism for lateral dispersion was found to be particularly important. The first quantitative evaluation of the CSU mesoscale dispersion modeling system with episodic mesoscale dispersion field data was presented

  17. Assessment of Mixed Layer Mesoscale Parameterization in Eddy Resolving Simulations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayson, C. A.; Luneva, M. V.; Dubovikov, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    In eddy resolving simulations we test a mixed layer mesoscale parameterization, developed recently by Canuto and Dubovikov (2011). The parameterization yields the horizontal and vertical mesoscale fluxes in terms of coarse-resolution fields and eddy kinetic energy. An expression for the later in terms of mean fields has been found too to get a closed parameterization in terms of the mean fields only. In 40 numerical experiments we simulated the two types of flows: idealized flows driven by baroclinic instabilities only, and more realistic flows, driven by wind and surface fluxes as well as by inflow-outflow in shallow and narrow straits. The diagnosed quasi-instantaneous horizontal and vertical mesoscale buoyancy fluxes (averaged over 1o - 2o and 10 days) demonstrate a strong scatter typical for turbulent flows, however, the fluxes are highly correlated with the parameterization. After averaged over 3-4 months, diffusivities diagnosed from the eddy resolving simulations, are quite consistent with the parameterization for a broad range of parameters. Diagnosed vertical mesoscale fluxes restratify mixed layer and are in a good agreement with the parameterization unless vertical turbulent mixing in the upper layer becomes strong enough to compare with mesoscale advection. In the later case, numerical simulations demonstrate that the deviation of the fluxes from the parameterization is controlled by the dimensionless parameter γ, estimating the ratio of vertical diffusion term to a mesoscale advection. The empirical dependence of vertical flux on γ is found. An analysis using a modified omega-equation reveals that the effects of the vertical mixing of vorticity is responsible for the two-three fold amplification of vertical mesoscale flux. Possible physical mechanisms, responsible for the amplification of vertical mesoscale flux are discussed.

  18. Investigation of mesoscale meteorological phenomena as observed by geostationary satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brundidge, K. C.

    1982-01-01

    Satellite imagery plus conventional synoptic observations were used to examine three mesoscale systems recently observed by the GOES-EAST satellite. The three systems are an arc cloud complex (ACC), mountain lee wave clouds and cloud streets parallel to the wind shear. Possible gravity-wave activity is apparent in all three cases. Of particular interest is the ACC because of its ability to interact with other mesoscale phenomena to produce or enhance convection.

  19. Oceanic mesoscale variability and general circulation from satellite altimetry: A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, L. L.

    1983-01-01

    Progress on the applications of satellite altimetry from SEASAT and Geos-3 to the study of oceanic mesoscale variability and general circulation is reviewed. The major conclusion for the applications to mesoscale variability is that an optimally designed altimetric mission with a lifetime of several years will improve our knowledge of the global mesoscale variability to an extent unattainable by any other practical means. The proposed Topex mission will allow one to view the global oceanic variability in such a wide range of periods and wavelengths: from 20 days to 3 to 5 years; from 50 to 10,000 km. However, the goal of determining the general circulation cannot be achieved by a single altimetric mission, because a highly accurate geoid needs to be determined independently. The scenario of the combination of Topex with Gravsat, a gravity mission that will give accurate geoid information, will allow the global general circulation to be determined at scales as small as 100 km. Areas of research needing to be performed with existing altimeter data are also discussed.

  20. Assessing Mesoscale Volcanic Aviation Hazards using ASTER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieri, D.; Gubbels, T.; Hufford, G.; Olsson, P.; Realmuto, V.

    2006-12-01

    transport effects from the micro (<1km) to mesoscale (1-100km). Such phenomena are thus well-observed by ASTER and pose transient and severe hazards to aircraft operating in and out of airports near volcanoes (e.g., Anchorage, AK, USA; Catania, Italy; Kagoshima City, Japan). ASTER image data and derived products provide boundary conditions for 3D mesoscale atmospheric transport and chemistry models (e.g., RAMS) for retrospective and prospective studies of volcanic aerosol transport at low altitudes in takeoff and landing corridors near active volcanoes. Putative ASTER direct downlinks in the future could provide real-time mitigation of such hazards. Some examples of mesoscale analyses for threatened airspace near US and non- US airports will be shown. This work was, in part, carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology under contract to the NASA Earth Science Research Program and as part of ASTER Science Team activities.

  1. From Quanta to the Continuum: Opportunities for Mesoscale Science

    SciTech Connect

    Hemminger, John; Crabtree, George; Sarrao, John

    2012-09-01

    We are at a time of unprecedented challenge and opportunity. Our economy is in need of a jump start, and our supply of clean energy needs to dramatically increase. Innovation through basic research is a key means for addressing both of these challenges. The great scientific advances of the last decade and more, especially at the nanoscale, are ripe for exploitation. Seizing this key opportunity requires mastering the mesoscale, where classical, quantum, and nanoscale science meet. It has become clear that—in many important areas—the functionality that is critical to macroscopic behavior begins to manifest itself not at the atomic or nanoscale but at the mesoscale, where defects, interfaces, and non-equilibrium structures are the norm. With our recently acquired knowledge of the rules of nature that govern the atomic and nanoscales, we are well positioned to unravel and control the complexity that determines functionality at the mesoscale. The reward for breakthroughs in our understanding at the mesoscale is the emergence of previously unrealized functionality. The present report explores the opportunity and defines the research agenda for mesoscale science—discovering, understanding, and controlling interactions among disparate systems and phenomena to reach the full potential of materials complexity and functionality. The ability to predict and control mesoscale phenomena and architectures is essential if atomic and molecular knowledge is to blossom into a next generation of technology opportunities, societal benefits, and scientific advances. Imagine the ability to manufacture at the mesoscale: that is, the directed assembly of mesoscale structures that possess unique functionality that yields faster, cheaper, higher performing, and longer lasting products, as well as products that have functionality that we have not yet imagined. Imagine the realization of biologically inspired complexity and functionality with inorganic earth-abundant materials to

  2. Unifying Inference of Meso-Scale Structures in Networks

    PubMed Central

    Tunç, Birkan; Verma, Ragini

    2015-01-01

    Networks are among the most prevalent formal representations in scientific studies, employed to depict interactions between objects such as molecules, neuronal clusters, or social groups. Studies performed at meso-scale that involve grouping of objects based on their distinctive interaction patterns form one of the main lines of investigation in network science. In a social network, for instance, meso-scale structures can correspond to isolated social groupings or groups of individuals that serve as a communication core. Currently, the research on different meso-scale structures such as community and core-periphery structures has been conducted via independent approaches, which precludes the possibility of an algorithmic design that can handle multiple meso-scale structures and deciding which structure explains the observed data better. In this study, we propose a unified formulation for the algorithmic detection and analysis of different meso-scale structures. This facilitates the investigation of hybrid structures that capture the interplay between multiple meso-scale structures and statistical comparison of competing structures, all of which have been hitherto unavailable. We demonstrate the applicability of the methodology in analyzing the human brain network, by determining the dominant organizational structure (communities) of the brain, as well as its auxiliary characteristics (core-periphery). PMID:26569619

  3. Making Precise Resonators for Mesoscale Vibratory Gyroscopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Eui-Hyeok

    2004-01-01

    An alternative approach to the design and fabrication of vibratory gyroscopes is founded on the use of fabrication techniques that yield best results in the mesoscopic size range, which is characterized by overall device dimensions of the order of a centimeter. This approach stands in contradistinction to prior approaches in (1) the macroscopic size range (the size range of conventional design and fabrication, characterized by overall device dimensions of many centimeters) and (2) the microscopic size range [the size range of microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), characterized by overall device dimensions of the order of a millimeter or less]. The mesoscale approach offers some of the advantage of the MEMS approach (sizes and power demands smaller than those of the macroscale approach) and some of the advantage of the macroscale approach (the possibility of achieving relative dimensional precision greater than that of the MEMS approach). Relative dimensional precision is a major issue in the operation of a vibratory gyroscope. The heart of a vibratory gyroscope is a mechanical resonator that is required to have a specified symmetry in a plane orthogonal to the axis about which rotation is to be measured. If the resonator could be perfectly symmetrical, then in the absence of rotation, a free vibration of the resonator could remain fixed along any orientation relative to its housing; that is, the gyroscope could exhibit zero drift. In practice, manufacturing imprecision gives rise to some asymmetry in mass, flexural stiffness or dissipation, resulting in a slight drift or beating motion of an initial vibration pattern that cannot be distinguished from rotation. In the mesoscale approach, one exploits the following concepts: For a given amount of dimensional error generated in manufacturing, the asymmetry and hence the rate-of-rotation drift of the gyroscope can be reduced by increasing the scale. The decrease in asymmetry also reduces coupling of vibrations to the

  4. STATISTICAL MECHANICS MODELING OF MESOSCALE DEFORMATION IN METALS

    SciTech Connect

    Anter El-Azab

    2013-04-08

    The research under this project focused on a theoretical and computational modeling of dislocation dynamics of mesoscale deformation of metal single crystals. Specifically, the work aimed to implement a continuum statistical theory of dislocations to understand strain hardening and cell structure formation under monotonic loading. These aspects of crystal deformation are manifestations of the evolution of the underlying dislocation system under mechanical loading. The project had three research tasks: 1) Investigating the statistical characteristics of dislocation systems in deformed crystals. 2) Formulating kinetic equations of dislocations and coupling these kinetics equations and crystal mechanics. 3) Computational solution of coupled crystal mechanics and dislocation kinetics. Comparison of dislocation dynamics predictions with experimental results in the area of statistical properties of dislocations and their field was also a part of the proposed effort. In the first research task, the dislocation dynamics simulation method was used to investigate the spatial, orientation, velocity, and temporal statistics of dynamical dislocation systems, and on the use of the results from this investigation to complete the kinetic description of dislocations. The second task focused on completing the formulation of a kinetic theory of dislocations that respects the discrete nature of crystallographic slip and the physics of dislocation motion and dislocation interaction in the crystal. Part of this effort also targeted the theoretical basis for establishing the connection between discrete and continuum representation of dislocations and the analysis of discrete dislocation simulation results within the continuum framework. This part of the research enables the enrichment of the kinetic description with information representing the discrete dislocation systems behavior. The third task focused on the development of physics-inspired numerical methods of solution of the coupled

  5. Numerical photochemical modeling over Madrid (Spain) mesoscale urban area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    San Jose, Roberto; Ramirez-Montesinos, Arturo; Marcelo, Luis M.; Sanz, Miguel A.; Rodriguez, Luis M.

    1995-09-01

    Photochemical air quality models provide the most defensible method for relating future air quality to changes in emission, and hence are the foundation for determining the effectiveness of proposed control strategies. In this contribution, we will show results from different photochemical schemes under typical emission conditions for a summer day in the Madrid mesocsale urban area. We will show that complex numerical integrated urban mesoscale models are a powerful tool to predict the ozone levels on this area. The comparison of model simulations at different grid points show an acceptable preliminary behavior. The results presented in this paper are prepared for August 15th, 1991 and the predicted ozone values are compared with those measured at two stations of the Madrid city monitoring network. Results show that the shape is successfully predicted by using the NUFOMO (numerical photochemical model) model. Because of the computer limitations, we have limited the results to this case study. Further investigations will provide additional information to produce a statistical analysis of the results. However, preliminary results show that the NUFOMO model is able to reproduce the measured ozone values.

  6. Meso-scale turbulence in living fluids

    PubMed Central

    Wensink, Henricus H.; Dunkel, Jörn; Heidenreich, Sebastian; Drescher, Knut; Goldstein, Raymond E.; Löwen, Hartmut; Yeomans, Julia M.

    2012-01-01

    Turbulence is ubiquitous, from oceanic currents to small-scale biological and quantum systems. Self-sustained turbulent motion in microbial suspensions presents an intriguing example of collective dynamical behavior among the simplest forms of life and is important for fluid mixing and molecular transport on the microscale. The mathematical characterization of turbulence phenomena in active nonequilibrium fluids proves even more difficult than for conventional liquids or gases. It is not known which features of turbulent phases in living matter are universal or system-specific or which generalizations of the Navier–Stokes equations are able to describe them adequately. Here, we combine experiments, particle simulations, and continuum theory to identify the statistical properties of self-sustained meso-scale turbulence in active systems. To study how dimensionality and boundary conditions affect collective bacterial dynamics, we measured energy spectra and structure functions in dense Bacillus subtilis suspensions in quasi-2D and 3D geometries. Our experimental results for the bacterial flow statistics agree well with predictions from a minimal model for self-propelled rods, suggesting that at high concentrations the collective motion of the bacteria is dominated by short-range interactions. To provide a basis for future theoretical studies, we propose a minimal continuum model for incompressible bacterial flow. A detailed numerical analysis of the 2D case shows that this theory can reproduce many of the experimentally observed features of self-sustained active turbulence. PMID:22908244

  7. Space shuttle/mesoscale lightning experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, O. H., Jr.; Vonnegut, B.; Brook, M.

    1985-01-01

    A payload integration plan (PIP) is now being developed with Johnson Space Center integration personnel which covers management, structural thermal, electrical power/avionics, training, ground operations, safety requirements, etc., in support of this experiment. If a Shuttle flight can be identified, researchers hope to conduct the experiment in the late summer or fall of 1985. Some preliminary TV lightning data has been collected by Shuttle crews on 41D and 51D and researchers are doing an analysis of it. Additional flights will be conducted to obtain data on Mesoscale Lightning Observations. Researchers will continue to study how to improve the data collection using the onboard TV cameras. By more interaction with the crews who have used the TV camera to obtain TV of lightning, they are planning to optimize the crew time and have better TV camera operations management to produce more useful data. As the crews are better trained in the use of the gain control settings and/or camera iris operations, the quality of the TV data will be improved.

  8. Mesoscale elastic properties of marine sponge spicules.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaqi; Reed, Bryan W; Chung, Frank R; Koski, Kristie J

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponge spicules are silicate fibers with an unusual combination of fracture toughness and optical light propagation properties due to their micro- and nano-scale hierarchical structure. We present optical measurements of the elastic properties of Tethya aurantia and Euplectella aspergillum marine sponge spicules using non-invasive Brillouin and Raman laser light scattering, thus probing the hierarchical structure on two very different scales. On the scale of single bonds, as probed by Raman scattering, the spicules resemble a combination of pure silica and mixed organic content. On the mesoscopic scale probed by Brillouin scattering, we show that while some properties (Young's moduli, shear moduli, one of the anisotropic Poisson ratios and refractive index) are nearly the same as those of artificial optical fiber, other properties (uniaxial moduli, bulk modulus and a distinctive anisotropic Poisson ratio) are significantly smaller. Thus this natural composite of largely isotropic materials yields anisotropic elastic properties on the mesoscale. We show that the spicules' optical waveguide properties lead to pronounced spontaneous Brillouin backscattering, a process related to the stimulated Brillouin backscattering process well known in artificial glass fibers. These measurements provide a clearer picture of the interplay of flexibility, strength, and material microstructure for future functional biomimicry. PMID:26672719

  9. Mesoscale mechanics of twisting carbon nanotube yarns.

    PubMed

    Mirzaeifar, Reza; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J

    2015-03-12

    Fabricating continuous macroscopic carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns with mechanical properties close to individual CNTs remains a major challenge. Spinning CNT fibers and ribbons for enhancing the weak interactions between the nanotubes is a simple and efficient method for fabricating high-strength and tough continuous yarns. Here we investigate the mesoscale mechanics of twisting CNT yarns using full atomistic and coarse grained molecular dynamics simulations, considering concurrent mechanisms at multiple length-scales. To investigate the mechanical response of such a complex structure without losing insights into the molecular mechanism, we applied a multiscale strategy. The full atomistic results are used for training a coarse grained model for studying larger systems consisting of several CNTs. The mesoscopic model parameters are updated as a function of the twist angle, based on the full atomistic results, in order to incorporate the atomistic scale deformation mechanisms in larger scale simulations. By bridging across two length scales, our model is capable of accurately predicting the mechanical behavior of twisted yarns while the atomistic level deformations in individual nanotubes are integrated into the model by updating the parameters. Our results focused on studying a bundle of close packed nanotubes provide novel mechanistic insights into the spinning of CNTs. Our simulations reveal how twisting a bundle of CNTs improves the shear interaction between the nanotubes up to a certain level due to increasing the interaction surface. Furthermore, twisting the bundle weakens the intertube interactions due to excessive deformation in the cross sections of individual CNTs in the bundle. PMID:25732328

  10. Mesoscale mechanics of twisting carbon nanotube yarns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirzaeifar, Reza; Qin, Zhao; Buehler, Markus J.

    2015-03-01

    Fabricating continuous macroscopic carbon nanotube (CNT) yarns with mechanical properties close to individual CNTs remains a major challenge. Spinning CNT fibers and ribbons for enhancing the weak interactions between the nanotubes is a simple and efficient method for fabricating high-strength and tough continuous yarns. Here we investigate the mesoscale mechanics of twisting CNT yarns using full atomistic and coarse grained molecular dynamics simulations, considering concurrent mechanisms at multiple length-scales. To investigate the mechanical response of such a complex structure without losing insights into the molecular mechanism, we applied a multiscale strategy. The full atomistic results are used for training a coarse grained model for studying larger systems consisting of several CNTs. The mesoscopic model parameters are updated as a function of the twist angle, based on the full atomistic results, in order to incorporate the atomistic scale deformation mechanisms in larger scale simulations. By bridging across two length scales, our model is capable of accurately predicting the mechanical behavior of twisted yarns while the atomistic level deformations in individual nanotubes are integrated into the model by updating the parameters. Our results focused on studying a bundle of close packed nanotubes provide novel mechanistic insights into the spinning of CNTs. Our simulations reveal how twisting a bundle of CNTs improves the shear interaction between the nanotubes up to a certain level due to increasing the interaction surface. Furthermore, twisting the bundle weakens the intertube interactions due to excessive deformation in the cross sections of individual CNTs in the bundle.

  11. Approximate flavor symmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Rasin, A.

    1994-04-01

    We discuss the idea of approximate flavor symmetries. Relations between approximate flavor symmetries and natural flavor conservation and democracy models is explored. Implications for neutrino physics are also discussed.

  12. Using Coupled Mesoscale Experiments and Simulations to Investigate High Burn-Up Oxide Fuel Thermal Conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teague, Melissa C.; Fromm, Bradley S.; Tonks, Michael R.; Field, David P.

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear energy is a mature technology with a small carbon footprint. However, work is needed to make current reactor technology more accident tolerant and to allow reactor fuel to be burned in a reactor for longer periods of time. Optimizing the reactor fuel performance is essentially a materials science problem. The current understanding of fuel microstructure have been limited by the difficulty in studying the structure and chemistry of irradiated fuel samples at the mesoscale. Here, we take advantage of recent advances in experimental capabilities to characterize the microstructure in 3D of irradiated mixed oxide (MOX) fuel taken from two radial positions in the fuel pellet. We also reconstruct these microstructures using Idaho National Laboratory's MARMOT code and calculate the impact of microstructure heterogeneities on the effective thermal conductivity using mesoscale heat conduction simulations. The thermal conductivities of both samples are higher than the bulk MOX thermal conductivity because of the formation of metallic precipitates and because we do not currently consider phonon scattering due to defects smaller than the experimental resolution. We also used the results to investigate the accuracy of simple thermal conductivity approximations and equations to convert 2D thermal conductivities to 3D. It was found that these approximations struggle to predict the complex thermal transport interactions between metal precipitates and voids.

  13. Lost mold-rapid infiltration forming: Strength control in mesoscale 3Y-TZP ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antolino, Nicholas E.

    by a substrate. Numerous challenges were overcome that relate to the application of photoresist on a refractory substrate capable of withstanding the high temperatures needed to sinter the ceramic parts. Strength of approximately 1 GPa was achieved for the first parts produced, which demonstrated the feasibility of the LM-RIF process. Although respectable, a 1GPa strength is not as strong as would be predicted based on the small size (332 x 26 x 17 microm) of the parts. An effort to identify and eliminate the largest flaws in the specimen produced by the LM-RIF process was undertaken, which ultimately increased the average strength to 2.35 GPa. Geometric defects, previously unreported in ceramic microfabrication techniques, were degrading the strength of the early parts. An in-depth characterization of these defects by optical profilometry and then eliminating the underlying cause was the key to obtaining this high strength. One interesting phenomena discovered in this work was the role that the substrate plays in the sintering of the ceramic part through the enhanced diffusion pathways created by the more intimate contact of the mesoscale parts compared to macroscale analogs. Impurities of alumina and silica were found to adversely affect the sintering kinetics of mesoscale parts causing localized grain growth or exaggerated grain growth depending on the sintering conditions. The role that the microstructure, specifically the grain size, plays in determining the strength versus the role that the surface flaw population plays, as characterized by the surface roughness, was determined through isothermal sintering experiments. It was found that the strength of mesoscale ceramics lies in the transition region between the flaw-dominated stress intensity effect and the Hall-Petch microstructural effect. This proves that processing science and microstructural refinement about equally determine the strength of particulate based mesoscale materials. The hierarchical approach

  14. An Overview of Mesoscale Material Modeling with Eulerian Hydrocodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, David

    2013-06-01

    Eulerian hydrocodes were originally developed for simulating strong shocks in solids and fluids, but their ability to handle arbitrarily large deformations and the formation of new free surfaces makes them attractive for simulating the deformation and failure of materials at the mesoscopic scale. A summary of some of the numerical techniques that have been developed to address common issues for this class of problems is presented with the shock compression of powders used as a model problem. Achieving the correct packing density with the correct statistical distribution of particle sizes and shapes is, in itself, a challenging problem. However, since Eulerian codes permit multiple materials within each element, or cell, the material interfaces do not have to follow the mesh lines. The use of digital image processing to map the pixels of micrographs to the Eulerian mesh has proven to be a popular and useful means of creating accurate models of complex microstructures. Micro CT scans have been used to extend this approach to three dimensions for several classes of materials. The interaction between the particles is of considerable interest. During shock compression, individual particles may melt and form jets, and the voids between them collapse. Dynamic interface ordering has become a necessity, and many codes now have a suite of options for handling multi-material mechanics. True contact algorithms are now replacing multi-material approximations in some cases. At the mesoscale, material properties often vary spatially due to sub-scale effects. Using a large number of material species to represent the variations is usually unattractive. Directly specifying the properties point-wise as history variables has not proven successful because the limiters in the transport algorithms quickly smooth out the variations. Circumventing the limiter problem is shown to be relatively simple with the use of a reference configuration and the transport of the initial coordinates

  15. Intercomparison of state-of-the-art models for wind energy resources with mesoscale models:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Bjarke Tobias; Hahmann, Andrea N.; Sempreviva, Anna Maria; Badger, Jake; Joergensen, Hans E.

    2016-04-01

    1. Introduction Mesoscale models are increasingly being used to estimate wind conditions to identify perspective areas and sites where to develop wind farm projects. Mesoscale models are functional for giving information over extensive areas with various terrain complexities where measurements are scarce and measurement campaigns costly. Several mesoscale models and families of models are being used, and each often contains thousands of setup options. Since long-term integrations are expensive and tedious to carry out, only limited comparisons exist. To remedy this problem and for evaluating the capabilities of mesoscale models to estimate site wind conditions, a tailored benchmarking study has been co-organized by the European Wind Energy Association (EWEA) and the European Energy Research Alliance Joint Programme Wind Energy (EERA JP WIND). EWEA hosted results and ensured that participants were anonymous. The blind evaluation was performed at the Wind Energy Department of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) with the following objectives: (1) To highlight common issues on mesoscale modelling of wind conditions on sites with different characteristics, and (2) To identify gaps and strengths of models and understand the root conditions for further evaluating uncertainties. 2. Approach Three experimental sites were selected: FINO 3 (offshore, GE), Høvsore (coastal, DK), and Cabauw (land-based, NL), and three other sites without observations based on . The three mast sites were chosen because the availability of concurrent suitable time series of vertical profiles of winds speed and other surface parameters. The participants were asked to provide hourly time series of wind speed, wind direction, temperature, etc., at various vertical heights for a complete year. The methodology used to derive the time series was left to the choice of the participants, but they were asked for a brief description of their model and many other parameters (e.g., horizontal and

  16. Mesoscale Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Feedbacks in Boundary Current Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Putrasahan, Dian Ariyani

    The focus of this dissertation is on studying ocean-atmosphere (OA) interactions in the Humboldt Current System (HCS) and Kuroshio Extension (KE) region using satellite observations and the Scripps Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere Regional (SCOAR) model. Within SCOAR, a new technique is introduced by implementing an interactive 2-D spatial smoother within the SST-flux coupler to remove the mesoscale SST field felt by the atmosphere. This procedure allows large-scale SST coupling to be preserved while extinguishing the mesoscale eddy impacts on the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). This technique provides insights to spatial-scale dependence of OA coupling, and the impact of mesoscale features on both the ABL and the surface ocean. For the HCS, the use of downscaled forcing from SCOAR, as compared to NCEP Reanalysis 2, proves to be more appropriate in quantifying wind-driven upwelling indices along the coast of Peru and Chile. The difference in their wind stress distribution has significant impact on the wind-driven upwelling processes and total upwelling transport along the coast. Although upwelling induced by coastal Ekman transport dominates the wind-driven upwelling along coastal areas, Ekman pumping can account for 30% of the wind-driven upwelling in several coastal locations. Control SCOAR shows significant SST-wind stress coupling during fall and winter, while Smoothed SCOAR shows insignificant coupling throughout, indicating the important role of ocean mesoscale eddies on air-sea coupling in HCS. The SST-wind stress coupling however, did not produce any rectified response on the ocean eddies. Coupling between SST, wind speed and latent heat flux is insignificant on large-scale coupling and full coupling mode. On the other hand, coupling between these three variables are significant on the mesoscale for most of the model run, which suggests that mesoscale SST affects latent heat through direct flux anomalies as well as indirectly through stability changes on the

  17. Global Variability of Mesoscale Convective System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuan, J.; Houze, R. A., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) in the tropics produce extensive anvil clouds, which significantly affect the transfer of radiation. This study develops an objective method to identify MCSs and their anvils by combining data from three A-train satellite instruments: Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) for cloud-top size and coldness, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) for rain area size and intensity, and CloudSat for horizontal and vertical dimensions of anvils. The authors distinguish three types of MCSs: small and large separated MCSs and connected MCSs. The latter are MCSs sharing a contiguous rain area. Mapping of the objectively identified MCSs shows patterns of MCSs that are consistent with previous studies of tropical convection, with separated MCSs dominant over Africa and the Amazon regions and connected MCSs favored over the warm pool of the Indian and west Pacific Oceans. By separating the anvil from the raining regions of MCSs, this study leads to quantitative global maps of anvil coverage. These maps are consistent with the MCS analysis, and they lay the foundation for estimating the global radiative effects of anvil clouds. CloudSat radar data show that the modal thickness of MCS anvils is about 4--5 km. Anvils are mostly confined to within 1.5--2 times the equivalent radii of the primary rain areas of the MCSs. Over the warm pool, they may extend out to about 5 times the rain area radii. The warm ocean MCSs tend to have thicker non-raining and lightly raining anvils near the edges of their actively raining regions, indicating that anvils are generated in and spread out from the primary raining regions of the MCSs. Thicker anvils are nearly absent over continental regions.

  18. Mesoscale Icefield Breezes over Athbasca Glacier.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, J. P.; Helgason, W.; Pomeroy, J. W.; Sicart, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) dynamics over glaciers are of great interest as they can modify the response of glacier mass balance to large scale climate forcing. A key feature of the glacier ABL is formation of katabatic winds driven by turbulent sensible heat exchange with a cooler underlying ice surface. These winds can markedly alter the spatio-temporal distribution of air temperature over glacier surfaces from the environmental lapse rate, which in turn affects the distribution of melt. An intensive field campaign was conducted over 13 days in June 2015 at Athabasca Glacier, an outlet of Columbia Icefield in the Rocky Mountains of Canada. Multiple automatic weather stations, eddy covariance systems, distributed temperature sensors, SODAR and kite profiling systems were used to characterise how the glacier ABL evolved spatially and temporally, how the differences in glacier ABL properties were related to valley and regional circulation and what effect these differences had on surface lapse rates. In general strong daytime down-glacier winds were observed over the glacier. These winds extended well beyond the glacier into the proglacial area and through the depth of lower ice-free valley. On most days wind speed was consistent or increasing through to the top of the above-glacier profiles (100 to 200 m), indicating a quite well mixed surface boundary layer. A wind speed maximum in the lowest few metres above the glacier surface, characteristic of a katabatic wind, was only observed on one day. The dominant circulation within the valley appears to be what could be termed an 'icefield breeze'; strong down-glacier winds driven by mesoscale pressure gradients that are set up by differential suface heating over the non-glaciated valleys and much the larger Columbia Icefield upstream of the glacier. The effect of the different circulations on lapse rates will be explored with a view to developing variable lapse rates for modelling glacier mass balance.

  19. Spin glass dynamics at the mesoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guchhait, Samaresh; Kenning, Gregory G.; Orbach, Raymond L.; Rodriguez, Gilberto F.

    2015-01-01

    The mesoscale allows a new probe of spin glass dynamics. Because the spin glass lower critical dimension dl>2 , the growth of the correlation length ξ (t ,T ) can change the nature of the spin glass state at a crossover time tco when ξ (tco,T )=ℓ , a minimum characteristic sample length (e.g., film thickness for thin films and crystallite size for bulk samples). For thin films, and times t tco , a crossover to d =2 behavior takes place. The parallel correlation length, associated with a Tg=0 transition, increases in time from the saturated value of the perpendicular correlation length ℓ to an equilibrium value of the parallel correlation length proportional to T-ν. This results in a pancakelike correlated state, with a thickness ℓ and a temperature-dependent in-plane radius that increases with decreasing temperature. Activated dynamics is associated with these states. Measurements on Cu:Mn thin films are analyzed quantitatively within this framework. We extract a temperature-dependent activation energy from a fit to the frequency dependence of the dynamic susceptibility. The extrapolated temperature at which the activation energy would become large is close to the extrapolated glass transition temperature from ac susceptibility measurements. All known relevant experimental data are consistent with this approach. For polycrystalline materials, there is a distribution of length scales P (ℓ ) . For sufficiently broad distributions, a logarithmic time dependence is derived for the time decay of the thermoremanent magnetization MTRM(t ,T ) using an approach originally derived by Ma. Properties dependent upon an effective waiting time tweff are derived that are consistent with experiment, and further measurements are suggested.

  20. A mesoscale vortex over Halley Station, Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.; Lachlan-Cope, T.A.; Warren, D.E. ); Duncan, C.N. )

    1993-05-01

    A detailed analysis of the evolution and structure of a mesoscale vortex and associated cloud comma that developed at the eastern edge of the Weddell Sea, Antarctica, during the early part of January 1986 is presented. The system remained quasi-stationary for over three days close to the British research station Halley (75[degrees]36'S, 26'42[degrees]W) and gave severe weather with gale-force winds and prolonged snow. The formation and development of the system were investigated using conventional surface and upper-air meteorological observations taken at Halley, analyses from the U.K. Meteorological Office 15-level model, and satellite imagery and sounder data from the TIROS-N-NOAA series of polar orbiting satellites. The thermal structure of the vortex was examined using atmospheric profiles derived from radiance measurements from the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder. Details of the wind field were examined using cloud motion vectors derived from a sequence of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer images. The vortex developed inland of the Brunt Ice Shelf in a strong baroclinic zone separating warm air, which had been advected polewards down the eastern Weddell Sea, and cold air descending from the Antarctic Plateau. The system intensified when cold, continental air associated with an upper-level short-wave trough was advected into the vortex. A frontal cloud band developed when slantwise ascent of warm air took place at the leading edge of the cold-air outbreak. Most of the precipitation associated with the low occurred on this cloud band. The small sea surface-atmospheric temperature differences gave only limited heat fluxes and there was no indication of deep convection associated with the system. The vortex was driven by baroclinic forcing and had some features in common with the baroclinic type of polar lows that occur in the Northern Hemisphere. 25 refs., 14 figs.

  1. A daily global mesoscale ocean eddy dataset from satellite altimetry.

    PubMed

    Faghmous, James H; Frenger, Ivy; Yao, Yuanshun; Warmka, Robert; Lindell, Aron; Kumar, Vipin

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale ocean eddies are ubiquitous coherent rotating structures of water with radial scales on the order of 100 kilometers. Eddies play a key role in the transport and mixing of momentum and tracers across the World Ocean. We present a global daily mesoscale ocean eddy dataset that contains ~45 million mesoscale features and 3.3 million eddy trajectories that persist at least two days as identified in the AVISO dataset over a period of 1993-2014. This dataset, along with the open-source eddy identification software, extract eddies with any parameters (minimum size, lifetime, etc.), to study global eddy properties and dynamics, and to empirically estimate the impact eddies have on mass or heat transport. Furthermore, our open-source software may be used to identify mesoscale features in model simulations and compare them to observed features. Finally, this dataset can be used to study the interaction between mesoscale ocean eddies and other components of the Earth System. PMID:26097744

  2. A daily global mesoscale ocean eddy dataset from satellite altimetry

    PubMed Central

    Faghmous, James H.; Frenger, Ivy; Yao, Yuanshun; Warmka, Robert; Lindell, Aron; Kumar, Vipin

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscale ocean eddies are ubiquitous coherent rotating structures of water with radial scales on the order of 100 kilometers. Eddies play a key role in the transport and mixing of momentum and tracers across the World Ocean. We present a global daily mesoscale ocean eddy dataset that contains ~45 million mesoscale features and 3.3 million eddy trajectories that persist at least two days as identified in the AVISO dataset over a period of 1993–2014. This dataset, along with the open-source eddy identification software, extract eddies with any parameters (minimum size, lifetime, etc.), to study global eddy properties and dynamics, and to empirically estimate the impact eddies have on mass or heat transport. Furthermore, our open-source software may be used to identify mesoscale features in model simulations and compare them to observed features. Finally, this dataset can be used to study the interaction between mesoscale ocean eddies and other components of the Earth System. PMID:26097744

  3. Development and analysis of prognostic equations for mesoscale kinetic energy and mesoscale (subgrid scale) fluxes for large-scale atmospheric models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avissar, Roni; Chen, Fei

    1993-01-01

    Generated by landscape discontinuities (e.g., sea breezes) mesoscale circulation processes are not represented in large-scale atmospheric models (e.g., general circulation models), which have an inappropiate grid-scale resolution. With the assumption that atmospheric variables can be separated into large scale, mesoscale, and turbulent scale, a set of prognostic equations applicable in large-scale atmospheric models for momentum, temperature, moisture, and any other gaseous or aerosol material, which includes both mesoscale and turbulent fluxes is developed. Prognostic equations are also developed for these mesoscale fluxes, which indicate a closure problem and, therefore, require a parameterization. For this purpose, the mean mesoscale kinetic energy (MKE) per unit of mass is used, defined as E-tilde = 0.5 (the mean value of u'(sub i exp 2), where u'(sub i) represents the three Cartesian components of a mesoscale circulation (the angle bracket symbol is the grid-scale, horizontal averaging operator in the large-scale model, and a tilde indicates a corresponding large-scale mean value). A prognostic equation is developed for E-tilde, and an analysis of the different terms of this equation indicates that the mesoscale vertical heat flux, the mesoscale pressure correlation, and the interaction between turbulence and mesoscale perturbations are the major terms that affect the time tendency of E-tilde. A-state-of-the-art mesoscale atmospheric model is used to investigate the relationship between MKE, landscape discontinuities (as characterized by the spatial distribution of heat fluxes at the earth's surface), and mesoscale sensible and latent heat fluxes in the atmosphere. MKE is compared with turbulence kinetic energy to illustrate the importance of mesoscale processes as compared to turbulent processes. This analysis emphasizes the potential use of MKE to bridge between landscape discontinuities and mesoscale fluxes and, therefore, to parameterize mesoscale fluxes

  4. Automated Identification of Closed Mesoscale Cellular Convection and Impact of Resolution on Related Mesoscale Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martini, M.; Gustafson, W. I.; Yang, Q.; Xiao, H.

    2013-12-01

    Organized mesoscale cellular convection (MCC) is a common feature of marine stratocumulus that forms in response to a balance between mesoscale dynamics and smaller scale processes such as cloud radiative cooling and microphysics. Cloud resolving models begin to resolve some, but not all, of these processes with less of the mesoscale dynamics resolved as one progresses from <1 km to 10 km grid spacing. While limited domain cloud resolving models can use high resolution to simulate MCC, global cloud resolving models must resort to using grid spacings closer to 5 to 10 km. This effectively truncates the scales through which the dynamics can act and impacts the MCC characteristics, potentially altering the climate impact of these clouds in climate models. To understand the impact of this truncation, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and fully coupled cloud-aerosol interactions to simulate marine low clouds during the VOCALS-REx campaign over the Southeast Pacific. A suite of experiments with 1-, 3- and 9-km grid spacing indicates resolution dependent behavior. The simulations with finer grid spacing have lower liquid water paths and cloud fractions, while cloud tops are higher. When compared to observed liquid water paths from GOES and MODIS, the 3-km simulation has better agreement over the coastal regions while the 9-km simulation better agrees over remote regions. The observed diurnal cycle is reasonably well simulated. To isolate organized MCC characteristics we developed a new automated method, which uses a variation of the watershed segmentation technique that combines the detection of cloud boundaries with a test for coincident vertical velocity characteristics. This has the advantage of ensuring that the detected cloud fields are dynamically consistent for closed MCC and helps minimize false detections from secondary circulations. We demonstrate that the 3-km simulation is able to reproduce the scaling between

  5. Mesoscale and sub-mesoscale variability in phytoplankton community composition in the Sargasso Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotti-Rausch, Bridget E.; Lomas, Michael W.; Lachenmyer, Eric M.; Goldman, Emily A.; Bell, Douglas W.; Goldberg, Stacey R.; Richardson, Tammi L.

    2016-04-01

    The Sargasso Sea is a dynamic physical environment in which strong seasonal variability combines with forcing by mesoscale (~100 km) eddies. These drivers determine nutrient, light, and temperature regimes and, ultimately, the composition and productivity of the phytoplankton community. On four cruises (2011 and 2012; one eddy per cruise), we investigated links between water column structure and phytoplankton community composition in the Sargasso at a range of time and space scales. On all cruises, cyanobacteria (Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus) dominated the phytoplankton numerically, while haptophytes were the dominant eukaryotes (up to 60% of total chl-a). There were substantial effects of mesoscale and sub-mesoscale forcing on phytoplankton community composition in both spring and summer. Downwelling (in anticyclones) resulted in Prochlorococcus abundances that were 22-66% higher than at 'outside' stations. Upwelling (in cyclones) was associated with significantly higher abundances and POC biomass of nanoeukaryotes. In general, however, each eddy had its own unique characteristics. The center of anticyclone AC1 (spring 2011) had the lowest phytoplankton biomass (chl-a) of any eddy we studied and had lower nitrate+nitrite (N+N <5 mmol m-2) and eukaryote chl-a biomass as compared to its edge and to the Bermuda Atlantic Time-Series station (BATS). At the center of cyclone C1 (summer 2011), we observed uplift of the 26.5 kg m-3 isopycnal and high nutrient inventories (N+N=74±46 mmol m-2). We also observed significantly higher haptophyte chl-a (non-coccolithophores) and lower cyanobacterial chl-a at the center and edge of C1 as compared to outside the eddy at BATS. Cyclone C2 (spring 2012) exhibited a deep mixed layer, yet had relatively low nutrient concentrations. We observed a shift in the taxonomic composition of haptophytes between a coccolithophore-dominated community in C2 (98% of total haptophyte chl-a) and a non-coccolithophore community at BATS. In

  6. Simulating wind energy resources with mesoscale models: Intercomparison of state-of-the-art models over Northern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahmann, A. N.

    2015-12-01

    Mesoscale models are increasingly being used to estimate wind conditions to identify perspective areas and sites where to develop wind farm projects. Mesoscale models are useful because they give information over extensive areas with various terrain complexities where measurements are scarce and measurement campaigns costly. Various mesoscale models and families of mesoscale models are being used, with thousands of setup options. Since long-term integrations are expensive and tedious to carry out, only limited comparisons exist. We have carried out a blind benchmarking study to evaluate the capabilities of mesoscale models used in wind energy to estimate site wind conditions: to highlight common issues on mesoscale modeling of wind conditions on sites with different characteristics, and to identify gaps and strengths of models and understand the root conditions for further evaluating uncertainties. Three experimental sites with tall mast measurements were selected: FINO3 (offshore), Høvsøre (coastal), and Cabauw (land-based). The participants were asked to provide hourly time series of wind speed and direction, temperature, etc., at various heights for 2011. The methods used were left to the choice of the participants, but they were asked for a detailed description of their model and many other parameters (e.g., horizontal and vertical resolution, model parameterizations, surface roughness length) that could be used to group the models and interpret the results of the intercomparison. The analysis of the time series includes comparison to observations, summarized with well-known measures such as biases, RMSE, correlations, and of sector-wise statistics, and the temporal spectra. The statistics were grouped by the models, their spatial resolution, forcing data, various integration methods, etc. The results show high fidelity of the various entries in simulating the wind climate at the offshore and coastal site. Over land and the statistics of other derived fields

  7. Molecular Origins of Mesoscale Ordering in a Metalloamphiphile Phase.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Baofu; Ferru, Geoffroy; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Ellis, Ross J

    2015-12-23

    Controlling the assembly of soft and deformable molecular aggregates into mesoscale structures is essential for understanding and developing a broad range of processes including rare earth extraction and cleaning of water, as well as for developing materials with unique properties. By combined synchrotron small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering with large-scale atomistic molecular dynamics simulations we analyze here a metalloamphiphile-oil solution that organizes on multiple length scales. The molecules associate into aggregates, and aggregates flocculate into meso-ordered phases. Our study demonstrates that dipolar interactions, centered on the amphiphile headgroup, bridge ionic aggregate cores and drive aggregate flocculation. By identifying specific intermolecular interactions that drive mesoscale ordering in solution, we bridge two different length scales that are classically addressed separately. Our results highlight the importance of individual intermolecular interactions in driving mesoscale ordering. PMID:27163014

  8. Molecular Origins of Mesoscale Ordering in a Metalloamphiphile Phase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Controlling the assembly of soft and deformable molecular aggregates into mesoscale structures is essential for understanding and developing a broad range of processes including rare earth extraction and cleaning of water, as well as for developing materials with unique properties. By combined synchrotron small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering with large-scale atomistic molecular dynamics simulations we analyze here a metalloamphiphile–oil solution that organizes on multiple length scales. The molecules associate into aggregates, and aggregates flocculate into meso-ordered phases. Our study demonstrates that dipolar interactions, centered on the amphiphile headgroup, bridge ionic aggregate cores and drive aggregate flocculation. By identifying specific intermolecular interactions that drive mesoscale ordering in solution, we bridge two different length scales that are classically addressed separately. Our results highlight the importance of individual intermolecular interactions in driving mesoscale ordering. PMID:27163014

  9. Mesoscale dynamics of southern California's climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Mimi Rose Abel

    Climate in areas of complex topography has features commensurate with the spatial scales of the topography itself that are important to humans and ecosystems, yet previous climate studies have only been able to resolve hundreds of kilometers. This dissertation investigates three mesoscale climate features in an area of complex, varied topography, Southern California. The primary dataset is a 12-year, 6 km horizontal resolution downscaling of an atmospheric reanalysis dataset, proven to well-represent the relevant regional climate and weather features. The three aspects investigated are the diurnal wind and surface air temperature system, the processes that determine the climatological distribution of precipitation, and the dynamics controlling the formation of severe offshore winds (i.e., Santa Ana winds). The amplitude and timing of the diurnal cycle of surface air temperature are found to be strongly influenced by the diurnal wind system. The strong upslope (downslope) daytime (nighttime) winds moderate the amplitude of the diurnal maximum (minimum) at high elevations by advecting potentially cooler (warmer) air toward the peaks, in the same way that the sea breeze moderates coastal temperatures. In addition to reducing the amplitude of the surface air temperature diurnal cycle, these winds affect the timing by shifting daily maximum (minimum) to earlier in the day (night). Orographic processes, including orographic blocking, primarily control Southern California's precipitation distribution. When blocking occurs, it shifts the precipitation upstream of the coastal mountains, weakening the relationship between precipitation and elevation gradient. Blocking occurs a large percentage of the time, and therefore substantially impacts the climatological distribution of precipitation, increasing (decreasing) rainfall at low (high) elevations from that predicted by the state-of-the-art diagnostic orographic precipitation model. The dynamics causing strong Santa Ana (SA

  10. Deterministic, Nanoscale Fabrication of Mesoscale Objects

    SciTech Connect

    Jr., R M; Gilmer, J; Rubenchik, A; Shirk, M

    2004-12-08

    Neither LLNL nor any other organization has the capability to perform deterministic fabrication of mm-sized objects with arbitrary, {micro}m-sized, 3-D features and with 100-nm-scale accuracy and smoothness. This is particularly true for materials such as high explosives and low-density aerogels, as well as materials such as diamond and vanadium. The motivation for this project was to investigate the physics and chemistry that control the interactions of solid surfaces with laser beams and ion beams, with a view towards their applicability to the desired deterministic fabrication processes. As part of this LDRD project, one of our goals was to advance the state of the art for experimental work, but, in order to create ultimately a deterministic capability for such precision micromachining, another goal was to form a new modeling/simulation capability that could also extend the state of the art in this field. We have achieved both goals. In this project, we have, for the first time, combined a 1-D hydrocode (''HYADES'') with a 3-D molecular dynamics simulator (''MDCASK'') in our modeling studies. In FY02 and FY03, we investigated the ablation/surface-modification processes that occur on copper, gold, and nickel substrates with the use of sub-ps laser pulses. In FY04, we investigated laser ablation of carbon, including laser-enhanced chemical reaction on the carbon surface for both vitreous carbon and carbon aerogels. Both experimental and modeling results will be presented in the report that follows. The immediate impact of our investigation was a much better understanding of the chemical and physical processes that ensure when solid materials are exposed to femtosecond laser pulses. More broadly, we have better positioned LLNL to design a cluster tool for fabricating mesoscale objects utilizing laser pulses and ion-beams as well as more traditional machining/manufacturing techniques for applications such as components in NIF targets, remote sensors, including

  11. Squipabot: A Mesoscale Parallel Robot for a Laser Phonosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabenorosoa, Kanty; Tasca, Bastien; Zerbib, Antonin; Rougeot, Patrick; Andreff, Nicolas; Eakkachai Pengwang, Ton

    2015-10-01

    This article presents the design of a mesoscale robot for laser phonosurgery. The proposed design is situated between conventional mechanism and MEMS technology. A combination of compliant structures and innovative micromotors enables to achieve a two decoupled tilting angle, a high range (up to 45°), and a precise positioning of a laser beam. The design methodology and the optimization of the compliant structure are detailed. Preliminary results and tests are described, which have induced promising performances of the mesoscale robot for laser steering.

  12. Recent Applications of Mesoscale Modeling to Nanotechnology and Drug Delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Maiti, A; Wescott, J; Kung, P; Goldbeck-Wood, G

    2005-02-11

    Mesoscale simulations have traditionally been used to investigate structural morphology of polymer in solution, melts and blends. Recently we have been pushing such modeling methods to important areas of Nanotechnology and Drug delivery that are well out of reach of classical molecular dynamics. This paper summarizes our efforts in three important emerging areas: (1) polymer-nanotube composites; (2) drug diffusivity through cell membranes; and (3) solvent exchange in nanoporous membranes. The first two applications are based on a bead-spring-based approach as encoded in the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) module. The last application used density-based Mesoscale modeling as implemented in the Mesodyn module.

  13. Budget study of a mesoscale convective system - Model simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Simpson, Joanne; Mccumber, Michael

    1988-01-01

    A tropical squall-type cloud cluster is examined as an example of a mesoscale convective complex. The precipitation growth processes and air circulations that develop in the convective and stratiform regions are studied using a data set generated from a time-dependent numerical cloud model. The relationship of the stratiform region of the mesoscale convective complex is discussed. The vertical profiles of heating and drying are calculated. Comparisons are made between simulations with and without ice-phase microphysical processes and a simulation with forcing by weaker lifting at middle and upper levels.

  14. Review of structure representation and reconstruction on mesoscale and microscale

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Dongsheng

    2014-05-01

    Structure representation and reconstruction on mesoscale and microscale is critical in material design, advanced manufacturing and multiscale modeling. Microstructure reconstruction has been applied in different areas of materials science and technology, structural materials, energy materials, geology, hydrology, etc. This review summarizes the microstructure descriptors and formulations used to represent and algorithms to reconstruct structures at microscale and mesoscale. In the stochastic methods using correlation function, different optimization approaches have been adapted for objective function minimization. A variety of reconstruction approaches are compared in efficiency and accuracy.

  15. New Mesoscale Fluvial Landscapes - Seismic Geomorphology and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Megafans (100-600 km radius) are very large alluvial fans that cover significant areas on most continents, the surprising finding of recent global surveys. The number of such fans and patterns of sedimentation on them provides new mesoscale architectures that can now be applied on continental fluvial depositional systems, and therefore on. Megafan-scale reconstructions underground as yet have not been attempted. Seismic surveys offer new possibilities in identifying the following prospective situations at potentially unsuspected locations: (i) sand concentrations points, (ii) sand-mud continuums at the mesoscale, (iii) paleo-valley forms in these generally unvalleyed landscapes, (iv) stratigraphic traps, and (v) structural traps.

  16. Synoptic environment, mesoscale configurations and forecast parameters for hailstorms in Southwestern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, A.; García-Ortega, E.; López, L.; Sánchez, J. L.; Guerrero-Higueras, A. M.

    2013-03-01

    Forecasting hailstorms is an important challenge. Improving these forecasts is of vital importance to reduce the risks that this phenomenon causes to the environment and the population. This paper presents a methodology for the characterization of hailstorms in different scales by means of: the definition of the synoptic environment favorable to convection, the establishment of mesoscale configurations on hailstorm days, and an analysis of prediction parameters for the presence of hail. Simulations with the WRF model were done for 100 study days in which hailstorms were produced in the Middle Ebro Valley. The synoptic environment was defined from the average geopotential and temperature fields at 500 hPa. Using multivariate techniques of the Principal Component Analysis in T-Mode and a Cluster Analysis, four mesoscale configurations were defined for the fields of convective instability, water vapor flux divergence and wind flow and humidity at low layers. Finally, the study included several hail forecast parameters: CAPE, Storm Relative Helicity between 0 and 3 km (SRH0-3), Energy-Helicity Index (EHI) and Showalter Index (SI); making a comparison between hail/hail-free grid points, which allowed us to determine their values and thresholds in order to discern the presence of hail within convective precipitation areas. The analysis, along with these three basic ingredients, provides a very useful tool that allows for a good approximation for predicting storms with hail in the study area.

  17. Numerical simulations of mesoscale precipitation systems. Final progress report, 1 April-30 June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Dingle, A.N.

    1982-05-12

    A numerical model designed for the study of mesoscale weather phenomena is presented. It is a three-dimensional, time-dependent model based upon a mesoscale primitive-equation system, and it includes parameterizations of cloud and precipitation processes, boundary-layer transfers, and ground surface energy and moisture budgets. This model was used to simulate the lake-effect convergence over and in the lee of Lake Michigan in late fall and early winter. The lake-effect convergence is created in advected cold air as it moves first from cold land to the warm constant-temperature lake surface, and then on to cold land. A numerical experiment with a prevailing northwesterly wind is conducted for a period of twelve hours. Two local maxima of the total precipitation are observed along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. The results in this hypothetical case correspond quite well to the observed precipitation produced by a real event in which the hypothetical conditions are approximately fulfilled.

  18. Probabilistic flood damage modelling at the meso-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreibich, Heidi; Botto, Anna; Schröter, Kai; Merz, Bruno

    2014-05-01

    Decisions on flood risk management and adaptation are usually based on risk analyses. Such analyses are associated with significant uncertainty, even more if changes in risk due to global change are expected. Although uncertainty analysis and probabilistic approaches have received increased attention during the last years, they are still not standard practice for flood risk assessments. Most damage models have in common that complex damaging processes are described by simple, deterministic approaches like stage-damage functions. Novel probabilistic, multi-variate flood damage models have been developed and validated on the micro-scale using a data-mining approach, namely bagging decision trees (Merz et al. 2013). In this presentation we show how the model BT-FLEMO (Bagging decision Tree based Flood Loss Estimation MOdel) can be applied on the meso-scale, namely on the basis of ATKIS land-use units. The model is applied in 19 municipalities which were affected during the 2002 flood by the River Mulde in Saxony, Germany. The application of BT-FLEMO provides a probability distribution of estimated damage to residential buildings per municipality. Validation is undertaken on the one hand via a comparison with eight other damage models including stage-damage functions as well as multi-variate models. On the other hand the results are compared with official damage data provided by the Saxon Relief Bank (SAB). The results show, that uncertainties of damage estimation remain high. Thus, the significant advantage of this probabilistic flood loss estimation model BT-FLEMO is that it inherently provides quantitative information about the uncertainty of the prediction. Reference: Merz, B.; Kreibich, H.; Lall, U. (2013): Multi-variate flood damage assessment: a tree-based data-mining approach. NHESS, 13(1), 53-64.

  19. Producing approximate answers to database queries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vrbsky, Susan V.; Liu, Jane W. S.

    1993-01-01

    We have designed and implemented a query processor, called APPROXIMATE, that makes approximate answers available if part of the database is unavailable or if there is not enough time to produce an exact answer. The accuracy of the approximate answers produced improves monotonically with the amount of data retrieved to produce the result. The exact answer is produced if all of the needed data are available and query processing is allowed to continue until completion. The monotone query processing algorithm of APPROXIMATE works within the standard relational algebra framework and can be implemented on a relational database system with little change to the relational architecture. We describe here the approximation semantics of APPROXIMATE that serves as the basis for meaningful approximations of both set-valued and single-valued queries. We show how APPROXIMATE is implemented to make effective use of semantic information, provided by an object-oriented view of the database, and describe the additional overhead required by APPROXIMATE.

  20. Variational assimilation of VAS data into a mesoscale model Assimilation method and sensitivity experiments. [Visible Infrared Spin-Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cram, J. M.; Kaplan, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    The assimilation of temperature and moisture gradient information from the Visible IR Spin-Scan Radiometer's Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) into a mesoscale model is presently undertaken by means of a variational method and followed by tests of the sensitivity of both diabatic and adiabatic versions of the model to VAS data assimilations for the case of July 20-21, 1981. The synoptic scale effects of the assimilation of VAS data are noted to be negligible; the greatest impact was instead on mesoscale forecasts of convective instability patterns. The additional assimilation of relative humidity gradients did not significantly change the patterns of the forecast instabilities. The greatest improvements from assimilation resulted from the resolution of the strong mesoscale temperature gradients by the asynoptic VAS data.

  1. Calculator Function Approximation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schelin, Charles W.

    1983-01-01

    The general algorithm used in most hand calculators to approximate elementary functions is discussed. Comments on tabular function values and on computer function evaluation are given first; then the CORDIC (Coordinate Rotation Digital Computer) scheme is described. (MNS)

  2. The effect of urban canopy parameterizations on mesoscale meteorological model simulations in the Paso del Norte area

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.J.; Williams, M.D.

    1997-04-01

    Since mesoscale numerical models do not have the spatial resolution to directly simulate the fluid dynamics and thermodynamics in and around urban structures, urban canopy parameterizations are sometimes used to approximate the drag, heating, and enhanced turbulent kinetic energy (tke) produced by the sub-grid scale urban elements. In this paper, we investigate the effect of the urban canopy parameterizations used in the HOTMAC mesoscale meteorological model by turning the parameterizations on and off. The model simulations were performed in the Paso del Norte region, which includes the cities of El Paso and Ciudad Juarez, the Franklin and Sierra Juarez mountains, and the Rio Grande. The metropolitan area is surrounded by relatively barren scrubland and is intersected by strips of vegetation along the Rio Grande. Results indicate that the urban canopy parameterizations do affect the mesoscale flow field, reducing the magnitude of wind speed and changing the magnitude of the sensible heat flux and tke in the metropolitan area. A nighttime heat island and a daytime cool island exist when urban canopy parameters are turned on, but associated recirculation flows are not readily apparent. Model-computed solar, net, and longwave radiation values look reasonable, agreeing for the most part with published measurements.

  3. Approximate spatial reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Soumitra

    1988-01-01

    Much of human reasoning is approximate in nature. Formal models of reasoning traditionally try to be precise and reject the fuzziness of concepts in natural use and replace them with non-fuzzy scientific explicata by a process of precisiation. As an alternate to this approach, it has been suggested that rather than regard human reasoning processes as themselves approximating to some more refined and exact logical process that can be carried out with mathematical precision, the essence and power of human reasoning is in its capability to grasp and use inexact concepts directly. This view is supported by the widespread fuzziness of simple everyday terms (e.g., near tall) and the complexity of ordinary tasks (e.g., cleaning a room). Spatial reasoning is an area where humans consistently reason approximately with demonstrably good results. Consider the case of crossing a traffic intersection. We have only an approximate idea of the locations and speeds of various obstacles (e.g., persons and vehicles), but we nevertheless manage to cross such traffic intersections without any harm. The details of our mental processes which enable us to carry out such intricate tasks in such apparently simple manner are not well understood. However, it is that we try to incorporate such approximate reasoning techniques in our computer systems. Approximate spatial reasoning is very important for intelligent mobile agents (e.g., robots), specially for those operating in uncertain or unknown or dynamic domains.

  4. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches. PMID:25528318

  5. An open-source distributed mesoscale hydrologic model (mHM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samaniego, Luis; Kumar, Rohini; Zink, Matthias; Thober, Stephan; Mai, Juliane; Cuntz, Matthias; Schäfer, David; Schrön, Martin; Musuuza, Jude; Prykhodko, Vladyslav; Dalmasso, Giovanni; Attinger, Sabine; Spieler, Diana; Rakovec, Oldrich; Craven, John; Langenberg, Ben

    2014-05-01

    The mesoscale hydrological model (mHM) is based on numerical approximations of dominant hydrological processes that have been tested in various hydrological models such as: HBV and VIC. In general, mHM simulates the following processes: canopy interception, snow accumulation and melting, soil moisture dynamics (n-horizons), infiltration and surface runoff, evapotranspiration, subsurface storage and discharge generation, deep percolation and baseflow, and discharge attenuation and flood routing. The main characteristic of mHM is the treatment of the sub-grid variability of input variables and model parameters which clearly distinguishes this model from existing precipitation-runoff models or land surface models. It uses a Multiscale Parameter Regionalization (MPR) to account for the sub-grid variability and to avoid continuous re-calibration. Effective model parameters are location and time dependent (e.g., soil porosity). They are estimated through upscaling operators that link sub-grid morphologic information (e.g., soil texture) with global transfer-function parameters, which, in turn, are found through multi-basin optimization. Global parameters estimated with the MPR technique are quasi-scale invariant and guarantee flux-matching across scales. mHM is an open source code, written in Fortran 2003 (standard), fully modular, with high computational efficiency, and parallelized. It is portable to multiple platforms (Linux, OS X, Windows) and includes a number of algorithms for sensitivity analysis, analysis of parameter uncertainty (MCMC), and optimization (DDS, SA, SCE). All simulated state variables and outputs can be stored as netCDF files for further analysis and visualization. mHM has been evaluated in all major river basins in Germany and over 80 US and 250 European river basins. The model efficiency (NSE) during validation at proxy locations is on average greater than 0.6. During last years, mHM had been used for number of hydrologic applications such as

  6. Effects of mesoscale weather disturbances on contamination concentrations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kreitzberg, C.

    1984-01-30

    Mesoscale weather disturbances can have significant cleansing effects upon atmospheric contamination concentrations. The complicated dynamics of such disturbances make it difficult with present techniques to establish quantitative causal relationships between concentrations measured at sampling points and the magnitudes of contaminants inserted into the air at source points. 6 references, 1 figure.

  7. Mesoscale Monitoring of Soil Moisture Across a Statewide Network

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil moisture is an important component in many hydrologic and land-atmosphere interactions. Understanding the spatial and temporal nature of soil moisture on the mesoscale is vital to determine the influence that land surface processes have upon the atmosphere. Sensing devices to measure soil moi...

  8. Driving Mesoscale Processes with Global Data Assimilative Models (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bust, G. S.; Comberiate, J.; Datta-Barua, S.

    2013-12-01

    Global large scale ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) data assimilation methods have evolved to the point where they are able to estimate several IT state variables simultaneously over the entire globe.The large scale state variables estimated by data assimilative techniques can then be used to drive physical models of mesoscale and small scale processes. This allows for the possibility of being able to accurately predict mesoscale and small scale processes and structures from knowledge of the large scale driving physics. However, the accuracy of any such predictions will depend a) upon the accuracy of the estimated large scale state variables from data assimilation as well as b) the accuracy of the mesoscale and small scale models. In this presentation, we will focus upon the current capability of the data assimilation models IDA4D and EMPIRE to accurately estimate large scale IT state variables at equatorial latitudes. We will then discuss how these large scale state variables can be used to drive mesoscale models of the equatorial ionosphere and thermosphere. Results will be presented of large scale estimates of equatorial electron density and electric potential from analysis of IDA4D/EMPIRE and ingestion of C/NOFS observations

  9. Response of Deep Tropical Cumulus Clouds to Mesoscale Processes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soong, S.-T.; Tao, W.-K.

    1980-09-01

    The two-dimensional cloud ensemble model developed by Soong and Ogura (1980) is used to simulate the response of deep clouds to mesoscale lifting using data obtained in the Global Atmospheric Research Program (GARP) Atlantic Tropical Experiment (GATE). The input to the model includes the mesoscale vertical velocity, horizontal advections of temperature and mixing ratio of water vapor, radiative cooling and sea surface temperature. The cloud ensemble feedback effects due to the condensation and evaporation of cloud liquid drops and vertical fluxes of heat and moisture are determined by the model.The simulated upward mass flux inside the model clouds is about three times the mass flux due to mesoscale lifting. The downward mass flux inside clouds is also large, leaving a small downward mass flux in the cloud-free area. The major portion of the heat flux is produced by the updraft inside clouds. On the other hand, the moisture fluxes due to both updraft and downdraft are important. In the cloud-free area, the heat and moisture fluxes are both small due to the small mass flux in that area.Experiments with different magnitudes of mesoscale lifting generate different sizes of clouds and different cloud heating and moistening profiles. However, in each simulation, the changes of temperature and mixing ratio due to mesoscale processes are almost balanced by the cloud heating and drying effects, leaving only small temporal changes in the horizontal mean temperature and mixing ratio.In a simulation with only low-level lifting, a warming is generated in the middle levels. This warming can be important in producing higher level vertical lifting, which in turn could produce even higher clouds.

  10. Nanoporous TiO2 nanoparticle assemblies with mesoscale morphologies: nano-cabbage versus sea-anemone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbandi, Masih; Gebre, Tesfaye; Mitchell, Lucas; Erwin, William; Bardhan, Rizia; Levan, M. Douglas; Mochena, Mogus D.; Dickerson, James H.

    2014-05-01

    We report the novel synthesis of nanoporous TiO2 nanoparticle ensembles with unique mesoscale morphologies. Constituent nanoparticles evolved into multifaceted assemblies, exhibiting excellent crystallinity and enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with commercial TiO2. Such materials could be exploited for applications, like organic pollutant degradation.We report the novel synthesis of nanoporous TiO2 nanoparticle ensembles with unique mesoscale morphologies. Constituent nanoparticles evolved into multifaceted assemblies, exhibiting excellent crystallinity and enhanced photocatalytic activity compared with commercial TiO2. Such materials could be exploited for applications, like organic pollutant degradation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Synthesis and characterization procedures, TEM/XRD of samples prepared at different temperature and water content, table of nitrogen adsorption-desorption values of different samples. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr06154j

  11. Fast approximate motif statistics.

    PubMed

    Nicodème, P

    2001-01-01

    We present in this article a fast approximate method for computing the statistics of a number of non-self-overlapping matches of motifs in a random text in the nonuniform Bernoulli model. This method is well suited for protein motifs where the probability of self-overlap of motifs is small. For 96% of the PROSITE motifs, the expectations of occurrences of the motifs in a 7-million-amino-acids random database are computed by the approximate method with less than 1% error when compared with the exact method. Processing of the whole PROSITE takes about 30 seconds with the approximate method. We apply this new method to a comparison of the C. elegans and S. cerevisiae proteomes. PMID:11535175

  12. The Guiding Center Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, Thomas Sunn

    The guiding center approximation for charged particles in strong magnetic fields is introduced here. This approximation is very useful in situations where the charged particles are very well magnetized, such that the gyration (Larmor) radius is small compared to relevant length scales of the confinement device, and the gyration is fast relative to relevant timescales in an experiment. The basics of motion in a straight, uniform, static magnetic field are reviewed, and are used as a starting point for analyzing more complicated situations where more forces are present, as well as inhomogeneities in the magnetic field -- magnetic curvature as well as gradients in the magnetic field strength. The first and second adiabatic invariant are introduced, and slowly time-varying fields are also covered. As an example of the use of the guiding center approximation, the confinement concept of the cylindrical magnetic mirror is analyzed.

  13. Covariant approximation averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shintani, Eigo; Arthur, Rudy; Blum, Thomas; Izubuchi, Taku; Jung, Chulwoo; Lehner, Christoph

    2015-06-01

    We present a new class of statistical error reduction techniques for Monte Carlo simulations. Using covariant symmetries, we show that correlation functions can be constructed from inexpensive approximations without introducing any systematic bias in the final result. We introduce a new class of covariant approximation averaging techniques, known as all-mode averaging (AMA), in which the approximation takes account of contributions of all eigenmodes through the inverse of the Dirac operator computed from the conjugate gradient method with a relaxed stopping condition. In this paper we compare the performance and computational cost of our new method with traditional methods using correlation functions and masses of the pion, nucleon, and vector meson in Nf=2 +1 lattice QCD using domain-wall fermions. This comparison indicates that AMA significantly reduces statistical errors in Monte Carlo calculations over conventional methods for the same cost.

  14. Conquering the Mesoscale of Africa's Landscapes: deciphering the Genomic Record of Individuating Landforms with Geoecodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterill, Fenton P. D.

    2016-04-01

    geomorphology characterize Africa's older surfaces, many of which qualify as palimpsests: overwritten and reshaped repeatedly over timescales of 10 000-100 000 000 yr. Inheritance, equifinality, and exhumation are commonly invoked to explain such landscape patterns, but are difficult to measure and thus test; here Africa's vast, deep regoliths epitomize the starkness of these challenges facing researchers across much of the continent. These deficiencies and problems are magnified when we consider the knowledge we seek of African landscape evolution toward resolving the complex history of the African plate since its individuation. The credentials of this knowledge are prescribed by the evidence needed to test competing hypotheses, especially invoking first order determinants of landscape dynamics e.g. membrane tectonics (Oxburgh ER & Turcotte DL 1974. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 22:133-140) versus plumes (Foulger G 2013. Plates vs Plumes: A Geological Controversy. Wiley Blackwell). The evidence needed to test such competing hypotheses demands robust reconstructions of the individuated histories of landforms; in the African context, robustness pertains to the representativeness of events reconstructed in form and space (up to continental scales) and back through time from the Neogene into the Late Mesozoic. The ideal map of quantitative evidence must aim to integrate salient details in the trajectories of individuated landforms representing the principal landscapes of all Africa's margins, basins and watersheds. This in turn demands measurements - in mesoscale detail - of relief, drainage and regolith back though time, wherever keystone packages of evidence have survived Gondwana break up and its aftermath. Such a strategy is indeed ambitious, and it may well be dismissed as impractical. Nevertheless, the alternatives fall short. If it is to be representative of the history it purports to explain, we need the mesoscale facts to inform any narrative of a larger landscape (regional

  15. Physically consistent simulation of mesoscale chemical kinetics: The non-negative FIS- α method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dana, Saswati; Raha, Soumyendu

    2011-10-01

    Biochemical pathways involving chemical kinetics in medium concentrations (i.e., at mesoscale) of the reacting molecules can be approximated as chemical Langevin equations (CLE) systems. We address the physically consistent non-negative simulation of the CLE sample paths as well as the issue of non-Lipschitz diffusion coefficients when a species approaches depletion and any stiffness due to faster reactions. The non-negative Fully Implicit Stochastic α (FIS α) method in which stopped reaction channels due to depleted reactants are deleted until a reactant concentration rises again, for non-negativity preservation and in which a positive definite Jacobian is maintained to deal with possible stiffness, is proposed and analysed. The method is illustrated with the computation of active Protein Kinase C response in the Protein Kinase C pathway.

  16. Physically consistent simulation of mesoscale chemical kinetics: The non-negative FIS-{alpha} method

    SciTech Connect

    Dana, Saswati; Raha, Soumyendu

    2011-10-01

    Biochemical pathways involving chemical kinetics in medium concentrations (i.e., at mesoscale) of the reacting molecules can be approximated as chemical Langevin equations (CLE) systems. We address the physically consistent non-negative simulation of the CLE sample paths as well as the issue of non-Lipschitz diffusion coefficients when a species approaches depletion and any stiffness due to faster reactions. The non-negative Fully Implicit Stochastic {alpha} (FIS {alpha}) method in which stopped reaction channels due to depleted reactants are deleted until a reactant concentration rises again, for non-negativity preservation and in which a positive definite Jacobian is maintained to deal with possible stiffness, is proposed and analysed. The method is illustrated with the computation of active Protein Kinase C response in the Protein Kinase C pathway.

  17. Monotone Boolean approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Hulme, B.L.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a theory of approximation of arbitrary Boolean functions by simpler, monotone functions. Monotone increasing functions can be expressed without the use of complements. Nonconstant monotone increasing functions are important in their own right since they model a special class of systems known as coherent systems. It is shown here that when Boolean expressions for noncoherent systems become too large to treat exactly, then monotone approximations are easily defined. The algorithms proposed here not only provide simpler formulas but also produce best possible upper and lower monotone bounds for any Boolean function. This theory has practical application for the analysis of noncoherent fault trees and event tree sequences.

  18. Cloud-to-ground lightning and Mesoscale Convective Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattos, Enrique V.; Machado, Luiz A. T.

    2011-03-01

    This work analyzes some physical and microphysical properties of Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) and cloud-to-ground lightning. Satellite data from the GOES-10 infrared and NOAA-18 and TRMM microwave channels and lightning information from the Brazilian lightning detection network (BrasilDAT) were utilized for the period from 2007 to 2009. Based on an automatic MCSs detection method, 720 MCSs life cycles were identified during the period and in the region of study, with a lightning detection efficiency of over 90%. During the diurnal cycle, maximum electrical activity occurred close to the time of maximum convective cloud fraction (18 UTC), and 3 h after the maximum normalized area expansion rate. Diurnal cycles of both properties were modulated by diurnal heating, and thus could be used to monitor diurnal variability of lightning occurrence. The electrical activity was more intense for the widest (Pearson's correlation of 0.96) and deeper (Pearson's correlation of 0.84) clouds, which reached 390 km size and 17 km maximum cloud top height. Area growth during the initial phase of MCSs exerted a strong influence on their size and duration, and thus also showed a potential for defining the possibility of electrical activity during their life cycle. The average lightning life cycle exhibited a maximum close to MCSs maturation, while the maximum average lightning density occurred in the MCSs initial life cycle stage. The growth rate of electrical activity during the early stages can indicate the strength of convection and the possible duration of systems with lightning occurrence. Strong condensation processes and mass flux during the growth phase of the systems can provide favorable conditions for cloud electrification and lightning occurrence. A comparison of high microwave frequencies with lightning data showed a strong relationship of vertically integrated ice content and particle size with lightning occurrence, with Pearson's correlation of 0.86 and 0

  19. Approximate Public Key Authentication with Information Hiding

    SciTech Connect

    THOMAS,EDWARD V.; DRAELOS,TIMOTHY J.

    2000-10-01

    This paper describes a solution for the problem of authenticating the shapes of statistically variant gamma spectra while simultaneously concealing the shapes and magnitudes of the sensitive spectra. The shape of a spectrum is given by the relative magnitudes and positions of the individual spectral elements. Class-specific linear orthonormal transformations of the measured spectra are used to produce output that meet both the authentication and concealment requirements. For purposes of concealment, the n-dimensional gamma spectra are transformed into n-dimensional output spectra that are effectively indistinguishable from Gaussian white noise (independent of the class). In addition, the proposed transformations are such that statistical authentication metrics computed on the transformed spectra are identical to those computed on the original spectra.

  20. Multicriteria approximation through decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, C.; Krumke, S.; Marathe, M.; Phillips, C.; Sundberg, E.

    1998-06-01

    The authors propose a general technique called solution decomposition to devise approximation algorithms with provable performance guarantees. The technique is applicable to a large class of combinatorial optimization problems that can be formulated as integer linear programs. Two key ingredients of their technique involve finding a decomposition of a fractional solution into a convex combination of feasible integral solutions and devising generic approximation algorithms based on calls to such decompositions as oracles. The technique is closely related to randomized rounding. Their method yields as corollaries unified solutions to a number of well studied problems and it provides the first approximation algorithms with provable guarantees for a number of new problems. The particular results obtained in this paper include the following: (1) the authors demonstrate how the technique can be used to provide more understanding of previous results and new algorithms for classical problems such as Multicriteria Spanning Trees, and Suitcase Packing; (2) they also show how the ideas can be extended to apply to multicriteria optimization problems, in which they wish to minimize a certain objective function subject to one or more budget constraints. As corollaries they obtain first non-trivial multicriteria approximation algorithms for problems including the k-Hurdle and the Network Inhibition problems.

  1. Approximating Integrals Using Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maruszewski, Richard F., Jr.; Caudle, Kyle A.

    2005-01-01

    As part of a discussion on Monte Carlo methods, which outlines how to use probability expectations to approximate the value of a definite integral. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on this technique and then to show several examples using visual basic as a programming tool. It is an interesting method because it combines two branches of…

  2. Multicriteria approximation through decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, C. |; Krumke, S.; Marathe, M.; Phillips, C.; Sundberg, E. |

    1997-12-01

    The authors propose a general technique called solution decomposition to devise approximation algorithms with provable performance guarantees. The technique is applicable to a large class of combinatorial optimization problems that can be formulated as integer linear programs. Two key ingredients of the technique involve finding a decomposition of a fractional solution into a convex combination of feasible integral solutions and devising generic approximation algorithms based on calls to such decompositions as oracles. The technique is closely related to randomized rounding. The method yields as corollaries unified solutions to a number of well studied problems and it provides the first approximation algorithms with provable guarantees for a number of new problems. The particular results obtained in this paper include the following: (1) The authors demonstrate how the technique can be used to provide more understanding of previous results and new algorithms for classical problems such as Multicriteria Spanning Trees, and Suitcase Packing. (2) They show how the ideas can be extended to apply to multicriteria optimization problems, in which they wish to minimize a certain objective function subject to one or more budget constraints. As corollaries they obtain first non-trivial multicriteria approximation algorithms for problems including the k-Hurdle and the Network Inhibition problems.

  3. System enhancements of Mesoscale Analysis and Space Sensor (MASS) computer system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, J. S.; Karitani, S.

    1985-01-01

    The interactive information processing for the mesoscale analysis and space sensor (MASS) program is reported. The development and implementation of new spaceborne remote sensing technology to observe and measure atmospheric processes is described. The space measurements and conventional observational data are processed together to gain an improved understanding of the mesoscale structure and dynamical evolution of the atmosphere relative to cloud development and precipitation processes. A Research Computer System consisting of three primary computers was developed (HP-1000F, Perkin-Elmer 3250, and Harris/6) which provides a wide range of capabilities for processing and displaying interactively large volumes of remote sensing data. The development of a MASS data base management and analysis system on the HP-1000F computer and extending these capabilities by integration with the Perkin-Elmer and Harris/6 computers using the MSFC's Apple III microcomputer workstations is described. The objectives are: to design hardware enhancements for computer integration and to provide data conversion and transfer between machines.

  4. Optimizing the Zeldovich approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melott, Adrian L.; Pellman, Todd F.; Shandarin, Sergei F.

    1994-01-01

    We have recently learned that the Zeldovich approximation can be successfully used for a far wider range of gravitational instability scenarios than formerly proposed; we study here how to extend this range. In previous work (Coles, Melott and Shandarin 1993, hereafter CMS) we studied the accuracy of several analytic approximations to gravitational clustering in the mildly nonlinear regime. We found that what we called the 'truncated Zeldovich approximation' (TZA) was better than any other (except in one case the ordinary Zeldovich approximation) over a wide range from linear to mildly nonlinear (sigma approximately 3) regimes. TZA was specified by setting Fourier amplitudes equal to zero for all wavenumbers greater than k(sub nl), where k(sub nl) marks the transition to the nonlinear regime. Here, we study the cross correlation of generalized TZA with a group of n-body simulations for three shapes of window function: sharp k-truncation (as in CMS), a tophat in coordinate space, or a Gaussian. We also study the variation in the crosscorrelation as a function of initial truncation scale within each type. We find that k-truncation, which was so much better than other things tried in CMS, is the worst of these three window shapes. We find that a Gaussian window e(exp(-k(exp 2)/2k(exp 2, sub G))) applied to the initial Fourier amplitudes is the best choice. It produces a greatly improved crosscorrelation in those cases which most needed improvement, e.g. those with more small-scale power in the initial conditions. The optimum choice of kG for the Gaussian window is (a somewhat spectrum-dependent) 1 to 1.5 times k(sub nl). Although all three windows produce similar power spectra and density distribution functions after application of the Zeldovich approximation, the agreement of the phases of the Fourier components with the n-body simulation is better for the Gaussian window. We therefore ascribe the success of the best-choice Gaussian window to its superior treatment

  5. Approximate Analysis of Semiconductor Laser Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, William K.; Katz, Joseph

    1987-01-01

    Simplified equation yields useful information on gains and output patterns. Theoretical method based on approximate waveguide equation enables prediction of lateral modes of gain-guided planar array of parallel semiconductor lasers. Equation for entire array solved directly using piecewise approximation of index of refraction by simple functions without customary approximation based on coupled waveguid modes of individual lasers. Improved results yield better understanding of laser-array modes and help in development of well-behaved high-power semiconductor laser arrays.

  6. File Specification for the 7-km GEOS-5 Nature Run, Ganymed Release Non-Hydrostatic 7-km Global Mesoscale Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    da Silva, Arlindo M.; Putman, William; Nattala, J.

    2014-01-01

    This document describes the gridded output files produced by a two-year global, non-hydrostatic mesoscale simulation for the period 2005-2006 produced with the non-hydrostatic version of GEOS-5 Atmospheric Global Climate Model (AGCM). In addition to standard meteorological parameters (wind, temperature, moisture, surface pressure), this simulation includes 15 aerosol tracers (dust, sea-salt, sulfate, black and organic carbon), O3, CO and CO2. This model simulation is driven by prescribed sea-surface temperature and sea-ice, daily volcanic and biomass burning emissions, as well as high-resolution inventories of anthropogenic sources. A description of the GEOS-5 model configuration used for this simulation can be found in Putman et al. (2014). The simulation is performed at a horizontal resolution of 7 km using a cubed-sphere horizontal grid with 72 vertical levels, extending up to to 0.01 hPa (approximately 80 km). For user convenience, all data products are generated on two logically rectangular longitude-latitude grids: a full-resolution 0.0625 deg grid that approximately matches the native cubed-sphere resolution, and another 0.5 deg reduced-resolution grid. The majority of the full-resolution data products are instantaneous with some fields being time-averaged. The reduced-resolution datasets are mostly time-averaged, with some fields being instantaneous. Hourly data intervals are used for the reduced-resolution datasets, while 30-minute intervals are used for the full-resolution products. All full-resolution output is on the model's native 72-layer hybrid sigma-pressure vertical grid, while the reduced-resolution output is given on native vertical levels and on 48 pressure surfaces extending up to 0.02 hPa. Section 4 presents additional details on horizontal and vertical grids. Information of the model surface representation can be found in Appendix B. The GEOS-5 product is organized into file collections that are described in detail in Appendix C. Additional

  7. Numerical Archetypal Parameterization for Mesoscale Convective Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, J. I.

    2015-12-01

    Vertical shear tends to organize atmospheric moist convection into multiscale coherent structures. Especially, the counter-gradient vertical transport of horizontal momentum by organized convection can enhance the wind shear and transport kinetic energy upscale. However, this process is not represented by traditional parameterizations. The present paper sets the archetypal dynamical models, originally formulated by the second author, into a parameterization context by utilizing a nonhydrostatic anelastic model with segmentally-constant approximation (NAM-SCA). Using a two-dimensional framework as a starting point, NAM-SCA spontaneously generates propagating tropical squall-lines in a sheared environment. A high numerical efficiency is achieved through a novel compression methodology. The numerically-generated archetypes produce vertical profiles of convective momentum transport that are consistent with the analytic archetype.

  8. Taylor approximations of multidimensional linear differential systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomadze, Vakhtang

    2016-06-01

    The Taylor approximations of a multidimensional linear differential system are of importance as they contain a complete information about it. It is shown that in order to construct them it is sufficient to truncate the exponential trajectories only. A computation of the Taylor approximations is provided using purely algebraic means, without requiring explicit knowledge of the trajectories.

  9. Numerical Model Studies of the Martian Mesoscale Circulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, M.; Arritt, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    Studies concerning mesoscale topographical effects on Martian flows examined low-level jets in the near equatorial latitudes and the dynamical intensification of flow by steep terrain. Continuation of work from previous years included evaluating the dissipation of cold air mass outbreaks due to enhanced sensible heat flux, further sensitivity and scaling evaluations for generalization of the characteristics of Martian mesoscale circulation caused by horizontal sensible heat-flux gradients, and evaluations of the significance that non-uniform surface would have on enhancing the polar CO2 ice sublimation during the spring. The sensitivity of maximum and minimum atmospheric temperatures to changes in wind speed, surface albedo, and deep soil temperature was investigated.

  10. Numerical Model Studies of the Martian Mesoscale Circulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segal, Moti; Arritt, Raymond W.

    1997-01-01

    The study objectives were to evaluate by numerical modeling various possible mesoscale circulation on Mars and related atmospheric boundary layer processes. The study was in collaboration with J. Tillman of the University of Washington (who supported the study observationally). Interaction has been made with J. Prusa of Iowa State University in numerical modeling investigation of dynamical effects of topographically-influenced flow. Modeling simulations included evaluations of surface physical characteristics on: (i) the Martian atmospheric boundary layer and (ii) their impact on thermally and dynamically forced mesoscale flows. Special model evaluations were made in support of selection of the Pathfinder landing sites. J. Tillman's finding of VL-2 inter-annual temperature difference was followed by model simulations attempting to point out the forcing for this feature. Publication of the results in the reviewed literature in pending upon completion of the manuscripts in preparation as indicated later.

  11. Investigation of mesoscale cloud features viewed by LANDSAT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherr, P. E. (Principal Investigator); Feteris, P. J.; Lisa, A. S.; Bowley, C. J.; Fowler, M. G.; Barnes, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Some 50 LANDSAT images displaying mesoscale cloud features were analyzed. This analysis was based on the Rayleigh-Kuettner model describing the formation of that type of mesoscale cloud feature. This model lends itself to computation of the average wind speed in northerly flow from the dimensions of the cloud band configurations measured from a LANDSAT image. In nearly every case, necessary conditions of a curved wind profile and orientation of the cloud streets within 20 degrees of the direction of the mean wind in the convective layer were met. Verification of the results by direct observation was hampered, however, by the incompatibility of the resolution of conventional rawinsonde observations with the scale of the banded cloud patterns measured from LANDSAT data. Comparison seems to be somewhat better in northerly flows than in southerly flows, with the largest discrepancies in wind speed being within 8m/sec, or a factor of two.

  12. Digital processing of mesoscale analysis and space sensor data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickey, J. S.; Karitani, S.

    1985-01-01

    The mesoscale analysis and space sensor (MASS) data management and analysis system on the research computer system is presented. The MASS data base management and analysis system was implemented on the research computer system which provides a wide range of capabilities for processing and displaying large volumes of conventional and satellite derived meteorological data. The research computer system consists of three primary computers (HP-1000F, Harris/6, and Perkin-Elmer 3250), each of which performs a specific function according to its unique capabilities. The overall tasks performed concerning the software, data base management and display capabilities of the research computer system in terms of providing a very effective interactive research tool for the digital processing of mesoscale analysis and space sensor data is described.

  13. Assessment of MARMOT. A Mesoscale Fuel Performance Code

    SciTech Connect

    Tonks, M. R.; Schwen, D.; Zhang, Y.; Chakraborty, P.; Bai, X.; Fromm, B.; Yu, J.; Teague, M. C.; Andersson, D. A.

    2015-04-01

    MARMOT is the mesoscale fuel performance code under development as part of the US DOE Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation Program. In this report, we provide a high level summary of MARMOT, its capabilities, and its current state of validation. The purpose of MARMOT is to predict the coevolution of microstructure and material properties of nuclear fuel and cladding. It accomplished this using the phase field method coupled to solid mechanics and heat conduction. MARMOT is based on the Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE), and much of its basic capability in the areas of the phase field method, mechanics, and heat conduction come directly from MOOSE modules. However, additional capability specific to fuel and cladding is available in MARMOT. While some validation of MARMOT has been completed in the areas of fission gas behavior and grain growth, much more validation needs to be conducted. However, new mesoscale data needs to be obtained in order to complete this validation.

  14. Mesoscale temperature and moisture fields from satellite infrared soundings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillger, D. W.; Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1976-01-01

    The combined use of radiosonde and satellite infrared soundings can provide mesoscale temperature and moisture fields at the time of satellite coverage. Radiance data from the vertical temperature profile radiometer on NOAA polar-orbiting satellites can be used along with a radiosonde sounding as an initial guess in an iterative retrieval algorithm. The mesoscale temperature and moisture fields at local 9 - 10 a.m., which are produced by retrieving temperature profiles at each scan spot for the BTPR (every 70 km), can be used for analysis or as a forecasting tool for subsequent weather events during the day. The advantage of better horizontal resolution of satellite soundings can be coupled with the radiosonde temperature and moisture profile both as a best initial guess profile and as a means of eliminating problems due to the limited vertical resolution of satellite soundings.

  15. Nonlinear influence of mesoscale land use on weather and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pielke, R. A.; Lee, T. J.; Dalu, G. A.; Snook, J. S.; Kittel, T. G. F.

    1991-01-01

    It is shown that the influence of mesoscale landscape spatial variability on the atmosphere must be parameterized or explicitly modeled in larger-scale atmospheric model simulations including general circulation models. The mesoscale fluxes of heat that result from this variability are shown to be of the same order of magnitude but with a different vertical structure than found for the turbulent fluxes. These conclusions are based on experiments in which no phase changes of water were permitted. To parameterize surface thermal inhomogeneities, the influence of landscape must be evaluated using spectral analysis or an equivalent procedure. To include the nonlinear contribution of each scale, numerical model simulations for the range of observed surface and overlying atmospheric conditions must be performed.

  16. Estimation of Eddy Dissipation Rates from Mesoscale Model Simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Nashat N.; Proctor, Fred H.

    2012-01-01

    The Eddy Dissipation Rate is an important metric for representing the intensity of atmospheric turbulence and is used as an input parameter for predicting the decay of aircraft wake vortices. In this study, the forecasts of eddy dissipation rates obtained from the current state-of-the-art mesoscale model are evaluated for terminal area applications. The Weather Research and Forecast mesoscale model is used to simulate the planetary boundary layer at high horizontal and vertical mesh resolutions. The Bougeault-Lacarrer and the Mellor-Yamada-Janji schemes implemented in the Weather Research and Forecast model are evaluated against data collected during the National Aeronautics and Space Administration s Memphis Wake Vortex Field Experiment. Comparisons with other observations are included as well.

  17. A simple generative model of the mouse mesoscale connectome

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Sid; Pang, Rich; Wronkiewicz, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Recent technological advances now allow for the collection of vast data sets detailing the intricate neural connectivity patterns of various organisms. Oh et al. (2014) recently published the most complete description of the mouse mesoscale connectome acquired to date. Here we give an in-depth characterization of this connectome and propose a generative network model which utilizes two elemental organizational principles: proximal attachment ‒ outgoing connections are more likely to attach to nearby nodes than to distant ones, and source growth ‒ nodes with many outgoing connections are likely to form new outgoing connections. We show that this model captures essential principles governing network organization at the mesoscale level in the mouse brain and is consistent with biologically plausible developmental processes. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12366.001 PMID:26978793

  18. Thermodynamic properties of mesoscale convective systems observed during BAMEX

    SciTech Connect

    Correia, James; Arritt, R.

    2008-11-01

    Dropsonde observations from the Bow-echo and Mesoscale convective vortex EXperiment (BAMEX) are used to document the spatio-temporal variability of temperature, moisture and wind within mesoscale convective systems (MCSs). Onion type sounding structures are found throughout the stratiform region of MCSs but the temperature and moisture variability is large. Composite soundings were constructed and statistics of thermodynamic variability were generated within each sub-region of the MCS. The calculated air vertical velocity helped identify subsaturated downdrafts. We found that lapse rates within the cold pool varied markedly throughout the MCS. Layered wet bulb potential temperature profiles seem to indicate that air within the lowest several km comes from a variety of source regions. We also found that lapse rate transitions across the 0 C level were more common than isothermal, melting layers. We discuss the implications these findings have and how they can be used to validate future high resolution numerical simulations of MCSs.

  19. Mesoscale structures in the Subarctic Seas - observations and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walczowski, W.; Maslowski, W.

    2003-04-01

    Scientists from IO PAS have investigated the sub-arctic seas since 1989. In this study we present data collected by the IO PAS in contribution to VEINS project as well as from the other cruises conducted by R.V. Oceania in the Barents, Norwegian and Greenland seas. Observed mesoscale structures will be compared with results from two high-resolution models of the Pan-Arctic region forced with realistic atmospheric fields. The first model is configured at 1/6°(~18 km) and 30-layer grid and the second at 1/12° (~9 km) and 45-layer grid. Both models are developed at the Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey. Based on in situ measurements and model output, we specify regions of high mesoscale activity, which exist mainly along the Barents slope, in the area west of Spitsbergen and along the Arctic Front, separating water of Atlantic origin from the Greenland Sea Gyre. A comparison between current patterns, total kinetic energy (TKE) and eddy kinetic energy (EKE) calculated from the models and from in situ data will be presented. We will analyse observed mesoscale structures including frontal meanders and intrusions, cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies, and dense water plumes. Selected phenomena will be compared with modelled structures. Investigations of the Arctic Front show that mesoscale eddies and intrusions play an important role in the cross-frontal volume, salt and heat exchanges. Anticyclonic eddies originating from the frontal meanders carry considerable volume of Atlantic Water into the Greenland Sea. The transport of Atlantic Water from the Norwegian Sea into the Greenland Sea Gyre will be analysed based on field data and eddy-permitting model output. Anticyclonic eddies originating to the west of Spitsbergen play an important role in the recirculation of Atlantic Water in Fram Strait. Observed and modelled processes and pathways of the recirculation of Atlantic Water will be presented.

  20. HIS analyses of mesoscale phenomena. [High resolution Interferometer Sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradshaw, John T.; Fuelberg, Henry E.

    1990-01-01

    Results are presented from two sets of measurements made by the High-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) during two aircraft flights over the Cooperative-Huntsville-Meteorological-Experiment region on June 15 and 19, 1986. It is shown that the temperature and the dew-point field retrieved from HIS spectra contain distinct mesoscale structures. The features in the HIS dew-point fields agreed well with the cloud and moisture structures observed in visible and 6.7 micron GOES imagery.

  1. Mesoscale modeling of metal-loaded high explosives

    SciTech Connect

    Bdzil, John Bohdan; Lieberthal, Brandon; Srewart, Donald S

    2010-01-01

    We describe a 3D approach to modeling multi-phase blast explosive, which is primarily condensed explosive by volume with inert embedded particles. These embedded particles are uniform in size and placed on the array of a regular lattice. The asymptotic theory of detonation shock dynamics governs the detonation shock propagation in the explosive. Mesoscale hydrodynamic simulations are used to show how the particles are compressed, deformed, and accelerated by the high-speed detonation products flow.

  2. Sea breeze: Induced mesoscale systems and severe weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholls, M. E.; Pielke, R. A.; Cotton, W. R.

    1990-01-01

    Sea-breeze-deep convective interactions over the Florida peninsula were investigated using a cloud/mesoscale numerical model. The objective was to gain a better understanding of sea-breeze and deep convective interactions over the Florida peninsula using a high resolution convectively explicit model and to use these results to evaluate convective parameterization schemes. A 3-D numerical investigation of Florida convection was completed. The Kuo and Fritsch-Chappell parameterization schemes are summarized and evaluated.

  3. Mesoscale Modeling of LX-17 Under Isentropic Compression

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, H K; Willey, T M; Friedman, G; Fried, L E; Vandersall, K S; Baer, M R

    2010-03-06

    Mesoscale simulations of LX-17 incorporating different equilibrium mixture models were used to investigate the unreacted equation-of-state (UEOS) of TATB. Candidate TATB UEOS were calculated using the equilibrium mixture models and benchmarked with mesoscale simulations of isentropic compression experiments (ICE). X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) data provided the basis for initializing the simulations with realistic microstructural details. Three equilibrium mixture models were used in this study. The single constituent with conservation equations (SCCE) model was based on a mass-fraction weighted specific volume and the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy. The single constituent equation-of-state (SCEOS) model was based on a mass-fraction weighted specific volume and the equation-of-state of the constituents. The kinetic energy averaging (KEA) model was based on a mass-fraction weighted particle velocity mixture rule and the conservation equations. The SCEOS model yielded the stiffest TATB EOS (0.121{micro} + 0.4958{micro}{sup 2} + 2.0473{micro}{sup 3}) and, when incorporated in mesoscale simulations of the ICE, demonstrated the best agreement with VISAR velocity data for both specimen thicknesses. The SCCE model yielded a relatively more compliant EOS (0.1999{micro}-0.6967{micro}{sup 2} + 4.9546{micro}{sup 3}) and the KEA model yielded the most compliant EOS (0.1999{micro}-0.6967{micro}{sup 2}+4.9546{micro}{sup 3}) of all the equilibrium mixture models. Mesoscale simulations with the lower density TATB adiabatic EOS data demonstrated the least agreement with VISAR velocity data.

  4. Mesoscale Temperature Fluctuations in the Southern Hemisphere Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Bruce L.

    2008-01-01

    Isentrope surfaces in the Southern Hemisphere stratosphere reveal that air parcels undergo mesoscale temperature fluctuations that depend on latitude and season. The largest temperature fluctuations occur at high latitude winter, whereas the smallest fluctuations occur at high latitude summer. This is the same pattern found for the Northern Hemisphere stratosphere. However, the amplitude of the seasonal dependence in the Southern Hemisphere is only 37% of the Northern Hemisphere's seasonal amplitude.

  5. Explicit simulation of a midlatitude Mesoscale Convective System

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, G.D.; Cotton, W.R.

    1996-04-01

    We have explicitly simulated the mesoscale convective system (MCS) observed on 23-24 June 1985 during PRE-STORM, the Preliminary Regional Experiment for the Stormscale Operational and Research and Meterology Program. Stensrud and Maddox (1988), Johnson and Bartels (1992), and Bernstein and Johnson (1994) are among the researchers who have investigated various aspects of this MCS event. We have performed this MCS simulation (and a similar one of a tropical MCS; Alexander and Cotton 1994) in the spirit of the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Cloud Systems Study (GCSS), in which cloud-resolving models are used to assist in the formulation and testing of cloud parameterization schemes for larger-scale models. In this paper, we describe (1) the nature of our 23-24 June MCS dimulation and (2) our efforts to date in using our explicit MCS simulations to assist in the development of a GCM parameterization for mesoscale flow branches. The paper is organized as follows. First, we discuss the synoptic situation surrounding the 23-24 June PRE-STORM MCS followed by a discussion of the model setup and results of our simulation. We then discuss the use of our MCS simulation. We then discuss the use of our MCS simulations in developing a GCM parameterization for mesoscale flow branches and summarize our results.

  6. Shear Stress Behavior in Mesoscale Simulations of Granular Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujino, Don; Lomov, Ilya; Vitali, Efrem; Antoun, Tarabay

    2011-06-01

    3D mesoscale simulations of shock propagation in porous solids and powder have been performed with the hydrocode GEODYN. The results indicate that voids can have a profound effect on the stress state in the material behind the shock front. The simulations can explain experimentally observed quasielastic precursors in reshock profiles that are difficult to interpret in the context of the classical elastic-plastic theory. This effect persists even at extremely low porosity values, down to 0.01% by volume. Stress relaxation is pronounced in simulations involving wave propagation, but is not observed in uniform ramp loading. Thus this relaxation mechanism is non-local in nature and continuum models may not be inadequate for its description. Simulations show that response of highly porous powders are dominated by deviatoric stress relaxation in the shock regime. We propose an enhancement which can be easily integrated into most existing porous material continuum models for modeling the shock-induced relaxation phenomena observed in the mesoscale simulation. The model calculates microkinetic energy generated by dynamic loading and store it as an internal state variable. The rate of production and dissipation of microkinetic energy is calibrated based on the mesoscale results. The augmented continuum model represent deviatoric stress behavior observed under different loading regimes.

  7. Shear stress behavior in mesoscale simulations of granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujino, Don; Lomov, Ilya; Antoun, Tarabay; Vitali, Efrem

    2012-03-01

    3D mesoscale simulations of shock propagation in porous solids and powders have been performed with the Eulerian hydrocode GEODYN. The results indicate that voids can have a profound effect on the stress state in the material behind the shock front. The simulations can explain experimentally observed wave profiles that are difficult to interpret in the context of the classical elastic-plastic theory. In particular, a quasielastic precursor is observed in reshock simulations. This effect persists even at extremely low porosity values, down to 0.1% by volume. Stress relaxation is pronounced in simulations involving wave propagation, but is not observed in uniform ramp loading. In this sense, the relaxation phenomenon is non-local in nature and classic continuum models are inadequate for its description. Simulations show that the response of highly porous powders is dominated by deviatoric stress relaxation in the shock regime. We propose an enhancement which can be easily integrated into most existing porous material continuum models for modeling the shockinduced relaxation phenomena observed in the mesoscale simulation. The model calculates the microkinetic energy generated by dynamic loading and stores it as an internal state variable. The rate of production and dissipation of microkinetic energy and other model parameters are calibrated based on the mesoscale results. The augmented continuum model represents the deviatoric stress behavior observed under different regimes of dynamic loading.

  8. Mesoscale (50-km) Boundary Layer Eddies in CASES-97

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeMone, M. A.; Grossman, R. L.; Yates, D.; Chen, F.; Ikeda, K.

    2001-05-01

    Boundery-layer eddies 50 km across are documented for the morning of 10 May 1997 during the Cooperative Atmosphere Surface Exchange Study (CASES-97). CASES-97 was held from 21 April to 21 May 1997, in the lower Walnut River Watershed in south central Kansas, to study the role of the heterogeneous surface in boundary-layer evolution. The eddies appear to be tied to terrain, with warm, upwelling air over the relatively high terrain that forms the eastern edge of the watershed, and downwelling air over the watershed. The winds on this day were 5 m/s out of the south, and there were strong horizontal contrasts in vegetation and surface fluxes, suggesting that surfact fluxes could also play a role. For comparison, we examine two other days for the presence of mesoscale eddies, 29 April (characterized by high horizontal heterogeneity of vegetation and 10 m/s southerlies), and 20 May (characterized by a uniformly green and moist surface with winds ENE at 7 m/s). 29 April had significant but rapidly-changing horizontal variability at scales greater than 10 km, but variability on 20 May was on scales less than 5 km. Estimates of the sensible heat budgets for the three days revealed a large residual for 10 May, the day with the mesoscale eddies. Calculation of the expected errors and reasonable corrections for bias errors and radiative heating did not account for the residual, leading to the hypothesis that the residual is associated with the mesoscale eddies.

  9. Approximate option pricing

    SciTech Connect

    Chalasani, P.; Saias, I.; Jha, S.

    1996-04-08

    As increasingly large volumes of sophisticated options (called derivative securities) are traded in world financial markets, determining a fair price for these options has become an important and difficult computational problem. Many valuation codes use the binomial pricing model, in which the stock price is driven by a random walk. In this model, the value of an n-period option on a stock is the expected time-discounted value of the future cash flow on an n-period stock price path. Path-dependent options are particularly difficult to value since the future cash flow depends on the entire stock price path rather than on just the final stock price. Currently such options are approximately priced by Monte carlo methods with error bounds that hold only with high probability and which are reduced by increasing the number of simulation runs. In this paper the authors show that pricing an arbitrary path-dependent option is {number_sign}-P hard. They show that certain types f path-dependent options can be valued exactly in polynomial time. Asian options are path-dependent options that are particularly hard to price, and for these they design deterministic polynomial-time approximate algorithms. They show that the value of a perpetual American put option (which can be computed in constant time) is in many cases a good approximation to the value of an otherwise identical n-period American put option. In contrast to Monte Carlo methods, the algorithms have guaranteed error bounds that are polynormally small (and in some cases exponentially small) in the maturity n. For the error analysis they derive large-deviation results for random walks that may be of independent interest.

  10. Beyond the Kirchhoff approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Ernesto

    1989-01-01

    The three most successful models for describing scattering from random rough surfaces are the Kirchhoff approximation (KA), the small-perturbation method (SPM), and the two-scale-roughness (or composite roughness) surface-scattering (TSR) models. In this paper it is shown how these three models can be derived rigorously from one perturbation expansion based on the extinction theorem for scalar waves scattering from perfectly rigid surface. It is also shown how corrections to the KA proportional to the surface curvature and higher-order derivatives may be obtained. Using these results, the scattering cross section is derived for various surface models.

  11. Computer Experiments for Function Approximations

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, A; Izmailov, I; Rizzo, S; Wynter, S; Alexandrov, O; Tong, C

    2007-10-15

    This research project falls in the domain of response surface methodology, which seeks cost-effective ways to accurately fit an approximate function to experimental data. Modeling and computer simulation are essential tools in modern science and engineering. A computer simulation can be viewed as a function that receives input from a given parameter space and produces an output. Running the simulation repeatedly amounts to an equivalent number of function evaluations, and for complex models, such function evaluations can be very time-consuming. It is then of paramount importance to intelligently choose a relatively small set of sample points in the parameter space at which to evaluate the given function, and then use this information to construct a surrogate function that is close to the original function and takes little time to evaluate. This study was divided into two parts. The first part consisted of comparing four sampling methods and two function approximation methods in terms of efficiency and accuracy for simple test functions. The sampling methods used were Monte Carlo, Quasi-Random LP{sub {tau}}, Maximin Latin Hypercubes, and Orthogonal-Array-Based Latin Hypercubes. The function approximation methods utilized were Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) and Support Vector Machines (SVM). The second part of the study concerned adaptive sampling methods with a focus on creating useful sets of sample points specifically for monotonic functions, functions with a single minimum and functions with a bounded first derivative.

  12. A mesoscale numerical forecast of an intense convective snowburst along the East Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kocin, P. J.; Uccellini, L. W.; Zack, J. W.; Kaplan, M. L.

    1985-01-01

    Mesoscale numerical forecasts utilizing the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) are documented for a convective snowburst in the Washington, D.C.-Baltimore, Maryland, region on March 8, 1984 that was associated with secondary cyclogenesis along the East Coast. The forecasts are presented to demonstrate the ability of a mesoscale model to simulate dynamical interactions and diabatic process for a wintertime convective event that was inadequately predicted by local forecasters and to note some of the possible benefits of using mesoscale models for day-to-day forecasting. The results from this and other recent mesoscale modeling studies indicate that three-hourly output of key model fields, when combined with other data sources, can be a valuable aid to forecasters concerned with predicting weather events that are mesoscale in character.

  13. Coastal wind in the transition from turbulence to mesoscale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagne-Philippe, MichèLe

    1989-06-01

    During the second survey of the Travaux d'Océanographie Spatiale: Capteurs actifs dans l'Atlantique Nord-Est (TOSCANE T) experiment (February 14 to April 17, 1985), seven wind masts were operated on the shore of the "Baie d'Audierne." Distances between them ranged from 1.5 to 13.7 km, and the data were sampled at 3 s. An important portion of the data was recorded under severe weather conditions. Results from 27 cases of wind blowing from the sea, which corresponded to synoptically stationary wind regimes, show that for both horizontal components the spectral energy in the transition region between mesoscale and Kolmogorov turbulence takes the shape of a well-marked dip when weather types are stable or slightly unstable. But, in more convective cases the dip disappears and the transition region becomes almost horizontal; spectral energy density follows an n-1 law (where n is equal to frequency) until the Kolmogorov region is reached. Coherences and cross correlations between masts show that in the 6-s to 1-hour period range, only mesoscale fluctuations are coherent. Turbulent fluctuations are not correlated for the separation distances of the masts. Under synoptically steady or slightly unstable conditions, such single-point measurements could reliably be time-averaged for use in satellite wind sensor calibration. In more convective conditions, especially for the ubiquitous open mesoscale cells found over mid-latitude oceans in cold air advections, interpretation problems might occur because mesoscale events, as time-averaged from coastal masts, buoys, or ships, could be different from those spatially integrated in the footprint of a satellite sensor. In these cases, some relationship must be used to relate single-point averaging times to the area illuminated by the satellite. To do so, Taylor's hypothesis is commonly extended to the mesoscale; but, the present data show that such an extension cannot be made under usual actual conditions because of the structure of

  14. A mesoscale modeling study of the atmospheric circulation of high southern latitudes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, K. M.; Bromwich, David H.; Parish, T. R.

    1995-01-01

    The meteorology of high southern latitudes during winter is simulated using a cloud-free version of The Pennsylvania State University-National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model version 4 (MM4) with a 100-km horizontal resolution. Comparisons between idealized simulations of Antarctic with MM4 and with the mesoscale model of Parish and Waight reveal that both models produce similarly realistic velocity fields in the boundary layer. The latter model tends to produce slightly faster drainage winds over East Antarctica. The intensity of the katabatic winds produced by MM4 is sensitive to parameterizations of boundary layer fluxes. Two simulations performed with MM4 using analyses from the European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) for June 1988 as initial and boundary conditions. A simulation of the period from 000 UTC 2 June to 0000 UTC 8 June produces realistic synoptic phenomena including ridge development over East Antarctica, frontogenesis over the Amundsen Sea, and a katabatic surge over the Ross Ice Shelf. The simulated time-averaged fields for June 1988, particularly that of a 500-hPa height, are in good agreement with time-averaged fields analyzed by the ECMWF. The results of the simulations provide detailed features of the Antarctic winter boundary layer along the steeply sloping terrain. Highest boundary layer wind speeds averaged over the month-long simulation are approximately 20 m/s. The lack of latent heating in the simulations apparently results in some bias in the results. In particular, the cloud-free version of MM4 underpredicts the intensity of lows in the sea level pressure field.

  15. The use of DFDR information in the analysis of a turbulence incident over Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lester, Peter F.; Sen, Orhan; Bach, R. E., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Digital flight data recorder (DFDR) tapes from commercial aircraft can provide useful information about the mesoscale environment of severe turbulence incidents. Air motion computations from these data and their errors are briefly described. An example of mesoscale meteorological information available from DFDR tapes is presented for a case of turbulence in mountain waves over the Greenland icecap.

  16. The mesoscale stability of entrainment into cloud-topped mixed layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiedler, B. H.

    1984-01-01

    The Lilly-type models for stratocumulus-capped mixed layers are shown to allow for a mesoscale instability in which mesoscale fluctuations of buoyancy and humidity are reinforced in phase by entrainment. In a model of an AMTEX mixed layer, this mesoscale instability has a maximum growth rate of about 0.00002 per sec at wavelengths 30 times the depth of the mixed layer. The instability is able to account for the existence and broad scale of the stratiform cloud patterns known as mesoscale cellular convection.

  17. Convectively Generated Meso-Scale Gravity Waves in ER-2 Observations During CRYSTAL-FACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Alexander, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    The MMS and MTP data from ER-2 observations during the CRYSTAL-FACE campaign are analyzed to retrieve meso-scale gravity wave information at the aircraft flight level. For a given flight segment, the S-transform is used to locate small-scale (10-25 km) gravity wave events. The Stokes method and the MTP method are then used to determine the horizontal propagation directions, and the vertical scales of the wave events, respectively. Other wave parameters, such as horizontal scales, group velocities, can also be derived. From the estimated propagation directions, group velocities, and the ground-based radar reflectivity observations, some wave events are traced back to convectively active regions, suggesting convection as the source of the waves.

  18. Countably QC-Approximating Posets

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Xuxin; Xu, Luoshan

    2014-01-01

    As a generalization of countably C-approximating posets, the concept of countably QC-approximating posets is introduced. With the countably QC-approximating property, some characterizations of generalized completely distributive lattices and generalized countably approximating posets are given. The main results are as follows: (1) a complete lattice is generalized completely distributive if and only if it is countably QC-approximating and weakly generalized countably approximating; (2) a poset L having countably directed joins is generalized countably approximating if and only if the lattice σc(L)op of all σ-Scott-closed subsets of L is weakly generalized countably approximating. PMID:25165730

  19. Approximate Bayesian multibody tracking.

    PubMed

    Lanz, Oswald

    2006-09-01

    Visual tracking of multiple targets is a challenging problem, especially when efficiency is an issue. Occlusions, if not properly handled, are a major source of failure. Solutions supporting principled occlusion reasoning have been proposed but are yet unpractical for online applications. This paper presents a new solution which effectively manages the trade-off between reliable modeling and computational efficiency. The Hybrid Joint-Separable (HJS) filter is derived from a joint Bayesian formulation of the problem, and shown to be efficient while optimal in terms of compact belief representation. Computational efficiency is achieved by employing a Markov random field approximation to joint dynamics and an incremental algorithm for posterior update with an appearance likelihood that implements a physically-based model of the occlusion process. A particle filter implementation is proposed which achieves accurate tracking during partial occlusions, while in cases of complete occlusion, tracking hypotheses are bound to estimated occlusion volumes. Experiments show that the proposed algorithm is efficient, robust, and able to resolve long-term occlusions between targets with identical appearance. PMID:16929730

  20. A process proof test for model concepts: Modelling the meso-scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellebrand, Hugo; Müller, Christoph; Matgen, Patrick; Fenicia, Fabrizio; Savenije, Huub

    In hydrological modelling the use of detailed soil data is sometimes troublesome, since often these data are hard to obtain and, if available at all, difficult to interpret and process in a way that makes them meaningful for the model at hand. Intuitively the understanding and mapping of dominant runoff processes in the soil show high potential for improving hydrological models. In this study a labour-intensive methodology to assess dominant runoff processes is simplified in such a way that detailed soil maps are no longer needed. Nonetheless, there is an ongoing debate on how to integrate this type of information in hydrological models. In this study, dominant runoff processes (DRP) are mapped for meso-scale basins using the permeability of the substratum, land use information and the slope in a GIS. During a field campaign the processes are validated and for each DRP assumptions are made concerning their water storage capacity. The latter is done by means of combining soil data obtained during the field campaign with soil data obtained from the literature. Second, several parsimoniously parameterized conceptual hydrological models are used that incorporate certain aspects of the DRP. The result of these models are compared with a benchmark model in which the soil is represented as only one lumped parameter to test the contribution of the DRP in hydrological models. The proposed methodology is tested for 15 meso-scale river basins located in Luxembourg. The main goal of this study is to investigate if integrating dominant runoff processes, which have high information content concerning soil characteristics, with hydrological models allows the improvement of simulation results models with a view to regionalization and predictions in ungauged basins. The regionalization procedure gave no clear results. The calibration procedure and the well-mixed discharge signal of the calibration basins are considered major causes for this and it made the deconvolution of

  1. Decision analysis with approximate probabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, Thomas

    1992-01-01

    This paper concerns decisions under uncertainty in which the probabilities of the states of nature are only approximately known. Decision problems involving three states of nature are studied. This is due to the fact that some key issues do not arise in two-state problems, while probability spaces with more than three states of nature are essentially impossible to graph. The primary focus is on two levels of probabilistic information. In one level, the three probabilities are separately rounded to the nearest tenth. This can lead to sets of rounded probabilities which add up to 0.9, 1.0, or 1.1. In the other level, probabilities are rounded to the nearest tenth in such a way that the rounded probabilities are forced to sum to 1.0. For comparison, six additional levels of probabilistic information, previously analyzed, were also included in the present analysis. A simulation experiment compared four criteria for decisionmaking using linearly constrained probabilities (Maximin, Midpoint, Standard Laplace, and Extended Laplace) under the eight different levels of information about probability. The Extended Laplace criterion, which uses a second order maximum entropy principle, performed best overall.

  2. Distribution pattern of picoplankton carbon biomass linked to mesoscale dynamics in the southern gulf of Mexico during winter conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linacre, Lorena; Lara-Lara, Rubén; Camacho-Ibar, Víctor; Herguera, Juan Carlos; Bazán-Guzmán, Carmen; Ferreira-Bartrina, Vicente

    2015-12-01

    In order to characterize the carbon biomass spatial distribution of autotrophic and heterotrophic picoplankton populations linked to mesoscale dynamics, an investigation over an extensive open-ocean region of the southern Gulf of Mexico (GM) was conducted. Seawater samples from the mixed layer were collected during wintertime (February-March 2013). Picoplankton populations were counted and sorted using flow cytometry analyses. Carbon biomass was assessed based on in situ cell abundances and conversion factors from the literature. Approximately 46% of the total picoplankton biomass was composed of three autotrophic populations (Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus, and pico-eukaryotes), while 54% consisted of heterotrophic bacteria populations. Prochlorococcus spp. was the most abundant pico-primary producer (>80%), and accounted for more than 60% of the total pico-autotrophic biomass. The distribution patterns of picoplankton biomass were strongly associated with the mesoscale dynamics that modulated the hydrographic conditions of the surface mixed layer. The main features of the carbon distribution pattern were: (1) the deepening of picoplankton biomass to layers closer to the nitracline base in anticyclonic eddies; (2) the shoaling of picoplankton biomass in cyclonic eddies, constraining the autoprokaryote biomasses to the upper layers, as well as accumulating the pico-eukaryote biomass in the cold core of the eddies; and (3) the increase of heterotrophic bacteria biomass in frontal regions between counter-paired anticyclonic and cyclonic eddies. Factors related to nutrient preferences and light conditions may as well have contributed to the distribution pattern of the microbial populations. The findings reveal the great influence of the mesoscale dynamics on the distribution of picoplankton populations within the mixed layer. Moreover, the significance of microbial components (especially Prochlorococcus) in the southern GM during winter conditions was revealed

  3. Approximation by hinge functions

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, V.

    1997-05-01

    Breiman has defined {open_quotes}hinge functions{close_quotes} for use as basis functions in least squares approximations to data. A hinge function is the max (or min) function of two linear functions. In this paper, the author assumes the existence of smooth function f(x) and a set of samples of the form (x, f(x)) drawn from a probability distribution {rho}(x). The author hopes to find the best fitting hinge function h(x) in the least squares sense. There are two problems with this plan. First, Breiman has suggested an algorithm to perform this fit. The author shows that this algorithm is not robust and also shows how to create examples on which the algorithm diverges. Second, if the author tries to use the data to minimize the fit in the usual discrete least squares sense, the functional that must be minimized is continuous in the variables, but has a derivative which jumps at the data. This paper takes a different approach. This approach is an example of a method that the author has developed called {open_quotes}Monte Carlo Regression{close_quotes}. (A paper on the general theory is in preparation.) The author shall show that since the function f is continuous, the analytic form of the least squares equation is continuously differentiable. A local minimum is solved for by using Newton`s method, where the entries of the Hessian are estimated directly from the data by Monte Carlo. The algorithm has the desirable properties that it is quadratically convergent from any starting guess sufficiently close to a solution and that each iteration requires only a linear system solve.

  4. The Effect of Mesoscale Eddies On Oceanic Stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallis, G. K.; Henning, C. C.

    Understanding the structure of the subtropical thermocline is an important, indeed classical, problem in dynamical oceanography. Many models have fallen into two camps -- diffusive theories, following Robinson and Stommel, and advective theo- ries, following Welander. More recently it has been shown that, at least in the absence of mesoscale eddies, the subtropical thermocline consists of an advective upper part (a 'ventilated thermocline'), with a diffusive base -- that is, the lower part of the main thermocline is an internal boundary layer. The thermocline in the Southern Ocean is a rather different beast, because the lack of meridional boundaries means that the gyre circulation is largely absent and such classical theories do not directly apply. Further- more, it has been suggested that the dynamics of the Southern Ocean might greatly influence the thermocline worldwide. However, these theories are not complete. Among the most egregious omissions is that of the potential effect of mesoscale eddies, and here we explore that problem. We integrate to equilibrium a wind- and buoyancy-driven eddy-resolving primitive- equations ocean model, both in an idealized basin and in a circumpolar channel. We find that mesoscale eddies do have a significant quantitative affect on the structure of the thermocline. In the subtropics, the signature of the two-thermocline model (an advective upper thermocline and a diffusive base) remains, even in the presence of vigorous eddying activity, whereas in the circumpolar channel the eddies appear to be a dominant process determining the stratification. We discuss the dynamics and thermodynamics of these flows, and present some simple theoretical ideas to partially explain some of our results.

  5. Genesis of Typhoon Nari (2001) from a mesoscale convective system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da-Lin; Tian, Liqing; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2011-12-01

    In this study, the origin and genesis of Typhoon Nari (2001) as well as its erratic looping track, are examined using large-scale analysis, satellite observations, and a 4 day nested, cloud-resolving simulation with the finest grid size of 1.33 km. Observational analysis reveals that Nari could be traced 5 days back to a diurnally varying mesoscale convective system with growing cyclonic vorticity and relative humidity in the lower troposphere and that it evolved from a mesoscale convective vortex (MCV) as moving over a warm ocean under the influence of a subtropical high, a weak westerly baroclinic disturbance, an approaching-and-departing Typhoon Danas to the east, and the Kuroshio Current. Results show that the model reproduces the genesis, final intensity, looping track, and the general convective activity of Nari during the 4 day period. It also captures two deep subvortices at the eye-eyewall interface that are similar to those previously observed, a few spiral rainbands, and a midget storm size associated with Nari's relatively dry and stable environment. We find that (1) continuous convective overturning within the MCV stretches the low-level vorticity and moistens a deep mesoscale column that are both favorable for genesis; (2) Nari's genesis does not occur until after the passage of the baroclinic disturbance; (3) convective asymmetry induces a smaller-sized vortex circulation from the preexisting MCV; (4) the vortex-vortex interaction with Danas leads to Nari's looping track and temporal weakening; and (5) midlevel convergence associated with the subtropical high and Danas accounts for the generation of a nearly upright eyewall.

  6. Optical Turbulence simulations with meso-scale models. Towards a new ground-based astronomy era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masciadri, Elena

    The optical turbulence characterization made with atmospherical meso-scale models for astronomical applications is a relatively recent approach (first studies have been published in the ninety). Simulations retrieved from such models can be fundamental for the optimization of the AO techniques and characterization and selection of astronomical sites. In most cases, simulations and measurements provide complementary information on turbulence features. The potentialities related to the numerical approach and the most fundamental scientific challenges related to meso-scale atmospheric models rely upon the possibility (1) to describe a 3D map of the CN2 in a region around a telescope, (2) to forecast the optical turbulence i.e. to know with some hours in advance the state of the turbulence conditions above an astronomical site and (3) to perform a climatology of the optical turbulence extended over decades. The forecast of the optical turbulence is a fundamental requirement for the optimization of the management of the scientific programs to be carried out at ground-based telescopes foci. Ground-based astronomy will remain competitive with respect to the space-based one only if telescopes management will be performed taking advantage of the best turbulence conditions. The future of new ground- based telescopes generation relies therefore upon the success of these studies. No other tool of investigation with comparable potentialities can be figured out at present to achieve these 3 scientific goals. However, these highly challenging goals are associated to an intrinsic difficulty in parameterizing a physical process such as turbulence evolving at spatial and temporal scales smaller than what usually resolved by a meso-scale model. In this talk I will summarize the main results and progress achieved so far in this field since the ninety and I will present the most important scientific goals for the near and far future research. I will conclude with a brief presentation

  7. Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE): A view of lightning as seen from space during the STS-26 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, O. H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Information on the data obtained from the Mesoscale Lightning Experiment flown on STS-26 is provided. The experiment used onboard TV cameras and a 35 mm film camera to obtain data. Data from the 35 mm camera are presented. During the mission, the crew had difficulty locating the various targets of opportunity with the TV cameras. To obtain as much data as possible in the short observational timeline allowed due to other commitments, the crew opted to use the hand-held 35 mm camera.

  8. Wavelet Approximation in Data Assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tangborn, Andrew; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Estimation of the state of the atmosphere with the Kalman filter remains a distant goal because of high computational cost of evolving the error covariance for both linear and nonlinear systems. Wavelet approximation is presented here as a possible solution that efficiently compresses both global and local covariance information. We demonstrate the compression characteristics on the the error correlation field from a global two-dimensional chemical constituent assimilation, and implement an adaptive wavelet approximation scheme on the assimilation of the one-dimensional Burger's equation. In the former problem, we show that 99%, of the error correlation can be represented by just 3% of the wavelet coefficients, with good representation of localized features. In the Burger's equation assimilation, the discrete linearized equations (tangent linear model) and analysis covariance are projected onto a wavelet basis and truncated to just 6%, of the coefficients. A nearly optimal forecast is achieved and we show that errors due to truncation of the dynamics are no greater than the errors due to covariance truncation.

  9. Adaptation of Mesoscale Weather Models to Local Forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manobianco, John T.; Taylor, Gregory E.; Case, Jonathan L.; Dianic, Allan V.; Wheeler, Mark W.; Zack, John W.; Nutter, Paul A.

    2003-01-01

    Methodologies have been developed for (1) configuring mesoscale numerical weather-prediction models for execution on high-performance computer workstations to make short-range weather forecasts for the vicinity of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and (2) evaluating the performances of the models as configured. These methodologies have been implemented as part of a continuing effort to improve weather forecasting in support of operations of the U.S. space program. The models, methodologies, and results of the evaluations also have potential value for commercial users who could benefit from tailoring their operations and/or marketing strategies based on accurate predictions of local weather. More specifically, the purpose of developing the methodologies for configuring the models to run on computers at KSC and CCAFS is to provide accurate forecasts of winds, temperature, and such specific thunderstorm-related phenomena as lightning and precipitation. The purpose of developing the evaluation methodologies is to maximize the utility of the models by providing users with assessments of the capabilities and limitations of the models. The models used in this effort thus far include the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS), the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS), and the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Eta Model ( Eta for short). The configuration of the MASS and RAMS is designed to run the models at very high spatial resolution and incorporate local data to resolve fine-scale weather features. Model preprocessors were modified to incorporate surface, ship, buoy, and rawinsonde data as well as data from local wind towers, wind profilers, and conventional or Doppler radars. The overall evaluation of the MASS, Eta, and RAMS was designed to assess the utility of these mesoscale models for satisfying the weather-forecasting needs of the U.S. space program. The evaluation methodology includes

  10. An application of an efficient non-hydrostatic mesoscale model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flassak, Th.; Moussiopoulos, N.

    1987-12-01

    This paper deals with a non-hydrostatic mesoscale model that achieves full vectorization on computers like the CYBER 205. The model formulation ensures the conservation of all fluxes and takes into account the terrain inhomogeneities by the aid of suitable transformations. The diagnostic equation for the pressure change is solved using a very efficient vectorized elliptic solver. By imposing appropriate boundary conditions no additional precautions at the boundaries are necessary to achieve meaningful results. As an application, the steady-state inviscid flow over a single mountain is simulated.